WorldWideScience

Sample records for cellular tests applied

  1. In vitro chemical and cellular tests applied to uranium trioxide with different hydration states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and rapid in vitro chemical solubility test applicable to industrial uranium trioxide (UO3) was developed together with two in vitro cellular tests using rat alveolar macrophages maintained either in gas phase or in alginate beads at 37 degrees C. Industrial UO3 was characterized by particle size, X-ray, and IR spectra, and chemical transformation (e.g., aging and hydration of the dust) was also studied. Solvents used for the in vitro chemical solubility study included carbonates, citrates, phosphates, water, Eagle's basal medium, and Gamble's solution (simulated lung fluid), alone, with oxygen, or with superoxide ions. Results, expressed in terms of the half-time of dissolution, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) classification (D,W,Y), varied for different hydration states of UO3, showing a lower solubility of hydrated UO3 in solvents compared to basic UO3 or UO3 heated at 450 degrees C. Two in vitro cellular tests on cultured rat alveolar macrophages (cells maintained in gas phase and cells immobilized in alginate beads) were used on the same UO3 samples and generally showed a lower solution transfer rate in the presence of macrophages than in the culture medium alone. The results of in vitro chemical and cellular tests were compared, with four main conclusions; a good reproducibility of the three tests in Eagle's basal medium of the effect of hydration state on solubility, the classification of UO3 in terms of ICRP solubility criteria, and the ability of macrophoges to decrease uranium solubility in medium. 16 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Cellular automatons applied to gas dynamic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lyle N.; Coopersmith, Robert M.; McLachlan, B. G.

    1987-06-01

    This paper compares the results of a relatively new computational fluid dynamics method, cellular automatons, with experimental data and analytical results. This technique has been shown to qualitatively predict fluidlike behavior; however, there have been few published comparisons with experiment or other theories. Comparisons are made for a one-dimensional supersonic piston problem, Stokes first problem, and the flow past a normal flat plate. These comparisons are used to assess the ability of the method to accurately model fluid dynamic behavior and to point out its limitations. Reasonable results were obtained for all three test cases, but the fundamental limitations of cellular automatons are numerous. It may be misleading, at this time, to say that cellular automatons are a computationally efficient technique. Other methods, based on continuum or kinetic theory, would also be very efficient if as little of the physics were included.

  3. Cellular automatons applied to gas dynamic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lyle N.; Coopersmith, Robert M.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper compares the results of a relatively new computational fluid dynamics method, cellular automatons, with experimental data and analytical results. This technique has been shown to qualitatively predict fluidlike behavior; however, there have been few published comparisons with experiment or other theories. Comparisons are made for a one-dimensional supersonic piston problem, Stokes first problem, and the flow past a normal flat plate. These comparisons are used to assess the ability of the method to accurately model fluid dynamic behavior and to point out its limitations. Reasonable results were obtained for all three test cases, but the fundamental limitations of cellular automatons are numerous. It may be misleading, at this time, to say that cellular automatons are a computationally efficient technique. Other methods, based on continuum or kinetic theory, would also be very efficient if as little of the physics were included.

  4. Prediction of useful casting structure applying Cellular Automaton method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ignaszak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of simulation investigations of primary casting’s structure made of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy using the Calcosoft system with CAFE 3D (Cellular Automaton Finite Element module are presented. CAFE 3-D module let to predict the structure formation of complete castings indicating the spatial distribution of columnar and equiaxed grains. That simplified model concerns only hypoeutectic phase. Simulation investigations of structure concern the useful casting of camshaft which solidified in high-insulation mould with properly chills distribution. These conditions let to apply the expedient locally different simplified the grains blocs geometry which are called by the authors as pseudo-crystals. The mechanical properties in selected cross-sections of casing are estimated.

  5. Statistical tests applied in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu, N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Being given the conditions of an ever increasing competition between the offerers of touristic products at internal and international level, an important factor is represented by the formation of stable customers who should also ensure the promotion of the touristic product among the possible clients on different markets. This supposes the achievement of some high quality touristic services which should generate favorable and long-lasting impressions. The paper is meant to build an analysis model of the data resulted from sounding research based by applying statistical tests.

  6. Cellular Automata Models Applied to the Study of Landslide Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are caused by complex processes controlled by the interaction of numerous factors. Increasing efforts are being made to understand the spatial and temporal evolution of this phenomenon, and the use of remote sensing data is making significant contributions in improving forecast. This paper studies landslides seen as complex dynamic systems, in order to investigate their potential Self Organized Critical (SOC) behavior, and in particular, scale-invariant aspects of processes governing the spatial development of landslides and their temporal evolution, as well as the mechanisms involved in driving the system and keeping it in a critical state. For this purpose, we build Cellular Automata Models, which have been shown to be capable of reproducing the complexity of real world features using a small number of variables and simple rules, thus allowing for the reduction of the number of input parameters commonly used in the study of processes governing landslide evolution, such as those linked to the geomechanical properties of soils. This type of models has already been successfully applied in studying the dynamics of other natural hazards, such as earthquakes and forest fires. The basic structure of the model is composed of three modules: (i) An initialization module, which defines the topographic surface at time zero as a grid of square cells, each described by an altitude value; the surface is acquired from real Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). (ii) A transition function, which defines the rules used by the model to update the state of the system at each iteration. The rules use a stability criterion based on the slope angle and introduce a variable describing the weakening of the material over time, caused for example by rainfall. The weakening brings some sites of the system out of equilibrium thus causing the triggering of landslides, which propagate within the system through local interactions between neighboring cells. By using different rates of

  7. SPSS for applied sciences basic statistical testing

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Cole

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a quick and basic guide to using SPSS and provides a general approach to solving problems using statistical tests. It is both comprehensive in terms of the tests covered and the applied settings it refers to, and yet is short and easy to understand. Whether you are a beginner or an intermediate level test user, this book will help you to analyse different types of data in applied settings. It will also give you the confidence to use other statistical software and to extend your expertise to more specific scientific settings as required.The author does not use mathematical form

  8. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sambale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. They were used as benchmarks to set up our methods and to examine their effects on mammalian cell lines. Different biological processes such as cell viability, gene expression of interleukin-8 and heat shock protein 70, as well as morphology changes were investigated. Within our screening system, both nanoparticle suspensions and coatings can be tested. Electric cell impedance measurements revealed to be a good method for online monitoring of cellular behavior. The implementation of three-dimensional cell culture is essential to better mimic in vivo conditions. In conclusion, our screening system is highly efficient, cost minimizing, and reduces the need for animal studies.

  9. An Applied Image Processing for Radiographic Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An applied image processing for radiographic testing (RT) is desirable because it decreases time-consuming, decreases the cost of inspection process that need the experienced workers, and improves the inspection quality. This paper presents the primary study of image processing for RT-films that is the welding-film. The proposed approach to determine the defects on weld-images. The BMP image-files are opened and developed by computer program that using Borland C++. The software has five main methods that are Histogram, Contrast Enhancement, Edge Detection, Image Segmentation and Image Restoration. Each the main method has the several sub method that are the selected options. The results showed that the effective software can detect defects and the varied method suit for the different radiographic images. Furthermore, improving images are better when two methods are incorporated

  10. Reliability analysis applied to structural tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, P.; Payne, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of reliability theory to predict, from structural fatigue test data, the risk of failure of a structure under service conditions because its load-carrying capability is progressively reduced by the extension of a fatigue crack, is considered. The procedure is applicable to both safe-life and fail-safe structures and, for a prescribed safety level, it will enable an inspection procedure to be planned or, if inspection is not feasible, it will evaluate the life to replacement. The theory has been further developed to cope with the case of structures with initial cracks, such as can occur in modern high-strength materials which are susceptible to the formation of small flaws during the production process. The method has been applied to a structure of high-strength steel and the results are compared with those obtained by the current life estimation procedures. This has shown that the conventional methods can be unconservative in certain cases, depending on the characteristics of the structure and the design operating conditions. The suitability of the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of the results from full-scale fatigue testing of aircraft structures is discussed and the assumptions involved are examined.

  11. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene therapy (CGT) products with recommendations for developing... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products''...

  12. Biofabrication and testing of a fully cellular nerve graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupture of a nerve is a debilitating injury with devastating consequences for the individual's quality of life. The gold standard of repair is the use of an autologous graft to bridge the severed nerve ends. Such repair however involves risks due to secondary surgery at the donor site and may result in morbidity and infection. Thus the clinical approach to repair often involves non-cellular solutions, grafts composed of synthetic or natural materials. Here we report on a novel approach to biofabricate fully biological grafts composed exclusively of cells and cell secreted material. To reproducibly and reliably build such grafts of composite geometry we use bioprinting. We test our grafts in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for both motor and sensory function. In particular we compare the regenerative capacity of the biofabricated grafts with that of autologous grafts and grafts made of hollow collagen tubes by measuring the compound action potential (for motor function) and the change in mean arterial blood pressure as consequence of electrically eliciting the somatic pressor reflex. Our results provide evidence that bioprinting is a promising approach to nerve graft fabrication and as a consequence to nerve regeneration. (paper)

  13. Self-consistent field variational cellular method as applied to the band structure calculation of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The band structure of metallic sodium is calculated, using for the first time the self-consistent field variational cellular method. In order to implement the self-consistency in the variational cellular theory, the crystal electronic charge density was calculated within the muffin-tin approximation. The comparison between our results and those derived from other calculations leads to the conclusion that the proposed self-consistent version of the variational cellular method is fast and accurate. (author)

  14. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Franziska Sambale; Frank Stahl; Ferdinand Rüdinger; Dror Seliktar; Cornelia Kasper; Detlef Bahnemann; Thomas Scheper

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide ...

  15. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    Small-scale tests have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that...... it was possible to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. Hereby, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests has been avoided. A scaling law for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The novel testing method has been...... validated against the test results by means of the scaling law....

  16. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale tests have been conducted to investigate the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that it was possible to...... apply an overburden pressure to the soil. As a result of that, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests have been avoided. A normalisation criterion for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The test results using the novel...... testing method have been compared with the use of the normalisation criterion....

  17. SUBCLINICAL HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY DETECTED THROUGH PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS IN PATIENTS WITH HEPATIC CELLULAR CARCINOMA AND CIRRHOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 吴积坰; 李惠芳; 顾海蔚; 范晓方

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study subclinical hepatic encephalopathy (SHE) in patients with hepatic cellular carcinoma by using psychometric tests.Methods 112 cases of hepatic cellular carcinoma complicated with cirrhosis and 65 controls were detected with number connection test (NCT), digital span test (DSP) and digital symbol test (DSY).Results The abnormal rate of NCT, DSY and DSP in patients was 23.2% (26/112), 14.3% (16/112) and 11.6%(13/112) respectively. Patients in the Child-Pugh B group had a significantly higher abnormal rate than that in the Child-Pugh A group.Conclusion SHE has an incidence of 25.0% (28/112) in patients with hepatic cellular carcinoma and cirrhosis in this study population; its occurrence is associated with the severity of liver impairment.

  18. Electrochemical Potential Gradient as a Quantitative in Vitro Test Platform for Cellular Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Carson; Atha, Donald; Reipa, Vytas

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress in a biological system is often defined as a redox imbalance within cells or groups of cells within an organism. Reductive-oxidative (redox) imbalances in cellular systems have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer. To better understand the redox environment within cellular systems, it is important to be able to characterize the relationship between the intensity of the oxidative environment, characterized by redox potential, and the biomolecular consequences of oxidative damage. In this study, we show that an in situ electrochemical potential gradient can serve as a tool to simulate exogenous oxidative stress in surface-attached mammalian cells. A culture plate design, which permits direct imaging and analysis of the cell viability, following exposure to a range of solution redox potentials, was developed. The in vitro oxidative stress test vessel consists of a cell growth flask fitted with two platinum electrodes that support a direct current along the flask bottom. The applied potential span and gradient slope can be controlled by adjusting the constant current magnitude across the vessel with spatially localized media potentials measured with a sliding reference electrode. For example, the viability of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells under a gradient of redox potentials indicated that cell death was initiated at approximately 0.4 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) media potential and this potential could be modified with antioxidants. This experimental platform may facilitate studies of oxidative stress characteristics on different types of cells by enabling imaging live cell cultures that have been exposed to a gradient of exogenous redox potentials. PMID:27409641

  19. Applying Cellular Automata for Simulating and Assessing Urban Growth Scenario Based in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Mubea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research explores urban growth based scenarios for the city of Nairobi using a cellular automata urban growth model (UGM. African cities have experienced rapid urbanization over the last decade due to increased population growth and high economic activities. We used multi-temporal Landsat imageries for 1976, 1986, 2000 and 2010 to investigate urban land-use changes in Nairobi. Our UGM used data from urban land-use of 1986 and 2010, road data, slope data and exclusion layer. Monte-Carlo technique was used for model calibration and Multi Resolution Validation (MRV technique for validation. Simulation of urban land-use was done up to the year 2030 when Kenya plans to attain Vision 2030. Three scenarios were explored in the urban modelling process; unmanaged growth with no restriction on environmental areas, managed growth with moderate protection, and a managed growth with maximum protection on forest, agricultural areas, and urban green. Thus alternative scenario development using UGM is useful for planning purposes so as to ensure sustainable development is achieved. UGM provides quantitative, visual, spatial and temporal information which aid policy and decision makers can make informed decisions.

  20. The philosophy, design, and testing of a uniform applied load flat plate testing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of a central crack, and its associated plastic zones may significantly affect the distribution of the stress applied by a loading machine, to a test plate. As a result the fracture stress may be affected, usually optimistically. Examples of these effects are discussed. The design of a machine in which the load is uniformly applied to the test specimen is described and preliminary test data presented. Mild steel plate tested at ambient temperature has fractured at less than general yield. (orig.)

  1. Mathematical models applied in inductive non-destructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wac-Wlodarczyk, A.; Goleman, R.; Czerwinski, D. [Technical University of Lublin, 20 618 Lublin, Nadbystrzycka St 38a (Poland); Gizewski, T. [Technical University of Lublin, 20 618 Lublin, Nadbystrzycka St 38a (Poland)], E-mail: t.gizewski@pollub.pl

    2008-10-15

    Non-destructive testing are the wide group of investigative methods of non-homogenous material. Methods of computer tomography, ultrasonic, magnetic and inductive methods still developed are widely applied in industry. In apparatus used for non-destructive tests, the analysis of signals is made on the basis of complex system answers. The answer is linearized due to the model of research system. In this paper, the authors will discuss the applications of the mathematical models applied in investigations of inductive magnetic materials. The statistical models and other gathered in similarity classes will be taken into consideration. Investigation of mathematical models allows to choose the correct method, which in consequence leads to precise representation of the inner structure of examined object. Inductive research of conductive media, especially those with ferromagnetic properties, are run with high frequency magnetic field (eddy-currents method), which considerably decrease penetration depth.

  2. Mathematical models applied in inductive non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive testing are the wide group of investigative methods of non-homogenous material. Methods of computer tomography, ultrasonic, magnetic and inductive methods still developed are widely applied in industry. In apparatus used for non-destructive tests, the analysis of signals is made on the basis of complex system answers. The answer is linearized due to the model of research system. In this paper, the authors will discuss the applications of the mathematical models applied in investigations of inductive magnetic materials. The statistical models and other gathered in similarity classes will be taken into consideration. Investigation of mathematical models allows to choose the correct method, which in consequence leads to precise representation of the inner structure of examined object. Inductive research of conductive media, especially those with ferromagnetic properties, are run with high frequency magnetic field (eddy-currents method), which considerably decrease penetration depth

  3. How to reduce errors in applying impairment tests

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Christian; Plenborg, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Fair value accounting has become predominant in accounting as a vast number of IAS/IFRS standards are based on fair value accounting, including IAS 36 Impairment of assets. Fair value accounting for goodwill is technically challenging, since market prices are not observable. Thus, valuation technologies must be applied in order to test goodwill for impairment. While prior research on goodwill has concentrated on either the (dis)advantages for each accounting procedure for goodwill or exami...

  4. Monocyte Activation in Immunopathology: Cellular Test for Development of Diagnostics and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several highly prevalent human diseases are associated with immunopathology. Alterations in the immune system are found in such life-threatening disorders as cancer and atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation followed by macrophage polarization is an important step in normal immune response to pathogens and other relevant stimuli. Depending on the nature of the activation signal, macrophages can acquire pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes that are characterized by the expression of distinct patterns of secreted cytokines and surface antigens. This process is disturbed in immunopathologies resulting in abnormal monocyte activation and/or bias of macrophage polarization towards one or the other phenotype. Such alterations could be used as important diagnostic markers and also as possible targets for the development of immunomodulating therapy. Recently developed cellular tests are designed to analyze the phenotype and activity of living cells circulating in patient’s bloodstream. Monocyte/macrophage activation test is a successful example of cellular test relevant for atherosclerosis and oncopathology. This test demonstrated changes in macrophage activation in subclinical atherosclerosis and breast cancer and could also be used for screening a panel of natural agents with immunomodulatory activity. Further development of cellular tests will allow broadening the scope of their clinical implication. Such tests may become useful tools for drug research and therapy optimization.

  5. Philosophy, design and testing of a uniform applied load flat plate testing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of a central crack and its associated plastic zones may significantly affect the distribution of the stress applied by a loading machine to a test plate. As a result, the fracture stress may be affected, usually optimistically. Examples of these effects are discussed. The design of a machine in which the load is uniformly applied to the test specimen is described and preliminary test data presented. (author)

  6. Testing composite parametrical hypotheses without applying the reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, V.; Vlasova, S.; Tolokonsky, A.

    2016-01-01

    Usually when the parametrical hypotheses are being tested the Wald reduction from composite hypothesis to the simple one is used. However, in order to apply the reduction method it is needed to know the distribution law of unknown parameter. Practically such a law cannot be determined precisely using the experimental data. First of all, it requires long supervision over the controlled stationary process to provide an inalterability of probability characteristics of the process. In practice the modifications in technological process could be made, and therefore the probability characteristics of the process can also change. Using the example of exponential distribution the algorithm of testing composite parametrical hypothesis about the distribution parameter which does not exceed the declared threshold value without use of reduction is considered in article. Such approach is based on the fact that the partition boundary of the sample space depends monotonously on unknown value of the interest parameter.

  7. Investigation of Vehicles as Probes Using Global Positioning System and Cellular Phone Tracking: Field Operational Test

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Y. B. Youngbin; Cayford, Randall

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on the first phase of the location technology evaluation for probe vehicles. Two technologies were evaluated, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and the cellular phone tracking technology developed by US Wireless. Although GPS has shown great potential for vehicle probes, much of the previous research is theoretical in nature. Very little work has been done in the areas of experimental research, implementation or deployment. Most of the field tests were anecdotal; a systemati...

  8. A general diagnostic model applied to language testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias

    2008-11-01

    Probabilistic models with one or more latent variables are designed to report on a corresponding number of skills or cognitive attributes. Multidimensional skill profiles offer additional information beyond what a single test score can provide, if the reported skills can be identified and distinguished reliably. Many recent approaches to skill profile models are limited to dichotomous data and have made use of computationally intensive estimation methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo, since standard maximum likelihood (ML) estimation techniques were deemed infeasible. This paper presents a general diagnostic model (GDM) that can be estimated with standard ML techniques and applies to polytomous response variables as well as to skills with two or more proficiency levels. The paper uses one member of a larger class of diagnostic models, a compensatory diagnostic model for dichotomous and partial credit data. Many well-known models, such as univariate and multivariate versions of the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic item response theory model, the generalized partial credit model, as well as a variety of skill profile models, are special cases of this GDM. In addition to an introduction to this model, the paper presents a parameter recovery study using simulated data and an application to real data from the field test for TOEFL Internet-based testing. PMID:17535481

  9. Comparison tests of cellular glass insulation for the development of cryogenic insulation standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Dookie, J.; Bickley, J.; Kraft, S.

    2015-12-01

    Standards for thermal insulation used in applications between ambient and low temperatures, below 100 K, require test data under relevant conditions and by different laboratories to develop data sets for the proper comparisons of materials. This critically important technology is needed to provide reliable data and methodologies for industrial energy efficiency and energy conservation. Under ASTM International's Committee C16 on Thermal Insulation, two standards have been issued on cryogenic thermal insulation systems. Thermal conductivity data sets have been taken using identical flat-plate boiloff calorimeter instruments independently operated at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Thermal Energy Laboratory of LeTourneau University (LETU). Precision specimens of cellular glass insulation were produced for both laboratories to provide the necessary comparisons to validate the thermal measurements and test methodologies. Additional specimens of commercial cellular glass pipe insulation were tested at LETU to compare with the flat plate results. The test data are discussed in relation to the experimental approach, test methods, and manner of reporting the thermal performance data. This initial Inter-Laboratory Study (ILS) of insulation materials for sub-ambient temperature applications provides a foundation for further ILS work to produce standard data sets for several key commercial materials.

  10. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  11. Core Principles for Talent Management System and its Impact on Competitive Advantage "Applied Study Cellular Communications Companies in Jordan"

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Fathi Almaaitah; Yoshifumi Harada; Mohd Foad Bin Sakdan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the core principles of talent management system and its impact on competitive advantage in Cellular communications companies in Jordan, The population of the study consisted of Three cellular telecom companies operating in the Jordanian market, the study sample was selected a random sample of employees in administrative levels: top management and middle management and supervisors in cellular communications companies operating in Jordan, and around include (...

  12. Validity of the Cauchy-Born rule applied to discrete cellular-scale models of biological tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.

    2013-04-30

    The development of new models of biological tissues that consider cells in a discrete manner is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to continuum methods based on partial differential equations, although formal relationships between the discrete and continuum frameworks remain to be established. For crystal mechanics, the discrete-to-continuum bridge is often made by assuming that local atom displacements can be mapped homogeneously from the mesoscale deformation gradient, an assumption known as the Cauchy-Born rule (CBR). Although the CBR does not hold exactly for noncrystalline materials, it may still be used as a first-order approximation for analytic calculations of effective stresses or strain energies. In this work, our goal is to investigate numerically the applicability of the CBR to two-dimensional cellular-scale models by assessing the mechanical behavior of model biological tissues, including crystalline (honeycomb) and noncrystalline reference states. The numerical procedure involves applying an affine deformation to the boundary cells and computing the quasistatic position of internal cells. The position of internal cells is then compared with the prediction of the CBR and an average deviation is calculated in the strain domain. For center-based cell models, we show that the CBR holds exactly when the deformation gradient is relatively small and the reference stress-free configuration is defined by a honeycomb lattice. We show further that the CBR may be used approximately when the reference state is perturbed from the honeycomb configuration. By contrast, for vertex-based cell models, a similar analysis reveals that the CBR does not provide a good representation of the tissue mechanics, even when the reference configuration is defined by a honeycomb lattice. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of these results for concurrent discrete and continuous modeling, adaptation of atom-to-continuum techniques to biological

  13. Applying the Implicit Association Test to Measure Intolerance of Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Oriana; Dentale, Francesco; Lauriola, Marco; Leone, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is a key trans-diagnostic personality construct strongly associated with anxiety symptoms. Traditionally, IU is measured through self-report measures that are prone to bias effects due to impression management concerns and introspective difficulties. Moreover, self-report scales are not able to intercept the automatic associations that are assumed to be main determinants of several spontaneous responses (e.g., emotional reactions). In order to overcome these limitations, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was applied to measure IU, with a particular focus on reliability and criterion validity issues. The IU-IAT and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory (IUI) were administered to an undergraduate student sample (54 females and 10 males) with a mean age of 23 years (SD = 1.7). Successively, participants were asked to provide an individually chosen uncertain event from their own lives that may occur in the future and were requested to identify a number of potential negative consequences of it. Participants' responses in terms of cognitive thoughts (i.e., cognitive appraisal) and worry reactions toward these events were assessed using the two subscales of the Worry and Intolerance of Uncertainty Beliefs Questionnaire. The IU-IAT showed an adequate level of internal consistency and a not significant correlation with the IUI. A path analysis model, accounting for 35% of event-related worry, revealed that IUI had a significant indirect effect on the dependent variable through event-related IU thoughts. By contrast, as expected, IU-IAT predicted event-related worry independently from IU thoughts. In accordance with dual models of social cognition, these findings suggest that IU can influence event-related worry through two different processing pathways (automatic vs. deliberative), supporting the criterion and construct validity of the IU-IAT. The potential role of the IU-IAT for clinical applications was discussed. PMID:27451266

  14. Mechanical Decoupling Algorithm Applied to Electric Drive Test Bed

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    New approach and analysis are proposed in this paper to enhance the steady and rapidity of the electric drive test bed. Based on a basic drive motor dynamometer system (DMDS) test bed, detailed mathematical model and process control are established and analyzed. Relative gain array (RGA) method and diagonal matrix method are used to analyze the mechanical coupling caused by mechanical connection on the DMDS test bed, and the structure and algorithm of dynamic decoupling are proposed. Simulati...

  15. Statistics applied to the testing of cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cladding tubes, either steel or zircaloy, are generally given a 100 % inspection through ultrasonic non-destructive testing. This inspection may be completed beneficially with an eddy current test, as this is not sensitive to the same defects as those typically traced by ultrasonic testing. Unfortunately, the two methods (as with other non-destructive tests) exhibit poor precision; this means that a flaw, whose size is close to that denoted as rejection limit, may be accepted or rejected. Currently, rejection, i.e. the measurement above which a tube is rejected, is generally determined through measuring a calibration tube at regular time intervals, and the signal of a given tube is compared to that of the most recently completed calibration. This measurement is thus subject to variations which can be attributed to an actual shift of adjustments as well as to poor precision. For this reason, monitoring instrument adjustments using the so-called control chart method are proposed

  16. Applying Genetic Algorithms to Test JUH DBs Exceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alshraideh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Database represents an essential part of software applications. Many organizations use database as a repository for large amount of current and historical information. With this context testing database applications is a key issue that deserves attention. SQL Exception handling mechanism can increase the reliability of the system and improve the robustness of the software. But the exception handling code that is used to respond to exceptional conditions tends to be the source of the systems failure. It is difficult to test the exception handling by traditional methods. This paper presents a new technique that combines mutation testing and global optimization based search algorithm to test exceptions code in Jordan University Hospital (JUH database application. Thus, using mutation testing to speed the raising of exception and global optimization technique in order to automatically generate test cases, we used fitness function depends on range of data related to each query. We try to achieve the coverage of three types of PL/SQL exceptions, which are No_Data_Found (NDF, Too_Many_Rows (TMR and Others exceptions. The results show that TMR exception is not always covered this due to existence of primary key in the query, also uncovered status appear in nested exceptions.

  17. Small Punch Tests applied to the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest on miniaturized specimen techniques for the characterization of the mechanical behavior of materials was strongly motivated in the early eighties by the different programs associated with the development of fusion reactor technology. The importance of such developments is obvious in the case of the nuclear industry where the limited space available, the presence of fluence gradients in large specimens, the concern about gamma heating and dose to personnel in post-irradiation testing have all been motivations for reducing specimen size. Testing of miniature specimen includes a wide spectrum of techniques such as tensile, instrumented micro-hardness, small punch, bend, fracture, impact and fatigue. Small Punch Testing (SPT) techniques use a spherical penetrator which deforms to failure a miniature disc shaped flat specimen (typically, 3-10 mm in diameter and 0.25-0.50 mm in thickness) supported on its outer rim. Analysis of load-displacement data recorded along the test is performed for the determination of the property of interest. The present work focuses on the characterization of the elastoplastic response of pure Al, ADN 420 structural steel and AISI 304L using SPT and its correlation with the associated standard uniaxial testing behavior. In addition, the sensitivity of the technique to the specific material under study and to different experimental parameters, i.e. specimen diameter and thickness, clearance or clamping force and friction between disc and dies have been assessed both experimentally and by performing simulations using the finite element method (author)

  18. Aerodynamic Reconstruction Applied to Parachute Test Vehicle Flight Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Leonard D.; Ray, Eric S.; Truong, Tuan H.

    2013-01-01

    The aerodynamics, both static and dynamic, of a test vehicle are critical to determining the performance of the parachute cluster in a drop test and for conducting a successful test. The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is conducting tests of NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) parachutes at the Army Yuma Proving Ground utilizing the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV). The PTV shape is based on the MPCV, but the height has been reduced in order to fit within the C-17 aircraft for extraction. Therefore, the aerodynamics of the PTV are similar, but not the same as, the MPCV. A small series of wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics cases were run to modify the MPCV aerodynamic database for the PTV, but aerodynamic reconstruction of the flights has proven an effective source for further improvements to the database. The acceleration and rotational rates measured during free flight, before parachute inflation but during deployment, were used to con rm vehicle static aerodynamics. A multibody simulation is utilized to reconstruct the parachute portions of the flight. Aerodynamic or parachute parameters are adjusted in the simulation until the prediction reasonably matches the flight trajectory. Knowledge of the static aerodynamics is critical in the CPAS project because the parachute riser load measurements are scaled based on forebody drag. PTV dynamic damping is critical because the vehicle has no reaction control system to maintain attitude - the vehicle dynamics must be understood and modeled correctly before flight. It will be shown here that aerodynamic reconstruction has successfully contributed to the CPAS project.

  19. Potential diagnostic consequences of applying non-invasive prenatal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, O B; Vogel, I; Ekelund, C;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Targeted non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies and could be an alternative to traditional karyotyping. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of missing other abnormal karyotypes of probable phenotypic significa......OBJECTIVES: Targeted non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies and could be an alternative to traditional karyotyping. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of missing other abnormal karyotypes of probable phenotypic...... significance by NIPT. METHODS: This was a retrospective population-based analysis of all singleton pregnancies booked for combined first-trimester screening (cFTS) in Denmark over a 4-year period. Data concerning maternal demographics, cFTS and prenatal or postnatal karyotypes were collected from the Danish...... Fetal Medicine database. Karyotypes were classified according to whether the chromosomal anomaly would have been detected by NIPT and whether it was likely to affect phenotype. RESULTS: cFTS was completed in 193638 pregnancies. 10205 (5.3%) had cytogenetic or molecular analysis performed. Of these, 1122...

  20. Castability tests applied to an aluminium-copper alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Garda, B.; Fortin, L; Durand, F.; Durand, Franck

    1993-01-01

    Simplified castability tests were performed on an Al-2%Cu alloy. Measured values of the fluid length can be represented by Ragone's model, giving an estimate for the metal-mould heat transfer coefficient. The grain structure can be considered as a case of columnar-toequiaxed transition in relatively simple flow conditions.

  1. Applying fiber optical methods for toxicological testing in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerz, Holger K.; Buchholz, Rainer; Emmrich, Frank; Fink, Frank; Geddes, Clive L.; Pfeifer, Lutz; Raabe, Ferdinand; Scheper, Thomas-Helmut; Ulrich, Elizabeth; Marx, Uwe

    1999-04-01

    The new medical developments, e.g. immune therapy, patient oriented chemotherapy or even gene therapy, create a questionable doubt to the further requirement of animal test. Instead the call for humanitarian reproductive in vitro models becomes increasingly louder. Pharmaceutical usage of in vitro has a long proven history. In cancer research and therapy, the effect of chemostatica in vitro in the so-called oncobiogram is being tested; but the assays do not always correlate with in vivo-like drug resistance and sensitivity. We developed a drug test system in vitro, feasible for therapeutic drug monitoring by the combination of tissue cultivation in hollow fiber bioreactors and fiber optic sensors for monitoring the pharmaceutical effect. Using two fiber optic sensors - an optical oxygen sensor and a metabolism detecting Laserfluoroscope, we were able to successfully monitor the biological status of tissue culture and the drug or toxic effects of in vitro pharmaceutical testing. Furthermore, we developed and patented a system for monitoring the effect of minor toxic compounds which can induce Sick Building Syndrome.

  2. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CellRad)": Hardware and biological system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CellRad, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CellRad in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  3. Air-coupled ultrasonic testing of metal adhesively bonded joints using cellular polypropylene transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, Mate; Bartusch, Jürgen; Dohse, Elmar; Kreutzbruck, Marc; Amos, Jay

    2014-02-01

    Adhesively bonded aluminum components have been widely used in the aerospace industry for weight-efficient and damage-tolerant structures. Automated squirter jet immersion ultrasonic testing is a common inspection technique to assure the bond integrity of large, contoured assemblies. However, squirter jet inspection presents several limitations in scanning speed, related to water splash noise over protruding stiffeners and splash interference crosstalk in multi-channel inspection systems. Air-coupled ultrasonic testing has been evaluated as an alternative, possibly offering the benefits of increased throughput by enabling higher speeds, and eliminating the contamination concerns and maintenance issues of water couplant systems. Adhesive joints of multi-layer aluminum plates with artificial disbonds were inspected with novel air-coupled ultrasonic probes based on cellular polypropylene. Disbonds of various sizes were engineered in several multi-layer configurations and at various depths. Results were compared with squirter jet immersion and conventional piezoelectric transducer designs in terms of scan contrast, resolution and inspection time.

  4. Diagnostic Plots Applied to Well-Tests in Karst Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Ladouche, Bernard; Dewandel, Benoît; Fleury, Perrine; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    International audience Pumping tests conducted on wells intersecting karst heterogeneities such as the conduit network are difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, this case can be solved by assimilating the horizontal karst conduit to a finite-conductivity vertical fracture. In this case, several flow patterns corresponding to the respective contributions of karst subsystems (fractured matrix, small conduits and main karst drainage network) can be identified on the diagnostic plot of drawdow...

  5. Content validity evidences in test development: An applied perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Delgado-Rico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio instrumental es mostrar los pasos a seguir para la obtenci6n de evidencias de validez de contenido dentro del proccso de construcción/adaptacion de tests. Para ello se haec usa de una perspectiva aplicada, presentandose el estudio de validez de contenido llevada a cabo para la adaptacion espm:lo1a de la version rasgo del S'fafe-Trait Cheerfitlness Inventory (STCI-T. Este trabajo profundiza en las fases que permiten obtener evidencias de validez de contenido: 1 definicion de las areas de contenido a evaluar, 2 construcci6n de items y 3 evaluaci6n a traves de expertos de los items constnridos. Para este liltimo plmto se muestran los resultados encontrados para un panel de expertos previamente seleccionado. La presentaci6n se centTa en los criterios para la selecci6n de expertos, procedimiento general a seguir, material para admirristrar, aspectos a evaluar de los items, Ycwculos mas importantes. Se temlina argllmentando sobre la relev8ncia de la validez de contenido en el proceso de constmccion/adaptacion de tests a partir de los resultados obtenidos para la adaptacion espanola del STCI-T. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto llllOS buenos indices de validez de contenido para los items de la version espm:l01a del STCI-T.

  6. Analogy perception applied to seven tests of word comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Turney, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that analogy is the core of cognition. In AI research, algorithms for analogy are often limited by the need for hand-coded high-level representations as input. An alternative approach is to use high-level perception, in which high-level representations are automatically generated from raw data. Analogy perception is the process of recognizing analogies using high-level perception. We present PairClass, an algorithm for analogy perception that recognizes lexical proportional analogies using representations that are automatically generated from a large corpus of raw textual data. A proportional analogy is an analogy of the form A:B::C:D, meaning "A is to B as C is to D". A lexical proportional analogy is a proportional analogy with words, such as carpenter:wood::mason:stone. PairClass represents the semantic relations between two words using a high-dimensional feature vector, in which the elements are based on frequencies of patterns in the corpus. PairClass recognizes analogies by applying s...

  7. Applying Penetration Tests on a Highly Secured Cooperative Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Security plays a vital role in the design; development and practical use of the distributed computing environment,for greater availability and access to information in turn imply that distributed systems are more prone to attacks. The need forpractical solutions for secure networked system management is becoming increasingly significant. Any cooperative networkshould be supplied with different security techniques and tools. This paper deals with subjecting a highly secured cooperativenetwork to successive penetration tests. An experimental network is built to represent a typical layout for a cooperativenetwork and it is supplied with a variety of security techniques such as, Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN, Virtual PrivateNetwork (VPN, Intrusion Detection System (IDS, Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA server, Secure ShellHeader (SSH, Access Control List (ACL, WLAN security Techniques and Network Address Translation (NAT. Our testsfocus on the evaluation of the importance of each security technique and the effect of their absence on the security level of thenetwork. This work could assist the future introduction of security evaluation matrices.

  8. Towards Inter- and Intra- Cellular Protein Interaction Analysis: Applying the Betweenness Centrality Graph Measure for Node Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alan J.; Haqqani, Arsalan S.

    2011-11-01

    Three public biological network data sets (KEGG, GeneRIF and Reactome) are collected and described. Two problems are investigated (inter- and intra- cellular interactions) via augmentation of the collected networks to the problem specific data. Results include an estimate of the importance of proteins for the interaction of inflammatory cells with the blood-brain barrier via the computation of Betweenness Centrality. Subsequently, the interactions may be validated from a number of differing perspectives; including comparison with (i) existing biological results, (ii) the literature, and (iii) new hypothesis driven biological experiments. Novel therapeutic and diagnostic targets for inhibiting inflammation at the blood-brain barrier in a number of brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis are possible. In addition, this methodology may also be applicable towards investigating the breast cancer tumour microenvironment.

  9. Laboratory testing of a building envelope segment based on cellular concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Hygrothermal performance of a building envelope based on cellular concrete blocks is studied in the paper. Simultaneously, the strain fields induced by the heat and moisture changes are monitored. The studied wall is exposed to the climatic load corresponding to the winter climatic conditions of the moderate year for Prague. The winter climatic exposure is chosen in order to simulate the critical conditions of the building structure from the point of view of material performance and temperature and humidity loading. The evaluation of hygrothermal performance of a researched wall is done on the basis of relative humidity and temperature profiles measured along the cross section of the cellular concrete blocks. Strain gauges are fixed on the wall surface in expected orientation of the blocks expansion. The obtained results show a good hygrothermal function of the analyzed cellular concrete wall and its insignificant strain.

  10. Micro-cellular polyurethane elastomers for spring elements applied in automobiles. Mikrozellige Polyurethan-Elastomere als Federelement in Automobilanwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genz, M.; King, H.; Wahle, M.

    1992-10-01

    Cellasto components excell by very interesting property combinations, i.e. extremely high volume compressibility with very low lateral extension and excellent resilience, even under high dynamic laod bearing. A further important characteristic property is the resistance of Cellasto to mechanical, chemical and biological impacts. Cellasto exhibits these properties over a wide temperature range and thus allows for tailor-made products for specific applications, the components keeping the properties. The components are produced observing environmental aspects. Production waste can be salvaged after, for example by the so-called particle recycling. Due to these property combinations, Cellasto components are excellently suited for spring and damping applications. Above all, spring elements for passenger cars and commercial vehicles have successfully proved for many years all over the world. New applications for Cellasto components in the automotive industry have been developed and will soon be applied in series. (orig.).

  11. SOFTWARE TESTING STRATEGY APPROACH ON SOURCE CODE APPLYING CONDITIONAL COVERAGE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya Srivastaval; Twinkle Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Software testing is an important activity of the software development process. Software testing is most efforts consuming phase in software development. One would like to minimize the effort and maximize the number of faults detected and automated test case generation contributes to reduce cost and time effort.Hence test case generation may be treated as an optimization problem In this paper we have used genetic algorithm to optimize the test case that are generated applying conditional cover...

  12. SOFTWARE TESTING STRATEGY APPROACH ON SOURCE CODE APPLYING CONDITIONAL COVERAGE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Srivastaval

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an important activity of the software development process. Software testing is most efforts consuming phase in software development. One would like to minimize the effort and maximize the number of faults detected and automated test case generation contributes to reduce cost and time effort.Hence test case generation may be treated as an optimization problem In this paper we have used genetic algorithm to optimize the test case that are generated applying conditional coverage on source code. Test case data is generated automatically using genetic algorithm are optimized and outperforms the test cases generated by random testing.

  13. 77 FR 73401 - Not Applying the Mark of Inspection Pending Certain Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... testing for economic adulteration (76 FR 19953). Retail Exempt Some industry commenters asked whether the..., ``Not Applying the Mark of Inspection Pending Certain Test Results'' (76 FR 19952). The notice explained... residues, such product would not need to be held from commerce pending negative test results (76 FR...

  14. Water Permeability of Pervious Concrete Is Dependent on the Applied Pressure and Testing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Falling head method (FHM and constant head method (CHM are, respectively, used to test the water permeability of permeable concrete, using different water heads on the testing samples. The results indicate the apparent permeability of pervious concrete decreasing with the applied water head. The results also demonstrate the permeability measured from the FHM is lower than that from the CHM. The fundamental difference between the CHM and FHM is examined from the theory of fluid flowing through porous media. The testing results suggest that the water permeability of permeable concrete should be reported with the applied pressure and the associated testing method.

  15. Applying Test-Paradigms in a Generic Tutoring System Concept for Web-based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Brust, Matthias R.

    2007-01-01

    Realizing test scenarios through a tutoring system involve questions about architecture and didactic methods in such a system. Observing the fact that traditional tutoring systems normally are domain-static, this paper shows investigations for a generic domain-independent tutoring system for utilizing test scenarios in computer-based and web-based environments. Furthermore, test paradigms are analyzed and it is presented an approach for realizing functionality for applying test paradigms in t...

  16. Applied Physics Modules: Notes, Instructions, Data Sheets, Tests, and Test Answer Keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeast Community Coll., Lincoln, NE.

    These user instructions and related materials are designed to accompany a series of twenty-three applied physics modules which have been developed for postsecondary students in electrical, electronics, machine tool, metals, manufacturing, automotive, diesel, architecture, and civil drafting occupational programs. The instructions include an…

  17. Applied Reading Test--Forms A and B, Interim Manual, and Answer Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    Designed for use in the selection of apprentices, trainees, technical and trade personnel, and any other persons who need to read and understand text of a technical nature, this Applied Reading Test specimen set contains six passages and 32 items, has a 30-minute time limit, and is presented in a reusable multiple choice test booklet. The specimen…

  18. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Cellular Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanely, Julia C.; Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary A.; Freeman, John; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. To expand the use of flight verified hardware for various model organisms, we performed ground experiments to determine whether ARC EMCS Seed Cassettes could be adapted for use with cellular slime mold for future space flight experiments. Dictyostelium is a cellular slime mold that can exist both as a single-celled independent organism and as a part of a multicellular colony which functions as a unit (pseudoplasmodium). Under certain stress conditions, individual amoebae will aggregate to form multicellular structures. Developmental pathways are very similar to those found in Eukaryotic organisms, making this a uniquely interesting organism for use in genetic studies. Dictyostelium has been used as a genetic model organism for prior space flight experiments. Due to the formation of spores that are resistant to unfavorable conditions such as desiccation, Dictyostelium is also a good candidate for use in the EMCS Seed Cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membranes contains dried growth medium. The goals of this study were to (1) verify that Dictyostelium are capable of normal growth and development on PES membranes, (2) develop a method for dehydration of Dictyostelium spores with successful recovery and development after rehydration, and (3) successful mock rehydration experiments in cassettes. Our results show normal developmental progression in two strains of Dictyostelium discoideum on PES membranes with a bacterial food source. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration of spores with developmental progression from aggregation to slug formation, and production of morphologically normal spores within 9 days of rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum could potentially be performed in the flight verified hardware of

  19. Human Neurospheres as Three-Dimensional Cellular Systems for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Moors, Michaela; Rockel, Thomas Dino; Abel, Josef; Cline, Jason E.; Gassmann, Kathrin; Schreiber, Timm; Schuwald, Janette; Weinmann, Nicole; Fritsche, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Background Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals is a serious threat to human health. Current DNT testing guidelines propose investigations in rodents, which require large numbers of animals. With regard to the “3 Rs” (reduction, replacement, and refinement) of animal testing and the European regulation of chemicals [Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH)], alternative testing strategies are needed in order to refine and reduce animal experimen...

  20. Auxetic shape memory alloy cellular structures for deployable satellite antennas: design, manufacture and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Maio D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the production development and experimental tests related to an hybrid honeycomb-truss made of shape memory alloy (Ni48Ti46Cu6, and used as a demonstrator for a deployable antenna in deep-space missions. Specific emphasis is placed on the modal analysis techniques used to test the lightweight SMA structure.

  1. Auxetic shape memory alloy cellular structures for deployable satellite antennas: design, manufacture and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Di Maio D.; Toso M.; Coconnier C.; Jacobs S.; Scarpa F.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the production development and experimental tests related to an hybrid honeycomb-truss made of shape memory alloy (Ni48Ti46Cu6), and used as a demonstrator for a deployable antenna in deep-space missions. Specific emphasis is placed on the modal analysis techniques used to test the lightweight SMA structure.

  2. Containment integrity and leak testing. Procedures applied and experiences gained in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Containment systems are the ultimate safety barrier for preventing the escape of gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive materials produced in normal operation, not retained in process systems, and for keeping back radioactive materials released by system malfunction or equipment failure. A primary element of the containment shell is therefore its leak-tight design. The report describes the present containment concepts mostly used in European countries. The leak-testing procedures applied and the experiences gained in their application are also discussed. The report refers more particularly to pre-operational testing, periodic testing and extrapolation methods of leak rates measured at test conditions to expected leak rates at calculated accident conditions. The actual problems in periodic containment leak rate testing are critically reviewed. In the appendix to the report a summary is given of the regulations and specifications applied in different member countries

  3. Design and testing of a new microcalorimetric vessel for use with living cellular systems and in titration experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmark, M G; Laynez, J; Schön, A; Suurkuusk, J; Wadsö, I

    1984-12-01

    A new microcalorimetric vessel primarily intended for use with living cellular systems and in titration experiments has been designed and tested. The vessel, which forms a modular system, fits into an ampoule measuring cylinder of the LKB 'BioActivity Monitor'. It can be used with different sample cups, volume 1-3 ml, and can be equipped with different types of stirrer and sample holders for cellular materials. Experiments can be performed with or without medium perfusing through the vessel. Small quantities of reagents can be added to the sample compartment during the measurements. Stepwise calorimetric titrations can be performed by an automatic procedure. Test experiments reported include results of measurements with human T-lymphoma cells in stirred suspension and melanoma cells adhered to a polystyrene film in a stirred perfusing medium. Results from titration experiments where N-acetyl-D-alanine was bound to ristocetin A are reported, delta G degree' = -16.5 +/- 0.2 kJ mol-1 and delta H degree' = -32.1 +/- 0.4 kJ mol-1. PMID:6397499

  4. Applying Test-Paradigms in a Generic Tutoring System Concept for Web-based Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, Matthias R

    2007-01-01

    Realizing test scenarios through a tutoring system involve questions about architecture and didactic methods in such a system. Observing the fact that traditional tutoring systems normally are domain-static, this paper shows investigations for a generic domain-independent tutoring system for utilizing test scenarios in computer-based and web-based environments. Furthermore, test paradigms are analyzed and it is presented an approach for realizing functionality for applying test paradigms in the presented generic tutoring system architecture by an XML-specified language.

  5. Water Permeability of Pervious Concrete Is Dependent on the Applied Pressure and Testing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yinghong Qin; Haifeng Yang; Zhiheng Deng; Jiang He

    2015-01-01

    Falling head method (FHM) and constant head method (CHM) are, respectively, used to test the water permeability of permeable concrete, using different water heads on the testing samples. The results indicate the apparent permeability of pervious concrete decreasing with the applied water head. The results also demonstrate the permeability measured from the FHM is lower than that from the CHM. The fundamental difference between the CHM and FHM is examined from the theory of fluid flowing throu...

  6. Model-based testing with UML applied to a roaming algorithm for Bluetooth devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhen Ru; GRABOWSKI Jens; NEUKIRCHEN Helmut; PALS Holger

    2004-01-01

    In late 2001,the Object Management Group issued a Request for Proposal to develop a testing profile for UML2.0. In June 2003,the work on the UML 2.0 Testing Profile was finally adopted by the OMG. Since March 2004,it has become an official standard of the OMG. The UML 2.0 Testing Profile provides support for UML based model-driven testing. This paper introduces a methodology on how to use the testing profile in order to modify and extend an existing UML design model for test issues. The application of the methodology will be explained by applying it to an existing UML Model for a Bluetooth device.

  7. Studying the properties of Variational Data Assimilation Methods by Applying a Set of Test-Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Per Grove; Zlatev, Zahari

    the storage needed. This is why it might be appropriate to apply some splitting procedure in the efforts to reduce the computational work. Five test-examples have been created. Different numerical aspects of the data assimilation methods and the interplay between the major computational parts of any...

  8. Energy absorption of cellular foams in high strain rate compression test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králík, V.; Němeček, J.; Jíra, A.; Fíla, Tomáš; Zlámal, P.

    Brno: Brno University of Technology. Institute of Solid Mechanics, Mechatronics and Biomechanics, 2014 - (Fuis, V.) ISBN 978-80-214-4871-1. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering Mechanics 2014 /20./. Svratka (CZ), 12.05.2014-15.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/12/0824 Keywords : impact test * energy absorption * Alporas * polystyrene * extruded polystyrene Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  9. Appraising and applying evidence about a diagnostic test during a performance-based assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Ellen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of Evidence-based Medicine requires that clinicians assess the validity of published research and then apply the results to patient care. We wanted to assess whether our soon-to-graduate medical students could appraise and apply research about a diagnostic test within a clinical context and to compare our students with peers trained at other institutions. Methods 4th year medical students who previously had demonstrated competency at probability revision and just starting first-year Internal Medicine residents were used for this research. Following an encounter with a simulated patient, subjects critically appraised a paper about an applicable diagnostic test and revised the patient's pretest probability given the test result. Results The medical students and residents demonstrated similar skills at critical appraisal, correctly answering 4.7 and 4.9, respectively, of 6 questions (p = 0.67. Only one out of 28 (3% medical students and none of the 15 residents were able to correctly complete the probability revision task (p = 1.00. Conclusions This study found that most students completing medical school are able to appraise an article about a diagnostic test but few are able to apply the information from the article to a patient. These findings raise questions about the clinical usefulness of the EBM skills possessed by graduating medical students within the area of diagnostic testing.

  10. Inhibitors of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase: design, synthesis, kinetics, biomineralization and cellular tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, Julien; Chang, Lei; Marquès, Stéphanie; Pellet-Rostaing, Stéphane; Le Duy, Do; Mebarek, Saida; Buchet, René; Magne, David; Popowycz, Florence; Lemaire, Marc

    2013-12-15

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with numerous metabolic and endocrine disturbances, including abnormalities of calcium and phosphate metabolism and an inflammatory syndrome. The latter occurs early in the course of CKD and contributes to the development and progression of vascular calcification. A few therapeutic strategies are today contemplated to target vascular calcification in patients with CKD: vitamin K2, calcimimetics and phosphate binders. However, none has provided complete prevention of vascular calcification and there is an urgent need for alternate efficient treatments. Recent findings indicate that tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) may represent a very promising drug target due to its participation in mineralization by vascular smooth muscle cells. We report the synthesis of four levamisole derivatives having better inhibition property on TNAP than levamisole. Their IC50, Ki and water solubility have been determined. We found that the four inhibitors bind to TNAP in an uncompetitive manner and are selective to TNAP. Indeed, they do not inhibit intestinal and placental alkaline phosphatases. Survival MTT tests on human MG-63 and Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells have been performed in the presence of inhibitors. All the inhibitors are not toxic at concentrations that block TNAP activity. Moreover, they are able to significantly reduce mineralization in MG63 and Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells, indicating that they are promising molecules to prevent vascular calcification. PMID:24183741

  11. In Vitro Testing of Biomaterials for Neural Repair: Focus on Cellular Systems and High-Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarro, Vito Antonio; Dolci, Luisa Stella; Mangano, Chiara; Giardino, Luciana; Gualandi, Chiara; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Calzà, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Biomimetic materials are designed to stimulate specific cellular responses at the molecular level. To improve the soundness of in vitro testing of the biological impact of new materials, appropriate cell systems and technologies must be standardized also taking regulatory issues into consideration. In this study, the biological and molecular effects of different scaffolds on three neural systems, that is, the neural cell line SH-SY5Y, primary cortical neurons, and neural stem cells, were compared. The effect of poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds having different surface geometry (conventional two-dimensional seeding flat surface, random or aligned fibers as semi3D structure) and chemical functionalization (laminin or ECM extract) were studied. The endpoints were defined for efficacy (i.e., neural differentiation and neurite elongation) and for safety (i.e., cell death/survival) using high-content analysis. It is demonstrated that (i) the definition of the biological properties of biomaterials is profoundly influenced by the test system used; (ii) the definition of the in vitro safety profile of biomaterials for neural repair is also influenced by the test system; (iii) cell-based high-content screening may well be successfully used to characterize both the efficacy and safety of novel biomaterials, thus speeding up and improving the soundness of this critical step in material science having medical applications. PMID:27588220

  12. Applying UPC Scaling-Up Methodology to the LSTF-PKL Counterpart Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martinez-Quiroga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the nodalization qualification process and quality guarantee procedures and following the guidelines of Kv-scaled analysis and UMAE methodology, further development has been performed by UPC team resulting in a scaling-up methodology. Such methodology has been applied in this paper for analyzing discrepancies that appear between the simulations of two counterpart tests. It allows the analysis of scaling-down criterion used for the design of an ITF and also the investigation of the differences of configuration between an ITF and a particular NPP. For analyzing both, it applies two concepts “scaled-up nodalizations” and “hybrid nodalizations.” The result of this activity is the explanation of appeared distortions and its final goal is to qualify nodalizations for their use in the analysis of equivalent scenarios at an NPP scale. In this sense, the experimental data obtained in the OECD/NEA PKL-2 and ROSA-2 projects as counterpart test are of a great value for the testing of the present methodology. The results of the posttest calculations of LSTF-PKL counterpart tests have allowed the analyst to define which phenomena could be well reproduced by their nodalizations and which not, in this way establishing the basis for a future extrapolation to an NPP scaled calculation. The application of the UPC scaling up methodology has demonstrated that selected phenomena can be scaled-up and explained between counterpart simulations by carefully considering the differences in scale and design.

  13. Particular Characterisation of an In-Vitro-DTH Test to Monitor Cellular Immunity - Applications for Patient Care and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurecker, M.; Mayer, W.; Gruber, M.; Muckenthaler, F.; Draenert, R.; Bogner, J.; Kaufmann, I.; Crucian, B.; Rykova, M.; Morukov, B.; Sams, C.; Chouker, A.

    2010-01-01

    Goal:i) Characterization of the role of the main immune reactive cell types contributing to the cellular immune response in the in-vitro DTH and ii) Validation of the in-vitro DTH under different clinical and field conditions. Methods:As positive control whole blood was incubated in the in-vitro DTH, supernatants were gathered after 12, 24 and 48h. Readout parameters of this test are cytokines in the assay's supernatant. To determine the role of T-cells, monocytes and natural killer (NK), these cell populations were depleted using magnetic beads prior to in-vitro-DTH incubation. Validation of the test has occurred under clinical (HIV-patients, ICU) and field-conditions (parabolic/space-flights, confinement). Results:T-cell depletion abandoned almost any IL-2 production and reduced IFN-gamma production irrespective of the type of antigen, whereas CD56 depleted cultures tended to lower IL-2 secretion and IFN-gamma and to parallel a IL-10-increase after viral challenge. This IL-10-increase was seen also in CD14-depleted setups. DTH read-out was significantly different under acute stress (parabolic flight) or chronic stress (ISS), respectively. Preliminary data of HIV infected patients demonstrate that this test can display the contemporary immune status during an antiviral therapy. Conclusion:The in-vitro DTH mirrors adaptive and innate immune activation and may serve as tool also for longitudinal follow up of Th1/Th2 weighed immune response under adverse life conditions on earth and in space. It is planned to implement the assay in the on the ISS (MoCISS).

  14. Tank Applied Testing of Load-Bearing Multilayer Insulation (LB-MLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Valenzuela, Juan G.; Feller, Jerr; Plachta, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The development of long duration orbital cryogenic storage systems will require the reduction of heat loads into the storage tank. In the case of liquid hydrogen, complete elimination of the heat load at 20 K is currently impractical due to the limitations in lift available on flight cryocoolers. In order to reduce the heat load, without having to remove heat at 20 K, the concept of Reduced Boil-Off uses cooled shields within the insulation system at approximately 90 K. The development of Load-Bearing Multilayer Insulation (LB-MLI) allowed the 90 K shield with tubing and cryocooler attachments to be suspended within the MLI and still be structurally stable. Coupon testing both thermally and structurally were performed to verify that the LB-MLI should work at the tank applied level. Then tank applied thermal and structural (acoustic) testing was performed to demonstrate the functionality of the LB-MLI as a structural insulation system. The LB-MLI showed no degradation of thermal performance due to the acoustic testing and showed excellent thermal performance when integrated with a 90 K class cryocooler on a liquid hydrogen tank.

  15. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the microindentation test applied to bulk elastoplastic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work is to compare numerically simulated load–indentation depth curves together with deformation and stress fields underneath a sharp indenter for a set of mystical materials. Firstly, a numerical simulation and experimental validation of the microindentation test applied to three different bulk elastoplastic materials (copper, stainless steel and pure aluminium) using two indenters (Berkovich and spherical) are presented. The simulation of these microindentation tests is carried out using the finite element large strain elastoplastic and contact models. The corresponding results are particularly aimed at addressing the following aspects: the influence of the indenter geometry on both the load–indentation depth curve and range of plastic strains involved in the test, the comparison of the 3D results for the sharp indenter with those of the 2D approximation, the capabilities of the modelling through experimental validation of the numerical predictions and, in addition, an assessment of the indentation size effect. Secondly, the numerical results of Berkovich indentation applied to a set of mystical materials are exhaustively discussed. Although it is effectively shown that these mystical materials exhibit indistinguishable load–penetration depth curves during the loading phase, an important aspect that has not been previously addressed is that some clear differences in their responses are obtained for the unloading stage. Finally, the deformation and stress contours at the maximum indentation force and after unloading are particularly analysed. (paper)

  16. A study of penetration test for applying a remote monitoring system for virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A penetration test has been performed to verify the vulnerability of Virtual Private Network that is substitute for communication method of an existing remote monitoring system. An existing RMS was used for the private telephone and the RMS was applied of all PWR in Korea. But, due to communication fee, IAEA wanted to replace current telephone line to the internet line to reduce transmission cost in operating remote monitoring system. The communication cost of telephone line was estimated about $66,000/yr. Internet technology would reduce the operating cost up to 1/5. The purpose of the penetration test was to demonstrate the security of the data and system against both various external and internal hacking scenarios. In most cases, hacker could not even identify the VPN system. In any cases, the system did not allow the access of the hacker to the system needless to say the data alteration or system shutdown. Two kinds of test method is chosen; one is external attack and another is internal attack. During the test, the hacking tool was used. The result of test was proved that VPN was secure against internal/external attack

  17. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  18. Test of large-scale specimens and models as applied to NPP equipment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the test results on low-cycle fatigue, crack growth rate and fracture toughness of large-scale specimens and structures, manufactured from steel, widely applied in power engineering industry and used for the production of NPP equipment with VVER-440 and VVER-1000 reactors. The obtained results are compared with available test results of standard specimens and calculation relations, accepted in open-quotes Calculation Norms on Strength.close quotes At the fatigue crack initiation stage the experiments were performed on large-scale specimens of various geometry and configuration, which permitted to define 15X2MFA steel fracture initiation resistance by elastic-plastic deformation of large material volume by homogeneous and inhomogeneous state. Besides the above mentioned specimen tests in the regime of low-cycle loading, the test of models with nozzles were performed and a good correlation of the results on fatigue crack initiation criterium was obtained both with calculated data and standard low-cycle fatigue tests. It was noted that on the Paris part of the fatigue fracture diagram a specimen thickness increase does not influence fatigue crack growth resistance by tests in air both at 20 and 350 degrees C. The estimation of the comparability of the results, obtained on specimens and models was also carried out for this stage of fracture. At the stage of unstable crack growth by static loading the experiments were conducted on specimens of various thickness for 15X2MFA and 15X2NMFA steels and their welded joints, produced by submerged arc welding, in as-produced state (the beginning of service) and after embrittling heat treatment, simulating neutron fluence attack (the end of service). The obtained results give evidence of the possibility of the reliable prediction of structure elements brittle fracture using fracture toughness test results on relatively small standard specimens. 35 refs., 23 figs

  19. Control Method for Electromagnetic Unmanned Robot Applied to Automotive Test Based on Improved Smith Predictor Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new control method for an electromagnetic unmanned robot applied to automotive testing (URAT and based on improved Smith predictor compensator, and considering a time delay, is proposed. The mechanical system structure and the control system structure are presented. The electromagnetic URAT adopts pulse width modulation (PWM control, while the displacement and the current doubles as a closed-loop control strategy. The coordinated control method of multiple manipulators for the electromagnetic URAT, e.g., a skilled human driver with intelligent decision-making ability is provided, and the improved Smith predictor compensator controller for the electromagnetic URAT considering a time delay is designed. Experiments are conducted using a Ford FOCUS automobile. Comparisons between the PID control method and the proposed method are conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve the accurate tracking of the target vehicle’s speed and reduce the mileage derivation of autonomous driving, which meets the requirements of national test standards.

  20. Improvement of Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel Flow Quality as Applied to Wall Mounted Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    A survey to determine the characteristics of a boundary layer that forms on the wall of the Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel has been performed. Early results showed significant differences in the velocity profiles as measured spanwise across the wall. An investigation of the flow in the upstream contraction revealed the presence of a separation bubble at the beginning of the contraction which caused much of the observed unsteadiness. Vortex generators were successfully applied to the contraction inlet to alleviate the separation. A final survey of the wall boundary layer revealed variations in the displacement and momentum thicknesses to be less than +/- 5% for all but the most upper portion of the wall. The flow quality was deemed adequate to continue the planned follow-on tests to help develop the semi-span test technique.

  1. Hypothesis testing for evaluating a multimodal pattern recognition framework applied to speaker detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunt Murat

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speaker detection is an important component of many human-computer interaction applications, like for example, multimedia indexing, or ambient intelligent systems. This work addresses the problem of detecting the current speaker in audio-visual sequences. The detector performs with few and simple material since a single camera and microphone meets the needs. Method A multimodal pattern recognition framework is proposed, with solutions provided for each step of the process, namely, the feature generation and extraction steps, the classification, and the evaluation of the system performance. The decision is based on the estimation of the synchrony between the audio and the video signals. Prior to the classification, an information theoretic framework is applied to extract optimized audio features using video information. The classification step is then defined through a hypothesis testing framework in order to get confidence levels associated to the classifier outputs, allowing thereby an evaluation of the performance of the whole multimodal pattern recognition system. Results Through the hypothesis testing approach, the classifier performance can be given as a ratio of detection to false-alarm probabilities. Above all, the hypothesis tests give means for measuring the whole pattern recognition process effciency. In particular, the gain offered by the proposed feature extraction step can be evaluated. As a result, it is shown that introducing such a feature extraction step increases the ability of the classifier to produce good relative instance scores, and therefore, the performance of the pattern recognition process. Conclusion The powerful capacities of hypothesis tests as an evaluation tool are exploited to assess the performance of a multimodal pattern recognition process. In particular, the advantage of performing or not a feature extraction step prior to the classification is evaluated. Although the proposed framework is

  2. The history, development and application of a uniformly applied load wide plate testing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes early attempts to use a rigid end wide plate testing machine to investigate the behaviour of centre cracked flat plates. Confusing and inconsistent results arising from the above tests lead to a detailed investigation of the loading characteristics of rigid end machines in general and the difficulties which can arise in the interpretation of data obtained by the use of such machines. In order to overcome the above difficulties which stem largely from uneven load distribution, a versatile testing machine was designed which by use of cheap and easily obtainable components allows the application of a uniformly distributed applied load to a centre cracked test plate. The machine which was commissioned in its original form in 1975 was initially capable of testing plate of 820 mm width and 25 or 48 mm thickness up to maximum stress levels of 488 or 254 MPa respectively. The ease of adaptability of the machine has since permitted its capacity to be increased to handle plate up to 2032 mm wide and 76 mm thickness and by use of double-banked hydraulic jacks stress levels up to 350 MPa can be achieved on plate of these dimensions. The configuration of the machine allows adequate access for strain gauging, crack tip observation and measurements, and temperature control, tests having been conducted in the temperature range -400C to 2900C. Advantages and potential for further development of the machine are given together with details of two of a number of fracture studies which have been conducted since its commissioning. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of feasibility of static tests applied to Küre VMS ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Çelik Balci, Nurgül; Şeref Sönmez, M.

    2015-04-01

    Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) ore deposits have been mined for its copper content for over centuries. However, there is no published data on AMD around Küre VMS ore deposits. This study investigates the sources of acid producing mechanisms in Küre, using field and laboratorial approaches. Geochemical static tests to predict AMD generation are widely applied to mining sites for assessing potential environmental consequences. However, there are well known limitations of these methods particularly resulting from assumptions used for calculations. To test the feasibility of the methods to predict potential of AMD generation of Küre (VMS) copper deposits, for the first time, acid production and neutralization potential of various mine wastes of Küre (VMS) copper deposits were determined. To test our static test results, in situ and laboratory geochemical data were also obtained from the groundwater discharges from Bakibaba underground mining tunnels. Feasibility study showed that, despite a few inconsistencies, static tests were suitable for predicting generation of AMD around Küre copper mining site and reflected well the site conditions. The current study revealed that pulp density, defined as solid/liquid ratio and used for static tests, is an important limiting factor to predict reliable data for AMD generation. In this study, we also determined surface waters affected by AMD are predicted to have a pH value between 3 and 5, with an average of pH 4. Excessive concentrations of manganese, copper, cobalt and sulfate are also noted with considerable amounts of iron and zinc, which can reach to toxic levels. Moreover, iron and zinc were found to be the controlling the fate of metals by precipitation and co-precipitation, due to their relatively depleted concentrations at redox shifting zones. Key words: Küre pyritic copper ore, Bakibaba mining tunnels, volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits, acid production potential, neutralization potential

  4. Advanced model structures applied to system identification of a servo- hydraulic test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Czop

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper deals with a method for the parametric system identification of a nonlinear system to obtain its parametric representation using a linear transfer function. Such representation is applicable in off-line profile correction methods minimizing the error between a reference input signal and a signal performed by the test rig. In turn, a test signal can be perfectly tracked by a servo-hydraulic test rig. This is the requirement in massive production where short test sequences are repeated to validate the products.Design/methodology/approach: A numerical and experimental case studies are presented in the paper. The numerical study presents a system identification process of a nonlinear system consisting of a linear transfer function and a nonlinear output component, being a static function. The experimental study presents a system identification process of a nonlinear system which is a servo-hydraulic test rig. The simulation data has been used to illustrate the feasibility study of the proposed approach, while the experimental data have been used to validate advanced model structures under operational conditions.Findings: The advanced model structures confirmed their better performance by means of the model fit in the time domain.Research limitations/implications: The method applies to analysis of such mechanical and hydraulic systems for which measurements are corrupted by residual harmonic disturbances resulting from system nonlinearities.Practical implications: The advanced model structures are intended to be used as inverse models in off-line signal profile correction.Originality/value: The results state the foundation for the off-line parametric error cancellation method which aims in improving tracking of load signals on servo-hydraulic test rigs.

  5. 75 FR 47592 - Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 32647) (FRL-8135-9), of national experts in which the revisions made in June 2006, were... AGENCY Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other... Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other Arthropods Test...

  6. Climatology Applied To Architecture: An Experimental Investigation about Internal Temperatures Distribution at Two Test Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Tibério Cardoso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data were analyzed en relative spatial distribution of the internal surface temperature (IST and internal air temperature or dry bulb (TBS, in two different test cells, for a typical experimental day under the influence of tropical mass. The main goal of this research is to provide guidelines to collect temperature data experimentally since there is not an appropriate standard to guide this methodological procedure in buildings. The data series of dry bulb temperature and internal surface temperatures were measured in a test cell with a green roof and the other with conventional ceramic roof by thermocouples installed at predetermined locations. The data of solar radiation and the main climatic variables were recorded by the automatic weather station at the Center of Science Engineering Applied to the Environment (CCEAMA, School of Engineering of São Carlos (EESC-USP. The results led to the conclusion that the distribution of the internal surface temperature is almost uniform in the two test cells, but in relation to the dry bulb temperature there is a small vertical temperature gradient in the conventional cell. This work will contribute significantly to future studies in the area of human comfort and environmental suitability of buildings

  7. Sliding Wear Response of a Bronze Bushing: Influence of Applied Load and Test Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. K.

    2012-10-01

    This investigation pertains to the examination of the sliding wear behavior of a leaded-tin bronze bushing under the conditions of varying applied loads and test environments against a steel shaft. The test environment was changed by adding 5% of solid lubricants like talc and lead to an oil lubricant separately as well as in combination; the fraction of the two (solid) lubricants within the solid lubricant mixture was varied in the range of 25-75% in the latter case. The wear performance of the bushing was characterized in terms of the wear rate, frictional heating, and friction coefficient. The increasing load led to deterioration in the wear response, while the addition of the solid lubricant particles produced a reverse effect. Further, an appreciable difference in the wear behavior was not observed when the tests were conducted in the oil plus talc and oil plus lead lubricant mixtures. However, the oil containing lead and talc together brought about a significant improvement in the wear response; best results were obtained in the case of the lubricant mixture consisting of lead and talc together in the ratio of 3:1 in the oil. The observed wear behavior of the samples has been discussed in terms of specific characteristics of various microconstituents. The features of the wear surfaces and subsurface regions further substantiated the wear response and enabled us to understand the operating material removal mechanisms.

  8. Testing of evaluation methods applied to raw infiltration data measured at very heterogeneous mountain forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Lukas; Pavlasek, Jirka; Pech, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    In order to obtain infiltration parameters and analytical expressions of the cumulative infiltration and infiltration rate, raw infiltration data are often evaluated using various infiltration equations. Knowledge about the evaluation variability of these equations in the specific case of extremely heterogeneous soils provides important information for many hydrological and engineering applications. This contribution presents an evaluation of measured data using five well-established physically-based equations and empirical equations, and makes a comparison of these procedures. Evaluation procedures were applied to datasets measured on three different sites of hydrologically important mountain podzols. A total of 47 single ring infiltration experiments were evaluated using these procedures. From the quality-of-fit perspective, all of the tested equations characterized most of the raw datasets properly. In a few cases, some of the physically-based equations led to poor fits of the datasets measured on the most heterogeneous site (characterized by the lowest depth of the organic horizon, and more bleached eluvial horizon than on the other tested sites). For the parameters evaluated on this site, the sorptivity estimates and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) estimates were distinctly different between the tested procedures.

  9. Testing and Analysis Validation of a Metallic Repair Applied to a PRSEUS Tension Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.

    2013-01-01

    A design and analysis of a repair concept applicable to a stiffened composite panel based on the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure was recently completed. The damage scenario considered was a midbay-to-midbay saw-cut with a severed stiffener, flange and skin. Advanced modeling techniques such as mesh-independent definition of compliant fasteners and elastic-plastic material properties for metal parts were utilized in the finite element analysis supporting the design effort. A bolted metallic repair was selected so that it could be easily applied in the operational environment. The present work describes results obtained from a tension panel test conducted to validate both the repair concept and finite element analysis techniques used in the design effort. The test proved that the proposed repair concept is capable of sustaining load levels that are higher than those resulting from the current working stress allowables. This conclusion enables upward revision of the stress allowables that had been kept at an overly-conservative level due to concerns associated with repairability of the panels. Correlation of test data with finite element analysis results is also presented and assessed.

  10. A Marking Scheme Rubric: To Assess Students' Mathematical Knowledge for Applied Algebra Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Lee Guat Poh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students' ability in mathematics mainly relies on their performance in the assessment task such as tests, quizzes, assignments and final examinations. However, the grading process depends on the respective mathematics teacher who sets a marking scheme in assessing students' learning. How do these teachers assign grades to their students' problem solving work? What does it mean by five marks or ten marks for a mathematics problem? How does a teacher evaluate a student's mathematical knowledge and skills based on the grades? These questions address the vagueness of the grading process that gives no concrete evidence about a student's mathematical thinking. Hence, this paper aims to discover the effectiveness of using a marking scheme rubric to assess students' mathematical knowledge. The paper begins by reviewing different types of scoring rubrics in assessing mathematical problem solving tasks. A marking scheme rubric was proposed to assess samples of actual students' problem solving work in an applied algebra test. The rubric serves as an assessment instrument to gather information about students' achievement level in demonstrating both knowledge and skills in the test. Based on the findings, the score reflected the quality of the students’ work rather than just a numerical representation. It showed the students’ comprehension of adapting the mathematical concepts and problem solving strategies. In a nutshell, the implementation of rubric marking scheme has improved the consistency in grading and made the scoring points as a "meaningful figure" that describes the quality of a students' performance.  

  11. Some present problems and a proposed experimental phantom for SAR compliance testing of cellular telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Kang, Gang

    2002-05-01

    This paper compares the maximum allowable powers of some typical cellular telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz for compliance with the limits of specific absorption rates (SAR) given in ANSI/IEEE, ICNIRP and the proposed modification of ANSI/IEEE safety guidelines. It is shown that the present ANSI/IEEE guideline is the most conservative with the ICNIRP guidelines allowing a maximum radiated power that is 2.5-3 times higher, and the proposed IEEE modification of treating pinna as an extremity tissue the least conservative allowing even higher radiated powers by up to 50%. The paper also expands the previously reported study of energy deposition in models of adults versus children to two different and distinct anatomically-based models of the adult head, namely the Utah model and the 'Visible Man' model, each of which is increased or reduced by the voxel size to obtain additional head models larger or smaller in all dimensions by 11.1% or -9.1%, respectively. The peak 1 g body-tissue SAR calculated using the widely accepted FDTD method for smaller models is up to 56% higher at 1900 MHz and up to 20% higher at 835 MHz compared to the larger models, with the average models giving intermediate SARs. Also given in the paper is a comparison of the peak 1 g and 10 g SARs for two different anatomically-based models with 6 mm thick smooth plastic ear models used for SAR compliance testing. The SARs obtained with the insulating plastic ear models are up to two or more times smaller than realistic anatomic models. We propose a 2 mm thin shell phantom with lossy ear that should give SARs within +/-15% of those of anatomic models.

  12. Studying the properties of Variational Data Assimilation Methods by Applying a Set of Test-Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Per Grove; Zlatev, Zahari

    2007-01-01

    he variational data assimilation methods can successfully be used in different fields of science and engineering. An attempt to utilize available sets of observations in the efforts to improve (i) the models used to study different phenomena (ii) the model results is systematically carried out when...... data assimilation methods are used. The main idea, on which the variational data assimilation methods are based, is pretty general. A functional is formed by using a weighted inner product of differences of model results and measurements. The value of this functional is to be minimized. Forward and...... the storage needed. This is why it might be appropriate to apply some splitting procedure in the efforts to reduce the computational work. Five test-examples have been created. Different numerical aspects of the data assimilation methods and the interplay between the major computational parts of any...

  13. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (<0.7-μm GF filter), and, to a lesser extent bound to the suspended-particle phase. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  14. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the kSP method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results

  15. A iterative algorithm in computarized tomography applied to non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, a mathematical model has been developed for two dimensional image reconstruction in computarized tomography applied to non-destructive testing. The method used is the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) with additive corrections. This model consists of a discontinuous system formed by an NxN array of cells (pixels). The attenuation in the object of a collimated beam of gamma rays has been determined for various positions and angles of incidence (projections) in terms of the interaction of the beam with the intercepted pixels. The contribution of each pixel to beam attenuation was determined using the weight function wij. Simulated tests using standard objects carried out with attenuation coefficients in the range 0,2 to 0,7 cm-1, were made using cell arrays of up to 25x25. Experiments were made using a gamma radiation source (241Am), a table with translational and rotational movements and a gamma radiation detection system. Results indicate that convergence obtained in the iterative calculations is a function of the distribution of attenuation coefficient in the pixels, of the number of angular projection and of the number of iterations. (author)

  16. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  17. Improvement in post test accident analysis results prediction for the test no. 2 in PSB test facility by applying UMAE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper mainly deals with the improvement in the post test accident analysis results prediction for the test no. 2, 'Total loss of feed water with failure of HPIS pumps and operator actions on primary and secondary circuit depressurization', carried-out on PSB integral test facility in May 2005. This is one the most complicated test conducted in PSB test facility. The prime objective of this test is to provide support for the verification of the accident management strategies for NPPs and also to verify the correctness of some safety systems operating only during accident. The objective of this analysis is to assess the capability to reproduce the phenomena occurring during the selected tests and to quantify the accuracy of the code calculation qualitatively and quantitatively for the best estimate code Relap5/mod3.3 by systematically applying all the procedures lead by Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE), developed at University of Pisa. In order to achieve these objectives test facility nodalisation qualification for both 'steady state level' and 'on transient level' are demonstrated. For the 'steady state level' qualification compliance to acceptance criteria established in UMAE has been checked for geometrical details and thermal hydraulic parameters. The following steps have been performed for evaluation of qualitative qualification of 'on transient level': visual comparisons between experimental and calculated relevant parameters time trends; list of comparison between experimental and code calculation resulting time sequence of significant events; identification/verification of CSNI phenomena validation matrix; use of the Phenomenological Windows (PhW), identification of Key Phenomena and Relevant Thermal-hydraulic Aspects (RTA). A successful application of the qualitative process constitutes a prerequisite to the application of the quantitative analysis. For quantitative accuracy of code prediction Fast Fourier Transform Based

  18. Spontaneous-braking and lane-changing effect on traffic congestion using cellular automata model applied to the two-lane traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the real traffic situations, vehicle would make a braking as the response to avoid collision with another vehicle or avoid some obstacle like potholes, snow, or pedestrian that crosses the road unexpectedly. However, in some cases the spontaneous-braking may occur even though there are no obstacles in front of the vehicle. In some country, the reckless driving behaviors such as sudden-stop by public-buses, motorcycle which changing lane too quickly, or tailgating make the probability of braking getting increase. The new aspect of this paper is the simulation of braking behavior of the driver and presents the new Cellular Automata model for describing this characteristic. Moreover, this paper also examines the impact of lane-changing maneuvers to reduce the number of traffic congestion that caused by spontaneous-braking behavior of the vehicles.

  19. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  20. Phosphorus recycling potential assessment by a biological test applied to wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braak, Etienne; Auby, Sarah; Piveteau, Simon; Guilayn, Felipe; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recycling as mineral fertilizer from wastewater activated sludge (WAS) depends on the amount that can be dissolved and separated from the organic matter before the final crystallization step. The aim of the biological phosphorus dissolution potential (BPDP) test developed here was to assess the maximum amount of P that could be biologically released from WAS prior that the liquid phase enters the recovery process. It was first developed for sludge combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride. Because carbohydrates are known to induce acidification during the first stage of anaerobic digestion, sucrose was used as a co-substrate. Best results were obtained after 24-48 h, without inoculum, with a sugar/sludge ratio of 0.5 gCOD/gVS and under strict anaerobic conditions. Up to 75% of the total phosphorus in sludge from a wastewater treatment plant combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride phosphorus removal could be dissolved. Finally, the test was applied to assess BPDP from different sludge using alum compounds for P removal. No dissolution was observed when alum polychloride was used and less than 20% when alum sulphate was used. In all the cases, comparison to chemical acidification showed that the biological process was a major contributor to P dissolution. The possibility to crystallize struvite was discussed from the composition of the liquids obtained. The BPDP will be used not only to assess the potential for phosphorus recycling from sludge, but also to study the influence of the co-substrates available for anaerobic digestion of sludge. PMID:26786893

  1. Numerical tests for effects of various parameters in niching genetic algorithm applied to regional waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Lei, Jianshe

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we focus on the influences of various parameters in the niching genetic algorithm inversion procedure on the results, such as various objective functions, the number of the models in each subpopulation, and the critical separation radius. The frequency-waveform integration (F-K) method is applied to synthesize three-component waveform data with noise in various epicentral distances and azimuths. Our results show that if we use a zero-th-lag cross-correlation function, then we will obtain the model with a faster convergence and a higher precision than other objective functions. The number of models in each subpopulation has a great influence on the rate of convergence and computation time, suggesting that it should be obtained through tests in practical problems. The critical separation radius should be determined carefully because it directly affects the multi-extreme values in the inversion. We also compare the inverted results from full-band waveform data and surface-wave frequency-band (0.02-0.1 Hz) data, and find that the latter is relatively poorer but still has a higher precision, suggesting that surface-wave frequency-band data can also be used to invert for the crustal structure.

  2. Tests preparatory to applying an SAR protocol to red emission quartz using thermoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Duk-Geun [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Kangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dghong@kangwon.ac.kr; Song, Ki-Woung [Chungcheong Cultural Properties Research Institute, Gongju, Chungcheongnam-Do 314-923 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Heon [Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejoen 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Red TL (RTL) emission quartz has potential benefit for luminescence dating, due to the high dose saturation level and long-term stability of the TL signal. Concerning the equivalent dose determination, we investigated whether the single aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) TL protocol would be successful in the case of RTL quartz from Japan. For the investigation, simulation tests were undertaken using sets of RTL quartz which were given known laboratory beta doses. Four different beta doses and three preheating conditions with two kinds of RTL quartz samples were employed for the simulation. Among the preheating conditions used, the simulated equivalent dose values obtained by using preheating at 220 deg. C for 10 s and 260 deg. C for 10 s were shown to be in far better agreement with the given beta doses. In the beginning of the experiments, the samples were first heated to 500 deg. C for 60 s prior to the administration of simulation beta doses, in order to remove any residual TL signal. Thus, in terms of dating natural quartz samples, the implications of our results are limited to the samples which have been affected by syn- or post-depositional heating (e.g. volcanic debris flows, overlying lava flows, etc.). Our simulation results show a possibility that the RTL quartz employed in this study is capable of being applied to the SAR approach. In addition, it seems feasible to extend the time range of luminescence dating well beyond the usual range by the conventional quartz OSL methods.

  3. Analysis of the influence of the loading applied during the cooling phase of WPS tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel is an essential component liable to limit the life duration of PWR's. Its behaviour in service is limited in time due to the embrittling effects of irradiation. The safety analyses made at the European level study the behaviour of defects in the vessel subject to loading resulting from thermal transients. These analyses do not take into account the effect of load history/warm pre-stressing (WPS) of the defects, which is observed in a wide range of experimental studies. The non-consideration of the beneficial effect of this physical phenomenon has two major consequences: - a poor knowledge of the real margins associated with the transients to which the vessel is subjected, - an economical penalty due to large under-estimation of the life duration of the vessel. This paper presents the results of our WPS tests performed on a CT specimen manufactured with 18MND5 steel with different types of loading during the cooling phase applied as follow: case 1: constant force value maintained case 2: constant crack mouth opening displacement maintained during cooling phase case 3: oscillating force value decreasing case 4: oscillating force value maintained. WPS effect is observed in the cases 1, 3 and 4 and failure occurs during the crossing of the transition curve in the case 2 because of the monotone increase of the force due to CMOD maintained. Case 3 and 4 show that WPS effect is fundamentally an effect of the loading history. (orig.)

  4. Cellular impedance measurement as a new tool for poxvirus titration, antibody neutralization testing and evaluation of antiviral substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Real-time data acquisition by RT-CES requires low operative effort. → Time to result is reduced by using RT-CES instead of conventional methods. → RT-CES enables quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. → RT-CES is a useful tool for high-throughput characterization of antiviral agents. → An RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. -- Abstract: Impedance-based biosensing known as real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) belongs to an emerging technology for analyzing the status of cells in vitro. In the present study protocols were developed for an RT-CES-based system (xCELLigenceTM, Roche Applied Science, ACEA Biosciences Inc.) to supplement conventional techniques in pox virology. First, proliferation of cells susceptible to orthopoxviruses was monitored. For virus titration cells were infected with vaccinia virus and cell status, represented by the dimensionless impedance-based cell index (CI), was monitored. A virus-dose dependent decrease in electrical impedance could be shown. Calculation of calibration curves at a suitable CI covering a dynamic range of 4 log enabled the quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. Similarly, antiviral effects could be determined as shown for anti-poxviral agents ST-246 and Cidofovir. Published values for the in vitro concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% (IC50) could be confirmed while cytotoxicity in effective concentrations was excluded in long-term incubation experiments. Finally, an RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. Various poxvirus-specific antibodies were examined for their neutralizing activity and a calculation mode for the neutralizing antibody titer was introduced. In summary, the presented RT-CES-based methods outmatch end-point assays by observing the cell population throughout the entire experiment while workload and time to result are reduced.

  5. Cellular impedance measurement as a new tool for poxvirus titration, antibody neutralization testing and evaluation of antiviral substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, Peter T. [Robert Koch-Institut, Zentrum fuer Biologische Sicherheit 1, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin, CCM, Institut fuer Virologie, Helmut Ruska Haus, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Schuenadel, Livia, E-mail: SchuenadelL@rki.de [FU-Berlin, Fachbereich Biologie, Chemie, Pharmazie, Takustrasse 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Robert Koch-Institut, Zentrum fuer Biologische Sicherheit 1, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Wiethaus, Julia; Bourquain, Daniel R.; Kurth, Andreas; Nitsche, Andreas [Robert Koch-Institut, Zentrum fuer Biologische Sicherheit 1, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Real-time data acquisition by RT-CES requires low operative effort. {yields} Time to result is reduced by using RT-CES instead of conventional methods. {yields} RT-CES enables quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. {yields} RT-CES is a useful tool for high-throughput characterization of antiviral agents. {yields} An RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. -- Abstract: Impedance-based biosensing known as real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) belongs to an emerging technology for analyzing the status of cells in vitro. In the present study protocols were developed for an RT-CES-based system (xCELLigence{sup TM}, Roche Applied Science, ACEA Biosciences Inc.) to supplement conventional techniques in pox virology. First, proliferation of cells susceptible to orthopoxviruses was monitored. For virus titration cells were infected with vaccinia virus and cell status, represented by the dimensionless impedance-based cell index (CI), was monitored. A virus-dose dependent decrease in electrical impedance could be shown. Calculation of calibration curves at a suitable CI covering a dynamic range of 4 log enabled the quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. Similarly, antiviral effects could be determined as shown for anti-poxviral agents ST-246 and Cidofovir. Published values for the in vitro concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% (IC{sub 50}) could be confirmed while cytotoxicity in effective concentrations was excluded in long-term incubation experiments. Finally, an RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. Various poxvirus-specific antibodies were examined for their neutralizing activity and a calculation mode for the neutralizing antibody titer was introduced. In summary, the presented RT-CES-based methods outmatch end-point assays by observing the cell population throughout the entire experiment while workload and time to result are reduced.

  6. Complementary testing techniques applied to obtain the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero, H. L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the standards that evaluate the resistance of concrete against freeze-thaw cycles (FTC are based on the loss of weight due to scaling. Such procedures are useful but do not provide information about the microstructural deterioration of the concrete. The test procedure needs to be stopped after several FTCs for weighing the loss of material by scaling. This paper proposes the use of mercury-intrusion-porosimetry and thermogravimetric analysis for assessing the microstructural damage of concrete during FTCs. Continuous strain measurement can be performed without stopping the FTCs. The combination of the above techniques with the freeze-thaw resistance standards provides better and more precise information about concrete damage. The proposed procedure is applied to an ordinary concrete, a concrete with silica fume addition and one with an air-entraining agent. The test results showed that the three techniques used are suitable and useful to be employed as complementary to the standards.Las normas para evaluar la resistencia del hormigón a los ciclos hielo-deshielo (CHD se basan habitualmente en la pérdida de peso por descascarillamiento. Son útiles, pero no proporcionan información sobre el deterioro microestructural del hormigón. Además, exigen detener el ensayo para pesar el material desprendido. Se propone el uso complementario de la porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio y el análisis termogravimétrico para evaluar el daño microestructural del hormigón durante los CHDs. La medida continua de las deformaciones puede hacerse sin detener los CHDs. La combinación de las técnicas enumeradas con las normas de ensayo proporciona información más completa sobre el daño del hormigón. El procedimiento propuesto se aplica a un hormigón convencional, a un hormigón con adición de humo de sílice y a otro con aireante. Los resultados de los ensayos mostraron que las tres técnicas usadas son útiles y adecuadas como complemento a

  7. Research Problems Associated with Limiting the Applied Force in Vibration Tests and Conducting Base-Drive Modal Vibration Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1995-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to make a case for developing and conducting vibration tests which are both realistic and practical (a question of tailoring versus standards). Tests are essential for finding things overlooked in the analyses. The best test is often the most realistic test which can be conducted within the cost and budget constraints. Some standards are essential, but the author believes more in the individual's ingenuity to solve a specific problem than in the application of standards which reduce problems (and technology) to their lowest common denominator. Force limited vibration tests and base-drive modal tests are two examples of realistic, but practical testing approaches. Since both of these approaches are relatively new, a number of interesting research problems exist, and these are emphasized herein.

  8. Approach of Separately Applying Unit Testing to AspectJ Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Hai-bo; LU Yan-sheng

    2008-01-01

    A unit testing approach for AspectJ programs is proposed to separately test aspect units which have their own states. In the approach, aspects under test are converted to classes before execution of unit testing. In the conversion process, the context information passed through pointcut is transformed into advices, then the advices are converted to class member methods, and conflicts in the conversion result, if any, are resolved finally. The unit testing process consists of generating test cases, executing test cases and checking results.

  9. Applicability of Aerospace Materials Ground Flammability Test Data to Spacecraft Environments Theory and Applied Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ground test data in reference to flammability to spacecraft environments. It reviews the current approach to spacecraft fire safety, the challenges to fire safety that the Constellation program poses, the current trends in the evaluation of the Constellation materials flammability, and the correlation of test data from ground flammability tests with the spacecraft environment. Included is a proposal for testing and the design of experiments to test the flammability of materials under similar spacecraft conditions.

  10. The protozoan, Paramecium primaurelia, as a non-sentient model to test laser light irradiation: The effects of an 808nm infrared laser diode on cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaroli, Andrea; Ravera, Silvia; Parker, Steven; Panfoli, Isabella; Benedicenti, Alberico; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 40 years. Unfortunately, conflicting literature has led to the labelling of PBM as a complementary or alternative medicine approach. However, past and ongoing clinical and research studies by reputable investigators have re-established the merits of PBM as a genuine medical therapy, and the technique has, in the last decade, seen an exponential increase in the numbers of clinical instruments available, and their applications. This resurgence has led to a clear need for appropriate experimental models to test the burgeoning laser technology being developed for medical applications. In this context, an ethical model that employs the protozoan, Paramecium primaurelia, is proposed. We studied the possibility of using the measure of oxygen consumption to test PBM by irradiation with an infrared or near-infrared laser. The results show that an 808nm infrared laser diode (1W; 64J/cm²) affects cellular respiration in P. primaurelia, inducing, in the irradiated cells, a significantly (p testing. This test represents a fast, inexpensive and straightforward assay, which offers an alternative to both traditional in vivo testing and more expensive mammalian cellular cultures. PMID:26256394

  11. Predicting the Future: Opportunities and Challenges for the Chemical Industry to Apply 21st-Century Toxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances...

  12. Mobile reactor concepts as applied to testing of compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact fusion reactor concepts have recently received increased emphasis because of advantages principally related to their low cost and short development time. Physics experiments are underway and test results are sufficiently encouraging to merit consideration of ignition-type experiments. Since experiments of this nature involve radioactivity, the requirement for test facilities which incorporate remote handling capabilities becomes apparent. One approach to a test facility concept which has particularly attractive features is based on the mobile test reactor concept employing facilities such as are found at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The mobile reactor test concept was developed in the 1950s and was used extensively in the testing of aircraft nuclear propulsion reactors at the INEL. In this instance, test reactors were assembled on a dolly and were transported to and from test facilities on a four-rail track system. Nuclear operations were conducted from heavily shielded underground control rooms and, for major maintenance operations, the reactors were unplugged and returned to a large, centrally located hot shop. A similar concept is envisioned for compact fusion reactor testing

  13. The mobile reactor concept as applied to testing of compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact fusion reactor concepts have recently received increased emphasis because of advantages principally related to their low cost and short development time. Physics experiments are underway and test results are sufficiently encouraging to merit consideration of ''ignition''-type experiments. Since experiments of this nature involve radioactivity, the requirement for test facilities which incorporate remote handling capabilities becomes apparent. One approach to a test facility concept which has particularly attractive features is based on the mobile test reactor concept employing facilities such as are found at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The mobile reactor test concept was developed in the 1950s and was used extensively in the testing of aircraft nuclear propulsion reactors at the INEL. In this instance, test reactors were assembled on a dolly and were transported to and from test facilities on a fourrail track system. Nuclear operations were conducted from heavily shielded underground control rooms and, for major maintenance operations, the reactors were ''unplugged'' and returned to a large, centrally located ''hot'' shop. A similar concept is envisioned for compact fusion reactor testing

  14. Approaches for the Validation of the Testing Methods in General Applied to NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper (a series of slides) presents an overview of the approaches for the validation of the non-destructive testing methods. After an introduction to the problem of validation of test methods (characterization, comparison, confirmation; proposals for the 'Quality Characteristics' of NDE methods), the paper examines what has been done so far in NDE (Standards for established methods, performance demonstration) and presents the five approaches for validation of testing methods in general (systematic examination of the influence quantities; calibration with examination of the influence quantities; comparison with other test methods; interlaboratory comparison tests; controlled assessment). Requirements for NDE validation rules from the DGZfP point of view are then summarized, leading to the final question of the adoption of 'controlled assessment' for NDE (in terms of modular validation)

  15. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H; Sisay Mitike M; Moland Karen; Åstrøm Anne N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009...

  16. A novel immunochromatographic test applied to a serological survey of Japanese encephalitis virus on pig farms in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Woon Cha

    Full Text Available Among vertebrate species, pigs are a major amplifying host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and measuring their seroconversion is a reliable indicator of virus activity. Traditionally, the hemagglutination inhibition test has been used for serological testing in pigs; however, it has several limitations and, thus, a more efficient and reliable replacement test is required. In this study, we developed a new immunochromatographic test for detecting antibodies to JEV in pig serum within 15 min. Specifically, the domain III region of the JEV envelope protein was successfully expressed in soluble form and used for developing the immunochromatographic test. The test was then applied to the surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE in Korea. We found that our immunochromatographic test had good sensitivity (84.8% and specificity (97.7% when compared with an immunofluorescence assay used as a reference test. During the surveillance of JE in Korea in 2012, the new immunochromatographic test was used to test the sera of 1,926 slaughtered pigs from eight provinces, and 228 pigs (11.8% were found to be JEV-positive. Based on these results, we also produced an activity map of JEV, which marked the locations of pig farms in Korea that tested positive for the virus. Thus, the immunochromatographic test reported here provides a convenient and effective tool for real-time monitoring of JEV activity in pigs.

  17. Applying computer adaptive testing to optimize online assessment of suicidal behavior: a simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Beurs, D.P. de; Vries, A.L.M. de; Groot, M.H. de; Keijser, J. de; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce response burden and improve accuracy, and make the available pencil-and-paper tools more appropriate for online administration. Objective The aim was to test whether an item response–based computer adaptiv...

  18. Robust multivariable predictive control: how can it be applied to industrial test stands ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bordeneuve-Guibé, Joël; Vaucoret, Cyril

    2001-01-01

    To cope with recent technological evolutions of air conditioning systems for aircraft, the French Aeronautical Test Center built a new test stand for certification at ground level. The constraints specified by the industrial users of the process seemed antagonistic for many reasons. First, the controller had to be implemented on an industrial automaton, not adaptable to modern algorithms. Then the specified dynamic performances were very demanding, especially taking into account the wide o...

  19. Bond of Reinforcement in Concrete Applied to Concrete Quality Control: The Bottle Bond Test

    OpenAIRE

    García Taengua, Emilio José; Martí Vargas, José Rocío; Serna Ros, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research dealing with bond strength as a parameter for concrete quality control. To this end, a low-cost testing technique has been developed: the Bottle Bond Test (BBT). Specimens for the BBT are produced by casting concrete into empty plastic bottles (used as moulds) with a reinforcing bar longitudinally centred. The result is a bottle-shaped concrete specimen with an embedded rebar, which is pulled out to determine bond strength. Different...

  20. Optimal selection for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing using a combination of ' easy to apply ' probability models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodmer, D.; Ligtenberg, M. J. L.; van der Hout, A. H.; Gloudemans, S.; Ansink, K.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2006-01-01

    To establish an efficient, reliable and easy to apply risk assessment tool to select families with breast and/or ovarian cancer patients for BRCA mutation testing, using available probability models. In a retrospective study of 263 families with breast and/or ovarian cancer patients, the utility of

  1. Use of the aquatic lichen Dermatocarpon luridum as bioindicator of copper pollution: Accumulation and cellular distribution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the potential use of the aquatic lichen Dermatocarpon luridum as bioindicator of copper pollution. Lichen thalli were exposed to 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 mM copper in synthetic freshwater to solve the problems of metal bioavailability. The mineral composition of this media was prepared so that it corresponded to the ion composition of natural waters in D. luridum ecosystems. Sequential elution procedures using NiCl2 or Na2-EDTA (20 mM) were used to determine the distribution of metals at different cellular sites. The copper concentration extracted from thalli was correlated with pollution intensity, the greater correlation being with the Na2-EDTA extractant. The malondialdehyde concentration in thalli can be used as indicator of copper pollution; however, similar membrane degradation was observed for 0.25 and 0.50 mM copper and for 0.75 and 1.00 mM copper. - The copper concentration in thalli of aquatic lichens is correlated with pollution intensity

  2. Dynamic tensile tests with superimposed ultrasonic oscillations applied to stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the analysis of the mechanical consequences of core disruptive accidents in Fast Breeder Reactors various computer codes have been developed in the European Community. In recent years an extensive assessment has been performed by comparing the results of these codes with explosion tests in waterfilled vessels (COVA-experiments). Common to the various codes, a systematic underestimation of the vessel strains was found. In the COVA tests high frequency pressure oscillations were observed and thus it was conjectured that the phenomenon of ''acoustic softening'' might be relevant in explaining the discrepancies in the strains. To validate this conjecture a hydro-pneumatic tensile test apparatus was developed which allows dynamic tensile testing at room temperature with and without superimposed ultrasonic oscillations (40 kHz). The mean strain rate can be varied from 5 x 10-5 to 30 s-1 and the ultrasound intensity may amount up to 30 W/mm-2. The test specimens were fabricated from the actual COVA sheet material (stainless steel type 321). (orig./GL)

  3. Applying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to support Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Scholz, Stefan; Cronin, Mark T; Edwards, Stephen W; de Knecht, Joop; Crofton, Kevin; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Hartung, Thomas; Worth, Andrew; Patlewicz, Grace

    2014-12-01

    Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. Current approaches are too resource intensive in terms of time, money and animal use to evaluate all chemicals under development or already on the market. The need for timely and robust decision making demands that regulatory toxicity testing becomes more cost-effective and efficient. One way to realize this goal is by being more strategic in directing testing resources; focusing on chemicals of highest concern, limiting testing to the most probable hazards, or targeting the most vulnerable species. Hypothesis driven Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) have been proposed as practical solutions to such strategic testing. In parallel, the development of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework, which provides information on the causal links between a molecular initiating event (MIE), intermediate key events (KEs) and an adverse outcome (AO) of regulatory concern, offers the biological context to facilitate development of IATA for regulatory decision making. This manuscript summarizes discussions at the Workshop entitled "Advancing AOPs for Integrated Toxicology and Regulatory Applications" with particular focus on the role AOPs play in informing the development of IATA for different regulatory purposes. PMID:25261300

  4. Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnoli, Franco

    1998-01-01

    An introduction to cellular automata (both deterministic and probabilistic) with examples. Definition of deterministic automata, dynamical properties, damage spreading and Lyapunov exponents; probabilistic automata and Markov processes, nonequilibrium phase transitions, directed percolation, diffusion; simulation techniques, mean field. Investigation themes: life, epidemics, forest fires, percolation, modeling of ecosystems and speciation. They represent my notes for the school "Dynamical Mod...

  5. Innovative vibration technique applied to polyurethane foam as a viable substitute for conventional fatigue testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Alexander; Just-Agosto, Frederick; Shafiq, Basir; Serrano, David

    2012-12-01

    Lifetime prediction using three-point bending (TPB) can at times be prohibitively time consuming and costly, whereas vibration testing at higher frequency may potentially save time and revenue. A vibration technique that obtains lifetimes that reasonably match those determined under flexural TPB fatigue is developed. The technique designs the specimen with a procedure based on shape optimization and finite element analysis. When the specimen is vibrated in resonance, a stress pattern that mimics the stress pattern observed under conventional TPB fatigue testing is obtained. The proposed approach was verified with polyurethane foam specimens, resulting in an average error of 4.5% when compared with TPB.

  6. Thermal test of noncombustible urethane for applying to type B packages for radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The package to safely transport the radioisotope, which is produced from HANARO, has to be developed to establish the distribution system of the radioisotope from production to consumption. KAERI is developing the type B package for Ir-192 600 ci. The type B package must be able to endure from thermal condition of 800 .deg. C. However, it is very difficult that the polyurethane, which is used as shock absorber, is maintained less than 327 .deg. C that is melting point of lead used as shielding material. Therefore, the specimens, which are applied noncombustible urethane and fireproof materials, are made. The experimental estimation for thermal condition of 800 .deg. C was conducted

  7. An Autonomic Nervous System Model Applied to the Analysis of Orthostatic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Le Rolle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the clinical examinations performed to evaluate the autonomic nervous system (ANS activity is the tilt test, which consists in studying the cardiovascular response to the change of a patient's position from a supine to a head-up position. The analysis of heart rate variability signals during tilt tests has been shown to be useful for risk stratification and diagnosis on different pathologies. However, the interpretation of such signals is a difficult task. The application of physiological models to assist the interpretation of these data has already been proposed in the literature, but this requires, as a previous step, the identification of patient-specific model parameters. In this paper, a model-based approach is proposed to reproduce individual heart rate signals acquired during tilt tests. A new physiological model adapted to this problem and coupling the ANS, the cardiovascular system (CVS, and global ventricular mechanics is presented. Evolutionary algorithms are used for the identification of patient-specific parameters in order to reproduce heart rate signals obtained during tilt tests performed on eight healthy subjects and eight diabetic patients. The proposed approach is able to reproduce the main components of the observed heart rate signals and represents a first step toward a model-based interpretation of these signals.

  8. Prediction of fracture toughness transition from tensile test data applying neural network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Hadraba, Hynek; Chlup, Zdeněk; Válka, Libor; Žák, L.

    Baltimore, Maryland : ASME, 2011. s. 1-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/0466 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fracture toughness * Low alloy steel * Tensile test * Artificial neural network Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  9. The nondestructive testing concept applied in the construction of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant components consisting of sheet metal, pipes, forgings and castings, and their various welded joints, the lecture illustrates the NDT concept referring to examples of testing work with manufactured parts or welded joints, taking into account safety categories and quality classes. (orig.)

  10. Triangular test applied to the clinical trial of azithromycin against relapses in Plasmodium vivax infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmont Jean

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequential analysis enables repeated statistical analyses to be performed throughout a trial recruitment period, while maintaining a pre-specified power and type I error. Thus the trial can be stopped as soon as the information accumulated is considered sufficient to reach a conclusion. Sequential tests are easy to use and their statistical properties are especially suitable to trials with very straightforward objectives such as non-comparative phase II trials. We report on a phase II study based on the triangular test (TT aiming at assessing the effectiveness of azithromycin in preventing Plasmodium vivax relapses. Methods To test whether the P. vivax relapse rate was either P. vivax were treated with azithromycin, 1.2 g daily, for 7 days. The onset of a relapse infection was monitored. Results Five patients presenting with an acute P. vivax infection were included in the study. All the patients were initially cured. Three patients reported mild gastrointestinal adverse effects. When the third patient relapsed, the sample path crossed the upper boundary of the TT, and the trial was stopped. Conclusions Using the triangular test, with only a small number of patients, we concluded that azithromycin was not effective enough in preventing P. vivax relapses to warrant further evaluation in phase III. It is suggested that a wider use of sequential analysis in phase II anti-infective drugs trials may have financial and ethical benefits.

  11. Genetic Algorithm Based Multi-Agent System Applied to Test Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Anbo; Ye, Luqing; Roy, Daniel; Padilla, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Automatic test generating system in distributed computing context is one of the most important links in on-line evaluation system. Although the issue has been argued long since, there is not a perfect solution to it so far. This paper proposed an innovative approach to successfully addressing such issue by the seamless integration of genetic…

  12. Developing and Testing an Online Tool for Teaching GIS Concepts Applied to Spatial Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Steve; Evans, Andy; Kingston, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The development and testing of a Web-based GIS e-learning resource is described. This focuses on the application of GIS for siting a nuclear waste disposal facility and the associated principles of spatial decision-making using Boolean and weighted overlay methods. Initial student experiences in using the system are analysed as part of a research…

  13. A note on the applied tearing modulus (Tsub(J)sup(app)) in ductile instability testing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the evaluation of the soundness of the structures made of high toughness materials, it is a very important problem to clarify by what dynamic condition the transition from the stable propagation of ductile cracks to ductile unstable breaking is controlled. As a criterion for ductile unstable breaking, Paris et al. proposed that an applied tearing modulus is not smaller than a material tearing modulus, based on J-integral. In order to make highly reliable forecast on the starting point of ductile unstable breaking, it is necessary to sufficiently examine the features of an applied tearing modulus. In this study, referring to the test results of the ductile unstable breaking of ITCT test pieces of A508 steel for reactor pressure vessels, the features of the changing tendency of an applied tearing modulus accompanying crack development and the cause of these features were examined in detail. Moreover, the errors in the theoretical forecast of J-integral and the amount of crack development at the start of ductile unstable breaking in relation to the above features were examined. The test pieces and the experimental method, the method of analysis, the experimental results, the features of an applied tearing modulus and the accuracy of forecast are reported. (Kako, I.)

  14. Ultimate seismic loading test on RC shear wall by applying multi-axes dynamic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current seismic design of nuclear power plant (NPP) buildings in Japan, seismic design loads in the two orthogonal, horizontal directions are obtained independently by seismic response analyses, whereas actual seismic forces jolt the buildings in three directions simultaneously. Therefore, it is important to grasp the seismic response characteristics of an NPP building for three-dimensional earthquake excitation up to the ultimate state of the building to evaluate the seismic margin properly. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has therefore been conducting a project entitled 'Model Tests of Multi-Axis Loading on RC Shear Walls' since 1994 to clarify the effects of multi-directional forces on the ultimate strength of reinforced concrete (RC) seismic shear walls under multi-directional seismic loading conditions. The paper introduces outlines of the whole project and currently on-going dynamic loading test. (author)

  15. Remarks on Some Mechanical Small-Scale Tests Applied to Properties of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardu, Marilena; Seccatore, Jacopo

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the results of test campaigns on small-scale strength properties (particularly, micro-hardness) performed on two homogeneous materials: calcite, a very common and widespread mineral that is characterized by its relatively low Mohs hardness and its high reactivity with even weak acids; and glass, an amorphous solid characterized by the absence of the long-range order which defines crystalline materials. After a synthetic description of the principles underlying two of the three classical comminution laws, known as Kick's law and Rittinger's law, experimental results are discussed. The results of the tests performed show that both scale effect and size effect contribute to the non-constancy of mechanical properties at small scale for crystalline materials. On the other hand, for amorphous materials, a theoretical law considering size effects gives considerably different results from empirical measurements. Considerations and an extended discussion address these findings.

  16. A Marking Scheme Rubric: To Assess Students' Mathematical Knowledge for Applied Algebra Test

    OpenAIRE

    Betsy Lee Guat Poh; Kasturi Muthoosamy; Chiang Choon Lai; Goh Boon Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability in mathematics mainly relies on their performance in the assessment task such as tests, quizzes, assignments and final examinations. However, the grading process depends on the respective mathematics teacher who sets a marking scheme in assessing students' learning. How do these teachers assign grades to their students' problem solving work? What does it mean by five marks or ten marks for a mathematics problem? How does a teacher evaluate a student's mathematical knowledge ...

  17. Statistical tests applied to the spatial distribution of quasars in several fields.

    OpenAIRE

    Gosset, Eric; Surdej, Jean; Swings, Jean-Pierre

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss the application of different statistical tests to the study of the spatial distribution of quasars. Applications to data sets of optically selected quasars lead to the detection of a clustering at a typical scale of 10 arcmin. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of quasars in a field around NGC 450 shows a deviation from randomness, towards clustering, at a scale of 10 h[SUP]-1[/SUP]Mpc.

  18. Eddy-current testing probe using meander coil applied to weld point of pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an eddy-current testing probe (for pipes including weld points) using a meander coil. Simulations clarified distributions of the eddy current by the meander coil and revealed that a probe can generate an effective eddy current for flow detection. Experiments demonstrated that the probe can detect an outer notch with 50% depth and 10 mm length, which is located near the weld point. Enhancement of detectivity by inserting magnetic material in the detector coil was examined. (author)

  19. An Empirical Test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Contraceptive Use in Rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kiene, Susan M.; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2013-01-01

    There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health behaviour change theories to contraceptive use amongst this population. The present study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour’s ability to predict contraceptive use-related behaviours among postpartum women in rural Uganda. ...

  20. Applying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to support Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Scholz, Stefan; Cronin, Mark; Edwards, Stephen; DE KNECHT Joop; Crofton, Kevin; GARCIA-REYERO Natália; Hartung T.; Worth, Andrew; Patlewicz Grace

    2014-01-01

    Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. Current approaches are too resource intensive in terms of time, money and animal use to evaluate all chemicals under development or already on the market. The need for timely and robust decision making demands that regulatory toxicity testing becomes more cost-effective and efficient. One way to realize this goal is by being more strategic in directing ...

  1. Complementary testing techniques applied to obtain the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, H. L.; Enfedaque, A.; Gálvez, J. C.; Casati, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the standards that evaluate the resistance of concrete against freeze-thaw cycles (FTC) are based on the loss of weight due to scaling. Such procedures are useful but do not provide information about the microstructural deterioration of the concrete. The test procedure needs to be stopped after several FTCs for weighing the loss of material by scaling. This paper proposes the use of mercury-intrusion-porosimetry and thermogravimetric analysis for assessing the microstructural damage o...

  2. Ultraintense Lasers Applied to Laser Fusion Material Testing: Production of Ions, X rays and Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Fernández-Tobias, J.; Mima, K.; Garoz, D.; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Gordillo Garcia, Nuria; Perlado Martin, Jose Manuel; Tanaka, K.A.; Kikuyama, K.; Kono, T.; Yabuuchi, T.; Habara, H; Mishima, Y; Hirooka, Y

    2012-01-01

    Due to the particular characteristics of the fusion products, i.e. very short pulses (less than a few μs long for ions when arriving to the walls; less than 1 ns long for X-rays), very high fluences ( 10 13 particles/cm 2 for both ions and X rays photons) and broad particle energy spectra (up to 10 MeV ions and 100 keV photons), the laser fusion community lacks of facilities to accurately test plasma facing materials under those conditions. In the present work, the ability of ultraintese lase...

  3. An empirical test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour applied to contraceptive use in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2014-12-01

    There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health-behaviour-change theories to contraceptive use among this population. This study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour's ability to predict contraceptive-use-related behaviours among post-partum women in rural Uganda. Results gave modest support to the theory's application and suggest an urgent need for improved theory-based interventions to promote contraceptive use in the populations of developing countries. PMID:23928989

  4. The nuclear liability conventions as applied to radioactive waste geological repositories: the test of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While most of the radioactive waste resulting from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is still stored on the site of the installations where it was generated, a growing number of countries are in the course of opening and operating dedicated facilities for their ultimate disposal. In respect of high-level or long-lived waste, emplacement in deep geologic repositories is generally regarded as the safest solution. This requires of course that a suitable legal framework be established beforehand and that, as is the case for all nuclear activities, the potential victims of an accident be protected. When considering if and how the international system of liability and compensation for nuclear damage may apply to geologic repositories' used for the disposal of radioactive waste (including spent fuel if treated as waste), two different questions need to be addressed. The first is whether the existing rules are suitable in respect of the 'active' operation of these repositories. The other is whether one may be confident that this system (in fact, any legal system) will continue to apply in the very long term after the closure of repositories. This paper will undertake to address both of these questions, while acknowledging that to answer the second is a somewhat speculative exercise. Under international nuclear-liability conventions,' damage caused by radioactive waste is in principle subject to the same regime of liability and compensation as other types of nuclear materials. There is no indication that the authors of these Conventions, adopted in the early 1960's, intended to discriminate between them. As a matter of fact, the absence of specific provisions in relation to the risks created by the disposal of radioactive waste (RW) did not raise any particular difficulty for many years. Indeed, it is only after several years of application that the question of whether these Conventions did cover facilities especially designed for the long-term storage or disposal of such

  5. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

  6. Applying User Input to the Design and Testing of an Electronic Behavioral Health Information System for Wraparound Care Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, Eric J.; Hyde, Kelly L.; Sather, April; Hook, Alyssa; Lyon, Aaron R.

    2016-01-01

    Health information technology (HIT) and care coordination for individuals with complex needs are high priorities for quality improvement in health care. However, there is little empirical guidance about how best to design electronic health record systems and related technologies to facilitate implementation of care coordination models in behavioral health, or how best to apply user input to the design and testing process. In this paper, we describe an iterative development process that incorp...

  7. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas Bech; Overgaard, R.V.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of ...... obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method is concluded to have high relevance not only in theory but also in practice....

  8. Applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Grey Relation Analysis to Evaluate the Supply Chain Performance of the Wafer Testing House

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Chin Chen; Jun-Yuan Kuo; Bang-Ting Luo

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: In the information age, the process of E-Commerce (EC) operates quickly and the present enterprises of Taiwan have to face the Free Cross-Strait Market (FCSM) with Mainland China, which will definitely change the model as well as the performance of the supply chain. Hence, this study focuses on the issue of supply chain performance evaluation of the wafer testing house in Taiwan. Approach: This investigation applied the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) to derive the ...

  9. The particle swarm optimization algorithm applied to nuclear systems surveillance test planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows a new approach to solve availability maximization problems in electromechanical systems, under periodic preventive scheduled tests. This approach uses a new Optimization tool called PSO developed by Kennedy and Eberhart (2001), Particle Swarm Optimization, integrated with probabilistic safety analysis model. Two maintenance optimization problems are solved by the proposed technique, the first one is a hypothetical electromechanical configuration and the second one is a real case from a nuclear power plant (Emergency Diesel Generators). For both problem PSO is compared to a genetic algorithm (GA). In the experiments made, PSO was able to obtain results comparable or even slightly better than those obtained b GA. Therefore, the PSO algorithm is simpler and its convergence is faster, indicating that PSO is a good alternative for solving such kind of problems. (author)

  10. Applying moving boundary to compute the alluvium transport and testing the results by remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Thi Thuy Nga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To compute the alluvium transport, we use a current model based on a 2D finite-difference grid and a sediment transport model. The first one gives the velocity distribution on the surface of water body and in the case of transient analysis, the velocity distribution is computed at each computational time step. This velocity distribution will be taken as the input for the second model. There are twoimportant problems solved in this research: using moving boundary to get more correct results and testing the results by remote sensing. The models were used to compute the alluvium transport in Ca Maucoastal zone. The resonableness in the transport trend of alluvium shows that those models are confident.

  11. Field test of infrared thermography applied to biogas controlling in landfill sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, Francisco J.; Muñoz, Jaime M.; González, Daniel A.; Tejero, Juan I.; Cobo, Adolfo; Gil, José L.; Conde, Olga M.; López-Higuera, Jose M.

    2007-04-01

    The gases accumulated inside the landfill as result of the fermentation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) known as biogas, are taking into consideration all possible uses as direct transformation into electricity. The system for collecting, regulating and controlling the biogas must include all the necessary safety features where the biogas leakage presents a high impact. Infrared thermography can be use to detect gas leakages due to the differences in temperature between the gas and the immediate surroundings. This method is able to monitor a wide area of landfill sites, quickly. This technology will not be effective if the differences in temperature are not better than five degrees. This paper describes a field test conducted to study the limitations of the infrared thermography caused by weather conditions and the moment of day or/and season when the thermal images was captured. Pipelines, borders, cells, covers, slopes and leakage (hot spots) are studied and optimum conditions are defined.

  12. A Theoretical Investigation of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Mechanics Applied to NASA Full Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.; Greene, N.; Palko, Joseph L.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Sutter, James; Saulsberry, R.; Beeson, H.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the factors controlling the stress rupture life of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) continues. Kevlar (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of a load sharing liner, the manufacturing induced residual stresses and the complex mechanical response, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. This paper is a companion to a previously reported experimental investigation and develops a theoretical framework necessary to design full-scale pathfinder experiments and accurately interpret the experimentally observed deformation and failure mechanisms leading up to static burst in COPVs. The fundamental mechanical response of COPVs is described using linear elasticity and thin shell theory and discussed in comparison to existing experimental observations. These comparisons reveal discrepancies between physical data and the current analytical results and suggest that the vessel s residual stress state and the spatial stress distribution as a function of pressure may be completely different from predictions based upon existing linear elastic analyses. The 3D elasticity of transversely isotropic spherical shells demonstrates that an overly compliant transverse stiffness relative to membrane stiffness can account for some of this by shifting a thin shell problem well into the realm of thick shell response. The use of calibration procedures are demonstrated as calibrated thin shell model results and finite element results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The successes reported here have lead to continuing work with full scale testing of larger NASA COPV

  13. Advancing the vesosome, a multifunctional drug delivery platform, toward applied in vivo testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Benjamin J.

    An optimal drug delivery vehicle should circulate long enough to reach the site of illness or disease, possess a large drug loading capacity, retain its contents over the course of treatment, and be able deliver its contents at a rate appropriate for maximum therapeutic benefit at the site of interest. The vesosome, a large lipid bilayer enclosing multiple, smaller liposomes, is our solution to addressing these needs. The external lipid bilayer offers a second barrier of protection for interior components and can also serve as the anchor for active targeting components. Furthermore, internal compartmentalization permits customization of separate environments for multiple therapeutics and release triggers. Previous work established the ability of the vesosome to retain its contents in vitro an order of magnitude longer than liposomes. To be viable in vivo, the vesosome must be functionalized for biocompatibility and tracking, and its synthetic procedure must be repeatable, reliable and result in a purified product. The vesosome was functionalized by introducing biocompatible polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and fluorescent dyes in their lipid-bound forms into the external membrane of the vesosome. The external vesosomal membrane is formed from large, flat lipid sheets in the interdigitated (L betaI) phase which, when heated, are used to encapsulate smaller drug-containing vesicles. Through X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM), we established that the molar amounts of functionalized lipid required to label the vesosome for tracking and biocompatibility (˜5--7mol% total) did not prevent the formation of the interdigitated phase. Thus, functionalization of the external vesosome membrane can be achieved through functionalization of interdigitated sheets. For in vivo testing, functionalized vesosomes must be separated from unencapsulated vesicles and purification was performed using size exclusion

  14. Contribution to the detection of radioactivity as applied to regular testing and to protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. The equipment which is at the disposal of teams carrying out tests, such as the Radiations Analysis section and the Radioactivity Engineers section at the CEA, has been developed from apparatus designed for laboratory research. The result of this is that even when attempts have been made to make this equipment more robust and manageable, no effort has been made to adapt the equipment to exactly what is required for assuring protection against radioactivity. It has therefore been necessary for this section to exactly specify its requirements and to carry out itself a part of the work required for developing the most suitable material. 2. The most important problems concerned the analysis of the radioactivity and the fabrication of electronic equipment, which could be available cheaply on a large scale and be also as far as possible self supporting. 3. In the present paper we briefly describe our contribution to this subject and in particular: - the improvement of methods of γ ray analysis which use photographic films; - the try out of a simple and cheap technique for the analysis and spectrography of α particles; - the utilisation of new electronic material: ionisation chamber counters, scintillators; - the development of special equipment for measuring the mean flux of particles which are emitted periodically in very short bursts. (author)

  15. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods applied to subsurface environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described in this paper are a series of environmental problems involving spilled liquids which subsequently penetrate into the subsurface soil. The migration of these liquids (which are, or contain, hazardous materials) is of great interest to industrial, private and governmental groups. It is a complex and perplexing problem which is generally solved by taking soil borings, sampling the material, and interpolating information between them. The net effect is a slow, random, and expensive process which is felt to be outmoded and impractical. In contrast, a number on non-destructive tests (NDT) are outlined in this paper which could detect and monitor these subsurface liquid spills. The paper briefly reviews them, providing key references for further details, and then individually rates the methods against each specific problem. The rating at this time is tentative but does offer an initial attempt at viewing hazardous material spill problems in light of current NDT methods. A current EPA grant to Drexel University is focused at updating this rating and is based in both laboratory and field evaluations

  16. Classification by a neural network approach applied to non destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography is used by EDF for pipe inspection in nuclear power plants in order to detect defects. The radiographs obtained are then digitized in a well-defined protocol. The aim of EDF consists of developing a non destructive testing system for recognizing defects. In this paper, we describe the recognition procedure of areas with defects. We first present the digitization protocol, specifies the poor quality of images under study and propose a procedure to enhance defects. We then examine the problem raised by the choice of good features for classification. After having proved that statistical or standard textural features such as homogeneity, entropy or contrast are not relevant, we develop a geometrical-statistical approach based on the cooperation between signal correlations study and regional extrema analysis. The principle consists of analysing and comparing for areas with defects and without any defect, the evolution of conditional probabilities matrices for increasing neighborhood sizes, the shape of variograms and the location of regional minima. We demonstrate that anisotropy and surface of series of 'comet tails' associated with probability matrices, variograms slope and statistical indices, regional extrema location, are features able to discriminate areas with defects from areas without any. The classification is then realized by a neural network, which structure, properties and learning mechanisms are detailed. Finally we discuss the results. (authors). 21 refs., 5 figs

  17. Cellular resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Lena; Harris, Georgina; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cellular resilience describes the ability of a cell to cope with environmental changes such as toxicant exposure. If cellular metabolism does not collapse directly after the hit or end in programmed cell death, the ensuing stress responses promote a new homeostasis under stress. The processes of reverting "back to normal" and reversal of apoptosis ("anastasis") have been studied little at the cellular level. Cell types show astonishingly similar vulnerability to most toxicants, except for those that require a very specific target, metabolism or mechanism present only in specific cell types. The majority of chemicals triggers "general cytotoxicity" in any cell at similar concentrations. We hypothesize that cells differ less in their vulnerability to a given toxicant than in their resilience (coping with the "hit"). In many cases, cells do not return to the naive state after a toxic insult. The phenomena of "pre-conditioning", "tolerance" and "hormesis" describe this for low-dose exposures to toxicants that render the cell more resistant to subsequent hits. The defense and resilience programs include epigenetic changes that leave a "memory/scar" - an alteration as a consequence of the stress the cell has experienced. These memories might have long-term consequences, both positive (resistance) and negative, that contribute to chronic and delayed manifestations of hazard and, ultimately, disease. This article calls for more systematic analyses of how cells cope with toxic perturbations in the long-term after stressor withdrawal. A technical prerequisite for these are stable (organotypic) cultures and a characterization of stress response molecular networks. PMID:26536287

  18. Energy Smart Schools--Applied Research, Field Testing, and Technology Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebiat Solomon; Robin Vieira; William L. Manz; Abby Vogen; Claudia Orlando; Kimberlie A. Schryer

    2004-12-01

    The National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) in conjunction with the California Energy Commission, the Energy Center of Wisconsin, the Florida Solar Energy Center, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, and the Ohio Department of Development's Office of Energy Efficiency conducted a four-year, cost-share project with the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to focus on energy efficiency and high-performance technologies in our nation's schools. NASEO was the program lead for the MOU-State Schools Working group, established in conjunction with the USDOE Memorandum of Understanding process for collaboration among state and federal energy research and demonstration offices and organizations. The MOU-State Schools Working Group included State Energy Offices and other state energy research organizations from all regions of the country. Through surveys and analyses, the Working Group determined the school-related energy priorities of the states and established a set of tasks to be accomplished, including the installation and evaluation of microturbines, advanced daylighting research, testing of schools and classrooms, and integrated school building technologies. The Energy Smart Schools project resulted in the adoption of advanced energy efficiency technologies in both the renovation of existing schools and building of new ones; the education of school administrators, architects, engineers, and manufacturers nationwide about the energy-saving, economic, and environmental benefits of energy efficiency technologies; and improved the learning environment for the nation's students through use of better temperature controls, improvements in air quality, and increased daylighting in classrooms. It also provided an opportunity for states to share and replicate successful projects to increase their energy efficiency while at the same time driving down their energy costs.

  19. REACTIVITY AND ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION CELLULAR TESTS OF THE FIRST TIME DIAGNOSTED SOCIALLY ADOPTED PATIENTS WITH INFILTRATIVE LUNG TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mordyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to assess the endogenous intoxication degree and reactivity condition of an organism by calculation the blood leukocyte indexes and their influence assessment for the outcome of first time diagnosed infiltrative lung tuberculosis for the revealed socially safe patients. Case-records of 260 patients were analysed retrospectively. Inclusion criteria were: first time diagnosed and confirmed diagnosis of infiltrative lungs tuberculosis; age at least 18 years; socially adopted patients (the patients taking official or informal work place, the constant income in a family, a residence, a registration. Exception criteria were: extra pulmonary or other forms of lung tuberculosis at the patient; existence of a serious somatic illness; HIV infection; existence of malignant new growths; mental diseases; the social disadaptation (homeless persons who aren’t working, released from jails or being under examination, abusing alcohol in the form of hard drinkings and accepting drugs. All patients included in research were divided into two groups: first (main — patients with a failure in quantity the 66, second (group of comparison — patients with a favourable outcome of infiltrative tuberculosis of lungs, in number of 194. Failure criterion was the existence (preservation of a disintegration lung cavity confirmed by the last X-ray picture. According patients blood test results the intoxication leukocyte index (ILI, with Kalf-Kalif formula, an blood leukocytes shift index (BLSI, an organism resistance index (ORI, a Dashtayants nuclear index was carried out. Followly the Spirmen correlation analysis with Statistica 6.0 software package was estimated. As a result of research the following data were obtained. The Dashtayants nuclear index high level at primary blood test has the strongest impact on development of infiltrative lungs tuberculosis failure in patients; the ILI and BLSI high levels at the time of the beginning of

  20. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used for the odds ratio. Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining

  1. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining actual HIV testing. This low explanatory power of TPB was mainly due

  2. Applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Grey Relation Analysis to Evaluate the Supply Chain Performance of the Wafer Testing House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the information age, the process of E-Commerce (EC operates quickly and the present enterprises of Taiwan have to face the Free Cross-Strait Market (FCSM with Mainland China, which will definitely change the model as well as the performance of the supply chain. Hence, this study focuses on the issue of supply chain performance evaluation of the wafer testing house in Taiwan. Approach: This investigation applied the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP to derive the weights of influential indicators for evaluating the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house and the Grey Relation Analysis (GRA was used to evaluate the performance between the FCSM and EC aspects. Results: The analyzed results had identified the indicator weight of the supply chain performance evaluation in the wafer testing house and the indicator performances between different aspects were compared. The research results indicated that the FCSM aspect had better performance than EC aspect of the supply chain evaluation in the wafer testing house. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the analyzed results, the managers can find out the problems and improve the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house. This study not only can be a good basis for improvements of the case company, but also can be the reference for evaluating the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house.

  3. The design and testing of an electrolyte destratification system applied to a 96 V Alco 2200 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, D.; Tomantschger, K.

    1984-01-01

    A pump system for electrolyte destratification in off-the-shelf conventional lead acid batteries was designed and tested at various operating temperatures. The system requires no modification to the battery case. The pump is inserted through small (3 to 4 mm) holes in the battery case top. The system applied was to a 96 V ALCO 2200 battery. The charge time was cut in half, the water loss was minimized, and overall efficiencies for the modified ALCO 2200 increased. Leakage problems were experienced in some modules due to the deterioration of the glue which attaches the air-lift pump manifolds onto the battery cover. The tests were performed on a 48 V system and extrapolated to a 96 V system.

  4. TRIPLE ASSESSMENT OF A BREAST LUMP BY APPLYING TRIPLE TEST SCORING IN PATIENTS ATTENDING OPD IN HAMIDIA HOSPITAL , BHOPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Chaudhary

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study: triple assessment of a breast lump by applying triple test scoring in patients attending OPD in hamidia hospital, Bhopal. 60 patients were enrolled in the study, for the period of one year. Age group ranged from 35 to 80 years. Oldest female enrolled was 77 years. Most of the patients were in the age group of 35 - 44 years of age. There were almost equal numbers of female in pre and post - menopausal age group. All cases presented with complaints of lump in the breast with duration of symptoms ranging from less than two months to six months. Most of the lumps were situated in upper and outer quadrant. Mammography and FNAC were carried out in all the patients and later triple assessment score was calculated for every case. The end result was correlated with histopathological result. Accuracy of triple assessment and its components wer e measured by comparing them with histopathological report. If applied alone all three components of triple assessment were having less accuracy, but combining them made them more accurate. Triple test was also found to lower the need for excision biopsy for diagnosis and helps in timely and accurate diagnosis of a breast lump with early intervention which can be life s aving.

  5. In vitro OECD test methods applied to screen the estrogenic effect of chemicals, used in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Seok; Park, Eun-Jung; Han, Songyi; Oh, Gyeong-Yong; Kim, Min-Hee; Kang, Hui-Seung; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Oh, Jae-Ho; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Moon, Guiim; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Hwang, In-Gyun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 27 chemicals found in household products, which became an issue in Korea were screened for the agonistoc and antagonistic effects against human estrogen receptor using official Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in vitro assays, STTA assay using ERα-HeLa-9903 cell line and BG1Luc ER TA assay. In the case of human ER agonist screening by two assays, all tested chemicals did not show agonist effect against ER. In ER antagonist test by BG1Luc ER TA assay, five surfactants α-dodecyl-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene), alcohols C16-18 ethoxylated, nonylphenol, ethoxylated, 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-heptaoxatritriacontan-1-ol, and α-dodecyl-ω-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)) were found to exhibit weak antagonistic activities. The agonist/antagonist effects against human estrogen receptor of various chemicals, used in Korea by OECD test guideline are reported in this study. These results indicated that two OECD in vitro assays will can be applied in Korea by screening of agonistic/antagonistic effects against human ER of various chemicals. PMID:27317829

  6. Using scratch testing to measure the adhesion strength of calcium phosphate coatings applied to poly(carbonate urethane) substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Dunstan; Johnson, Scott; Snell, Robert; Best, Serena

    2012-02-01

    Bioactive coatings are applied to components of modern orthopædic implants to improve the host tissue response to the implants. Such coatings cannot be applied to polymeric implants by high-temperature techniques, because the use of high temperatures may critically degrade the polymer substrate. Regardless of the coating technique that is used, the coating must be sufficiently well adhered to the underlying substrate to provide any practical benefit. This paper investigates the use of scratch testing to measure the adhesion strength of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings that were applied to a poly(carbonate urethane) (PCU) substrate by an aqueous process at temperatures of 19, 28, 37, and 50 °C. This work represents the first time that scratch testing analysis has been used to study CaP coatings deposited by an aqueous, low-temperature process on to a polymer substrate. Scratch testing was shown to be a useful technique for obtaining comparative, rather than absolute, values of adhesion strength for hard coatings formed on a compliant substrate. Generally, the coating temperature was not found to influence the CaP-PCU adhesion strength. Although CaP coatings formed at 19 °C exhibited considerably lower adhesion strengths than CaP coatings formed at 28, 37, and 50 °C, this finding was attributable to the inconsistency of CaP coatings formed on the PCU substrates at 19 °C. The coating-substrate adhesion strength was measured for CaP coatings of four different coating ages (0, 1, 2, and 3 years). CaP coatings that were aged for 0, 1, or 2 years exhibited similar coating-substrate adhesion strengths to each other. In contrast, CaP coatings that were aged for 3 years demonstrated considerably lower coating-substrate adhesion strengths. The observed reduction in adhesion strength with age was thought to be attributable to suspected "drying out" of the CaP coatings. PMID:22301182

  7. Experimental study of CT test on the failure of acrylate spray-applied waterproof layer in the groundwater environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this study the computerized tomography (CT) was first used to quantitatively analyze the failure of acrylate spray-applied waterproof membrane in the groundwater environment. The results of the CT tests show that it is feasible to use the CT to quantitatively analyze the failure of the waterproof membrane and the CT method has the advantages of speediness and accuracy that can eliminate the fussy operation process in routine tests. The main conclusions summarized from the study are as follows. First, there are two combined-indexes that can be used to decide the failure of the spray-on waterproof layer: one is that the reduced percentage of the CT number of the spray-on waterproof layer is less than 40.0% and the other is that the variance of the CT number decreases first and then increases. Second, the applicability for the spray-on waterproof layer in the groundwater environment is the SO 24-concentration ≤ 1%, the Cl-concentration ≤ 7.5% and the pH value ≤ 12.0 of the groundwater, respectively.

  8. Serum corticosterone as a quantitative test of the phlogistic potency of various agents topically applied in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagnoni, G; Marsi, A; Parolaro, D; Sala, M; Gori, E

    1976-12-01

    The application into the rat conjunctiva of various phlogistic agents, such as croton oil, mustard oil and formaldehyde, elicits an increase of serum corticosterone linearly related to the log of the applied concentrations, so that from their parallelized regression lines it is possible to calculate the phlogistic potency of each tested agent in reference to croton oil. The time kinetic of such an increase (elicited by croton oil) is compared with that of two other parameters previously adopted as indirect quantitative indices of the phlogosis: the adrenal ascorbic acid depletion and the liver tyrosine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase increase. Serum corticosterone is shown to be the quickest and the most sensitive of the adopted indices, even if the phlogistic potency of the tested agents and the precision of these evaluations substantially coincides whatsoever the index adopted. Finally the pathways of adrenocortical activation are investigated and it is shown that the activation may be peripherally blocked by topical application of corticosteroids (but not of local anesthetics) and centrally by hypophysectomy or parenteral administration of pentobarbital plus morphine. PMID:13751

  9. Applying User Input to the Design and Testing of an Electronic Behavioral Health Information System for Wraparound Care Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Eric J; Hyde, Kelly L; Sather, April; Hook, Alyssa N; Lyon, Aaron R

    2016-05-01

    Health information technology (HIT) and care coordination for individuals with complex needs are high priorities for quality improvement in health care. However, there is little empirical guidance about how best to design electronic health record systems and related technologies to facilitate implementation of care coordination models in behavioral health, or how best to apply user input to the design and testing process. In this paper, we describe an iterative development process that incorporated user/stakeholder perspectives at multiple points and resulted in an electronic behavioral health information system (EBHIS) specific to the wraparound care coordination model for youth with serious emotional and behavioral disorders. First, we review foundational HIT research on how EBHIS can enhance efficiency and outcomes of wraparound that was used to inform development. After describing the rationale for and functions of a prototype EBHIS for wraparound, we describe methods and results for a series of six small studies that informed system development across four phases of effort-predevelopment, development, initial user testing, and commercialization-and discuss how these results informed system design and refinement. Finally, we present next steps, challenges to dissemination, and guidance for others aiming to develop specialized behavioral health HIT. The research team's experiences reinforce the opportunity presented by EBHIS to improve care coordination for populations with complex needs, while also pointing to a litany of barriers and challenges to be overcome to implement such technologies. PMID:26060099

  10. Intensity of regionally applied tastes in relation to administration method: an investigation based on the "taste strips" test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Brian; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    To compare various methods to apply regional taste stimuli to the tongue. "Taste strips" are a clinical tool to determine gustatory function. How a patient perceives the chemical environment in the mouth is a result of many factors such as taste bud distribution and interactions between the cranial nerves. To date, there have been few studies describing the different approaches to administer taste strips to maximize taste identification accuracy and intensity. This is a normative value acquisition pilot and single-center study. The investigation involved 30 participants reporting a normal sense of smell and taste (18 women, 12 men, mean age 33 years). The taste test was based on spoon-shaped filter paper strips impregnated with four taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) at concentrations shown to be easily detectable by young healthy subjects. The strips were administered in three methods (held stationary on the tip of the tongue, applied across the tongue, held in the mouth), resulting in a total of 12 trials per participant. Subjects identified the taste from a list of four descriptors, (sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and ranked the intensity on a scale from 0 to 10. Statistical analyses were performed on the accuracy of taste identification and rated intensities. The participants perceived in order of most to least intense: salt, sour, bitter, sweet. Of the four tastes, sour consistently was least accurately identified. Presenting the taste strip inside the closed mouth of the participants produced the least accurate taste identification, whereas moving the taste strip across the tongue led to a significant increase in intensity for the sweet taste. In this study of 30 subjects at the second concentration, optimized accuracy and intensity of taste identification was observed through administration of taste strips laterally across the anterior third of the extended tongue. Further studies are required on more subjects and the additional concentrations

  11. Testing the Feasibility of Using PERM to Apply Scattering-Angle Filtering in the Image-Domain for FWI Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Hani Ataiq

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT Testing the Feasibility of Using PERM to Apply Scattering-Angle Filtering in the Image-Domain for FWI Applications Hani Ataiq Alzahrani Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is a non-linear optimization problem aimed to estimating subsurface parameters by minimizing the mis t between modeled and recorded seismic data using gradient descent methods, which are the only practical choice because of the size of the problem. Due to the high non-linearity of the problem, gradient methods will converge to a local minimum if the starting model is not close to the true one. The accuracy of the long-wavelength components of the initial model controls the level of non-linearity of the inversion. In order for FWI to converge to the global minimum, we have to obtain the long wavelength components of the model before inverting for the short wavelengths. Ultra-low temporal frequencies are sensitive to the smooth (long wavelength) part of the model, and can be utilized by waveform inversion to resolve that part. Un- fortunately, frequencies in this range are normally missing in eld data due to data- acquisition limitations. The lack of low frequencies can be compensated for by uti- lizing wide-aperture data, as they include arrivals that are especially sensitive to the long wavelength components of the model. The higher the scattering angle of a 5 recorded event, the higher the model wavelength it can resolve. Based on this prop- erty, a scattering-angle ltering algorithm is proposed to start the inversion process with events corresponding to the highest scattering angle available in the data, and then include lower scattering angles progressively. The large scattering angles will resolve the smooth part of the model and reduce the non-linearity of the problem, then the lower ones will enhance the resolution of the model. Recorded data is rst migrated using Pre-stack Exploding Re ector Migration (PERM), then the resulting pre-stack image is transformed into angle gathers to which

  12. Test-retest reliability of a new technique with pressure algometry applied to teeth in healthy Chinese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Gu, Xinyu; Zhang, Jinglu; Yu, Linfeng; Chen, Wenjing; Wang, Kelun; Svensson, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) have been shown to be useful measures of mechanical pain sensitivity in deep tissues. However, clinical methods for measuring mechanical allodynia or hyperalgesia in teeth have not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of PPTs in periodontal ligament of healthy Chinese participants. Twenty healthy young adults participated. Pressure pain thresholds were measured at six teeth and in two directions. The tests included three consecutive trials, in two separate sessions, which were performed on the first day by one examiner. After 1-3 wk, an identical protocol was carried out by two examiners, also in two separate sessions. There were no significant differences between repeated measures for all teeth. The PPTs had excellent reliability with high intraclass coefficients (ICCs) across different sessions (ICC: 0.871-0.956), days (ICC: 0.879-0.951), and examiners (ICC: 0.845-0.950). Pressure pain thresholds applied to the teeth have excellent intra- and inter-examiner agreement in healthy participants. This method may be proposed as an easy and reliable technique to assess mechanical pain sensitivity (e.g. mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia) in the periodontal ligament, which is associated with endodontic or periodontal conditions. PMID:27017942

  13. Modeling and cellular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing the applicability of mathematical models with carefully designed experiments is a powerful tool in the investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation on cells. The modeling and cellular studies complement each other, for modeling provides guidance for designing critical experiments which must provide definitive results, while the experiments themselves provide new input to the model. Based on previous experimental results the model for the accumulation of damage in Chlamydomonas reinhardi has been extended to include various multiple two-event combinations. Split dose survival experiments have shown that models tested to date predict most but not all the observed behavior. Stationary-phase mammalian cells, required for tests of other aspects of the model, have been shown to be at different points in the cell cycle depending on how they were forced to stop proliferating. These cultures also demonstrate different capacities for repair of sublethal radiation damage

  14. Non-Destructive Testing Methods Applied to Multi-Finned SAP Tubing for Nuclear-Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish Atomic Energy Commission has undertaken a design study oi an organic-cooled, heavy- water-moderated power reactor. The fuel element for the reactor is a 19-rod bundle; the fuel rods contain sintered uranium-dioxide pellets canned in 2-m long, helically-finned tubes of Sintered Aluminium Product (SAP). A very high quality of the canning tubes is necessary to obtain the optimum heat-transfer conditions and to maintain the integrity of the fuel element during reactor service. Two examples of tube design illustrate the narrow dimensional tolerances. In order to ensure an adequate quality of the canning tubes, a stringent quality control has been established, to a wide extent based upon non-destructive methods. An account is presented of the non-destructive techniques developed for measuring wall thickness and diameters and for detecting defects. The complex 24-finned cross-section prevents the application of ultrasonic or eddy-current methods for wall-thickness measurements. Therefore, a special recording beta-gauge has been developed, based upon the attenuation of beta radiation from a Sr90 source placed inside the tube. An ultrasonic immersion resonance method is used for the continuous recording of the wall thickness of the more simple 12-finned tube design. Inner and outer (across fin tips) diameters are continuously recorded by rapid air-gauge systems. Flaw detection is carried out by the ultrasonic pulse-echo immersion technique and by eddy-current inspection.. Transverse cracks can easily be detected by the ultrasonic method whereas inspection for longitudinal flaws has not appeared feasible with this method. Therefore, eddy-current inspection is applied in addition to the ultrasonic testing. (author)

  15. Applicability and limitations of technical testing methods for determining the adhesive strength of hard-facing overlay applied by welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1978 the VdTUeV Test paper 1156 has been used as test regulation in the testing iron-plating and armatures. In addition to destruction - free testing, hardness measurement and metallographic studies, technological tests (bending tests) are an absolute requirement. In certain cases, angles of bending without leading to chipping of the iron-plating is required. These bending angles are not of relevance in the evaluation of the actual adhesion to the basic material. In the meantime manufacturers have developed their own testing regulations - in particular in the area of nuclear technology. The most detailed and well known is the Work Regulation D 17.1/000 of the company KWU. It is based on the above-mentioned VdTUeV-Test Paper and contains in addition a whole series of requirements in particular in the area of destructive-free testing. (orig.)

  16. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have... PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who... licensee or other entity shall subject the individual to random testing under § 26.31(d)(2), except if—...

  17. Adaptive stochastic cellular automata: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.; Lee, Y. C.; Jones, R. D.; Barnes, C. W.; Flake, G. W.; O'Rourke, M. K.; Lee, K.; Chen, H. H.; Sun, G. Z.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Chen, D.; Giles, C. L.

    1990-09-01

    The stochastic learning cellular automata model has been applied to the problem of controlling unstable systems. Two example unstable systems studied are controlled by an adaptive stochastic cellular automata algorithm with an adaptive critic. The reinforcement learning algorithm and the architecture of the stochastic CA controller are presented. Learning to balance a single pole is discussed in detail. Balancing an inverted double pendulum highlights the power of the stochastic CA approach. The stochastic CA model is compared to conventional adaptive control and artificial neural network approaches.

  18. Multiuser Cellular Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Modern radio communication is faced with a problem about how to distribute restricted frequency to users in a certain space. Since our task is to minimize the number of repeaters, a natural idea is enlarging coverage area. However, coverage has restrictions. First, service area has to be divided economically as repeater's coverage is limited. In this paper, our fundamental method is to adopt seamless cellular network division. Second, underlying physics content in frequency distribution problem is interference between two close frequencies. Consequently, we choose a proper frequency width of 0.1MHz and a relevantly reliable setting to apply one frequency several times. We make a few general assumptions to simplify real situation. For instance, immobile users yield to homogenous distribution; repeaters can receive and transmit information in any given frequency in duplex operation; coverage is mainly decided by antenna height. Two models are built up to solve 1000 users and 10000 users situations respectively....

  19. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K

    2011-01-01

    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  20. LMS filters for cellular CDMA overlay

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper extends and complements previous research we have performed on the performance of nonadaptive narrowband suppression filters when used in cellular CDMA overlay situations. In this paper, an adaptive LMS filter is applied to cellular CDMA overlay situations in order to reject narrowband interference.

  1. Design and commission of an experimental test rig to apply a full-scale pressure load on composite sandwich panels representative of an aircraft secondary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design of a test rig, which is used to apply a representative pressure load to a full-scale composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. A generic panel was designed with features to represent those in the composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. To provide full-field strain data from the panels, the test rig was designed for use with optical measurement techniques such as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and digital image correlation (DIC). TSA requires a cyclic load to be applied to a structure for the measurement of the strain state; therefore, the test rig has been designed to be mounted on a standard servo-hydraulic test machine. As both TSA and DIC require an uninterrupted view of the surface of the test panel, an important consideration in the design is facilitating the optical access for the two techniques. To aid the test rig design a finite element (FE) model was produced. The model provides information on the deflections that must be accommodated by the test rig, and ensures that the stress and strain levels developed in the panel when loaded in the test rig would be sufficient for measurement using TSA and DIC. Finally, initial tests using the test rig have shown it to be capable of achieving the required pressure and maintaining a cyclic load. It was also demonstrated that both TSA and DIC data can be collected from the panels under load, which are used to validate the stress and deflection derived from the FE model

  2. Organization and methodology applied to the control of commissioning tests to guarantee safe operation of nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities are described of the Safety Analysis Department (DAS), which plays the role of technical support for the French safety authority. For that reason, the DAS assesses the start-up Test Programme and expresses its view on findings observed during the start-up tests. In order to do that, the DAS ensure the start-up test programme and a results analysis from the procedure elaboration stage up to the reactor commissioning at full power. The DAS assessment began with an in-depth analysis of the Test Principle Programmes (PPE), established by Electricite de France (EdF), for each elementary system, in order to test the related function. These documents the give principles, objectives, and nature of the planned tests as well as criteria allowing to evaluate the validity of test results. The permanent and ''real time'' follow up of the various test phases and their progress is performed by a DAS representative who is assigned to the plant for the start-up duration: he analyzes the performance reports, controls the results, examines worthy events and incidents occurring during the test progress. DAS participate in the ''On-site Test Commission'' (CES), the meetings of which made up important milestones of the start-up test progress. The main role of that commission is to ensure, at different steps of the test performances and especially in the safety field, that the set objectives are met, and to allow performing the next stage according to complete and updated files, when the necessary regulatory authorizations have been granted. (author)

  3. Development of a superconductor magnetic suspension and balance prototype facility for studying the feasibility of applying this technique to large scale aerodynamic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, R. N.; Humphris, R. R.; Henderson, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    The basic research and development work towards proving the feasibility of operating an all-superconductor magnetic suspension and balance device for aerodynamic testing is presented. The feasibility of applying a quasi-six-degree-of freedom free support technique to dynamic stability research was studied along with the design concepts and parameters for applying magnetic suspension techniques to large-scale aerodynamic facilities. A prototype aerodynamic test facility was implemented. Relevant aspects of the development of the prototype facility are described in three sections: (1) design characteristics; (2) operational characteristics; and (3) scaling to larger facilities.

  4. 47 CFR 22.923 - Cellular system configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular system configuration. 22.923 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.923 Cellular system configuration. Mobile stations... directly or through cellular repeaters. Auxiliary test stations may communicate with base or...

  5. The cellular particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a variant of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) original algorithm, the Cellular-PSO. Inspired by the cellular Genetic Algorithm (GA), particles in Cellular-PSO are arranged into a matrix of cells interconnected according to a given topology. Such topology defines particle's neighborhood, inside which social adaptation may occur. As a consequence, population diversity is increased and the optimization process becomes more efficient and robust. The proposed Cellular-PSO has been applied to the nuclear reactor core design optimization problem and comparative experiments demonstrated that it is superior to the standard PSO. (author)

  6. Magnetic Test Performance Capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center as Applied to the Global Geospace Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Darryl R.

    1997-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) is a historic test facility that has set the standard for all subsequent magnetic test facilities. The SMTF was constructed in the early 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic fields. Additionally, the facility provides the capability for measuring spacecraft generated magnetic fields as well as calibrating magnetic attitude control systems and science magnetometers. The SMTF was designed for large, spacecraft level tests and is currently the second largest spherical coil system in the world. The SMTF is a three-axis Braunbek system composed of four coils on each of three orthogonal axes. The largest coils are 12.7 meters (41.6 feet) in diameter. The three-axis Braunbek configuration provides a highly uniform cancellation of the geomagnetic field over the central 1.8 meter (6 foot) diameter primary test volume. Cancellation of the local geomagnetic field is to within +/-0.2 nanotesla with a uniformity of up to 0.001% within the 1.8 meter (6 foot) diameter primary test volume. Artificial magnetic field vectors from 0-60,000 nanotesla can be generated along any axis with a 0.1 nanotesla resolution. Oscillating or rotating field vectors can also be produced about any axis with a frequency of up to 100 radians/second. Since becoming fully operational in July of 1967, the SMTF has been the site of numerous spacecraft magnetics tests. Spacecraft tested at the SMTF include: the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), Magsat, LANDSAT-D, the Fast Aurora] Snapshot (FAST) Explorer and the Sub-millimeter-Wave-Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) among others. This paper describes the methodology and sequencing used for the Global Geospace Science (GGS) initiative magnetic testing program in the Goddard Space Flight Center's SMTF. The GGS initiative provides an exemplary model of a strict and comprehensive magnetic control program.

  7. State-of-the-art on basic and applied stem cell therapy; Stem Cell Research Italy-International Society for Cellular Therapy Europe, Joint Meeting, Montesilvano (PE)-Italy, June 10-12, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Dario; Pandolfi, Assunta; Galderisi, Umberto

    2012-03-20

    Over 160 stem cell-based therapeutic products are undergoing development for the treatment of several diseases, ranging from cardiac and artery diseases to immune and neurodegenerative pathologies, including diabetes, spinal cord injury. Therefore, stem cell therapy plays a key role for developing new cell-based drugs for the future molecular and regenerative medicine. The second meeting organized by Stem Cell Research Italy (SCR Italy) and by the International Society for Cellular Therapy-Europe (ISCT) in Montesilvano/Città S. Angelo (Pescara)-Italy, on June 10th-12th, 2011, focused on the state-of-the-art of stem cell therapy and associated novel findings on stem cell research ( www.stemcellitaly.org ). PMID:22035042

  8. Paper-and-Pencil and Web-Based Testing: The Measurement Invariance of the Big Five Personality Tests in Applied Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Michele; Alessandri, Guido; Barbaranelli, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the measurement equivalence of a five-factor measure of personality across two groups applying for jobs, who completed the same questionnaire using either a paper-and-pencil (n = 429) or a web online answer format (n = 651). The data were collected using the Big Five Questionnaire-2 (BFQ-2; which is a measure of the Five…

  9. Similarity analysis applied to the design of scaled tests of hydraulic mitigation methods for Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The episodic gas releases from Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) pose a potential safety hazard. It is thought that gas releases occur because gases are generated and trapped in layers of settled solids located at the bottom of the tank. This document focuses on issues associated with testing of hydraulic mitigation technologies proposed for SY-101. The basic assumption underlying the concept of hydraulic mitigation is that mobilization or maintained suspension of the solids settled in the bottom of the tank wig prevent gas accumulation. Engineering of hydraulic technologies will require testing to determine the operating parameters required to mobilize the solids and to maintain these solids in suspension. Because full scale testing is extremely expensive (even when possible), scaled tests are needed to assess the merit of the proposed technologies and to provide data for numerical or analytical modeling. This research is conducted to support testing and evaluation of proposed hydraulic mitigation concepts only. The work here is oriented towards determining the jet velocities, nozzle sizes, and other operating parameters required to mobilize the settled solids in SY- 101 and maintain them in suspension

  10. Cellular reactions to patterned biointerfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Vera Antonie

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is to study cellular reactions to topographically, mechanically and biochemically tunable polymeric biomaterials. Different aspects of in vitro cell-biomaterial interactions were systematically studied with the murine fibroblast cell line NIH L929 and primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Besides a general cytocompatibility assessment of the applied materials and the quantification of cell adhesion per se, cell morphological changes (e.g. cell spreading) and intr...

  11. Signal processing in cellular clocks

    OpenAIRE

    Forger, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Many biochemical events within a cell need to be timed properly to occur at specific times of day, after other events have happened within the cell or in response to environmental signals. The cellular biochemical feedback loops that time these events have already received much recent attention in the experimental and modeling communities. Here, we show how ideas from signal processing can be applied to understand the function of these clocks. Consider two signals from the network s(t) and r(...

  12. Bayesian meta-analysis of test accuracy in the absence of a perfect reference test applied to bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Ulrike; Brunner, Florian; Steurer, Johann; Wertli, Maria M

    2015-11-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the accuracy of bone scintigraphy (BS) for the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome 1 (CRPS 1). In a meta-analysis of diagnostic studies, the evaluation of test accuracy is impeded by the use of different imperfect reference tests. The aim of our study is to summarize sensitivity and specificity of BS for CRPS 1 and to identify factors to explain heterogeneity. We use a hierarchical Bayesian approach to model test accuracy and threshold, and we present different models accounting for the imperfect nature of the reference tests, and assuming conditional dependence between BS and the reference test results. Further, we include disease duration as explanatory variable in the model. The models are compared using summary ROC curves and the deviance information criterion (DIC). Our results show that those models which account for different imperfect reference tests with conditional dependence and inclusion of the covariate are the ones with the smallest DIC. The sensitivity of BS was 0.87 (95% credible interval 0.73-0.97) and the overall specificity was 0.87 (0.73-0.95) in the model with the smallest DIC, in which missing values of the covariate are imputed within the Bayesian framework. The estimated effect of duration of symptoms on the threshold parameter was 0.17 (-0.25 to 0.57). We demonstrate that the Bayesian models presented in this paper are useful to address typical problems occurring in meta-analysis of diagnostic studies, including conditional dependence between index test and reference test, as well as missing values in the study-specific covariates. PMID:26479506

  13. Evaluation of constraint methodologies applied to a shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimen tested under biaxial loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a prototypic, far-field. out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies. namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness, the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect

  14. Organization and methodology applied to the control of commissioning tests to guarantee safe operation of nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the activities of the Safety Analysis Department (DAS), which provides technical support for the French safety authorities in the specific context of analysis and control of startup test programme quality at each of the different stages of the programme. These activities combine to ensure that the objective of the startup tests is reached, in particular that the functions of each safety-related system are guaranteed in all operating configurations, that the performance levels of all components in the system comply with design criteria and that defects revealed during previous tests have been dealt with correctly. The special case of French nuclear facilities, linked to unit standardization, has made it possible to acquire a large amount of experience with the startup of the 900 MWe units and has illustrated the importance of defining a startup test programme. In 1981, a working group, comprising operating organization and safety authority representatives, studied the lessons which had to be learned from 900 MWe unit startup and the improvements which could be made and taken into account in the 1300 MWe unit startup programme. To illustrate the approach adopted by the DAS, we go on to describe the lessons learned from startup of the first 1300 MWe (P4) units

  15. Rocket plume spectrometry: A system permitting engine condition monitoring, as applied to the technology test bed engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W. T.

    1989-01-01

    The appearance of visible objects in the exhaust plume of space shuttle main engines (SSME) during test firings is discussed. A program was undertaken to attempt to identify anomalous material resulting from wear, normal or excessive, of internal parts, allowing time monitoring of engine condition or detection of failure precursors. Measurements were taken during test firings at Stennis Space Center and at the Santa Suzanna facility in California. The results indicated that a system having high spectral resolution, a fast time response, and a wide spectral range was required to meet all requirements, thus two special systems have been designed and built. One is the Optical Plume Anomaly Detector (OPAD). The other instrument, which is described in this report, is the superspectrometer, an optical multichannel analyzer having 8,192 channels covering the spectral band 250 to 1,000 nm.

  16. A comprehensive evaluation of treatment accuracy, including end-to-end tests and clinical data, applied to intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: A methodology is presented to quantify the uncertainty associated with linear accelerator-based frameless intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) combining end-to-end phantom tests and clinical data. Methods and materials: The following steps of the SRT chain were analysed: planning computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans registration, target volume delineation, CT and cone beam CT (CBCT) registration and intrafraction-patient displacement. The overall accuracy was established with an end-to-end test. The measured uncertainties were combined, deriving the total systematic (ΣT) and random (σT) error components, to estimate the GTV-PTV margin. Results: The uncertainty in the MR-CT registration was on average 0.40 mm (averaged over AP, CC and LR directions). Rotational variations were smaller than 0.5° in all directions. Interobser variation in GTV delineation was on average 0.29 mm. The uncertainty in the CBCT-CT registration was on average 0.15 mm. Again, rotational variations were smaller than 0.5° in all directions. The systematic and random intrafraction displacement errors were on average 0.55 mm and 0.45 mm, respectively. The systematic and random positional errors from the end-to-end test were on average 0.49 mm and 0.53 mm, respectively. Combining these uncertainties resulted in an average ΣT = 0.9 mm and σT = 0.7 mm and an average GTV-PTV margin of 2.8 mm. Conclusion: This comprehensive methodology including end-to-end tests enabled a GTV-PTV margin calculation considering all sources of uncertainties. This generic method can also be used for other treatment sites

  17. Applying algebraic specification and data mutation strategy to test class%应用代数规约和数据变异策略测试类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余波; 王昆

    2011-01-01

    The method for testing class based on algebraic specification can overcome the difficulties for generating test cases and evaluating test outputs automatically.There is a defect for this method that it would obtain different effects for detecting faults for the same class under testing as the test data are usually generated randomly. This approach is proposed that the new test cases are added by applying data mutation strategy to the original test cases generated from algebraic specification to solve it.The experiments show that this method is feasible for improving the test effects of algebraic testing method.%在应用基于代数规约测试类时,虽然可以有效解决测试数据生成和测试结果判断这两个测试难题,但是,因为该方法常常随机生成测试数据,会导致对于同一待测试类两次测试会得到不同的测试效果.为克服这个缺陷,提出应用数据变异方法,对已生成的测试用例进行变异.变异测试实验表明:该方法能够有效地改善代数测试方法的测试效果.

  18. Mass Spectrometry Applied to Bottom-Up Proteomics: Entering the High-Throughput Era for Hypothesis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Ludovic C.; Leitner, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2016-06-01

    Proteins constitute a key class of molecular components that perform essential biochemical reactions in living cells. Whether the aim is to extensively characterize a given protein or to perform high-throughput qualitative and quantitative analysis of the proteome content of a sample, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has become the technology of choice. In this review, we summarize the current state of mass spectrometry applied to bottom-up proteomics, the approach that focuses on analyzing peptides obtained from proteolytic digestion of proteins. With the recent advances in instrumentation and methodology, we show that the field is moving away from providing qualitative identification of long lists of proteins to delivering highly consistent and accurate quantification values for large numbers of proteins across large numbers of samples. We believe that this shift will have a profound impact for the field of proteomics and life science research in general.

  19. A Concept for Testing Decision Support Tools in Participatory Processes Applied to the ToSIA Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Edwards

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ToSIA (Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment offers a transparent and consistent methodological framework to assess impacts of changes (technological, policy, management, etc. in the forest-based sector. This tool is able to facilitate the decision making process within and between diverse groups of stakeholders (e.g., forest managers and policymakers as it provides a neutral, transparent and data-driven platform for stakeholder interaction and communication. To test these capabilities of ToSIA, a practical approach to test if a decision support system is suitable for participatory processes was developed based on a set of evaluation criteria for participatory processes. ToSIA’s performance was assessed and discussed in different categories against a selection of criteria for successful participatory processes: six criteria were fulfilled by ToSIA, in nine, ToSIA is potentially helpful, in two, criteria ToSIA has no influence, and for three criteria, no experiences exist until now. As a result, ToSIA’s conceptual suitability as a participatory decision support system was confirmed for two interlinked roles: as a decision support system to assess alternative scenarios, and as a communication platform for stakeholder interaction.

  20. A Study on Improvement of Test Method of Nuclear Power Plant ESF ACS by applying Regulatory Guide 1.52 (Rev.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U. S. NRC Regulation Guide 1.52 regulating ESF ACS in nuclear power plants has been revised to revision 3. To apply reduction of operability test time, allowance of alternative challenge agents for in-place leak test of HEPA filters, and upgrade of Methyl Iodide penetration acceptance criterion in activated carbon performance test suggested in Reg. Guide 1.52(Rev.3) on Yonggwang units 5 and 6 ESF ACSes, technical feasibility study was carried out with on-site experiments as well as experiments with a lab-scale model. It was confirmed that the moisture in the system returned to the level before the test in 1 or 4 days even though the moisture was removed during the operability test lasting more than 10 hours. Therefore, it is appropriate to perform monthly operability test in 15 minutes just long enough to check the operability of equipment. To change challenge material for in-place HEPA filter leak test, size of aerosol, production rate, and leak detection capability were compared for DOP and PAO. It was concluded that PAO can be substituted for DOP in nuclear power plants. The upgrade of Methyl Iodide penetration acceptance criterion from 0.175 % to 0.5 % in active carbon filter bed deeper than 4 inches was to conform to the change of activated carbon performance test method to ASTM D3803(1989). It was confirmed that Methyl Iodide penetration acceptance criterion of 0.5 % under 30 .deg. C

  1. Applying the digital-image-correlation technique to measure the deformation of an old building’s column retrofitted with steel plate in an in situ pushover test

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shih-Heng Tung; Ming-Hsiang Shih; Wen-Pei Sung

    2014-06-01

    An in situ pushover test is carried out on an old building of Guan-Miao elementary school in south Taiwan. Columns of this building are seismically retrofitted with steel plate. The DIC (digital-image-correlation) technique is used to measure the deformation of the retrofitted column. The result shows that the DIC technique can be successfully applied to measure the relative displacement of the column. Additionally, thismethod leads to the measurement of relative displacements formany points on the column simultaneously. Hence, the column deformation curve, rotation and curvature can be determined using interpolation method. The resulting curvaturediagram reveals that the phenomenon of plastic hinge occurs at about 2% storey drift ratio, and that the DIC technique can be applied to measure column deformation in a full scale in situ test.

  2. Square Heating Applied to Shearography and Active Infrared Thermography Measurements Coupling: From Feasibility Test in Laboratory to Numerical Study of Pultruded CFRP Plates Glued on Concrete Specimen

    OpenAIRE

    THEROUX, Luc D.; Dumoulin, Jean; MALADAGUE, X

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates thermography and shearography couplings, using feasibility trials and numerical simulations, for non-destructive control evaluations of bonding of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer plates glued over concrete structures. Those are well-known methods in non-destructive testing (NDT) applied to civil engineering, but in this context, they are seen as paired because they use the same excitation source: square-pulsed optical heating. Furthermore, because both methods are base...

  3. An enhanced multi-position calibration method for consumer-grade inertial measurement units applied and tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate inertial measurement unit (IMU) is a necessity when considering an inertial navigation system capable of giving reliable position and velocity estimates even for a short period of time. However, even a set of ideal gyroscopes and accelerometers does not imply an ideal IMU if its exact mechanical characteristics (i.e. alignment and position information of each sensor) are not known. In this paper, the standard multi-position calibration method for consumer-grade IMUs using a rate table is enhanced to exploit also the centripetal accelerations caused by the rotation of the table. Thus, the total number of measurements rises, making the method less sensitive to errors and allowing use of more accurate error models. As a result, the accuracy is significantly enhanced, while the required numerical methods are simple and efficient. The proposed method is tested with several IMUs and compared to existing calibration methods

  4. Optimized Cellular Core for Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Patz Materials and Technologies has developed, produced and tested, as part of the Phase-I SBIR, a new form of composite cellular core material, named Interply...

  5. Classification by a neural network approach applied to non destructive testing; Classification par approches connexionnistes appliquee au controle non destructif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, M.; Preteux, F.; Lavayssiere, B.

    1995-12-31

    Radiography is used by EDF for pipe inspection in nuclear power plants in order to detect defects. The radiographs obtained are then digitized in a well-defined protocol. The aim of EDF consists of developing a non destructive testing system for recognizing defects. In this paper, we describe the recognition procedure of areas with defects. We first present the digitization protocol, specifies the poor quality of images under study and propose a procedure to enhance defects. We then examine the problem raised by the choice of good features for classification. After having proved that statistical or standard textural features such as homogeneity, entropy or contrast are not relevant, we develop a geometrical-statistical approach based on the cooperation between signal correlations study and regional extrema analysis. The principle consists of analysing and comparing for areas with defects and without any defect, the evolution of conditional probabilities matrices for increasing neighborhood sizes, the shape of variograms and the location of regional minima. We demonstrate that anisotropy and surface of series of `comet tails` associated with probability matrices, variograms slope and statistical indices, regional extrema location, are features able to discriminate areas with defects from areas without any. The classification is then realized by a neural network, which structure, properties and learning mechanisms are detailed. Finally we discuss the results. (authors). 21 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  7. Teste de TBA aplicado a carnes e derivados: métodos tradicionais, modificados e alternativos TBA test applied to meats and their products: traditional, modified and alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Cristina Osawa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The TBA test is essential to quality control of fat-containing food, being the test most applied to evaluate lipid peroxidation in fishery, meat and poultry products. It estimates malonaldehyde, a secondary oxidation product, by reacting with 2-thiobarbituric acid, forming a coloured complex, measured spectrophotometrically atlambda = 532 nm. Results are expressed as mg malonaldehyde per kg sample or frequently as "TBA value". There are four ways of quantifying it: by lipid extraction, direct heating, distillation or heat-acid extraction. This review intends to point out traditional, modified and alternative TBA test methods, besides enumerating advantages and drawbacks of each one.

  8. Nanomechanics of magnetically driven cellular endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, V.; Lunov, O.; Dejneka, A.; Jastrabík, L.; Polyakova, T.; Syrovets, T.; Simmet, Th.

    2011-10-01

    Being essential for many pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes and playing a crucial role in regulating substrate detachment that enables cellular locomotion, endocytotic mechanisms in many aspects still remain a mystery and therefore can hardly be controlled. Here, we report on experimental and modeling studies of the magnetically assisted endocytosis of functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and characterize the time and force scales of the cellular uptake machinery. The results indicate how the cellular uptake rate could be controlled by applied magnetic field, membrane elasticity, and nanoparticle magnetic moment.

  9. Does nitrogen saturation theory apply to unpolluted temperate forests? A test along a forest soil nitrogen gradient in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, S. S.; Sinkhorn, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    Natural gradients of soil nitrogen (N) can be used to evaluate the consequences of long-term ecosystem N enrichment, and to test the applicability of N saturation theory as a general framework for understanding ecosystem N dynamics. Temperate forest soils of the Oregon Coast Range experience low rates of atmospheric N deposition, yet display among the highest soil N accumulations ever reported worldwide. We measured plant and soil (0-1m) N stocks and natural abundance delta15N, plant production, N uptake and return in litterfall, soil gross and net N mineralization rates, and hydrologic N losses of nine Douglas-fir forests growing across an exceptionally wide soil N gradient in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecosystem N content ranged from 8,788 to 22,667 kg N/ha across sites, with highest N accumulations near the coast, and 96-98% of total ecosystem N residing in mineral soil. Ecosystem delta15N displayed a curvilinear relationship with ecosystem N content that reflected competing influences of N input from biological fixation at low-N sites and fractionating N losses at high-N sites. Simulation modeling of ecosystem N and delta15N mass balance suggest that cycles of wildfire can promote unusually high natural N accumulation by fostering early successional biological nitrogen fixation. Surface mineral soil (0 - 10 cm) N concentrations were tightly correlated to total soil N stocks to 1 m depth, and in contrast to predictions of N saturation theory, were linearly related to 10-fold variation in net N mineralization from 8 - 82 kg N/ha-yr. Net N mineralization was unrelated to soil C:N, soil texture, precipitation and temperature differences among sites. Net nitrification accounted for soil pH decline from 5.8 to 4.1 across sites. The ratio of net:gross N mineralization and nitrification increased along the gradient, indicating progressive saturation of microbial N demands at high soil N. Aboveground N uptake by plants increased asymptotically with net N mineralization to

  10. 25-OH-Vitamin D deficiency and cellular alloimmunity as measured by panel of reactive T cell testing in dialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sawinski, Deirdre; Uribarri, Jaime; Peace, Denise; Yao, Tina; Wauhop, Praeophayom; Trzcinka, Paulina; Ostrow, Katya; Poggio, Emilio D.; Heeger, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Primed anti-donor alloreactive T cells are detrimental to transplant outcome, but factors that impact the strength of this immune response prior to transplantation are unknown. We tested peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dialysis patients, against panels of allogeneic, primary B cell lines in a newly standardized IFNγ ELISPOT panel of reactive T cell (PRT) assays. Results were correlated with known alloantibody sensitizing events and other clinical parameters. As 25-OH-vitamin D deficie...

  11. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  12. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  13. Cellular solidification of transparent monotectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulker, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Understanding how liquid phase particles are engulfed or pushed during freezing of a monotectic is addressed. The additional complication is that the solid-liquid interface is nonplanar due to constitutional undercooling. Some evidence of particle pushing where the particles are the liquid phase of the montectic was already observed. Cellular freezing of the succinonitrile-glycerol system also occurred. Only a few compositions were tested at that time. The starting materials were not especially pure so that cellular interface observed was likely due to the presence of unkown impurities, the major portion of which was water. Topics addressed include: the effort of modeling the particle pushing process using the computer, establishing an apparatus for the determination of phase diagrams, and the measurement of the temperature gradients with a specimen which will solidify on the temperature gradient microscope stage.

  14. Statistical tests applied in tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Petcu, N.

    2011-01-01

    Being given the conditions of an ever increasing competition between the offerers of touristic products at internal and international level, an important factor is represented by the formation of stable customers who should also ensure the promotion of the touristic product among the possible clients on different markets. This supposes the achievement of some high quality touristic services which should generate favorable and long-lasting impressions. The paper is meant to build an analysis m...

  15. Cellular oncogenes in neoplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, V T; McGee, J O

    1987-01-01

    In recent years cellular homologues of many viral oncogenes have been identified. As these genes are partially homologous to viral oncogenes and are activated in some tumour cell lines they are termed "proto-oncogenes". In tumour cell lines proto-oncogenes are activated by either quantitative or qualitative changes in gene structure: activation of these genes was originally thought to be a necessary primary event in carcinogenesis, but activated cellular oncogenes, unlike viral oncogenes, do ...

  16. Cellular Cardiomyoplasty: Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Chachques, J. (J.); Acar, C; J. Herreros; Trainini, J. (Jorge); Prosper, F.; D’Attellis, N. (N.); Fabiani, J. N.; Carpentier, A

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial regeneration can be induced with the implantation of a variety of myogenic and angiogenic cell types. More than 150 patients have been treated with cellular cardiomyoplasty worldwide, 18 patients have been treated by our group. Cellular cardiomyoplasty seems to reduce the size and fibrosis of infarct scars, limit postischemic remodelling, and restore regional myocardial contractility. Techniques for skeletal myoblasts culture and ex vivo expansion using auto...

  17. Monitoring of pipeline hydrostatic testing with artificial flaws applying acoustic emission and ultra-sonic techniques; Monitoracao de teste hidrostatico de tubos com descontinuidades artificiais empregando as tecnicas de emissao acustica e ultra-som

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sergio Damasceno [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    Charts and parameters used to perform and analyzing the acoustic emission data collected during the hydrostatic test in pipe samples build in API XL 60 with 20 inches of diameter and 14 millimeters of thickness are shown. These pipes had internal and external artificial flaws done by electro-erosion process with aspect ratio 1 x 20. A relationship between acoustic emission results, ultrasound and J-Integral were established using the applied pressurization sequence. Characteristics values of acoustic emission signals were shown as a criteria of field tests. (author)

  18. Recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldberg, Rasmus; Knudsen, Carsten; Rasmussen, Steen

    1994-01-01

    as the number of lattice sites is incremented. A proof of lattice size invariance of global cellular-automata mappings is derived from an approximation to the exact recursive definition. The recursive definitions are applied to calculate the fractal dimension of the set of reachable states and of the set......A method for a recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings is presented. The method is based on a graphical representation of global cellular-automata mappings. For a given cellular-automaton rule the recursive algorithm defines the change of the global cellular-automaton mapping...

  19. The evolution of the paleomagnetic fold test as applied to complex geologic situations, illustrated by a case study from northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Arlo B.; Van der Voo, Rob

    Paleomagnetic results are most useful if the age of the magnetization can be established with respect to the rock age or the age of specific structural or alteration events. The fold test is a particularly powerful tool; not only can it be used to determine whether magnetizations are pre-, syn- or post-folding, but it can also reassure us that structural corrections need (or need not) be applied to a given magnetization. This study traces the evolution of various fold and tilt tests developed in the 50-some years since the classical test of Graham was published. Syn-deformational magnetizations are a very special case, usually characterized as such by an incremental tilt test. In regions where rotations about (near-) vertical axes are to be expected, a strike test is the best tool for determining them. A case study of syn-deformational magnetizations in the Cantabria-Asturias Arc (CAA) of northern Spain is presented, which illustrates the application of the various tilt and strike tests. One ancient post-deformational and two syn-deformational magnetizations have been recorded in CAA Devonian carbonates, each characterized by different optimal (peak) percentages of unfolding in incremental fold tests. The structural corrections required to bring the individual site-mean magnetization directions into alignment can be used to restore the beds to their attitudes at the times when the magnetizations were acquired. Furthermore, these structural corrections provide robust constraints on the kinematics of the deformation phase that is being removed. In the CAA, removal of late-stage folding about steeply inclined fold axes, due to Permian oroclinal bending, restores the belt to its first folding and thrusting configuration, and produces north-south trending cylindrical folds that formed during the Late Carboniferous. The separate deformations, consisting of earlier folding and thrusting and later oroclinal bending, have implications for the final collisional movements

  20. Screening methods for the detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals: comparison of ther european union Four-Plate Test, the Nouws Antibiotic Test and the Premi Test (applied to muscle and kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Rapallini, M.L.B.A.; Zuidema, T.; Elferink, J.W.A.; Oostra, S.; Driessen, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial growth inhibition tests are widely used as the primary screening approach for the detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals. In this study we evaluated and compared the performance of the European Union Four-Plate Test (EU4pt), the Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT), and a commercial

  1. Selection of patients for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy based on fuzzy sets theory applied to clinical-epidemiological data and treadmill test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is a worldwide leading cause of death. The standard method for evaluating critical partial occlusions is coronary arteriography, a catheterization technique which is invasive, time consuming, and costly. There are noninvasive approaches for the early detection of CAD. The basis for the noninvasive diagnosis of CAD has been laid in a sequential analysis of the risk factors, and the results of the treadmill test and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS. Many investigators have demonstrated that the diagnostic applications of MPS are appropriate for patients who have an intermediate likelihood of disease. Although this information is useful, it is only partially utilized in clinical practice due to the difficulty to properly classify the patients. Since the seminal work of Lotfi Zadeh, fuzzy logic has been applied in numerous areas. In the present study, we proposed and tested a model to select patients for MPS based on fuzzy sets theory. A group of 1053 patients was used to develop the model and another group of 1045 patients was used to test it. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the performance of the fuzzy model against expert physician opinions, and showed that the performance of the fuzzy model was equal or superior to that of the physicians. Therefore, we conclude that the fuzzy model could be a useful tool to assist the general practitioner in the selection of patients for MPS.

  2. Selection of patients from myocardial perfusion scintigraphy based on fuzzy sets theory applied to clinical-epidemiological data and treadmill test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a worldwide leading cause of death. The standard method for evaluating critical partial occlusions is coronary arteriography, a catheterization technique which is invasive, time consuming, and costly. There are noninvasive approaches for the early detection of CAD. The basis for the noninvasive diagnosis of CAD has been laid in a sequential analysis of the risk factors, and the results of the treadmill test and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Many investigators have demonstrated that the diagnostic applications of MPS are appropriate for patients who have an intermediate likelihood of disease. Although this information is useful, it is only partially utilized in clinical practice due to the difficulty to properly classify the patients. Since the seminal work of Lotfi Zadeh, fuzzy logic has been applied in numerous areas. In the present study, we proposed and tested a model to select patients for MPS based on fuzzy sets theory. A group of 1053 patients was used to develop the model and another group of 1045 patients was used to test it. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the performance of the fuzzy model against expert physician opinions, and showed that the performance of the fuzzy model was equal or superior to that of the physicians. Therefore, we conclude that the fuzzy model could be a useful tool to assist the general practitioner in the selection of patients for MPS. (author)

  3. The effects of A single dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on behavior of rats in Morris's water maze and in the open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of a sublethal dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n=9) were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy of gamma-rays from a 60Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in Morris water maze (MWM) (2 sessions per day) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in MWM. The horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings of the center of the field and the washing behavior were recorded during an 8-minute test in the open field. The results obtained show, that radiation didn't altered significantly the dynamic of learning in MWM during the experiment. The level of horizontal and vertical locomotory activity in open field was lower in irradiated group in comparison with controls. The number of the crossings of the field's center, related to the level of anxiozity of animals was non-significantly lower in irradiated animals, whereas no differences in number of washing between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different level of their control and coordination in CNS. (authors)

  4. Irregular Cellular Learning Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnaashari, Mehdi; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-08-01

    Cellular learning automaton (CLA) is a recently introduced model that combines cellular automaton (CA) and learning automaton (LA). The basic idea of CLA is to use LA to adjust the state transition probability of stochastic CA. This model has been used to solve problems in areas such as channel assignment in cellular networks, call admission control, image processing, and very large scale integration placement. In this paper, an extension of CLA called irregular CLA (ICLA) is introduced. This extension is obtained by removing the structure regularity assumption in CLA. Irregularity in the structure of ICLA is needed in some applications, such as computer networks, web mining, and grid computing. The concept of expediency has been introduced for ICLA and then, conditions under which an ICLA becomes expedient are analytically found. PMID:25291810

  5. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  6. Cellular Homeostasis and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, F Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Aging and longevity are controlled by a multiplicity of molecular and cellular signaling events that interface with environmental factors to maintain cellular homeostasis. Modulation of these pathways to extend life span, including insulin-like signaling and the response to dietary restriction, identified the cellular machineries and networks of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and stress resistance pathways as critical players in the aging process. A decline of proteostasis capacity during aging leads to dysfunction of specific cell types and tissues, rendering the organism susceptible to a range of chronic diseases. This volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry contains a set of two reviews addressing our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying aging in model organisms and humans. PMID:27050288

  7. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zalud

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellularmobile communications, examined the progress in current secondgeneration (2G cellular standards and discussed their migration to thethird generation (3G. The European 2G cellular standard GSM and itsevolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. Thethird generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network andequipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of codedivision multiple access (CDMA is investigated too. A sketch of theperspective of mobile communication beyond 3G concludes this article.

  8. Validity test of the Trojan Horse Method applied to the {sup 7}Li+p{yields} {alpha}+{alpha} reaction via the {sup 3}He break-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M.L.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Catania (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Kroha, V.; Burjan, V.; Novac, J.; Vincour, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR, Rez, Prague (Czech Republic); Fueloep, Z.; Somorjai, E. [Institute of Nuclear Research of Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Pizzone, R.G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) was applied to the {sup 3}He+{sup 7}Li interaction in order to investigate the quasi-free {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He reaction. The three-body experiment was performed at 33 MeV corresponding to a {sup 7}Li-p relative energy ranging from 50 keV to 7 MeV. The extracted {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He quasi-free cross-section was compared with the behavior of direct data, as well as with the result of a previous THM investigation on the {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He reaction off the neutron in {sup 2}H. A good agreement between data sets shows up throughout the energy range investigated, providing a very important validity test of the pole approximation for the THM. (orig.)

  9. Study of different ultrasonic focusing methods applied to non destructive testing; Etude de differentes methodes de focalisation ultrasonore appliquees au controle non destructif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Amrani, M.

    1995-11-17

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of different ultrasonic focusing techniques applied to Nondestructive Testing (mechanical focusing and electronic focusing) and compares their capabilities. We have developed a model to predict the ultrasonic field radiated into a solid by water-coupled transducers. The model is based upon the Rayleigh integral formulation, modified to take account the refraction at the liquid-solid interface. The model has been validated by numerous experiments in various configurations. Running this model and the associated software, we have developed new methods to optimize focused transducers and studied the characteristics of the beam generated by transducers using various focusing techniques. (author). 120 refs., 95 figs., 4 appends.

  10. Translating partitioned cellular automata into classical type cellular automata

    OpenAIRE

    Poupet, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Partitioned cellular automata are a variant of cellular automata that was defined in order to make it very simple to create complex automata having strong properties such as number conservation and reversibility (which are often difficult to obtain on cellular automata). In this article we show how a partitioned cellular automaton can be translated into a regular cellular automaton in such a way that these properties are conserved.

  11. Testes, embryology of: Cellular molecular changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Pelliniemi, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Testis is the male gonad containing two functional parts: the seminiferous tubules for the production and transport of male germ cells (spermatogenesis) and the interstitial compartment containing Leydig cells that produce androgens. It develops from an undifferentiated precursor structure (the g...

  12. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  13. Radioactivity of cellular concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radioactivity of cellular concrete is discussed. Some data on the concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in building materials in Poland are given. The results of dose rates measurements in living quarters as well as outside are presented. (A.S.)

  14. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  15. Tectonic modeling of Konya-Beysehir Region (Turkey) using cellular neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    D. Aydogan; O. Nuri Uçan; A. Muhittin ALBORA

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, to separate regional-residual anomaly maps and to detect borders of buried geological bodies, we applied the Cellular Neural Network (CNN) approach to gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. CNN is a stochastic image processing technique, based optimization of templates, which imply relationships of neighborhood pixels in 2-Dimensional (2D) potential anomalies. Here, CNN performance in geophysics, tested by various synthetic examples and the results are compared ...

  16. An analysis of the intent of environmental standards in the U.S. that apply to waste disposed at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains a discussion on the application of U.S. regulatory standards for transuranic waste disposed at the Nevada Test Site. Application of current compliance requirements and regulatory guidance defined for a generic disposal system, although satisfying the 'letter of the law,' is shown to be incompatible with the 'intent of the law' based on a thorough review of the preamble and background documents supporting the regulation. Specifically, the standards that apply to transuranic waste disposal were derived assuming deep geologic disposal and much larger and more hazardous waste forms: irradiated nuclear reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Therefore, key assumptions that underpin the analyses used to justify the standards (e.g., the ground water pathway being considered the only major release mechanism) are inconsistent with the nature of the radionuclide inventory and the intermediate depth of waste emplacement in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes at the Nevada Test Site. The authors recommend that site specific performance metrics be determined to foster an analysis which is transparent and consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency intent in developing the standards for a generic disposal system. (authors)

  17. Are cellular phone blocking applications effective for novice teen drivers?

    OpenAIRE

    Creaser, J.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving is a significant concern for novice teen drivers. Although cellular phone bans are applied in many jurisdictions to restrict cellular phone use, teen drivers often report making calls and texts while driving. Method The Minnesota Teen Driver Study incorporated cellular phone blocking functions via a software application for 182 novice teen drivers in two treatment conditions. The first condition included 92 teens who ran a driver support application on a smartphone that als...

  18. Lattice-gas cellular-automaton method for semiclassical transport in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, K.; Zandler, G.; Vogl, P.

    1992-07-01

    A cellular-automaton method for solving the Boltzmann equation for semiclassical transport is presented and applied to nonlinear transport in semiconductors. It is shown that the Boltzmann equation for semiconductor transport can be transformed into a Boolean master equation, which represents a cellular automaton with nearest-neighbor interaction in position space. The resulting numerical algorithm is physically equivalent to the ensemble Monte Carlo method and tailored to modern vector or parallel processing. The algorithm is well suited for carrier systems with pronounced spatial inhomogeneities, large density variations, and scattering kernels involving single- and more-particle interactions. Several tests of the cellular-automaton technique for nonlinear transport in Si and GaAs are presented. The results agree very well with published Monte Carlo calculations.

  19. Development and Test of a 1,000 Level 3C Fiber Optic Borehole Seismic Receiver Array Applied to Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for CCS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 a contract to design, build and test a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Paulsson, Inc. has completed a design or a unique borehole seismic system consisting of a novel drill pipe based deployment system that includes a hydraulic clamping mechanism for the sensor pods, a new sensor pod design and most important – a unique fiber optic seismic vector sensor with technical specifications and capabilities that far exceed the state of the art seismic sensor technologies. These novel technologies were all applied to the new borehole seismic system. In combination these technologies will allow for the deployment of up to 1,000 3C sensor pods in vertical, deviated or horizontal wells. Laboratory tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed during this project have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown that the system can record events at magnitudes much smaller than M-2.3 at frequencies up to 2,000 Hz. The sensors have also proved to be about 100 times more sensitive than the regular coil geophones that are used in borehole seismic systems today. The fiber optic seismic sensors have furthermore been qualified to operate at temperatures over 300°C (572°F). The fibers used for the seismic sensors in the system are used to record Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) data allowing additional value added data to be recorded simultaneously with the seismic vector sensor data.

  20. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  1. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  2. Electromagnetic cellular interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, J. S.; Farhadi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2011), 223-246. ISSN 0079-6107. [36th International Congress of Physiological Sciences (IUPS2009). Kyoto, 27.07.2009-01.08.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP102/10/P454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : bioelectric phenomena * cellular biophysics Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.203, year: 2011

  3. Magnetic Cellular Switches

    OpenAIRE

    Overby, Darryl R.; Alenghat, Francis J.; Montoya-Zavala, Martín; Bei, HuCheng; Oh, Philmo; Karavitis, John; Ingber, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of magnetic cellular switches to enable magnetic control of intracellular functions in living mammalian cells, including receptor signal transduction and gene transcription. Our approach takes advantage of the mechanosensitivity of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) induction and downstream transcription controlled by the cAMP regulatory element (CRE) to engineer gene constructs that optically report gene expression in living cells. We activate transcri...

  4. Cellular therapy in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreemanta K. Parida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy now offer promise of potential adjunct therapeutic options for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB. We review here the role of Mesenchymal stromal cells, (MSCs, as well as other immune effector cells in the therapy of infectious diseases with a focus on TB. MSCs represent a population of tissue-resident non-hematopoietic adult progenitor cells which home into injured tissues increase the proliferative potential of broncho-alveolar stem cells and restore lung epithelium. MSCs have been shown to be immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory mediated via cell-cell contacts as well as soluble factors. We discuss the functional profile of MSCs and their potential use for adjunct cellular therapy of multi-drug resistant TB, with the aim of limiting tissue damage, and to convert unproductive inflammatory responses into effective anti-pathogen directed immune responses. Adjunct cellular therapy could potentially offer salvage therapy options for patients with drug-resistant TB, increase clinically relevant anti-M.tuberculosis directed immune responses and possibly shorten the duration of anti-TB therapy.

  5. Cellular therapy in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Shreemanta K; Madansein, Rajhmun; Singh, Nalini; Padayatchi, Nesri; Master, Iqbal; Naidu, Kantharuben; Zumla, Alimuddin; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Cellular therapy now offer promise of potential adjunct therapeutic options for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). We review here the role of Mesenchymal stromal cells, (MSCs), as well as other immune effector cells in the therapy of infectious diseases with a focus on TB. MSCs represent a population of tissue-resident non-hematopoietic adult progenitor cells which home into injured tissues increase the proliferative potential of broncho-alveolar stem cells and restore lung epithelium. MSCs have been shown to be immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory mediated via cell-cell contacts as well as soluble factors. We discuss the functional profile of MSCs and their potential use for adjunct cellular therapy of multi-drug resistant TB, with the aim of limiting tissue damage, and to convert unproductive inflammatory responses into effective anti-pathogen directed immune responses. Adjunct cellular therapy could potentially offer salvage therapy options for patients with drug-resistant TB, increase clinically relevant anti-M.tuberculosis directed immune responses and possibly shorten the duration of anti-TB therapy. PMID:25809753

  6. Quantum cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porod, Wolfgang; Lent, Craig S.; Bernstein, Gary H.

    1994-06-01

    The Notre Dame group has developed a new paradigm for ultra-dense and ultra-fast information processing in nanoelectronic systems. These Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA's) are the first concrete proposal for a technology based on arrays of coupled quantum dots. The basic building block of these cellular arrays is the Notre Dame Logic Cell, as it has been called in the literature. The phenomenon of Coulomb exclusion, which is a synergistic interplay of quantum confinement and Coulomb interaction, leads to a bistable behavior of each cell which makes possible their use in large-scale cellular arrays. The physical interaction between neighboring cells has been exploited to implement logic functions. New functionality may be achieved in this fashion, and the Notre Dame group invented a versatile majority logic gate. In a series of papers, the feasibility of QCA wires, wire crossing, inverters, and Boolean logic gates was demonstrated. A major finding is that all logic functions may be integrated in a hierarchial fashion which allows the design of complicated QCA structures. The most complicated system which was simulated to date is a one-bit full adder consisting of some 200 cells. In addition to exploring these new concepts, efforts are under way to physically realize such structures both in semiconductor and metal systems. Extensive modeling work of semiconductor quantum dot structures has helped identify optimum design parameters for QCA experimental implementations.

  7. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  8. Infrared image enhancement using Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2016-05-01

    Image enhancement is a crucial technique for infrared images. The clear image details are important for improving the quality of infrared images in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new enhancement method based on two priors via Cellular Automata. First, we directly learn the gradient distribution prior from the images via Cellular Automata. Second, considering the importance of image details, we propose a new gradient distribution error to encode the structure information via Cellular Automata. Finally, an iterative method is applied to remap the original image based on two priors, further improving the quality of enhanced image. Our method is simple in implementation, easy to understand, extensible to accommodate other vision tasks, and produces more accurate results. Experiments show that the proposed method performs better than other methods using qualitative and quantitative measures.

  9. Synthesis of New Styrylquinoline Cellular Dyes, Fluorescent Properties, Cellular Localization and Cytotoxic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Rams-Baron, Marzena; Dulski, Mateusz; Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Korzec, Mateusz; Cieslik, Wioleta; Spaczyńska, Ewelina; Bartczak, Piotr; Ratuszna, Alicja; Polanski, Jaroslaw; Musiol, Robert

    2016-01-01

    New styrylquinoline derivatives with their photophysical constants are described. The synthesis was achieved via Sonogashira coupling using the newly developed heterogeneous nano-Pd/Cu catalyst system, which provides an efficient synthesis of high purity products. The compounds were tested in preliminary fluorescent microscopy studies to in order to identify their preferable cellular localization, which appeared to be in the lipid cellular organelles. The spectroscopic properties of the compo...

  10. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  11. Failover in cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2010-01-01

    A cellular automata (CA) configuration is constructed that exhibits emergent failover. The configuration is based on standard Game of Life rules. Gliders and glider-guns form the core messaging structure in the configuration. The blinker is represented as the basic computational unit, and it is shown how it can be recreated in case of a failure. Stateless failover using primary-backup mechanism is demonstrated. The details of the CA components used in the configuration and its working are described, and a simulation of the complete configuration is also presented.

  12. Cellular-scale hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abkarian, Manouk; Faivre, Magalie; Horton, Renita; Smistrup, Kristian; Best-Popescu, Catherine A; Stone, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic tools are providing many new insights into the chemical, physical and physicochemical responses of cells. Both suspension-level and single-cell measurements have been studied. We review our studies of these kinds of problems for red blood cells with particular focus on the shapes of ...... mechanical effects on suspended cells can be studied systematically in small devices, and how these features can be exploited to develop methods for characterizing physicochemical responses and possibly for the diagnosis of cellular-scale changes to environmental factors....

  13. Cellular mechanics and motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénon, Sylvie; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-10-01

    The term motility defines the movement of a living organism. One widely known example is the motility of sperm cells, or the one of flagellar bacteria. The propulsive element of such organisms is a cilium(or flagellum) that beats. Although cells in our tissues do not have a flagellum in general, they are still able to move, as we will discover in this chapter. In fact, in both cases of movement, with or without a flagellum, cell motility is due to a dynamic re-arrangement of polymers inside the cell. Let us first have a closer look at the propulsion mechanism in the case of a flagellum or a cilium, which is the best known, but also the simplest, and which will help us to define the hydrodynamic general conditions of cell movement. A flagellum is sustained by cellular polymers arranged in semi-flexible bundles and flagellar beating generates cell displacement. These polymers or filaments are part of the cellular skeleton, or "cytoskeleton", which is, in this case, external to the cellular main body of the organism. In fact, bacteria move in a hydrodynamic regime in which viscosity dominates over inertia. The system is thus in a hydrodynamic regime of low Reynolds number (Box 5.1), which is nearly exclusively the case in all cell movements. Bacteria and their propulsion mode by flagella beating are our unicellular ancestors 3.5 billion years ago. Since then, we have evolved to form pluricellular organisms. However, to keep the ability of displacement, to heal our wounds for example, our cells lost their flagellum, since it was not optimal in a dense cell environment: cells are too close to each other to leave enough space for the flagella to accomplish propulsion. The cytoskeleton thus developed inside the cell body to ensure cell shape changes and movement, and also mechanical strength within a tissue. The cytoskeleton of our cells, like the polymers or filaments that sustain the flagellum, is also composed of semi-flexible filaments arranged in bundles, and also in

  14. Radiolabelled Cellular Blood Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the abstracts of the 5th International Symposion on Radiolabelling of Cellular Blood Elements to be held in Vienna, Austria, September 10-14, 1989. The Meeting is the fifth in a series of meetings designed to discuss the basics and clinical application of radiolabelling techniques. In these days, beside the search for new labelling agents and extending the knowledge in clinical use, the use of monoclonal antibodies is a big new challenge. All reviewed contributions that have been accepted for presentation are contained in this volume. (authors) 58 of them are of INIS scope

  15. Applied Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Spencer G.

    Stratigraphy is a cornerstone of the Earth sciences. The study of layered rocks, especially their age determination and correlation, which are integral parts of stratigraphy, are key to fields as diverse as geoarchaeology and tectonics. In the Anglophile history of geology, in the early 1800s, the untutored English surveyor William Smith was the first practical stratigrapher, constructing a geological map of England based on his own applied stratigraphy. Smith has, thus, been seen as the first “industrial stratigrapher,” and practical applications of stratigraphy have since been essential to most of the extractive industries from mining to petroleum. Indeed, gasoline is in your automobile because of a tremendous use of applied stratigraphy in oil exploration, especially during the latter half of the twentieth century. Applied stratigraphy, thus, is a subject of broad interest to Earth scientists.

  16. Numerical investigation on evolution of cylindrical cellular detonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun; JIANG Zong-lin; HU Zong-min; HAN Gui-lai

    2008-01-01

    Cylindrical cellular detonation is numerically investigated by solving twodimensional reactive Euler equations with a finite volume method on a two-dimensional self-adaptive unstructured mesh.The one-step reversible chemical reaction model is applied to simplify the control parameters of chemical reaction.Numerical results demonstrate the evolution of cellular cell splitting of cylindrical cellular detonation explored in experimentas.Split of cellular structures shows different features in the near-field and far-field from the initiation zone.Variation of the local curvature is a key factor in the behavior of cell split of cylindrical cellular detonation in propagation.Numerical results show that split of cellular structures comes from the self-organization of transverse waves corresponding to the development of small disturbances along the detonation front related to detonation instability.

  17. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  18. Thermomechanical characterisation of cellular rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, H.; Scheffer, T.; Diebels, S.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses an experimental possibility to characterise a cellular rubber in terms of the influence of multiaxiality, rate dependency under environmental temperature and its behaviour under hydrostatic pressure. In this context, a mixed open and closed cell rubber based on an ethylene propylene diene monomer is investigated exemplarily. The present article intends to give a general idea of the characterisation method and the considerable effects of this special type of material. The main focus lies on the experimental procedure and the used testing devices in combination with the analysis methods such as true three-dimensional digital image correlation. The structural compressibility is taken into account by an approach for a material model using the Theory of Porous Media with additional temperature dependence.

  19. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  20. Predicting the effect of ionising radiation on biological populations: testing of a non-linear Leslie model applied to a small mammal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the application of a non-linear Leslie model for predicting the effects of ionising radiation on wild populations. The model assumes that, for protracted chronic irradiation, the effect-dose relationship is linear. In particular, the effects of radiation are modelled by relating the increase in the mortality rates of the individuals to the dose rates through a proportionality factor C. The model was tested using independent data and information from a series of experiments that were aimed at assessing the response to radiation of wild populations of meadow voles and whose results were described in the international literature. The comparison of the model results with the data selected from the above mentioned experiments showed that the model overestimated the detrimental effects of radiation on the size of irradiated populations when the values of C were within the range derived from the median lethal dose (L50) for small mammals. The described non-linear model suggests that the non-expressed biotic potential of the species whose growth is limited by processes of environmental resistance, such as the competition among the individuals of the same or of different species for the exploitation of the available resources, can be a factor that determines a more effective response of population to the radiation effects. -- Highlights: • A model to assess the radiation effects on wild population is described. • The model is based on non-linear Leslie matrix. • The model is applied to small mammals living in an irradiated meadow. • Model output is conservative if effect-dose factor estimated from L50 is used. • Systemic response to stress of populations in competitive conditions may be more effective

  1. External insulation with cellular plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Nielsen, Anker

    2014-01-01

    External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) can be used as extra insulation of existing buildings. The system can be made of cellular plastic materials or mineral wool. There is a European Technical guideline, ETAG 004, that describe the tests that shall be conducted on such systems....... This paper gives a comparison of systems with mineral wool and cellular plastic, based on experience from practice and literature. It is important to look at the details in the system and at long time stability of the properties such as thermal insulation, moisture and fire. Investigation of fire properties...

  2. Applied mineralogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.C.; Hausen, D.M.; Hagni, R.D. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    A conference on applied mineralogy was held and figures were presented under the following headings: methodology (including image analysis); ore genesis; exploration; beneficiations (including precious metals); process mineralogy - low and high temperatures; and medical science applications. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  3. Quantum features of natural cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schrödinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of “natural” Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l are obtained, which for l → 0 reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement.

  4. Quantum features of natural cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schroedinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of "natural" Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, "deformed" quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale $l$ are obtained, which for $l\\rightarrow 0$ reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form "multipartite" systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce...

  5. Heterogeneous Force Chains in Cellularized Biopolymer Network

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Long; Jones, Christopher; Sun, Bo; Jiao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Biopolymer Networks play an important role in coordinating and regulating collective cellular dynamics via a number of signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the mechanical response of a model biopolymer network due to the active contraction of embedded cells. Specifically, a graph (bond-node) model derived from confocal microscopy data is used to represent the network microstructure, and cell contraction is modeled by applying correlated displacements at specific nodes, representing the fo...

  6. Creating an Implicit Measure of Cognition More Suited to Applied Research: A Test of the Mixed Trial-Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (MT-IRAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E.; Hayes, Steven C.; Waltz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a promising tool for measuring implicit cognitions in applied research. However, the need for training and block effects can limit its capacity to assess effects with individual stimuli and participants, both of which are important for applied research. We developed a modified IRAP, the Mixed…

  7. Integrated cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jason C.

    The generation of new three-dimensional (3D) matrices that enable integration of biomolecular components and whole cells into device architectures, without adversely altering their morphology or activity, continues to be an expanding and challenging field of research. This research is driven by the promise that encapsulated biomolecules and cells can significantly impact areas as diverse as biocatalysis, controlled delivery of therapeutics, environmental and industrial process monitoring, early warning of warfare agents, bioelectronics, photonics, smart prosthetics, advanced physiological sensors, portable medical diagnostic devices, and tissue/organ replacement. This work focuses on the development of a fundamental understanding of the biochemical and nanomaterial mechanisms that govern the cell directed assembly and integration process. It was shown that this integration process relies on the ability of cells to actively develop a pH gradient in response to evaporation induced osmotic stress, which catalyzes silica condensation within a thin 3D volume surrounding the cells, creating a functional bio/nano interface. The mechanism responsible for introducing functional foreign membrane-bound proteins via proteoliposome addition to the silica-lipid-cell matrix was also determined. Utilizing this new understanding, 3D cellular immobilization capabilities were extended using sol-gel matrices endowed with glycerol, trehalose, and media components. The effects of these additives, and the metabolic phase of encapsulated S. cerivisiase cells, on long-term viability and the rate of inducible gene expression was studied. This enabled the entrapment of cells within a novel microfluidic platform capable of simultaneous colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical detection of a single analyte, significantly improving confidence in the biosensor output. As a complementary approach, multiphoton protein lithography was utilized to engineer 3D protein matrices in which to

  8. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  9. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed

  10. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds......, and pharmaceuticals. However, making cells into efficient factories is challenging because cells have evolved robust metabolic networks with hard-wired, tightly regulated lines of communication between molecular pathways that resist efforts to divert resources. Here, we will review the current status and challenges...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  11. 瞬态振动信号在公路工程检测中的应用%Applied the Transient Vibration Signal in Highway Engineering Tested

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献民; 刘秀菊; 等

    2001-01-01

    讨论了路面瞬态振动信号分析处理技术.对振动信号反演分析可获得下部 路基结构的剪切波速.建立了4种路基密度与瑞雷波速度的相关模型,研制了最佳 模型自动选取软件,讨论了压实度建立的标准,从而实现了路基压实度的检测. 对振动信号进行频谱分析,可获得路面脱空与否以及路基相对状况的信息.对于 路面存在脱空或存在明显软弱路基,其主频值通常小于50 Hz.对路基加固处理后 ,其剪切波速将会提高,据此可通过对加固前后振动信号的测试,反演路基剪切 波速值,实现对路基加固效果的评价.应用结果表明,该技术在上述几个方面可 取得显著效果.%The process techniques of transient vibration signal are dis cussed.With the inverse analysis to the vibration signal,the shear wav e velocity of roadbed can be obtained.The four kinds of correlation mo dels of roadbed density with surface wave velocity are presented,and t he software is developed of choosing best correlation model.It is disc ussed that how to form the standard of roadbed compaction degree.And s o the test of compaction degree of roadbed can be realized.With the fr equency spectrum analysis to the vibration signal,the information can be obtained about road surface separate from roadbed or the state of r oadbed.Usually the main frequency value is less than 50 Hz in the cond ition of road surface separate from roadbed or soft roadbed.Made reinf orce to roadbed,the shear wave velocity of roadbed will be increase.Ac cording to the theory,through testing the vibration signals before rei nforce roadbed and after reinforce roadbed,and making inverse analysis to the signals to get the shear wave velocity of roadbed,the reinforc e effect of roadbed can be evaluated.Applying results indicate that th e remarkable success can be achieved with the technique.

  12. Detector independent cellular automaton algorithm for track reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Track reconstruction is one of the most challenging problems of data analysis in modern high energy physics (HEP) experiments, which have to process per second of the order of 107 events with high track multiplicity and density, registered by detectors of different types and, in many cases, located in non-homogeneous magnetic field. Creation of reconstruction package common for all experiments is considered to be important in order to consolidate efforts. The cellular automaton (CA) track reconstruction approach has been used successfully in many HEP experiments. It is very simple, efficient, local and parallel. Meanwhile it is intrinsically independent of detector geometry and good candidate for common track reconstruction. The CA implementation for the CBM experiment has been generalized and applied to the ALICE ITS and STAR HFT detectors. Tests with simulated collisions have been performed. The track reconstruction efficiencies are at the level of 95% for majority of the signal tracks for all detectors.

  13. Detector independent cellular automaton algorithm for track reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisel, Ivan; Kulakov, Igor; Zyzak, Maksym [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Track reconstruction is one of the most challenging problems of data analysis in modern high energy physics (HEP) experiments, which have to process per second of the order of 10{sup 7} events with high track multiplicity and density, registered by detectors of different types and, in many cases, located in non-homogeneous magnetic field. Creation of reconstruction package common for all experiments is considered to be important in order to consolidate efforts. The cellular automaton (CA) track reconstruction approach has been used successfully in many HEP experiments. It is very simple, efficient, local and parallel. Meanwhile it is intrinsically independent of detector geometry and good candidate for common track reconstruction. The CA implementation for the CBM experiment has been generalized and applied to the ALICE ITS and STAR HFT detectors. Tests with simulated collisions have been performed. The track reconstruction efficiencies are at the level of 95% for majority of the signal tracks for all detectors.

  14. 朴素贝叶斯应用于自动化测试用例生成%Naive Bayesian Applied in Automatic Test Cases Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 张聪; 罗宪

    2012-01-01

    提出一种使用朴素贝叶斯作为核心算法来产生自动化测试用例的方法。该方法以实现自动化测试为目标,引入了朴素贝叶斯对产生的随机测试用例分类的思想。实验结果表明,这是一种可行的生成测试用例的方法。%Test cases generation was the key of automatic testing. Test cases generated great significance in software testing process. Automatic testing cases generated by as the core algorithm were presented in this paper. And the thoughts of classificatio in test case generation. The results showed the method presented in this paper was to generate test cases. effectively had Bayesian methods n were introduced a feasible method

  15. Building mathematics cellular phone learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers emphasize the importance of maintaining learning communities and environments. This article describes the building and nourishment of a learning community, one comprised of middle school students who learned mathematics out-of-class using the cellular phone. The building of the learning community was led by three third year pre-service teachers majoring in mathematics and computers. The pre-service teachers selected thirty 8th grade students to learn mathematics with the cellular phone and be part of a learning community experimenting with this learning. To analyze the building and development stages of the cellular phone learning community, two models of community building stages were used; first the team development model developed by Tuckman (1965, second the life cycle model of a virtual learning community developed by Garber (2004. The research findings indicate that a learning community which is centered on a new technology has five 'life' phases of development: Pre-birth, birth, formation, performing, and maturity. Further, the research finding indicate that the norms that were encouraged by the preservice teachers who initiated the cellular phone learning community resulted in a community which developed, nourished and matured to be similar to a community of experienced applied mathematicians who use mathematical formulae to study everyday phenomena.

  16. The State of Cellular Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Youngbin

    2003-01-01

    Cellular probe technology is one of several potentially promising technologies for obtaining accurate travel time information. In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mandated E911 requirements that cellular location be provided when 911 emergency calls come in to emergency management authorities. The E911 requirements allow 50 -300 meters from the emergency call location, depending on the type of cellular phone technology used and whether handset-based or network-based solutions...

  17. Never-ageing cellular senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ogrunc, Müge; d’Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Cellular senescence was historically discovered as a form of cellular ageing of in vitro cultured cells. It has been under the spotlight following the evidence of oncogene-induced senescence in vivo and its role as a potent tumour suppressor mechanism. Presently, a PubMed search using keywords ‘cellular senescence and cancer’ reveals 8398 number of references (by April 2011) showing that while our knowledge of senescence keeps expanding, the complexity of the phenomenon keeps us – researchers...

  18. Applied chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of novel features of QCD are reviewed, including the consequences of formation zone and color transparency phenomena in hadronic collisions, the use of automatic scale setting for perturbative predictions, null-zone phenomena as a fundamental test of gauge theory, and the relationship of intrinsic heavy colored particle Fock state components to new particle production. We conclude with a review of the applications of QCD to nuclear multiquark systems. 74 references

  19. 软件单元测试应用研究及案例分析%Applied Research and Case Analysis of Software Unit Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艳芳; 楚书来

    2012-01-01

    单元测试是软件测试过程的第一站,高质量的单元测试是软件质量保证的必要条件,本文就单元测试的概念、测试类型及规程作了简单的阐述,同时就单元测试进行了案例分析。%Unit testing is the first stop of the software testing process,the quality of the unit test is a necessary condition for the software quality assurance,the concept of unit testing,test types and procedures briefly described,while the unit test case analysis.

  20. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  1. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  2. Active Cellular Nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Guillaume; Erlenkaemper, Christoph; Garcia, Simon; Yevick, Hannah; Joanny, Jean-François; Silberzan, Pascal; Biology inspired physics at mesoscales Team; Physical approach of biological problems Team

    We study the emergence of a nematic order in a two-dimensional tissue of apolar elongated fibroblast cells. Initially, these cells are very motile and the monolayer is characterized by giant density fluctuations, a signature of far-from-equilibrium systems. As the cell density increases because of proliferation, the cells align with each other forming large perfectly oriented domains while the cellular movements slow down and eventually freeze. Therefore topological defects characteristic of nematic phases remain trapped at long times, preventing the development of infinite domains. By analogy with classical non-active nematics, we have investigated the role of boundaries and we have shown that cells confined in stripes of width smaller than typically 500 µm are perfectly aligned in the stripe direction. Experiments performed in cross-shaped patterns show that both the number of cells and the degree of alignment impact the final orientation. Reference: Duclos G., Garcia S., Yevick H.G. and Silberzan P., ''Perfect nematic order in confined monolayers of spindle-shaped cells'', Soft Matter, 10, 14, 2014

  3. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular markets. 22.909 Section 22.909... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular...

  4. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  5. Initial test results with a single-cylinder rhombic-drive Stirling engine. [to be applied to automobile engine design to conserve energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Thieme, L. G.; Walter, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    A 6 kW (8 hp), single-cylinder, rhombic-drive Stirling engine was restored to operating condition, and preliminary characterization tests run with hydrogen and helium as the working gases. Initial tests show the engine brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) with hydrogen working gas to be within the range of BSFC observed by the Army at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, in 1966. The minimum system specific fuel consumption (SFC) observed during the initial tests with hydrogen was 669 g/kW hr (1.1 lb/hpx hr), compared with 620 g/kWx hr (1.02 lb/hpx hr) for the Army tests. However, the engine output power for a given mean compression-space pressure was lower than for the Army tests. The observed output power at a working-space pressure of 5 MPa (725 psig) was 3.27 kW (4.39 hp) for the initial tests and 3.80 kW (5.09 hp) for the Army tests. As expected, the engine power with helium was substantially lower than with hydrogen.

  6. Cellular immune findings in Lyme disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Sigal, L. H.; Moffat, C. M.; Steere, A. C.; Dwyer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    From 1981 through 1983, we did the first testing of cellular immunity in Lyme disease. Active established Lyme disease was often associated with lymphopenia, less spontaneous suppressor cell activity than normal, and a heightened response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin and Lyme spirochetal antigens. Thus, a major feature of the immune response during active disease seems to be a lessening of suppression, but it is not yet known whether this response plays a role in the pathophysiology o...

  7. Mapping of cellular iron using hyperspectral fluorescence imaging in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eung Seok; Heo, Chaejeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Min

    2013-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss in the substantianigra (SN) and elevated iron levels demonstrated by autopsy and with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Direct visualization of iron with live imaging techniques has not yet been successful. The aim of this study is to visualize and quantify the distribution of cellular iron using an intrinsic iron hyperspectral fluorescence signal. The 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cellular model of PD was established in SHSY5Y cells. The cells were exposed to iron by treatment with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, 100 μM) for up to 6 hours. The hyperspectral fluorescence imaging signal of iron was examined usinga high- resolution dark-field optical microscope system with signal absorption for the visible/ near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. The 6-hour group showed heavy cellular iron deposition compared with the small amount of iron accumulation in the 1-hour group. The cellular iron was dispersed in a small, particulate form, whereas extracellular iron was detected in an aggregated form. In addition, iron particles were found to be concentrated on the cell membrane/edge of shrunken cells. The cellular iron accumulation readily occurred in MPP+-induced cells, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating elevated iron levels in the SN in PD. This direct iron imaging methodology could be applied to analyze the physiological role of iron in PD, and its application might be expanded to various neurological disorders involving other metals, such as copper, manganese or zinc.

  8. Cellular Dynamic Simulator: An Event Driven Molecular Simulation Environment for Cellular Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Waxham, M. Neal; Kubota, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Cellular Dynamic Simulator (CDS) for simulating diffusion and chemical reactions within crowded molecular environments. CDS is based on a novel event driven algorithm specifically designed for precise calculation of the timing of collisions, reactions and other events for each individual molecule in the environment. Generic mesh based compartments allow the creation / importation of very simple or detailed cellular structures that exist in a 3D environment. Multiple levels of compartments and static obstacles can be used to create a dense environment to mimic cellular boundaries and the intracellular space. The CDS algorithm takes into account volume exclusion and molecular crowding that may impact signaling cascades in small sub-cellular compartments such as dendritic spines. With the CDS, we can simulate simple enzyme reactions; aggregation, channel transport, as well as highly complicated chemical reaction networks of both freely diffusing and membrane bound multi-protein complexes. Components of the CDS are generally defined such that the simulator can be applied to a wide range of environments in terms of scale and level of detail. Through an initialization GUI, a simple simulation environment can be created and populated within minutes yet is powerful enough to design complex 3D cellular architecture. The initialization tool allows visual confirmation of the environment construction prior to execution by the simulator. This paper describes the CDS algorithm, design implementation, and provides an overview of the types of features available and the utility of those features are highlighted in demonstrations. PMID:20361275

  9. Application of spectral hole burning to the study of in vitro cellular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovich, Nebojsa

    1999-11-08

    Chapter 1 of this thesis describes the various stages of tumor development and a multitude of diagnostic techniques used to detect cancer. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the aspects of hole burning spectroscopy important for its application to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 3 gives general descriptions of cellular organelles, structures, and physical properties that can serve as possible markers for the differentiation of normal and cancerous cells. Also described in Chapter 3 are the principles of cryobiology important for low temperature spectroscopy of cells, characterization of MCF-10F (normal) and MCF-7 (cancer) cells lines which will serve as model systems, and cellular characteristics of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (APT), which was used as the test probe. Chapters 4 and 5 are previously published papers by the author pertaining to the results obtained from the application of hole burning to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 4 presents the first results obtained by spectral hole burning of cellular systems and Chapter 5 gives results for the differentiation of MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells stained with APT by an external applied electric (Stark) field. A general conclusion is presented in Chapter 6. Appendices A and B provide additional characterization of the cell/probe model systems. Appendix A describes the uptake and subcellular distribution of APT in MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells and Appendix B compares the hole burning characteristics of APT in cells when the cells are in suspension and when they are examined while adhering to a glass coverslip. Appendix C presents preliminary results for a novel probe molecule, referred to as a molecular thumbtack, designed by the authors for use in future hole burning applications to cellular systems.

  10. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  11. The Use of Statistical Tests to Calibrate the Black-Scholes Asset Dynamics Model Applied to Pricing Options with Uncertain Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Zirilli; Francesca Mariani; Maria Cristina Recchioni; Lorella Fatone

    2012-01-01

    A new method for calibrating the Black-Scholes asset price dynamics model is proposed. The data used to test the calibration problem included observations of asset prices over a finite set of (known) equispaced discrete time values. Statistical tests were used to estimate the statistical significance of the two parameters of the Black-Scholes model: the volatility and the drift. The effects of these estimates on the option pricing problem were investigated. In particular, the pricing of an op...

  12. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  13. Interference cancellation technique under imperfect synchronization in cellular systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xin; WU; Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an asynchronous cooperative cellular system applied with space-time block coding(STBC)is investigated. A signal detector is proposed based on parallel interference cancellation(PIC), to cancel the inter-symbol interference(ISI)caused by the imperfect synchronization. Simulation results show that the proposed PIC detector can effectively suppress the ISI, but there is still a comparatively high error floor, due to the co-channel interference(CCI)of the cellular system.

  14. Fabrication of Biocompatible, Vibrational Magnetoelastic Materials for Controlling Cellular Adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Rajachar, Rupak M.; Keat Ghee Ong; Ee Lim Tan; Hal R. Holmes

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the functionalization of magnetoelastic (ME) materials with Parylene-C coating to improve the surface reactivity to cellular response. Previous study has demonstrated that vibrating ME materials were capable of modulating cellular adhesion when activated by an externally applied AC magnetic field. However, since ME materials are not inherently biocompatible, surface modifications are needed for their implementation in biological settings. Here, the long-term stability of ...

  15. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of afrotherians

    OpenAIRE

    Kleber eNeves; Fernanda eMeireles Ferreira; Fernanda eTovar-Moll; Nadine eGravett; Bennett, Nigel C.; Consolate eKaswera; Emmanuel eGilissen; Paul eManger; Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate and eulipotyphlan brains has shown that nonneuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in evolution in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of afrotherians, believed to be the first clade to radiate from ...

  16. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of afrotherians

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Kleber; Ferreira, Fernanda M.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Gravett, Nadine; Bennett, Nigel C.; Kaswera, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate and eulipotyphlan brains has shown that non-neuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in evolution in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of afrotherians, believed to be the first clade to radiate from...

  17. Boltzmann learning of parameters in cellular neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    1992-01-01

    The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified ...... unsupervised adaptation of an image segmentation cellular network. The learning rule is applied to adaptive segmentation of satellite imagery......The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified by...

  18. Development of discrete ordinates code supporting unstructured tetrahedral mesh and applied in neutronics analysis for the Korea Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woon, E-mail: jwkim@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989 Daeduck-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Woo; Lee, Young-Ouk; Lee, Dong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989 Daeduck-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We developed discrete ordinates transport solver which uses discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) as a spatial discretization to deal with an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. • For pre- and post-processing, Gmsh is used to generate unstructured tetrahedral mesh by importing CAD file (*.step) and visualize the calculation results. • We applied this code to a TBM neutronics analysis, the neutron flux distribution in the Korea HCCR TBM is compared with that of MCNPX, and visualized in a three-dimensional system domain. • Calculated total flux averaged over multilayer zone shows good agreement with that of MCNPX. - Abstract: The discrete ordinates code under development by KAERI uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, and thus it can be applied to solve the radiation transport in a complicated geometry. In addition, the geometry modeling process has become much easier because computational tetrahedral meshes are generated based on the CAD file by Gmsh. As our first phase of applying the code to a TBM neutronics analysis, the neutron flux distribution in the Korea HCCR TBM is compared with that of MCNPX, and visualized in a three-dimensional system domain. Visualization of the fluxes and associated reaction rates in the whole system with a single run is one of the merits of a deterministic method and is very useful for checking hot spots.

  19. Development of discrete ordinates code supporting unstructured tetrahedral mesh and applied in neutronics analysis for the Korea Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We developed discrete ordinates transport solver which uses discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) as a spatial discretization to deal with an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. • For pre- and post-processing, Gmsh is used to generate unstructured tetrahedral mesh by importing CAD file (*.step) and visualize the calculation results. • We applied this code to a TBM neutronics analysis, the neutron flux distribution in the Korea HCCR TBM is compared with that of MCNPX, and visualized in a three-dimensional system domain. • Calculated total flux averaged over multilayer zone shows good agreement with that of MCNPX. - Abstract: The discrete ordinates code under development by KAERI uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, and thus it can be applied to solve the radiation transport in a complicated geometry. In addition, the geometry modeling process has become much easier because computational tetrahedral meshes are generated based on the CAD file by Gmsh. As our first phase of applying the code to a TBM neutronics analysis, the neutron flux distribution in the Korea HCCR TBM is compared with that of MCNPX, and visualized in a three-dimensional system domain. Visualization of the fluxes and associated reaction rates in the whole system with a single run is one of the merits of a deterministic method and is very useful for checking hot spots

  20. Ring exciting thin layer method applied to the forced vibration test of the Hualien large scale soil-structure interactions (SSI) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blind prediction and post-test correlation analyses are conducted on the forced vibration tests of the 1/4 scale reinforced concrete cylindrical containment model both before and after backfill. In the present paper described for the case after backfill, the ring exciting thin layer technique was introduced to account realistically for the axisymmetrical irregularity of the soil condition due to the backfill. The computed results demonstrated that the proposed method has a great potential for simulating the dynamic responses of the soil-structure system to the forced vibration. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs

  1. The Red-Attractiveness Effect, Applying the Ioannidis and Trikalinos (2007b) Test, and the Broader Scientific Context: A Reply to Francis (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2013-01-01

    Francis (2013) tested for and found evidence of publication bias in 1 of the 3 focal relations examined in Elliot et al. (2010), that between red and attractiveness. He then called into question the research as a whole and the field of experimental psychology more generally. Our reply has 3 foci. First, we attend to the bottom line regarding the…

  2. Actual problems of cellular cardiomyoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kaupov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides review of cellular technologies used incardiology, describes types of cellular preparations depending onsources of cells and types of compounding cells. The generalmechanisms of therapies with stem cells applications are described.Use of cellular preparations for treatment of cardiovascular diseasesand is improvement of the forecast at patients with heartinsufficiency of various genesis is considered as alternative topractice with organ transplantations. Efforts of biotechnologicallaboratories are directed on search of optimum population of cellsfor application in cardiology and studying of mechanisms andfactors regulating function of cardiac stem cells.

  3. The unified model, a fully-compressible, non-hydrostatic, deep atmosphere global circulation model, applied to hot Jupiters. ENDGame for a HD 209458b test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Nathan J.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Acreman, David M.; Smith, Chris; Browning, Matthew K.; Skålid Amundsen, David; Wood, Nigel; Thuburn, John; Jackson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We are adapting the global circulation model (GCM) of the UK Met Office, the so-called unified model (UM), for the study of hot Jupiters. In this work we demonstrate the successful adaptation of the most sophisticated dynamical core, the component of the GCM which solves the equations of motion for the atmosphere, available within the UM, ENDGame (Even Newer Dynamics for General atmospheric modelling of the environment). Within the same numerical scheme ENDGame supports solution to the dynamical equations under varying degrees of simplification. We present results from a simple, shallow (in atmospheric domain) hot Jupiter model (SHJ), and a more realistic (with a deeper atmosphere) HD 209458b test case. For both test cases we find that the large-scale, time-averaged (over the 1200 days prescribed test period), dynamical state of the atmosphere is relatively insensitive to the level of simplification of the dynamical equations. However, problems exist when attempting to reproduce the results for these test cases derived from other models. For the SHJ case the lower (and upper) boundary intersects the dominant dynamical features of the atmosphere meaning the results are heavily dependent on the boundary conditions. For the HD 209458b test case, when using the more complete dynamical models, the atmosphere is still clearly evolving after 1200 days, and in a transient state. Solving the complete (deep atmosphere and non-hydrostatic) dynamical equations allows exchange between the vertical and horizontal momentum of the atmosphere, via Coriolis and metric terms. Subsequently, interaction between the upper atmosphere and the deeper more slowly evolving (radiatively inactive) atmosphere significantly alters the results, and acts over timescales longer than 1200 days. Figures 1, 4-8, 10 and 11 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Development of In-Can Melting Process Applied to Vitrification of High Activity Waste Solutions (HAWS): Glass characterizations and process tests results - 12442

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEA has selected vitrification for specific High-Activity nuclear Waste Solutions (HAWS) containing large quantities of salts. This choice has led the CEA Marcoule to develop a compact 'in-can' batch melting process in which the melting pot is disposable and serves as the primary canister for the solidified glass. This process is particularly suitable for the treatment of small waste quantities (less than 10 m3 per year) and low flow rates (5 to 10 L/h) which do not justify the use of a Cold Crucible Induction Melter. The unit capacity is approximately one hundred kilograms of glass a week operating alternately between feeding during the day and surveillance at night. In order to be fully representative of the glove box to be implemented, a new nonradioactive pilot-scale unit in which the core process (furnace and dust scrubber) is completely enclosed with glove box simulation was built at CEA Marcoule in 2008. The equipment includes all the systems and components necessary to perform full-scale tests: feed system, furnace and complete off-gas treatment system. The nominal tests were performed in 2009 and 2010 to verify that no problems arose in vitrifying solutions under the specified conditions. Two different liquid feeds representatives of the current HAWS stored and future solutions were used. The transient runs were carried out in this facility in 2010. Their objectives were to validate the glass product with different operating conditions and to determine optimum parameters for transient phases such as decreased volatility during standby phases. Finally, all the material obtained under nominal conditions or different operating conditions (e.g. initial glass frit quantity, standby temperature or restart procedure of feeding after night surveillance) have been characterized and described. The impact of transient phases on the process is then discussed in terms of volatility, thermal balance, etc., and compared with nominal tests results. Off-gas treatment

  5. Development of In-Can Melting Process Applied to Vitrification of High Activity Waste Solutions (HAWS): Glass characterizations and process tests results - 12442

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, P.; Lemonnier, S.; Lacombe, J.; Papin, Y.; Hugon, I. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division - Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Batifol, B.; Pescayre, L. [CEA, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2012-07-01

    The CEA has selected vitrification for specific High-Activity nuclear Waste Solutions (HAWS) containing large quantities of salts. This choice has led the CEA Marcoule to develop a compact 'in-can' batch melting process in which the melting pot is disposable and serves as the primary canister for the solidified glass. This process is particularly suitable for the treatment of small waste quantities (less than 10 m{sup 3} per year) and low flow rates (5 to 10 L/h) which do not justify the use of a Cold Crucible Induction Melter. The unit capacity is approximately one hundred kilograms of glass a week operating alternately between feeding during the day and surveillance at night. In order to be fully representative of the glove box to be implemented, a new nonradioactive pilot-scale unit in which the core process (furnace and dust scrubber) is completely enclosed with glove box simulation was built at CEA Marcoule in 2008. The equipment includes all the systems and components necessary to perform full-scale tests: feed system, furnace and complete off-gas treatment system. The nominal tests were performed in 2009 and 2010 to verify that no problems arose in vitrifying solutions under the specified conditions. Two different liquid feeds representatives of the current HAWS stored and future solutions were used. The transient runs were carried out in this facility in 2010. Their objectives were to validate the glass product with different operating conditions and to determine optimum parameters for transient phases such as decreased volatility during standby phases. Finally, all the material obtained under nominal conditions or different operating conditions (e.g. initial glass frit quantity, standby temperature or restart procedure of feeding after night surveillance) have been characterized and described. The impact of transient phases on the process is then discussed in terms of volatility, thermal balance, etc., and compared with nominal tests results. Off

  6. Cellular spaces, null spaces and homotopy localization

    CERN Document Server

    Farjoun, Emmanuel Dror

    1996-01-01

    In this monograph we give an exposition of some recent development in homotopy theory. It relates to advances in periodicity in homotopy localization and in cellular spaces. The notion of homotopy localization is treated quite generally and encompasses all the known idempotent homotopy functors. It is applied to K-theory localizations, to Morava-theories, to Hopkins-Smith theory of types. The method of homotopy colimits is used heavily. It is written with an advanced graduate student in topology and research homotopy theorist in mind.

  7. Voluntary accreditation of cellular therapies: Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, P I

    2003-01-01

    Voluntary accreditation of cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products intended for human transplantation is an important mechanism for improving quality in cellular therapy. The Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) has developed and implemented programs of voluntary inspection and accreditation for hematopoietic cellular therapy, and for cord blood banking. These programs are based on the standards of the clinical and laboratory professionals of the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT), and NETCORD. FACT has collaborated with European colleagues in the development of the Joint Accreditation Committee in Europe (jACIE). FACT has published standards documents, a guidance manual, accreditation checklists, and inspection documents; and has trained as inspectors over 300 professionals active in the field. All inspectors have a minimum of 5 years' experience in the area they inspect. Since the incorporation of FACT in 1996, 215 hematopoietic progenitor cell facilities have applied for FACT accreditation. Of these facilities, 113 are fully accredited; the others are in the process of document submission or inspection. Significant opportunities and challenges exist for FACT in the future, including keeping standards and guidance materials current and relevant, recruiting and retaining expert inspectors, and establishing collaborations to develop standards and accreditation systems for new cellular products. The continuing dialogue with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is also important to ensure that they are aware of the accomplishments of voluntary accreditation, and keep FACT membership alerted to FDA intentions for the future. Other potential avenues of communication and cooperation with FDA and other regulatory agencies are being investigated and evaluated. PMID:12944235

  8. The influence of optical properties of paints and coatings on the efficiency of infrared nondestructive testing applied to aluminum aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, D.; Vavilov, V. P.; Pawar, S. S.

    2016-07-01

    IR NDT (Infrared Nondestructive Testing) is a popular method for detecting defects in composite, ceramic, and metallic structures. The effectiveness of IR NDT depends on various thermal and optical properties of the material being tested. The thermal properties, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat and density are important and have been discussed extensively in many treatises on IR NDT. However the optical properties of the surface are equally important and while the thermal properties cannot be changed, sometimes the optical properties can be. Bare metal surfaces have high reflectivities and low emissivities, and as a result, they are generally not good candidates for IR NDT. Painted, coated, anodized, and oxidized metal surfaces can, in some cases, be successfully tested with IR NDT, but the effectiveness depends on the optical properties of the surface. It is well known by IR NDT practitioners that the easy solution to the testing of reflective materials is to paint the surface black. However, this is not always practical and it may not be permitted by the "owner" of the part. This paper demonstrates a process of analyzing the interaction of spectral curves that are relevant to the IR NDT process. This process can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of an IR NDT process for use on real parts with specific coatings and can help select a coating that may improve the effectiveness. This paper shows examples of optical properties for some typical paints and coatings that may be used on aluminum aircraft structures. It shows the spectrum of a generic incandescent radiant heat source and how the energy from this source is absorbed by several of these paints. Further, it shows the interaction between an IR camera detector response curve and the other curves. And finally, it shows how these three can be combined to produce an "IR NDT" efficiency rating for several examples.

  9. Influence of the heat losses and accumulated heat upon the evolution of the thermohydraulic processes in the transients as applied to the ISB-WWER integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the calculational study using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 thermalhydraulic code performed on the influence of the heat losses to the ambient and the heat accumulated in the pipelines walls upon the evolution of the thermalhydraulic processes in the primary circuit of the integral test facility ISB-WWER when simulating the transients caused by the loss of the coolant are presented in the paper. (authors)

  10. Hydrogeology from 10,000 ft below: lessons learned in applying pulse testing for leakage detection in a carbon sequestration formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A. Y.; Lu, J.; Hovorka, S. D.; Freifeld, B. M.; Islam, A.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring techniques capable of deep subsurface detection are desirable for early warning and leakage pathway identification in geologic carbon storage formations. This work investigates the feasibility of a leakage detection technique based on pulse testing, which is a traditional hydrogeological characterization tool. In pulse testing, the monitoring reservoir is stimulated at a fixed frequency and the acquired pressure perturbation signals are analyzed in the frequency domain to detect potential deviations in the reservoir's frequency domain response function. Unlike traditional time-domain analyses, the frequency-domain analysis aims to minimize the interference of reservoir noise by imposing coded injection patterns such that the reservoir responses to injection can be uniquely determined. We have established the theoretical basis of the approach in previous work. Recently, field validation of this pressure-based, leakage detection technique was conducted at a CO2-EOR site located in Mississippi, USA. During the demonstration, two sets of experiments were performed using 90-min and 150-min pulsing periods, for both with and without leak scenarios. Because of the lack of pre-existing leakage pathways, artificial leakage CO2 was simulated by rate-controlled venting from one of the monitoring wells. Our results show that leakage events caused a significant deviation in the amplitude of the frequency response function, indicating that pulse testing may be used as a cost-effective monitoring technique with a strong potential for automation.

  11. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the open-quotes hit or missclose quotes type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA's required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Literature Review on Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Houshyar, A.; Leman, Z.; Pakzad Moghadam, H.; Ariffin, M. K. A. M.; Ismail, N.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2014-06-01

    In previous decades, manufacturers faced a lot of challenges because of globalization and high competition in markets. These problems arise from shortening product life cycle, rapid variation in demand of products, and also rapid changes in manufcaturing technologies. Nowadays most manufacturing companies expend considerable attention for improving flexibility and responsiveness in order to overcome these kinds of problems and also meet customer's needs. By considering the trend toward the shorter product life cycle, the manufacturing environment is towards manufacturing a wide variety of parts in small batches [1]. One of the major techniques which are applied for improving manufacturing competitiveness is Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). CMS is type of manufacturing system which tries to combine flexibility of job shop and also productivity of flow shop. In addition, Dynamic cellular manufacturing system which considers different time periods for the manufacturing system becomes an important topic and attracts a lot of attention to itself. Therefore, this paper made attempt to have a brief review on this issue and focused on all published paper on this subject. Although, this topic gains a lot of attention to itself during these years, none of previous researchers focused on reviewing the literature of that which can be helpful and useful for other researchers who intend to do the research on this topic. Therefore, this paper is the first study which has focused and reviewed the literature of dynamic cellular manufacturing system.

  14. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis. (paper)

  15. Evaluation of the Radiochemistry of Near-Field Water Samples at the Nevada Test Site Applied to the Definition of a Hydrologic Source Term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D K

    2002-07-05

    Effective management of available groundwater resources and strategies for remediation of water impacted by past nuclear testing practices depend on knowledge about the migration of radionuclides in groundwater away from the sites of the explosions. A primary concern is to assess the relative mobilities of the different radionuclide species found near sites of underground nuclear tests and to determine the concentration, extent, and speed of this movement. Ultimately the long term transport behavior of radionuclides with half-lives long enough that they will persist for decades, their interaction with groundwater, and the resulting flux of these contaminants is of paramount importance. As part of a comprehensive approach to these assessments, more than three decades of site-specific sites studies have been undertaken at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which have focused on the means responsible for the observed or suspected movement of radionuclides away from underground nuclear tests (RNM, 1983). More recently regional and local models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport have been developed as part of a federal and state of Nevada program to assess the long-term effects of underground nuclear testing on human health and environment (e.g., U.S. DOE/NV, 1997a; Tompson et al., 1999; Pawloski et al., 2001). Necessary to these efforts is a reliable measure of the hydrologic source term which is defined as those radionuclides dissolved in or otherwise transported by groundwater (Smith et al., 1995). Measurement of radionuclides in waters sampled near the sites of underground nuclear test provides arguably the best opportunity to bound the hydrologic source term. This empirical approach was recognized early and concentration data has been collected annually since mid-1970's. Initially three sites were studied at the NTS; over the years the program has been expanded to include more than fifteen study locations. As part of various field programs, Lawrence

  16. Cellular mechanisms during vascular development

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    The vascular system is an essential organ in vertebrate animals and provides the organism with enough oxygen and nutrients. It is composed of an interconnected network of blood vessels, which form using a number of different morphogenetic mechanisms. Angiogenesis describes the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. A number of molecular pathways have been shown to be essential during angiogenesis. However, cellular architecture of blood vessels as well as cellular mechanisms...

  17. Predictive Modelling of Cellular Load

    OpenAIRE

    Carolan, Emmett; McLoone, Seamus; Farrell, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the temporal dynamics of cellular load in four Irish regions. Large scale underutilisation of network resources is identified both at the regional level and at the level of individual cells. Cellular load is modeled and prediction intervals are generated. These prediction intervals are used to put an upper bound on usage in a particular cell at a particular time. Opportunities for improvements in network utilization by incorporating these upper bounds on usage are identifie...

  18. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    OpenAIRE

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the...

  19. Initial hazard screening for genotoxicity of photo-transformation products of ciprofloxacin by applying a combination of experimental and in-silico testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolaram, Anju Priya; Haddad, Tarek; Leder, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic found within μg/L concentration range in the aquatic environment. It is a known contributor of umuC induction in hospital wastewater samples. CIP can undergo photolysis to result in many transformation products (TPs) of mostly unknown toxicity. The aims of this study were to determine the genotoxicity of the UV mixtures and to understand the possible genotoxic role of the stable TPs. As such, CIP and its UV-irradiated mixtures were investigated in a battery of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in vitro assays. The combination index (CI) analysis of residual CIP in the irradiated mixtures was performed for the umu assay. Further, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) predicted selected genotoxicity endpoints of the identified TPs. CIP achieved primary elimination after 128 min of irradiation but was not completely mineralized. Nine photo-TPs were identified. The irradiated mixtures were neither mutagenic in the Ames test nor genotoxic in the in vitro micronucleus (MN) test. Like CIP, the irradiated mixtures were umuC inducing. The CI analysis revealed that the irradiated mixtures and the corresponding CIP concentration in the mixtures shared similar umuC potentials. QSAR predictions suggested that the TPs may be capable of inducing chromosome aberration, MN in vivo, bacterial mutation and mammalian mutation. However, the experimental testing for a few genotoxic endpoints did not show significant genotoxic activity for the TPs present as a component of the whole mixture analysis and therefore, further genotoxic endpoints may need to be investigated to fully confirm this. PMID:26748250

  20. Development of superconductor magnetic suspension and balance prototype facility for studying the feasibility of applying this technique to large scale aerodynamic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, R. N.; Humphris, R. R.; Henderson, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    The unique design and operational characteristics of a prototype magnetic suspension and balance facility which utilizes superconductor technology are described and discussed from the point of view of scalability to large sizes. The successful experimental demonstration of the feasibility of this new magnetic suspension concept of the University of Virginia, together with the success of the cryogenic wind-tunnel concept developed at Langley Research Center, appear to have finally opened the way to clean-tunnel, high-Re aerodynamic testing. Results of calculations corresponding to a two-step design extrapolation from the observed performance of the prototype magnetic suspension system to a system compatible with the projected cryogenic transonic research tunnel are presented to give an order-of-magnitude estimate of expected performance characteristics. Research areas where progress should lead to improved design and performance of large facilities are discussed.

  1. Heterogeneous-phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide with vermiculite-supported magnesium oxide (as applied to the control of jet engine test cell emissions). Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimm, L.T.

    1995-11-01

    Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a non-steady-state stationary source like a jet engine test cell (JETC) requires a method that is effective over a wide range of conditions. A heterogeneous, porous, high surface area sorbent material comprised of magnesium oxide powder attached to a vermiculite substrate has been commercially developed for this purpose. Data from extensive laboratory testing of this material in a packed-bed flow system are presented. NO2 removal efficiencies, kinetics, and proposed NO2 removal mechanisms over a range of representative JETC exhaust gas characteristics are described. Exhaust gas variables evaluated included: NO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate (retention time), oxygen content, and moisture content. Availability of water and oxygen were found to be important variables. It is probable that water is necessary for the conversion of MgO to Mg(OH)2, which is a more reactive compound having thermal stability over the range of temperatures evaluated. Gaseous oxygen serves to oxidize NO to NO2, the latter being more readily removed from the gas stream. The presence of oxygen also serves to offset thermal decomposition of NO2 or surface nitrite/nitrate. Effective `lifetime` and regenerability of the exposed sorbent material were also evaluated. NO2 removal efficiencies were found to greatly exceed those for NO, with a maximum value greater than 90 percent. The effective conversion of NO to NO2 is a crucial requirement for removal of the former. The reaction between NO2 and MgO-vermiculite is first-order with respect to NO2.

  2. Spectral efficiency of cellular land mobile radio systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hammuda, H; McGeehan, JP; Bateman, A.

    1988-01-01

    A rigorous and comprehensive approach to the definition and evaluation of spectral efficiency of cellular land mobile radio systems is presented. The method accounts for all pertinent system parameters within a cellular land mobile radio network. Subjective tests to evaluate the protection ratio for various systems is thought to be imperative to the evaluation of spectral efficiency. A comparison is made of a number of current and proposed mobile radio schemes based on the spectral efficiency...

  3. Comparative Study of Dermatophytic Fungi for Extra Cellular Proteases Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchita Chaturvedi; Sonal Pathak; Ruchi Upadhyay; Shweta Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are known to produce proteases of different kind. The dermatphytic fungal strains were isolated from human skin tissues for extra cellular proteases efficacy. The present study deals with purification, estimation and comparison of extracellular proteases from five fungal species. (Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp. , Fumigatus Sp. , Aspergillus Sp. and Mucor Sp.). All the five fungal strains showed good amount of extra cellular protease activity in terms of unit total protein content. By test...

  4. Black Box Besting Applied On Anti-torpedo Display Console Software Testing%黑盒测试技术在反鱼雷显控台软件测试中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰龙

    2014-01-01

    Software testing is an important process of the software development, and designing the test cases is the key to the software testing. This essay describes some common black box software testing technology, like equivalence partition-ing method, boundary condition method, the decision-making table method and functional decomposition. And analyzes these own characteristics and suitable range of applications. In the case of anti-torpedo Display Console software testing, for example, it described in detail how to apply these methods in a black box testing practice. Practice has proved that the use of black-box testing techniques for functional testing, can quickly write a scientific test cases, greatly improving testing effi-ciency, and achieve good test results.%软件测试是软件产品开发过程中的重要环节,其中软件测试用例的设计是软件测试的关键。本文介绍了等价类划分法、边界条件法、决策表法及功能分解法这几种常见的黑盒测试技术,分析了其各自的特点及其适宜的应用范围。同时以反鱼雷显控台软件测试为例,详细叙述了如何在测试实践中应用这些黑盒测试方法。实践证明,使用黑盒测试技术进行功能测试,能科学快速的编写出测试用例,极大的提高测试效率,并取得好的测试效果。

  5. Sub-cellular force microscopy in single normal and cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babahosseini, H. [VT MEMS Laboratory, The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Carmichael, B. [Nonlinear Intelligent Structures Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0276 (United States); Strobl, J.S. [VT MEMS Laboratory, The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Mahmoodi, S.N., E-mail: nmahmoodi@eng.ua.edu [Nonlinear Intelligent Structures Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0276 (United States); Agah, M., E-mail: agah@vt.edu [VT MEMS Laboratory, The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2015-08-07

    This work investigates the biomechanical properties of sub-cellular structures of breast cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cells are modeled as a triple-layered structure where the Generalized Maxwell model is applied to experimental data from AFM stress-relaxation tests to extract the elastic modulus, the apparent viscosity, and the relaxation time of sub-cellular structures. The triple-layered modeling results allow for determination and comparison of the biomechanical properties of the three major sub-cellular structures between normal and cancerous cells: the up plasma membrane/actin cortex, the mid cytoplasm/nucleus, and the low nuclear/integrin sub-domains. The results reveal that the sub-domains become stiffer and significantly more viscous with depth, regardless of cell type. In addition, there is a decreasing trend in the average elastic modulus and apparent viscosity of the all corresponding sub-cellular structures from normal to cancerous cells, which becomes most remarkable in the deeper sub-domain. The presented modeling in this work constitutes a unique AFM-based experimental framework to study the biomechanics of sub-cellular structures. - Highlights: • The cells are modeled as a triple-layered structure using Generalized Maxwell model. • The sub-domains include membrane/cortex, cytoplasm/nucleus, and nuclear/integrin. • Biomechanics of corresponding sub-domains are compared among normal and cancer cells. • Viscoelasticity of sub-domains show a decreasing trend from normal to cancer cells. • The decreasing trend becomes most significant in the deeper sub-domain.

  6. Sub-cellular force microscopy in single normal and cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the biomechanical properties of sub-cellular structures of breast cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cells are modeled as a triple-layered structure where the Generalized Maxwell model is applied to experimental data from AFM stress-relaxation tests to extract the elastic modulus, the apparent viscosity, and the relaxation time of sub-cellular structures. The triple-layered modeling results allow for determination and comparison of the biomechanical properties of the three major sub-cellular structures between normal and cancerous cells: the up plasma membrane/actin cortex, the mid cytoplasm/nucleus, and the low nuclear/integrin sub-domains. The results reveal that the sub-domains become stiffer and significantly more viscous with depth, regardless of cell type. In addition, there is a decreasing trend in the average elastic modulus and apparent viscosity of the all corresponding sub-cellular structures from normal to cancerous cells, which becomes most remarkable in the deeper sub-domain. The presented modeling in this work constitutes a unique AFM-based experimental framework to study the biomechanics of sub-cellular structures. - Highlights: • The cells are modeled as a triple-layered structure using Generalized Maxwell model. • The sub-domains include membrane/cortex, cytoplasm/nucleus, and nuclear/integrin. • Biomechanics of corresponding sub-domains are compared among normal and cancer cells. • Viscoelasticity of sub-domains show a decreasing trend from normal to cancer cells. • The decreasing trend becomes most significant in the deeper sub-domain

  7. Detecção de emissão espontânea de luz em ensaios de colimetria aplicados ao monitoramento de efluentes sanitários Spontaneous light emission in coliforms test applied to wastewater monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ricardo dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho avaliou-se o potencial do emprego da técnica biofotônica ao monitoramento da qualidade microbiológica de efluentes sanitários, por meio da detecção de emissão ultrafraca de luz em testes envolvendo bactéria do grupo coliforme. Foram acompanhados os padrões de emissão de luz em câmara escura com o uso de efluente doméstico, antes e após tratamento, incubados em meio nutritivo à base de lactose e lauril triptose. O controle foi efetuado com o uso de cepa de Escherichia coli (ATCC 25.922, tendo seu crescimento sido monitorado por emissão de luz em câmara escura com fotomultiplicador acoplado. Os dados demonstraram que o monitoramento microbiológico pode ser efetuado por meio técnica biofotônica, podendo ser aplicado, com respostas rápidas, ao monitoramento microbiológico de efluentes, por meio de testes envolvendo coliformes.The spontaneous light emission of living systems emerge as a promising methodology that applied to microbiological in monitoring water can lead to short-term analysis. The present study evaluated the potential of biophoton measurements applied to wastewater monitoring by using ultraweak light emission in coliform tests. The procedure is based on photon-counting measurements inside a dark-chamber, of wastewater samples, before and after treatment, inoculated in nutrient presence/absence medium (lactose and lauryl triptose broth. Strain of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25,922 was used in control tests by monitoring the light emission inside a dark-chamber with an acoplade photomultiplier. The data showed that microbiological monitoring can be done by photon-counting in real-time applied to microbiological wastewater monitoring using coliform test.

  8. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  9. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  10. Prognosis of Different Cellular Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetish Ranjan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement in mobile telephony from 1G to 3G, 4G and 5G has a very axiomatic fact that made an entire world a global village. The cellular system employs a different design approach and technology that most commercial radio and television system use. In the cellular system, the service area is divided into cells and a transmitter is designed to serve an individual cell. The system seeks to make efficient use of available channels by using low-power transmitters to allow frequency reuse at a smaller distance. Maximizing the number of times each channel can be reused in a given geographical area is the key to an efficient cellular system design. During the past three decades, the world has seen significant changes in telecommunications industry. There have been some remarkable aspects to the rapid growth in wireless communications, as seen by the large expansion in mobile systems. This paper focuses on “Past, Present & Future of Cellular Telephony” and some light has been thrown upon the technologies of the cellular systems, namely 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G and future generations like 4G and 5G systems as well.

  11. Physiological considerations in applying laboratory-determined buoyant densities to predictions of bacterial and protozoan transport in groundwater: Results of in-situ and laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Kinner, N.; Mayberry, N.

    1997-01-01

    Buoyant densities were determined for groundwater bacteria and microflagellates (protozoa) from a sandy aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) using two methods: (1) density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) and (2) Stoke's law approximations using sedimentation rates observed during natural-gradient injection and recovery tests. The dwarf (average cell size, 0.3 ??m), unattached bacteria inhabiting a pristine zone just beneath the water table and a majority (~80%) of the morphologically diverse community of free- living bacteria inhabiting a 5-km-long plume of organically-contaminated groundwater had DGC-determined buoyant densities <1.019 g/cm3 before culturing. In the aquifer, sinking rates for the uncultured 2-??m size class of contaminant plume bacteria were comparable to that of the bromide tracer (1.9 x 10-3 M), also suggesting a low buoyant density. Culturing groundwater bacteria resulted in larger (0.8-1.3 ??m), less neutrally- buoyant (1.043-1.081 g/cm3) cells with potential sedimentation rates up to 64-fold higher than those predicted for the uncultured populations. Although sedimentation generally could be neglected in predicting subsurface transport for the community of free-living groundwater bacteria, it appeared to be important for the cultured isolates, at least until they readapt to aquifer conditions. Culturing-induced alterations in size of the contaminant-plume microflagellates (2-3 ??m) were ameliorated by using a lower nutrient, acidic (pH 5) porous growth medium. Buoyant densities of the cultured microflagellates were low, i.e., 1.024-1.034 g/cm3 (using the DGC assay) and 1.017-1.039 g/cm3 (estimated from in-situ sedimentation rates), suggesting good potential for subsurface transport under favorable conditions.

  12. Aging, cellular senescence, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Judith

    2013-01-01

    For most species, aging promotes a host of degenerative pathologies that are characterized by debilitating losses of tissue or cellular function. However, especially among vertebrates, aging also promotes hyperplastic pathologies, the most deadly of which is cancer. In contrast to the loss of function that characterizes degenerating cells and tissues, malignant (cancerous) cells must acquire new (albeit aberrant) functions that allow them to develop into a lethal tumor. This review discusses the idea that, despite seemingly opposite characteristics, the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies of aging are at least partly linked by a common biological phenomenon: a cellular stress response known as cellular senescence. The senescence response is widely recognized as a potent tumor suppressive mechanism. However, recent evidence strengthens the idea that it also drives both degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies, most likely by promoting chronic inflammation. Thus, the senescence response may be the result of antagonistically pleiotropic gene action. PMID:23140366

  13. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi

    The monitoring of cellular behavior is useful for the advancement of biomedical diagnostics, drug development and the understanding of a cell as the main unit of the human body. Micro- and nanotechnology allow for the creation of functional devices that enhance the study of cellular dynamics by...... modifications for electrochemical nanosensors for the detection of analytes released from cells. Two type of materials were investigated, each pertaining to the two different aspects of such devices: peptide nanostructures were studied for the creation of cellular sensing substrates that mimic in vivo surfaces...... and that offer advantages of functionalization, and conducting polymers were used as electrochemical sensor surface modifications for increasing the sensitivity towards relevant analytes, with focus on the detection of dopamine released from cells via exocytosis. Vertical peptide nanowires were...

  14. Cellular-based preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cellular-based preemption system that uses existing cellular infrastructure to transmit preemption related data to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles through one or more intersections. A cellular unit in an emergency vehicle is used to generate position reports that are transmitted to the one or more intersections during an emergency response. Based on this position data, the one or more intersections calculate an estimated time of arrival (ETA) of the emergency vehicle, and transmit preemption commands to traffic signals at the intersections based on the calculated ETA. Additional techniques may be used for refining the position reports, ETA calculations, and the like. Such techniques include, without limitation, statistical preemption, map-matching, dead-reckoning, augmented navigation, and/or preemption optimization techniques, all of which are described in further detail in the above-referenced patent applications.

  15. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, I-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  16. Exploration and Practice of the Cultivation Model of Applied Software Testing Talents%应用型软件测试人才培养模式探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰景英

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing the status of software testing industry and the demand for applied software testing talents,and meeting the requirements for software testers,this paper discusses the principles and content of designing software testing curriculum,and e%在分析软件测试行业的现状和应用型软件测试人才需求的基础上,针对软件测试人员职业要求,探讨了软件测试专业课程体系设计的原则和内容,提出以培养专业核心能力为主线的教学体系的构建,实施以提升创新实践能力为目标的实践环境建设和双师型师资队伍建设策略。

  17. Cellular senescence in aging primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Utz; Ferreira, Mark; Condel, Laura; Carey, Dee; Sedivy, John M

    2006-03-01

    The aging of organisms is characterized by a gradual functional decline of all organ systems. Mammalian somatic cells in culture display a limited proliferative life span, at the end of which they undergo an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as replicative senescence. Whether cellular senescence contributes to organismal aging has been controversial. We investigated telomere dysfunction, a recently discovered biomarker of cellular senescence, and found that the number of senescent fibroblasts increases exponentially in the skin of aging baboons, reaching >15% of all cells in very old individuals. In addition, the same cells contain activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase and heterochromatinized nuclei, confirming their senescent status. PMID:16456035

  18. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the system spontaneously splitting into stable domains separated by static boundaries, some synchronously oscillating and the others incoherent. When the coupling range is local, nontrivial coherent structures with different periodicities are formed.

  19. Prognosis of Different Cellular Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Preetish Ranjan; Prabhat Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Technological advancement in mobile telephony from 1G to 3G, 4G and 5G has a very axiomatic fact that made an entire world a global village. The cellular system employs a different design approach and technology that most commercial radio and television system use. In the cellular system, the service area is divided into cells and a transmitter is designed to serve an individual cell. The system seeks to make efficient use of available channels by using low-power transmitters to allow frequen...

  20. THE REALIZATION OF ORTHOGONAL EXPERIMENT APPLIED IN HANDSET'S SOFTWARE TEST CASE GENERATION%正交试验法在手机软件测试用例生成中的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲; 吴进华

    2011-01-01

    In order to overcome the hardship of a large number of test cases versus the difficulty for automation in handset testing, at the same time considering the representation of orthogonal experiment with the combination of its general process and the particularity of handset software testing, the paper brings forward an approach to generate steps for handset software testing cases with orthogonal experiment. Such steps are applied to WMTF by establishing its AbstractionLayer, AreaLibrary and Tests projects to realize the automate execution of test cases.Conclusion from the result says the test cases generated by orthogonal experiment are on the one hand simplified and on the other hand highly coverable and feasible. The proposed orthogonal experiment is worth reference value to the practical generation of handset software test cases.%针对手机软件测试中测试用例数目较大且不易实现自动化这一难点,考虑利用正交试验法的代表性可以大量精简测试用例.结合正交试验法的一般过程和手机软件测试的特殊性,提出利用正交试验法生成手机软件测试用例的步骤,并将这一步骤应用到实际WMTF(Windows Mobile Test Framework)中.通过搭建WMTF中的AbstractionLayer,AreaLibrary,Tests项目来自动执行测试用例.结论证明正交试验法生成的测试用例不仅精简,而且具有高覆盖率、简单易行的特点,对于实际手机测试用例的生成方法具有一定的参考价值.

  1. Towards a continuum theory of movement in interacting cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Timothy

    2003-10-01

    Interacting cellular systems form the basis of all higher organisms, and are fundamental to the understanding of embryogenesis, organ function, and neoplasms. I will describe a stochastic model of cell interactions which can be applied to these problems, and present some of our recent results on chemotactic response.

  2. On the Cellular Indecomposable Property of Semi-Fredholm Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guozheng CHENG; Xiang FANG

    2012-01-01

    The authors prove that an operator with the cellular indecomposable property has no singular points in the semi-Fredholm domain,by applying the 4 × 4 matrix model of semi-Fredholm operators due to Fang in 2004. This result fills a gap in the result of Olin and Thomson in 1984.

  3. EFICIÊNCIA DOS MERCADOS FUTUROS DE COMMODITIES AGRÍCOLAS APLICANDO-SE O TESTE DE COINTEGRAÇÃO./ EFFICIENCY OF THE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY FUTURES MARKET BY APPLYING THE COINTEGRATION TEST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Harry Harzer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de testar a forma fraca de eficiência do mercado futuro brasileiro dacommoditie agrícola café arábica, usando a técnica de cointegração a fim de verificar se os preços futuroscorrentes são estimadores não viesados dos preços à vista esperados para o futuro. Para isso, utiliza asséries históricas de janeiro de 2005 a maio de 2011 dos preços futuros, que foram coletados na Bolsa deMercadorias e Futuros – BM&F, e os preços à vista calculados pelo CEPEA/ESALQ/USP. As métricas utilizadassão os testes ADF de Dickey e Fuller para detectar a presença de raiz unitária e o teste de cointegraçãode Johansen para verificar a existência de um relacionamento de longo prazo. Os resultados indicaram anão estacionariedade das séries de preços e a presença de cointegração. Porém, o teste dos parâmetrosα = 0 e β = 1 da regressão que comprovam a eficiência fraca e não viés encontraram indícios estatísticosde não eficiência de mercado, bem como da presença de um viés indicando a existência de um prêmioassociado ao risco./ This article aims at testing the weak form of efficiency of the commodity futures market in Arabicacoffee farming using the cointegration technique in order to check if the current futures prices arebiased estimators of spot prices expected for the future. Thereto it uses the futures prices time seriesfrom January 2005 to May 2011, which were collected in the Commodities and Futures Exchange - BM &F and spot prices, calculated by CEPEA / ESALQ / USP. Dickey and Fuller’s ADF tests are the metrics usedto detect the presence of unit root and Johansen’s cointegration test is used to verify the existence ofa long term relationship. The results indicated the non-stationarity of price series besides the presenceof cointegration. However, regression parameters testing α = 0 e β = 1 proves that weak efficiency andnon-biased found statistical evidence of non-market efficiency

  4. Effects of remote drop and pumpdown placement on cellular concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hazards to the public posed by abandoned mine shafts are well documented. As private development encroaches on previously mined areas, the potential for fatalities and serious injuries from abandoned mine shafts increases. The US Bureau of Mines has conducted research into cellular concrete as a material for sealing these openings. The current work involves testing the characteristics of cellular concrete before and after it had been pumped or dropped from different heights into a simulated mine shaft. Cellular concrete was pumped vertically up to and subsequently dropped from heights of 18 and 37 m into concrete forms. Wet density measurements were made at multiple sampling points in the test circuit. Air content determinations and uniaxial compressive strength testing were conducted. Research results are discussed

  5. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M;

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in ra...

  6. Cellular signalling properties in microcircuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; El Manira, Abdeljabbar; Wallén, Peter; Svirskis, Gytis; Hounsgaard, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    Molecules and cells are the signalling elements in microcircuits. Recent studies have uncovered bewildering diversity in postsynaptic signalling properties in all areas of the vertebrate nervous system. Major effort is now being invested in establishing the specialized signalling properties at th...... cellular and molecular levels in microcircuits in specific brain regions. This review is part of the TINS Microcircuits Special Feature....

  7. Quantum Cloning by Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    D'Ariano, G. M.; Macchiavello, C.; M. Rossi

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a quantum cellular automaton that achieves approximate phase-covariant cloning of qubits. The automaton is optimized for 1-to-2N economical cloning. The use of the automaton for cloning allows us to exploit different foliations for improving the performance with given resources.

  8. Analysis of cellular manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Meng, Gang; Zijm, Henk; Ommeren, van Jan-Kees

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an open queuing network modeling approach to estimate performance measures of a cellular manufacturing layout. It is assumed a layout and production data for a planning period of specified length are available. The production data takes into account, processing and handli

  9. From Cellular Mechanotransduction to Biologically Inspired Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a lecture I presented as the recipient of the 2009 Pritzker Distinguished Lecturer Award at the Biomedical Engineering Society annual meeting in October 2009. Here, I review more than thirty years of research from my laboratory, beginning with studies designed to test the theory that cells use tensegrity (tensional integrity) architecture to stabilize their shape and sense mechanical signals, which I believed to be critical for control of cell function and tissue development. Although I was trained as a cell biologist, I found that the tools I had at my disposal were insufficient to experimentally test these theories, and thus I ventured into engineering to find critical solutions. This path has been extremely fruitful as it has led to confirmation of the critical role that physical forces play in developmental control, as well as how cells sense and respond to mechanical signals at the molecular level through a process known as cellular mechanotransduction. Many of the predictions of the cellular tensegrity model relating to cell mechanical behaviors have been shown to be valid, and this vision of cell structure led to discovery of the central role that transmembrane adhesion receptors, such as integrins, and the cytoskeleton play in mechanosensing and mechanochemical conversion. In addition, these fundamental studies have led to significant unexpected technology fallout, including development of micromagnetic actuators for non-invasive control of cellular signaling, microfluidic systems as therapeutic extracorporeal devices for sepsis therapy, and new DNA-based nanobiotechnology approaches that permit construction of artificial tensegrities that mimic properties of living materials for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:20140519

  10. Assessing the weather monitoring capabilities of cellular microwave link networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Martin; Vrzba, Miroslav; Rieckermann, Jörg; Bareš, Vojtěch

    2016-04-01

    Using of microwave links for rainfall monitoring was suggested already by (Atlas and Ulbrich, 1977). However, this technique attracted broader attention of scientific community only in the recent decade, with the extensive growth of cellular microwave link (CML) networks, which form the backbone of today's cellular telecommunication infrastructure. Several studies have already shown that CMLs can be conveniently used as weather sensors and have potential to provide near-ground path-integrated observations of rainfall but also humidity or fog. However, although research is still focusing on algorithms to improve the weather sensing capabilities (Fencl et al., 2015), it is not clear how to convince cellular operators to provide the power levels of their network. One step in this direction is to show in which regions or municipalities the networks are sufficiently dense to provide/develop good services. In this contribution we suggest a standardized approach to evaluate CML networks in terms of rainfall observation and to identify suitable regions for CML rainfall monitoring. We estimate precision of single CML based on its sensitivity to rainfall, i.e. as a function of frequency, polarization and path length. Capability of a network to capture rainfall spatial patterns is estimated from the CML coverage and path lengths considering that single CML provides path-integrated rain rates. We also search for suitable predictors for regions where no network topologies are available. We test our approach on several European networks and discuss the results. Our results show that CMLs are very dense in urban areas (> 1 CML/km2), but less in rural areas (evaluate the suitability of their region for CML weather monitoring and estimate the credible spatial-resolution of a CML weather monitoring product. Atlas, D. and Ulbrich, C. W. (1977) Path- and Area-Integrated Rainfall Measurement by Microwave Attenuation in the 1-3 cm Band. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 16(12), 1322

  11. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechsteleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ; Wolf, D.E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechstleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ]|[Gerhard-Mercator-Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Theoretische Physik; Wagner, P. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Zentrum Fuer Paralleles Rechnen]|[Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Simon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  12. The similia principle: results obtained in a cellular model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegant, Fred; Van Wijk, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research program focused on the beneficial effect of low dose stress conditions that were applied according to the similia principle to cells previously disturbed by more severe stress conditions. In first instance, we discuss criteria for research on the similia principle at the cellular level. Then, the homologous ('isopathic') approach is reviewed, in which the initial (high dose) stress used to disturb cellular physiology and the subsequent (low dose) stress are identical. Beneficial effects of low dose stress are described in terms of increased cellular survival capacity and at the molecular level as an increase in the synthesis of heat shock proteins (hsps). Both phenomena reflect a stimulation of the endogenous cellular self-recovery capacity. Low dose stress conditions applied in a homologous approach stimulate the synthesis of hsps and enhance survival in comparison with stressed cells that were incubated in the absence of low dose stress conditions. Thirdly, the specificity of the low dose stress condition is described where the initial (high dose) stress is different in nature from the subsequently applied (low dose) stress; the heterologous or 'heteropathic' approach. The results support the similia principle at the cellular level and add to understanding of how low dose stress conditions influence the regulatory processes underlying self-recovery. In addition, the phenomenon of 'symptom aggravation' which is also observed at the cellular level, is discussed in the context of self-recovery. Finally, the difference in efficiency between the homologous and the heterologous approach is discussed; a perspective is indicated for further research; and the relationship between studies on the similia principle and the recently introduced concept of 'postconditioning hormesis' is emphasized. PMID:20129172

  13. Photogrammetry Applied to Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Shu; Cattafesta, L. N., III; Radeztsky, R. H.; Burner, A. W.

    2000-01-01

    In image-based measurements, quantitative image data must be mapped to three-dimensional object space. Analytical photogrammetric methods, which may be used to accomplish this task, are discussed from the viewpoint of experimental fluid dynamicists. The Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) for camera calibration, used in pressure sensitive paint, is summarized. An optimization method for camera calibration is developed that can be used to determine the camera calibration parameters, including those describing lens distortion, from a single image. Combined with the DLT method, this method allows a rapid and comprehensive in-situ camera calibration and therefore is particularly useful for quantitative flow visualization and other measurements such as model attitude and deformation in production wind tunnels. The paper also includes a brief description of typical photogrammetric applications to temperature- and pressure-sensitive paint measurements and model deformation measurements in wind tunnels.

  14. Hypoxic challenge test applied to healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Helene Elgaard; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Hanel, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2) decreases <90%. OBJECTIVE: Study responses to a modified HCT, encompassing various body positions and light physical activity, reflecting relevant activities of children during flight, with a view to challenge the evidence of the current cut-off. METHODS: Oxygenation......-300) walking 5 km/h. Light exercise in general led to lower SpO2: 91% (77-96%), p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: A modified HCT led to moments of desaturation below 90% in various body positions at rest and during light physical activity in healthy schoolchildren. It is questionable whether the international recommended...

  15. Determining Lineage Pathways from Cellular Barcoding Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leïla Perié

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular barcoding and other single-cell lineage-tracing strategies form experimental methodologies for analysis of in vivo cell fate that have been instrumental in several significant recent discoveries. Due to the highly nonlinear nature of proliferation and differentiation, interrogation of the resulting data for evaluation of potential lineage pathways requires a new quantitative framework complete with appropriate statistical tests. Here, we develop such a framework, illustrating its utility by analyzing data from barcoded multipotent cells of the blood system. This application demonstrates that the data require additional paths beyond those found in the classical model, which leads us to propose that hematopoietic differentiation follows a loss of potential mechanism and to suggest further experiments to test this deduction. Our quantitative framework can evaluate the compatibility of lineage trees with barcoded data from any proliferating and differentiating cell system.

  16. 飞航导弹测试系统测控信号适配方法的研究与设计%Research and Applied Design of the Test and Control Signals Adaption for Winged Missiles' Test Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张驰; 梁彦; 梁明

    2012-01-01

    以构建于虚拟仪器和PXI总线体系结构的飞航导弹测试系统为基础,针对待检待控信号繁杂的现状,对各类输入/输出信号进行具有针对性的电气适配与调理;重点围绕开关量输入信号状态准确判定,模拟量对弹装定信号的驱动能力与电气隔离,强电磁干扰环境下脉冲串信号精确计数等关键技术展开攻关;通过采取开关量光隔接入逻辑鉴别,模拟量双端差动运放隔离输出设计,基于电平判读的脉冲串计数软硬件设计等措施,有效保证了测试系统与导弹之间良好的电气接口匹配关系。%The current auto test systems of winged missiles are built on the Virtual Instruments(VI)and PXI bus architectures.Since the types of the being measured parameters and controlled signals relating to the test systems are very complex,the pertinent technical resolvents of electrical adaption put on the input and output signals are adopted.Some critical technologies are discussed,including the accurate identification for the switch input signals' states,drive capability and electric isolation of analog setting signals,and the precise count of pulse signals in the environment of powerful electromagnetic interference.Then those are carried out systematically that the logistic distinction of photoisolators for the switch input signals,the isolated output design of double-ended differential operational amplifiers for analog output signals,and the software and hardware design for the burst signals count based on the level interpretation,which ensure the good electrical matching relations between the testing equipments and missiles.

  17. From cellular doses to average lung dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitive basal and secretory cells receive a wide range of doses in human bronchial and bronchiolar airways. Variations of cellular doses arise from the location of target cells in the bronchial epithelium of a given airway and the asymmetry and variability of airway dimensions of the lung among airways in a given airway generation and among bronchial and bronchiolar airway generations. To derive a single value for the average lung dose which can be related to epidemiologically observed lung cancer risk, appropriate weighting scenarios have to be applied. Potential biological weighting parameters are the relative frequency of target cells, the number of progenitor cells, the contribution of dose enhancement at airway bifurcations, the promotional effect of cigarette smoking and, finally, the application of appropriate regional apportionment factors. Depending on the choice of weighting parameters, detriment-weighted average lung doses can vary by a factor of up to 4 for given radon progeny exposure conditions. (authors)

  18. Knowledge discovery for geographical cellular automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xia; Anthony; Gar-On; Yeh

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for geographical simulation by applying data mining techniques to cellular automata. CA has strong capabilities in simulating complex systems. The core of CA is how to define transition rules. There are no good methods for defining these transition rules. They are usually defined by using heuristic methods and thus subject to uncertainties. Mathematical equations are used to represent transition rules implicitly and have limitations in capturing complex relationships. This paper demonstrates that the explicit transition rules of CA can be automatically reconstructed through the rule induction procedure of data mining. The proposed method can reduce the influences of individual knowledge and preferences in defining transition rules and generate more reliable simulation results. It can efficiently discover knowledge from a vast volume of spatial data.

  19. Cellular ceramics in combustion environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuessel, Alexander; Boettge, Daniela; Adler, Joerg; Marschallek, Felix; Michaelis, Alexander [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Cellular materials have become increasingly interesting for applications in combustion environments. Improvements like high power efficiency and low emissions are the main targets of technological development in combustion processes. However, despite scientific and technical success in developing new or improved burner concepts over recent years, a lot of problems remain to be solved in the field of materials science: due to the high power density of the burners the materials are subjected to high loads in terms of thermal shock, temperature and corrosion, especially in so-called porous burner technology. This article shows some examples of research and development strategies and results in developing improved cellular ceramics. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Designing Underwater Cellular Networks Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejman Khadivi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation and tactical surveillance are some of the applications of underwater networks. Underwater networks should send the gathered information to other users or an offshore station via a base station in the sea. Since the available bandwidth in underwater is severely limited, frequency reuse and cellular networks concepts are very important. In this paper, after driving the ratio of signal to interference for underwater acoustic channels, the constraints for the cell radius are determined. One of the important results of this work is that, for special parameters like bandwidth, it may be impossible to provide the required signal to interference ratio and bandwidth for the network users. Furthermore, in this paper, number of supportable users, per-user bandwidth, and the user capacity for a cellular underwater network are determined.

  1. A comparison of Monte Carlo and cellular automata approaches for semiconductor device simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandler, G.; Di Carlo, A.; Kometer, K.; Lugli, P.; Vogl, P.; Gornik, E. (Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany))

    1993-02-01

    The authors present a detailed comparison of Monte Carlo and cellular automata approaches as applied to the study of nonequilibrium transport and semiconductor device simulation. They show that the novel cellular automata (CA) technique enjoys all benefits of the more traditional Monte Carlo (MC) method, while at the same time allowing considerably higher performances.

  2. Stochastic Nature in Cellular Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 刘圣君; 王祺; 晏世伟; 耿轶钊; SAKATA Fumihiko; GAO Xing-Fa

    2011-01-01

    The importance of stochasticity in cellular processes is increasingly recognized in both theoretical and experimental studies. General features of stochasticity in gene regulation and expression are briefly reviewed in this article, which include the main experimental phenomena, classification, quantization and regulation of noises. The correlation and transmission of noise in cascade networks are analyzed further and the stochastic simulation methods that can capture effects of intrinsic and extrinsic noise are described.

  3. Xtoys cellular automata on xwindows

    CERN Document Server

    Creutz, M

    1995-01-01

    Xtoys is a collection of xwindow programs for demonstrating simulations of various statistical models. Included are xising, for the two dimensional Ising model, xpotts, for the q-state Potts model, xautomalab, for a fairly general class of totalistic cellular automata, xsand, for the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfield model of self organized criticality, and xfires, a simple forest fire simulation. The programs should compile on any machine supporting xwindows.

  4. Analysis of cellular manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Meng, Gang; Zijm, Henk; Ommeren, van, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an open queuing network modeling approach to estimate performance measures of a cellular manufacturing layout. It is assumed a layout and production data for a planning period of specified length are available. The production data takes into account, processing and handling set-up times as well as transfer and process batch size information of multiple products that flow through the system. It is assumed that two sets of discrete material handling devices are used fo...

  5. Cellular Dynamics of RNA Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Chengqi; Pan, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research have identified over 100 types of ribonucleosides that are post-transcriptionally modified. Many modified nucleosides are conserved in bacteria, archeae and eukaryotes, while some modified nucleosides are unique to each branch of life. However, the cellular and functional dynamics of RNA modifications remains largely unexplored, mostly due to the lack of functional hypotheses and experimental methods for quantification and large scale analysis. Just as many well characteri...

  6. Cellular Dynamics of RNA Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chengqi; Pan, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Conspectus Decades of research have identified over 100 types of ribonucleosides that are post-transcriptionally modified. Many modified nucleosides are conserved in bacteria, archeae and eukaryotes, while some modified nucleosides are unique to each branch of life. However, the cellular and functional dynamics of RNA modifications remains largely unexplored, mostly due to the lack of functional hypotheses and experimental methods for quantification and large scale analysis. Just as many well characterized protein and DNA modifications, many RNA modifications are not essential for life. Instead, increasingly more evidence indicates that RNA modifications can play regulatory roles in cells, especially in response to stress conditions. In this Account, we review some known examples of RNA modifications that are dynamically controlled in cells and introduce some contemporary technologies and methods that enhance the studies of cellular dynamics of RNA modifications. Examples of RNA modifications discussed in this Account include (Figure 1): (1) 4-thio uridine (s4U) which can act as a cellular sensor of near UV-light; (2) queuosine (Q) which is a potential biomarker for malignancy; (3) N6-methyl adenine (m6A) which is the prevalent modification in eukaryotic mRNAs; and (4) pseudouridine (ψ) which are inducible by nutrient deprivation. Two recent technical advances that stimulated the studies of cellular dynamics of modified ribonucleosides are also described. First, a genome-wide method combines primer extension and microarray to study N1-methyl adenine (m1A) hypomodification in human tRNA. Second, a quantitative mass spectrometric method investigates dynamic changes of a wide range of tRNA modifications under stress conditions in yeast. In addition, we discuss potential mechanisms that control dynamic regulation of RNA modifications, and hypotheses for discovering potential RNA de-modification enzymes. We conclude the Account by highlighting the need to develop new

  7. CELLULAR FETAL MICROCHIMERISM IN PREECLAMPSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gammill, Hilary S; Aydelotte, Tessa M.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Nkwopara, Evangelyn C.; Nelson, J. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown elevated concentrations of free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid and erythroblasts in maternal circulation in preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. Pluripotent and immunocompetent fetal cells also transfer to the maternal circulation during pregnancy, but whether concentrations of fetal mononuclear cells also differed in preeclampsia was unknown. We sought to quantify cellular fetal microchimerism in maternal circulation in women with preeclampsia and healthy con...

  8. The Origins of Cellular Life

    OpenAIRE

    Schrum, Jason P.; Zhu, Ting F.; SZOSTAK, JACK W.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the origin of cellular life on Earth requires the discovery of plausible pathways for the transition from complex prebiotic chemistry to simple biology, defined as the emergence of chemical assemblies capable of Darwinian evolution. We have proposed that a simple primitive cell, or protocell, would consist of two key components: a protocell membrane that defines a spatially localized compartment, and an informational polymer that allows for the replication and inheritance of fun...

  9. Progress of cellular dedifferentiation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hu-xian; HU Da-hai; JIA Chi-yu; FU Xiao-bing

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation, the stepwise specialization of cells, and transdifferentiation, the apparent switching of one cell type into another, capture much of the stem cell spotlight. But dedifferentiation, the developmental reversal of a cell before it reinvents itself, is an important process too. In multicellular organisms, cellular dedifferentiation is the major process underlying totipotency, regeneration and formation of new stem cell lineages. In humans,dedifferentiation is often associated with carcinogenesis.The study of cellular dedifferentiation in animals,particularly early events related to cell fate-switch and determination, is limited by the lack of a suitable,convenient experimental system. The classic example of dedifferentiation is limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians, such as salamanders. Recently, several investigators have shown that certain mammalian cell types can be induced to dedifferentiate to progenitor cells when stimulated with the appropriate signals or materials. These discoveries open the possibility that researchers might enhance the endogenous regenerative capacity of mammals by inducing cellular dedifferentiation in vivo.

  10. Force control for mechanoinduction of impedance variation in cellular organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantly exposed to various forms of mechanical forces inherent in their physical environment (such as gravity, stress induced by fluid flow or cell–cell interactions, etc), cellular organisms sense such forces and convert them into biochemical signals through the processes of mechanosensing and mechanotransduction that eventually lead to biological changes. The effect of external forces on the internal structures and activities in a cellular organism may manifest in changes its physical properties, such as impedance. Studying variation in the impedance of a cellular organism induced by the application of an external mechanical force represents a meaningful endeavor (from a biosystems perspective) in exploring the complex mechanosensing and mechanotransduction mechanisms that govern the behavior of a cellular organism under the influence of external mechanical stimuli. In this paper we describe the development of an explicit force-feedback control system for exerting an indentation force on a cellular organism while simultaneously measuring its impedance. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this force-control system, we have conducted experiments using zebrafish embryos as a test model of a cellular organism. We report experimental results demonstrating that the application of a properly controlled external force leads to a significant change in the impedance of a zebrafish embryo. These results offer support for a plausible explanation that activities of pore canals in the chorion are responsible for the observed change in impedance.

  11. Dynamic properties of cellular neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Slavova

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of a new class of information-processing systems called Cellular Neural Networks is investigated. In this paper we introduce a small parameter in the state equation of a cellular neural network and we seek for periodic phenomena. New approach is used for proving stability of a cellular neural network by constructing Lyapunov's majorizing equations. This algorithm is helpful for finding a map from initial continuous state space of a cellular neural network into discrete output. A comparison between cellular neural networks and cellular automata is made.

  12. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  13. Uncertainty Evaluation on Tensile Strength Testing Results of Flexible Cellular Polymeric Materials%软质泡沫聚合材料拉伸强度测定结果的不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹏; 陈兴龙; 巨文军; 张少民

    2012-01-01

    According to the test method in GB/T 6344--2008, the tensile strength of flexible polyurethane foam was determined. The main sources of uncertainty resulted from the determination process were discussed and calculated. The results show the tensile strength of the flexible polyurethane foam was 142 kPa, and the expanded standard uncertainty of the testing results was 2 kPa when coverage factor k= 2.%依据GB/T6344--2008测定了聚氨酯软泡的拉伸强度,并对拉伸强度测定结果的不确定度进行了分析评定。结果表明:该聚氨酯软泡的拉伸强度为142kPa时,测定结果的扩展不确定度为2kPa,包含因子k=2。

  14. Cellular pressure and volume regulation and implications for cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyuan; Sun, Sean X

    2013-08-01

    In eukaryotic cells, small changes in cell volume can serve as important signals for cell proliferation, death, and migration. Volume and shape regulation also directly impacts the mechanics of cells and tissues. Here, we develop a mathematical model of cellular volume and pressure regulation, incorporating essential elements such as water permeation, mechanosensitive channels, active ion pumps, and active stresses in the cortex. The model can fully explain recent experimental data, and it predicts cellular volume and pressure for several models of cell cortical mechanics. Moreover, we show that when cells are subjected to an externally applied load, such as in an atomic force microscopy indentation experiment, active regulation of volume and pressure leads to a complex cellular response. Instead of the passive mechanics of the cortex, the observed cell stiffness depends on several factors working together. This provides a mathematical explanation of rate-dependent response of cells under force. PMID:23931309

  15. Organização celular dos testículos em Hylidae e Leptodactylidae, no Pantanal (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil = Cellular organization of the testes in Hylidae and Leptodactylidae, in the Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Ferreira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e comparar a organização das células germinativas em diferentes estádios de diferenciação celular nos machos adultos de Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Pseudis limellum (Cope, 1862, Pseudis paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758 e Scinax acuminatus (Cope, 1862, pertencentes à família Hylidae, e deLeptodactylus chaquensis (Cei, 1950 e L. podicipinus (Cope, 1862, pertencentes à família Leptodactylidae, coletados no Pantanal e na serra da Bodoquena, no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Os testículos foram retirados, fixados, desidratados em uma série alcoólica e incluídos em resina plástica do tipo methacrilato glicol (Historesin Leica®; cortados a 3 μm, corados com azul de toluidina 1% e observados no microscópio de luz. Constatou-se que os indivíduos da família Hylidae apresentam, em todas as épocas do ano, presença de todas as células de linhagem germinativa da espermatogênese. Já os indivíduos da família Leptodactylidae apresentam todas as células da linhagem germinativa somente no período chuvoso. As variações das características na organização dos epitélios seminíferos, assim como da evidente diferença na quantidade de espermatozoides no interior dos túbulos, demonstram que os anuros estudados apresentam diferentes formas de desenvolvimento da espermatogênese ao longo do ano: de forma cíclica para os da família Hylidae e acíclica, com liberação explosiva de espermatozoides, para os da família Leptodactylidae.The objective of this work was to make a comparative analysis of germ cell organization at different stages of cellular differentiation inadult males of Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Pseudis limellum (Cope, 1862, P. paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758, and Scinax acuminatus (Cope, 1862, belonging to the family Hylidae; andLeptodactylus chaquensis (Cei, 1950 and L. podicipinus (Cope, 1862, belonging to the family Leptodactylidae, collected in the Pantanal and in

  16. Cellular host responses to gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Najbauer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive type of malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Molecular and genetic analysis has advanced our understanding of glioma biology, however mapping the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment is crucial for understanding the pathology of this dreaded brain cancer. In this study we identified major cell populations attracted by glioma using orthotopic rodent models of human glioma xenografts. Marker-specific, anatomical and morphological analyses revealed a robust influx of host cells into the main tumor bed and tumor satellites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human glioma cell lines and glioma spheroid orthotopic implants were used in rodents. In both models, the xenografts recruited large numbers of host nestin-expressing cells, which formed a 'network' with glioma. The host nestin-expressing cells appeared to originate in the subventricular zone ipsilateral to the tumor, and were clearly distinguishable from pericytes that expressed smooth muscle actin. These distinct cell populations established close physical contact in a 'pair-wise' manner and migrated together to the deeper layers of tumor satellites and gave rise to tumor vasculature. The GBM biopsy xenografts displayed two different phenotypes: (a low-generation tumors (first in vivo passage in rats were highly invasive and non-angiogenic, and host nestin-positive cells that infiltrated into these tumors displayed astrocytic or elongated bipolar morphology; (b high-generation xenografts (fifth passage had pronounced cellularity, were angiogenic with 'glomerulus-like' microvascular proliferations that contained host nestin-positive cells. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 and its receptor CXCR4 were highly expressed in and around glioma xenografts, suggesting their role in glioma progression and invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a robust migration of nestin-expressing host cells to glioma, which

  17. Game of Life Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s, British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells' states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway's Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational

  18. Cellular automata a parallel model

    CERN Document Server

    Mazoyer, J

    1999-01-01

    Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.

  19. Mathematical Physics of Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA) containing no freely adjustable parameters. The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and its invariances allow to classify all CA rules into equivalence classes. Complexity in 1D systems is then shown to emerge from the weak symmetry breaking of the addition modulo an integer number p. The latter symmetry is possessed by certain rules that produce Pascal simplices in their time evolution. These results elucidate Wolfram's classification of CA dynamics.

  20. Estimation in Cellular Radio Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Fredrik; Gustafsson, Fredrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem to track time-varying parameters in cellular radio systems is studied, and the focus is on estimation based only on the signals that are readily available. Previous work have demonstrated very good performance, but were relying on analog measurement that are not available. Most of the information is lost due to quantization and sampling at a rate that might be as low as 2 Hz (GSM case). For that matter a maximum likelihood estimator have been designed and exemplified in the case o...

  1. 'Biomoleculas': cellular metabolism didactic software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Biomoleculas' is a software that deals with topics such as the digestion, cellular metabolism and excretion of nutrients. It is a pleasant, simple and didactic guide, made by and for students. In this program, each biomolecule (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) is accompanied until its degradation and assimilation by crossing and interrelating the different metabolic channels to finally show the destination of the different metabolites formed and the way in which these are excreted. It is used at present as a teaching-learning process tool by the chair of Physiology and Biophysics at the Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios

  2. Protein accounting in the cellular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the copy number of cellular proteins is critical for understanding cell physiology. By being able to measure the absolute synthesis rates of the majority of cellular proteins, Li et al. (2014) gain insights into key aspects of translation regulation and fundamental principles of cellular strategies to adjust protein synthesis according to the needs. PMID:24766801

  3. Cellular Functions of Transient Receptor Potential channels

    OpenAIRE

    Dadon, Daniela; Minke, Baruch

    2010-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential channels are polymodal cellular sensors involved in a wide variety of cellular processes, mainly by increasing cellular Ca2+. In this review we focus on the roles of these channels in: i) cell death ii) proliferation and differentiation and iii) synaptic vesicle release.

  4. Traffic jam dynamics in stochastic cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States); Schreckenberg, M. [Univ. Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Simple models for particles hopping on a grid (cellular automata) are used to simulate (single lane) traffic flow. Despite their simplicity, these models are astonishingly realistic in reproducing start-stop-waves and realistic fundamental diagrams. One can use these models to investigate traffic phenomena near maximum flow. A so-called phase transition at average maximum flow is visible in the life-times of jams. The resulting dynamic picture is consistent with recent fluid-dynamical results by Kuehne/Kerner/Konhaeuser, and with Treiterer`s hysteresis description. This places CA models between car-following models and fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. CA models are tested in projects in Los Alamos (USA) and in NRW (Germany) for large scale microsimulations of network traffic.

  5. Movies of cellular and sub-cellular motion by digital holographic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lingfeng

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many biological specimens, such as living cells and their intracellular components, often exhibit very little amplitude contrast, making it difficult for conventional bright field microscopes to distinguish them from their surroundings. To overcome this problem phase contrast techniques such as Zernike, Normarsky and dark-field microscopies have been developed to improve specimen visibility without chemically or physically altering them by the process of staining. These techniques have proven to be invaluable tools for studying living cells and furthering scientific understanding of fundamental cellular processes such as mitosis. However a drawback of these techniques is that direct quantitative phase imaging is not possible. Quantitative phase imaging is important because it enables determination of either the refractive index or optical thickness variations from the measured optical path length with sub-wavelength accuracy. Digital holography is an emergent phase contrast technique that offers an excellent approach in obtaining both qualitative and quantitative phase information from the hologram. A CCD camera is used to record a hologram onto a computer and numerical methods are subsequently applied to reconstruct the hologram to enable direct access to both phase and amplitude information. Another attractive feature of digital holography is the ability to focus on multiple focal planes from a single hologram, emulating the focusing control of a conventional microscope. Methods A modified Mach-Zender off-axis setup in transmission is used to record and reconstruct a number of holographic amplitude and phase images of cellular and sub-cellular features. Results Both cellular and sub-cellular features are imaged with sub-micron, diffraction-limited resolution. Movies of holographic amplitude and phase images of living microbes and cells are created from a series of holograms and reconstructed with numerically adjustable

  6. 生物有机肥在铜薯2号上的应用肥效试验%Biological organic fertilizer applied application in copper chips 2 test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨通华

    2015-01-01

    2010年进行了生物有机肥在红薯上的应用肥效试验.结果表明,参试生物有机肥和生物液肥施用后对红薯均有不同程度的增产效果,以生物有机肥+生物液肥处理增产效果最为显著.%the 2010 applied application test of biological organic fertilizer on the sweet potato.The results show that the volunteers' biological organic fertilizer and biological effects of fertilizer on sweet potatoes all have varying degrees of increase yield,to biological organic fertilizer + biological effects of dealing with the most significant effect to increase production.

  7. A análise de solo para discriminar respostas à adubação para a cultura do milho Soil testing applied to estimate corn responses to fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Van Raij

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos parâmetros fornecidos pela análise de solo têm sido usados no Estado de São Paulo para discriminar as respostas à adubação de culturas. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a eficiência desses parâmetros como critério de interpretação, através de estudos de correlação entre resultados de análise de solo e respostas de milho à adubação com nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio em 25 ensaios. Nenhum critério se revelou eficaz para nitrogênio. O teor de fósforo solúvel em H2SO, 0,05N foi eficiente, não tendo havido melhora apreciável das correlações pela consideração dos teores de matéria orgânica, argila ou pH. O teor de potássio trocável revelou-se eficaz, não tendo sido observada melhoria da correlação pela consideração de cálcio e magnésio ou saturação de potássio. No trabalho são apresentadas curvas médias de resposta, bem como as eficiências fertilizantes de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, em conjunto para o primeiro elemento e separadas em grupos de acordo com a análise de terra para os dois outros nutrientes.In this paper some of the criteria that have been used in the State of São Paulo in soil test interpretation were studied, correlating soil test parameters with corn response to applied nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium in 25 field experiments. Exchangeable potassium and phosphorus soluble in 0.05N H2SO, correlated well with responses of the crop to the applied nutrients. Nitrogen responses could not be correlated to soil test values. Response curves and fertilizer efficiencies are presented for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. For the two last nutrients, the average curves are given for very low, low, medium and high soil test values.

  8. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references

  9. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-06-29

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references.

  10. WWW Business Applications Based on the Cellular Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshio Kodama; Tosiyasu L. Kunii; Yoichi Seki

    2008-01-01

    A cellular model based on the Incrementally Modular Abstraction Hierarchy (IMAH) is a novel model that can represent the architecture of and changes in cyberworlds, preserving invariants from a general level to a specific one. We have developed a data processing system called the Cellular Data System (CDS). In the development of business applications, you can prevent combinatorial explosion in the process of business design and testing by using CDS. In this paper, we have first designed and implemented wide-use algebra on the presentation level. Next, we have developed and verified the effectiveness of two general business applications using CDS: 1) a customer information management system, and 2) an estimate system.

  11. Oxidative stress action in cellular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Cristine de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Various theories try to explain the biological aging by changing the functions and structure of organic systems and cells. During lifetime, free radicals in the oxidative stress lead to lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes, homeostasis imbalance, chemical residues formation, gene mutations in DNA, dysfunction of certain organelles, and the arise of diseases due to cell death and/or injury. This review describes the action of oxidative stress in the cells aging process, emphasizing the factors such as cellular oxidative damage, its consequences and the main protective measures taken to prevent or delay this process. Tests with antioxidants: vitamins A, E and C, flavonoids, carotenoids and minerals, the practice of caloric restriction and physical exercise, seeking the beneficial effects on human health, increasing longevity, reducing the level of oxidative stress, slowing the cellular senescence and origin of certain diseases, are discussed.Diferentes teorias tentam explicar o envelhecimento biológico através da alteração das funções e estrutura dos sistemas orgânicos e células. Ao longo da vida, os radicais livres presentes no estresse oxidativo conduzem à peroxidação dos lipídios das membranas celulares, desequilíbrio da homeostase, formação de resíduos químicos, mutações gênicas no DNA, disfunção de certas organelas, bem como ao surgimento de doenças devido à lesão e/ou morte celular. Nesta revisão descreve-se a ação do estresse oxidativo no processo de envelhecimento das células, enfatizando fatores como os danos oxidativos celulares, suas conseqüências e as principais medidas protetoras adotadas para se prevenir ou retardar este processo. Testes com antioxidantes: vitaminas A, E e C, flavonóides, carotenóides e minerais; a prática de restrição calórica e exercícios físicos, que buscam efeitos benéficos sobre a saúde humana, aumentando a longevidade, reduzindo o nível de estresse oxidativo

  12. Universal map for cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Morales, V., E-mail: vmorales@ph.tum.de [Institute for Advanced Study – Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 2a, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-08-20

    A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.

  13. Cellular Therapy for Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltis, Peter J; Schwarz, Nisha; Toledo-Flores, Deborah; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy and heart failure (HF) is underpinned by complex changes at subcellular, cellular and extracellular levels in the ventricular myocardium. For all of the gains that conventional treatments for HF have brought to mortality and morbidity, they do not adequately address the loss of cardiomyocyte numbers in the remodeling ventricle. Originally conceived to address this problem, cellular transplantation for HF has already gone through several stages of evolution over the past two decades. Various cell types and delivery routes have been implemented to positive effect in preclinical models of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy, with pleiotropic benefits observed in terms of myocardial remodeling, systolic and diastolic performance, perfusion, fibrosis, inflammation, metabolism and electrophysiology. To a large extent, these salubrious effects are now attributed to the indirect, paracrine capacity of transplanted stem cells to facilitate endogenous cardiac repair processes. Promising results have also followed in early phase human studies, although these have been relatively modest and somewhat inconsistent. This review details the preclinical and clinical evidence currently available regarding the use of pluripotent stem cells and adult-derived progenitor cells for cardiomyopathy and HF. It outlines the important lessons that have been learned to this point in time, and balances the promise of this exciting field against the key challenges and questions that still need to be addressed at all levels of research, to ensure that cell therapy realizes its full potential by adding to the armamentarium of HF management. PMID:27280304

  14. Evaluación de la inmunidad celular en caninos: prueba de proliferación de linfocitos in vitro Evaluation of cellular immunity in dogs: in vitro lymphocyte proliferation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G Ramayo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La prueba de proliferación de linfocitos inducida por mitógenos in vitro se utiliza para evaluar la inmunidad celular. En el presente trabajo, se comparan los resultados obtenidos con el método tradicional, que utiliza linfocitos purificados para el cultivo y la captación de timidina tritiada como método de medición de la proliferación (LP- ³H, con otras dos metodologías: el uso de sangre entera con revelado por captación de timidina tritiada (SE-³H y el uso de linfocitos purificados con revelado por ensayo colorimétrico con MTT (LP-MTT. Se trabajó sobre muestras de 12 caninos clínicamente sanos que fueron procesadas por las tres metodologías. Se utilizó Concanavalina A como mitógeno y el Indice de Estimulación (IE como expresión de los resultados. El método de SE-³H arrojó valores de IE significativamente mayores que la técnica clásica, por lo que resultaría útil para evaluar la proliferación linfocitaria en caninos en nuestras condiciones de trabajo. El método de LP-MTT mostró valores de IE significativamente menores, por lo que se requieren más estudios para evaluar su posible uso en la medición de la funcionalidad linfocitaria. Sobre la base de los resultados obtenidos se estableció un rango normal de valores de IE para cada método.In vitro mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation test is widely used for evaluation of cellmediated immunity. In the present work, we compare the results of the traditional method, which uses gradient isolated lymphocytes as the source of cells for the culture and tritiated thymidine incorporation to measure proliferative response (LP- ³H, with other two methods: culture of whole blood and proliferation measure with ³H- thymidine (SE-³H, and culture of isolated lymphocytes and proliferation evaluation with a colorimetric assay using MTT (LP-MTT. Blood samples of twelve adult, healthy dogs were processed by the three mentioned methods, using Concanavalin- A as mitogen and the

  15. Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Erika; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Kato, Akihito; Takita, Hiroko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Momose, Takehito; Ogawa, Kosuke; Murakami, Shusuke; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Kawanami, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) consisting of a carbon monolayer has been widely investigated for tissue engineering platforms because of its unique properties. For this study, we fabricated a GO-applied scaffold and assessed the cellular and tissue behaviors in the scaffold. A preclinical test was conducted to ascertain whether the GO scaffold promoted bone induction in dog tooth extraction sockets. For this study, GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a collagen sponge scaffold with 0.1 and 1 µg/mL GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), physical testing, cell seeding, and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then a GO scaffold was implanted into a dog tooth extraction socket. Histological observations were made at 2 weeks postsurgery. SEM observations show that GO attached to the surface of collagen scaffold struts. The GO scaffold exhibited an interconnected structure resembling that of control subjects. GO application improved the physical strength, enzyme resistance, and adsorption of calcium and proteins. Cytocompatibility tests showed that GO application significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. In addition, an assessment of rat subcutaneous tissue response revealed that implantation of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold stimulated cellular ingrowth behavior, suggesting that the GO scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility. The tissue ingrowth area and DNA contents of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold were, respectively, approximately 2.5-fold and 1.4-fold greater than those of the control. Particularly, the infiltration of ED2-positive (M2) macrophages and blood vessels were prominent in the GO scaffold. Dog bone-formation tests showed that 1 µg/mL GO scaffold implantation enhanced bone formation. New bone formation following GO scaffold implantation was enhanced fivefold compared to that in control subjects. These results suggest that GO was biocompatible and had high bone-formation capability for the scaffold

  16. Performance methods for mobility management in cellular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, LQ; Munro, ATD; Barton, MH; McGeehan, JP

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents performance methods for mobility management in cellular networks. A queueing analysis is first undertaken, in which the system is modelled as an open Jackson network, consisting of M M/M/1 queues. Given environmental parameters, the corresponding probability matrix is obtained, and hence the traffic matrix equations. From these equations, the traffic load in each cell is evaluated. Secondly, a BONeS DESIGNER simulation model is created and applied to the evaluation of mobi...

  17. Cellular worlds: a framework for modeling micro - macro dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    H Couclelis

    1985-01-01

    Cellular spaces have recently received a lot of attention in computer science and elsewhere as models capable of bridging the gap between disaggregate and aggregate description. Despite their obvious spatial interpretation, standard cell-space models are too constrained by their background conventions to be useful in realistic geographic applications. In this paper, a generalization of the cell-space principle is presented, based on discrete model theory, and then applied to a hypothetical bu...

  18. Lattice Gas Cellular Automata for Computational Fluid Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldi, Gilson A.; Xavier, Adilson V.; Apolinario Jr, Antonio L.; Rodrigues, Paulo S.

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades showed a rapid growing of physically-based modeling of fluids for computer graphics applications. In this area, a common top down approach is to model the fluid dynamics by Navier-Stokes equations and apply a numerical techniques such as Finite Differences or Finite Elements for the simulation. In this paper we focus on fluid modeling through Lattice Gas Cellular Automata (LGCA) for computer graphics applications. LGCA are discrete models based on point particles that mov...

  19. Evolution of Cellular Automata using Lindenmayer Systems and Fourier Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Sivert

    2013-01-01

    Cellular automata (CAs) are a class of highly parallel computing systems consisting of many simple computing elements called cells. The cells can only communicate with neighboring cells, meaning there is no global communication in the system. Programming such a system to solve complex problems can be a daunting task, and indirect methods are often applied to make it easier. In this thesis we use evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to evolve CAs. We also look at the possibility of employing L-system...

  20. Applied statistical inference with MINITAB

    CERN Document Server

    Lesik, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Through clear, step-by-step mathematical calculations, Applied Statistical Inference with MINITAB enables students to gain a solid understanding of how to apply statistical techniques using a statistical software program. It focuses on the concepts of confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, validating model assumptions, and power analysis.Illustrates the techniques and methods using MINITABAfter introducing some common terminology, the author explains how to create simple graphs using MINITAB and how to calculate descriptive statistics using both traditional hand computations and MINITAB. Sh

  1. Chiral hexagonal cellular sandwich structure: a vibro-acoustic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Tze L.; Spadoni, Alessandro; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2005-05-01

    In this work we describe the vibroacoustic behavior of a novel concept of core for sandwich structures featuring auxetic characteristics, enhanced shear stiffness and compressive strength compared to classical cellular cores in sandwich components for sandwich applications. The out-plane properties and density values are described in terms of geometric parameters of the honeycomb unit cells. Opposite to classical honeycomb cellular applications, the hexagonal chiral structure presents a noncentresymemetric configuration, i.e., a "mirror" symmetrical topology. The derived mechanical properties are used to assess the modal behaviour and modal densities of sandwich plate elements with chiral and standard cellular cores. The analytical findings are backed up by structural tests on chiral honeycomb plates and sandwich beams.

  2. Impact Performance of 3D Integrated Cellular Woven Composite Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Wei; ZHU Cheng-yan

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the impact resistance of 3D integrated cellular woven composite panel under persudo-static impact,comprised the test result with property of typical 3D woven composites, analyzed some parameters that maybe affect composites' impact resistance and at last used SEM to observe the damage process and mechanism of samples. The result shows that the impact resistance of 3D integrated cellular woven composites is much better than the performance of typical 3D woven composites; it is an active method to improve the impact resistance of composites that developing preform with cellular on the basis of typical 3D woven structure; for different 3D integrated cellular woven structure, the value of absorbed-energy is incrensing with the hollow percentage; tiny deformation will not emerge on samples until the acting force gets to 85% of the maximum;similar with typical 3D woven composites, the delaminated phenomenon of 3D integrated cellular woven composites is also unapparent during impact process.

  3. Discrete geodesics and cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamical notion of discrete geodesics, understood as straightest trajectories in discretized curved spacetime. The notion is generic, as it is formulated in terms of a general deviation function, but readily specializes to metric spaces such as discretized pseudo-riemannian manifolds. It is effective: an algorithm for computing these geodesics naturally follows, which allows numerical validation---as shown by computing the perihelion shift of a Mercury-like planet. It is consistent, in the continuum limit, with the standard notion of timelike geodesics in a pseudo-riemannian manifold. Whether the algorithm fits within the framework of cellular automata is discussed at length. KEYWORDS: Discrete connection, parallel transport, general relativity, Regge calculus.

  4. Cellular compartmentalization of secondary metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Corby eKistler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal secondary metabolism is often considered apart from the essential housekeeping functions of the cell. However, there are clear links between fundamental cellular metabolism and the biochemical pathways leading to secondary metabolite synthesis. Besides utilizing key biochemical precursors shared with the most essential processes of the cell (e.g. amino acids, acetyl CoA, NADPH, enzymes for secondary metabolite synthesis are compartmentalized at conserved subcellular sites that position pathway enzymes to use these common biochemical precursors. Co-compartmentalization of secondary metabolism pathway enzymes also may function to channel precursors, promote pathway efficiency and sequester pathway intermediates and products from the rest of the cell. In this review we discuss the compartmentalization of three well-studied fungal secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways for penicillin G, aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol, and summarize evidence used to infer subcellular localization. We also discuss how these metabolites potentially are trafficked within the cell and may be exported.

  5. Cellular tolerance to pulsed heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanovski, Dimitrii; Sarkar, M.; Irani, A.; O'Connell-Rodwell, C.; Contag, C.; Schwettman, H. Alan; Palanker, D.

    2005-04-01

    Many laser therapies involve significant heating of tissue with pulses varying from picoseconds to minutes in duration. In some of the applications heating is a primary goal, while in others it is an undesirable side effect. In both cases, if a hyperthermia is involved, the knowledge about the threshold temperature leading to irreversible cellular damage is critically important. We study the dependence of the threshold temperature on duration of the heat exposure in the range of 0.3 ms to 5 seconds. Thin layer of cells cultured in a Petri dish was exposed to a pulsed CO2 laser radiation. Laser beam was focused onto sample providing Gaussian intensity distribution in the focal plane with a beam diameter (2w) 2-10 mm. Surface temperature in the central part of the focal spot (1mm in diameter) was measured by thermal infrared (IR) emission from the sample, recorded with a fast IR detector. For pulses shorter than 1 s the temperature profile across the focal spot was found to closely correspond to the radial distribution of the laser beam intensity, thus allowing for accurate determination of temperature at any given distance from the center of the spot. Immediate cellular damage was assessed using vital staining with the live/dead fluorescent assay. Threshold temperatures were found to vary from 65 °C at 5 s of heating to 160 °C at pulses of 0.3 ms in duration. The shorter end of this range was limited by vaporization, which occurs during the laser pulse and results in mechanical damage to cells. Dependence of the maximal temperature on pulse duration could be approximated by Arrhenius law with activation energy being about 1 eV.

  6. Directed Percolation Phenomena in Asynchronous Elementary Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Fatès, Nazim,

    2006-01-01

    Cellular automata are discrete dynamical systems that are widely used to model natural systems. Classically they are run with perfect synchrony ; i.e., the local rule is applied to each cell at each time step. A possible modification of the updating scheme consists in applying the rule with a fixed probability, call the synchrony rate. It has been shown in a previous work that varying the synchrony rate continuously could produce a discontinuity in the behaviour of the CA. This works aims at ...

  7. Multilayer cellular neural network and fuzzy C-mean classifiers: comparison and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo San-Martin, Maite; Hlebarov, Vejen; Sadki, Mustapha

    2004-11-01

    Neural Networks and Fuzzy systems are considered two of the most important artificial intelligent algorithms which provide classification capabilities obtained through different learning schemas which capture knowledge and process it according to particular rule-based algorithms. These methods are especially suited to exploit the tolerance for uncertainty and vagueness in cognitive reasoning. By applying these methods with some relevant knowledge-based rules extracted using different data analysis tools, it is possible to obtain a robust classification performance for a wide range of applications. This paper will focus on non-destructive testing quality control systems, in particular, the study of metallic structures classification according to the corrosion time using a novel cellular neural network architecture, which will be explained in detail. Additionally, we will compare these results with the ones obtained using the Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm and analyse both classifiers according to its classification capabilities.

  8. Simulation Based Optimization of Complex Monolithic Composite Structures Using Cellular Core Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmott, Curtis W.

    Cellular core tooling is a new technology which has the capability to manufacture complex integrated monolithic composite structures. This novel tooling method utilizes thermoplastic cellular cores as inner tooling. The semi-rigid nature of the cellular cores makes them convenient for lay-up, and under autoclave temperature and pressure they soften and expand providing uniform compaction on all surfaces including internal features such as ribs and spar tubes. This process has the capability of developing fully optimized aerospace structures by reducing or eliminating assembly using fasteners or bonded joints. The technology is studied in the context of evaluating its capabilities, advantages, and limitations in developing high quality structures. The complex nature of these parts has led to development of a model using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software Abaqus and the plug-in COMPRO Common Component Architecture (CCA) provided by Convergent Manufacturing Technologies. This model utilizes a "virtual autoclave" technique to simulate temperature profiles, resin flow paths, and ultimately deformation from residual stress. A model has been developed simulating the temperature profile during curing of composite parts made with the cellular core technology. While modeling of composites has been performed in the past, this project will look to take this existing knowledge and apply it to this new manufacturing method capable of building more complex parts and develop a model designed specifically for building large, complex components with a high degree of accuracy. The model development has been carried out in conjunction with experimental validation. A double box beam structure was chosen for analysis to determine the effects of the technology on internal ribs and joints. Double box beams were manufactured and sectioned into T-joints for characterization. Mechanical behavior of T-joints was performed using the T-joint pull-off test and compared to traditional

  9. Cellular phones: are they detrimental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Osama E; Abou El Naga, Randa M

    2004-01-01

    The issue of possible health effects of cellular phones is very much alive in the public's mind where the rapid increase in the number of the users of cell phones in the last decade has increased the exposure of people to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Health consequences of long term use of mobile phones are not known in detail but available data indicates the development of non specific annoying symptoms on acute exposure to mobile phone radiations. In an attempt to determine the prevalence of such cell phones associated health manifestations and the factors affecting their occurrence, a cross sectional study was conducted in five randomly selected faculties of Alexandria University. Where, 300 individuals including teaching staff, students and literate employee were equally allocated and randomly selected among the five faculties. Data about mobile phone's users and their medical history, their pattern of mobile usage and the possible deleterious health manifestations associated with cellular phone use was collected. The results revealed 68% prevalence of mobile phone usage, nearly three quarters of them (72.5%) were complainers of the health manifestations. They suffered from headache (43%), earache (38.3%), sense of fatigue (31.6%), sleep disturbance (29.5%), concentration difficulty (28.5%) and face burning sensation (19.2%). Both univariate and multivariate analysis were consistent in their findings. Symptomatic users were found to have significantly higher frequency of calls/day, longer call duration and longer total duration of mobile phone usage/day than non symptomatic users. For headache both call duration and frequency of calls/day were the significant predicting factors for its occurrence (chi2 = 18.208, p = 0.0001). For earache, in addition to call duration, the longer period of owning the mobile phone were significant predictors (chi2 = 16.996, p = 0.0002). Sense of fatigue was significantly affected by both call duration and age of the user

  10. The mammary cellular hierarchy and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oakes, Samantha R.; Gallego-Ortega, David; Ormandy, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the study of hematopoietic cell maturation have paved the way to a deeper understanding the stem and progenitor cellular hierarchy in the mammary gland. The mammary epithelium, unlike the hematopoietic cellular hierarchy, sits in a complex niche where communication between epithelial cells and signals from the systemic hormonal milieu, as well as from extra-cellular matrix, influence cell fate decisions and contribute to tissue homeostasis. We review the discovery, definition and ...

  11. A radiation measurement study on cellular phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will explain the radiation level produced by various selected cellular phone from various models and brands available in the market. The result obtained from this study will also recommend whether a cellular phone is safe for public usage or it might cause any effect on public health. Finally, a database of radiation measurement level produced by selected various cellular phone will also be developed and exhibited in this paper. (Author)

  12. Predicting Cellular Growth from Gene Expression Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham, Maitreya J.; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Airoldi, Edoardo; Broach, James R.; Caudy, Amy A.; Gresham, David; Botstein, David; Huttenhower, Curtis; Lu, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining balanced growth in a changing environment is a fundamental systems-level challenge for cellular physiology, particularly in microorganisms. While the complete set of regulatory and functional pathways supporting growth and cellular proliferation are not yet known, portions of them are well understood. In particular, cellular proliferation is governed by mechanisms that are highly conserved from unicellular to multicellular organisms, and the disruption of these processes in metazo...

  13. Cellular structure in system of interacting particles

    OpenAIRE

    Lev, Bohdan

    2008-01-01

    The general description of formation the cellular structure in the system of interacting particles is proposed. Interactions between particles are presumably well-understood and the phase transition in which can be studied in the scale of particle resolution. We presented analytical results of possible cellular structures for suspension of colloidal particles, in system particles immersed in liquid crystal and gravitational system. We have shown that cellular structure formation can occur in ...

  14. Radiation, nitric oxide and cellular death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of radiation induced cellular death constitute an objective of research ever since the first biological effects of radiation were first observed. The explosion of information produced in the last 20 years calls for a careful analysis due to the apparent contradictory data related to the cellular system studied and the range of doses used. This review focuses on the role of the active oxygen species, in particular the nitric oxides, in its relevance as potential mediator of radiation induced cellular death

  15. Autophagy and mitophagy in cellular damage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy and mitophagy are important cellular processes that are responsible for breaking down cellular contents, preserving energy and safeguarding against accumulation of damaged and aggregated biomolecules. This graphic review gives a broad summary of autophagy and discusses examples where autophagy is important in controlling protein degradation. In addition we highlight how autophagy and mitophagy are involved in the cellular responses to reactive species and mitochondrial dysfunction. The key signaling pathways for mitophagy are described in the context of bioenergetic dysfunction.

  16. Heterogeneous Force Chains in Cellularized Biopolymer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Long; Jones, Christopher Allen Rucksack; Sun, Bo; Jiao, Yang

    Biopolymer Networks play an important role in coordinating and regulating collective cellular dynamics via a number of signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the mechanical response of a model biopolymer network due to the active contraction of embedded cells. Specifically, a graph (bond-node) model derived from confocal microscopy data is used to represent the network microstructure, and cell contraction is modeled by applying correlated displacements at specific nodes, representing the focal adhesion sites. A force-based stochastic relaxation method is employed to obtain force-balanced network under cell contraction. We find that the majority of the forces are carried by a small number of heterogeneous force chains emerged from the contracting cells. The force chains consist of fiber segments that either possess a high degree of alignment before cell contraction or are aligned due to the reorientation induced by cell contraction. Large fluctuations of the forces along different force chains are observed. Importantly, the decay of the forces along the force chains is significantly slower than the decay of radially averaged forces in the system, suggesting that the fibreous nature of biopolymer network structure could support long-range mechanical signaling between cells.

  17. Optimized Cellular Core for Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Patz Materials and Technologies proposes to develop a unique structural cellular core material to improve mechanical performance, reduce platform weight and lower...

  18. 红外热像技术在建筑外墙检测中的应用技巧%The Skills for Applying Infrared Thermal Imaging Technology in Architecture Exterior Wall Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡江东; 胡洪宝; 丁百湛; 蔡玥

    2015-01-01

    在建筑墙体质量检测中,应用红外热成像技术的关键之一在于把握目标体与背景物之间的温度场差异。经验表明,选择适宜时机,合理利用阳光、风、雨水等自然条件,可以显著增强目标体与背景区域间的差异,从而增强影像分辨率,达到准确识别外墙质量甚至是细小质量问题的目的。%In the test of architecture exterior wall, the key to apply infrared thermal imaging technology is to grasp the difference between target object and background object of temperature field. Experience indicates that the selection of appropriate period and reasonable employment of natural conditions like sunshine, wind and rainy water, etc. can outstandingly increase the difference between the target object and background region, thereby enhancing image resolution and realizing the goal of accurate identiifcation of exterior wall quality and even tiny quality problem.

  19. Illuminating cellular physiology: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovko, Lubov Y; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2007-01-01

    Bioluminescent methods are gaining more and more attention among scientists due to their sensitivity, selectivity and simplicity; coupled with the fact that the bioluminescence can be monitored both in vitro and in vivo. Since the discovery of bioluminescence in the 19th century, enzymes involved in the bioluminescent process have been isolated and cloned. The bioluminescent reactions in several different organisms have also been fully characterized and used as reporters in a wide variety of biochemical assays. From the 1990s it became clear that bioluminescence can be detected and quantified directly from inside a living cell. This gave rise to numerous possibilities for the in vivo monitoring of intracellular processes non-invasively using bioluminescent molecules as reporters. This review describes recent developments in the area of bioluminescent imaging for cell biology. Newly developed imaging methods allow transcriptional/translational regulation, signal transduction, protein-protein interaction, oncogenic transformation, cell and protein trafficking, and target drug action to be monitored in vivo in real-time with high temporal and spatial resolution; thus providing researchers with priceless information on cellular functions. Advantages and limitations of these novel bioluminescent methods are discussed and possible future developments identified. PMID:17725230

  20. Efficiency of cellular information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Barato, Andre C; Seifert, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We show that a rate of conditional Shannon entropy reduction, characterizing the learning of an internal process about an external process, is bounded by the thermodynamic entropy production. This approach allows for the definition of an informational efficiency that can be used to study cellular information processing. We analyze three models of increasing complexity inspired by the E. coli sensory network, where the external process is an external ligand concentration jumping between two values. We start with a simple model for which ATP must be consumed so that a protein inside the cell can learn about the external concentration. With a second model for a single receptor we show that the rate at which the receptor learns about the external environment can be nonzero even without any dissipation inside the cell since chemical work done by the external process compensates for this learning rate. The third model is more complete, also containing adaptation. For this model we show inter alia that a bacterium i...

  1. NAT: perspectives for cellular components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, J A

    1999-12-01

    The introduction of routine testing to detect viral genomes in donated blood was originally driven by requirements for plasma fractionation in relation to exclusion of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. Nevertheless, it was obvious from the outset that a dual standard for fractionated products and individual blood components would be untenable. In many countries therefore, planning for introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) of blood incorporated progression to release of HCV RNA tested components. HCV was singled out because of its long seronegative 'window period', relatively high prevalence and incidence in blood donors, rapid burst time and high genome copy number during seroconversion. The latter properties made HCV particularly suitable for detection in pools of samples. If HCV RNA testing is required for release of labile components such as platelets, rapid provision of NAT results is vital because of short shelf life of platelets and the problems of delays when resolving the infectious unit in a reactive pool. For NAT release of labile components smaller sample pool sizes allow faster resolution of RNA positive units. Smaller pools involve high test throughput, the likely need for more testing laboratories and ensuing increased costs. Single sample testing is the ultimate extrapolation of reducing sample pool size. With reduced pool sizes or single sample testing, the option of testing for other viruses (e.g. HIV or HBV) singly or in multiplex also arises. The cost-benefit and incremental yield of such strategies in the light of 'combo' assays for HIV Ag/Ab and the recently described HCV Ag assay will require careful and objective assessment, together with re-appraisal of anti-HBc screening for detection of HBV infected donors at the "tail-end" of carriage. PMID:10686060

  2. NanoSIMS50 - a powerful tool to elucidate cellular localization of halogenated organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutleb, Arno C.; Hoffmann, Lucien [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), Belvaux (Luxembourg); Freitas, Jaime [Wageningen University, Toxicology Section, Wageningen (Netherlands); Murk, Albertinka J. [Wageningen University, Toxicology Section, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen IMARES, P.O. Box 68, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Udelhoven, Thomas [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), Belvaux (Luxembourg); Trier University, Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics Department, Trier (Germany); Audinot, Jean-Nicolas [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Departement Science et Analyse des Materiaux (SAM), Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2012-11-15

    Persistent organic pollutants are widely distributed in the environment and lots of toxicological data are available. However, little is known on the intracellular fate of such compounds. Here a method applying secondary ion mass spectrometry is described that can be used to visualize cellular localization of halogenated compounds and to semi-quantitatively calculate concentrations of such compounds. Of the model compounds tested, TBBPA was homogenously distributed in the cell membrane of the H295R cells while PFOS accumulated in very distinct locations in the cell membrane. Relative intracellular concentrations of 4-OH-BDE69 and 4-OH-BDE121 in GH3.TRE were 61 % and 18 %, respectively, compared to the parent compounds. These differences may partly explain that observed effect concentrations for 4-OH-BDEs in in vitro experiments are usually lower than what would be expected based on receptor binding studies. NanoSIMS50 proved to be a powerful tool to describe the cellular distribution of halogenated compounds. The semi-quantitative data that can be obtained may help to further explain results from in vitro or in vivo experiments. (orig.)

  3. Improving Quality of Clustering using Cellular Automata for Information retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Sree

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering has been widely applied to Information Retrieval (IR on the grounds of its potential improved effectiveness over inverted file search. Clustering is a mostly unsupervised procedure and the majority of the clustering algorithms depend on certain assumptions in order to define the subgroups present in a data set .A clustering quality measure is a function that, given a data set and its partition into clusters, returns a non-negative real number representing the quality of that clustering. Moreover, they may behave in a different way depending on the features of the data set and their input parameters values. Therefore, in most applications the resulting clustering scheme requires some sort of evaluation as regards its validity. The quality of clustering can be enhanced by using a Cellular Automata Classifier for information retrieval. In this study we take the view that if cellular automata with clustering is applied to search results (query-specific clustering, then it has the potential to increase the retrieval effectiveness compared both to that of static clustering and of conventional inverted file search. We conducted a number of experiments using ten document collections and eight hierarchic clustering methods. Our results show that the effectiveness of query-specific clustering with cellular automata is indeed higher and suggest that there is scope for its application to IR.

  4. Simulation Modeling by Classification of Problems: A Case of Cellular Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiqah, K. N.; Mahayuddin, Z. R.

    2016-02-01

    Cellular manufacturing provides good solution approach to manufacturing area by applying Group Technology concept. The evolution of cellular manufacturing can enhance performance of the cell and to increase the quality of the product manufactured but it triggers other problem. Generally, this paper highlights factors and problems which emerge commonly in cellular manufacturing. The aim of the research is to develop a thorough understanding of common problems in cellular manufacturing. A part from that, in order to find a solution to the problems exist using simulation technique, this classification framework is very useful to be adapted during model building. Biology evolution tool was used in the research in order to classify the problems emerge. The result reveals 22 problems and 25 factors using cladistic technique. In this research, the expected result is the cladogram established based on the problems in cellular manufacturing gathered.

  5. Modeling and Analysis of Cellular Networks using Stochastic Geometry: A Tutorial

    KAUST Repository

    ElSawy, Hesham

    2016-03-22

    This paper presents a tutorial on stochastic geometry (SG) based analysis for cellular networks. This tutorial is distinguished by its depth with respect to wireless communication details and its focus on cellular networks. The paper starts by modeling and analyzing the baseband interference in a basic cellular network model. Then, it characterizes signal-tointerference- plus-noise-ratio (SINR) and its related performance metrics. In particular, a unified approach to conduct error probability, outage probability, and rate analysis is presented. Although the main focus of the paper is on cellular networks, the presented unified approach applies for other types of wireless networks that impose interference protection around receivers. The paper then extends the baseline unified approach to capture cellular network characteristics (e.g., frequency reuse, multiple antenna, power control, etc.). It also presents numerical examples associated with demonstrations and discussions. Finally, we point out future research directions.

  6. Physicochemical determinants of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on cellular toxicity: influence of a synthetic method and post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kang, Seung-Hyon; Moon, Youngmi; Chae, Jin-Joo; Lee, Ah Young; Lee, Jae-Ho; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Jeong, Dae Hong; Choi, Mansoo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-02-17

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), scientists have performed extensive studies on nanotubes in the fields of materials science, physics, and electronic engineering. Because multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) are not homogeneous materials, and because it is not feasible to test every newly synthesized MWCNT, this study was aimed at investigating the physicochemical properties that primarily determine the cellular toxicity of MWCNTs. This study analyzed the relationship between cell viability and physicochemical characteristics following exposure to eight different MWCNTs. We generated eight different MWCNTs using various synthetic methods and post-treatments. From this analysis, we sought to identify the major physicochemical determinants that could predict the cellular toxicity of MWCNTs, regardless of the synthetic method and post-treatment conditions. Creation of binding sites on the tube walls by breaking C-C bonds played a pivotal role in increasing toxicity and was most clearly demonstrated by a Raman G peak shift and the ID/IG ratio. In addition, several factors were found to be strongly related to cellular toxicity: surface charge in the case of MWCNTs created by the chemical vapor deposition method and surface area and EPR intensity in the case of MWCNTs created by the arc discharge based method. The methods developed in this study could be applied to the prediction of the toxicity of newly synthesized MWCNTs. PMID:24405247

  7. A Cellular GWAS Approach to Define Human Variation in Cellular Pathways Important to Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Samuel I; Chaudhary, Anu

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of common human diversity in innate immune pathways should be beneficial in understanding autoimmune diseases, susceptibility to infection, and choices of anti-inflammatory treatment. Such understanding could also result in definition of currently unknown components of human inflammation pathways. A cellular genome-wide association studies (GWAS) platform, termed Hi-HOST (High-throughput human in vitro susceptibility testing), was developed to assay in vitro cellular phenotypes of infection in genotyped lymphoblastoid cells from genetically diverse human populations. Hi-HOST allows for measurement of multiple host and pathogen parameters of infection/inflammation including: bacterial invasion and intracellular replication, host cell death, and cytokine production. Hi-HOST has been used to successfully define a significant portion of the heritable human diversity in inflammatory cell death in response to Salmonella typhimurium. It also led to the discovery of genetic variants important to protection against systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and protection against death and bacteremia in individuals with SIRS. Our laboratory is currently using this platform to define human diversity in autophagy and the NLPR3 inflammasome pathways, and to define new components that can impact the expression of phenotypes related to these pathways. PMID:27128945

  8. Common basis for cellular motility

    OpenAIRE

    Zot, Henry G.; Javier E Hasbun; Minh, Nguyen Van

    2015-01-01

    Motility is characteristic of life, but a common basis for movement has remained to be identified. Diverse systems in motion shift between two states depending on interactions that turnover at the rate of an applied cycle of force. Although one phase of the force cycle terminates the decay of the most recent state, continuation of the cycle of force regenerates the original decay process in a recursive cycle. By completing a cycle, kinetic energy is transformed into probability of sustaining ...

  9. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  10. Methods for the Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation–Mediated Cellular Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Forest M.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Protein phosphorylation–mediated cellular signaling networks regulate almost all aspects of cell biology, including the responses to cellular stimulation and environmental alterations. These networks are highly complex and comprise hundreds of proteins and potentially thousands of phosphorylation sites. Multiple analytical methods have been developed over the past several decades to identify proteins and protein phosphorylation sites regulating cellular signaling, and to quantify the dynamic response of these sites to different cellular stimulation. Here we provide an overview of these methods, including the fundamental principles governing each method, their relative strengths and weaknesses, and some examples of how each method has been applied to the analysis of complex signaling networks. When applied correctly, each of these techniques can provide insight into the topology, dynamics, and regulation of protein phosphorylation signaling networks.

  11. Methods for the Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation-Mediated Cellular Signaling Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Forest M; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro

    2016-06-12

    Protein phosphorylation-mediated cellular signaling networks regulate almost all aspects of cell biology, including the responses to cellular stimulation and environmental alterations. These networks are highly complex and comprise hundreds of proteins and potentially thousands of phosphorylation sites. Multiple analytical methods have been developed over the past several decades to identify proteins and protein phosphorylation sites regulating cellular signaling, and to quantify the dynamic response of these sites to different cellular stimulation. Here we provide an overview of these methods, including the fundamental principles governing each method, their relative strengths and weaknesses, and some examples of how each method has been applied to the analysis of complex signaling networks. When applied correctly, each of these techniques can provide insight into the topology, dynamics, and regulation of protein phosphorylation signaling networks. PMID:27049636

  12. Feedback Shift Registers as Cellular Automata Boundary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new design for random number generatio n. The outputs of linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) act as continuous inputs to the t wo boundaries of a one-dimensional (1-D) Elementary Cellular Automata (ECA). The results sho w superior randomness features and the output string has passed the Diehard statistical ba ttery of tests. The design is good candidate for parallel random number generation, ...

  13. Typing of murine cell-surface antigens by cellular radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cellular radioimmunoassay utilizing 125I-labelled Protein A was used for detecting antigen-antibody complexes on gultaraldehyde fixed cells attached to microtiter plates. This method is rapid, sensitive and specific for revealing H-2 private and public specificities as well as Ia and Lyt antigens. As plates may be kept for months, several reactivities can be tested in one step on a large panel rendering a regular supply of animals unnecessary. (Auth.)

  14. Cellular structure of detonation utilized in propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XuDong; Fan, BaoChun; Gui, MingYue; Pan, ZhenHua

    2012-10-01

    How to confine a detonation in a combustor is a key issue of detonation applications in propulsion systems. Based on achieving schemes, detonations applied in the combustor, including pulse detonation wave (PDW), oblique detonation wave (ODW) and rotating detonation wave (RDW), are different from that described by the classic CJ theory in fine structures and its self-sustaining mechanisms. In this work, the cellular structures and flow fields of ODW and RDW were obtained numerically, and the fundamental characteristics and self-sustaining mechanisms of the detonations were analyzed and discussed. ODW front consists of three parts: the ZND-like front, the single-headed triple point front and the dual-headed triple point front. Cellular structures of RDW are heterogeneous, and the cell size near the outer wall is smaller than that near the inner wall.

  15. Immune cellular response to HPV: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Guimarães Gonçalves

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Although cellular immunity is essential for the elimination of human papillomavirus (HPV, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We summarize the main mechanisms involved in cellular immune response to infections caused by HPV. Immunotherapies for HPV-related cancers require the disruption of T-cell response control mechanisms, associated with the stimulation of the Th1 cytokine response.

  16. Mechanisms of cellular transformation by carcinogenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: DNA Modification by Chemical Carcinogens; Role of DNA Lesions and Repair in the Transformation of Human Cells; The Induction and Regulation of Radiogenic Transformation In Vitro: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms; Cellular Transformation by Adenoviruses; and The fos Gene

  17. Recent development of cellular manufacturing systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Arora; A Haleem; M K Singh

    2013-06-01

    Cellular manufacturing system has been proved a vital approach for batch and job shop production systems. Group technology has been an essential tool for developing a cellular manufacturing system. The paper aims to discuss various cell formation techniques and highlights the significant research work done in past over the years and attempts to points out the gap in research.

  18. Mechanisms of cellular transformation by carcinogenic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunberger, D.; Goff, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: DNA Modification by Chemical Carcinogens; Role of DNA Lesions and Repair in the Transformation of Human Cells; The Induction and Regulation of Radiogenic Transformation In Vitro: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms; Cellular Transformation by Adenoviruses; and The fos Gene.

  19. From Cnn Dynamics to Cellular Wave Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roska, Tamas

    2013-01-01

    Embedded in a historical overview, the development of the Cellular Wave Computing paradigm is presented, starting from the standard CNN dynamics. The theoretical aspects, the physical implementation, the innovation process, as well as the biological relevance are discussed in details. Finally, the latest developments, the physical versus virtual cellular machines, as well as some open questions are presented.

  20. The Universe as a Cellular System

    CERN Document Server

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Cellular systems are observed everywhere in nature, from crystal domains in metals, soap froth and cucumber cells to the network of cosmological voids. Surprisingly, despite their disparate scale and origin all cellular systems follow certain scaling laws relating their geometry, topology and dynamics. Using a cosmological N-body simulation we found that the Cosmic Web, the largest known cellular system, follows the same scaling relations seen elsewhere in nature. Our results extend the validity of scaling relations in cellular systems by over 30 orders of magnitude in scale with respect to previous studies. The dynamics of cellular systems can be used to interpret local observations such as the local velocity anomaly as the result of a collapsing void in our cosmic backyard. Moreover, scaling relations depend on the curvature of space, providing an independent measure of geometry.

  1. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorthongpanich Chanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1 was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

  2. Effects of Initial Symmetry on the Global Symmetry of One-Dimensional Legal Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Ikuko Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    To examine the development of pattern formation from the viewpoint of symmetry, we applied a two-dimensional discrete Walsh analysis to a one-dimensional cellular automata model under two types of regular initial conditions. The amount of symmetropy of cellular automata (CA) models under regular and random initial conditions corresponds to three Wolfram’s classes of CAs, identified as Classes II, III, and IV. Regular initial conditions occur in two groups. One group that makes a broken, regul...

  3. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo eSiqueira Kazu; Jose eMaldonado; Bruno eMota; Paul eManger; Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate, insectivore, and afrotherian brains has shown that non-neuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of artiodactyls, a group within the order Cetartiodactyla, belie...

  4. Modeling cellular effects of coal pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this project is to develop and test models for the dose and dose-rate dependence of biological effects of coal pollutants on mammalian cells in tissue culture. Particular attention is given to the interaction of pollutants with the genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid, or NDA) in the cell. Unlike radiation, which can interact directly with chromatin, chemical pollutants undergo numerous changes before the ultimate carcinogen becomes covalently bound to the DNA. Synthetic vesicles formed from a phospholipid bilayer are being used to investigate chemical transformations that may occur during the transport of pollutants across cellular membranes. The initial damage to DNA is rapidly modified by enzymatic repair systems in most living organisms. A model has been developed for predicting the effects of excision repair on the survival of human cells exposed to chemical carcinogens. In addition to the excision system, normal human cells also have tolerance mechanisms that permit continued growth and division of cells without removal of the damage. We are investigating the biological effect of damage passed to daughter cells by these tolerance mechanisms

  5. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadotte, Alexandra; Mikhelson, Victor M; Spivak, Irina M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data. PMID:26805432

  6. Test of Serum Procalcitonin Applied to Neonatal Infectious Diseases%降钙素原检测在新生儿感染性疾病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) applied to neonatal infectious diseases. Methods 288 neonates hospitalized in Department of Pediatrics of our hospital from December 2013 to December 2014 were divided into severe infection group (64 cases), general infection group (132 cases), non-infected group (92 cases). Electrochemical luminescence method was used to test the level of serum PCT in the neonates. Results Of the 132 cases in the general infection group, 46 cases had positive procalcitonin with the positive rate of 34.85%, 86 cases had negative procalcitonin. Of the 64 cases in the severe in-fection group, 40 cases had positive procalcitonin with the positive rate of 62.5%, 24 cases had negative procalcitonin. Of the 92 cases in the non-infected group, 9 cases had positive procalcitonin with the positive rate of 9.78%, 83 cases had negative procal-citonin. The severe infection group had the highest positive rate of PCT, followed by the general infection group, and the non-in-fected group had the lowest positive rate of PCT with statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The level of PCT in all the neonates decreased as the disease improved with statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion ①The infection of the neonates and bacterial infection can be effectively identified by testing the level of serum PCT in 288 neonates. ②Many reasons including bacterial infection can cause neonatal pneumonia. PCT testing can be used as the identification index of neonatal infec-tious pneumonia, which provides a theoretical basis for the clinical rational use of antibiotics.%目的 探讨血清降钙素原(PCT)在新生儿感染性疾病应用价值. 方法 将该院儿科2013年12月—2014年12月收治的288例住院新生儿分别归入重症感染组(64例)、一般感染组(132例)、非感染组(92例),采用电化学发光法检测患儿血清降钙素原(PCT)水平变化.结果 一般感染组132例,降钙素原阳性46

  7. Estimating cellular network performance during hurricanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular networks serve a critical role during and immediately after a hurricane, allowing citizens to contact emergency services when land-line communication is lost and serving as a backup communication channel for emergency responders. However, due to their ubiquitous deployment and limited design for extreme loading events, basic network elements, such as cellular towers and antennas are prone to failures during adverse weather conditions such as hurricanes. Accordingly, a systematic and computationally feasible approach is required for assessing and improving the reliability of cellular networks during hurricanes. In this paper we develop a new multi-disciplinary approach to efficiently and accurately assess cellular network reliability during hurricanes. We show how the performance of a cellular network during and immediately after future hurricanes can be estimated based on a combination of hurricane wind field models, structural reliability analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, and cellular network models and simulation tools. We then demonstrate the use of this approach for assessing the improvement in system reliability that can be achieved with discrete topological changes in the system. Our results suggest that adding redundancy, particularly through a mesh topology or through the addition of an optical fiber ring around the perimeter of the system can be an effective way to significantly increase the reliability of some cellular systems during hurricanes.

  8. Cellular Uptake of Drug Nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Seybold, Alexandra R; Li, Tonglei; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity and poor solubility of existing chemotherapeutic drugs piqued an interest in the use of nanocrystals for chemotherapy. To increase cytotoxicity, surface coating of nanocrystals is of interest to enhance tumor targeting and reduce treatment toxicity. As such, we tested in this project various coated paclitaxel nanocrystals on cancer cells for determining the efficacy of surface coating. An IC50 assay was chosen to determine the cytotoxicity of surface-coated paclitaxel nanocr...

  9. Advances in Applied Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  10. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  11. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  12. Macromolecular lesions and cellular radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our studies of the interaction of densely ionizing particles with macromolecules in the living cell may be divided into four parts: characterization of lesions to cellular DNA in the unmodified Bragg ionization curve; characterization of lesions to cellular DNA in the spread Bragg curve as used in radiation therapy; elucidation of the cellular radiation chemistry characteristic of high vs. low LET radiation qualities; and the introduction of novel techniques designed to give a better understanding of the fundamental properties of induction of lesions and their repair potentials in high LET radiation

  13. Integrating mitochondrial translation into the cellular context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Dennerlein, Ricarda; Dennerlein, Sven; Rehling, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial-encoded subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system assemble with nuclear-encoded subunits into enzymatic complexes. Recent findings showed that mitochondrial translation is linked to other mitochondrial functions, as well as to cellular processes. The supply of mitochondrial-encoded proteins is coordinated by the coupling of mitochondrial protein synthesis with assembly of respiratory chain complexes. MicroRNAs imported from the cytoplasm into mitochondria were, surprisingly, found to act as regulators of mitochondrial translation. In turn, translation in mitochondria controls cellular proliferation, and mitochondrial ribosomal subunits contribute to the cytoplasmic stress response. Thus, translation in mitochondria is apparently integrated into cellular processes. PMID:26535422

  14. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in kidney fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic feature of all forms of chronic kidney disease. Deposition of pathological matrix in the interstitial space and within the walls of glomerular capillaries as well as the cellular processes resulting in this deposition are increasingly recognized as important factors amplifying kidney injury and accelerating nephron demise. Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis herald the promise of new therapies to slow kidney disease progression. This review focuses on new findings that enhance understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis, the characteristics of myofibroblasts, their progenitors, and molecular pathways regulating both fibrogenesis and its resolution. PMID:24892703

  15. Cellular Signaling Pathways and Their Clinical Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ceren Sumer-Turanligil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular signaling pathways have important roles in cellular growth, differentiation, inflammatory response and apoptosis and in regulation of cellular responses under various chemical stimulators. Different proteins which belong to these pathways may be exposed to loss-of-function or gain-of-function mutations; this may lead to many clinical phenotypes including primarily cancer. In this review information about basic working principles of these pathways and diseases related to them are included. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(3.000: 180-191

  16. Imaging in cellular and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hanry

    2013-01-01

    Details on specific imaging modalities for different cellular and tissue engineering applications are scattered throughout articles and chapters in the literature. Gathering this information into a single reference, Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering presents both the fundamentals and state of the art in imaging methods, approaches, and applications in regenerative medicine. The book underscores the broadening scope of imaging applications in cellular and tissue engineering. It covers a wide range of optical and biological applications, including the repair or replacement of whole tiss

  17. Cellular Cell Bifurcation of Cylindrical Detonations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Gui-Lai; JIANG Zong-Lin; WANG Chun; ZHANG Fan

    2008-01-01

    Cellular cell pattern evolution of cylindrically-diverging detonations is numerically simulated successfully by solving two-dimensional Euler equations implemented with an improved two-step chemical kinetic model. From the simulation, three cell bifurcation modes are observed during the evolution and referred to as concave front focusing, kinked and wrinkled wave front instability, and self-merging of cellular cells. Numerical research demonstrates that the wave front expansion resulted from detonation front diverging plays a major role in the cellular cell bifurcation, which can disturb the nonlinearly self-sustained mechanism of detonations and finally lead to cell bifurcations.

  18. Cellular chain formation in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on a novel structural phenotype in Escherichia coli biofilms: cellular chain formation. Biofilm chaining in E. coli K-12 was found to occur primarily by clonal expansion, but was not due to filamentous growth. Rather, chain formation was the result of intercellular......; type I fimbriae expression significantly reduced cellular chain formation, presumably by steric hindrance. Cellular chain formation did not appear to be specific to E coli K-12. Although many urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates were found to form rather homogeneous, flat biofilms, three isolates...

  19. Interworking of Wireless LANs and Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The next-generation of wireless communications are envisioned to be supported by heterogeneous networks by using various wireless access technologies. The popular cellular networks and wireless local area networks (WLANs) present perfectly complementary characteristics in terms of service capacity, mobility support, and quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning. The cellular/WLAN interworking is an effective way to promote the evolution of wireless networks. "Interworking of Wireless LANs and Cellular Networks" focuses on three aspects, namely access selection, call admission control and

  20. CELLULAR INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY GLYCONECTIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Popescu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular interactions involve many types of cell surface molecules and operate via homophilic and/or heterophilic protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate binding. Our investigations in different model-systems (marine invertebrates and mammals have provided direct evidence that a novel class of primordial proteoglycans, named by us gliconectins, can mediate cell adhesion via a new alternative molecular mechanism of polyvalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate binding. Biochemical characterization of isolated and purified glyconectins revealed the presence of specific carbohydrate structures, acidic glycans, different from classical glycosaminoglycans. Such acidic glycans of high molecular weight containing fucose, glucuronic or galacturonic acids, and sulfate groups, originally found in sponges and sea urchin embryos, may represent a new class of carbohydrate carcino-embryonal antigens in mice and humans. Such interactions between biological macromolecules are usually investigated by kinetic binding studies, calorimetric methods, X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, and other spectroscopic analyses. However, these methods do not supply a direct estimation of the intermolecular binding forces that are fundamental for the function of the ligand-receptor association. Recently, we have introduced atomic force microscopy to quantify the binding strength between cell adhesion proteoglycans. Measurement of binding forces intrinsic to cell adhesion proteoglycans is necessary to assess their contribution to the maintenance of the anatomical integrity of multicellular organisms. As a model, we selected the glyconectin 1, a cell adhesion proteoglycan isolated from the marine sponge Microciona prolifera. This glyconectin mediates in vivo cell recognition and aggregation via homophilic, species-specific, polyvalent, and calcium ion-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions. Under physiological conditions, an adhesive force of up to 400 piconewtons

  1. Using cancer to make cellular reproduction rigorous and relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Cynthia F.

    The 1983 report Nation at Risk highlighted the fact that test scores of American students were far below that of competing nations and educational standards were being lowered. This trend has continued and studies have also shown that students are not entering college ready for success. This trend can be reversed. Students can better understand and retain biology content expectations if they are taught in a way that is both rigorous and relevant. In the past, students have learned the details of cellular reproduction with little knowledge of why it is important to their everyday lives. This material is learned only for the test. Knowing the details of cellular reproduction is crucial for understanding cancer. Cancer is a topic that will likely affect all of my students at some point in their lives. Students used hands on activities, including simulations, labs, and models to learn about cellular reproduction with cancer as a theme throughout. Students were challenged to learn how to use the rigorous biology content expectations to think about cancer, including stem cell research. Students that will some day be college students, voting citizens, and parents, will become better learners. Students were assessed before and after the completion of the unit to determine if learning occurs. Students did learn the material and became more critical thinkers. Statistical analysis was completed to insure confidence in the results.

  2. Applied Linguistics: Brazilian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Marilda C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present perspectives in Applied Linguistics (AL) against the background of a historical overview of the field in Brazil. I take the stance of looking at AL as a field of knowledge and as a professional area of research. This point of view directs my reflections towards research-based Applied Linguistics carried out from…

  3. X-Ray imaging applied to the characterization of polymer foam's cellular structure and its evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo Alonso, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Las espumas poliméricas son materiales celulares que poseen una fase sólida continua y otra gaseosa bien discontinua (celda cerrada) o continua (celda abierta). Habitualmente estas estructuras se describen mediante parámetros macroscópicos como la densidad relativa y otros microscópicos como el tamaño de celda o la densidad de celdas. Además, estos materiales poseen características peculiares como anisotropía, orientación de los poros y tortuosidad que les proporcionan propiedades físicas sin...

  4. Fabrication of Biocompatible, Vibrational Magnetoelastic Materials for Controlling Cellular Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak M. Rajachar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the functionalization of magnetoelastic (ME materials with Parylene-C coating to improve the surface reactivity to cellular response. Previous study has demonstrated that vibrating ME materials were capable of modulating cellular adhesion when activated by an externally applied AC magnetic field. However, since ME materials are not inherently biocompatible, surface modifications are needed for their implementation in biological settings. Here, the long-term stability of the ME material in an aqueous and biological environment is achieved by chemical-vapor deposition of a conformal Parylene-C layer, and further functionalized by methods of oxygen plasma etching and protein adsorption. In vitro cytotoxicity measurement and characterization of the vibrational behavior of the ME materials showed that Parylene-C coatings of 10 µm or greater could prevent hydrolytic degradation without sacrificing the vibrational behavior of the ME material. This work allows for long-term durability and functionality of ME materials in an aqueous and biological environment and makes the potential use of this technology in monitoring and modulating cellular behavior at the surface of implantable devices feasible.

  5. Comparative Study of Dermatophytic Fungi for Extra Cellular Proteases Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchita Chaturvedi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are known to produce proteases of different kind. The dermatphytic fungal strains were isolated from human skin tissues for extra cellular proteases efficacy. The present study deals with purification, estimation and comparison of extracellular proteases from five fungal species. (Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp. , Fumigatus Sp. , Aspergillus Sp. and Mucor Sp.. All the five fungal strains showed good amount of extra cellular protease activity in terms of unit total protein content. By testing all the crude extracts for enzyme activity, Fusarium sp. was found to show the highest activity whereas Mucor sp. showed the lowest. The study supports the notion that fungi can be a good source of extracellular enzymes especially proteases.

  6. The role of sirtuins in cellular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupis, Wioleta; Pałyga, Jan; Tomal, Ewa; Niewiadomska, Ewa

    2016-09-01

    Sirtuins are evolutionarily conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent lysine deacylases or ADP-ribosyltransferases. These cellular enzymes are metabolic sensors sensitive to NAD(+) levels that maintain physiological homeostasis in the animal and plant cells. PMID:27154583

  7. MILLIMETER-WAVE EMISSIVITY OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general analysis has been presented of the millimeter-wave and farinfrared spectroscopic properties of in vivo cellular systems, and of the boson radiative equilibrium with steady-state nonequilibrium molecular systems. The frequency threshhold of spectroscopic properties assoc...

  8. A Matrix Construction of Cellular Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dajing Xiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we give a concrete method to construct cellular algebras from matrix algebras by specifying certain fixed matrices for the data of inflations. In particular,orthogonal matrices can be chosen for such data.

  9. Probing Cellular Dynamics with Mesoscopic Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shillcock, Julian C.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular processes span a huge range of length and time scales from the molecular to the near-macroscopic. Understanding how effects on one scale influence, and are themselves influenced by, those on lower and higher scales is a critical issue for the construction of models in Systems Biology....... Advances in computing hardware and software now allow explicit simulation of some aspects of cellular dynamics close to the molecular scale. Vesicle fusion is one example of such a process. Experiments, however, typically probe cellular behavior from the molecular scale up to microns. Standard particle...... soon be coupled to Mass Action models allowing the parameters in such models to be continuously tuned according to the finer resolution simulation. This will help realize the goal of a computational cellular simulation that is able to capture the dynamics of membrane-associated processes such as...

  10. Vectorized multisite coding for hydrodynamic cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulating eight lattices for Pomeau's cellular automata simultaneously through bit-per-bit operations, a vectorized Fortran program reached 30 million updates per second and per Cray YMP processor. They authors give the full innermost loops

  11. 47 CFR 22.911 - Cellular geographic service area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular geographic service area. 22.911... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.911 Cellular geographic service area. The Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA) of a cellular system is the geographic area considered by the...

  12. Leaf development: A cellular perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit TS Beemster

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana.

  13. Line Complexity Asymptotics of Polynomial Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Cellular automata are discrete dynamical systems that consist of patterns of symbols on a grid, which change according to a locally determined transition rule. In this paper, we will consider cellular automata that arise from polynomial transition rules, where the symbols in the automaton are integers modulo some prime $p$. We are principally concerned with the asymptotic behavior of the line complexity sequence $a_T(k)$, which counts, for each $k$, the number of coefficient strings of length...

  14. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Münk; Jörg Zielonka

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating...

  15. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in kidney fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic feature of all forms of chronic kidney disease. Deposition of pathological matrix in the interstitial space and within the walls of glomerular capillaries as well as the cellular processes resulting in this deposition are increasingly recognized as important factors amplifying kidney injury and accelerating nephron demise. Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis herald the promise of new therapies to slow kidney disease progressi...

  16. Building mathematics cellular phone learning communities

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2011-01-01

    Researchers emphasize the importance of maintaining learning communities and environments. This article describes the building and nourishment of a learning community, one comprised of middle school students who learned mathematics out-of-class using the cellular phone. The building of the learning community was led by three third year pre-service teachers majoring in mathematics and computers. The pre-service teachers selected thirty 8th grade students to learn mathematics with the cellular ...

  17. Directed Percolation arising in Stochastic Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Regnault, Damien

    2008-01-01

    Cellular automata are both seen as a model of computation and as tools to model real life systems. Historically they were studied under synchronous dynamics where all the cells of the system are updated at each time step. Meanwhile the question of probabilistic dynamics emerges: on the one hand, to develop cellular automata which are capable of reliable computation even when some random errors occur; on the other hand, because synchronous dynamics is not a reasonable assumption to simulate re...

  18. Apoptotic regulation of epithelial cellular extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    De Andrade, Daniel,; Rosenblatt, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Cellular extrusion is a mechanism that removes dying cells from epithelial tissues to prevent compromising their barrier function. Extrusion occurs in all observed epithelia in vivo and can be modeled in vitro by inducing apoptosis in cultured epithelial monolayers. We established that actin and myosin form a ring that contracts in the surrounding cells that drives cellular extrusion. It is not clear, however, if all apoptotic pathways lead to extrusion and how apoptosis and extrusion are mol...

  19. Understanding cisplatin resistance using cellular models.

    OpenAIRE

    STORDAL, BRITTA KRISTINA

    2007-01-01

    PUBLISHED Many mechanisms of cisplatin resistance have been proposed from studies of cellular models of resistance including changes in cellular drug accumulation, detoxification of the drug, inhibition of apoptosis and repair of the DNA adducts. A series of resistant models were developed from CCRF-CEM leukaemia cells with increasing doses of cisplatin from 100 ng/ml. This produced increasing resistance up to 7-fold with a treatment dose of 1.6 ?g/ml. Cisplatin resistance i...

  20. Understanding cisplatin resistance using cellular models

    OpenAIRE

    Stordal, Britta; Davey, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Many mechanisms of cisplatin resistance have been proposed from studies of cellular models of resistance including changes in cellular drug accumulation, detoxification of the drug, inhibition of apoptosis and repair of the DNA adducts. A series of resistant models were developed from CCRF-CEM leukaemia cells with increasing doses of cisplatin from 100 ng/ml. This produced increasing resistance up to 7-fold with a treatment dose of 1.6 microg/ml. Cisplatin resistance in these cells correlated...

  1. On the Behavior Characteristics of Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-cai; ZHANG Jiang-ling; FENG Dan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the inherent relationships between the running regulations and behavior characteristics of cellular automata are presented; an imprecise taxonomy of such systems is put forward; the three extreme cases of stable systems are discussed; and the illogicalness of evolutional strategies of cellular automata is analyzed. The result is suitable for the emulation and prediction of behavior of discrete dynamics systems; especially it can be taken as an important analysis means of dynamic performance of complex networks.

  2. Cellular Hyperproliferation and Cancer as Evolutionary Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in biology have begun to dramatically change the way we think about evolution, development, health and disease. The ability to sequence the genomes of many individuals within a population, and across multiple species, has opened the door to the possibility of answering some long-standing and perplexing questions about our own genetic heritage. One such question revolves around the nature of cellular hyperproliferation. This cellular behavior is used to effect wound heal...

  3. Cellular Scaling Rules of Insectivore Brains

    OpenAIRE

    Sarko, Diana K.; Catania, Kenneth C.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2009-01-01

    Insectivores represent extremes in mammalian body size and brain size, retaining various “primitive” morphological characteristics, and some species of Insectivora are thought to share similarities with small-bodied ancestral eutherians. This raises the possibility that insectivore brains differ from other taxa, including rodents and primates, in cellular scaling properties. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for insectivore brains and demonstrate that insectivore scaling rules overla...

  4. Cellular scaling rules of insectivore brains

    OpenAIRE

    Sarko, Diana K.; Catania, Kenneth C.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Kaas, Jon H.; Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    2009-01-01

    Insectivores represent extremes in mammalian body size and brain size, retaining various “primitive” morphological characteristics, and some species of Insectivora are thought to share similarities with small-bodied ancestral eutherians. This raises the possibility that insectivore brains differ from other taxa, including rodents and primates, in cellular scaling properties. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for insectivore brains and demonstrate that insectivore scaling ...

  5. Cellular scaling rules for primate brains

    OpenAIRE

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Collins, Christine E.; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2007-01-01

    Primates are usually found to have richer behavioral repertoires and better cognitive abilities than rodents of similar brain size. This finding raises the possibility that primate brains differ from rodent brains in their cellular composition. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for primate brains and show that brain size increases approximately isometrically as a function of cell numbers, such that an 11× larger brain is built with 10× more neurons and ≈12× more nonneuronal cells of ...

  6. Stochastic Simulations on the Cellular Wave Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Ercsey-Ravasz, M.; Roska, T.; Néda, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The computational paradigm represented by Cellular Neural/nonlinear Networks (CNN) and the CNN Universal Machine (CNN-UM) as a Cellular Wave Computer, gives new perspectives for computational physics. Many numerical problems and simulations can be elegantly addressed on this fully parallelized and analogic architecture. Here we study the possibility of performing stochastic simulations on this chip. First a realistic random number generator is implemented on the CNN-UM, and then as an example...

  7. Weighted Centroid Correction Localization in Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Zheng Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There is a large demand for wireless Location-Based Service (LBS and it is provided by many wireless cellular systems. In process of positioning a Mobile Station (MS, the computing speed is as important as the positioning accuracy and the algorithm should also be resistant to environmental influences. Approach: A new positioning method based on Weighted Centroid Correction Localization (WCCL for wireless cellular systems is introduced in this article. Firstly, referring to the receiving-state of an MS in cellular systems, it computes a weighted centroid of surrounding Base Stations (BSs as a rough approximate position of the MS. Then, according to the distances between the MS and the BSs being less or bigger than the computed distances between the BSs and the weighted centroid, it corrects the coordinate of the weighted centroid towards the directions of the BSs by moving it closer or farther in turn. Results: According to our experiments, WCCL improves the positioning accuracy, as well as to provide a better resistance to environmental influences. Conclusion: As a modified centroid-based localization algorithm, WCCL obtains weighting factors from the receiving-state of MS in multi-cells structured cellular systems and obtains a better positioning result in cellular systems without updating the network equipment. Therefore, for the cellular positioning problem, WCCL algorithm can be an alternate solution.

  8. Essays in applied economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arano, Kathleen

    Three independent studies in applied economics are presented. The first essay looks at the US natural gas industrial sector and estimates welfare effects associated with the changes in natural gas regulatory policy over the past three decades. Using a disequilibrium model suited to the natural gas industry, welfare transfers and deadweight losses are calculated. Results indicate that deregulation policies, beginning with the NGPA of 1978, have caused the industry to become more responsive to market conditions. Over time, regulated prices converge toward the estimated equilibrium prices. As a result of this convergence, deadweight losses associated with regulation are also diminished. The second essay examines the discounted utility model (DU), the standard model used for intertemporal decision-making. Prior empirical studies challenge the descriptive validity of the model. This essay addresses the four main inconsistencies that have been raised: domain dependence, magnitude effects, time effects, and gain/loss asymmetries. These inconsistencies, however, may be the result of the implicit assumption of linear utility and not a failure of the DU model itself. In order to test this hypothesis, data was collected from in-class surveys of economics classes at Mississippi State University. A random effects model for panel data estimation which accounts for individual specific effects was then used to impute discount rates measured in terms of dollars and utility. All four inconsistencies were found to be present when the dollar measures were used. Using utility measures of the discount rate resolved the inconsistencies in some cases. The third essay brings together two perspectives in the study of religion and economics: modeling religious behavior using economic tools and variables, and modeling economic behavior using religious variables. A system of ordered probit equations is developed to simultaneously model religious activities and economic outcomes. Using data

  9. Nanomechanical testing of polymeric nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, E. P. S.; Lim, C. T.

    2005-04-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanofibrous scaffold comprises individual nanofibers where their stiffnesses can promote or undermine the various cellular functions as well as structural integrity of the scaffold. As such, there is a need to investigate the nanomechanical properties of these individual nanofibers. However, conducting mechanical tests of individual fibers at the nanometer scale can pose great challenges and difficulties. Here, we present novel techniques to perform nanomechanical testing of individual polymeric nanofibers. For demonstration of the nano tensile tests, polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were produced via electrospinning. These fibers were deposited across two parallel edges of a cardboard frame so that a single nanofiber can be isolated for tensile test using a nano tensile tester. For nanoscale three-point bend test, a Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofiber was suspended across a microsized groove etched on a silicon wafer. An atomic force microscope (AFM) tip was then used to apply a point load on the mid-span of the suspended fiber. Beam bending theory was then used to calculate the elastic modulus of the nanofiber. For nanoindentation test, a PLLA nanofiber was deposited on a mica substrate and an AFM tip used to indent the nanofiber. Modified Hertz theory for normal contact was then used to evaluate the elastic modulus of the nanofiber.

  10. 47 CFR 22.970 - Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Except as provided in 47 CFR 90.617(k), unacceptable interference to non-cellular part 90 licensees in...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone or part 90-800 MHz cellular systems. 22.970 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.970 Unacceptable interference to part 90...

  11. Cellular concrete: a potential load-bearing insulation for cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for low cost, low thermal conductivity, high strength insulation suitable for cryogenic applications is becoming more evident. An investigation of the potential of cellular concretes to fulfill this function was initiated. A review of the thermal and mechanical characteristics of foamed plastics and cellular concrete is presented along with relative cost comparisons. Test data from preliminary investigations is presented to define the influence of material constituents, density, and temperature on the mechanical and thermal response of cellular concrete. Specimen densities range from 0.64 to 1.44 gr/cc. The influence of temperature variations from 220C to -1960C is reported for selected densities

  12. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs Help us raise awareness and ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs © 2013 Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation, ...

  13. Applied Mathematics Seminar 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the abstracts of the lectures delivered at 1982 Applied Mathematics Seminar of the DPD/LCC/CNPq and Colloquy on Applied Mathematics of LCC/CNPq. The Seminar comprised 36 conferences. Among these, 30 were presented by researchers associated to brazilian institutions, 9 of them to the LCC/CNPq, and the other 6 were given by visiting lecturers according to the following distribution: 4 from the USA, 1 from England and 1 from Venezuela. The 1981 Applied Mathematics Seminar was organized by Leon R. Sinay and Nelson do Valle Silva. The Colloquy on Applied Mathematics was held from october 1982 on, being organized by Ricardo S. Kubrusly and Leon R. Sinay. (Author)

  14. Handbook of Applied Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Offers an examination of important theoretical methods and procedures in applied analysis. This book details the important theoretical trends in nonlinear analysis and applications to different fields. It is suitable for those working on nonlinear analysis.

  15. Optimization of Inter Cellular Movement of Parts in Cellular Manufacturing System Using Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Siva Prasad Darla; C.D. Naiju; Polu Vidya Sagar; B. Venkat Likhit

    2014-01-01

    In the modern manufacturing environment, Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS) have gained greater importance in job shop or batch-type production to gain economic advantage similar to those of mass production. Successful implementation of CMS highly depends on the determination of part families; machine cells and minimizing inter cellular movement. This study considers machine component grouping problems namely inter-cellular movement and cell load variation by developing a mathematical model...

  16. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  17. Tectonic modeling of Konya-Beysehir Region (Turkey using cellular neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aydogan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, to separate regional-residual anomaly maps and to detect borders of buried geological bodies, we applied the Cellular Neural Network (CNN approach to gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. CNN is a stochastic image processing technique, based optimization of templates, which imply relationships of neighborhood pixels in 2-Dimensional (2D potential anomalies. Here, CNN performance in geophysics, tested by various synthetic examples and the results are compared to classical methods such as boundary analysis and second vertical derivatives. After we obtained satisfactory results in synthetic models, we applied CNN to Bouguer anomaly map of Konya-Beysehir Region, which has complex tectonic structure with various fault combinations. We evaluated CNN outputs and 2D/3D models, which are constructed using forward and inversion methods. Then we presented a new tectonic structure of Konya-Beysehir Region. We have denoted (F1, F2, …, F7 and (Konya1, Konya2 faults according to our evaluations of CNN outputs. Thus, we have concluded that CNN is a compromising stochastic image processing technique in geophysics.

  18. Residual Separation of Magnetic Fields Using a Cellular Neural Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albora, A. M.; Özmen, A.; Uçan, O. N.

    - In this paper, a Cellular Neural Network (CNN) has been applied to a magnetic regional/residual anomaly separation problem. CNN is an analog parallel computing paradigm defined in space and characterized by the locality of connections between processing neurons. The behavior of the CNN is defined by the template matrices A, B and the template vector I. We have optimized weight coefficients of these templates using Recurrent Perceptron Learning Algorithm (RPLA). The advantages of CNN as a real-time stochastic method are that it introduces little distortion to the shape of the original image and that it is not effected significantly by factors such as the overlap of power spectra of residual fields. The proposed method is tested using synthetic examples and the average depth of the buried objects has been estimated by power spectrum analysis. Next the CNN approach is applied to magnetic data over the Golalan chromite mine in Elazig which lies East of Turkey. This area is among the largest and richest chromite masses of the world. We compared the performance of CNN to classical derivative approaches.

  19. Optimization of Inter Cellular Movement of Parts in Cellular Manufacturing System Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Prasad Darla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern manufacturing environment, Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS have gained greater importance in job shop or batch-type production to gain economic advantage similar to those of mass production. Successful implementation of CMS highly depends on the determination of part families; machine cells and minimizing inter cellular movement. This study considers machine component grouping problems namely inter-cellular movement and cell load variation by developing a mathematical model and optimizing the solution using Genetic Algorithm to arrive at a cell formation to minimize the inter-cellular movement and cell load variation. The results are presented with a numerical example.

  20. On the Global Dissipativity of a Class of Cellular Neural Networks with Multipantograph Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the global dissipativity of a class of cellular neural networks with multipantograph delays is studied. On the one hand, some delay-dependent sufficient conditions are obtained by directly constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals; on the other hand, firstly the transformation transforms the cellular neural networks with multipantograph delays into the cellular neural networks with constant delays and variable coefficients, and then constructing Lyapunov functionals, some delay-independent sufficient conditions are given. These new sufficient conditions can ensure global dissipativity together with their sets of attraction and can be applied to design global dissipative cellular neural networks with multipantograph delays and easily checked in practice by simple algebraic methods. An example is given to illustrate the correctness of the results.