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Sample records for cellular scaling rules

  1. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of afrotherians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber eNeves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate and eulipotyphlan brains has shown that nonneuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in evolution in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of afrotherians, believed to be the first clade to radiate from the common eutherian ancestor. We find that afrotherians share nonneuronal scaling rules with rodents, primates and eulipotyphlans, as well as the coordinated scaling of numbers of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Afrotherians share with rodents and eulipotyphlans, but not with primates, the scaling of number of neurons in the cortex and in the cerebellum as a function of the number of neurons in the rest of the brain. Afrotheria also share with rodents and eulipotyphlans the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex. Afrotherians share with rodents, but not with eulipotyphlans nor primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebellum. Importantly, the scaling of the folding index of the cerebral cortex with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex is not shared by either afrotherians, rodents, or primates. The sharing of some neuronal scaling rules between afrotherians and rodents, and of some additional features with eulipotyphlans and primates, raise the interesting possibility that these shared characteristics applied to the common eutherian ancestor. In turn, the clade-specific characteristics that relate to the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex and to its degree of gyrification suggest that these characteristics compose an evolutionarily plastic suite of features that may have defined and distinguished mammalian groups in evolution.

  2. A unique cellular scaling rule in the avian auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Long, Brendan; Krilow, Justin M; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Although it is clear that neural structures scale with body size, the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Several recent studies have shown that the relationship between neuron numbers and brain (or brain region) size are not only different across mammalian orders, but also across auditory and visual regions within the same brains. Among birds, similar cellular scaling rules have not been examined in any detail. Here, we examine the scaling of auditory structures in birds and show that the scaling rules that have been established in the mammalian auditory pathway do not necessarily apply to birds. In galliforms, neuronal densities decrease with increasing brain size, suggesting that auditory brainstem structures increase in size faster than neurons are added; smaller brains have relatively more neurons than larger brains. The cellular scaling rules that apply to auditory brainstem structures in galliforms are, therefore, different to that found in primate auditory pathway. It is likely that the factors driving this difference are associated with the anatomical specializations required for sound perception in birds, although there is a decoupling of neuron numbers in brain structures and hair cell numbers in the basilar papilla. This study provides significant insight into the allometric scaling of neural structures in birds and improves our understanding of the rules that govern neural scaling across vertebrates.

  3. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazu, Rodrigo S; Maldonado, José; Mota, Bruno; Manger, Paul R; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate, insectivore, and afrotherian brains has shown that non-neuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of artiodactyls, a group within the order Cetartiodactyla, believed to be a relatively recent radiation from the common Eutherian ancestor. We find that artiodactyls share non-neuronal scaling rules with all groups analyzed previously. Artiodactyls share with afrotherians and rodents, but not with primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The neuronal scaling rules that apply to the remaining brain areas are, however, distinct in artiodactyls. Importantly, we show that the folding index of the cerebral cortex scales with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex in distinct fashions across artiodactyls, afrotherians, rodents, and primates, such that the artiodactyl cerebral cortex is more convoluted than primate cortices of similar numbers of neurons. Our findings suggest that the scaling rules found to be shared across modern afrotherians, glires, and artiodactyls applied to the common Eutherian ancestor, such as the relationship between the mass of the cerebral cortex as a whole and its number of neurons. In turn, the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex, which is related to its degree of gyrification, appears to be a clade-specific characteristic. If the neuronal scaling rules for artiodactyls extend to all cetartiodactyls, we predict that the large cerebral cortex of cetaceans will still have fewer neurons than the human cerebral cortex.

  4. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eSiqueira Kazu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate, insectivore and afrotherian brains has shown that nonneuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of artiodactyls, a group within the order Cetartiodactyla, believed to be a relatively recent radiation from the common Eutherian ancestor. We find that artiodactyls share nonneuronal scaling rules with all groups analyzed previously. Artiodactyls share with afrotherians and rodents, but not with primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The neuronal scaling rules that apply to the remaining brain areas are however distinct in artiodactyls. Importantly, we show that the folding index of the cerebral cortex scales with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex in distinct fashions across artiodactyls, afrotherians, rodents, and primates, such that the artiodactyl cerebral cortex is more convoluted than primate cortices of similar numbers of neurons. Our findings suggest that the scaling rules found to be shared across modern afrotherians, glires and artiodactyls applied to the common Eutherian ancestor, such as the relationship between the mass of the cerebral cortex as a whole and its number of neurons. In turn, the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex, which is related to its degree of gyrification, appears to be a clade-specific characteristic. If the neuronal scaling rules for artiodactyls extend to all cetartiodactyls, we predict that the large cerebral cortex of cetaceans will still have fewer neurons than the human cerebral cortex.

  5. Cellular Scaling Rules for the Brains of Marsupials: Not as "Primitive" as Expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Sandra E; Porfirio, Jairo; da Cunha, Felipe B; Manger, Paul R; Tavares, William; Pessoa, Leila; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Sherwood, Chet C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2017-01-27

    In the effort to understand the evolution of mammalian brains, we have found that common relationships between brain structure mass and numbers of nonneuronal (glial and vascular) cells apply across eutherian mammals, but brain structure mass scales differently with numbers of neurons across structures and across primate and nonprimate clades. This suggests that the ancestral scaling rules for mammalian brains are those shared by extant nonprimate eutherians - but do these scaling relationships apply to marsupials, a sister group to eutherians that diverged early in mammalian evolution? Here we examine the cellular composition of the brains of 10 species of marsupials. We show that brain structure mass scales with numbers of nonneuronal cells, and numbers of cerebellar neurons scale with numbers of cerebral cortical neurons, comparable to what we have found in eutherians. These shared scaling relationships are therefore indicative of mechanisms that have been conserved since the first therians. In contrast, while marsupials share with nonprimate eutherians the scaling of cerebral cortex mass with number of neurons, their cerebella have more neurons than nonprimate eutherian cerebella of a similar mass, and their rest of brain has fewer neurons than eutherian structures of a similar mass. Moreover, Australasian marsupials exhibit ratios of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum over the rest of the brain, comparable to artiodactyls and primates. Our results suggest that Australasian marsupials have diverged from the ancestral Theria neuronal scaling rules, and support the suggestion that the scaling of average neuronal cell size with increasing numbers of neurons varies in evolution independently of the allocation of neurons across structures.

  6. Validity of the Cauchy-Born rule applied to discrete cellular-scale models of biological tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.

    2013-04-30

    The development of new models of biological tissues that consider cells in a discrete manner is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to continuum methods based on partial differential equations, although formal relationships between the discrete and continuum frameworks remain to be established. For crystal mechanics, the discrete-to-continuum bridge is often made by assuming that local atom displacements can be mapped homogeneously from the mesoscale deformation gradient, an assumption known as the Cauchy-Born rule (CBR). Although the CBR does not hold exactly for noncrystalline materials, it may still be used as a first-order approximation for analytic calculations of effective stresses or strain energies. In this work, our goal is to investigate numerically the applicability of the CBR to two-dimensional cellular-scale models by assessing the mechanical behavior of model biological tissues, including crystalline (honeycomb) and noncrystalline reference states. The numerical procedure involves applying an affine deformation to the boundary cells and computing the quasistatic position of internal cells. The position of internal cells is then compared with the prediction of the CBR and an average deviation is calculated in the strain domain. For center-based cell models, we show that the CBR holds exactly when the deformation gradient is relatively small and the reference stress-free configuration is defined by a honeycomb lattice. We show further that the CBR may be used approximately when the reference state is perturbed from the honeycomb configuration. By contrast, for vertex-based cell models, a similar analysis reveals that the CBR does not provide a good representation of the tissue mechanics, even when the reference configuration is defined by a honeycomb lattice. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of these results for concurrent discrete and continuous modeling, adaptation of atom-to-continuum techniques to biological

  7. A Computation in a Cellular Automaton Collider Rule 110

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Genaro J; McIntosh, Harold V

    2016-01-01

    A cellular automaton collider is a finite state machine build of rings of one-dimensional cellular automata. We show how a computation can be performed on the collider by exploiting interactions between gliders (particles, localisations). The constructions proposed are based on universality of elementary cellular automaton rule 110, cyclic tag systems, supercolliders, and computing on rings.

  8. Cellular automaton rules conserving the number of active sites

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, N; Boccara, Nino; Fuks, Henryk

    1997-01-01

    This paper shows how to determine all the unidimensional two-state cellular automaton rules of a given number of inputs which conserve the number of active sites. These rules have to satisfy a necessary and sufficient condition. If the active sites are viewed as cells occupied by identical particles, these cellular automaton rules represent evolution operators of systems of identical interacting particles whose total number is conserved. Some of these rules, which allow motion in both directions, mimic ensembles of one-dimensional pseudo-random walkers. The corresponding stochastic processes are, however, not Gaussian.

  9. EVOLUTION COMPLEXITY OF THEELEMENTARY CELLULAR AUTOMATON OF RULE 22

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYi; JiangZhisong

    2002-01-01

    Cellular automata are the discrete dynamical systems of simple construction but with complex and varied behaviors. In this paper, the elementary cellular automaton of rule 22 is studied by the tools of formal language theory and symbolic dynamics. Its temporal evolution orbits are coarse-grained into evolution sequences and the evolution languages are defined. It is proved that for every n≥2 its width n evolution language is not regular.

  10. CATALAN NUMBERS, DYCK LANGUAGE AND TIME SERIES OF ELEMENTARY CELLULAR AUTOMATON OF RULE 56

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Dakang; XIE Huimin

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to study the evolution complexity of cellular automata is proposed and explained thoroughly by an example of elementary cellular automaton of rule 56. Using the tools of distinct excluded blocks, computational search and symbolic dynamics, the mathematical structure underlying the time series generated from the elementary cellular automaton of rule 56 is analyzed and its complexity is determined, in which the Dyck language and Catalan numbers emerge naturally.

  11. Cell biology of the future: Nanometer-scale cellular cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraska, Justin W

    2015-10-26

    Understanding cellular structure is key to understanding cellular regulation. New developments in super-resolution fluorescence imaging, electron microscopy, and quantitative image analysis methods are now providing some of the first three-dimensional dynamic maps of biomolecules at the nanometer scale. These new maps--comprehensive nanometer-scale cellular cartographies--will reveal how the molecular organization of cells influences their diverse and changeable activities.

  12. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechsteleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ; Wolf, D.E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechstleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ]|[Gerhard-Mercator-Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Theoretische Physik; Wagner, P. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Zentrum Fuer Paralleles Rechnen]|[Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Simon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  13. Evolution from Cellular to Social Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Skjeltorp, Arne T

    2008-01-01

    Evolution is a critical challenge for many areas of science, technology and development of society. The book reviews general evolutionary facts such as origin of life and evolution of the genome and clues to evolution through simple systems. Emerging areas of science such as "systems biology" and "bio-complexity" are founded on the idea that phenomena need to be understood in the context of highly interactive processes operating at different levels and on different scales. This is where physics meets complexity in nature, and where we must begin to learn about complexity if we are to understand it. Similarly, there is an increasingly urgent need to understand and predict the evolutionary behavior of highly interacting man-made systems, in areas such as communications and transport, which permeate the modern world. The same applies to the evolution of human networks such as social, political and financial systems, where technology has tended to vastly increase both the complexity and speed of interaction, whic...

  14. Semi-empirical system scaling rules for DWDM system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuth, Brian; Frankel, Michael Y; Pelekhaty, Vladimir

    2012-01-30

    Recently, several theoretical papers have derived relationships for fiber-optic transmission system performance in terms of associated physical layer parameters. At the same time, a large number of detailed experiments have been and continue being performed that demonstrate increasing capacities and unregenerated reach. We use this wealth of experimental data to validate the aforementioned relationships, and to propose a set of simple scaling rules for performance. We find that, despite substantial differences in experimental configurations, overall performance in terms of spectral efficiency and unregenerated reach is well explained by scaling rules. These scaling rules will be useful to carriers seeking to understand what they should expect to see in terms of network performance using deployed or easily accessible technology, which may be radically different from hero experiment results. These rules will also be useful to design engineers seeking cost effective tradeoffs to achieving higher performance using realistic upgrade strategies, and what might be encountered as a fundamental limit.

  15. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function.

  16. Cellular Automaton Rule 184++C A Simple Model for the Complex Dynamics of Various Particles Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Awazu, A

    1999-01-01

    A cellular automaton named Rule 184++C is proposed as a meta-model to investigate the flow of various complex particles. In this model, unlike the granular pipe flow and the traffic flow, not only the free-jam phase transition but also the free-intermediate, the intermediate-jam, and the dilute-dense phase transitions appear. Moreover, the freezing phenomena appear if the system contains two types of different particles.

  17. New approach to scaling rules for stellar and planetary dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Barrois, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Glorified dimensional analysis is used to derive scaling rules for internal and external magnetic field strengths and various time scales. Naive dimensional analysis is inconclusive because of multiple time scales, but physical arguments serve to weed out irrelevant parameters. Time scales can be derived from linearized instability analysis instead of ill-founded assumptions of Magnetic-Archimedean-Coriolis (MAC) balance. Further relationships can be derived from high-level models of coupled main field components and differential rotation. The ratios of the external dipole field to internal magnetic fields and of differential to overall rotation depend on details of the dynamo mechanism.

  18. Sub-classes and evolution stability of Wolfram's classesin the total-rule cellular automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Guangwu; TIAN Feng; DONG Yinfeng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a concept of sub-classes and its evolution stability for the Wolfram's classes. Firstly, we obtain the sub-classes of the Wolfram's class IV, gene-piece of these sub-classes and their existing circumstance. Secondly, we introduce a new concept, the evolution stability, for the Wolfram's classes and sub-classes of Wolfram's class IV. Lastly, we find that Wolfram's classes I, II, and III have the evolution stability, but sub-classes of the Wolfram's class IV have not the evolution stability for the total rule cellular automata.

  19. Decomposing Complex, Macroscopic Phenomena Through A Set of Local Nonlinear Rules In A Cellular Automata Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, M. V.; Crisci, G. M.; D'Ambrosio, D.; di Gregorio, S.; Iovine, G.; Rongo, R.; Spataro, W.

    Cellular Automata (CA) are able to capture the peculiar characteristics of systems, whose global evolution can be exclusively described on the basis of local interactions among their constituent parts ("a-centrism"). Such systems match the paradigm of parallelism with the a-centrism one. In modelling complex phenomena by means of classical CA, elementary automata characterised by few states and simple transition function have usually been involved. On the other hand, many complex macroscopic phenomena (even though characterised by properties of parallelism and a-centrism) can be very difficult to be modelled through classical CA, because of their hetero- geneous characteristics, which require a very large number of states. For such cases, which perfectly fit the general definition of CA, more complex transition rules (differ- ing from typical transition functions) would be, in fact, needed. Aiming at modelling these latter phenomena, an empirical method has been developed, based on the decom- position of the phenomenon into "elementary" components, whose behaviour can be described through local rules. Furthermore, criteria and conditions have been defined, in order to translate the local rules into a transition function, as needed for perform- ing cellular automata simulations. Applications of CA models to real cases of study have recently been attempted: landslides (earth flows, rock avalanches, debris flows), lava flows, soil erosion, soil contamination and bioremediation, forest fires have all been analysed through CA simulations, and encouraging results have been obtained. In the present paper, examples of application of the method for hazard evaluation are described, with particular reference to the Sarno 1998 debris flows and the Etna 2001 lava flows.

  20. Evaluation of dynamic behavior forecasting parameters in the process of transition rule induction of unidimensional cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Wagner Rodrigo; Lopes, Heitor Silvério

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of the dynamics of a cellular systems based on cellular automata (CA) can be computationally expensive. This is particularly true when such simulation is part of a procedure of rule induction to find suitable transition rules for the CA. Several efforts have been described in the literature to make this problem more treatable. This work presents a study about the efficiency of dynamic behavior forecasting parameters (DBFPs) used for the induction of transition rules of CA for a specific problem: the classification by the majority rule. A total of 8 DBFPs were analyzed for the 31 best-performing rules found in the literature. Some of these DBFPs were highly correlated each other, meaning they yield the same information. Also, most rules presented values of the DBFPs very close each other. An evolutionary algorithm, based on gene expression programming, was developed for finding transition rules according a given preestablished behavior. The simulation of the dynamic behavior of the CA is not used to evaluate candidate transition rules. Instead, the average values for the DBFPs were used as reference. Experiments were done using the DBFPs separately and together. In both cases, the best induced transition rules were not acceptable solutions for the desired behavior of the CA. We conclude that, although the DBFPs represent interesting aspects of the dynamic behavior of CAs, the transition rule induction process still requires the simulation of the dynamics and cannot rely only on the DBFPs.

  1. Size structure, not metabolic scaling rules, determines fisheries reference points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    that even though small species have a higher productivity than large species their resilience towards fishing is lower than expected from metabolic scaling rules. Further, we show that the fishing mortality leading to maximum yield per recruit is an ill-suited reference point. The theory can be used...... these empirical relations is lacking. Here, we combine life-history invariants, metabolic scaling and size-spectrum theory to develop a general size- and trait-based theory for demography and recruitment of exploited fish stocks. Important concepts are physiological or metabolic scaled mortalities and flux...... of individuals or their biomass to size. The theory is based on classic metabolic relations at the individual level and uses asymptotic size W∞ as a trait. The theory predicts fundamental similarities and differences between small and large species in vital rates and response to fishing. The central result...

  2. Scaling rules for critical current density in anisotropic biaxial superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingxu, E-mail: yingxuli@swjtu.edu.cn [Applied Mechanics and Structure Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Mechanics and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Kang, Guozheng [Applied Mechanics and Structure Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Mechanics and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Recent researches highlight the additional anisotropic crystallographic axis within the superconducting plane of high temperature superconductors (HTS), demonstrating the superconducting anisotropy of HTS is better understood in the biaxial frame than the previous uniaxial coordinates within the superconducting layer. To quantitatively evaluate the anisotropy of flux pinning and critical current density in HTS, we extend the scaling rule for single-vortex collective pinning in uniaxial superconductors to account for flux-bundle collective pinning in biaxial superconductors. The scaling results show that in a system of random uncorrected point defects, the field dependence of the critical current density is described by a unified function with the scaled magnetic field of the isotropic superconductor. The obtained angular dependence of the critical current density depicts the main features of experimental observations, considering possible corrections due to the strong-pinning interaction.

  3. Development of scaling rules for Rutherford type superconducting cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royet, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1990-09-01

    During the R D phase of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) program, LBL was responsible for establishing the parameters for cables used in SSC dipole and quadrupole magnets. In addition, the design and fabrication of a new cable for use in the Low Beta Quadrupoles. As a result of the development work on these and other cables, we have arrived a set of scaling rules which provide guidelines for choosing the parameters for a wide range of superconducting cables. These parameters include strand size, strand number, keystone angle, percent compaction, cable pitch and compacted cable dimensions. In addition, we have defined the tolerance ranges for the key cable manufacturing parameters such as mandrel size and shape, stand tension, and Turkshead temperature control. In this paper, we present the results on cables ranging from 8 strands to 36 strands of 0.65mm wire and from 8 strands to 30 strands of 0.8mm wire. We use these results to demonstrate the application of the scaling rules for Rutherford-type cable.

  4. Injectable, Cellular-Scale Optoelectronics with Applications for Wireless Optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-il; McCall, Jordan G.; Jung, Yei Hwan; Huang, Xian; Siuda, Edward R.; Li, Yuhang; Song, Jizhou; Song, Young Min; Pao, Hsuan An; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Lu, Chaofeng; Lee, Sung Dan; Song, Il-Sun; Shin, GunChul; Al-Hasani, Ream; Kim, Stanley; Tan, Meng Peun; Huang, Yonggang; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Rogers, John A.; Bruchas, Michael R.

    2013-04-01

    Successful integration of advanced semiconductor devices with biological systems will accelerate basic scientific discoveries and their translation into clinical technologies. In neuroscience generally, and in optogenetics in particular, the ability to insert light sources, detectors, sensors, and other components into precise locations of the deep brain yields versatile and important capabilities. Here, we introduce an injectable class of cellular-scale optoelectronics that offers such features, with examples of unmatched operational modes in optogenetics, including completely wireless and programmed complex behavioral control over freely moving animals. The ability of these ultrathin, mechanically compliant, biocompatible devices to afford minimally invasive operation in the soft tissues of the mammalian brain foreshadow applications in other organ systems, with potential for broad utility in biomedical science and engineering.

  5. Cellular Phone Towers, Cellular_tower_locations, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  6. Revisions to Exceptions Applicable to Certain Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    : The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency or we) is issuing this final rule to amend certain regulations regarding donor eligibility, including the screening and testing of donors of particular human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps), and related labeling. This final rule is in response to our enhanced understanding in this area and in response to comments from stakeholders regarding the importance of embryos to individuals and couples seeking access to donated embryos.

  7. Scaling Rule for Very Shallow Trench IGBT toward CMOS Process Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Deep trench gate is used for latest IGBT to improve device performance. By large difference from deep submicron CMOS structure, there is no process compatibility among CMOS device and trench gate IGBT. We propose IGBT scaling rule for shrinking IGBT cell structure both horizontally and vertically. The scaling rule is theoretically delivered by structure based equations. Device performance improvement was also predicted by TCAD simulations even with very shallow trench gate. The rule enables t...

  8. Simulation of large-scale rule-based models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Monnie, Michael I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colvin, Joshua [NON LANL; Faseder, James [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Interactions of molecules, such as signaling proteins, with multiple binding sites and/or multiple sites of post-translational covalent modification can be modeled using reaction rules. Rules comprehensively, but implicitly, define the individual chemical species and reactions that molecular interactions can potentially generate. Although rules can be automatically processed to define a biochemical reaction network, the network implied by a set of rules is often too large to generate completely or to simulate using conventional procedures. To address this problem, we present DYNSTOC, a general-purpose tool for simulating rule-based models. DYNSTOC implements a null-event algorithm for simulating chemical reactions in a homogenous reaction compartment. The simulation method does not require that a reaction network be specified explicitly in advance, but rather takes advantage of the availability of the reaction rules in a rule-based specification of a network to determine if a randomly selected set of molecular components participates in a reaction during a time step. DYNSTOC reads reaction rules written in the BioNetGen language which is useful for modeling protein-protein interactions involved in signal transduction. The method of DYNSTOC is closely related to that of STOCHSIM. DYNSTOC differs from STOCHSIM by allowing for model specification in terms of BNGL, which extends the range of protein complexes that can be considered in a model. DYNSTOC enables the simulation of rule-based models that cannot be simulated by conventional methods. We demonstrate the ability of DYNSTOC to simulate models accounting for multisite phosphorylation and multivalent binding processes that are characterized by large numbers of reactions. DYNSTOC is free for non-commercial use. The C source code, supporting documentation and example input files are available at .

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 1990, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Pitt County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1990. Data...

  10. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Farmer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2006. Data by this...

  11. Using cellular network diagrams to interpret large-scale datasets: past progress and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Peter D.; Latendresse, Mario; Paley, Suzanne

    2011-03-01

    Cellular networks are graphs of molecular interactions within the cell. Thanks to the confluence of genome sequencing and bioinformatics, scientists are now able to reconstruct cellular network models for more than 1,000 organisms. A variety of bioinformatics tools have been developed to support the visualization and navigation of cellular network data. Another important application is the use of cellular network diagrams to visualize and interpret large-scale datasets, such as gene-expression data. We present the Cellular Overview, a network visualization tool developed at SRI International (SRI) to support visualization, navigation, and interpretation of large-scale datasets on metabolic networks. Different variations of the diagram have been generated algorithmically for more than 1,000 organisms. We discuss the graphical design of the diagram and its interactive capabilities.

  12. Full-Duplex Communications in Large-Scale Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    AlAmmouri, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    In-band full-duplex (FD) communications have been optimistically promoted to improve the spectrum utilization and efficiency. However, the penetration of FD communications to the cellular networks domain is challenging due to the imposed uplink/downlink interference. This thesis presents a tractable framework, based on stochastic geometry, to study FD communications in multi-tier cellular networks. Particularly, we assess the FD communications effect on the network performance and quantify the associated gains. The study proves the vulnerability of the uplink to the downlink interference and shows that the improved FD rate gains harvested in the downlink (up to 97%) comes at the expense of a significant degradation in the uplink rate (up to 94%). Therefore, we propose a novel fine-grained duplexing scheme, denoted as α-duplex scheme, which allows a partial overlap between the uplink and the downlink frequency bands. We derive the required conditions to harvest rate gains from the α-duplex scheme and show its superiority to both the FD and half-duplex (HD) schemes. In particular, we show that the α-duplex scheme provides a simultaneous improvement of 28% for the downlink rate and 56% for the uplink rate. We also show that the amount of the overlap can be optimized based on the network design objective. Moreover, backward compatibility is an essential ingredient for the success of new technologies. In the context of in-band FD communication, FD base stations (BSs) should support HD users\\' equipment (UEs) without sacrificing the foreseen FD gains. The results show that FD-UEs are not necessarily required to harvest rate gains from FD-BSs. In particular, the results show that adding FD-UEs to FD-BSs offers a maximum of 5% rate gain over FD-BSs and HD-UEs case, which is a marginal gain compared to the burden required to implement FD transceivers at the UEs\\' side. To this end, we shed light on practical scenarios where HD-UEs operation with FD-BSs outperforms the

  13. Development and Validation of a Rule-Based Strength Scaling Method for Musculoskeletal Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oomen, Pieter; Annegarn, Janneke; Rasmussen, John

    2015-01-01

    Rule based strength scaling is an easy, cheap and relatively accurate technique to personalize musculoskeletal (MS) models. This paper presents a new strength scaling approach for MS models and validates it by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). A heterogeneous group of 63 healthy subjects...

  14. Scaling to Nanotechnology Limits with the PIMS Computer Architecture and a new Scaling Rule.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenedictis, Erik

    2015-02-01

    We describe a new approach to computing that moves towards the limits of nanotechnology using a newly formulated sc aling rule. This is in contrast to the current computer industry scali ng away from von Neumann's original computer at the rate of Moore's Law. We extend Moore's Law to 3D, which l eads generally to architectures that integrate logic and memory. To keep pow er dissipation cons tant through a 2D surface of the 3D structure requires using adiabatic principles. We call our newly proposed architecture Processor In Memory and Storage (PIMS). We propose a new computational model that integrates processing and memory into "tiles" that comprise logic, memory/storage, and communications functions. Since the programming model will be relatively stable as a system scales, programs repr esented by tiles could be executed in a PIMS system built with today's technology or could become the "schematic diagram" for implementation in an ultimate 3D nanotechnology of the future. We build a systems software approach that offers advantages over and above the technological and arch itectural advantages. Firs t, the algorithms may be more efficient in the conventional sens e of having fewer steps. Second, the algorithms may run with higher power efficiency per operation by being a better match for the adiabatic scaling ru le. The performance analysis based on demonstrated ideas in physical science suggests 80,000 x improvement in cost per operation for the (arguably) gene ral purpose function of emulating neurons in Deep Learning.

  15. Scaling to Nanotechnology Limits with the PIMS Computer Architecture and a new Scaling Rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenedictis, Erik P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We describe a new approach to computing that moves towards the limits of nanotechnology using a newly formulated sc aling rule. This is in contrast to the current computer industry scali ng away from von Neumann's original computer at the rate of Moore's Law. We extend Moore's Law to 3D, which l eads generally to architectures that integrate logic and memory. To keep pow er dissipation cons tant through a 2D surface of the 3D structure requires using adiabatic principles. We call our newly proposed architecture Processor In Memory and Storage (PIMS). We propose a new computational model that integrates processing and memory into "tiles" that comprise logic, memory/storage, and communications functions. Since the programming model will be relatively stable as a system scales, programs repr esented by tiles could be executed in a PIMS system built with today's technology or could become the "schematic diagram" for implementation in an ultimate 3D nanotechnology of the future. We build a systems software approach that offers advantages over and above the technological and arch itectural advantages. Firs t, the algorithms may be more efficient in the conventional sens e of having fewer steps. Second, the algorithms may run with higher power efficiency per operation by being a better match for the adiabatic scaling ru le. The performance analysis based on demonstrated ideas in physical science suggests 80,000 x improvement in cost per operation for the (arguably) gene ral purpose function of emulating neurons in Deep Learning.

  16. Edge effect on resistance scaling rules in graphene nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangyu; Torres, Carlos M; Tang, Jianshi; Bai, Jingwei; Song, Emil B; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Yuegang; Wang, Kang L

    2011-03-09

    We report an experimental investigation of the edge effect on the room-temperature transport in graphene nanoribbon and graphene sheet (both single-layer and bilayer). By measuring the resistance scaling behaviors at both low- and high-carrier densities, we show that the transport of single-layer nanoribbons lies in a strong localization regime, which can be attributed to an edge effect. We find that this edge effect can be weakened by enlarging the width, decreasing the carrier densities, or adding an extra layer. From graphene nanoribbon to graphene sheet, the data show a dimensional crossover of the transport regimes possibly due to the drastic change of the edge effect.

  17. BioJazz: in silico evolution of cellular networks with unbounded complexity using rule-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Song; Ollivier, Julien F; Swain, Peter S; Soyer, Orkun S

    2015-10-30

    Systems biologists aim to decipher the structure and dynamics of signaling and regulatory networks underpinning cellular responses; synthetic biologists can use this insight to alter existing networks or engineer de novo ones. Both tasks will benefit from an understanding of which structural and dynamic features of networks can emerge from evolutionary processes, through which intermediary steps these arise, and whether they embody general design principles. As natural evolution at the level of network dynamics is difficult to study, in silico evolution of network models can provide important insights. However, current tools used for in silico evolution of network dynamics are limited to ad hoc computer simulations and models. Here we introduce BioJazz, an extendable, user-friendly tool for simulating the evolution of dynamic biochemical networks. Unlike previous tools for in silico evolution, BioJazz allows for the evolution of cellular networks with unbounded complexity by combining rule-based modeling with an encoding of networks that is akin to a genome. We show that BioJazz can be used to implement biologically realistic selective pressures and allows exploration of the space of network architectures and dynamics that implement prescribed physiological functions. BioJazz is provided as an open-source tool to facilitate its further development and use. Source code and user manuals are available at: http://oss-lab.github.io/biojazz and http://osslab.lifesci.warwick.ac.uk/BioJazz.aspx.

  18. Cellular Phone Towers, Cellular Towers as permitted, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Columbia County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is...

  19. Cellular Phone Towers, Cellular phone tower point layer utilizing data obtained from the FCC., Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Reno County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is...

  20. A common origin for 3/4- and 2/3-power rules in metabolic scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    A central debate in biology has been the allometric scaling of metabolic rate. Kleiber's observation that animals' basal metabolic rate scales to the 3/4-power of body mass (Kleiber's rule) has been the prevailing hypothesis in the last eight decades. Increasingly, more evidences are supporting the alternative 2/3-power scaling rule, especially for smaller animals. The 2/3-rule dates back to before Kleiber's time and was thought to originate from the surface to volume relationship in Euclidean geometry. In this study, we show that both the 3/4- and 2/3-scaling rules have in fact one common origin. They are governed by animals' nutrient supply networks-their vascular systems that obey Murray's law. Murray's law describes the branching pattern of energy optimized vascular network under laminar flow. It is generally regarded as being closely followed by blood vessels. Our analysis agrees with experimental observations and recent numerical analyses that showed a curvature in metabolic scaling. When applied to met...

  1. 22号初等元胞自动机的演化复杂性%EVOLUTION COMPLEXITY OF THE ELEMENTARY CELLULAR AUTOMATON OF RULE 22

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益; 江志松

    2002-01-01

    Cellular automata are the discrete dynamical systems of simple construction but with complex and varied behaviors.In this paper,the elementary cellular automaton of rule 22 is studied by the tools of formal language theory and symbolic dynamics.Its temporal evolution orbits are coarse-grained into evolution sequences and the evolution languages are defined.It is proved that for every n≥2 its width n-evolution language is not regular.

  2. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Richard P; Perna, Andrea; Strömbom, Daniel; Garnett, Roman; Herbert-Read, James E; Sumpter, David J T; Ward, Ashley J W

    2012-01-01

    Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis). We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture fine scale rules of interaction, which are primarily mediated by physical contact. Conversely, the Markovian self-propelled particle model captures the fine scale rules of interaction but fails to reproduce global dynamics. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  3. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Mann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis. We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture fine scale rules of interaction, which are primarily mediated by physical contact. Conversely, the Markovian self-propelled particle model captures the fine scale rules of interaction but fails to reproduce global dynamics. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  4. Impact of Scaling on CMOS Chip Failure Rate, and Design Rules for Hot Carrier Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Silicon-hydrogen bonds passivate the interface defects at the silicon-silicon dioxide interface of CMOS transistors. The activation of these bonds and subsequent creation of interface traps is an important source of transistor degradation at current operating conditions. There is now evidence for a distribution in the activation energies of these bonds instead of a single threshold value. We show that conventional CMOS scaling rules are substantially affected by this energy dis...

  5. Cellular Phone Towers, Tower Locations, Published in 2005, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, McPherson Ccounty.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005. It is...

  6. Cellular Phone Towers, parcel data base attribute, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is...

  7. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Fulton County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. Data by...

  8. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, City of Hays / Ellis County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2009. Data by...

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell phone sectors, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hodgeman County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  10. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2002, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, City of Rome.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. Data by this publisher are...

  11. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2008, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, White County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. Data by this...

  12. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hamilton County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  13. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Lincoln County Land Information & Conservation Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are...

  14. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2008, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Columbus Consolidated Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. Data by this...

  15. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Sectors, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hamilton County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  16. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in Not Provided, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Warren County Emergency Services.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of Not Provided. Data by...

  17. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Milton.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. Data by...

  18. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2000, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Cumberland County Planning/GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale as of 2000. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in...

  19. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Ness County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  20. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 1995, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Garrett County Planning & Land Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1995. Data...

  1. Cellular Phone Towers, Communication Towers, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Lumpkin County, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as...

  2. Cellular Phone Towers, cell phone towers, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hodgeman County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  3. Cellular Phone Towers, Towers, Published in 2001, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Steuben County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2001. It is described...

  4. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, St James Parish Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. Data by this...

  5. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Liberty County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as...

  6. Cellular Phone Towers, cell sectors, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Stanton County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  7. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is...

  8. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Harvey County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2012, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Pierce County Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2012. Data by this publisher are...

  10. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2006, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Washington County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2006. Data by this...

  11. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2008, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Chautauqua County/Elk County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. Data by this...

  12. Construction of Modular Hydrogel Sheets for Micropatterned Macro-scaled 3D Cellular Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jaejung; Bae, Chae Yun; Park, Je-Kyun

    2016-01-11

    Hydrogels can be patterned at the micro-scale using microfluidic or micropatterning technologies to provide an in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) tissue geometry. The resulting 3D hydrogel-based cellular constructs have been introduced as an alternative to animal experiments for advanced biological studies, pharmacological assays and organ transplant applications. Although hydrogel-based particles and fibers can be easily fabricated, it is difficult to manipulate them for tissue reconstruction. In this video, we describe a fabrication method for micropatterned alginate hydrogel sheets, together with their assembly to form a macro-scale 3D cell culture system with a controlled cellular microenvironment. Using a mist form of the calcium gelling agent, thin hydrogel sheets are easily generated with a thickness in the range of 100 - 200 µm, and with precise micropatterns. Cells can then be cultured with the geometric guidance of the hydrogel sheets in freestanding conditions. Furthermore, the hydrogel sheets can be readily manipulated using a micropipette with an end-cut tip, and can be assembled into multi-layered structures by stacking them using a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) frame. These modular hydrogel sheets, which can be fabricated using a facile process, have potential applications of in vitro drug assays and biological studies, including functional studies of micro- and macrostructure and tissue reconstruction.

  13. An Urban Cellular Automata Model for Simulating Dynamic States on a Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Partanen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In complex systems, flexibility and adaptability to changes are crucial to the systems’ dynamic stability and evolution. Such resilience requires that the system is able to respond to disturbances by self-organizing, which implies a certain level of entropy within the system. Dynamic states (static, cyclical/periodic, complex, and chaotic reflect this generative capacity, and correlate with the level of entropy. For planning complex cities, we need to develop methods to guide such autonomous progress in an optimal manner. A classical apparatus, cellular automaton (CA, provides such a tool. Applications of CA help us to study temporal dynamics in self-organizing urban systems. By exploring the dynamic states of the model’s dynamics resulting from different border conditions it is possible to discover favorable set(s of rules conductive to the self-organizing dynamics and enable the system’s recovery at the time of crises. Level of entropy is a relevant measurement for evaluation of these dynamic states. The 2-D urban cellular automaton model studied here is based on the microeconomic principle that similar urban activities are attracted to each other, especially in certain self-organizing areas, and that the local dynamics of these enclaves affect the dynamics of the urban region by channeling flows of information, goods and people. The results of the modeling experiment indicate that the border conditions have a major impact on the model’s dynamics generating various dynamic states of the system. Most importantly, it seemed that the model could simulate a favorable, complex dynamic state with medium entropy level which may refer to the continuous self-organization of the system. The model provides a tool for exploring and understanding the effects of boundary conditions in the planning process as various scenarios are tested: resulting dynamics of the system can be explored with such “planning rules” prior to decisions, helping to

  14. Multi-Scaling Sampling: An Adaptive Sampling Method for Discovering Approximate Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-Yan Jia; Xie-Ping Gao

    2005-01-01

    One of the obstacles of the efficient association rule mining is the explosive expansion of data sets since it is costly or impossible to scan large databases, esp., for multiple times. A popular solution to improve the speed and scalability of the association rule mining is to do the algorithm on a random sample instead of the entire database. But how to effectively define and efficiently estimate the degree of error with respect to the outcome of the algorithm, and how to determine the sample size needed are entangling researches until now. In this paper, an effective and efficient algorithm is given based on the PAC (Probably Approximate Correct) learning theory to measure and estimate sample error. Then, a new adaptive, on-line, fast sampling strategy - multi-scaling sampling - is presented inspired by MRA (Multi-Resolution Analysis) and Shannon sampling theorem, for quickly obtaining acceptably approximate association rules at appropriate sample size. Both theoretical analysis and empirical study have showed that the sampling strategy can achieve a very good speed-accuracy trade-off.

  15. Scaling Laws and Design Principles for Multi-Cellular Wireless OFDMA Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Rohit; Schniter, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the downlink of large-scale multi-cellular OFDMA-based networks and study performance bounds of the system as a function of the number of users $K$, the number of base-stations $B$, and the number of resource-blocks $N$. Here, a resource block is a collection of subcarriers such that all such collections, that are disjoint have associated independently fading channels. We derive novel upper and lower bounds on the sum-utility for a general spatial geometry of base stations, a truncated path loss model, and a variety of fading models (Rayleigh, Nakagami-$m$, Weibull, and LogNormal). We also establish the associated scaling laws and show that, in the special case of fixed number of resource blocks, a grid-based network of base stations, and Rayleigh-fading channels, the sum information capacity of the system scales as $\\Theta(B \\log\\log K/B)$ for extended networks, and as $O(B \\log\\log K)$ and $\\Omega(\\log \\log K)$ for dense networks. Interpreting these results, we develop some design...

  16. Multiscale systems analysis of root growth and development: modeling beyond the network and cellular scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Leah R; Fozard, John A; Godin, Christophe; Jensen, Oliver E; Pridmore, Tony; Bennett, Malcolm J; King, John R

    2012-10-01

    Over recent decades, we have gained detailed knowledge of many processes involved in root growth and development. However, with this knowledge come increasing complexity and an increasing need for mechanistic modeling to understand how those individual processes interact. One major challenge is in relating genotypes to phenotypes, requiring us to move beyond the network and cellular scales, to use multiscale modeling to predict emergent dynamics at the tissue and organ levels. In this review, we highlight recent developments in multiscale modeling, illustrating how these are generating new mechanistic insights into the regulation of root growth and development. We consider how these models are motivating new biological data analysis and explore directions for future research. This modeling progress will be crucial as we move from a qualitative to an increasingly quantitative understanding of root biology, generating predictive tools that accelerate the development of improved crop varieties.

  17. Cellular adaptation to biomechanical stress across length scales in tissue homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Penney M; Weaver, Valerie M

    2016-09-15

    Human tissues are remarkably adaptable and robust, harboring the collective ability to detect and respond to external stresses while maintaining tissue integrity. Following injury, many tissues have the capacity to repair the damage - and restore form and function - by deploying cellular and molecular mechanisms reminiscent of developmental programs. Indeed, it is increasingly clear that cancer and chronic conditions that develop with age arise as a result of cells and tissues re-implementing and deregulating a selection of developmental programs. Therefore, understanding the fundamental molecular mechanisms that drive cell and tissue responses is a necessity when designing therapies to treat human conditions. Extracellular matrix stiffness synergizes with chemical cues to drive single cell and collective cell behavior in culture and acts to establish and maintain tissue homeostasis in the body. This review will highlight recent advances that elucidate the impact of matrix mechanics on cell behavior and fate across these length scales during times of homeostasis and in disease states.

  18. Analytical investigation of the boundary-triggered phase transition dynamics in a cellular automata model with a slow-to-start rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Ning; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that there are three different jam phases in the cellular automata automaton model with a slow-to-start rule under open boundaries.In the present paper,the dynamics of each free-flow-jam phase transition is studied.By analysing the microscopic behaviour of the traffic flow,we obtain analytical results on the phase transition dynamics.Our results can describe the detailed time evolution of the system during phase transition,while they provide good approximation for the numerical simulation data.These findings can perfectly explain the microscopic mechanism and details of the boundary-triggered phase transition dynamics.

  19. ac and dc conductivity, magnetoresistance, and scaling in cellular percolation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiteme, C.; McLachlan, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    Percolation phenomena, which include the ac and dc conductivity, dielectric constant, and magnetoresistance, are studied in a series of seven cellular composites, consisting of small conductor particles embedded on the surface of larger insulator particles. Carbon black (ground and unground), graphite, graphite boron-nitride, niobium carbide, nickel, and magnetite (Fe3O4) powders were the conducting components with talc-wax powder as the common insulating component. The dc conductivity results were fitted to the standard percolation equations and to a two-exponent phenomenological equation, which yields the percolation parameters σi, σc, s, t, and φc in the ideal limits. Both universal and nonuniversal values of s and t are measured in the systems. Close to the percolation threshold (φc), the ac conductivity (σmr) and the dielectric constant (ɛmr) are found to scale as σmr∝ωu and ɛmr∝ω-v. All these exponents are examined using the most recent theories and compared with previous studies. The dielectric constant exponent (s'), from ɛmr∝(φc-φ)- s', is shown to be frequency dependent. The exponents gc (magnetoresistance) and tm (from magnetoconductivity) in composites are not yet clearly understood but these and previous results show that tm>t. dc scaling is shown in a real composite comprising Fe3O4 and talc wax.

  20. A computational approach to modeling cellular-scale blood flow in complex geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2017-04-01

    We present a computational methodology for modeling cellular-scale blood flow in arbitrary and highly complex geometry. Our approach is based on immersed-boundary methods, which allow modeling flows in arbitrary geometry while resolving the large deformation and dynamics of every blood cell with high fidelity. The present methodology seamlessly integrates different modeling components dealing with stationary rigid boundaries of complex shape, moving rigid bodies, and highly deformable interfaces governed by nonlinear elasticity. Thus it enables us to simulate 'whole' blood suspensions flowing through physiologically realistic microvascular networks that are characterized by multiple bifurcating and merging vessels, as well as geometrically complex lab-on-chip devices. The focus of the present work is on the development of a versatile numerical technique that is able to consider deformable cells and rigid bodies flowing in three-dimensional arbitrarily complex geometries over a diverse range of scenarios. After describing the methodology, a series of validation studies are presented against analytical theory, experimental data, and previous numerical results. Then, the capability of the methodology is demonstrated by simulating flows of deformable blood cells and heterogeneous cell suspensions in both physiologically realistic microvascular networks and geometrically intricate microfluidic devices. It is shown that the methodology can predict several complex microhemodynamic phenomena observed in vascular networks and microfluidic devices. The present methodology is robust and versatile, and has the potential to scale up to very large microvascular networks at organ levels.

  1. COMPLEXITY OF LIMIT LANGUAGE OF THE ELEMENTARY CELLULAR AUTOMATON OF RULE 22%22号初等元胞自动机的极限语言复杂性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江志松; 王益

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,the limit set of the elementary cellular automaton of rule 22 is considered.The limit language is defined from limit set and its complexity is studied by using formal language theory.It is proved that this language is not a regular language.This result shows that the dynamics of this cellular automaton is actually complicated.

  2. Multi-scale continuum modeling of biological processes: from molecular electro-diffusion to sub-cellular signaling transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Kekenes-Huskey, P.; Hake, J. E.; Holst, M. J.; McCammon, J. A.; Michailova, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of multi-scale modeling at the molecular to cellular scale, with new results for heart muscle cells. A finite element-based simulation package (SMOL) was used to investigate the signaling transduction at molecular and sub-cellular scales (http://mccammon.ucsd.edu/smol/, http://FETK.org) by numerical solution of the time-dependent Smoluchowski equations and a reaction-diffusion system. At the molecular scale, SMOL has yielded experimentally validated estimates of the diffusion-limited association rates for the binding of acetylcholine to mouse acetylcholinesterase using crystallographic structural data. The predicted rate constants exhibit increasingly delayed steady-state times, with increasing ionic strength, and demonstrate the role of an enzyme's electrostatic potential in influencing ligand binding. At the sub-cellular scale, an extension of SMOL solves a nonlinear, reaction-diffusion system describing Ca2+ ligand buffering and diffusion in experimentally derived rodent ventricular myocyte geometries. Results reveal the important role of mobile and stationary Ca2+ buffers, including Ca2+ indicator dye. We found that alterations in Ca2+-binding and dissociation rates of troponin C (TnC) and total TnC concentration modulate sub-cellular Ca2+ signals. The model predicts that reduced off-rate in the whole troponin complex (TnC, TnI, TnT) versus reconstructed thin filaments (Tn, Tm, actin) alters cytosolic Ca2+ dynamics under control conditions or in disease-linked TnC mutations. The ultimate goal of these studies is to develop scalable methods and theories for the integration of molecular-scale information into simulations of cellular-scale systems.

  3. 146号初等元胞自动机的演化语言的复杂性%COMPLEXITY OF EVOLUTION LANGUAGES OF THE ELEMENTARY CELLULAR AUTOMATON OF RULE 146

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益; Morita Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Symbolic dynamics of cellular automata is introduced by coarse-graining the temporal evolution orbits. Evolution languages are defined. By using the theory of formal languages and automata, the complexity of evolution languages of the elementary cellular automaton of rule 146 is studied and it is proved that its width 1-evolution language is regular, but for every n ≥ 2 its width n-evolution language is not context-free but context-sensitive. Also, the same results hold for the equivalent (under conjugation) elementary cellular automaton of rule 182.

  4. Scale- and scheme-independent extension of Pade approximants, Bjorken polarized sum rule as an example

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetic, G

    2001-01-01

    A renormalization-scale-invariant generalization of the diagonal Pade approximants (dPA), developed previously, is extended so that it becomes renormalization-scheme-invariant as well. We do this explicitly when two terms beyond the leading order (NNLO,$\\sim {\\alpha}_s^3$) are known in the truncated perturbation series (TPS). Invariance under the change of the leading scheme parameter c_2 is achieved via a variant of the principle of minimal sensitivity. The subleading parameter c_3 is fixed so that a scale- and scheme-invariant Borel transform of the resummation approximant gives the correct location of the leading infrared renormalon pole. The leading higher-twist contribution, or a part of it, is thus believed to be contained implicitly in the resummation. We applied the approximant to the Bjorken polarized sum rule (BjPSR) at $Q^2 = 3 GeV^2$ and obtained in {bar MS} scheme ${\\alpha}_s(M_Z)=0.111^{+0.005}_{-0.012}$ or $0.113^{+0.004}_{-0.019}$, for two frameworks of extraction of the BjPSR-integral values ...

  5. Effects of Scale Transformation and Test Termination Rule on the Precision of Ability Estimates in CAT. ACT Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qing; Wang, Tianyou; Ban, Jae-Chun

    Error indices (bias, standard error of estimation, and root mean square error) obtained on different scales of measurement under different test termination rules in a computerized adaptive test (CAT) context were examined. Four ability estimation methods were studied: (1) maximum likelihood estimation (MLE); (2) weighted likelihood estimation…

  6. Universal foliage-stem scaling across environments and species in dicot trees: plasticity, biomechanics and Corner's Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mark E; Aguirre-Hernández, Rebeca; Rosell, Julieta A

    2009-03-01

    Trees range from small-leaved, intricately branched species with slender stems to large-leaved, coarsely branched ones with thick stems. We suggest a mechanism for this pattern, known as Corner's Rules, based on universal scaling. We show similar crown area-stem diameter scaling between trunks and branches, environments, and species spanning a wide range of leaf size and stem biomechanics. If crown and stem maintain metabolically driven proportionality, but similar amounts of photosynthates are produced per unit crown area, then the greater leaf spacing in large-leaved species requires lower density stem tissue and, meeting mechanical needs, thicker stems. Congruent with this scenario, we show a negative relationship between leaf size and stem Young's modulus. Corner's Rules emerge from these mutual adjustments, which suggest that adaptive studies cannot consider any of these features independently. The constancy of scaling despite environmental challenges identifies this trait constellation as a crucial axis of plant diversification.

  7. Finite-size scaling relations for a four-dimensional Ising model on Creutz cellular automatons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdan, Z.; Güzelsoy, E.

    2011-06-01

    The four-dimensional Ising model is simulated on Creutz cellular automatons using finite lattices with linear dimensions 4 ≤ L ≤ 8. The temperature variations and finite-size scaling plots of the specific heat and the Binder parameter verify the theoretically predicted expression near the infinite lattice critical temperature for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations. Approximate values for the critical temperature of the infinite lattice of Tc(∞) = 6.6965(35), 6.6961(30), 6.6960(12), 6.6800(3), 6.6801(2), 6.6802(1) and 6.6925(22) (without the logarithmic factor), 6.6921(22) (without the logarithmic factor), 6.6909(2) (without the logarithmic factor), 6.6822(13) (with the logarithmic factor), 6.6819(11) (with the logarithmic factor), and 6.6808(8) (with the logarithmic factor) are obtained from the intersection points of the specific heat curves, the Binder parameter curves, and straight line fits of specific heat maxima for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the results, 6.6802(1) and 6.6808(8), are in very good agreement with the results of a series expansion of Tc(∞), 6.6817(15) and 6.6802(2), the dynamic Monte Carlo value Tc(∞) = 6.6803(1), the cluster Monte Carlo value Tc(∞) = 6.680(1), and the Monte Carlo value using the Metropolis-Wolff cluster algorithm Tc(∞) = 6.6802632 ± 5 . 10-5. The average values calculated for the critical exponent of the specific heat are α =- 0.0402(15), - 0.0393(12), - 0.0391(11) with 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the result, α =- 0.0391(11), agrees with the series expansions result, α =- 0.12 ± 0.03 and the Monte Carlo result using the Metropolis-Wolff cluster algorithm, α ≥ 0 ± 0.04. However, α =- 0.0391(11) is inconsistent with the renormalization group prediction of α = 0.

  8. Global Rebalancing of Cellular Resources by Pleiotropic Point Mutations Illustrates a Multi-scale Mechanism of Adaptive Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utrilla, José; O'Brien, Edward J.; Chen, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Pleiotropic regulatory mutations affect diverse cellular processes, posing a challenge to our understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships across multiple biological scales. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) allows for such mutations to be found and characterized in the context of clear...... selection pressures. Here, several ALE-selected single-mutation variants in RNA polymerase (RNAP) of Escherichia coli are detailed using an integrated multi-scale experimental and computational approach. While these mutations increase cellular growth rates in steady environments, they reduce tolerance...... to stress and environmental fluctuations. We detail structural changes in the RNAP that rewire the transcriptional machinery to rebalance proteome and energy allocation toward growth and away from several hedging and stress functions. We find that while these mutations occur in diverse locations in the RNAP...

  9. Large-scale cellular-resolution gene profiling in human neocortex reveals species-specific molecular signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hongkui; Shen, Elaine H.; Hohmann, John G.; Oh, Wook Seung; Bernard, Amy; Royall, Joshua J.; Glattfelder, Katie J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Morris, John A.; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Ebbert, Amanda J.; Swanson, Beryl; Kuan, Leonard; Page, Damon T.; Overly, Caroline C.; Lein, Ed S.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Jones, Allan R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Although there have been major advances in elucidating the functional biology of the human brain, relatively little is known of its cellular and molecular organization. Here we report a large-scale characterization of the expression of ~1,000 genes important for neural functions, by in situ hybridization with cellular resolution in visual and temporal cortices of adult human brains. These data reveal diverse gene expression patterns and remarkable conservation of each individual gene’s expression among individuals (95%), cortical areas (84%), and between human and mouse (79%). A small but substantial number of genes (21%) exhibited species-differential expression. Distinct molecular signatures, comprised of genes both common between species and unique to each, were identified for each major cortical cell type. The data suggest that gene expression profile changes may contribute to differential cortical function across species, in particular, a shift from corticosubcortical to more predominant corticocortical communications in the human brain. PMID:22500809

  10. Impact of the workers' loyalty on the group performance modeled by a bi-layer cellular automaton with a hysteretic rule

    CERN Document Server

    Malarz, Krzysztof; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The problem `human and work' in a model working group is investigated by means of cellular automata technique. Attitude of members of a group towards work is measured by indicator of loyalty to the group (the number of underloaded agents who carry out their tasks), and lack of loyalty (the number of overloaded agents, who give their tasks to other agents). Initially, all agents realize scheduled tasks one-by-one. Agents with the number of scheduled tasks larger than a given threshold change their strategy to `overloaded' one and start avoiding completing tasks by passing them to their colleagues. Optionally, in some conditions, we allow agents to return to `underloaded' state; hence the rule is hysteretic. Results are presented on an influence of i) the density of tasks, ii) the threshold number of tasks assigned to the agents' forcing him/her for strategy change on the system efficiency. We show that a `black' scenario of the system stacking in a jammed phase (with all agents being in overloaded state and ha...

  11. Mathematical modeling of ultrasound in tissue engineering: From bioreactors to the cellular scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Tobias M.

    Tissue engineering seeks to provide a means to treat injuries that are beyond the body's natural ability to repair without the issues associated with allografts. Autologous cells are cultured in a bioreactor which controls the cellular environment (including mechanical stimulation) for optimal tissue growth. We investigate ultrasound as an effective means of mechanical stimulation by predicting the ultrasonic field in a bioreactor, as well as ultrasonic bioeffects at the cellular level. The Transfer Matrix Angular Spectrum Approach was found to be the most accurate and computationally efficient bioreactor model. Three critical factors influence experimental results: (1) the diameter of the tissue engineering scaffold greatly affects the ultrasonic field; (2) the position of the ultrasonic transducer and liquid level in the tissue culture well determines the maximum pressure amplitude in the bioreactor, but the pressure can be controlled by measuring the transducer input electrical impedance and manipulating the applied voltage; and (3) the position of pressure nodes are influenced by ultrasonic frequency and liquid level; this will affect the response of cells to applied ultrasound. On the cellular level, it was shown that chondrocytes respond to ultrasound with frequency dependence. A predicted resonance frequency near 5MHz matched experimental results showing maximum expression of load inducible genes at 5MHz. Mechanical stresses are concentrated near the nucleus at resonance, alluding to the possibility that the nucleus may directly sense ultrasonic stimulation. We postulate that ultrasound influences the transport of p-ERK to the nucleus or causes minor chromatin reorganization, leading to the observed frequency dependent gene expression. We linked in vitro ultrasonic stimulation to in vivo mechanical stimulation generated by natural movement. The chondrocyte's response to impact is under-damped, and the cell oscillates with a frequency close to the model

  12. Response of cellular stoichiometry and phosphorus storage of the cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae to small-scale turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Xiao, Yan; Yang, Jixiang; Li, Chao; Gao, Xia; Guo, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Turbulent mixing, in particular on a small scale, affects the growth of microalgae by changing diffusive sublayers and regulating nutrient fluxes of cells. We tested the nutrient flux hypothesis by evaluating the cellular stoichiometry and phosphorus storage of microalgae under different turbulent mixing conditions. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were cultivated in different stirring batch reactors with turbulent dissipation rates ranging from 0.001 51 m2/s3 to 0.050 58 m2/s3, the latter being the highest range observed in natural aquatic systems. Samples were taken in the exponential growth phase and compared with samples taken when the reactor was completely stagnant. Results indicate that, within a certain range, turbulent mixing stimulates the growth of A. flos-aquae. An inhibitory effect on growth rate was observed at the higher range. Photosynthesis activity, in terms of maximum effective quantum yield of PSII (the ratio of F v/F m) and cellular chlorophyll a, did not change significantly in response to turbulence. However, Chl a/C mass ratio and C/N molar ratio, showed a unimodal response under a gradient of turbulent mixing, similar to growth rate. Moreover, we found that increases in turbulent mixing might stimulate respiration rates, which might lead to the use of polyphosphate for the synthesis of cellular constituents. More research is required to test and verify the hypothesis that turbulent mixing changes the diffusive sublayer, regulating the nutrient flux of cells.

  13. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers in Lowndes County, GA, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Cell...

  14. Cellular Phone Towers, Dorchester County Cell Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Dorchester County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as...

  15. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Tower buffer sectors divided into N, S, E and W, Published in 2008, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Graham County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  16. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Phone Towers in Thomas County, GA, Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Thomas County BOC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as...

  17. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2007, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. Data by this...

  18. Cellular Phone Towers, Reno County and City of Hutchinson Area Towers point file, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  19. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell tower location and elevation, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Portage County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. It is...

  20. Cellular Phone Towers, Wireless Towers data layer - not sure of the tower type included, Published in 2008, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Graham County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  1. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Phone tower point layer, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is...

  2. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers - downloaded from the FCC website, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as 'Cell...

  3. Cellular Phone Towers, Green Co Cell Towers, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, MSA Professional Services.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It is described as...

  4. Exclusion and Hierarchy of Time Scales Lead to Spatial Segregation of Molecular Motors in Cellular Protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkoviezky, I.; Gov, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular motors that carry cargo along biopolymer filaments within cells play a crucial role in the functioning of the cell. In particular, these motors are essential for the formation and maintenance of the cellular protrusions that play key roles in motility and specific functionalities, such as the stereocilia in hair cells. Typically, there are several species of motors, carrying different cargos, that share the same track. Furthermore, it was observed that in the mature stereocilia, the different motors occupy well-segregated bands as a function of distance from the tip. We use a totally asymmetric exclusion process model with two- and three-motor species, to study the conditions that give rise to such spatial patterns. We find that the well-segregated bands appear for motors with a strong hierarchy of attachment or detachment rates. This is a striking example of pattern formation in nonequilibrium, low-dimensional systems.

  5. Nodule Detection in a Lung Region that's Segmented with Using Genetic Cellular Neural Networks and 3D Template Matching with Fuzzy Rule Based Thresholding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozekes, Serhat; Osman, Onur; Ucan, N. [Istanbul Commerce University, Ragip Gumuspala Cad. No: 84 34378 Eminonu, Istanbul (Turkmenistan)

    2008-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for automated lung nodule detection in serial section CT images with using the characteristics of the 3D appearance of the nodules that distinguish themselves from the vessels. Lung nodules were detected in four steps. First, to reduce the number of region of interests (ROIs) and the computation time, the lung regions of the CTs were segmented using Genetic Cellular Neural Networks (G-CNN). Then, for each lung region, ROIs were specified with using the 8 directional search; +1 or -1 values were assigned to each voxel. The 3D ROI image was obtained by combining all the 2-Dimensional (2D) ROI images. A 3D template was created to find the nodule-like structures on the 3D ROI image. Convolution of the 3D ROI image with the proposed template strengthens the shapes that are similar to those of the template and it weakens the other ones. Finally, fuzzy rule based thresholding was applied and the ROI's were found. To test the system's efficiency, we used 16 cases with a total of 425 slices, which were taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset. The computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system achieved 100% sensitivity with 13.375 FPs per case when the nodule thickness was greater than or equal to 5.625 mm. Our results indicate that the detection performance of our algorithm is satisfactory, and this may well improve the performance of computer aided detection of lung nodules.

  6. Large-scale analysis of expression signatures reveals hidden links among diverse cellular processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Steven X

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells must respond to various perturbations using their limited available gene repertoires. In order to study how cells coordinate various responses, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of 1,186 gene expression signatures (gene lists associated with various genetic and chemical perturbations. Results We identified 7,419 statistically significant overlaps between various published gene lists. Most (80% of the overlaps can be represented by a highly connected network, a "molecular signature map," that highlights the correlation of various expression signatures. By dissecting this network, we identified sub-networks that define clusters of gene sets related to common biological processes (cell cycle, immune response, etc. Examination of these sub-networks has confirmed relationships among various pathways and also generated new hypotheses. For example, our result suggests that glutamine deficiency might suppress cellular growth by inhibiting the MYC pathway. Interestingly, we also observed 1,369 significant overlaps between a set of genes upregulated by factor X and a set of genes downregulated by factor Y, suggesting a repressive interaction between X and Y factors. Conclusions Our results suggest that molecular-level responses to diverse chemical and genetic perturbations are heavily interconnected in a modular fashion. Also, shared molecular pathways can be identified by comparing newly defined gene expression signatures with databases of previously published gene expression signatures.

  7. Multi-scale Rule-of-Mixtures Model of Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Lamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Roddick, Jaret C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    A unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy lamina in which the carbon fibers are coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes is modeled with a multi-scale method, the atomistically informed rule-of-mixtures. This multi-scale model is designed to include the effect of the carbon nanotubes on the constitutive properties of the lamina. It included concepts from the molecular dynamics/equivalent continuum methods, micromechanics, and the strength of materials. Within the model both the nanotube volume fraction and nanotube distribution were varied. It was found that for a lamina with 60% carbon fiber volume fraction, the Young's modulus in the fiber direction varied with changes in the nanotube distribution, from 138.8 to 140 GPa with nanotube volume fractions ranging from 0.0001 to 0.0125. The presence of nanotube near the surface of the carbon fiber is therefore expected to have a small, but positive, effect on the constitutive properties of the lamina.

  8. A neuromorphic implementation of multiple spike-timing synaptic plasticity rules for large-scale neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runchun M.; Hamilton, Tara J.; Tapson, Jonathan C.; van Schaik, André

    2015-01-01

    We present a neuromorphic implementation of multiple synaptic plasticity learning rules, which include both Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) and Spike Timing Dependent Delay Plasticity (STDDP). We present a fully digital implementation as well as a mixed-signal implementation, both of which use a novel dynamic-assignment time-multiplexing approach and support up to 226 (64M) synaptic plasticity elements. Rather than implementing dedicated synapses for particular types of synaptic plasticity, we implemented a more generic synaptic plasticity adaptor array that is separate from the neurons in the neural network. Each adaptor performs synaptic plasticity according to the arrival times of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes assigned to it, and sends out a weighted or delayed pre-synaptic spike to the post-synaptic neuron in the neural network. This strategy provides great flexibility for building complex large-scale neural networks, as a neural network can be configured for multiple synaptic plasticity rules without changing its structure. We validate the proposed neuromorphic implementations with measurement results and illustrate that the circuits are capable of performing both STDP and STDDP. We argue that it is practical to scale the work presented here up to 236 (64G) synaptic adaptors on a current high-end FPGA platform. PMID:26041985

  9. A neuromorphic implementation of multiple spike-timing synaptic plasticity rules for large-scale neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runchun Mark Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a neuromorphic implementation of multiple synaptic plasticity learning rules, which include both Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP and Spike Timing Dependent Delay Plasticity (STDDP. We present a fully digital implementation as well as a mixed-signal implementation, both of which use a novel dynamic-assignment time-multiplexing approach and support up to 2^26 (64M synaptic plasticity elements. Rather than implementing dedicated synapses for particular types of synaptic plasticity, we implemented a more generic synaptic plasticity adaptor array that is separate from the neurons in the neural network. Each adaptor performs synaptic plasticity according to the arrival times of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes assigned to it, and sends out a weighted and/or delayed pre-synaptic spike to the target synapse in the neural network. This strategy provides great flexibility for building complex large-scale neural networks, as a neural network can be configured for multiple synaptic plasticity rules without changing its structure. We validate the proposed neuromorphic implementations with measurement results and illustrate that the circuits are capable of performing both STDP and STDDP. We argue that it is practical to scale the work presented here up to 2^36 (64G synaptic adaptors on a current high-end FPGA platform.

  10. A neuromorphic implementation of multiple spike-timing synaptic plasticity rules for large-scale neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runchun M; Hamilton, Tara J; Tapson, Jonathan C; van Schaik, André

    2015-01-01

    We present a neuromorphic implementation of multiple synaptic plasticity learning rules, which include both Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) and Spike Timing Dependent Delay Plasticity (STDDP). We present a fully digital implementation as well as a mixed-signal implementation, both of which use a novel dynamic-assignment time-multiplexing approach and support up to 2(26) (64M) synaptic plasticity elements. Rather than implementing dedicated synapses for particular types of synaptic plasticity, we implemented a more generic synaptic plasticity adaptor array that is separate from the neurons in the neural network. Each adaptor performs synaptic plasticity according to the arrival times of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes assigned to it, and sends out a weighted or delayed pre-synaptic spike to the post-synaptic neuron in the neural network. This strategy provides great flexibility for building complex large-scale neural networks, as a neural network can be configured for multiple synaptic plasticity rules without changing its structure. We validate the proposed neuromorphic implementations with measurement results and illustrate that the circuits are capable of performing both STDP and STDDP. We argue that it is practical to scale the work presented here up to 2(36) (64G) synaptic adaptors on a current high-end FPGA platform.

  11. Understanding mNP Hyperthermia for cancer treatment at the cellular scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigliano, Robert V; Shubitidze, Fridon; Kekalo, Katsiaryna; Baker, Ian; Giustini, Andrew J; Hoopes, P Jack

    2013-02-26

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (mNP's) to induce local hyperthermia has been emerging in recent years as a promising cancer therapy, in both a stand-alone and combination treatment setting. Studies have shown that cancer cells associate with, internalize, and aggregate mNP's more preferentially than normal cells. Once the mNP's are delivered inside the cells, a low frequency (30 kHz-300 kHz) alternating electromagnetic field is used to activate the mNP's. The nanoparticles absorb the applied field and provide localized heat generation at nano-micron scales. It has been shown experimentally that mNP's exhibit collective behavior when in close proximity. Although most prevailing mNP heating models assume there is no magnetic interaction between particles, our data suggests that magnetic interaction effects due to mNP aggregation are often significant; In the case of multi-crystal core particles, interaction is guaranteed. To understand the physical phenomena responsible for this effect, we modeled electromagnetic coupling between mNP's in detail. The computational results are validated using data from the literature as well as measurements obtained in our lab. The computational model presented here is based on a method of moments technique and is used to calculate magnetic field distributions on the nanometer scale, both inside and outside the mNP.

  12. Growing Scale-free Networks by a Mediation-Driven Attachment Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model that generates a new class of networks exhibiting power-law degree distribution with a spectrum of exponents depending on the number of links ($m$) with which incoming nodes join the existing network. Unlike the Barab\\'{a}si-Albert (BA) model, each new node first picks an existing node at random, and connects not with this but with $m$ of its neighbors also picked at random. Counterintuitively enough, such a mediation-driven attachment rule results not only in preferential but super-preferential attachment, albeit in disguise. We show that for small $m$, the dynamics of our model is governed by winners take all phenomenon, and for higher $m$ it is governed by winners take some. Besides, we show that the mean of the inverse harmonic mean of degrees of the neighborhood of all existing nodes is a measure that can well qualify how straight the degree distribution is.

  13. Evaluation of approaches to identify the targets of cellular immunity on a proteome-wide scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C Cardoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccine development against malaria and other complex diseases remains a challenge for the scientific community. The recent elucidation of the genome, proteome and transcriptome of many of these complex pathogens provides the basis for rational vaccine design by identifying, on a proteome-wide scale, novel target antigens that are recognized by T cells and antibodies from exposed individuals. However, there is currently no algorithm to effectively identify important target antigens from genome sequence data; this is especially challenging for T cell targets. Furthermore, for some of these pathogens, such as Plasmodium, protein expression using conventional platforms has been problematic but cell-free in vitro transcription translation (IVTT strategies have recently proved successful. Herein, we report a novel approach for proteome-wide scale identification of the antigenic targets of T cell responses using IVTT products. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments using IVTT proteins either unpurified, absorbed to carboxylated polybeads, or affinity purified through nickel resin or magnetic beads. In vitro studies in humans using CMV, EBV, and Influenza A virus proteins showed antigen-specific cytokine production in ELIspot and Cytometric Bead Array assays with cells stimulated with purified or unpurified IVTT antigens. In vitro and in vivo studies in mice immunized with the Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite DNA vaccine with or without IVTT protein boost showed antigen-specific cytokine production using purified IVTT antigens only. Overall, the nickel resin method of IVTT antigen purification proved optimal in both human and murine systems. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides proof of concept for the potential of high-throughput approaches to identify T cell targets of complex parasitic, viral or bacterial pathogens from genomic sequence data, for rational vaccine development against emerging and re

  14. Stochastic multi-scale models of competition within heterogeneous cellular populations: simulation methods and mean-field analysis

    CERN Document Server

    de la Cruz, Roberto; Spill, Fabian; Alarcón, Tomás

    2016-01-01

    We propose a modelling framework to analyse the stochastic behaviour of heterogeneous, multi-scale cellular populations. We illustrate our methodology with a particular example in which we study a population with an oxygen-regulated proliferation rate. Our formulation is based on an age-dependent stochastic process. Cells within the population are characterised by their age. The age-dependent (oxygen-regulated) birth rate is given by a stochastic model of oxygen-dependent cell cycle progression. We then formulate an age-dependent birth-and-death process, which dictates the time evolution of the cell population. The population is under a feedback loop which controls its steady state size: cells consume oxygen which in turns fuels cell proliferation. We show that our stochastic model of cell cycle progression allows for heterogeneity within the cell population induced by stochastic effects. Such heterogeneous behaviour is reflected in variations in the proliferation rate. Within this set-up, we have established...

  15. SPECTRAL-WEIGHT TRANSFER - BREAKDOWN OF LOW-ENERGY-SCALE SUM-RULES IN CORRELATED SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEINDERS, MBJ; ESKES, H; SAWATZKY, GA

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we study the spectral-weight transfer from the high- to the low-energy scale by means of exact diagonalization of finite clusters for the Mott-Hubbard and charge-transfer model. We find that the spectral-weight transfer is very sensitive to the hybridization strength as well as to the

  16. Functional network construction in Arabidopsis using rule-based machine learning on large-scale data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassel, George W; Glaab, Enrico; Marquez, Julietta; Holdsworth, Michael J; Bacardit, Jaume

    2011-09-01

    The meta-analysis of large-scale postgenomics data sets within public databases promises to provide important novel biological knowledge. Statistical approaches including correlation analyses in coexpression studies of gene expression have emerged as tools to elucidate gene function using these data sets. Here, we present a powerful and novel alternative methodology to computationally identify functional relationships between genes from microarray data sets using rule-based machine learning. This approach, termed "coprediction," is based on the collective ability of groups of genes co-occurring within rules to accurately predict the developmental outcome of a biological system. We demonstrate the utility of coprediction as a powerful analytical tool using publicly available microarray data generated exclusively from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds to compute a functional gene interaction network, termed Seed Co-Prediction Network (SCoPNet). SCoPNet predicts functional associations between genes acting in the same developmental and signal transduction pathways irrespective of the similarity in their respective gene expression patterns. Using SCoPNet, we identified four novel regulators of seed germination (ALTERED SEED GERMINATION5, 6, 7, and 8), and predicted interactions at the level of transcript abundance between these novel and previously described factors influencing Arabidopsis seed germination. An online Web tool to query SCoPNet has been developed as a community resource to dissect seed biology and is available at http://www.vseed.nottingham.ac.uk/.

  17. Organ-specific rates of cellular respiration in developing sunflower seedlings and their bearing on metabolic scaling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2012-10-01

    Fifty years ago Max Kleiber described what has become known as the "mouse-to-elephant" curve, i.e., a log-log plot of basal metabolic rate versus body mass. From these data, "Kleiber's 3/4 law" was deduced, which states that metabolic activity scales as the three fourths-power of body mass. However, for reasons unknown so far, no such "universal scaling law" has been discovered for land plants (embryophytes). Here, we report that the metabolic rates of four different organs (cotyledons, cotyledonary hook, hypocotyl, and roots) of developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings grown in darkness (skotomorphogenesis) and in white light (photomorphogenesis) differ by a factor of 2 to 5 and are largely independent of light treatment. The organ-specific respiration rate (oxygen uptake per minute per gram of fresh mass) of the apical hook, which is composed of cells with densely packaged cytoplasm, is much higher than that of the hypocotyl, an organ that contains vacuolated cells. Data for cell length, cell density, and DNA content reveal that (1) hook opening in white light is caused by a stimulation of cell elongation on the inside of the curved organ, (2) respiration, cell density and DNA content are much higher in the hook than in the stem, and (3) organ-specific respiration rates and the DNA contents of tissues are statistically correlated. We conclude that, due to the heterogeneity of the plant body caused by the vacuolization of the cells, Kleiber's law, which was deduced using mammals as a model system, cannot be applied to embryophytes. In plants, this rule may reflect scaling phenomena at the level of the metabolically active protoplasmic contents of the cells.

  18. Stochastic multi-scale models of competition within heterogeneous cellular populations: Simulation methods and mean-field analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Roberto de la; Guerrero, Pilar; Spill, Fabian; Alarcón, Tomás

    2016-10-21

    We propose a modelling framework to analyse the stochastic behaviour of heterogeneous, multi-scale cellular populations. We illustrate our methodology with a particular example in which we study a population with an oxygen-regulated proliferation rate. Our formulation is based on an age-dependent stochastic process. Cells within the population are characterised by their age (i.e. time elapsed since they were born). The age-dependent (oxygen-regulated) birth rate is given by a stochastic model of oxygen-dependent cell cycle progression. Once the birth rate is determined, we formulate an age-dependent birth-and-death process, which dictates the time evolution of the cell population. The population is under a feedback loop which controls its steady state size (carrying capacity): cells consume oxygen which in turn fuels cell proliferation. We show that our stochastic model of cell cycle progression allows for heterogeneity within the cell population induced by stochastic effects. Such heterogeneous behaviour is reflected in variations in the proliferation rate. Within this set-up, we have established three main results. First, we have shown that the age to the G1/S transition, which essentially determines the birth rate, exhibits a remarkably simple scaling behaviour. Besides the fact that this simple behaviour emerges from a rather complex model, this allows for a huge simplification of our numerical methodology. A further result is the observation that heterogeneous populations undergo an internal process of quasi-neutral competition. Finally, we investigated the effects of cell-cycle-phase dependent therapies (such as radiation therapy) on heterogeneous populations. In particular, we have studied the case in which the population contains a quiescent sub-population. Our mean-field analysis and numerical simulations confirm that, if the survival fraction of the therapy is too high, rescue of the quiescent population occurs. This gives rise to emergence of resistance

  19. Spatial rule-based assessment of habitat potential to predict impact of land use changes on biodiversity at municipal scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Geneletti, Davide

    2011-03-01

    In human dominated landscapes, ecosystems are under increasing pressures caused by urbanization and infrastructure development. In Alpine valleys remnant natural areas are increasingly affected by habitat fragmentation and loss. In these contexts, there is a growing risk of local extinction for wildlife populations; hence assessing the consequences on biodiversity of proposed land use changes is extremely important. The article presents a methodology to assess the impacts of land use changes on target species at a local scale. The approach relies on the application of ecological profiles of target species for habitat potential (HP) assessment, using high resolution GIS-data within a multiple level framework. The HP, in this framework, is based on a species-specific assessment of the suitability of a site, as well of surrounding areas. This assessment is performed through spatial rules, structured as sets of queries on landscape objects. We show that by considering spatial dependencies in habitat assessment it is possible to perform better quantification of impacts of local-level land use changes on habitats.

  20. Reversible quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, B

    2004-01-01

    We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...

  1. Simple Rules, Complex Behaviors-Symbolic Dynamics of Elementary Cellular Automata%细胞自动机:简单的规则,复杂的行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳跃; 金伟锋

    2015-01-01

    Cellular automata (CA) are mathematical models with discrete time , space and states.Symbolic dynamics is a critical approach and technique for nonlinear dynamical analysis .This work conducts the literature review of investigations of symbolic dynamics of elementary cellular automata and their applications . Based on the extensive statistics properties and exhaustive simulations of elementary cellular automata (ECA), this paper proposes an effective method to unveil symbolic dynamics of Bernoulli-shift rules under the viewpoint of symbolic dynamics in the space of bi-infinite symbolic sequences .These results uncovers the chaotic and complex symbolic dynamics of simple ECA rules , enrich the symbolic dynamics of ECA , and promote the theory and technology of dynamical system , especially symbolic dynamics .%细胞自动机是一种时间、空间与状态都离散的数学模型。回顾了初等细胞自动机模型的应用及其符号动力学刻画的相关文献,在大量统计性质和计算机模拟基础上,着重分析具有鲁棒Bernoulli移位特征的细胞自动机规则的一些符号动力学性质,揭示了细胞自动机的简单规则中蕴含着复杂、混沌的非线性动力学特性。这些结果丰富了细胞自动机的理论基础,也将促进符号动力系统的理论和应用的研究。

  2. Nodule Detection in a Lung Region that's Segmented with Using Genetic Cellular Neural Networks and 3D Template Matching with Fuzzy Rule Based Thresholding

    OpenAIRE

    Ozekes, Serhat; Osman, Onur; UCAN, Osman N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for automated lung nodule detection in serial section CT images with using the characteristics of the 3D appearance of the nodules that distinguish themselves from the vessels. Materials and Methods Lung nodules were detected in four steps. First, to reduce the number of region of interests (ROIs) and the computation time, the lung regions of the CTs were segmented using Genetic Cellular Neural Networks (G-CNN). Then, for each lu...

  3. Simple rules on adjectival endings in zoological nomenclature and their use in scale insect names (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea), with some corrections to combinations in common use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Williams, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    We give some simple rules on Latin grammar to help scale insect systematists to apply the correct adjectival gender endings to species names. We list some common errors that have occurred when species names have either been proposed with a wrong gender ending or when they have been transferred from one genus to another. We also correct the gender endings to several species names in a few families.

  4. THE RELATIONSHIPS OF THREE ELEMENTARY CELLULAR AUTOMATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhisong JIANG

    2006-01-01

    Limit language complexity of cellular automata which is first posed by S. Wolfram has become a new branch of cellular automata. In this paper, we obtain two interesting relationships between elementary cellular automata of rules 126, 146(182) and 18, and prove that if the limit language of rule 18 is not regular, nor are the limit languages of rules 126 and 146(182).

  5. Large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis unveils general rules that fine-tune evolution of mRNA primary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Moura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Codon usage and codon-pair context are important gene primary structure features that influence mRNA decoding fidelity. In order to identify general rules that shape codon-pair context and minimize mRNA decoding error, we have carried out a large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis of 119 fully sequenced genomes. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed mathematical and software tools for large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis. These methodologies unveiled general and species specific codon-pair context rules that govern evolution of mRNAs in the 3 domains of life. We show that evolution of bacterial and archeal mRNA primary structure is mainly dependent on constraints imposed by the translational machinery, while in eukaryotes DNA methylation and tri-nucleotide repeats impose strong biases on codon-pair context. CONCLUSIONS: The data highlight fundamental differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA decoding rules, which are partially independent of codon usage.

  6. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell tower locations in the County of Polk, Wisconsin used for Emergency Management purposes only., Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'Cell...

  7. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell tower locations as derived from various sources including the Department of Licenses and Inspections and the Department of Planning and Zoning., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is...

  8. Cellular Phone Towers, Serve as base information for use in GIS systems for general planning, analytical, and research purposes., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2007. It is described as 'Serve as base information for use in GIS systems for...

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, Prince George's County Cell Tower Locations, Published in 2003, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Prince George's County Office of Information Technology and Communications.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2003. It is described...

  10. Cellular Phone Towers, towers, various type of towers used for cell phone and communication purposes., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Glynn County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2010. It is described...

  11. Cellular Phone Towers, Maryland Transportation Authoirty leased cell towers, MDTA Cell Tower locations, Leased cell towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as...

  12. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Tower Locations identified in the Address points layer., Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as...

  13. Imaging the fine-scale structure of the cellular actin cytoskeleton by Single Particle Tracking and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustata, Gina-Mirela

    It has been proposed that diffusion in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells it is compartmentalized due to the interaction with the underlying actin-based membrane skeleton that comes into close proximity to the lipid bilayer. The cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure that maintains cell shape, enables cell motion, and plays important roles in both intra-cellular transport and cellular division. We show here the evidence of plasma membrane compartmentalization using Single Particle Tracking (SPT) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging. SPT of Quantum dot labeled lipid in the plasma membrane of live normal rat kidney cells show compartments ranging from 325 nm to 391 nm depending on the sampling time. Using AFM imaging of live NRK cell in the presence of phalloidin, the membrane compartmentalization it is visible with the average size of the compartments of 325 +/- 10 nm (the main peak is centered at 260 nm). Further, the underlying membrane skeleton in fixed cells was directly imaged after partial removal of the plasma membrane to reveal size of the membrane skeleton meshwork of 339 +/- 10 nm. A new method of measuring the characteristics of the actin meshwork was proposed. Probing the local compliance of the plasma membrane through the deflection of a soft AFM cantilever we can expect that the stiffness of the membrane will be higher at locations directly above a cortical actin. This new method provided information about the structure of the skeletal meshwork of neuronal cell body predicting an average compartment size of about 132 nm. This was confirmed through SPT of QD-lipid incorporated into the neuronal cell membrane.

  14. Engineering a Biocompatible Scaffold with Either Micrometre or Nanometre Scale Surface Topography for Promoting Protein Adsorption and Cellular Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Le

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface topographical features on biomaterials, both at the submicrometre and nanometre scales, are known to influence the physicochemical interactions between biological processes involving proteins and cells. The nanometre-structured surface features tend to resemble the extracellular matrix, the natural environment in which cells live, communicate, and work together. It is believed that by engineering a well-defined nanometre scale surface topography, it should be possible to induce appropriate surface signals that can be used to manipulate cell function in a similar manner to the extracellular matrix. Therefore, there is a need to investigate, understand, and ultimately have the ability to produce tailor-made nanometre scale surface topographies with suitable surface chemistry to promote favourable biological interactions similar to those of the extracellular matrix. Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology have produced many new nanomaterials and numerous manufacturing techniques that have the potential to significantly improve several fields such as biological sensing, cell culture technology, surgical implants, and medical devices. For these fields to progress, there is a definite need to develop a detailed understanding of the interaction between biological systems and fabricated surface structures at both the micrometre and nanometre scales.

  15. Identification of Nonstationary Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AndrewI.Adamatzky

    1992-01-01

    The principal feature of nonstationary cellular automata(NCA) is that a local transitiol rule of each cell is changed at each time step depending on neighborhood configuration at previous time step.The identification problem for NCA is extraction of local transition rules and the establishment of mechanism for changing these rules using sequence of NCA configurations.We present serial and parallel algorithms for identification of NCA.

  16. Assessing the weighted multi-objective adaptive surrogate model optimization to derive large-scale reservoir operating rules with sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Wang, Xu; Liu, Pan; Lei, Xiaohui; Li, Zejun; Gong, Wei; Duan, Qingyun; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The optimization of large-scale reservoir system is time-consuming due to its intrinsic characteristics of non-commensurable objectives and high dimensionality. One way to solve the problem is to employ an efficient multi-objective optimization algorithm in the derivation of large-scale reservoir operating rules. In this study, the Weighted Multi-Objective Adaptive Surrogate Model Optimization (WMO-ASMO) algorithm is used. It consists of three steps: (1) simplifying the large-scale reservoir operating rules by the aggregation-decomposition model, (2) identifying the most sensitive parameters through multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) for dimensional reduction, and (3) reducing computational cost and speeding the searching process by WMO-ASMO, embedded with weighted non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (WNSGAII). The intercomparison of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII), WNSGAII and WMO-ASMO are conducted in the large-scale reservoir system of Xijiang river basin in China. Results indicate that: (1) WNSGAII surpasses NSGAII in the median of annual power generation, increased by 1.03% (from 523.29 to 528.67 billion kW h), and the median of ecological index, optimized by 3.87% (from 1.879 to 1.809) with 500 simulations, because of the weighted crowding distance and (2) WMO-ASMO outperforms NSGAII and WNSGAII in terms of better solutions (annual power generation (530.032 billion kW h) and ecological index (1.675)) with 1000 simulations and computational time reduced by 25% (from 10 h to 8 h) with 500 simulations. Therefore, the proposed method is proved to be more efficient and could provide better Pareto frontier.

  17. Pregeometric Concepts on Graphs and Cellular Networks as Possible Models of Space-Time at the Planck-Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Nowotny, T; Nowotny, Thomas; Requardt, Manfred

    1998-01-01

    Starting from the working hypothesis that both physics and the corresponding mathematics have to be described by means of discrete concepts on the Planck-scale, one of the many problems one has to face is to find the discrete protoforms of the building blocks of continuum physics and mathematics. In the following we embark on developing such concepts for irregular structures like (large) graphs or networks which are intended to emulate (some of) the generic properties of the presumed combinatorial substratum from which continuum physics is assumed to emerge as a coarse grained and secondary model theory. We briefly indicate how various concepts of discrete (functional) analysis and geometry can be naturally constructed within this framework, leaving a larger portion of the paper to the systematic developement of dimensional concepts and their properties, which may have a possible bearing on various branches of modern physics beyond quantum gravity.

  18. Reducing residual stresses and deformations in selective laser melting through multi-level multi-scale optimization of cellular scanning strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2016-04-01

    Residual stresses and deformations continue to remain one of the primary challenges towards expanding the scope of selective laser melting as an industrial scale manufacturing process. While process monitoring and feedback-based process control of the process has shown significant potential, there is still dearth of techniques to tackle the issue. Numerical modelling of selective laser melting process has thus been an active area of research in the last few years. However, large computational resource requirements have slowed the usage of these models for optimizing the process. In this paper, a calibrated, fast, multiscale thermal model coupled with a 3D finite element mechanical model is used to simulate residual stress formation and deformations during selective laser melting. The resulting reduction in thermal model computation time allows evolutionary algorithm-based optimization of the process. A multilevel optimization strategy is adopted using a customized genetic algorithm developed for optimizing cellular scanning strategy for selective laser melting, with an objective of reducing residual stresses and deformations. The resulting thermo-mechanically optimized cellular scanning strategies are compared with standard scanning strategies and have been used to manufacture standard samples.

  19. Quantum features of natural cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schrödinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of “natural” Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l are obtained, which for l → 0 reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement.

  20. Quantum features of natural cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schroedinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of "natural" Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, "deformed" quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale $l$ are obtained, which for $l\\rightarrow 0$ reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form "multipartite" systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce...

  1. SELF-ORGANIZED CRITICALITY AND CELLULAR AUTOMATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-01-01

    Cellular automata provide a fascinating class of dynamical systems based on very simple rules of evolution yet capable of displaying highly complex behavior. These include simplified models for many phenomena seen in nature. Among other things, they provide insight into self-organized criticality, wherein dissipative systems naturally drive themselves to a critical state with important phenomena occurring over a wide range of length and the scales. This article begins with an overview of self-organized criticality. This is followed by a discussion of a few examples of simple cellular automaton systems, some of which may exhibit critical behavior. Finally, some of the fascinating exact mathematical properties of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sand-pile model [1] are discussed.

  2. Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: Coupling experimental and computational analysis at the laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M. S.; Bell, J. B.; Cheng, R. K.; Tachibana, S.; Beckner, V. E.; Lijewski, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    One strategy for reducing US dependence on petroleum is to develop new combustion technologies for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification of coal and biomass. Fuel-flexible combustion systems based on lean premixed combustion have the potential for dramatically reducing pollutant emissions in transportation systems, heat and stationary power generation. However, lean premixed flames are highly susceptible to fluid-dynamical combustion instabilities making robust and reliable systems difficult to design. Low swirl burners are emerging as an important technology for meeting design requirements in terms of both reliability and emissions for next generation combustion devices. In this paper, we present simulations of a lean, premixed hydrogen flame stabilized on a laboratory-scale low swirl burner. The simulations use detailed chemistry and transport without incorporating explicit models for turbulence or turbulence/chemistry interaction. Here we discuss the overall structure of the flame and compare with experimental data. We also use the simulation data to elucidate the characteristics of the turbulent flame interaction and how this impacts the analysis of experimental measurements.

  3. Review of soil erosion modeling using Cellular Automata in different spatial scales%不同空间尺度下的土壤侵蚀元胞自动机建模评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘星飞; 原立峰; 吴淑芳; 霍云云

    2012-01-01

    土壤侵蚀系统是一个典型的非线性动力系统,系统内部的侵蚀发育演化过程十分复杂,为了对该过程进行精确的模拟和预测,需要发展有效的技术和方法.元胞自动机( cellular automata,CA)是一种具有时空特征的离散动力学模型,采用“自下而上”的构模方式,对于模拟和分析具有空间特征的土壤侵蚀系统具有先天优势.由于空间尺度变化所引起的土壤侵蚀因子对侵蚀产沙过程的影响不同,CA模型在坡面尺度下主要针对细沟侵蚀和土壤颗粒的变化,在小流域尺度下涉及到更多的元胞状态和更加完整的侵蚀过程,在大区域尺度下重点研究气候和地貌之间的相互作用.不同空间尺度建立的CA模型没有确定的转换规则,模型通用性较低,今后需要在三维可视化、智能化等方面深入研究CA模型在土壤侵蚀领域的应用.%Soil erosion system is a typical nonlinear dynamic system, in the inner of which the erosion development and evolution is very complex and require effective technology and method to simulate and predict the process accurately. And the cellular automatic is a kind of discrete dynamics model with temporal and spatial features, which uses the method of bottom up and can be suitable to application in the time space evolution of soil erosion, for its inherent advantages in simulation and analysis the soil erosion system with spatial features. Then in the study of time-space evolution of soil erosion, the variation of spatial scales can cause that the erosion factors have different effects on the process of soil erosion. Therefore in the construction of CA model, in slope scale the main research is rill erosion and the change of soil particles, in small watershed scale the CA model includes more cell states and more complete erosion process, in region scale the CA focuses on interaction of the climate and topography.Because of no unified conversion rule in different scales, the

  4. Scale Sensitive Analysis of Cellular Automata Model%元胞自动机模型的尺度敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    以深圳市龙华镇为案例区,构建了土地利用/覆被变化的元胞自动机模型,从时间和空间两个方面定量研究了LUCC模型的尺度效应。通过改变模型输入数据的空间分辨率和模型模拟的时间长度,探讨了尺度对土地利用变化模型的影响。分别采用龙华镇1990年30,60,90,120,150,180,210和240 m空间分辨率的土地利用数据作为元胞自动机模型的输入,模拟研究区1995年和2000年的土地利用变化状况以诠释CA模型内在的尺度依赖特征,并依据模型的点对点模拟精度、Kappa系数、实际变化元胞的模拟精度3个指标评价了该%The authors present an analysis of how scale issues affect a cellular automata model of land use change developed for a research area in Longhua Town,Shenzhen City.The scale dependence of the model is explored by varying the resolution of the input data in 1990 used to calibrate the model and changing the length of model simulating time.To explore the impact of these scale relationships the model is run with input datasets constructed at the following spatial resolutions: 30,60,90,120,150,180,210 and 240 m for simulating land use in 1995 and 2000.Three kinds of indicator,i.e.point by point accuracy,Kappa and real change accuracy are used to assess the scale sensitivity of the model.The results show that 1) the more fine the cell sizes are,the higher the accuracy of the simulation results;2) path dependence of the isolated cells is an important source of the spatial scale sensitivity of CA model;3) the specific geographical process in different periods of time is an important source of the temporal sensitivity scale of CA model.The results have great significance for the scale selection of CA model.

  5. Functional Network Construction in Arabidopsis Using Rule-Based Machine Learning on Large-Scale Data Sets[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassel, George W.; Glaab, Enrico; Marquez, Julietta; Holdsworth, Michael J.; Bacardit, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    The meta-analysis of large-scale postgenomics data sets within public databases promises to provide important novel biological knowledge. Statistical approaches including correlation analyses in coexpression studies of gene expression have emerged as tools to elucidate gene function using these data sets. Here, we present a powerful and novel alternative methodology to computationally identify functional relationships between genes from microarray data sets using rule-based machine learning. This approach, termed “coprediction,” is based on the collective ability of groups of genes co-occurring within rules to accurately predict the developmental outcome of a biological system. We demonstrate the utility of coprediction as a powerful analytical tool using publicly available microarray data generated exclusively from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds to compute a functional gene interaction network, termed Seed Co-Prediction Network (SCoPNet). SCoPNet predicts functional associations between genes acting in the same developmental and signal transduction pathways irrespective of the similarity in their respective gene expression patterns. Using SCoPNet, we identified four novel regulators of seed germination (ALTERED SEED GERMINATION5, 6, 7, and 8), and predicted interactions at the level of transcript abundance between these novel and previously described factors influencing Arabidopsis seed germination. An online Web tool to query SCoPNet has been developed as a community resource to dissect seed biology and is available at http://www.vseed.nottingham.ac.uk/. PMID:21896882

  6. Application of scaling-rule theory in crustal rock fracture to studying characteristics of seismological precursors associated with M=6.1 Shandan-Minle earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Dai-lu; LI Ya-rong; HAN Xiao-ming

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, we introduce Allegre's scaling-rule theory of rock fracture and the probability to develop a method for predicting earthquake occurrence time on its basis. As an example, we study the characteristics of seismological precursors (seismic spatial correlation length and coda Qc) associated with the earthquake (M=6.1) occurred in Shandan-Minle, Gansu Province. The results show an increasing trend of seismic spatial correlation length and coda Qc before the earthquake. And a power exponent relation is used to fit the increasing variation form of these two parameters. The study has provided a basis for creating a method and finding indexes to predict the earthquake occurrence time by using the monitored seismic spatial correlation length and coda Qc.

  7. Quantification of collagen fiber organization in biological tissues at cellular and molecular scales using second-harmonic generation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambekar Ramachandra Rao, Raghu

    Collagen is the most abundant structural protein found in the human body, and is responsible for providing structure and function to tissues. Collagen molecules organize naturally into structures called fibers on the scale of the wavelength of light and lack inversion symmetry, thus allowing for the process of second harmonic generation (SHG) when exposed to intense incident light. We have developed two quantitative techniques: Fourier transform-second-harmonic generation (FT-SHG) imaging and generalized chi2 second-harmonic generation (chi2-SHG) imaging. In order to show that FT-SHG imaging can be used as a valuable diagnostic tool for real-world biological problems, we first investigate collagenase-induced injury in horse tendons. Clear differences in collagen fiber organization between normal and injured tendon are quantified. In particular, we observe that the regularly oriented organization of collagen fibers in normal tendons is disrupted in injured tendons leading to a more random organization. We also observe that FT-SHG microscopy is more sensitive in assessing tendon injury compared to the conventional polarized light microscopy. The second study includes quantifying collagen fibers in cortical bone using FT-SHG imaging and comparing it with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further, as an example study, we show how FT-SHG imaging could be used to quantify changes in bone structure as a function of age. Some initial work and future directions for extending FT-SHG to 3D are also discussed. The second technique, chi2-SHG imaging, takes advantage of the coherent nature of SHG and utilizes polarization to extract the second-order susceptibility (d elements) which provides information on molecular organization, i.e., it provides access to sub-diffractional changes "optically". We use chi2-SHG in combination with FT-SHG imaging to investigate a couple of biological problems. First, we quantify differences in collagen fiber organization between cornea and

  8. The X-ray emission mechanism of large scale powerful quasar jets: Fermi rules out IC/CMB for 3C 273.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georganopoulos Markos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The process responsible for the Chandra-detected X-ray emission from the large-scale jets of powerful quasars is not clear yet. The two main models are inverse Compton scattering off the cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB and synchrotron emission from a population of electrons separate from those producing the radio-IR emission. These two models imply radically different conditions in the large scale jet in terms of jet speed, kinetic power, and maximum energy of the particle acceleration mechanism, with important implications for the impact of the jet on the larger-scale environment. Georganopoulos et al. (2006 proposed a diagnostic based on a fundamental difference between these two models: the production of synchrotron X-rays requires multi-TeV electrons, while the EC/CMB model requires a cutoff in the electron energy distribution below TeV energies. This has significant implications for the γ-ray emission predicted by these two models. Here we present new Fermi observations that put an upper limit on the gamma-ray flux from the large-scale jet of 3C 273 that clearly violates the flux expected from the IC/CMB X-ray interpretation found by extrapolation of the UV to X-ray spectrum of knot A, thus ruling out the IC/CMB interpretation entirely for this source. Further, the upper limit from Fermi puts a limit on the Doppler beaming factor of at least δ <9, assuming equipartition fields, and possibly as low as δ <5 assuming no major deceleration of the jet from knots A through D1.

  9. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  10. Generalized Deterministic Traffic Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Fuks, H; Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino

    1997-01-01

    We study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parametrized by the speed limit $m$ and another parameter $k$ that represents a ``degree of aggressiveness'' in driving, strictly related to the distance between two consecutive cars. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: ``conservative'' driving with high speed limit and ``aggressive'' driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered.

  11. Rule-based Modelling and Tunable Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Harmer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of an extension of rule-based modelling for cellular signalling to create a structured space of model variants. This enables the incremental development of rule sets that start from simple mechanisms and which, by a gradual increase in agent and rule resolution, evolve into more detailed descriptions.

  12. Rule-based Modelling and Tunable Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Harmer, Russ

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of an extension of rule-based modelling for cellular signalling to create a structured space of model variants. This enables the incremental development of rule sets that start from simple mechanisms and which, by a gradual increase in agent and rule resolution, evolve into more detailed descriptions.

  13. Ruling out IC/CMB X-rays in PKS 0637-752 and the Implications for TeV Emission from Large-Scale Quasar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eileen T; Sparks, William B; Godfrey, Leith; Lovell, James E J; Perlman, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray observatory has discovered dozens of resolved, kiloparsec-scale jets associated with powerful quasars in which the X-ray fluxes are observed to be much higher than the expected level based on the radio-optical synchrotron spectrum. The most popular explanation for the anomalously high and hard X-ray fluxes is that these jets do not decelerate significantly by the kiloparsec scale, but rather remain highly relativistic (Lorentz factors $\\Gamma\\approx$10). By adopting a small angle to the line-of-sight, the X-rays can thus be explained by inverse Compton upscattering of CMB photons (IC/CMB), where the observed emission is strongly Doppler boosted. Using over six years of Fermi monitoring data, we show that the expected hard, steady gamma-ray emission implied by the IC/CMB model is not seen in PKS 0637-752, the prototype jet for which this model was first proposed. IC/CMB emission is thus ruled out as the source of the X-rays, joining recent results for the jets in 3C 273 (using the same method...

  14. Discrete mathematics and physics on the Planck-scale exemplified by means of a class of "cellular network models" and their dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Requardt, M

    1996-01-01

    Starting from the hypothesis that both physics, in particular space-time and the physical vacuum, and the corresponding mathematics are discrete on the Planck scale we develop a certain framework in form of a class of '{\\it cellular networks}' consisting of cells (nodes) interacting with each other via bonds according to a certain {\\it 'local law'} which governs their evolution. Both the internal states of the cells and the strength/orientation of the bonds are assumed to be dynamical variables. We introduce a couple of candidates of such local laws which, we think, are capable of catalyzing the unfolding of the network towards increasing complexity and pattern formation. In section 3 the basis is laid for a version of '{\\it discrete analysis}' and {\\it 'discrete topology/geometry'} which, starting from different, perhaps more physically oriented principles, manages to make contact with the much more abstract machinery of Connes et al. and may complement the latter approach. In section 4 a, as far as we can s...

  15. Recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldberg, Rasmus; Knudsen, Carsten; Rasmussen, Steen

    1994-01-01

    A method for a recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings is presented. The method is based on a graphical representation of global cellular-automata mappings. For a given cellular-automaton rule the recursive algorithm defines the change of the global cellular-automaton mapping as...

  16. Generalized Multidimensional Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周傲英; 周水庚; 金文; 田增平

    2000-01-01

    The problem of association rule mining has gained considerable prominence in the data mining community for its use as an important tool of knowl-edge discovery from large-scale databases. And there has been a spurt of research activities around this problem. Traditional association rule mining is limited to intra-transaction. Only recently the concept of N-dimensional inter-transaction as-sociation rule (NDITAR) was proposed by H.J. Lu. This paper modifies and extends Lu's definition of NDITAR based on the analysis of its limitations, and the general-ized multidimensional association rule (GMDAR) is subsequently introduced, which is more general, flexible and reasonable than NDITAR.

  17. Failover in cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2010-01-01

    A cellular automata (CA) configuration is constructed that exhibits emergent failover. The configuration is based on standard Game of Life rules. Gliders and glider-guns form the core messaging structure in the configuration. The blinker is represented as the basic computational unit, and it is shown how it can be recreated in case of a failure. Stateless failover using primary-backup mechanism is demonstrated. The details of the CA components used in the configuration and its working are described, and a simulation of the complete configuration is also presented.

  18. Cellular Telephone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨周

    1996-01-01

    Cellular phones, used in automobiles, airliners, and passenger trains, are basically low-power radiotelephones. Calls go through radio transmitters that are located within small geographical units called cells. Because each cell’s signals are too weak to interfere with those of other cells operating on the same fre-

  19. Multipartite cellular automata and the superposition principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cellular automata (CA) can show well known features of quantum mechanics (QM), such as a linear updating rule that resembles a discretized form of the Schrödinger equation together with its conservation laws. Surprisingly, a whole class of “natural” Hamiltonian CA, which are based entirely on integer-valued variables and couplings and derived from an action principle, can be mapped reversibly to continuum models with the help of sampling theory. This results in “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l, which for l→0 reproduce the familiar continuum limit. Presently, we show, in particular, how such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of non-relativistic many-body QM, while maintaining the linearity of dynamics. Consequently, the superposition principle is fully operative already on the level of these primordial discrete deterministic automata, including the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement.

  20. Highly Ordered 1D Fullerene Crystals for Concurrent Control of Macroscopic Cellular Orientation and Differentiation toward Large-Scale Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kosuke; Kasuya, Yuki; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Ji, Qingmin; Nakanishi, Waka; Hill, Jonathan P; Sakai, Hideki; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2015-07-15

    A highly aligned 1D fullerene whisker (FW) scaffold in a centimeter area is fabricated by interfacial alignment. The resulting aligned FW scaffold enables concurrent control over cellular orientation and differentiation to muscle cells. This aligned FW scaffold is made by a facile method, and hence the substrate is a promising alternative to other cell scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  1. Boltzmann learning of parameters in cellular neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    1992-01-01

    The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified...... by unsupervised adaptation of an image segmentation cellular network. The learning rule is applied to adaptive segmentation of satellite imagery...

  2. Effects of Silica Aerogel Content on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Poly(methyl methacry-late)/Silica Aerogel Dual-scale Cellular Foams Processed in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiaoli; LUO Guoqiang; ZHANG Ruizhi; ZHANG Jian; LI Meijuan; SHEN Qiang; WANG Jin; ZHANG Lianmeng

    2016-01-01

    A novel poly(methyl-methacrylate)/silica aerogel (PMMA/SA) dual-scale cellular foam was synthesized with internal mixing followed by the supercritical carbon dioxide foaming process. The effects of silica aerogel content on the microstructural and mechanical performance of the foams were investigated by SEM, TEM analysis, and mechanical tests. The experimental results suggest that the employment of silica aerogel granule as addictive can distinctly improve the morphological feature as well as the mechanical performance in comparison to neat PMMA foam by uniformizing cell size distribution, decreasing cell size and increasing cell density. And dual-scale cells including micrometric cells of 3-10 μm and nanometric cells of about 50nm existed in the structure of foams resulting from the retained original framework structure of silica aerogel, which has not been described in other studies with the addition of various fillers. Furthermore, the mechanical strength was signiifcantly elevated even with a small amount of silica aerogel resulting from the unique microstructure, decreased cell size and enhanced cell walls. The compressive strength was 18.12 MPa and the lfexural strength was 18.90 MPa by adding 5wt% and 2wt% silica aerogel, respectively. These results demonstrate the potential to synthesize PMMA/SA dual-scale cellular foams to be used as structural materials with the advantages of low density and high strength.

  3. The Universe as a Cellular System

    CERN Document Server

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Cellular systems are observed everywhere in nature, from crystal domains in metals, soap froth and cucumber cells to the network of cosmological voids. Surprisingly, despite their disparate scale and origin all cellular systems follow certain scaling laws relating their geometry, topology and dynamics. Using a cosmological N-body simulation we found that the Cosmic Web, the largest known cellular system, follows the same scaling relations seen elsewhere in nature. Our results extend the validity of scaling relations in cellular systems by over 30 orders of magnitude in scale with respect to previous studies. The dynamics of cellular systems can be used to interpret local observations such as the local velocity anomaly as the result of a collapsing void in our cosmic backyard. Moreover, scaling relations depend on the curvature of space, providing an independent measure of geometry.

  4. Fluctuations in classical sum rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, John R; Lakshminarayan, Arul; Tomsovic, Steven

    2010-10-01

    Classical sum rules arise in a wide variety of physical contexts. Asymptotic expressions have been derived for many of these sum rules in the limit of long orbital period (or large action). Although sum-rule convergence may well be exponentially rapid for chaotic systems in a global phase-space sense with time, individual contributions to the sums may fluctuate with a width which diverges in time. Our interest is in the global convergence of sum rules as well as their local fluctuations. It turns out that a simple version of a lazy baker map gives an ideal system in which classical sum rules, their corrections, and their fluctuations can be worked out analytically. This is worked out in detail for the Hannay-Ozorio sum rule. In this particular case the rate of convergence of the sum rule is found to be governed by the Pollicott-Ruelle resonances, and both local and global boundaries for which the sum rule may converge are given. In addition, the width of the fluctuations is considered and worked out analytically, and it is shown to have an interesting dependence on the location of the region over which the sum rule is applied. It is also found that as the region of application is decreased in size the fluctuations grow. This suggests a way of controlling the length scale of the fluctuations by considering a time dependent phase-space volume, which for the lazy baker map decreases exponentially rapidly with time.

  5. Knowledge discovery for geographical cellular automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; Anthony Gar-On Yeh

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for geographical simulation by applying data mining techniques to cellular automata. CA has strong capabilities in simulating complex systems. The core of CA is how to define transition rules. There are no good methods for defining these transition rules. They are usually defined by using heuristic methods and thus subject to uncertainties. Mathematical equations are used to represent transition rules implicitly and have limitations in capturing complex relationships. This paper demonstrates that the explicit transition rules of CA can be automatically reconstructed through the rule induction procedure of data mining. The proposed method can reduce the influences of individual knowledge and preferences in defining transition rules and generate more reliable simulation results. It can efficiently discover knowledge from a vast volume of spatial data.

  6. Rule, Britannia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2011-01-01

    Thomas Arne’s The Masque of Alfred (1740) with a libretto by James Thomson and David Mallet was written and performed in the historical context of George II’s reign where a kind of constitutional monarchy based on the Bill of Rights from 1689 was granting civil rights to the early bourgeoisie...... of the Proms, and this article considers it as a global real-time media event. “Rule, Britannia!” is placed in the contexts of political history, cultural history and experience economy....

  7. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell towers developed for Appraiser's Department in 2003. Location was based upon parcel centroids, and corrected to orthophotography. Probably includes towers other than cell towers (uncertain). Not published., Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'Cell...

  8. Cellular Phone Towers, File name = CELLTOWERS Contains point file of cell towers and an inclomplete poly cadastral layer of properties with cell towers. http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2011. It is...

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, FCC registered communications towers. Points were generated from FCC data latlong. Originally created as a basis of comparison for Appraiser's cell tower points, bu comparison was inconclusive. Represented all registered FCC sites as of 6/26/2003. No, Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'FCC...

  10. Nonzero Solubility Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉志武; 周蕊; 刘芸

    2002-01-01

    A solubility-related rule, nonzero solubility rule, is introduced in this paper. It is complementary to the existing rules such as the "like dissolves like" rule and can be understood on the basis of classical chemical thermodynamics.

  11. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  12. Reducing residual stresses and deformations in selective laser melting through multi-level multi-scale optimization of cellular scanning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Residual stresses and deformations continue to remain one of the primary challenges towards expanding the scope of selective laser melting as an industrial scale manufacturing process. While process monitoring and feedback-based process control of the process has shown significant potential...... are compared with standard scanning strategies and have been used to manufacture standard samples. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  13. Some Properties of topological pressure on cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Chang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the ergodicity and the power rule of the topological pressure of a cellular automaton. If a cellular automaton is either leftmost or rightmost premutive (due to the terminology given by Hedlund [Math.~Syst.~Theor.~3, 320-375, 1969], then it is ergodic with respect to the uniform Bernoulli measure. More than that, the relation of topological pressure between the original cellular automaton and its power rule is expressed in a closed form. As an application, the topological pressure of a linear cellular automaton can be computed explicitly.

  14. Simple Cellular Automata-Based Linear Models for the Shrinking Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Fúster-Sabater, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    Structural properties of two well-known families of keystream generators, Shrinking Generators and Cellular Automata, have been analyzed. Emphasis is on the equivalence of the binary sequences obtained from both kinds of generators. In fact, Shrinking Generators (SG) can be identified with a subset of linear Cellular Automata (mainly rule 90, rule 150 or a hybrid combination of both rules). The linearity of these cellular models can be advantageously used in the cryptanalysis of those keystream generators.

  15. Experimental Research on Calcium Carbonate Scaling Rules by Annular Pipeline Test%环道实验研究碳酸钙结垢规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振; 王丽玲

    2014-01-01

    我国出产的石油大多数属于重油,结垢问题严重。通过设计环道实验,发现随着流速的增大,碳酸钙结垢诱导期加长,结垢速率减小,渐进污垢热阻减小;表面温度越高,结垢速率越大。之前的文献中很少讨论碱度对换热表面结垢的影响,本文对不同硬度及碱度含量的水质进行了实验研究发现,碱度越大结垢越严重;随着溶液硬度的增大,结垢速率先是增大,待增大至一定浓度时降低。%The produce d oil in our country is mostly heavy oil, with serious scaling problem. According to the annular pipeline test, with the increasing of the flow rate, induction period becomes longer, the scaling rate decreases and scaling resistance reduces; the higher the temperature on surface, the higher the scaling rate. While, there is little discussion about the effect of alkalinity on scaling of heat exchanging surface in literature. In this paper, an experimental research on water with diverse hardness and alkalinity contents was carried out. The research results show that, the higher the alkalinity, the heavier the scaling. With the increasing of the hardness of solution, scaling rate firstly increases, and then decreases when the hardness reaches to some extent.

  16. Computing by Temporal Order: Asynchronous Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vielhaber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our concern is the behaviour of the elementary cellular automata with state set 0,1 over the cell set Z/nZ (one-dimensional finite wrap-around case, under all possible update rules (asynchronicity. Over the torus Z/nZ (n<= 11,we will see that the ECA with Wolfram rule 57 maps any v in F_2^n to any w in F_2^n, varying the update rule. We furthermore show that all even (element of the alternating group bijective functions on the set F_2^n = 0,...,2^n-1, can be computed by ECA57, by iterating it a sufficient number of times with varying update rules, at least for n <= 10. We characterize the non-bijective functions computable by asynchronous rules.

  17. Modeling the role of climate change on small-scale vegetation patterns in a Mediterranean basin using a Cellular Automata model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, Domenico; Fatichi, Simone; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Valerio Noto, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    Predicting vegetation response in regions of ecotone transition under a changing climate is a among grand challenges in ecohydrology. In a small basin (1.3 sq km) in Sicily, Italy, where north-facing slopes are characterized by Quercus (tree), and south-facing slopes by Opuntia ficus-indaca (evergreen perennial species drought tolerant) and grasses we use an ecohydrological Cellular-Automaton model (CATGraSS) of vegetation coexistence driven by rainfall and solar radiation with downscaled future climate to examine the role of climate change on vegetation patterns. In the model, each cell can hold a single plant type or can be bare soil. Plant competition is modeled explicitly by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants, both calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. Topographic influence on incoming shortwave radiation is treated explicitly, which leads to spatial variations in potential evapotranspiration and resulting soil moisture and plant distribution. The influence of the soil thickness on the vegetation distribution is also introduced. The model is calibrated first using a representation of the current climate as a forcing and comparing the vegetation obtained from the model with the actual vegetation through statistical techniques.. The calibrated model is then forced with future climate scenarios generated using a stochastic downscaling technique based on the weather generator, AWE-GEN. This methodology allows for the downscaling of an ensemble of climate model outputs deriving the frequency distribution functions of factors of change for several statistics of temperature and precipitation from outputs of General Circulation Models. The stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of twelve General Circulation Models adopted in the IPCC 4AR, A1B emission scenario, for the future periods of 2046-2065 and 2081-2100. A high sensitivity of the vegetation distribution to variation of rainfall and temperature has been

  18. Fermi Rules Out the IC/CMB Model for the Large Scale Jet X-ray Emission of 3C 273

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eileen T

    2013-01-01

    The source of the X-ray emission associated with the large-scale jets of powerful radio quasars has been a source of debate in recent years, with two competing interpretations: either the X-rays are of synchrotron origin, arising from a different electron energy distribution than that producing the radio- to-optical synchrotron component, or they are due to inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB) by relativistic electrons in a powerful relativistic jet with bulk Lorentz factor Gamma ~10 - 20. These two models imply radically different conditions in the large scale jet in terms of jet speed, kinetic power, and maximum energy of the particle acceleration mechanism, with important implications for the impact of the jet on the larger-scale environment. A large part of the X-ray origin debate has centered on the well-studied source 3C 273. Here we present new observations from Fermi which put an upper limit on the gamma-ray flux from the large-scale jet of 3C 273 (from 3 - 10 GeV...

  19. Reducing residual stresses and deformations in selective laser melting through multi-level multi-scale optimization of cellular scanning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Residual stresses and deformations continue to remain one of the primary challenges towards expanding the scope of selective laser melting as an industrial scale manufacturing process. While process monitoring and feedback-based process control of the process has shown significant potential......, there is still dearth of techniques to tackle the issue. Numerical modelling of selective laser melting process has thus been an active area of research in the last few years. However, large computational resource requirements have slowed the usage of these models for optimizing the process.In this paper......, a calibrated, fast, multiscale thermal model coupled with a 3D finite element mechanical model is used to simulate residual stress formation and deformations during selective laser melting. The resulting reduction in thermal model computation time allows evolutionary algorithm-based optimization of the process...

  20. Comparisons and scaling rules between N+N2 and N2+N2 collision induced dissociation cross sections from atomistic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, F.; Garcia, E.; Laganà, A.

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative knowledge of elementary processes involved in plasmas are key to successfully perform accurate kinetic simulations. The issue is the huge amount of data to treat, both in the dynamical calculation and in the kinetic simulation. The aim of this paper is to study the dissociation in atom–molecule (AM) and molecule–molecule (MM) collisions involving nitrogen, obtained by molecular dynamics calculations considering vibrational states in the range 10–50 and collision energy up to 10 eV, in order to formulate suitable scaling laws resulting in less expensive computational procedures and easier to handle treatments in kinetic simulations. It is shown that, while a direct substitution of MM dissociation cross sections with AM ones might be acceptable only at very high collision energy, scaling laws application allows to obtain quite good results on almost the whole energy range of interest.

  1. Learning rules and persistence of dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Haruo; Hayama, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Motoko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yagishita, Sho; Noguchi, Jun

    2010-07-01

    Structural plasticity of dendritic spines underlies learning, memory and cognition in the cerebral cortex. We here summarize fifteen rules of spine structural plasticity, or 'spine learning rules.' Together, they suggest how the spontaneous generation, selection and strengthening (SGSS) of spines represents the physical basis for learning and memory. This SGSS mechanism is consistent with Hebb's learning rule but suggests new relations between synaptic plasticity and memory. We describe the cellular and molecular bases of the spine learning rules, such as the persistence of spine structures and the fundamental role of actin, which polymerizes to form a 'memory gel' required for the selection and strengthening of spine synapses. We also discuss the possible link between transcriptional and translational regulation of structural plasticity. The SGSS mechanism and spine learning rules elucidate the integral nature of synaptic plasticity in neuronal network operations within the actual brain tissue.

  2. Completely reproducible description of digital sound data with cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Masato; Kuroiwa, Jousuke; Nara, Shigetoshi

    2002-12-30

    A novel method of compressive and completely reproducible description of digital sound data by means of rule dynamics of CA (cellular automata) is proposed. The digital data of spoken words and music recorded with the standard format of a compact disk are reproduced completely by this method with use of only two rules in a one-dimensional CA without loss of information.

  3. Engineering Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-10

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds, and pharmaceuticals. However, making cells into efficient factories is challenging because cells have evolved robust metabolic networks with hard-wired, tightly regulated lines of communication between molecular pathways that resist efforts to divert resources. Here, we will review the current status and challenges of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.

  4. THE COMPLEXITY OF LIMIT LANGUAGES OF CELLULAR AUTOMATA: AN EXAMPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Huimin

    2001-01-01

    The limit languages of cellular automata are defined and theircomplexity are discussed. New tools, which include skew evolution, skew periodic string, trace string, some algebraic calculation method, and restricted membership problem, are developed through a discussion focusing on the limit language of an elementary cellular automata of rule 94.It is proved that this language is non-regular.

  5. Quantum cellular automata and free quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    In a series of recent papers [1-4] it has been shown how free quantum field theory can be derived without using mechanical primitives (including space-time, special relativity, quantization rules, etc.), but only considering the easiest quantum algorithm encompassing a countable set of quantum systems whose network of interactions satisfies the simple principles of unitarity, homogeneity, locality, and isotropy. This has opened the route to extending the axiomatic information-theoretic derivation of the quantum theory of abstract systems [5, 6] to include quantum field theory. The inherent discrete nature of the informational axiomatization leads to an extension of quantum field theory to a quantum cellular automata theory, where the usual field theory is recovered in a regime where the discrete structure of the automata cannot be probed. A simple heuristic argument sets the scale of discreteness to the Planck scale, and the customary physical regime where discreteness is not visible is the relativistic one of small wavevectors. In this paper we provide a thorough derivation from principles that in the most general case the graph of the quantum cellular automaton is the Cayley graph of a finitely presented group, and showing how for the case corresponding to Euclidean emergent space (where the group resorts to an Abelian one) the automata leads to Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell field dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some perspectives towards the more general scenario of non-linear automata for interacting quantum field theory.

  6. Caiçaras, caboclos and natural resources: rules and scale patterns Caiçaras, caboclos e recursos naturais: regras e padrões de escala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpina Begossi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available One important question concerning the sustainability of local or native populations refers to their interaction with local and global institutions. We should expect that populations with capacity to interact economically and politically with institutions, might show a better chance for their ecological and cultural continuity, as well as for their system of trade and subsistence. The level of ecological and social interaction of local populations, following concepts from ecology, occurs on different scales: for example, from the territories of individual fishermen on the Atlantic Forest coast to organizations of community Extractive Reserves in the Amazon. The scale of organization (individual/family/community may influence the capacity to deal with institutions. This study analyses how Brazilian native populations, especially caiçaras of the Atlantic Forest coast, and caboclos from the Amazon, have interacted with regional, national and global institutions, concerning environmental demands. Concepts such as common management, natural capital, resilience and sustainability are useful to understand these illustrative cases.Uma questão importante da sustentabilidade de populações locais ou nativas se refere à interação com as instituições locais e globais. Podemos esperar que populações que demonstrem capacidade de interagir de forma econômica e política com as instituições apresentem também uma chance maior de continuidade cultural e ecológica, assim como de seus sistemas de troca e subsistência. O nível da interação ecológica e social das populações locais, seguindo conceitos da ecologia, ocorrem sob escalas diferentes: por exemplo, dos territórios individuais de pescadores da Mata Atlântica às organizações de comunidades em Reservas Extrativistas, na Amazônia. A escala organizacional (individual/familiar/comunitária pode influenciar a capacidade de lidar com as instituições.Esse estudo analisa como popula

  7. Nonsynchronous updating in the multiverse of cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Kinouchi, Osame

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we study updating effects on cellular automata rule space. We consider a subset of 6144 order-3 automata from the space of 262144 bidimensional outer-totalistic rules. We compare synchronous to asynchronous and sequential updatings. Focusing on two automata, we discuss how update changes destroy typical structures of these rules. Besides, we show that the first-order phase transition in the multiverse of synchronous cellular automata, revealed with the use of a recently introduced control parameter, seems to be robust not only to changes in update schema but also to different initial densities.

  8. Imaging mass spectrometry at cellular length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altelaar, A F Maarten; Luxembourg, Stefan L; McDonnell, Liam A; Piersma, Sander R; Heeren, Ron M A

    2007-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) allows the direct investigation of both the identity and the spatial distribution of the molecular content directly in tissue sections, single cells and many other biological surfaces. In this protocol, we present the steps required to retrieve the molecular information from tissue sections using matrix-enhanced (ME) and metal-assisted (MetA) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS. These techniques require specific sample preparation steps directed at optimal signal intensity with minimal redistribution or modification of the sample analytes. After careful sample preparation, different IMS methods offer a unique discovery tool in, for example, the investigation of (i) drug transport and uptake, (ii) biological processing steps and (iii) biomarker distributions. To extract the relevant information from the huge datasets produced by IMS, new bioinformatics approaches have been developed. The duration of the protocol is highly dependent on sample size and technique used, but on average takes approximately 5 h.

  9. Flat Cellular (UMTS) Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Samuel, L.G.; Mullender, S.J.; Polakos, P.; Rittenhouse, G.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, cellular systems have been built in a hierarchical manner: many specialized cellular access network elements that collectively form a hierarchical cellular system. When 2G and later 3G systems were designed there was a good reason to make system hierarchical: from a cost-perspective i

  10. Rule-Based Network Service Provisioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Deca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unprecedented development of networks, manual network service provisioning is becoming increasingly risky, error-prone, expensive, and time-consuming. To solve this problem,rule-based methods can provide adequate leverage for automating various network management tasks. This paper presents a rule-based solution for automated network service provisioning. The proposed approach captures configuration data interdependencies using high-level, service-specific, user-configurable rules. We focus on the service validation task, which is illustrated by means of a case study.Based on numerical results, we analyse the influence of the network-level complexity factors and rule descriptive features on the rule efficiency. This analysis shows the operators how to increase rule efficiency while keeping the rules simple and the rule set compact. We present a technique that allows operators to increase the error coverage, and we show that high error coverage scales well when the complexity of networks and services increases.We reassess the correlation function between specific rule efficiency and rule complexity metrics found in previous work, and show that this correlation function holds for various sizes, types, and complexities of networks and services.

  11. Bonnet Ruled Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filiz KANBAY

    2005-01-01

    We consider the Bonnet ruled surfaces which admit only one non-trivial isometry that preserves the principal curvatures. We determine the Bonnet ruled surfaces whose generators and orthogonal trajectories form a special net called an A-net.

  12. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ``in-in" correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.

  13. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, Steven B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: sloth@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ''in-in'' correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.

  14. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  15. Parton model sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Hinchliffe, Ian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Kwiatkowski, Axel

    1996-01-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of various Parton Model sum rules. The basis of the sum rules in perturbative QCD is discussed. Their use in extracting the value of the strong coupling constant is evaluated and the failure of the naive version of some of these rules is assessed.

  16. Cellular pulse-coupled neural network with adaptive weights for image segmentation and its VLSI implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, Juerg; Ramacher, Ulrich; Heittmann, Arne; Matolin, Daniel; Schuffny, Rene

    2004-05-01

    We present a cellular pulse coupled neural network with adaptive weights and its analog VLSI implementation. The neural network operates on a scalar image feature, such as grey scale or the output of a spatial filter. It detects segments and marks them with synchronous pulses of the corresponding neurons. The network consists of integrate-and-fire neurons, which are coupled to their nearest neighbors via adaptive synaptic weights. Adaptation follows either one of two empirical rules. Both rules lead to spike grouping in wave like patterns. This synchronous activity binds groups of neurons and labels the corresponding image segments. Applications of the network also include feature preserving noise removal, image smoothing, and detection of bright and dark spots. The adaptation rules are insensitive for parameter deviations, mismatch and non-ideal approximation of the implied functions. That makes an analog VLSI implementation feasible. Simulations showed no significant differences in the synchronization properties between networks using the ideal adaptation rules and networks resembling implementation properties such as randomly distributed parameters and roughly implemented adaptation functions. A prototype is currently being designed and fabricated using an Infineon 130nm technology. It comprises a 128 × 128 neuron array, analog image memory, and an address event representation pulse output.

  17. How to escape from haller's rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma; Smid, Hans M.

    2015-01-01

    While Haller's rule states that small animals have relatively larger brains, minute Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasps scale brain size linearly with body size. This linear brain scaling allows them to decrease brain size beyond the predictions of Ha

  18. The Effect of the Number of Simulations on the Exponents Obtained by Finite-Size Scaling Relations of the Order Parameter and the Magnetic Susceptibility for the Four-Dimensional Ising Model on the Creutz Cellular Automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdan, Z.; Güzelsoy, E.

    2012-05-01

    The four-dimensional Ising model is simulated on the Creutz cellular automaton using finite-size lattices with linear dimension 4≤ L≤8. The exponents in the finite-size scaling relations for the order parameter and the magnetic susceptibility at the finite-lattice critical temperature are computed to be β=0.49(7), β=0.49(5), β=0.50(1) and γ=1.04(4), γ=1.03(4), γ=1.02(4) for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the obtained results are consistent with the renormalization group predictions of β=0.5 and γ=1. The values for the critical temperature of the infinite lattice T c (∞)=6.6788(65), T c (∞)=6.6798(69), T c (∞)=6.6802(70) are obtained from the straight-line fit of the magnetic susceptibility maxima using 4≤ L≤8 for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the obtained results are in very good agreement with the series expansion results of T c (∞)=6.6817(15), T c (∞)=6.6802(2), the dynamic Monte Carlo result of T c (∞)=6.6803(1), the cluster Monte Carlo result of T c (∞)=6.680(1) and the Monte Carlo using Metropolis and Wolff-cluster algorithm result of T c (∞)=6.6802632±5×10-5.

  19. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  20. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  1. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  2. Bursty events and incremental diffusion in a local diffusion and multi-scale convection system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国盛; 万宝年; 宋梅

    2003-01-01

    A one-dimensional cellular automaton is defined without the critical gradient rule (△h >△hc) which is essential to the existence of avalanches in self-organized criticality (SOC) models. Instead, only the local diffusion rule is used, however, the characteristics of SOC, such as the bursty behaviour, power-law decay in fluctuation spectra, selfsimilarity over a broad range of scales and long-time correlations, are still observed in these numerical experiments.This numerical model is established to suggest that the bursty events and the incremental diffusion observed universally in fusion experiments do not necessarily imply the submarginal dynamics.

  3. Genetic Algorithm Calibration of Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Modeling Mining Permit Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate a spatially and temporally resolved cellular automata to model mining activity on public land in Idaho and western Montana. The genetic algorithm searches through a space of transition rule parameters of a two dimensional cellular automata model to find rule parameters that fit observed mining activity data. Previous work by one of the authors in calibrating the cellular automaton took weeks - the genetic algorithm takes a day and produces rules leading to about the same (or better) fit to observed data. These preliminary results indicate that genetic algorithms are a viable tool in calibrating cellular automata for this application. Experience gained during the calibration of this cellular automata suggests that mineral resource information is a critical factor in the quality of the results. With automated calibration, further refinements of how the mineral-resource information is provided to the cellular automaton will probably improve our model.

  4. Scalar Glueballs A Gaussian Sum-rules Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harnett, D

    2002-01-01

    Although marginally more complicated than the traditional laplace sum-rules, gaussian sum-rules have the advantage of being able to probe excited and ground hadronic states with similar sensitivity. Gaussian sum-rule analysis techniques are applied to the problematic scalar glueball channel to determine masses, widths, and relative resonance strengths of low-lying scalar glueball states contributing to the hadronic spectral function. An important feature of our analysis is the inclusion of instanton contributions to the scalar gluonic correlation function. Compared with the next-to-leading gaussian sum- rule, the analysis of the lowest weighted sum-rule (which contains a large scale independent contribution from the low energy theorem) is shown to be unreliable because of instability under QCD uncertainties. However, the presence of instanton effects leads to approximately consistent mass scales in the lowest weighted and next- lowest weighted sum-rules. The analysis of the next-to- leading sum-rule demonstra...

  5. Measuring interesting rules in Characteristic rule

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    Finding interesting rule in the sixth strategy step about threshold control on generalized relations in attribute oriented induction, there is possibility to select candidate attribute for further generalization and merging of identical tuples until the number of tuples is no greater than the threshold value, as implemented in basic attribute oriented induction algorithm. At this strategy step there is possibility the number of tuples in final generalization result still greater than threshold value. In order to get the final generalization result which only small number of tuples and can be easy to transfer into simple logical formula, the seventh strategy step about rule transformation is evolved where there will be simplification by unioning or grouping the identical attribute. Our approach to measure interesting rule is opposite with heuristic measurement approach by Fudger and Hamilton where the more complex concept hierarchies, more interesting results are likely to be found, but our approach the simple...

  6. Symmetrization Selection Rules, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    We introduce strong interaction selection rules for the two-body decay and production of hybrid and conventional mesons coupling to two S-wave hybrid or conventional mesons. The rules arise from symmetrization in states in the limit of non-relativistically moving quarks. The conditions under which hybrid coupling to S-wave states is suppressed are determined by the rules, and the nature of their breaking is indicated.

  7. Linguistic Valued Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-jiang; QIAN Zuo-ping

    2002-01-01

    Association rules discovering and prediction with data mining method are two topics in the field of information processing. In this paper, the records in database are divided into many linguistic values expressed with normal fuzzy numbers by fuzzy c-means algorithm, and a series of linguistic valued association rules are generated. Then the records in database are mapped onto the linguistic values according to largest subject principle, and the support and confidence definitions of linguistic valued association rules are also provided. The discovering and prediction methods of the linguistic valued association rules are discussed through a weather example last.

  8. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  9. Nanostructured cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, P; Taylor, M D R; Brust, M

    2002-12-01

    Au nanocrystals spin-coated onto silicon from toluene form cellular networks. A quantitative statistical crystallography analysis shows that intercellular correlations drive the networks far from statistical equilibrium. Spin-coating from hexane does not produce cellular structure, yet a strong correlation is retained in the positions of nanocrystal aggregates. Mechanisms based on Marangoni convection alone cannot account for the variety of patterns observed, and we argue that spinodal decomposition plays an important role in foam formation.

  10. Scoped Dynamic Rewrite Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Eelco

    2002-01-01

    The applicability of term rewriting to program transformation is limited by the lack of control over rule application and by the context-free nature of rewrite rules. The first problem is addressed by languages supporting user-definable rewriting strategies. This paper addresses the second problem b

  11. Branes and wrapping rules

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A

    2011-01-01

    We show that the branes of ten-dimensional IIA/IIB string theory must satisfy, upon toroidal compactification, specific wrapping rules in order to reproduce the number of supersymmetric branes that follows from a supergravity analysis. The realization of these wrapping rules suggests that IIA/IIB string theory contains a whole class of generalized Kaluza-Klein monopoles.

  12. Branes and Wrapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Riccioni, F.

    2012-01-01

    We show that the branes of ten-dimensional IA/IIB string theory must satisfy, upon toroidal compactification, specific wrapping rules in order to reproduce the number of supersymmetric branes that follows from a supergravity analysis. The realization of these wrapping rules suggests that IA/IIB stri

  13. [Simulation of urban ecological security pattern based on cellular automata: a case of Dongguan City, Guangdong Province of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Sheng; Qiao, Ji-Gang; Ai, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Taking the Dongguan City with rapid urbanization as a case, and selecting landscape ecological security level as evaluation criterion, the urbanization cellular number of 1 km x 1 km ecological security cells was obtained, and imbedded into the transition rules of cellular automata (CA) as the restraint term to control urban development, establish ecological security urban CA, and simulate ecological security urban development pattern. The results showed the integrated landscape ecological security index of the City decreased from 0.497 in 1998 to 0.395 in 2005, indicating that the ecological security at landscape scale was decreased. The CA-simulated integrated ecological security index of the City in 2005 was increased from the measured 0.395 to 0.479, showing that the simulated urban landscape ecological pressure from human became lesser, ecological security became better, and integrated landscape ecological security became higher. CA could be used as an effective tool in researching urban ecological security.

  14. Empirically derived neighbourhood rules for urban land-use modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    interaction between neighbouring land uses is an important component in urban cellular automata. Nevertheless, this component is often calibrated through trial-and-error estimation. The aim of this project has been to develop an empirically derived landscape metric supporting cellular-automata-based land......-use modelling. Through access to very detailed urban land-use data it has been possible to derive neighbourhood rules empirically, and test their sensitivity to the land-use classification applied, the regional variability of the rules, and their time variance. The developed methodology can be implemented...

  15. Particles and Patterns in Cellular Automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, E.; Das, R.; Beasley, C.E.

    1999-06-03

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our objective has been to develop tools for studying particle interactions in a class of dynamical systems characterized by discreteness, determinism, local interaction, and an inherently parallel form of evolution. These systems can be described by cellular automata (CA) and the behavior we studied has improved our understanding of the nature of patterns generated by CAs, their ability to perform global computations, and their relationship to continuous dynamical systems. We have also developed a rule-table mathematics that enables one to custom-design CA rule tables to generate patterns of specified types, or to perform specified computational tasks.

  16. Cellular Automata Models for Diffusion of Innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Fuks, H; Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino

    1997-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic cellular automata model for the spread of innovations, rumors, news, etc. in a social system. The local rule used in the model is outertotalistic, and the range of interaction can vary. When the range R of the rule increases, the takeover time for innovation increases and converges toward its mean-field value, which is almost inversely proportional to R when R is large. Exact solutions for R=1 and $R=\\infty$ (mean-field) are presented, as well as simulation results for other values of R. The average local density is found to converge to a certain stationary value, which allows us to obtain a semi-phenomenological solution valid in the vicinity of the fixed point n=1 (for large t).

  17. Rules on Paper, Rules in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dahdah, Edouard; Corduneanu-Huci, Cristina; Raballand, Gael; Sergenti, Ernest; Ababsa, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this book is on a specific outcome of the rule of law: the practical enforcement of laws and policies, and the determinants of this enforcement, or lack thereof. Are there significant and persistent differences in implementation across countries? Why are some laws and policies more systematically enforced than others? Are “good” laws likely to be enacted, and if not, what stands in the way? We answer these questions using a theoretical framework and detailed empirical...

  18. Modeling diffusion of innovations with probabilistic cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, N; Boccara, Nino; Fuks, Henryk

    1997-01-01

    We present a family of one-dimensional cellular automata modeling the diffusion of an innovation in a population. Starting from simple deterministic rules, we construct models parameterized by the interaction range and exhibiting a second-order phase transition. We show that the number of individuals who eventually keep adopting the innovation strongly depends on connectivity between individuals.

  19. Boolean linear differential operators on elementary cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Del Rey, Ángel

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the notion of boolean linear differential operator (BLDO) on elementary cellular automata (ECA) is introduced and some of their more important properties are studied. Special attention is paid to those differential operators whose coefficients are the ECA with rule numbers 90 and 150.

  20. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999......, the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected...

  1. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 January 2005 : Annex R A 1 - Scale of basic salaries (page 73) Annex R A 2 - Scale of stipends paid to fellows (page 74) Annex R A 4 - Family allowance and child allowance (page 81) Annex R A 8.01 - Reimbursement of education fees for the academic year 2004/2005, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2004 (page 81). Copies of this update, announced in Weekly Bulletin 4/2005, are available in the departmental secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  2. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 January 2004: • Preliminary note - Terminology realignment following the restructuring of the Organization (page - i -) • Annex R A 1 - Scale of basic salaries (page 73) • Annex R A 2 - Scale of stipends paid to fellows (page 74) • Annex R A 4 - Family allowance and child allowance (page 81) • Annex R A 8.01 - Reimbursement of education fees for the academic year 2003/2004, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2003 (page 81). Copies of this update, announced in Weekly Bulletin 3/2004, are available in the departmental secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  3. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows : as from 1 July 2002 Article R IV 1.41 - Method of adjustment of the amount of subsistence indemnity (page 53) as from 1 January 2003 Annex R A 1 - Scale of basic salaries (page 73) Annex R A 2 - Scale of stipends paid to fellows (page 74) Annex R A 4 - Family allowance and child allowance (page 81) Annex R A 8.01 - Reimbursement of education fees for the academic year 2002/2003, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2002 (page 81). Copies of this update, announced in Weekly Bulletin 4/2003, are available in the divisional secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at : http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  4. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375

  5. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  6. A Fast Algorithm for Mining Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄刘生; 陈华平; 王洵; 陈国良

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of discovering association rules between items in a large database of sales transactions is discussed, and a novel algorithm,BitMatrix, is proposed. The proposed algorithm is fundamentally different from the known algorithms Apriori and AprioriTid. Empirical evaluation shows that the algorithm outperforms the known ones for large databases. Scale-up experiments show that the algorithm scales linearly with the number of transactions.

  7. Cellular blue naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old man had asymptomatic, stationary, 1.5X2 cm, shiny, smooth, dark blue nodule on dorsum of right hand since 12-14 years. In addition he had developed extensive eruption of yellow to orange papulonodular lesions on extensors of limbs and buttocks since one and half months. Investigations confirmed that yellow papules were xanthomatosis and he had associated diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. Biopsy of blue nodule confirmed the clinical diagnosis of cellular blue naevus. Cellular blue naevus is rare and its association with xanthomatosis and diabetes mellitus were interesting features of above patients which is being reported for its rarity.

  8. Dodgson's Rule Approximations and Absurdity

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe-Dansted, John C

    2010-01-01

    With the Dodgson rule, cloning the electorate can change the winner, which Young (1977) considers an "absurdity". Removing this absurdity results in a new rule (Fishburn, 1977) for which we can compute the winner in polynomial time (Rothe et al., 2003), unlike the traditional Dodgson rule. We call this rule DC and introduce two new related rules (DR and D&). Dodgson did not explicitly propose the "Dodgson rule" (Tideman, 1987); we argue that DC and DR are better realizations of the principle behind the Dodgson rule than the traditional Dodgson rule. These rules, especially D&, are also effective approximations to the traditional Dodgson's rule. We show that, unlike the rules we have considered previously, the DC, DR and D& scores differ from the Dodgson score by no more than a fixed amount given a fixed number of alternatives, and thus these new rules converge to Dodgson under any reasonable assumption on voter behaviour, including the Impartial Anonymous Culture assumption.

  9. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...

  10. General Quantization Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Maiz, F

    2012-01-01

    A general quantization rule for bound states of the Schrodinger equation is presented. Like fundamental theory of integral, our idea is mainly based on dividing the potential into many pieces, solving the Schr\\"odinger equation, and deriving the general quantization rule. For both exactly and non-exactly solvable systems, the energy levels of all the bound states can be easily calculated from the general quantization rule. Using this new general quantization rule, we re-calculate the energy levels for the one-dimensional system, with an infinite square well, with the harmonic oscillator potential, with the Morse Potential, with the symmetric and asymmetric Rosen-Morse potentials, with the first P\\"oschl-Teller potential, with the Coulomb Potential, with the V-shape Potential, and the ax^4 potential, and for the three dimensions systems, with the harmonic oscillator potential, with the ordinary Coulomb potential, and for the hydrogen atom.

  11. TANF Rules Data Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Single source providing information on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program rules among States and across years (currently 1996-2010), including...

  12. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  13. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  14. The origin of cellular life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This essay presents a scenario of the origin of life that is based on analysis of biological architecture and mechanical design at the microstructural level. My thesis is that the same architectural and energetic constraints that shape cells today also guided the evolution of the first cells and that the molecular scaffolds that support solid-phase biochemistry in modern cells represent living microfossils of past life forms. This concept emerged from the discovery that cells mechanically stabilize themselves using tensegrity architecture and that these same building rules guide hierarchical self-assembly at all size scales (Sci. Amer 278:48-57;1998). When combined with other fundamental design principles (e.g., energy minimization, topological constraints, structural hierarchies, autocatalytic sets, solid-state biochemistry), tensegrity provides a physical basis to explain how atomic and molecular elements progressively self-assembled to create hierarchical structures with increasingly complex functions, including living cells that can self-reproduce.

  15. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  16. (FIELD) SYMMETRIZATION SELECTION RULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. PAGE

    2000-08-01

    QCD and QED exhibit an infinite set of three-point Green's functions that contain only OZI rule violating contributions, and (for QCD) are subleading in the large N{sub c} expansion. We prove that the QCD amplitude for a neutral hybrid {l_brace}1,3,5. . .{r_brace}{+-} exotic current to create {eta}{pi}{sup 0} only comes from OZI rule violating contributions under certain conditions, and is subleading in N{sub c}.

  17. Symmetrization Selection Rules, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    We introduce a category of strong and electromagnetic interaction selection rules for the two-body connected decay and production of exotic J^{PC} = 0^{+-}, 1^{-+}, 2^{+-}, 3^{-+}, ... hybrid and four-quark mesons. The rules arise from symmetrization in states in addition to Bose symmetry and CP invariance. Examples include various decays to \\eta'\\eta, \\eta\\pi, \\eta'\\pi and four-quark interpretations of a 1^{-+} signal.

  18. Mechanics rules cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang James HC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cells in the musculoskeletal system are subjected to various mechanical forces in vivo. Years of research have shown that these mechanical forces, including tension and compression, greatly influence various cellular functions such as gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation, and secretion of matrix proteins. Cells also use mechanotransduction mechanisms to convert mechanical signals into a cascade of cellular and molecular events. This mini-review provides an overview of cell mechanobiology to highlight the notion that mechanics, mainly in the form of mechanical forces, dictates cell behaviors in terms of both cellular mechanobiological responses and mechanotransduction.

  19. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-05-25

    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  20. Cellular rehabilitation of photobiomodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Yuan, Jian-Qin; Wang, Yan-Fang; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Liu, Song-Hao

    2007-05-01

    Homeostasis is a term that refers to constancy in a system. A cell in homeostasis normally functions. There are two kinds of processes in the internal environment and external environment of a cell, the pathogenic processes (PP) which disrupts the old homeostasis (OH), and the sanogenetic processes (SP) which restores OH or establishes a new homeostasis (NH). Photobiomodualtion (PBM), the cell-specific effects of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems, is a kind of modulation on PP or SP so that there is no PBM on a cell in homeostasis. There are two kinds of pathways mediating PBM, the membrane endogenetic chromophores mediating pathways which often act through reactive oxygen species, and membrane proteins mediating pathways which often enhance cellular SP so that it might be called cellular rehabilitation. The cellular rehabilitation of PBM will be discussed in this paper. It is concluded that PBM might modulate the disruption of cellular homeostasis induced by pathogenic factors such as toxin until OH has been restored or NH has been established, but can not change homeostatic processes from one to another one.

  1. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  2. Cellular Automata for Spatiotemporal Pattern Formation from Reaction-Diffusion Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Shousuke; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Ultradiscrete equations are derived from a set of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations, and cellular automaton rules are obtained on the basis of the ultradiscrete equations. Some rules reproduce the dynamical properties of the original reaction-diffusion equations, namely, bistability and pulse annihilation. Furthermore, other rules bring about soliton-like preservation and periodic pulse generation with a pacemaker, which are not obtained from the original reaction-diffusion equations.

  3. 40 CFR 52.242 - Disapproved rules and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 37730, June 30, 2010. (a) The following Air Pollution... Cellular (Foam) Products,” submitted on March 7, 2008 and adopted on September 7, 2007. (2) Antelope Valley Air Pollution Control District. (i) Rule 118, Emergencies, submitted on March 10, 1998. (3)...

  4. 77 FR 1889 - Drivers of CMVs: Restricting the Use of Cellular Phones; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    .... See 76 FR 75472-75474, December 2, 2011. Background The December 3, 2011, Drivers of CMVs: Restricting the Use of Cellular Phones final rule (76 FR 75470) had a clerical error in Sec. 391.15(f)(1) that... Use of Cellular Phones; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  5. Dynamical critical behavior in a cellular model of superconducting vortex avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkan, Tegy John

    Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld showed that certain driven dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom organize into a critical state characterized by avalanche dynamics and power law distribution of avalanche sizes and durations. They called this phenomenon self-organized criticality and sandpile became the prototype of such dynamical systems. Universality in these systems is not yet well established. Forty years ago, de Gennes noted that the Bean state in a type-II superconductor is similar to a sandpile. Motivated by strong experimental evidences, Bassler and Paczuski (BP) proposed a 2D sandpile model to study self-organization in the dynamics of vortices in superconductors. In this dissertation, the effect of anisotropy in the vortex-vortex interaction, stochasticity in the vortex toppling rule, and the configuration of the pinning centers on the scaling properties of the avalanches in the BP model is studied. Also, universality in the cellular model of vortex dynamics is investigated.

  6. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  7. Nature and Function of Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Barry A.

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed Year 1 and 2 teachers in Australia about their classroom rules. Found that teachers have about six rules for their classes relating to pupil-pupil relations, completing academic tasks, movement around the classroom, property, safety, and other. Most rules concerned pupil-pupil interactions, and all rules can be seen as a way of…

  8. The role of traffic rules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Experienced road users seem to have their own set of traffic rules (including rules about when to violate the official rules). The number of violations is enormous, causing great concern for the authorities. The situation could be improved by separating a set of rules with the aim of deterring road

  9. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  10. Online isolation of defects in cellular nanocomputers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teijiro Isokawa; Shin'ya Kowada; Ferdinand Peper; Naotake Kamiura; Nobuyuki Matsui

    2007-01-01

    Unreliability will be a major issue for computers built from components at nanometer scales.Thus,it's to be expected that such computers will need a high degree of defect-tolerance to overcome components' defects which have arisen during the process of manufacturing.This paper presents a novel approach to defect-tolerance that is especially geared towards nanocomputers based on asynchronous cellular automata.According to this approach,defective cells are detected and isolated by small configurations that move around randomly in cellular space.These configurations,called random flies,will attach to configurations that are static,which is typical for configurations that contain defective cells.On the other hand,dynamic configurations,like those that conduct computations,will not be isolated from the rest of the cellular space by the random flies,and will be able to continue their operations unaffectedly.

  11. Asymptotic Behavior of Excitable Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, R; Durrett, Richard; Griffeath, David

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: We study two families of excitable cellular automata known as the Greenberg-Hastings Model (GHM) and the Cyclic Cellular Automaton (CCA). Each family consists of local deterministic oscillating lattice dynamics, with parallel discrete-time updating, parametrized by the range of interaction, the "shape" of its neighbor set, threshold value for contact updating, and number of possible states per site. GHM and CCA are mathematically tractable prototypes for the spatially distributed periodic wave activity of so-called excitable media observed in diverse disciplines of experimental science. Earlier work by Fisch, Gravner, and Griffeath studied the ergodic behavior of these excitable cellular automata on Z^2, and identified two distinct (but closely-related) elaborate phase portraits as the parameters vary. In particular, they noted the emergence of asymptotic phase diagrams (and Euclidean dynamics) in a well-defined threshold-range scaling limit. In this study we present several rigorous results and som...

  12. Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  13. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  14. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  15. Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations, Layer includes all towers identified visually and include cellular and other communication towers., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Noble County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of...

  16. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule; Proposed... 325 RIN 3064-AD97 Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk... ``Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule''...

  17. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  18. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  19. Willpower and Personal Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…

  20. Adler sum rule

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    The Adler sum rule states that the integral over energy of a difference of neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon structure functions is a constant, independent of the four-momentum transfer squared. This constancy is a consequence of the local commutation relations of the time components of the hadronic weak current, which follow from the underlying quark structure of the standard model.

  1. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  2. Comment concerning Leonardo's rule

    CERN Document Server

    Sotolongo-Costa, O; Oseguera-Manzanilla, T; Díaz-Guerrero, D S

    2016-01-01

    In this comment we propose a novel explanation for the Leonardo's rule concerning the tree branching. According to Leonardo's notebooks he observed that if one observes the branches of a tree, the squared radius of the principal branch is equal to the sum of the squared radius of the branch daughters.

  3. 13 Rules That Expire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Karen S.; Bush, Sarah B.; Dougherty, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneralizing commonly accepted strategies, using imprecise vocabulary, and relying on tips and tricks that do not promote conceptual mathematical understanding can lead to misunderstanding later in students' math careers. In this article, the authors present thirteen pervasive mathematics rules that "expire." With the…

  4. TEDXCERN BREAKS THE RULES

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  5. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  6. Cellular communication through light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fels

    Full Text Available Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  7. Cellular automata: structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ollinger, Nicolas

    2002-01-01

    Jury : François Blanchard (Rapporteur), Marianne Delorme (Directeur), Jarkko Kari (Président), Jacques Mazoyer (Directeur), Dominique Perrin, Géraud Sénizergues (Rapporteur); Cellular automata provide a uniform framework to study an important problem of "complex systems" theory: how and why do system with a easily understandable -- local -- microscopic behavior can generate a more complicated -- global -- macroscopic behavior? Since its introduction in the 40s, a lot of work has been done to ...

  8. Imaging cellular and molecular biological functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorte, S.L. [Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France). Plateforme d' Imagerie Dynamique PFID-Imagopole; Frischknecht, F. (eds.) [Heidelberg Univ. Medical School (Germany). Dept. of Parasitology

    2007-07-01

    'Imaging cellular and molecular biological function' provides a unique selection of essays by leading experts, aiming at scientist and student alike who are interested in all aspects of modern imaging, from its application and up-scaling to its development. Indeed the philosophy of this volume is to provide student, researcher, PI, professional or provost the means to enter this applications field with confidence, and to construct the means to answer their own specific questions. (orig.)

  9. Cellular Automation of Galactic Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotic, Branislav

    2010-01-01

    We present a preliminary results of our Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) 2D probabilistic cellular automata models. The relevant time-scales (emergence of life, it's diversification and evolution influenced with the global risk function) are modeled as the probability matrix elements and are chosen in accordance with the Copernican principle to be well-represented by the data inferred from the Earth's fossil record. With Fermi's paradox as a main boundary condition the resulting histories of astrobiological landscape are discussed.

  10. Template learning of cellular neural network using genetic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Elsayed; Tazaki, Eiichiro

    2004-08-01

    A new learning algorithm for space invariant Uncoupled Cellular Neural Network is introduced. Learning is formulated as an optimization problem. Genetic Programming has been selected for creating new knowledge because they allow the system to find new rules both near to good ones and far from them, looking for unknown good control actions. According to the lattice Cellular Neural Network architecture, Genetic Programming will be used in deriving the Cloning Template. Exploration of any stable domain is possible by the current approach. Details of the algorithm are discussed and several application results are shown.

  11. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da

    2013-01-01

    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  12. AMENDMENTS TO THE STAFF RULES AND REGULATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 January 2002: Annex R A 1 - Scale of basic salaries (page 73). Annex R A 2 - Scale of stipends paid to fellows (page 74). Annex R A 4 - Family allowance and child allowance (page 81). Annex R A 8.01 - Reimbursement of education fees for the academic year 2001/2002, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2001 (page 81). Copies of this update, announced in Weekly Bulletin 4/2002, are available in the divisional secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web HERE Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  13. Testing the reduction rule

    CERN Document Server

    Hegerfeldt, G C

    2011-01-01

    The reduction rule, also known as the projection postulate, specifies the state after an ideal measurement. There are two forms, the original rule of von Neumann and a nowadays mostly used modification thereof due to L\\"uders, but sometimes also attributed to von Neumann. However, which form applies depends on the details of the measuring apparatus. Here we therefore consider the following problem: Given an ensemble of systems in an unknown pure or mixed state, an observable $\\hat A$ and an apparatus which performs a measurement of $\\hat A$ on the ensemble, but whose detailed working is unknown ('black box'), how can one test whether the apparatus performs a L\\"uders or von Neumann measurement?

  14. Chaos Rules Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Murphy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of my PhD research, I mused over proposed titles for my thesis. I was pretty pleased with myself when I came up with Chaos Rules (the implied double meaning was deliberate, or more completely, Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education. I used the then-emerging theories of chaos and complexity to underpin my analysis. So it was with more than a little excitement that I read the call for contributions to this special issue of IRRODL. What follows is a walk-through of my thesis with an emphasis on the contribution of chaos and complexity theory.

  15. Real Rules of Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Robert Nozick’s acceptance rule [Noz81], Acc(h) iff Prob(K I h) > = I- e and Prob(K I -h) <= e and Prob(h) > Prob(K I -h), for small e: and I.J. Good and...Solving," IJCAI 1983. [Noz8ll Nozick , R. Philosophical Explanations, Harvard, 1981. (Nut84] Nute, D. "Logical Relations," Philosophical Studies 46, 1984

  16. Modal extension rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xia; SUN Jigui; LIN Hai; FENG Shasha

    2005-01-01

    Modal logics are good candidates for a formal theory of agents. The efficiency of reasoning method in modal logics is very important, because it determines whether or not the reasoning method can be widely used in systems based on agent. In this paper,we modify the extension rule theorem proving method we presented before, and then apply it to P-logic that is translated from modal logic by functional transformation. At last, we give the proof of its soundness and completeness.

  17. Schema Redescription in Cellular Automata: Revisiting Emergence in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marques-Pita, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to eliminate redundancy in the transition tables of Boolean automata: schema redescription with two symbols. One symbol is used to capture redundancy of individual input variables, and another to capture permutability in sets of input variables: fully characterizing the canalization present in Boolean functions. Two-symbol schemata explain aspects of the behaviour of automata networks that the characterization of their emergent patterns does not capture. We use our method to compare two well-known cellular automata for the density classification task: the human engineered CA GKL, and another obtained via genetic programming. We show that despite having very different collective behaviour, these rules are very similar. Indeed, GKL is a special case of GP. Therefore, we demonstrate that it is more feasible to compare cellular automata via schema redescriptions of their rules, than by looking at their emergent behaviour, leading us to question the tendency in complexity research to pay much m...

  18. Construction of living cellular automata using the Physarum plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Shinji

    2015-04-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba that has an amorphous cell body. To clearly observe how the plasmodium makes decisions in its motile and exploratory behaviours, we developed a new experimental system to pseudo-discretize the motility of the organism. In our experimental space that has agar surfaces arranged in a two-dimensional lattice, the continuous and omnidirectional movement of the plasmodium was limited to the stepwise one, and the direction of the locomotion was also limited to four neighbours. In such an experimental system, a cellular automata-like system was constructed using the living cell. We further analysed the exploratory behaviours of the plasmodium by duplicating the experimental results in the simulation models of cellular automata. As a result, it was revealed that the behaviours of the plasmodium are not reproduced by only local state transition rules; and for the reproduction, a kind of historical rule setting is needed.

  19. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  20. REx: An Efficient Rule Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient algorithm REx for generating symbolic rules from artificial neural network (ANN). Classification rules are sought in many areas from automatic knowledge acquisition to data mining and ANN rule extraction. This is because classification rules possess some attractive features. They are explicit, understandable and verifiable by domain experts, and can be modified, extended and passed on as modular knowledge. REx exploits the first order information in the data and finds shortest sufficient conditions for a rule of a class that can differentiate it from patterns of other classes. It can generate concise and perfect rules in the sense that the error rate of the rules is not worse than the inconsistency rate found in the original data. An important feature of rule extraction algorithm, REx, is its recursive nature. They are concise, comprehensible, order insensitive and do not involve any weight values. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmark classification problems, s...

  1. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  2. Multiuser Cellular Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Modern radio communication is faced with a problem about how to distribute restricted frequency to users in a certain space. Since our task is to minimize the number of repeaters, a natural idea is enlarging coverage area. However, coverage has restrictions. First, service area has to be divided economically as repeater's coverage is limited. In this paper, our fundamental method is to adopt seamless cellular network division. Second, underlying physics content in frequency distribution problem is interference between two close frequencies. Consequently, we choose a proper frequency width of 0.1MHz and a relevantly reliable setting to apply one frequency several times. We make a few general assumptions to simplify real situation. For instance, immobile users yield to homogenous distribution; repeaters can receive and transmit information in any given frequency in duplex operation; coverage is mainly decided by antenna height. Two models are built up to solve 1000 users and 10000 users situations respectively....

  3. Application of GA in optimization of pore network models generated by multi-cellular growth algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Saeid; Boozarjomehry, Ramin Bozorgmehry; Pishvaie, Mahmoud Reza

    2009-10-01

    In pore network modeling, the void space of a rock sample is represented at the microscopic scale by a network of pores connected by throats. Construction of a reasonable representation of the geometry and topology of the pore space will lead to a reliable prediction of the properties of porous media. Recently, the theory of multi-cellular growth (or L-systems) has been used as a flexible tool for generation of pore network models which do not require any special information such as 2D SEM or 3D pore space images. In general, the networks generated by this method are irregular pore network models which are inherently closer to the complicated nature of the porous media rather than regular lattice networks. In this approach, the construction process is controlled only by the production rules that govern the development process of the network. In this study, genetic algorithm has been used to obtain the optimum values of the uncertain parameters of these production rules to build an appropriate irregular lattice network capable of the prediction of both static and hydraulic information of the target porous medium.

  4. A cellular automaton model for ship traffic flow in waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Le; Zheng, Zhongyi; Gang, Longhui

    2017-04-01

    With the development of marine traffic, waterways become congested and more complicated traffic phenomena in ship traffic flow are observed. It is important and necessary to build a ship traffic flow model based on cellular automata (CAs) to study the phenomena and improve marine transportation efficiency and safety. Spatial discretization rules for waterways and update rules for ship movement are two important issues that are very different from vehicle traffic. To solve these issues, a CA model for ship traffic flow, called a spatial-logical mapping (SLM) model, is presented. In this model, the spatial discretization rules are improved by adding a mapping rule. And the dynamic ship domain model is considered in the update rules to describe ships' interaction more exactly. Take the ship traffic flow in the Singapore Strait for example, some simulations were carried out and compared. The simulations show that the SLM model could avoid ship pseudo lane-change efficiently, which is caused by traditional spatial discretization rules. The ship velocity change in the SLM model is consistent with the measured data. At finally, from the fundamental diagram, the relationship between traffic ability and the lengths of ships is explored. The number of ships in the waterway declines when the proportion of large ships increases.

  5. Time-Saving Approach for Optimal Mining of Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhir Mohammed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of analyzing data so as to get useful information to be exploited by users. Association rules is one of data mining techniques used to detect different correlations and to reveal relationships among data individual items in huge data bases. These rules usually take the following form: if X then Y as independent attributes. An association rule has become a popular technique used in several vital fields of activity such as insurance, medicine, banks, supermarkets… Association rules are generated in huge numbers by algorithms known as Association Rules Mining algorithms. The generation of huge quantities of Association Rules may be time-and-effort consuming this is the reason behind an urgent necessity of an efficient and scaling approach to mine only the relevant and significant association rules. This paper proposes an innovative approach which mines the optimal rules from a large set of Association Rules in a distributive processing way to improve its efficiency and to decrease the running time.

  6. Occupant evacuation model based on cellular automata in fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By applying the rules set in traffic flow and pedestrian flow models, a basic cellular automata model is presented to simulate occupant evacuation in fire. Some extended models are introduced to study the special phenomena of evacuation from the fire room. The key of the models is the introduction of the danger grade which makes the route choice convenient and reasonable. Fire not only influences the emotional and behavioral characteristics of an individual but also affects his physical constitution, which reduces his maximal possible velocity. The models consider these influence factors by applying a set of simple but effective rules. It is needed to emphasize that all rules are established according to the essential phenomenon in fire evacuation, that is, all the occupants would try to move to the safest place as fast as possible. Some simulation examples are also presented to validate the applicability of the models.

  7. A Figurine and its Scale, a Scale and its Figurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotis Ifantidis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available I was taught to think of archaeological photography as faceless, a to-scale and accurate depiction of ancient artefacts and sites but these rules only apply to one part of archaeological photography, the 'official' one.

  8. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  9. Service dogs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  10. Cellular bioluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David K; Noguchi, Takako

    2012-08-01

    Bioluminescence imaging of live cells has recently been recognized as an important alternative to fluorescence imaging. Fluorescent probes are much brighter than bioluminescent probes (luciferase enzymes) and, therefore, provide much better spatial and temporal resolution and much better contrast for delineating cell structure. However, with bioluminescence imaging there is virtually no background or toxicity. As a result, bioluminescence can be superior to fluorescence for detecting and quantifying molecules and their interactions in living cells, particularly in long-term studies. Structurally diverse luciferases from beetle and marine species have been used for a wide variety of applications, including tracking cells in vivo, detecting protein-protein interactions, measuring levels of calcium and other signaling molecules, detecting protease activity, and reporting circadian clock gene expression. Such applications can be optimized by the use of brighter and variously colored luciferases, brighter microscope optics, and ultrasensitive, low-noise cameras. This article presents a review of how bioluminescence differs from fluorescence, its applications to cellular imaging, and available probes, optics, and detectors. It also gives practical suggestions for optimal bioluminescence imaging of single cells.

  11. Cellular neurothekeoma with melanocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-Chin; Hsieh, Yi-Yueh; Chang, Yi-Chin; Kuo, Tseng-Tong

    2008-02-01

    Cellular neurothekeoma (CNT) is a benign dermal tumor mainly affecting the head and neck and the upper extremities. It is characterized histologically by interconnecting fascicles of plump spindle or epithelioid cells with ample cytoplasm infiltrating in the reticular dermis. The histogenesis of CNT has been controversial, although it is generally regarded as an immature counterpart of classic/myxoid neurothekeoma, a tumor with nerve sheath differentiation. Two rare cases of CNT containing melanin-laden cells were described. Immunohistochemical study with NKI/C3, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle antigen, CD34, factor XIIIa, collagen type IV, S100 protein and HMB-45 was performed. Both cases showed typical growth pattern of CNT with interconnecting fascicles of epithelioid cells infiltrating in collagenous stroma. One of the nodules contained areas exhibiting atypical cytological features. Melanin-laden epithelioid or dendritic cells were diffusely scattered throughout one nodule, and focally present in the peripheral portion of the other nodule. Both nodules were strongly immunoreactive to NKI/C3 and vimentin, but negative to all the other markers employed. CNT harboring melanin-laden cells may pose diagnostic problems because of their close resemblance to nevomelanocytic lesions and other dermal mesenchymal tumors. These peculiar cases may also provide further clues to the histogenesis of CNT.

  12. Emerging rules for inducing organ regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannas, Ioannis V

    2013-01-01

    are shown to be broadly consistent with the predictions of the four rules. Future use or adaptations of these largely quantitative rules could account more satisfactorily for problems, such as imperfect function of regenerated organs, that are currently encountered by researchers. It could also further the explanation of the mechanism of regeneration at the cellular and molecular level.

  13. Lightweight 3D cellular composites inspired by balsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Sardar; Raney, Jordan; Lewis, Jennifer; Gibson, Lorna

    2017-02-13

    Additive manufacturing technologies offer new ways to fabricate cellular materials with composite cell walls, mimicking the structure and mechanical properties of woods. However, materials limitations and a lack of design tools have confined the usefulness of 3D printed cellular materials. We develop new carbon fiber reinforced, epoxy inks for 3D printing which result in printed materials with longitudinal Young's modulus up to 57 GPa (exceeding the longitudinal modulus of wood cell wall material). To guide the design of hierarchical cellular materials, we developed a parameterized, multi-scale, finite element model. Computational homogenization based on finite element simulations at multiple length scales is employed to obtain the elastic properties of the material at multiple length scales. Parameters affecting the elastic response of cellular composites, such as the volume fraction, orientation distribution, and aspect ratio of fibers within the cell walls as well as the cell geometry and relative density are included in the model. To validate the model, experiments are conducted on both solid carbon fiber/epoxy composites and cellular structures made from them, showing excellent agreement with model predictions, both at the cell-wall and at the cellular-structure levels. Using the model, cellular structures are designed and experimentally shown to achieve a specific stiffness nearly as high as that observed in balsa wood. The good agreement between the multi-scale model predictions and experimental data provides confidence in the practical utility of this model as a tool for designing novel 3D cellular composites with unprecedented specific elastic properties.

  14. Simulation of primary static recrystallization with cellular operator model

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Prantik

    2005-01-01

    1. Based on the modified cellular automata approach of Reher [60] a cellular operator model has been developed that is capable of accounting for spatial and temporal inhomogeneity on a finer scale. For this a scalable subgrid automaton is introduced that allows for a high spatial resolution on demand and still high computational efficiency. The scalable subgrid permits to track the minute changes of growth front during recrystallization owing to local variations of boundary mobility and net d...

  15. Cellular Automata Models Applied to the Study of Landslide Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are caused by complex processes controlled by the interaction of numerous factors. Increasing efforts are being made to understand the spatial and temporal evolution of this phenomenon, and the use of remote sensing data is making significant contributions in improving forecast. This paper studies landslides seen as complex dynamic systems, in order to investigate their potential Self Organized Critical (SOC) behavior, and in particular, scale-invariant aspects of processes governing the spatial development of landslides and their temporal evolution, as well as the mechanisms involved in driving the system and keeping it in a critical state. For this purpose, we build Cellular Automata Models, which have been shown to be capable of reproducing the complexity of real world features using a small number of variables and simple rules, thus allowing for the reduction of the number of input parameters commonly used in the study of processes governing landslide evolution, such as those linked to the geomechanical properties of soils. This type of models has already been successfully applied in studying the dynamics of other natural hazards, such as earthquakes and forest fires. The basic structure of the model is composed of three modules: (i) An initialization module, which defines the topographic surface at time zero as a grid of square cells, each described by an altitude value; the surface is acquired from real Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). (ii) A transition function, which defines the rules used by the model to update the state of the system at each iteration. The rules use a stability criterion based on the slope angle and introduce a variable describing the weakening of the material over time, caused for example by rainfall. The weakening brings some sites of the system out of equilibrium thus causing the triggering of landslides, which propagate within the system through local interactions between neighboring cells. By using different rates of

  16. Empirical multiscale networks of cellular regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin de Bivort

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Grouping genes by similarity of expression across multiple cellular conditions enables the identification of cellular modules. The known functions of genes enable the characterization of the aggregate biological functions of these modules. In this paper, we use a high-throughput approach to identify the effective mutual regulatory interactions between modules composed of mouse genes from the Alliance for Cell Signaling (AfCS murine B-lymphocyte database which tracks the response of approximately 15,000 genes following chemokine perturbation. This analysis reveals principles of cellular organization that we discuss along four conceptual axes. (1 Regulatory implications: the derived collection of influences between any two modules quantifies intuitive as well as unexpected regulatory interactions. (2 Behavior across scales: trends across global networks of varying resolution (composed of various numbers of modules reveal principles of assembly of high-level behaviors from smaller components. (3 Temporal behavior: tracking the mutual module influences over different time intervals provides features of regulation dynamics such as duration, persistence, and periodicity. (4 Gene Ontology correspondence: the association of modules to known biological roles of individual genes describes the organization of functions within coexpressed modules of various sizes. We present key specific results in each of these four areas, as well as derive general principles of cellular organization. At the coarsest scale, the entire transcriptional network contains five divisions: two divisions devoted to ATP production/biosynthesis and DNA replication that activate all other divisions, an "extracellular interaction" division that represses all other divisions, and two divisions (proliferation/differentiation and membrane infrastructure that activate and repress other divisions in specific ways consistent with cell cycle control.

  17. Quantitative proteomics reveals cellular targets of celastrol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Hansen

    Full Text Available Celastrol, a natural substance isolated from plant extracts used in traditional Chinese medicine, has been extensively investigated as a possible drug for treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and protein misfolding disorders. Although studies focusing on celastrol's effects in specific cellular pathways have revealed a considerable number of targets in a diverse array of in vitro models there is an essential need for investigations that can provide a global view of its effects. To assess cellular effects of celastrol and to identify target proteins as biomarkers for monitoring treatment regimes, we performed large-scale quantitative proteomics in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells, a cell type that can be readily prepared from human blood samples. Celastrol substantially modified the proteome composition and 158 of the close to 1800 proteins with robust quantitation showed at least a 1.5 fold change in protein levels. Up-regulated proteins play key roles in cytoprotection with a prominent group involved in quality control and processing of proteins traversing the endoplasmic reticulum. Increased levels of proteins essential for the cellular protection against oxidative stress including heme oxygenase 1, several peroxiredoxins and thioredoxins as well as proteins involved in the control of iron homeostasis were also observed. Specific analysis of the mitochondrial proteome strongly indicated that the mitochondrial association of certain antioxidant defense and apoptosis-regulating proteins increased in cells exposed to celastrol. Analysis of selected mRNA transcripts showed that celastrol activated several different stress response pathways and dose response studies furthermore showed that continuous exposure to sub-micromolar concentrations of celastrol is associated with reduced cellular viability and proliferation. The extensive catalog of regulated proteins presented here identifies numerous cellular effects of celastrol and constitutes

  18. Water, infrastructure and political rule: Introduction to the special issue

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Obertreis; Timothy Moss; Peter Mollinga; Christine Bichsel

    2016-01-01

    This introductory article sets the scene for this special issue on water, infrastructure and political rule. It makes the case for revisiting the complex relationships between these three dimensions which have fascinated scholars since Wittfogel’s pioneering – if much criticised – work on causal links between large-scale irrigation systems and autocratic leadership. Scholarship on water, on infrastructure, as well as on political rule has made huge advances since Wittfogel’s days, requiring a...

  19. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  20. Free fall and cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arrighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three reasonable hypotheses lead to the thesis that physical phenomena can be described and simulated with cellular automata. In this work, we attempt to describe the motion of a particle upon which a constant force is applied, with a cellular automaton, in Newtonian physics, in Special Relativity, and in General Relativity. The results are very different for these three theories.

  1. About Strongly Universal Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Margenstern

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a strongly universal cellular automaton on the line with 11 states and the standard neighbourhood. We embed this construction into several tilings of the hyperbolic plane and of the hyperbolic 3D space giving rise to strongly universal cellular automata with 10 states.

  2. Reactive Programming of Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Boussinot, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    Implementation of cellular automata using reactive programming gives a way to code cell behaviors in an abstract and modular way. Multiprocessing also becomes possible. The paper describes the implementation of cellular automata with the reactive programming language LOFT, a thread-based extension of C. Self replicating loops considered in artificial life are coded to show the interest of the approach.

  3. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  4. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. New Games, New Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Kallinikos, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    , the usefulness of big data rests on their steady updatability, a condition that reduces the time span within which this data is useful or relevant. Jointly, these attributes challenge established rules of strategy making as these are manifested in the canons of procuring structured information of lasting value...... that addresses specific and long-term organizational objectives. The developments underlying big data thus seem to carry important implications for strategy making, and the data and information practices with which strategy has been associated. We conclude by placing the understanding of these changes within......Big data and the mechanisms by which it is produced and disseminated introduce important changes in the ways information is generated and made relevant for organizations. Big data often represents miscellaneous records of the whereabouts of large and shifting online crowds. It is frequently...

  6. Unanimity rule on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud; Thurner, Stefan; Hanel, Rudolf

    2007-10-01

    We present a model for innovation, evolution, and opinion dynamics whose spreading is dictated by a unanimity rule. The underlying structure is a directed network, the state of a node is either activated or inactivated. An inactivated node will change only if all of its incoming links come from nodes that are activated, while an activated node will remain activated forever. It is shown that a transition takes place depending on the initial condition of the problem. In particular, a critical number of initially activated nodes is necessary for the whole system to get activated in the long-time limit. The influence of the degree distribution of the nodes is naturally taken into account. For simple network topologies we solve the model analytically; the cases of random and small world are studied in detail. Applications for food-chain dynamics and viral marketing are discussed.

  7. Scales, scales and more scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the nature, uses, and limitations of the large variety of existing, so-called, hypnosis scales; that is, instruments that have been proposed for the assessment of hypnotic behavior. Although the major aim of most of the scales ostensively seems to be to assess several aspects of hypnotic states, they are found generally to say little about these and much more about responses to suggestions. The greatest application of these scales is to be found in research, but they also have a limited place in clinical work.

  8. Evolutionary assembly rules for fish life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charnov, E.L.; Gislason, Henrik; Pope, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    history that maximizes Darwinian fitness in non-growing populations. We merge this M, W α power function with other power functions to produce general across-species scaling rules for yearly reproductive allocation, reproductive effort and age at first reproduction in fish. We then suggest a new way......We revisit the empirical equation of Gislason et al. (2010, Fish and Fisheries11:149-158) for predicting natural mortality (M, year -1) of marine fish. We show it to be equivalent to , where L ∞ (cm) and K (year -1) are the von Bertalanffy growth equation (VBGE) parameters, and L (cm) is fish...... length along the growth trajectory within the species. We then interpret K in terms of the VBGE in mass , and show that the previous equation is itself equivalent to a -1/3 power function rule between M and the mass at first reproduction (W α); this new -1/3 power function emerges directly from the life...

  9. The biosphere rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  10. Remarks on kernel Bayes' rule

    OpenAIRE

    Johno, Hisashi; Nakamoto, Kazunori; Saigo, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Kernel Bayes' rule has been proposed as a nonparametric kernel-based method to realize Bayesian inference in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. However, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the prediction result by kernel Bayes' rule is in some cases unnatural. We consider that this phenomenon is in part due to the fact that the assumptions in kernel Bayes' rule do not hold in general.

  11. First-order formative rules

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhs, Carsten; Kop, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the method of formative rules for first-order term rewriting, which was previously defined for a higher-order setting. Dual to the well-known usable rules, formative rules allow dropping some of the term constraints that need to be solved during a termination proof. Compared to the higher-order definition, the first-order setting allows for significant improvements of the technique.

  12. Contemporary architectural practice: Institutional framework and building rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niković Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Building rules represent important element of the system of planning in Serbia. It connects different kinds and scales of professional activities related to built environment, in first the larger scale of planning with smaller scales of designing and construction. The way the building rules are formulated, interpreted and applied in the procedures of planning, designing and construction the most directly influences the quality of the built and living environment. In this paper the professional experiences of the immediate participants in these procedures, previously exposed at the professional meeting entitled 'Contemporary architectural practice: institutional framework and building rules', are excerpted and systematized. The main goal is to point out to the problems in the current practice and to call upon the wider debate. The most important outcomes are the common attitudes as the basis for further dicussion and activities which would lead to the improvement of professional practice.

  13. AMENDMENTS TO THE STAFF RULES AND REGULATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from : 1 January 2001 Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 and Annex R A 2 respectively). These scales include the correction approved in June 2001 of the discrepancy of 0.3% in the net salary adjustment on 1 January 2001. Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4). Reimbursement of education fees (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2000/2001, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2000. Periodic reviews of the financial conditions of members of the personel (Annex A1). 1 July 2001 Various drafting amendments adopted in order to ensure greater coherence between the texts, the procedures and actual practice. 1 September 2001 Implementation of the new career structure. Copies of these updates are available in the divisional secretariats.

  14. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  15. Cellular automaton modelling of lightning-induced and man made forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, R.; Hergarten, S.

    2009-10-01

    The impact of forest fires on nature and civilisation is conflicting: on one hand, they play an irreplaceable role in the natural regeneration process, but on the other hand, they come within the major natural hazards in many regions. Their frequency-area distributions show power-law behaviour with scaling exponents α in a quite narrow range, relating wildfire research to the theoretical framework of self-organised criticality. Examples of self-organised critical behaviour can be found in computer simulations of simple cellular automaton models. The established self-organised critical Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model is one of the most widespread models in this context. Despite its qualitative agreement with event-size statistics from nature, its applicability is still questioned. Apart from general concerns that the Drossel-Schwabl model apparently oversimplifies the complex nature of forest dynamics, it significantly overestimates the frequency of large fires. We present a modification of the model rules that distinguishes between lightning-induced and man made forest fires and enables a systematic increase of the scaling exponent α by approximately 1/3. In addition, combined simulations using both the original and the modified model rules predict a dependence of the overall event-size distribution on the ratio of lightning induced and man made fires as well as a splitting of their partial distributions. Lightning is identified as the dominant mechanism in the regime of the largest fires. The results are confirmed by the analysis of the Canadian Large Fire Database and suggest that lightning-induced and man made forest fires cannot be treated separately in wildfire modelling, hazard assessment and forest management.

  16. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... he been correctly informed; the causality rule provides either zero cover if the omitted fact has caused the insurance event, or full cover if the event would have occurred regardless of the fact. This article explores which rule is more efficient. Using the framework proposed by Picard and Dixit...... it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer...

  17. Cellular systems biology profiling applied to cellular models of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Kenneth A; Premkumar, Daniel R; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Patricia; Taylor, Lansing

    2009-11-01

    Building cellular models of disease based on the approach of Cellular Systems Biology (CSB) has the potential to improve the process of creating drugs as part of the continuum from early drug discovery through drug development and clinical trials and diagnostics. This paper focuses on the application of CSB to early drug discovery. We discuss the integration of protein-protein interaction biosensors with other multiplexed, functional biomarkers as an example in using CSB to optimize the identification of quality lead series compounds.

  18. DETERMINING THE EFFECT (THE SOCIAL COSTS OF EXCLUSION UNDER THE SOUTH AFRICAN EXCLUSIONARY RULE: SHOULD FACTUAL GUILT TILT THE SCALES IN FAVOUR OF THE ADMISSION OF UNCONSTITUTIONALLY OBTAINED EVIDENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ally

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Section 35(5 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 governs the exclusion of unconstitutionally obtained evidence in criminal trials. Three groups of factors must be considered to assess whether unconstitutionally obtained evidence should either be excluded or admitted. This contribution is focussed on the third group of factors (also known as the "effect of exclusion", or the "social costs of exclusion" which consists of the "seriousness of the charge faced by the accused", and the "importance of the evidence to secure a conviction". This group of factors is concerned with the public interest in crime control. Some scholars argue that the "public mood" should be a weighty factor when our courts consider this group of factors. Against this background this article considers three issues: First, whether considerable weight should be attached to the "current mood" of society when our courts weigh and balance this group of factors against other relevant factors; secondly, whether a consideration of the "seriousness of the charge" and the "importance of the evidence for a successful prosecution" could possibly encroach upon the presumption of innocence; and, thirdly, whether factual guilt should be allowed to tip the scales in favour of the admission of unconstitutionally obtained evidence when the evidence is crucial for a conviction on a serious charge.

  19. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.;

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  20. A novel chaotic based image encryption using a hybrid model of deoxyribonucleic acid and cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayatifar, Rasul; Sadaei, Hossein Javedani; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there are many studies have conducted on developing security of the digital image in order to protect such data while they are sending on the internet. This work aims to propose a new approach based on a hybrid model of the Tinkerbell chaotic map, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cellular automata (CA). DNA rules, DNA sequence XOR operator and CA rules are used simultaneously to encrypt the plain-image pixels. To determine rule number in DNA sequence and also CA, a 2-dimension Tinkerbell chaotic map is employed. Experimental results and computer simulations, both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates outstanding encryption, but also resists various typical attacks.

  1. Commercialization of cellular immunotherapies for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anthony; Johnson, Robert

    2016-04-15

    Successful commercialization of a cell therapy requires more than proving safety and efficacy to the regulators. The inherent complexity of cellular products delivers particular manufacturing, logistical and reimbursement hurdles that threaten commercial viability for any therapy with a less than spectacular clinical profile that truly changes the standard of care. This is particularly acute for autologous cell therapies where patients receive bespoke treatments manufactured from a sample of their own cells and where economies of scale, which play an important role in containing the production costs for small molecule and antibody therapeutics, are highly limited. Nevertheless, the promise of 'game-changing' efficacy, as exemplified by very high levels of complete responses in refractory haematological malignancies, has attracted capital investments on a vast scale, and the attendant pace of technology development provides promising indicators for future clinical and commercial success.

  2. Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winarno, Nanang, E-mail: nanang-winarno@upi.edu; Prima, Eka Cahya [International Program on Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung40154 (Indonesia); Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu [Department of Physics Education, Post Graduate School, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung40154 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled “A New Kind of Science” discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram’s investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations.

  3. Analysis of transient stability of power system including large scale wind power based on the extended equal area rule%基于扩展等面积定则的含大规模风电场电力系统暂态稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俐; 杨以涵

    2012-01-01

    When wind farms are connected into the grid with high capacity and multi-point, and they are centralized and located far away from load centers, the electrical connection between wind farms and the grid is usually weak. So the impact of large scale wind power on the grid is extended from local issues to the issue of system stability. Unlike conventional power plants, grid-connected wind farms have their inherent characteristics which make the power system transient stability become more complex. In the paper, the power system transient stability including large scale wind farms is analyzed theoretically based on extended equal area rule. The value of wind turbines power is equaled to the mechanical power of the equivalent synchronous generators. The effect of the control of wind farms on the equivalent mechanical power of synchronous machine is also considered. Then according to the method, the power system transient stability including large scale wind farms is discussed. At last, the effectiveness of the mechanism is verified by simulation. In this paper, the equal area rule is extended to analyze the power system transient stability including wind farm. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51190103) and National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (No. 2011AA05A104).%当风电大容量、集中、多点并入电网,且远离负荷区域,导致机网间联系薄弱,使得风电对电网的影响由局部问题扩展到系统稳定性问题.由于风电机组不同于常规电源的特性,使得含大规模风电场的电网暂态稳定性分析成为一个亟待解决课题.基于扩展等面积定则从理论上分析含风电场的电力系统暂态稳定性,将风电场功率等值为同步发电机的机械功率,考虑了风电场控制作用对同步发电机等值机械功率的影响,据此分析了风电场并网运行对系统暂态稳定影响的机理.最后通过仿真验证

  4. A Course in Cellular Bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    Gives an overview of a course in chemical engineering entitled "Cellular Bioengineering," dealing with how chemical engineering principles can be applied to molecular cell biology. Topics used are listed and some key references are discussed. Listed are 85 references. (YP)

  5. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  6. Energy Landscape of Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2008-03-01

    Cellular Networks are in general quite robust and perform their biological functions against the environmental perturbations. Progresses have been made from experimental global screenings, topological and engineering studies. However, there are so far few studies of why the network should be robust and perform biological functions from global physical perspectives. In this work, we will explore the global properties of the network from physical perspectives. The aim of this work is to develop a conceptual framework and quantitative physical methods to study the global nature of the cellular network. The main conclusion of this presentation is that we uncovered the underlying energy landscape for several small cellular networks such as MAPK signal transduction network and gene regulatory networks, from the experimentally measured or inferred inherent chemical reaction rates. The underlying dynamics of these networks can show bi-stable as well as oscillatory behavior. The global shapes of the energy landscapes of the underlying cellular networks we have studied are robust against perturbations of the kinetic rates and environmental disturbances through noise. We derived a quantitative criterion for robustness of the network function from the underlying landscape. It provides a natural explanation of the robustness and stability of the network for performing biological functions. We believe the robust landscape is a global universal property for cellular networks. We believe the robust landscape is a quantitative realization of Darwinian principle of natural selection at the cellular network level. It may provide a novel algorithm for optimizing the network connections, which is crucial for the cellular network design and synthetic biology. Our approach is general and can be applied to other cellular networks.

  7. A cellular automata evacuation model considering friction and repulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Weiguo; YU Yanfei; FAN Weicheng; Zhang Heping

    2005-01-01

    There exist interactions among pedestrians and between pedestrian and environment in evacuation. These interactions include attraction, repulsion and friction that play key roles in human evacuation behaviors, speed and efficiency. Most former evacuation models focus on the attraction force, while repulsion and friction are not well modeled. As a kind of multi-particle self-driven model, the social force model introduced in recent years can represent those three forces but with low simulation efficiency because it is a continuous model with complex rules. Discrete models such as the cellular automata model and the lattice gas model have simple rules and high simulation efficiency, but are not quite suitable for interactions' simulation. In this paper, a new cellular automata model based on traditional models is introduced in which repulsion and friction are modeled quantitatively. It is indicated that the model can simulate some basic behaviors, e.g.arching and the "faster-is-slower" phenomenon, in evacuation as multi-particle self-driven models, but with high efficiency as the normal cellular automata model and the lattice gas model.

  8. Modeling self-organizing traffic lights with elementary cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    There have been several highway traffic models proposed based on cellular automata. The simplest one is elementary cellular automaton rule 184. We extend this model to city traffic with cellular automata coupled at intersections using only rules 184, 252, and 136. The simplicity of the model offers a clear understanding of the main properties of city traffic and its phase transitions. We use the proposed model to compare two methods for coordinating traffic lights: a green-wave method that tries to optimize phases according to expected flows and a self-organizing method that adapts to the current traffic conditions. The self-organizing method delivers considerable improvements over the green-wave method. For low densities, the self-organizing method promotes the formation and coordination of platoons that flow freely in four directions, i.e. with a maximum velocity and no stops. For medium densities, the method allows a constant usage of the intersections, exploiting their maximum flux capacity. For high dens...

  9. An intrinsic poperty of memory of the Cellular automaton infrastructure of Nature leading to the organization of the physical world as an Internet o things; TOE = IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The undamental advantage of a Cellular automaton construction foris that it can be viewed as an undetectable absolute frame o reference, in accordance with Lorentz-Poincare's interpretation.. The cellular automaton model for physical poblems comes upon two basic hurdles: (1) How to find the Elemental Rule that, and how to get non-locality from local transformations. Both problems are resolved considering the transfomation rule of mutual distributed synchronization Actually any information proessing device starts with a clocking system. and it turns out that ``All physical phenomena are different aspects of the high-level description of distributed mutual synchronization in a network of digital clocks''. Non-locality comes from two hugely different time-scales of signaling.. The universe is acombinines information and matter processes, These fast spreading diffusion wave solutions create the mechanism of the Holographic Universe. And thirdly Disengaged from synchronization, circular counters can perform memory functions by retaining phases of their oscillations, an idea of Von Neumann'. Thus, the suggested model generates the necessary constructs for the physical world as an Internet of Things. Life emerges due to the specifics of macromolecules that serve as communication means, with the holographic memory...

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolism basically consists of the conversion of chemical compounds taken up from the extracellular environment into energy (conserved in energy-rich bonds of organic phosphates) and a wide array of organic molecules serving as catalysts (enzymes), information carriers (nucleic acids), and building blocks for cellular structures such as membranes or ribosomes. Metabolic modeling aims at the construction of mathematical representations of the cellular metabolism that can be used to calculate the concentration of cellular molecules and the rates of their mutual chemical interconversion in response to varying external conditions as, for example, hormonal stimuli or supply of essential nutrients. Based on such calculations, it is possible to quantify complex cellular functions as cellular growth, detoxification of drugs and xenobiotic compounds or synthesis of exported molecules. Depending on the specific questions to metabolism addressed, the methodological expertise of the researcher, and available experimental information, different conceptual frameworks have been established, allowing the usage of computational methods to condense experimental information from various layers of organization into (self-) consistent models. Here, we briefly outline the main conceptual frameworks that are currently exploited in metabolism research.

  11. The rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  12. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  13. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K

    2011-01-01

    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  14. Pattern Discovery Using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Kiruthika M,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of Internet has given rise to many websites which maintain large amount of user information. To utilize this information, identifying usage pattern of users is very important. Web usage mining is one of the processes of finding out this usage pattern and has many practical applications. Our paper discusses how association rules can be used to discover patterns in web usage mining. Our discussion starts with preprocessing of the given weblog, followed by clustering them and finding association rules. These rules provide knowledge that helps to improve website design, in advertising, web personalization etc.

  15. Half-Cell Law of Regular Cellular Detonations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun; JIANG Zong-Lin; GAO Yun-Liang

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulations illustrate the half-cell law of regular cellular detonations propagating in confined space,i.e., the number of cells always maintains an integral multiple of half cell. The cells adapt themselves larger or smaller to the size of the unconfined space by maintaining the cell scale larger or smaller than the original cells of detonation.

  16. An Ontology for Collaborative Construction and Analysis of Cellular Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demir, E.; Babur, O.; Dogrusoz, U.; Gursoy, A.; Ayaz, A.; Güleşir, G.; Nisanci, G.; Cetin-Atalay, R.

    2004-01-01

    Motivation: As the scientific curiosity in genome studies shifts toward identification of functions of the genomes in large scale, data produced about cellular processes at molecular level has been accumulating with an accelerating rate. In this regard, it is essential to be able to store, integrate

  17. Classifying cellular automata using grossone

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alotto, Louis

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes an application of the Infinite Unit Axiom and grossone, introduced by Yaroslav Sergeyev (see [7] - [12]), to the development and classification of one and two-dimensional cellular automata. By the application of grossone, new and more precise nonarchimedean metrics on the space of definition for one and two-dimensional cellular automata are established. These new metrics allow us to do computations with infinitesimals. Hence configurations in the domain space of cellular automata can be infinitesimally close (but not equal). That is, they can agree at infinitely many places. Using the new metrics, open disks are defined and the number of points in each disk computed. The forward dynamics of a cellular automaton map are also studied by defined sets. It is also shown that using the Infinite Unit Axiom, the number of configurations that follow a given configuration, under the forward iterations of cellular automaton maps, can now be computed and hence a classification scheme developed based on this computation.

  18. Prognosis of Different Cellular Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetish Ranjan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement in mobile telephony from 1G to 3G, 4G and 5G has a very axiomatic fact that made an entire world a global village. The cellular system employs a different design approach and technology that most commercial radio and television system use. In the cellular system, the service area is divided into cells and a transmitter is designed to serve an individual cell. The system seeks to make efficient use of available channels by using low-power transmitters to allow frequency reuse at a smaller distance. Maximizing the number of times each channel can be reused in a given geographical area is the key to an efficient cellular system design. During the past three decades, the world has seen significant changes in telecommunications industry. There have been some remarkable aspects to the rapid growth in wireless communications, as seen by the large expansion in mobile systems. This paper focuses on “Past, Present & Future of Cellular Telephony” and some light has been thrown upon the technologies of the cellular systems, namely 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G and future generations like 4G and 5G systems as well.

  19. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from : 1 January 2005 Internal taxation of remuneration, payments and other financial benefits (New articles IV 2.01, R IV 2.01 to 2.04 pages 56 bis & 56 ter; Annex R A 1 bis page 73 bis) 1 September 2005 Reimbursement of education fees (Article R A 8.01 page 81) for the academic year 2005/2006 1 November 2005 Age limit (Article R II 6.04 page 37) 1 January 2006 Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 page 73 & Annex R A 2 page 74 respectively). Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4 page 76) New contract policy for staff members (Articles R II 1.19 & 1.20 page 15, R II 1.23 page 16, II 6.01 page 36, R II 6.02 & R II 6.06 page 37, VIII 1.03 page 68, R A 9.01 page 83). Copies of this update (modification # 15) are available in departmental secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at the following addr...

  20. Fire Spread Model for Old Towns Based on Cellular Automaton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Nan; WENG Wenguo; MA Wei; NI Shunjiang; HUANG Quanyi; YUAN Hongyong

    2008-01-01

    Old towns like Lijiang have enormous historic,artistic,and architectural value.The buildings in such old towns are usually made of highly combustible materials,such as wood and grass.If a fire breaks out,it will spread to multiple buildings,so fire spreading and controlling in old towns need to be studied.This paper presents a fire spread model for old towns based on cellular automaton.The cellular automaton rules were set according to historical fire data in empirical formulas.The model also considered the effects of climate.The simulation results were visualized in a geography information system.An example of a fire spread in Lijiang was investigated with the results showing that this model provides a realistic tool for predicting fire spread in old towns.Fire brigades can use this tool to predict when and how a fire spreads to minimize the losses.

  1. Microbial Growth Modeling and Simulation Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Men

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate the micro-evolutionary process of the microbial growth, [Methods] in this study, we adopt two-dimensional cellular automata as its growth space. Based on evolutionary mechanism of microbial and cell-cell interactions, we adopt Moore neighborhood and make the transition rules. Finally, we construct the microbial growth model. [Results] It can describe the relationships among the cell growth, division and death. And also can effectively reflect spatial inhibition effect and substrate limitation effect. [Conclusions] The simulation results show that CA model is not only consistent with the classic microbial kinetic model, but also be able to simulate the microbial growth and evolution.

  2. Simplification Rules for Birdtrack Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Alckock-Zeilinger, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper derives a set of easy-to-use tools designed to simplify calculations with birdtrack op- erators comprised of symmetrizers and antisymmetrizers. In particular, we present cancellation rules allowing one to shorten the birdtrack expressions of operators, and propagation rules identifying the circumstances under which it is possible to propagate symmetrizers past antisymmetrizers and vice versa. We exhibit the power of these simplification rules by means of a short example in which we apply the tools derived in this paper on a typical operator that can be encountered in the representation theory of SU(N) over the product space $V^{\\otimes m}$ . These rules form the basis for the construction of compact Hermitian Young projection operators and their transition operators addressed in companion papers.

  3. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi

    The monitoring of cellular behavior is useful for the advancement of biomedical diagnostics, drug development and the understanding of a cell as the main unit of the human body. Micro- and nanotechnology allow for the creation of functional devices that enhance the study of cellular dynamics...... modifications for electrochemical nanosensors for the detection of analytes released from cells. Two type of materials were investigated, each pertaining to the two different aspects of such devices: peptide nanostructures were studied for the creation of cellular sensing substrates that mimic in vivo surfaces...... and that offer advantages of functionalization, and conducting polymers were used as electrochemical sensor surface modifications for increasing the sensitivity towards relevant analytes, with focus on the detection of dopamine released from cells via exocytosis. Vertical peptide nanowires were synthesized from...

  4. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylek, Lily A; Harris, Leonard A; Faeder, James R; Hlavacek, William S

    2015-07-16

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions.

  5. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylek, Lily A.; Harris, Leonard A.; Faeder, James R.; Hlavacek, William S.

    2015-07-01

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions.

  6. A Novel Rule Induction Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jianguo; LIU Fang; WANG Lei; JIAO Licheng

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in databases is concerned with extracting useful information from databases, and the immune algorithm is a biological theory-based and globally searching algorithm. A specific immune algorithm is designed for discovering a few interesting, high-level prediction rules from databases, rather than discovering classification knowledge as usual in the literatures. Simulations show that this novel algorithm is able to improve the stability of the population, increase the holistic performance and make the rules extracted have higher precision.

  7. Probability Theory without Bayes' Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriques, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Kolmogorov theory of probability, Bayes' rule allows one to perform statistical inference by relating conditional probabilities to unconditional probabilities. As we show here, however, there is a continuous set of alternative inference rules that yield the same results, and that may have computational or practical advantages for certain problems. We formulate generalized axioms for probability theory, according to which the reverse conditional probability distribution P(B|A) is no...

  8. Cellular models for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenburger, Björn H; Saridaki, Theodora; Dinter, Elisabeth

    2016-10-01

    Developing new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease requires cellular models. Current models reproduce the two most salient changes found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease: The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the existence of protein aggregates consisting mainly of α-synuclein. Cultured cells offer many advantages over studying Parkinson's disease directly in patients or in animal models. At the same time, the choice of a specific cellular model entails the requirement to focus on one aspect of the disease while ignoring others. This article is intended for researchers planning to use cellular models for their studies. It describes for commonly used cell types the aspects of Parkinson's disease they model along with technical advantages and disadvantages. It might also be helpful for researchers from other fields consulting literature on cellular models of Parkinson's disease. Important models for the study of dopaminergic neuron degeneration include Lund human mesencephalic cells and primary neurons, and a case is made for the use of non-dopaminergic cells to model pathogenesis of non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. With regard to α-synuclein aggregates, this article describes strategies to induce and measure aggregates with a focus on fluorescent techniques. Cellular models reproduce the two most salient changes of Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the existence of α-synuclein aggregates. This article is intended for researchers planning to use cellular models for their studies. It describes for commonly used cell types and treatments the aspects of Parkinson's disease they model along with technical advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this article describes strategies to induce and measure aggregates with a focus on fluorescent techniques. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease.

  9. Using the Chain Rule as the Key Link in Deriving the General Rules for Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprows, David

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to the general rules for differentiation is to first derive the power, product, and quotient rules and then derive the chain rule. In this short article we give an approach to these rules which uses the chain rule as the main tool in deriving the power, product, and quotient rules in a manner which is more student-friendly…

  10. Cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Jitin; Halima, Saoussen Ben; Felmy, Boas; Goodger, Zoe; Zurbriggen, Sebastian; Rajendran, Lawrence

    2010-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. A characteristic feature of the disease is the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) which either in its soluble oligomeric form or in the plaque-associated form is causally linked to neurodegeneration. Aβ peptide is liberated from the membrane-spanning -amyloid precursor protein by sequential proteolytic processing employing β- and γ-secretases. All these proteins involved in the production of Aβ peptide are membrane associated and hence, membrane trafficking and cellular compartmentalization play important roles. In this review, we summarize the key cellular events that lead to the progression of AD.

  11. Return of the Quantum Cellular Automata: Episode VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Hillberry, Logan E.; Rall, Patrick; Halpern, Nicole Yunger; Bao, Ning; Montangero, Simone

    2016-05-01

    There are now over 150 quantum simulators or analog quantum computers worldwide. Although exploring quantum phase transitions, many-body localization, and the generalized Gibbs ensemble are exciting and worthwhile endeavors, there are totally untapped directions we have not yet pursued. One of these is quantum cellular automata. In the past a principal goal of quantum cellular automata was to reproduce continuum single particle quantum physics such as the Schrodinger or Dirac equation from simple rule sets. Now that we begin to really understand entanglement and many-body quantum physics at a deeper level, quantum cellular automata present new possibilities. We explore several time evolution schemes on simple spin chains leading to high degrees of quantum complexity and nontrivial quantum dynamics. We explain how the 256 known classical elementary cellular automata reduce to just a few exciting quantum cases. Our analysis tools include mutual information based complex networks as well as more familiar quantifiers like sound speed and diffusion rate. Funded by NSF and AFOSR.

  12. Cellular Automata on Graphs: Topological Properties of ER Graphs Evolved towards Low-Entropy Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Thorsten Hütt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular automata (CA are a remarkably  efficient tool for exploring general properties of complex systems and spatiotemporal patterns arising from local rules. Totalistic cellular automata,  where the update  rules depend  only on the density of neighboring states, are at the same time a versatile  tool for exploring  dynamical  processes on graphs. Here we briefly review our previous results on cellular automata on graphs, emphasizing some systematic relationships between network architecture and dynamics identified in this way. We then extend the investigation  towards graphs obtained in a simulated-evolution procedure, starting from Erdő s–Rényi (ER graphs and selecting for low entropies of the CA dynamics. Our key result is a strong association of low Shannon entropies with a broadening of the graph’s degree distribution.

  13. Combinatorial approaches to evaluate nanodiamond uptake and induced cellular fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldawud, Reem; Reitzig, Manuela; Opitz, Jörg; Rojansakul, Yon; Jiang, Wenjuan; Nangia, Shikha; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica

    2016-02-26

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are an emerging class of engineered nanomaterials that hold great promise for the next generation of bionanotechnological products to be used for drug and gene delivery, or for bio-imaging and biosensing. Previous studies have shown that upon their cellular uptake, NDs exhibit high biocompatibility in various in vitro and in vivo set-ups. Herein we hypothesized that the increased NDs biocompatibility is a result of minimum membrane perturbations and their reduced ability to induce disruption or damage during cellular translocation. Using multi-scale combinatorial approaches that simulate ND-membrane interactions, we correlated NDs real-time cellular uptake and kinetics with the ND-induced membrane fluctuations to derive energy requirements for the uptake to occur. Our discrete and real-time analyses showed that the majority of NDs internalization occurs within 2 h of cellular exposure, however, with no effects on cellular viability, proliferation or cellular behavior. Furthermore, our simulation analyses using coarse-grained models identified key changes in the energy profile, membrane deformation and recovery time, all functions of the average ND or ND-based agglomerate size. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for ND-cell membrane interactions could possibly advance their implementation in various biomedical applications.

  14. Combinatorial approaches to evaluate nanodiamond uptake and induced cellular fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldawud, Reem; Reitzig, Manuela; Opitz, Jörg; Rojansakul, Yon; Jiang, Wenjuan; Nangia, Shikha; Zoica Dinu, Cerasela

    2016-02-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are an emerging class of engineered nanomaterials that hold great promise for the next generation of bionanotechnological products to be used for drug and gene delivery, or for bio-imaging and biosensing. Previous studies have shown that upon their cellular uptake, NDs exhibit high biocompatibility in various in vitro and in vivo set-ups. Herein we hypothesized that the increased NDs biocompatibility is a result of minimum membrane perturbations and their reduced ability to induce disruption or damage during cellular translocation. Using multi-scale combinatorial approaches that simulate ND-membrane interactions, we correlated NDs real-time cellular uptake and kinetics with the ND-induced membrane fluctuations to derive energy requirements for the uptake to occur. Our discrete and real-time analyses showed that the majority of NDs internalization occurs within 2 h of cellular exposure, however, with no effects on cellular viability, proliferation or cellular behavior. Furthermore, our simulation analyses using coarse-grained models identified key changes in the energy profile, membrane deformation and recovery time, all functions of the average ND or ND-based agglomerate size. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for ND-cell membrane interactions could possibly advance their implementation in various biomedical applications.

  15. Rule-based semantic web services matching strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Wang, Zhihua

    2011-12-01

    With the development of Web services technology, the number of service increases rapidly, and it becomes a challenge task that how to efficiently discovery the services that exactly match the user's requirements from the large scale of services library. Many semantic Web services discovery technologies proposed by the recent literatures only focus on the keyword-based or primary semantic based service's matching. This paper studies the rules and rule reasoning based service matching algorithm in the background of large scale services library. Firstly, the formal descriptions of semantic web services and service matching is presented. The services' matching are divided into four levels: Exact, Plugin, Subsume and Fail and their formal descriptions are also presented. Then, the service matching is regarded as rule-based reasoning issues. A set of match rules are firstly given and the related services set is retrieved from services ontology base through rule-based reasoning, and their matching levels are determined by distinguishing the relationships between service's I/O and user's request I/O. Finally, the experiment based on two services sets show that the proposed services matching strategy can easily implement the smart service discovery and obtains the high service discovery efficiency in comparison with the traditional global traversal strategy.

  16. Only half right: species with female-biased sexual size dimorphism consistently break Rensch's rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Webb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most animal species display Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD: males and females consistently attain different sizes, most frequently with females being larger than males. However the selective mechanisms driving patterns of SSD remain controversial. 'Rensch's rule' proposes a general scaling phenomenon for all taxa, whereby SSD increases with average body size when males are larger than females, and decreases with body size when females are larger than males. Rensch's rule appears to be general in the former case, but there is little evidence for the rule when females are larger then males. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using comprehensive data for 1291 species of birds across 30 families, we find strong support for Rensch's rule in families where males are typically larger than females, but no overall support for the rule in families with female-biased SSD. Reviewing previous studies of a broad range of taxa (arthropods, reptiles, fish and birds showing predominantly female-biased SSD, we conclude that Rensch's conjecture is the exception rather than the rule in such species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The absence of consistent scaling of SSD in taxa with female-biased SSD, the most prevalent direction of dimorphism, calls into question previous general evolutionary explanations for Rensch's rule. We propose that, unlike several other ecological scaling relationships, Rensch's rule does not exist as an independent scaling phenomenon.

  17. On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao

    To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.

  18. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, MQT; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian H.;

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN(-...

  19. Microtubule-based transport -basic mechanisms, traffic rules and role in neurological pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.M. Franker (Mariella); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMicrotubule-based transport is essential for neuronal function because of the large distances that must be traveled by various building blocks and cellular materials. Recent studies in various model systems have unraveled several regulatory mechanisms and traffic rules that control the s

  20. Engineering Cellular Photocomposite Materials Using Convective Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlin D. Velev

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabricating industrial-scale photoreactive composite materials containing living cells, requires a deposition strategy that unifies colloid science and cell biology. Convective assembly can rapidly deposit suspended particles, including whole cells and waterborne latex polymer particles into thin (<10 µm thick, organized films with engineered adhesion, composition, thickness, and particle packing. These highly ordered composites can stabilize the diverse functions of photosynthetic cells for use as biophotoabsorbers, as artificial leaves for hydrogen or oxygen evolution, carbon dioxide assimilation, and add self-cleaning capabilities for releasing or digesting surface contaminants. This paper reviews the non-biological convective assembly literature, with an emphasis on how the method can be modified to deposit living cells starting from a batch process to its current state as a continuous process capable of fabricating larger multi-layer biocomposite coatings from diverse particle suspensions. Further development of this method will help solve the challenges of engineering multi-layered cellular photocomposite materials with high reactivity, stability, and robustness by clarifying how process, substrate, and particle parameters affect coating microstructure. We also describe how these methods can be used to selectively immobilize photosynthetic cells to create biomimetic leaves and compare these biocomposite coatings to other cellular encapsulation systems.

  1. Exactly solvable cellular automaton traffic jam model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael J

    2006-12-01

    A detailed study is undertaken of the v{max}=1 limit of the cellular automaton traffic model proposed by Nagel and Paczuski [Phys. Rev. E 51, 2909 (1995)]. The model allows one to analyze the behavior of a traffic jam initiated in an otherwise freely flowing stream of traffic. By mapping onto a discrete-time queueing system, itself related to various problems encountered in lattice combinatorics, exact results are presented in relation to the jam lifetime, the maximum jam length, and the jam mass (the space-time cluster size or integrated vehicle waiting time), both in terms of the critical and the off-critical behavior. This sets existing scaling results in their natural context and also provides several other interesting results in addition.

  2. A Vector-based Cellular Automata Model for Simulating Urban Land Use Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi; CAO Min; ZHANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    Cellular Automata (CA) is widely used for the simulation of land use changes.This study applied a vector-based CA model to simulate land use change in order to minimize or eliminate the scale sensitivity in traditional raster-based CA model.The cells of vector-based CA model are presented according to the shapes and attributes of geographic entities,and the transition rules of vector-based CA model are improved by taking spatial variables of the study area into consideration.The vector-based CA model is applied to simulate land use changes in downtown of Qidong City,Jiangsu Province,China and its validation is confirmed by the methods of visual assessment and spatial accuracy.The simulation result of vector-based CA model reveals that nearly 75% of newly increased urban cells are located in the northwest and southwest parts of the study area from 2002 to 2007,which is in consistent with real land use map.In addition,the simulation results of the vector-based and raster-based CA models are compared to real land use data and their spatial accuracies are found to be 84.0% and 81.9%,respectively.In conclusion,results from this study indicate that the vector-based CA model is a practical and applicable method for the simulation of urbanization processes.

  3. Universality Class in Abelian Sandpile Models with Stochastic Toppling Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We present a stochastic critical slope sandpile model, where the amount of grains that fall in an overturning event is stochastic variable. The model is local, conservative, and Abelian. We apply the moment analysis to evaluate critical exponents and finite size scaling method to consistently test the obtained results. Numerical results show that this model, Oslo model, and one-dimensional Abelian Manna model have the same critical behavior although the three models have different stochastic toppling rules, which provides evidences suggesting that Abelian sandpile models with different stochastic toppling rules are in the same universality class.

  4. 75 FR 66709 - Commercial Radio Operators Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 13, 80, and 87 Commercial Radio Operators Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications... within the commercial radio operators service, to determine which rules can be clarified, streamlined, or... proceeding to amend the Commercial Radio Operators rules, and related rules in parts 0, 1, 80, and...

  5. Inferring comprehensible business/ICT alignment rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumps, B.; Martens, D.; De Backer, M.; Haesen, R.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Baesens, B.; Snoeck, M.

    2009-01-01

    We inferred business rules for business/ICT alignment by applying a novel rule induction algorithm on a data set containing rich alignment information polled from 641 organisations in 7 European countries. The alignment rule set was created using AntMiner+, a rule induction technique with a reputati

  6. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and... Disclosure Form, available at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/workshops/bizopps/disclosure-form-report.pdf . ``Original Franchise Rule'' refers to the original Franchise Rule published at 43 FR 59614 (Dec. 21,...

  7. A Pieri rule for skew shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Sami; Lam, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The Pieri rule expresses the product of a Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of Schur functions. We extend the classical Pieri rule by expressing the product of a skew Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of skew Schur functions. Like the classical rule, our rule involves simple additions of boxes to the original skew shape.

  8. Evaluation of Rule Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruveedula GopiKrishna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For the data mining domain, the lack of explanation facilities seems to be a serious drawback for techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks, or, for that matter, any technique producing opaque models In particular, the ability to generate even limited explanations is absolutely crucial for user acceptance of such systems. Since the purpose of most data mining systems is to support decision making,the need for explanation facilities in these systems is apparent. The task for the data miner is thus to identify the complex but general relationships that are likely to carry over to production data and the explanation facility makes this easier. Also focused the quality of the extracted rules; i.e. how well the required explanation is performed. In this research some important rule extraction algorithms are discussed and identified the algorithmic complexity; i.e. how efficient the underlying rule extraction algorithm is

  9. Integration Rules for Scattering Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bourjaily, Jacob L; Damgaard, Poul H

    2015-01-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any M\\"obius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  10. Integration rules for scattering equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-09-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints fo any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  11. Simulation of abrasive water jet cutting process: Part 2. Cellular automata approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbanic, Henri; Junkar, Mihael

    2004-11-01

    A new two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model for the simulation of the abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting process is presented. The CA calculates the shape of the cutting front, which can be used as an estimation of the surface quality. The cutting front is formed based on material removal rules and AWJ propagation rules. The material removal rule calculates when a particular part of the material will be removed with regard to the energy of AWJ. The AWJ propagation rule calculates the distribution of AWJ energy through CA by using a weighted average. The modelling with CA also provides a visual narrative of the moving of the cutting front, which is hard to observe in real process. The algorithm is fast and has been successfully tested in comparison to cutting fronts obtained with cutting experiments of aluminium alloy.

  12. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  13. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  14. Bilinearity, rules, and prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans can be instructed verbally to perform computationally complex cognitive tasks; their performance then improves relatively slowly over the course of practice. Many skills underlie these abilities; in this paper, we focus on the particular question of a uniform architecture for the instantiation of habitual performance and the storage, recall, and execution of simple rules. Our account builds on models of gated working memory, and involves a bilinear architecture for representing conditional input-output maps and for matching rules to the state of the input and working memory. We demonstrate the performance of our model on two paradigmatic tasks used to investigate prefrontal and basal ganglia function.

  15. Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Gershenfeld, Neil

    2013-09-13

    We introduce composite materials made by reversibly assembling a three-dimensional lattice of mass-produced carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite parts with integrated mechanical interlocking connections. The resulting cellular composite materials can respond as an elastic solid with an extremely large measured modulus for an ultralight material (12.3 megapascals at a density of 7.2 milligrams per cubic centimeter). These materials offer a hierarchical decomposition in modeling, with bulk properties that can be predicted from component measurements and deformation modes that can be determined by the placement of part types. Because site locations are locally constrained, structures can be produced in a relative assembly process that merges desirable features of fiber composites, cellular materials, and additive manufacturing.

  16. Glycosylation regulates prestin cellular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Lavanya; Organ-Darling, Louise E; Liu, Haiying; Davidson, Amy L; Raphael, Robert M; Brownell, William E; Pereira, Fred A

    2010-03-01

    Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins and is implicated in a variety of cellular functions including protein folding, degradation, sorting and trafficking, and membrane protein recycling. The membrane protein prestin is an essential component of the membrane-based motor driving electromotility changes (electromotility) in the outer hair cell (OHC), a central process in auditory transduction. Prestin was earlier identified to possess two N-glycosylation sites (N163, N166) that, when mutated, marginally affect prestin nonlinear capacitance (NLC) function in cultured cells. Here, we show that the double mutant prestin(NN163/166AA) is not glycosylated and shows the expected NLC properties in the untreated and cholesterol-depleted HEK 293 cell model. In addition, unlike WT prestin that readily forms oligomers, prestin(NN163/166AA) is enriched as monomers and more mobile in the plasma membrane, suggesting that oligomerization of prestin is dependent on glycosylation but is not essential for the generation of NLC in HEK 293 cells. However, in the presence of increased membrane cholesterol, unlike the hyperpolarizing shift in NLC seen with WT prestin, cells expressing prestin(NN163/166AA) exhibit a linear capacitance function. In an attempt to explain this finding, we discovered that both WT prestin and prestin(NN163/166AA) participate in cholesterol-dependent cellular trafficking. In contrast to WT prestin, prestin(NN163/166AA) shows a significant cholesterol-dependent decrease in cell-surface expression, which may explain the loss of NLC function. Based on our observations, we conclude that glycosylation regulates self-association and cellular trafficking of prestin(NN163/166AA). These observations are the first to implicate a regulatory role for cellular trafficking and sorting in prestin function. We speculate that the cholesterol regulation of prestin occurs through localization to and internalization from membrane microdomains by

  17. Stochastic Nature in Cellular Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 刘圣君; 王祺; 晏世伟; 耿轶钊; SAKATA Fumihiko; GAO Xing-Fa

    2011-01-01

    The importance of stochasticity in cellular processes is increasingly recognized in both theoretical and experimental studies. General features of stochasticity in gene regulation and expression are briefly reviewed in this article, which include the main experimental phenomena, classification, quantization and regulation of noises. The correlation and transmission of noise in cascade networks are analyzed further and the stochastic simulation methods that can capture effects of intrinsic and extrinsic noise are described.

  18. Cellular fiber–reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Isachenko S.; Kodzoev M.

    2016-01-01

    Methods disperse reinforcement of concrete matrix using polypropylene, glass, basalt and metal fibers allows to make the construction of complex configuration, solve the problem of frost products. Dispersed reinforcement reduces the overall weight of the structures. The fiber replaces the secondary reinforcement, reducing the volume of use of structural steel reinforcement. Cellular Fiber concretes are characterized by high-performance properties, especially increased bending strength and...

  19. CELLULAR INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY GLYCONECTIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, O.; Sumanovski, L. T.; I. Checiu; Elisabeta Popescu; G. N. Misevic

    1999-01-01

    Cellular interactions involve many types of cell surface molecules and operate via homophilic and/or heterophilic protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate binding. Our investigations in different model-systems (marine invertebrates and mammals) have provided direct evidence that a novel class of primordial proteoglycans, named by us gliconectins, can mediate cell adhesion via a new alternative molecular mechanism of polyvalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate binding. Biochemical characterization of...

  20. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  1. The insect cellular immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R. Strand

    2008-01-01

    The innate immune system of insects is divided into humoral defenses that include the production of soluble effector molecules and cellular defenses like phagocytosis and encapsulation that are mediated by hemocytes. This review summarizes current understanding of the cellular immune response. Insects produce several terminally differentiated types of hemocytes that are distinguished by morphology, molecular and antigenic markers, and function. The differentiated hemocytes that circulate in larval or nymphal stage insects arise from two sources: progenitor cells produced during embryogenesis and mesodermally derived hematopoietic organs. Regulation of hematopoiesis and hemocyte differentiation also involves several different signaling pathways. Phagocytosis and encapsulation require that hemocytes first recognize a given target as foreign followed by activation of downstream signaling and effector responses. A number of humoral and cellular receptors have been identified that recognize different microbes and multicellular parasites. In turn, activation of these receptors stimulates a number of signaling pathways that regulate different hemocyte functions. Recent studies also identify hemocytes as important sources of a number of humoral effector molecules required for killing different foreign invaders.

  2. Progress of cellular dedifferentiation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hu-xian; HU Da-hai; JIA Chi-yu; FU Xiao-bing

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation, the stepwise specialization of cells, and transdifferentiation, the apparent switching of one cell type into another, capture much of the stem cell spotlight. But dedifferentiation, the developmental reversal of a cell before it reinvents itself, is an important process too. In multicellular organisms, cellular dedifferentiation is the major process underlying totipotency, regeneration and formation of new stem cell lineages. In humans,dedifferentiation is often associated with carcinogenesis.The study of cellular dedifferentiation in animals,particularly early events related to cell fate-switch and determination, is limited by the lack of a suitable,convenient experimental system. The classic example of dedifferentiation is limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians, such as salamanders. Recently, several investigators have shown that certain mammalian cell types can be induced to dedifferentiate to progenitor cells when stimulated with the appropriate signals or materials. These discoveries open the possibility that researchers might enhance the endogenous regenerative capacity of mammals by inducing cellular dedifferentiation in vivo.

  3. TEDxCERN breaks the rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.   TEDxCERN broke all the rules this year - starting with its choice of venue. The CMS construction hall at Point 5 was converted into a gala-centre, complete with soundstage and dance floor. It was a stunning transformation that also brought to life the hall’s to-scale photo of the CMS detector. The image served as the back-drop to a light-projection show entitled “Turbulence” by artist François Moncarey (see the video). From star-singer Imogen Heap to CERN’s own Edda Gschwendtner, the line-up of speakers was as diverse as it was educational. They discussed using tangible interfaces that allow human interaction via e-devices and the potential of 3D technology as a means of revo...

  4. Ruling the Remoteness of Associates and Kin Using Cellular Phone with Latitude Radius Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pughazendi.N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available LBS are the mobile services in which the user location information is used to provide a service. Providing Location Based Service (LBS using Global Positioning System (GPS as a location provider. Themain objective of this work is to design and implement a client server system that helps users to locate their family members and receive alerts when friends are nearby. The server was implemented using JSP since JSP guarantees that the server would not be overloaded. The type of the Database used in the system was Oracle10g. The average location accuracy of the application is about couple of meters .It was developed mainly to be used in navigation systems. Because of the reduction in the size of the GPS receivers and because of the integration of GPS with some mobiles; GPS became one of the most important service providers in the LBS. The main objective of this work is to design and implement a client server system that helpsusers to locate their family members and receive alerts when friends are nearby.

  5. Characterization of the Evolution of Nonlinear Uniform Cellular Automata in the Light of Deviant States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabitra Pal Choudhury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of a nonlinear cellular automaton (CA is, in general asymmetric, irregular, and unpredictable as opposed to that of a linear CA, which is highly systematic and tractable, primarily due to the presence of a matrix handle. In this paper, we present a novel technique of studying the properties of the State Transition Diagram of a nonlinear uniform one-dimensional cellular automaton in terms of its deviation from a suggested linear model. We have considered mainly elementary cellular automata with neighborhood of size three, and, in order to facilitate our analysis, we have classified the Boolean functions of three variables on the basis of number and position(s of bit mismatch with linear rules. The concept of deviant and nondeviant states is introduced, and hence an algorithm is proposed for deducing the State Transition Diagram of a nonlinear CA rule from that of its nearest linear rule. A parameter called the proportion of deviant states is introduced, and its dependence on the length of the CA is studied for a particular class of nonlinear rules.

  6. Water, infrastructure and political rule: Introduction to the special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Obertreis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article sets the scene for this special issue on water, infrastructure and political rule. It makes the case for revisiting the complex relationships between these three dimensions which have fascinated scholars since Wittfogel’s pioneering – if much criticised – work on causal links between large-scale irrigation systems and autocratic leadership. Scholarship on water, on infrastructure, as well as on political rule has made huge advances since Wittfogel’s days, requiring a wholesome reappraisal of their triangular relationship. In this article, we review the relevant advances in scientific knowledge and epistemological approaches on each dimension. We subsequently summarise the different ways in which each of the following papers takes up and interrogates the relationship between water, infrastructure and political rule prior to the final paper which synthesises the principal findings emerging from the special issue.

  7. On the Predictivity of Neutrino Mass Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrlein, Julia; Spinrath, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Correlations between light neutrino observables are arguably the strongest predictions of lepton flavour models based on (discrete) symmetries, except for the very few cases which unambiguously predict the full set of leptonic mixing angles. A subclass of these correlations are neutrino mass sum rules, which connect the three (complex) light neutrino mass eigenvalues among each other. This connection constrains both the light neutrino mass scale and the Majorana phases, so that mass sum rules generically lead to a non-zero value of the lightest neutrino mass and to distinct predictions for the effective mass probed in neutrinoless double beta decay. However, in nearly all cases known, the neutrino mass sum rules are not exact and receive corrections from various sources. We introduce a formalism to handle these corrections perturbatively in a model-independent manner, which overcomes issues present in earlier approaches. Our ansatz allows us to quantify the modification of the predictions derived from neutrin...

  8. A Computational Model of Cellular Engraftment on Lung Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Pothen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility that stem cells might be used to regenerate tissue is now being investigated for a variety of organs, but these investigations are still essentially exploratory and have few predictive tools available to guide experimentation. We propose, in this study, that the field of lung tissue regeneration might be better served by predictive tools that treat stem cells as agents that obey certain rules of behavior governed by both their phenotype and their environment. Sufficient knowledge of these rules of behavior would then, in principle, allow lung tissue development to be simulated computationally. Toward this end, we developed a simple agent-based computational model to simulate geographic patterns of cells seeded onto a lung scaffold. Comparison of the simulated patterns to those observed experimentally supports the hypothesis that mesenchymal stem cells proliferate preferentially toward the scaffold boundary, whereas alveolar epithelial cells do not. This demonstrates that a computational model of this type has the potential to assist in the discovery of rules of cellular behavior

  9. Color image encryption based on hybrid hyper-chaotic system and cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghouti Niyat, Abolfazl; Moattar, Mohammad Hossein; Niazi Torshiz, Masood

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes an image encryption scheme based on Cellular Automata (CA). CA is a self-organizing structure with a set of cells in which each cell is updated by certain rules that are dependent on a limited number of neighboring cells. The major disadvantages of cellular automata in cryptography include limited number of reversal rules and inability to produce long sequences of states by these rules. In this paper, a non-uniform cellular automata framework is proposed to solve this problem. This proposed scheme consists of confusion and diffusion steps. In confusion step, the positions of the original image pixels are replaced by chaos mapping. Key image is created using non-uniform cellular automata and then the hyper-chaotic mapping is used to select random numbers from the image key for encryption. The main contribution of the paper is the application of hyper chaotic functions and non-uniform CA for robust key image generation. Security analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method has a very large key space and is resistive against noise and attacks. The correlation between adjacent pixels in the encrypted image is reduced and the amount of entropy is equal to 7.9991 which is very close to 8 which is ideal.

  10. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  11. Introduction to QCD Sum Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, C. A.

    2013-08-01

    A general, and very basic introduction to QCD sum rules is presented, with emphasis on recent issues to be described at length in other papers in this issue. Collectively, these papers constitute the proceedings of the International Workshop on Determination of the Fundamental Parameters of QCD, Singapore, March 2013.

  12. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard econo

  13. Numerical simulation of Mach reflection of cellular detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Lee, J. H. S.

    2016-09-01

    The Mach reflection of cellular detonation waves on a wedge is investigated numerically in an attempt to elucidate the effect of cellular instabilities on Mach reflection, the dependence of self-similarity on the thickness of a detonation wave, and the initial development of the Mach stem near the wedge apex. A two-step chain-branching reaction model is used to give a thermally neutral induction zone followed by a chemical reaction zone for the detonation wave. A sufficiently large distance of travel of the Mach stem is computed to observe the asymptotic behavior in the far field. Depending on the scale at which the Mach reflection process occurs, it is found that the Mach reflection of a cellular detonation behaves essentially in the same way as a planar ZND detonation wave. The cellular instabilities, however, cause the triple-point trajectory to fluctuate. The fluctuations are due to interactions of the triple point of the Mach stem with the transverse waves of cellular instabilities. In the vicinity of the wedge apex, the Mach reflection is found to be self-similar and corresponds to that of a shock wave of the same strength, since the Mach stem is highly overdriven initially. In the far field, the triple-point trajectory approaches a straight line, indicating that the Mach reflection becomes self-similar asymptotically. The distance of the approach to self-similarity is found to decrease rapidly with decreasing thickness of the detonation front.

  14. Intermolecular potential parameters and combining rules determined from viscosity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, Lucas A.J.; Price, Phillip N.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2010-05-07

    The Law of Corresponding States has been demonstrated for a number of pure substances and binary mixtures, and provides evidence that the transport properties viscosity and diffusion can be determined from a molecular shape function, often taken to be a Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential, that requires two scaling parameters: a well depth {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and a collision diameter {sigma}{sub ij}, both of which depend on the interacting species i and j. We obtain estimates for {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and {sigma}{sub ij} of interacting species by finding the values that provide the best fit to viscosity data for binary mixtures, and compare these to calculated parameters using several 'combining rules' that have been suggested for determining parameter values for binary collisions from parameter values that describe collisions of like molecules. Different combining rules give different values for {sigma}{sub ij} and {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and for some mixtures the differences between these values and the best-fit parameter values are rather large. There is a curve in ({var_epsilon}{sub ij}, {sigma}{sub ij}) space such that parameter values on the curve generate a calculated viscosity in good agreement with measurements for a pure gas or a binary mixture. The various combining rules produce couples of parameters {var_epsilon}{sub ij}, {sigma}{sub ij} that lie close to the curve and therefore generate predicted mixture viscosities in satisfactory agreement with experiment. Although the combining rules were found to underpredict the viscosity in most of the cases, Kong's rule was found to work better than the others, but none of the combining rules consistently yields parameter values near the best-fit values, suggesting that improved rules could be developed.

  15. Controlling False Positives in Association Rule Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guimei; Wong, Limsoon

    2011-01-01

    Association rule mining is an important problem in the data mining area. It enumerates and tests a large number of rules on a dataset and outputs rules that satisfy user-specified constraints. Due to the large number of rules being tested, rules that do not represent real systematic effect in the data can satisfy the given constraints purely by random chance. Hence association rule mining often suffers from a high risk of false positive errors. There is a lack of comprehensive study on controlling false positives in association rule mining. In this paper, we adopt three multiple testing correction approaches---the direct adjustment approach, the permutation-based approach and the holdout approach---to control false positives in association rule mining, and conduct extensive experiments to study their performance. Our results show that (1) Numerous spurious rules are generated if no correction is made. (2) The three approaches can control false positives effectively. Among the three approaches, the permutation...

  16. QCD sum rule studies at finite density and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Youngshin

    2010-01-21

    In-medium modifications of hadronic properties have a strong connection to the restoration of chiral symmetry in hot and/or dense medium. The in-medium spectral functions for vector and axial-vector mesons are of particular interest in this context, considering the experimental dilepton production data which signal the in-medium meson properties. In this thesis, finite energy sum rules are employed to set constraints for the in-medium spectral functions of vector and axial-vector mesons. Finite energy sum rules for the first two moments of the spectral functions are investigated with emphasis on the role of a scale parameter related to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. It is demonstrated that these lowest moments of vector current spectral functions do permit an accurate sum rule analysis with controlled inputs, such as the QCD condensates of lowest dimensions. In contrast, the higher moments contain uncertainties from the higher dimensional condensates. It turns out that the factorization approximation for the four-quark condensate is not applicable in any of the cases studied in this work. The accurate sum rules for the lowest two moments of the spectral functions are used to clarify and classify the properties of vector meson spectral functions in a nuclear medium. Possible connections with the Brown-Rho scaling hypothesis are also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Decay Constants of Beauty Mesons from QCD Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Simula, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    Our recently completed analysis of the decay constants of both pseudoscalar and vector beauty mesons reveals that in the bottom-quark sector two specific features of the sum-rule predictions show up: (i) For the input value of the bottom-quark mass in the $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ scheme $\\overline{m}_b(\\overline{m}_b)\\approx4.18\\;\\mbox{GeV},$ the sum-rule result $f_B\\approx210$-$220\\;\\mbox{MeV}$ for the $B$ meson decay constant is substantially larger than the recent lattice-QCD finding $f_B\\approx190\\;\\mbox{MeV}.$ Requiring QCD sum rules to reproduce the lattice-QCD value of $f_B$ yields a significantly larger $b$-quark mass: $\\overline{m}_b(\\overline{m}_b)=4.247\\;\\mbox{GeV}.$ (ii) Whereas QCD sum-rule predictions for the charmed-meson decay constants $f_D,$ $f_{D_s},$ $f_{D^*}$ and $f_{D_s^*}$ are practically independent of the choice of renormalization scale, in the beauty sector the results for the decay constants - and especially for the ratio $f_{B^*}/f_B$ - prove to be very sensitive to the specific scale s...

  18. Decay Constants of Beauty Mesons from QCD Sum Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucha Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our recently completed analysis of the decay constants of both pseudoscalar and vector beauty mesons reveals that in the bottom-quark sector two specific features of the sum-rule predictions show up: (i For the input value of the bottom-quark mass in the M̅S̅ scheme m̅b(m̅b ≈ 4:18 GeV; the sum-rule result fB ≈ 210–220 MeV for the B meson decay constant is substantially larger than the recent lattice-QCD finding fB ≈ 190 MeV: Requiring QCD sum rules to reproduce the lattice-QCD value of fB yields a significantly larger b-quark mass: m̅b(m̅b = 4:247 GeV: (ii Whereas QCD sum-rule predictions for the charmed-meson decay constants fD; fDs, fD* and fDs* are practically independent of the choice of renormalization scale, in the beauty sector the results for the decay constants—and especially for the ratio fB* / fB—prove to be very sensitive to the specific scale setting.

  19. ML-Space: Hybrid Spatial Gillespie and Particle Simulation of Multi-level Rule-based Models in Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittig, Arne; Uhrmacher, Adelinde

    2016-08-03

    Spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular processes can be simulated at different levels of detail, from (deterministic) partial differential equations via the spatial Stochastic Simulation algorithm to tracking Brownian trajectories of individual particles. We present a spatial simulation approach for multi-level rule-based models, which includes dynamically hierarchically nested cellular compartments and entities. Our approach ML-Space combines discrete compartmental dynamics, stochastic spatial approaches in discrete space, and particles moving in continuous space. The rule-based specification language of ML-Space supports concise and compact descriptions of models and to adapt the spatial resolution of models easily.

  20. Cellular immune responses to HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Andrew J.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2001-04-01

    The cellular immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus, mediated by T lymphocytes, seems strong but fails to control the infection completely. In most virus infections, T cells either eliminate the virus or suppress it indefinitely as a harmless, persisting infection. But the human immunodeficiency virus undermines this control by infecting key immune cells, thereby impairing the response of both the infected CD4+ T cells and the uninfected CD8+ T cells. The failure of the latter to function efficiently facilitates the escape of virus from immune control and the collapse of the whole immune system.

  1. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in rat...... pancreatic alpha-cells and somatotrophs. We found a pharmacological dissociation between the actions on KATP channels and exocytosis and suggest that compounds that, unlike repaglinide, have direct stimulatory effects on exocytosis in somatotrophs and alpha- and beta-cells, such as sulphonylureas...

  2. Game of Life Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s, British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells' states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway's Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational

  3. Cellular automata a parallel model

    CERN Document Server

    Mazoyer, J

    1999-01-01

    Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.

  4. ING proteins in cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Camino; Abad, María; Gómez-Cabello, Daniel; Moreno, Alberto; Palmero, Ignacio

    2009-05-01

    Cellular senescence is an effective anti-tumor barrier that acts by restraining the uncontrolled proliferation of cells carrying potentially oncogenic alterations. ING proteins are putative tumor suppressor proteins functionally linked to the p53 pathway and to chromatin regulation. ING proteins exert their tumor-protective action through different types of responses. Here, we review the evidence on the participation of ING proteins, mainly ING1 and ING2, in the implementation of the senescent response. The currently available data support an important role of ING proteins as regulators of senescence, in connection with the p53 pathway and chromatin organization.

  5. Cellular Analogs of Operant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-31

    ing of single units can be demonstrated, does such a cellular subset of neighboring pyramidal cells and interneurons as well as process contribute...excite dopamine neurons by -hyperpolarization of local interneurons . J. Neurosci. 12:483-488; 1992. Kosterlitz, H. W. Biosynthesis of morphine in the...II 197 1 1 ocation preltereite iindiis- HOIdlod VA. artdo \\M I . \\.ill I ’’’’i i R i l’)89) ( pioid mediationl lserilI1 reintoree-Cd bK amlphetcamine

  6. 5G Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xiaohu; Tu, Song; Mao, Guoqiang; Wang, Cheng-xiang; Han, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Traditional ultra-dense wireless networks are recommended as a complement for cellular networks and are deployed in partial areas, such as hotspot and indoor scenarios. Based on the massive multiple-input multi-output (MIMO) antennas and the millimeter wavecommunication technologies, the 5G ultra-dense cellular network is proposed to deploy in overall cellular scenarios. Moreover, a distribution network architecture is presented for 5G ultra-dense cellular networks. Furthermore, the backhaul ...

  7. Control of Cellular Structural Networks Through Unstructured Protein Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    structural and mechanical networks in cells. The research plan seeks to determine the role of molecular­scale steric forces on the assembly, mechanics...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 01-07-2016 1-Oct-2009 30-Sep-2015 Final Report: WHITEPAPER; Research Area 8; Control of cellular structural networks ...any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggesstions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate

  8. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Massone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria. Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  9. Cellular functions of the microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Sara; Cordiner, Ross A; Cáceres, Javier F

    2013-08-01

    The microprocessor is a complex comprising the RNase III enzyme Drosha and the double-stranded RNA-binding protein DGCR8 (DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 gene) that catalyses the nuclear step of miRNA (microRNA) biogenesis. DGCR8 recognizes the RNA substrate, whereas Drosha functions as an endonuclease. Recent global analyses of microprocessor and Dicer proteins have suggested novel functions for these components independent of their role in miRNA biogenesis. A HITS-CLIP (high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation) experiment designed to identify novel substrates of the microprocessor revealed that this complex binds and regulates a large variety of cellular RNAs. The microprocessor-mediated cleavage of several classes of RNAs not only regulates transcript levels, but also modulates alternative splicing events, independently of miRNA function. Importantly, DGCR8 can also associate with other nucleases, suggesting the existence of alternative DGCR8 complexes that may regulate the fate of a subset of cellular RNAs. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of the diverse functional roles of the microprocessor.

  10. Cellular automata modelling of SEIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Quan-Xing; Jin Zhen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the SEIRS epidemic spread is analysed, and a two-dimensional probability cellular automata model for SEIRS is presented. Each cellular automation cell represents a part of the population that may be found in one of five states of individuals: susceptible, exposed (or latency), infected, immunized (or recovered) and death. Here studied are the effects of two cases on the epidemic spread. i.e. the effects of non-segregation and segregation on the latency and the infected of population. The conclusion is reached that the epidemic will persist in the case of non-segregation but it will decrease in the case of segregation. The proposed model can serve as a basis for the development of algorithms to simulate real epidemics based on real data. Last we find the density series of the exposed and the infected will fluctuate near a positive equilibrium point, when the constant for the immunized is less than its corresponding constant τ0. Our theoretical results are verified by numerical simulations.

  11. On the Fermi Golden Rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    We review and further develop the framework in [9] of the stationary theory of resonances, arising by perturbation of either threshold, or embedded in the continuum, eigenvalues. While in [9] only non/degenerate eigenvalues were considered, here we add some results for the degenerate case. [9] A........ Jensen and G. Nenciu, The Fermi Golden Rule and its form at thresholds in odd dimensions. Comm. Math. Phys 261 (2006), 693-727...

  12. Decision Rules for Enhanced Breakout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-20

    347AD-A18 2753 DECISION RULES FOR ENHANCED GRERICOUT(U) MODERN TECNOLOGIES CORP DAYTON 0ON T MI MCCANN 20 MAR 87 MTC-TR-8883-02 BRMC-85-564-i F33615... information to develop a priori estimates of the cost to break-out specific spare parts. In addition, some recommendations were to be developed...implementing directives. Applicable AF and AFLC Regulations and Pamphlets were also reviewed to obtain information on costs and their estimated

  13. THE EFFECTS OF PRELIMINARY RULINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Mădălina LARION

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the effects of the preliminary rulings rendered by the Court of Justice for the judicial body that made the reference and for other bodies dealing with similar cases, for the member states, for the European Union’ s institutions and for EU legal order. Starting from the binding effect of the preliminary judgment for national judicial bodies, which requires them to follow the ruling or make a new reference, to the lack of precedent doctrine in EU law, continuing with the possibility to indirectly verify the compatibility of national law of the member states with EU law and ending with the administrative or legislative measures that can or must be taken by the member states, the study intends to highlight the limits, nuances and consequences of the binding effect. It mentions the contribution of the national courts and of the Court of Justice of the European Union to the development of EU law, such as clarifying autonomous notions and it emphasizes the preliminary procedure's attributes of being a form of judicial protection of individual rights, as well as a means to review the legality of acts of EU institutions. The paper is meant to be a useful instrument for practitioners. Therefor, it also deals with the possibility and limits of asking new questions, in order to obtain reconsideration or a refinement of the legal issue and with the problem of judicial control over the interpretation and application of the preliminary ruling by the lower court.

  14. Cellular reprogramming for understanding and treating human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riya Rajan Kanherkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades we have witnessed a paradigm shift in our understanding of cells so radical that it has rewritten the rules of biology. The study of cellular reprogramming has gone from little more than a hypothesis, to applied bioengineering, with the creation of a variety of important cell types. By way of metaphor, we can compare the discovery of reprogramming with the archaeological discovery of the Rosetta stone. This stone slab made possible the initial decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics because it allowed us to see this language in a way that was previously impossible. We propose that cellular reprogramming will have an equally profound impact on understanding and curing human disease, because it allows us to perceive and study molecular biological processes such as differentiation, epigenetics, and chromatin in ways that were likewise previously impossible. Stem cells could be called cellular Rosetta stones because they allow also us to perceive the connections between development, disease, cancer, aging, and regeneration in novel ways. Here we present a comprehensive historical review of stem cells and cellular reprogramming, and illustrate the developing synergy between many previously unconnected fields. We show how stem cells can be used to create in vitro models of human disease and provide examples of how reprogramming is being used to study and treat such diverse diseases as cancer, aging and accelerated aging syndromes, infectious diseases such as AIDS, and epigenetic diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. While the technology of reprogramming is being developed and refined there have also been significant ongoing developments in other complementary technologies such as gene editing, progenitor cell production, and tissue engineering. These technologies are the foundations of what is becoming a fully-functional field of regenerative medicine and are converging to a point that will allow us to treat almost any

  15. Abegg, Lewis, Langmuir, and the Octet Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses major events leading to the development of the octet rule. Three conclusions based on the work of Mendeleev, Abegg, Thompson, Kossel, Lewis, and Langmuir are considered as is the debate over the rule's validity. (JN)

  16. Statistical inference of static analysis rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Dawson Richards (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Various apparatus and methods are disclosed for identifying errors in program code. Respective numbers of observances of at least one correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the at least one correctness rule are counted in the program code. Each code instance has an associated counted number of observances of the correctness rule by the code instance. Also counted are respective numbers of violations of the correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the correctness rule. Each code instance has an associated counted number of violations of the correctness rule by the code instance. A respective likelihood of the validity is determined for each code instance as a function of the counted number of observances and counted number of violations. The likelihood of validity indicates a relative likelihood that a related code instance is required to observe the correctness rule. The violations may be output in order of the likelihood of validity of a violated correctness rule.

  17. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  18. Rule-based model of vein graft remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minki Hwang

    Full Text Available When vein segments are implanted into the arterial system for use in arterial bypass grafting, adaptation to the higher pressure and flow of the arterial system is accomplished thorough wall thickening and expansion. These early remodeling events have been found to be closely coupled to the local hemodynamic forces, such as shear stress and wall tension, and are believed to be the foundation for later vein graft failure. To further our mechanistic understanding of the cellular and extracellular interactions that lead to global changes in tissue architecture, a rule-based modeling method is developed through the application of basic rules of behaviors for these molecular and cellular activities. In the current method, smooth muscle cell (SMC, extracellular matrix (ECM, and monocytes are selected as the three components that occupy the elements of a grid system that comprise the developing vein graft intima. The probabilities of the cellular behaviors are developed based on data extracted from in vivo experiments. At each time step, the various probabilities are computed and applied to the SMC and ECM elements to determine their next physical state and behavior. One- and two-dimensional models are developed to test and validate the computational approach. The importance of monocyte infiltration, and the associated effect in augmenting extracellular matrix deposition, was evaluated and found to be an important component in model development. Final model validation is performed using an independent set of experiments, where model predictions of intimal growth are evaluated against experimental data obtained from the complex geometry and shear stress patterns offered by a mid-graft focal stenosis, where simulation results show good agreements with the experimental data.

  19. Refinements of some new efficient quadrature rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, A.; Shoaib, M.; Faye, I.; Kashif, A. R.

    2016-11-01

    In the field of Engineering and Applied Mathematical Sciences, minimizing approximation error is very important task and therefore quadrature rules are investigated regularly. In this paper, using some standard results of theoretical inequalities, e.g. Ostrowski type inequality, some new efficient quadrature rules are introduced for n-times differentiable mappings. These quadrature rules are expected to give better results comparing to the conventional quadrature rules.

  20. Optimization of CHR propagation rules: extended report

    OpenAIRE

    Van Weert, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is an elegant, high-level programming language based on multi-headed, forward chaining rules. To ensure CHR propagation rules are applied at most once with the same combination of constraints, CHR implementations maintain a so-called propagation history. The performance impact of this history can be significant. We introduce several optimizations that, for the majority of CHR rules, eliminate this overhead. We formally prove their correctness, and evaluate thei...

  1. Religionsfrihed i Kina & The Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law......Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law...

  2. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  3. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  4. 31 CFR 103.85 - Issuing rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuing rulings. 103.85 Section 103.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.85 Issuing rulings. The...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3618 - Rule 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 17. 29.3618 Section 29.3618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3618 Rule 17. Any lot of tobacco which is not green but contains over...

  6. 78 FR 54566 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB03 Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission published a final rule on July 23, 2013 revising its...

  7. 16 CFR 410.1 - The Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Rule. 410.1 Section 410.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING AS TO SIZES OF VIEWABLE PICTURES SHOWN BY TELEVISION RECEIVING SETS § 410.1 The Rule. In connection with the sale of...

  8. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  9. Error Analysis of Quadrature Rules. Classroom Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    2004-01-01

    Approaches to the determination of the error in numerical quadrature rules are discussed and compared. This article considers the problem of the determination of errors in numerical quadrature rules, taking Simpson's rule as the principal example. It suggests an approach based on truncation error analysis of numerical schemes for differential…

  10. 77 FR 22200 - Rescission of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... ``Identity Theft Rules,'' 16 CFR part 681, and its rules governing ``Disposal of Consumer Report Information... agencies, creditors, and others to help remedy identity theft. The FTC issued final rules to define the terms ``identity theft'' and ``identity theft report.'' \\13\\ \\13\\ 69 FR 63922 (Nov. 3, 2004). 2. 16...

  11. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71....

  12. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible and managea

  13. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  14. Formal Semantics of Dynamic Rules in ORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, Herman; Halpin, Terry; Meersman, R; Tari, Z; Herrero, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides formal semantics for an extension of the Object-Role Modeling approach that supports declaration of dynamic rules. Dynamic rules differ from static rules by pertaining to properties of state transitions, rather than to the states themselves. In this paper we restrict application

  15. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chiarella; X.Z. He; C.H. Hommes

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type use

  16. A multiscale theoretical model for diffusive mass transfer in cellular biological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellos, George E; Alexiou, Terpsichori S; Payatakes, Alkiviades C

    2007-11-01

    An integrated methodology is developed for the theoretical analysis of solute transport and reaction in cellular biological media, such as tissues, microbial flocs, and biofilms. First, the method of local spatial averaging with a weight function is used to establish the equation which describes solute conservation at the cellular biological medium scale, starting with a continuum-based formulation of solute transport at finer spatial scales. Second, an effective-medium model is developed for the self-consistent calculation of the local diffusion coefficient in the cellular biological medium, including the effects of the structural heterogeneity of the extra-cellular space and the reversible adsorption to extra-cellular polymers. The final expression for the local effective diffusion coefficient is: D(Abeta)=lambda(beta)D(Aupsilon), where D(Aupsilon) is the diffusion coefficient in water, and lambda(beta) is a function of the composition and fundamental geometric and physicochemical system properties, including the size of solute molecules, the size of extra-cellular polymer fibers, and the mass permeability of the cell membrane. Furthermore, the analysis sheds some light on the function of the extra-cellular hydrogel as a diffusive barrier to solute molecules approaching the cell membrane, and its implications on the transport of chemotherapeutic agents within a cellular biological medium. Finally, the model predicts the qualitative trend as well as the quantitative variability of a large number of published experimental data on the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in cell-entrapping gels, microbial flocs, biofilms, and mammalian tissues.

  17. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN...... including [Cbl-OH2](+), [{Co}-CN-{cis-PtCl(NH3)2}](+), [{Re}-{Co}-CN-{cis-PtCl(NH3)2}](+), and [{Co}-CN-{trans-Pt(Cyt)(NH3)2}](2+) (Cyt = cytarabin) was high compared to neutral B12, which implied the existence of an additional internalization pathway for charged B12 vitamin analogs. The affinities...

  18. Discrete geodesics and cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamical notion of discrete geodesics, understood as straightest trajectories in discretized curved spacetime. The notion is generic, as it is formulated in terms of a general deviation function, but readily specializes to metric spaces such as discretized pseudo-riemannian manifolds. It is effective: an algorithm for computing these geodesics naturally follows, which allows numerical validation---as shown by computing the perihelion shift of a Mercury-like planet. It is consistent, in the continuum limit, with the standard notion of timelike geodesics in a pseudo-riemannian manifold. Whether the algorithm fits within the framework of cellular automata is discussed at length. KEYWORDS: Discrete connection, parallel transport, general relativity, Regge calculus.

  19. Thermomechanical characterisation of cellular rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, H.; Scheffer, T.; Diebels, S.

    2016-09-01

    This contribution discusses an experimental possibility to characterise a cellular rubber in terms of the influence of multiaxiality, rate dependency under environmental temperature and its behaviour under hydrostatic pressure. In this context, a mixed open and closed cell rubber based on an ethylene propylene diene monomer is investigated exemplarily. The present article intends to give a general idea of the characterisation method and the considerable effects of this special type of material. The main focus lies on the experimental procedure and the used testing devices in combination with the analysis methods such as true three-dimensional digital image correlation. The structural compressibility is taken into account by an approach for a material model using the Theory of Porous Media with additional temperature dependence.

  20. Cellular compartmentalization of secondary metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Corby eKistler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal secondary metabolism is often considered apart from the essential housekeeping functions of the cell. However, there are clear links between fundamental cellular metabolism and the biochemical pathways leading to secondary metabolite synthesis. Besides utilizing key biochemical precursors shared with the most essential processes of the cell (e.g. amino acids, acetyl CoA, NADPH, enzymes for secondary metabolite synthesis are compartmentalized at conserved subcellular sites that position pathway enzymes to use these common biochemical precursors. Co-compartmentalization of secondary metabolism pathway enzymes also may function to channel precursors, promote pathway efficiency and sequester pathway intermediates and products from the rest of the cell. In this review we discuss the compartmentalization of three well-studied fungal secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways for penicillin G, aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol, and summarize evidence used to infer subcellular localization. We also discuss how these metabolites potentially are trafficked within the cell and may be exported.

  1. Fundamental Limits to Cellular Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Becker, Nils B.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years experiments have demonstrated that living cells can measure low chemical concentrations with high precision, and much progress has been made in understanding what sets the fundamental limit to the precision of chemical sensing. Chemical concentration measurements start with the binding of ligand molecules to receptor proteins, which is an inherently noisy process, especially at low concentrations. The signaling networks that transmit the information on the ligand concentration from the receptors into the cell have to filter this receptor input noise as much as possible. These networks, however, are also intrinsically stochastic in nature, which means that they will also add noise to the transmitted signal. In this review, we will first discuss how the diffusive transport and binding of ligand to the receptor sets the receptor correlation time, which is the timescale over which fluctuations in the state of the receptor, arising from the stochastic receptor-ligand binding, decay. We then describe how downstream signaling pathways integrate these receptor-state fluctuations, and how the number of receptors, the receptor correlation time, and the effective integration time set by the downstream network, together impose a fundamental limit on the precision of sensing. We then discuss how cells can remove the receptor input noise while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic noise in the signaling network. We describe why this mechanism of time integration requires three classes (groups) of resources—receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, energy—and how each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit. We also briefly discuss the scheme of maximum-likelihood estimation, the role of receptor cooperativity, and how cellular copy protocols differ from canonical copy protocols typically considered in the computational literature, explaining why cellular sensing systems can never reach the Landauer limit on the optimal trade

  2. Sensor-based navigation of a mobile robot using automatically constructed fuzzy rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y.; Pin, F.G.

    1993-10-01

    A system for automatic generation of fuzzy rules is proposed which is based on a new approach, called ``Fuzzy Behaviorist,`` and on its associated formalism for rule base development in behavior-based robot control systems. The automated generator of fuzzy rules automatically constructs the set of rules and the associated membership functions that implement reasoning schemes that have been expressed in qualitative terms. The system also checks for completeness of the rule base and independence and/or redundancy of the rules to ensure that the requirements of the formalism are satisfied. Examples of the automatic generation of fuzzy rules for cases involving suppression and/or inhibition of fuzzy behaviors are given and discussed. Experimental results obtained with the automated fuzzy rule generator applied to the domain of sensor-based navigation in a priori unknown environments using one of our autonomous test-bed robots are then presented and discussed to illustrate the feasibility of large-scale automatic fuzzy rule generation using our proposed ``Fuzzy Behaviorist`` approach.

  3. Automatic generation of fuzzy rules for the sensor-based navigation of a mobile robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.; Watanabe, Y.

    1994-10-01

    A system for automatic generation of fuzzy rules is proposed which is based on a new approach, called {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist,{close_quotes} and on its associated formalism for rule base development in behavior-based robot control systems. The automated generator of fuzzy rules automatically constructs the set of rules and the associated membership functions that implement reasoning schemes that have been expressed in qualitative terms. The system also checks for completeness of the rule base and independence and/or redundancy of the rules to ensure that the requirements of the formalism are satisfied. Examples of the automatic generation of fuzzy rules for cases involving suppression and/or inhibition of fuzzy behaviors are given and discussed. Experimental results obtained with the automated fuzzy rule generator applied to the domain of sensor-based navigation in a priori unknown environments using one of our autonomous test-bed robots are then presented and discussed to illustrate the feasibility of large-scale automatic fuzzy rule generation using our proposed {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist{close_quotes} approach.

  4. Sexual dichromatism in wing pigmentation of New World dragonflies follows Rensch's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E S A; Machado, G

    2016-07-01

    Many animal taxa that display sexual size dimorphism (SSD) exhibit a positive allometric relationship in which the degree of dimorphism increases with body size. This macroevolutionary pattern is known as Rensch's rule. Although sexual selection is hypothesized to be the main mechanism causing this pattern, body size is influenced by several selective forces, including natural and sexual selection. Therefore, by focusing exclusively on SSD one cannot ascertain which of these selective forces drives Rensch's rule. If sexual selection is indeed the main mechanism underlying Rensch's rule, we predict that other sexually selected traits, including coloration-based ornaments, will also exhibit interspecific allometric scaling consistent with Rensch's rule. We tested this prediction using wing pigmentation of 89 species of dragonflies. Studies show that male wing pigmentation is generally under strong intra- and intersexual selection, so that sexual dichromatism in this trait should follow Rensch's rule. Conversely, the available evidence suggests that male body size is usually not sexually selected in dragonflies, so we do not expect SSD to follow Rensch's rule. First, we found that sexual dichromatism in wing pigmentation was consistent with Rensch's rule. The phylogenetic major axis regression slope was significantly greater than one. We also showed that the allometric slope for SSD was not different from unity, providing no support for Rensch's rule. Our results provide the first evidence that a trait which appears to be under strong sexual selection exhibits a pattern consistent with Rensch's rule.

  5. CANCELLED EMT and back again: does cellular plasticity fuelneoplasticprogressi on?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turley, Eva A.; Veiseh, Mandana; Radisky, Derek C.; Bissell, MinaJ.

    2007-02-24

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular transdifferentiation program that facilitates organ morphogenesis and tissue remodeling in physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing. However, a similar phenotypic conversion is also detected in fibrotic diseases and neoplasia, in which it is associated with disease progression. EMT in cancer epithelial cells often appears to be an incomplete and bi-directional process. Here we discuss the phenomenon of EMT as it pertains to tumor development, focusing on exceptions to the commonly held rule that EMT promotes invasion and metastasis. We also highlight the role of the Ras-controlled signaling mediators, ERK1, ERK2 and PI3-kinase, as microenvironmental responsive regulators of EMT.

  6. Modeling collective & intelligent decision making of multi-cellular populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Mahrou, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of unpredictable disturbances and uncertainties, cells intelligently achieve their goals by sharing information via cell-cell communication and making collective decisions, which are more reliable compared to individual decisions. Inspired by adaptive sensor network algorithms studied in communication engineering, we propose that a multi-cellular adaptive network can convert unreliable decisions by individual cells into a more reliable cell-population decision. It is demonstrated using the effector T helper (a type of immune cell) population, which plays a critical role in initiating immune reactions in response to invading foreign agents (e.g., viruses, bacteria, etc.). While each individual cell follows a simple adaptation rule, it is the combined coordination among multiple cells that leads to the manifestation of "self-organizing" decision making via cell-cell communication.

  7. Integration of Neural Networks and Cellular Automata for Urban Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony Gar-on Yeh; LI Xia

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of cellular automata (CA) model for the simulation of alternative land development using neural networks for urban planning. CA models can be regarded as a planning tool because they can generate alternative urban growth. Alternative development patterns can be formed by using different sets of parameter values in CA simulation. A critical issue is how to define parameter values for realistic and idealized simulation. This paper demonstrates that neural networks can simplify CA models but generate more plausible results. The simulation is based on a simple three-layer network with an output neuron to generate conversion probability. No transition rules are required for the simulation. Parameter values are automatically obtained from the training of network by using satellite remote sensing data. Original training data can be assessed and modified according to planning objectives. Alternative urban patterns can be easily formulated by using the modified training data sets rather than changing the model.

  8. Cutkosky Rules from Outer Space

    CERN Document Server

    Kreimer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    We overview recent results on the mathematical foundations of Cutkosky rules. We emphasize that the two operations of shrinking an internal edge or putting internal lines on the mass-shell are natural operation on the cubical chain complex studied in the context of geometric group theory. This together with Cutkosky's theorem regarded as a theorem which informs us about variations connected to the monodromy of Feynman amplitudes allows for a systematic approach to normal and anomalous thresholds, dispersion relations and the optical theorem. In this report we follow [1] closely.

  9. Marketing the Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Looking back at the last three decades of reform and opening up in China, many components of this process can now be examined in an attempt to ascertain what part they have played in the country’s political,social and economic growth.Rule of law and a harmonious society are some of the issues at stake.Professor Jiang Ping,former President of China University of Political Science and Law,discusses these and other areas of reform in an interview with China Economic Weekly.

  10. Managing Knowledge as Business Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU; Mircea, Marinela

    2009-01-01

    In today’s business environment, it is a certainty that will manage to survive especially those organizations which are striving to adapt quickly and with low costs to the new demands of market competition. Knowledge represented by internal business rules of an organization can help crystallize their orientation in order to ensure a competitive advantage in the market. In this context and in a relatively short time, a new trend in software development has arisen, ex-tending current methods ...

  11. Membership Rules - LHCRRB Scrutiny Group

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The LHC Resources Scrutiny Group was created in 2001 to review and scrutinize the M&O cost estimates of the LHC Collaborations. The Scrutiny Group first met on 23 August 2001 and reported to the RRBs at its 13th Plenary meeting, in October 2001 (RRB-D-2001-8). The Scrutiny Group operates according to the procedures set out in Annex 12 of the MoUs for the M&O of the LHC experiments. This document lists the Rules of Procedure that apply to the M&O Scrutiny Group

  12. The Rule of Metaphor commented.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology) around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective ...

  13. How Politics Shapes the Growth of Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth Felsager; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of politics on governmental rule production. Traditionally, explanations of rule dynamics have focused on nonpolitical factors such as the self-evolvement of rules, environmental factors, and decision maker attributes. This article develops a set of hypotheses about...... when, why, and how political factors shape changes in the stock of rules. Furthermore, we test these hypotheses on a unique, new data set based on all Danish primary legislation and administrative rules from 1989 to 2011 categorized into 20 different policy domains. The analysis shows...... that the traditional Weberian “rules breed rules” explanations must be supplemented with political explanations that take party ideology and changes in the political agenda into account. Moreover, the effect of political factors is indistinguishable across changes in primary laws and changes in administrative rules...

  14. A Compact Self-organizing Cellular Automata-based Genetic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Barmpoutis, Vasileios

    2007-01-01

    A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed in which each member of the population can change schemata only with its neighbors according to a rule. The rule methodology and the neighborhood structure employ elements from the Cellular Automata (CA) strategies. Each member of the GA population is assigned to a cell and crossover takes place only between adjacent cells, according to the predefined rule. Although combinations of CA and GA approaches have appeared previously, here we rely on the inherent self-organizing features of CA, rather than on parallelism. This conceptual shift directs us toward the evolution of compact populations containing only a handful of members. We find that the resulting algorithm can search the design space more efficiently than traditional GA strategies due to its ability to exploit mutations within this compact self-organizing population. Consequently, premature convergence is avoided and the final results often are more accurate. In order to reinforce the superior mutation capability, ...

  15. Discovering Non-Redundant Association Rules using MinMax Approximation Rules

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vijaya Prakash; Dr. A. Govardhan3; Prof. SSVN. Sarma

    2012-01-01

    Frequent pattern mining is an important area of data mining used to generate the Association Rules. The extracted Frequent Patterns quality is a big concern, as it generates huge sets of rules and many of them are redundant. Mining Non-Redundant Frequent patterns is a big concern in the area of Association rule mining. In this paper we proposed a method to eliminate the redundant Frequent patterns using MinMax rule approach, to generate the quality Association Rules.

  16. Intrinsic Simulations between Stochastic Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arrighi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simple formalism for dealing with deterministic, non-deterministic and stochastic cellular automata in a unifying and composable manner. Armed with this formalism, we extend the notion of intrinsic simulation between deterministic cellular automata, to the non-deterministic and stochastic settings. We then provide explicit tools to prove or disprove the existence of such a simulation between two stochastic cellular automata, even though the intrinsic simulation relation is shown to be undecidable in dimension two and higher. The key result behind this is the caracterization of equality of stochastic global maps by the existence of a coupling between the random sources. We then prove that there is a universal non-deterministic cellular automaton, but no universal stochastic cellular automaton. Yet we provide stochastic cellular automata achieving optimal partial universality.

  17. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  18. Autophagy and mitophagy in cellular damage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy and mitophagy are important cellular processes that are responsible for breaking down cellular contents, preserving energy and safeguarding against accumulation of damaged and aggregated biomolecules. This graphic review gives a broad summary of autophagy and discusses examples where autophagy is important in controlling protein degradation. In addition we highlight how autophagy and mitophagy are involved in the cellular responses to reactive species and mitochondrial dysfunction. The key signaling pathways for mitophagy are described in the context of bioenergetic dysfunction.

  19. Software Security Rules: SDLC Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pandey

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Software has become an integral part of everyday life. Everyday, millions of people perform transaction through internet, ATM, mobile phone, they send email & e-greetings, and use word processing and spreadsheet for various purpose. People use software bearing in mind that it is reliable and can be trust upon and the operation they perform is secured. Now, if these software have exploitable security hole then how can they be safe for use. Security brings value to software in terms of people’s trust. The value provided by secure software is of vital importance because many critical functions are entirely dependent on the software. That is why security is a serious topic which should be given proper attention during the entire SDLC, ‘right from the beginning’. For the proper implementation of security in the software, twenty one security rules are proposed in this paper along with validation results. It is found that by applying these rules as per given implementation mechanism, most of the vulnerabilities are eliminated in the software and a more secure software can be built.

  20. Efficiency of cellular information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Barato, Andre C; Seifert, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We show that a rate of conditional Shannon entropy reduction, characterizing the learning of an internal process about an external process, is bounded by the thermodynamic entropy production. This approach allows for the definition of an informational efficiency that can be used to study cellular information processing. We analyze three models of increasing complexity inspired by the E. coli sensory network, where the external process is an external ligand concentration jumping between two values. We start with a simple model for which ATP must be consumed so that a protein inside the cell can learn about the external concentration. With a second model for a single receptor we show that the rate at which the receptor learns about the external environment can be nonzero even without any dissipation inside the cell since chemical work done by the external process compensates for this learning rate. The third model is more complete, also containing adaptation. For this model we show inter alia that a bacterium i...

  1. The origins of cellular life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Jason P; Zhu, Ting F; Szostak, Jack W

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the origin of cellular life on Earth requires the discovery of plausible pathways for the transition from complex prebiotic chemistry to simple biology, defined as the emergence of chemical assemblies capable of Darwinian evolution. We have proposed that a simple primitive cell, or protocell, would consist of two key components: a protocell membrane that defines a spatially localized compartment, and an informational polymer that allows for the replication and inheritance of functional information. Recent studies of vesicles composed of fatty-acid membranes have shed considerable light on pathways for protocell growth and division, as well as means by which protocells could take up nutrients from their environment. Additional work with genetic polymers has provided insight into the potential for chemical genome replication and compatibility with membrane encapsulation. The integration of a dynamic fatty-acid compartment with robust, generalized genetic polymer replication would yield a laboratory model of a protocell with the potential for classical Darwinian biological evolution, and may help to evaluate potential pathways for the emergence of life on the early Earth. Here we discuss efforts to devise such an integrated protocell model.

  2. The cellular toxicity of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C; Birchall, J D

    1992-11-07

    Aluminium is a serious environmental toxicant and is inimical to biota. Omnipresent, it is linked with a number of disorders in man including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's dementia and osteomalacia. Evidence supporting aluminium as an aetiological agent in such disorders is not conclusive and suffers principally from a lack of consensus with respect to aluminium's toxic mode of action. Obligatory to the elucidation of toxic mechanisms is an understanding of the biological availability of aluminium. This describes the fate of and response to aluminium in any biological system and is thus an important influence of the toxicity of aluminium. A general theme in much aluminium toxicity is an accelerated cell death. Herein mechanisms are described to account for cell death from both acute and chronic aluminium challenges. Aluminium associations with both extracellular surfaces and intracellular ligands are implicated. The cellular response to aluminium is found to be biphasic having both stimulatory and inhibitory components. In either case the disruption of second messenger systems is observed and GTPase cycles are potential target sites. Specific ligands for aluminium at these sites are unknown though are likely to be proteins upon which oxygen-based functional groups are orientated to give exceptionally strong binding with the free aluminium ion.

  3. Integration of mobile satellite and cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Elliott H.; Estabrook, Polly; Pinck, Deborah; Ekroot, Laura

    1993-01-01

    By integrating the ground based infrastructure component of a mobile satellite system with the infrastructure systems of terrestrial 800 MHz cellular service providers, a seamless network of universal coverage can be established. Users equipped for both cellular and satellite service can take advantage of a number of features made possible by such integration, including seamless handoff and universal roaming. To provide maximum benefit at lowest posible cost, the means by which these systems are integrated must be carefully considered. Mobile satellite hub stations must be configured to efficiently interface with cellular Mobile Telephone Switching Offices (MTSO's), and cost effective mobile units that provide both cellular and satellite capability must be developed.

  4. Optimized Cellular Core for Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Patz Materials and Technologies proposes to develop a unique structural cellular core material to improve mechanical performance, reduce platform weight and lower...

  5. Generic framework for mining cellular automata models on protein-folding simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, N; Tischer, I

    2016-05-13

    Cellular automata model identification is an important way of building simplified simulation models. In this study, we describe a generic architectural framework to ease the development process of new metaheuristic-based algorithms for cellular automata model identification in protein-folding trajectories. Our framework was developed by a methodology based on design patterns that allow an improved experience for new algorithms development. The usefulness of the proposed framework is demonstrated by the implementation of four algorithms, able to obtain extremely precise cellular automata models of the protein-folding process with a protein contact map representation. Dynamic rules obtained by the proposed approach are discussed, and future use for the new tool is outlined.

  6. Linear matrix inequality approach for synchronization control of fuzzy cellular neural networks with mixed time delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Balasubramaniam; M. Kalpana; R. Rakkiyappan

    2012-01-01

    Fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNNs) are special kinds of cellular neural networks (CNNs).Each cell in an FCNN contains fuzzy operating abilities.The entire network is governed by cellular computing laws.The design of FCNNs is based on fuzzy local rules.In this paper,a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach for synchronization control of FCNNs with mixed delays is investigated.Mixed delays include discrete time-varying delays and unbounded distributed delays.A dynamic control scheme is proposed to achieve the synchronization between a drive network and a response network.By constructing the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which contains a triple-integral term and the free-weighting matrices method an improved delay-dependent stability criterion is derived in terms of LMIs.The controller can be easily obtained by solving the derived LMIs.A numerical example and its simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Solving the Advection-Diffusion Equations in Biological Contexts using the Cellular Potts Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dan, D; Chen, K; Glazier, J A; Dan, Debasis; Mueller, Chris; Chen, Kun; Glazier, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Cellular Potts Model (CPM) is a robust, cell-level methodology for simulation of biological tissues and morphogenesis. Both tissue physiology and morphogenesis depend on diffusion of chemical morphogens in the extra-cellular fluid or matrix (ECM). Standard diffusion solvers applied to the cellular potts model use finite difference methods on the underlying CPM lattice. However, these methods produce a diffusing field tied to the underlying lattice, which is inaccurate in many biological situations in which cell or ECM movement causes advection rapid compared to diffusion. Finite difference schemes suffer numerical instabilities solving the resulting advection-diffusion equations. To circumvent these problems we simulate advection-diffusion within the framework of the CPM using off-lattice finite-difference methods. We define a set of generalized fluid particles which detach advection and diffusion from the lattice. Diffusion occurs between neighboring fluid particles by local averaging rules which approxi...

  8. The information content of rules and rule sets and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Dan; LI HongXing; YU XianChuan

    2008-01-01

    The information content of rules is categorized into inner mutual information content and outer impartation information content. Actually, the conventional objective interestingness measures based on information theory are all inner mutual informarion, which represent the confidence of rules and the mutual information between the antecedent and consequent. Moreover, almost all of these measures lose sight of the outer impartation information, which is conveyed to the user and help the user to make decisions. We put forward the viewpoint that the outer impartation information content of rules and rule sets can be represented by the relations from input universe to output universe. By binary relations, the interaction of rules in a rule set can be easily represented by operators: union and intersection. Based on the entropy of relations, the outer impartation information content of rules and rule sets are well measured. Then, the conditional information content of rules and rule sets, the independence of rules and rule sets and the inconsistent knowledge of rule sets are defined and measured. The properties of these new measures are discussed and some interesting results are proven, such as the information content of a rule set may be bigger than the sum of the information content of rules in the rule set, and the conditional information content of rules may be negative. At last, the applications of these new measures are discussed. The new method for the appraisement of .rule mining algorithm, and two rule pruning algorithms, λ-choice and RPCIC, are put forward. These new methods and algorithms havepredominance in satisfying the need of more efficient decision information.

  9. A Cellular Perspective on Brain Energy Metabolism and Functional Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy demands of the brain are high: they account for at least 20% of the body\\'s energy consumption. Evolutionary studies indicate that the emergence of higher cognitive functions in humans is associated with an increased glucose utilization and expression of energy metabolism genes. Functional brain imaging techniques such as fMRI and PET, which are widely used in human neuroscience studies, detect signals that monitor energy delivery and use in register with neuronal activity. Recent technological advances in metabolic studies with cellular resolution have afforded decisive insights into the understanding of the cellular and molecular bases of the coupling between neuronal activity and energy metabolism and pointat a key role of neuron-astrocyte metabolic interactions. This article reviews some of the most salient features emerging from recent studies and aims at providing an integration of brain energy metabolism across resolution scales. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Virus-encapsulated DNA origami nanostructures for cellular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilä, Joona; Eskelinen, Antti-Pekka; Niemelä, Elina H; Linko, Veikko; Frilander, Mikko J; Törmä, Päivi; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2014-01-01

    DNA origami structures can be programmed into arbitrary shapes with nanometer scale precision, which opens up numerous attractive opportunities to engineer novel functional materials. One intriguing possibility is to use DNA origamis for fully tunable, targeted, and triggered drug delivery. In this work, we demonstrate the coating of DNA origami nanostructures with virus capsid proteins for enhancing cellular delivery. Our approach utilizes purified cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid proteins that can bind and self-assemble on the origami surface through electrostatic interactions and further pack the origami nanostructures inside the viral capsid. Confocal microscopy imaging and transfection studies with a human HEK293 cell line indicate that protein coating improves cellular attachment and delivery of origamis into the cells by 13-fold compared to bare DNA origamis. The presented method could readily find applications not only in sophisticated drug delivery applications but also in organizing intracellular reactions by origami-based templates.

  11. Fusion rules for the logarithmic $N=1$ superconformal minimal models I: the Neveu-Schwarz sector

    CERN Document Server

    Canagasabey, Michael; Ridout, David

    2015-01-01

    It is now well known that non-local observables in critical statistical lattice models, polymers and percolation for example, may be modelled in the continuum scaling limit by logarithmic conformal field theories. Fusion rules for such theories, sometimes referred to as logarithmic minimal models, have been intensively studied over the last ten years in order to explore the representation-theoretic structures relevant to non-local observables. Motivated by recent lattice conjectures, this work studies the fusion rules of the $N=1$ supersymmetric analogues of these logarithmic minimal models in the Neveu-Schwarz sector. Fusion rules involving Ramond representations will be addressed in a sequel.

  12. Dirac Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Arindam; Chandrashekar, C M

    2016-05-17

    Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implication in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum system and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using set of conditions which are not unique and are not always in implementable configuration on any other system. Dirac Cellular Automata (DCA) is one such model constructed for Dirac Hamiltonian (DH) in free quantum field theory. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (QW) which is uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the DCA along with all the fine oscillations in position space and bridge the missing connection between DH-DCA-QW. We will present the contribution of the parameters resulting in the fine oscillations on the Zitterbewegung frequency and entanglement. The tuneability of the evolution parameters demonstrated in experimental implementation of QW will establish it as an efficient tool to design quantum simulator and approach quantum field theory from principles of quantum information theory.

  13. Dirac Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Arindam; Chandrashekar, C. M.

    2016-05-01

    Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implication in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum system and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using set of conditions which are not unique and are not always in implementable configuration on any other system. Dirac Cellular Automata (DCA) is one such model constructed for Dirac Hamiltonian (DH) in free quantum field theory. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (QW) which is uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the DCA along with all the fine oscillations in position space and bridge the missing connection between DH-DCA-QW. We will present the contribution of the parameters resulting in the fine oscillations on the Zitterbewegung frequency and entanglement. The tuneability of the evolution parameters demonstrated in experimental implementation of QW will establish it as an efficient tool to design quantum simulator and approach quantum field theory from principles of quantum information theory.

  14. Dirac Quantum Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implications in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum systems and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using different set of conditions which are not uniquely defined. The form of the operators in these model are not always in implementable configuration on an other system. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (DTQW) which are uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the Dirac quantum cellular automaton (DQCA). This will bridge the connection between Dirac equation(DE)-DQCA-DTQW and eliminate the explicit use of invariance, symmetries and limiting range of parameter to establish the connections. For a combination of par...

  15. Radiative corrections to the solar lepton mixing sum rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-08-01

    The simple correlation among three lepton flavor mixing angles ( θ 12, θ 13, θ 23) and the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase δ is conventionally called a sum rule of lepton flavor mixing, which may be derived from a class of neutrino mass models with flavor symmetries. In this paper, we consider the solar lepton mixing sum rule θ 12 ≈ θ 12 ν + θ 13 cos δ, where θ 12 ν stems from a constant mixing pattern in the neutrino sector and takes the value of θ 12 ν = 45 ° for the bi-maximal mixing (BM), {θ}_{12}^{ν } = { tan}^{-1}(1/√{2}) ≈ 35.3° for the tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) or {θ}_{12}^{ν } = { tan}^{-1}(1/√{5+1}) ≈ 31.7° for the golden-ratio mixing (GR), and investigate the renormalization-group (RG) running effects on lepton flavor mixing parameters when this sum rule is assumed at a superhigh-energy scale. For illustration, we work within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), and implement the Bayesian approach to explore the posterior distribution of δ at the low-energy scale, which becomes quite broad when the RG running effects are significant. Moreover, we also discuss the compatibility of the above three mixing scenarios with current neutrino oscillation data, and observe that radiative corrections can increase such a compatibility for the BM scenario, resulting in a weaker preference for the TBM and GR ones.

  16. Clustering Association Rules with Fuzzy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Matthias; Kruse, Rudolf

    Association rules constitute a widely accepted technique to identify frequent patterns inside huge volumes of data. Practitioners prefer the straightforward interpretability of rules, however, depending on the nature of the underlying data the number of induced rules can be intractable large. Even reasonably sized result sets may contain a large amount of rules that are uninteresting to the user because they are too general, are already known or do not match other user-related intuitive criteria. We allow the user to model his conception of interestingness by means of linguistic expressions on rule evaluation measures and compound propositions of higher order (i.e., temporal changes of rule properties). Multiple such linguistic concepts can be considered a set of fuzzy patterns (Fuzzy Sets and Systems 28(3):313-331, 1988) and allow for the partition of the initial rule set into fuzzy fragments that contain rules of similar membership to a user’s concept (Höppner et al., Fuzzy Clustering, Wiley, Chichester, 1999; Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 51(1):192-214, 2006; Advances in Fuzzy Clustering and Its Applications, chap. 1, pp. 3-30, Wiley, New York, 2007). With appropriate visualization methods that extent previous rule set visualizations (Foundations of Fuzzy Logic and Soft Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4529, pp. 295-303, Springer, Berlin, 2007) we allow the user to instantly assess the matching of his concepts against the rule set.

  17. Connections between chiral Lagrangians and QCD sum-rules

    CERN Document Server

    Fariborz, Amir H; Steele, T G

    2016-01-01

    It is shown how a chiral Lagrangian framework can be used to derive relationships connecting quark-level QCD correlation functions to mesonic-level two-point functions. Crucial ingredients of this connection are scale factor matrices relating each distinct quark-level substructure (e.g., quark-antiquark, four-quark) to its mesonic counterpart. The scale factors and mixing angles are combined into a projection matrix to obtain the physical (hadronic) projection of the QCD correlation function matrix. Such relationships provide a powerful bridge between chiral Lagrangians and QCD sum-rules that are particularly effective in studies of the substructure of light scalar mesons with multiple complicated resonance shapes and substantial underlying mixings. The validity of these connections is demonstrated for the example of the isotriplet $a_0(980)$-$a_0(1450)$ system, resulting in an unambiguous determination of the scale factors from the combined inputs of QCD sum-rules and chiral Lagrangians. These scale factors ...

  18. Gateway Deployment optimization in Cellular Wi-Fi Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Prasad

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available With the standardization of IEEE 802.11, there has been an explosive growth of wireless local area networks (WLAN. Recently, this cost effective technology is being developed aggressively for establishing metro-scalecellular Wi-Fi” network to support seamless Internet access in the urban area. We envision a large scale WLAN system in the future where Access Points (APs will be scattered over an entire city enabling people to use their mobile devices ubiquitously. The problem addressed in this paper involves finding the minimum number of gateways and their optimal placement so as to minimize the network installation costs while maintaining reliability, flexibility and an acceptable grade of service. The problem is modeled taking a network graph, where the nodes represents either the Access Points of IEEE 802.11 or wired backbone gateways. In this paper, we present two methods (1 an innovative approach using integer linear programming (ILP for gateway selection in the cellular Wi-Fi network, and (2 a completely new heuristic (OPEN/CLOSE to solve the gateway selection problem. In the ILP model, we developed a set of linear inequalities based on various constraints. The ILP model is solved by using lp-solve, a simplex-based software for linear and integer programming problems. The second approach is an OPEN/CLOSE heuristic, tailored for cellular Wi-Fi, which arrives at a sub-optimal solution. Java programming language is used for simulation in OPEN/CLOSE heuristic. Extensive simulations are carried out for performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed approaches can effectively identify a set of gateways at optimal locations in a cellular Wi-Fi network, resulting in an overall cost reduction of up to 50%. The technique presented in this paper is generalized and can be used for gateway selection for other networks as well.

  19. A sub-cellular viscoelastic model for cell population mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Jamali

    Full Text Available Understanding the biomechanical properties and the effect of biomechanical force on epithelial cells is key to understanding how epithelial cells form uniquely shaped structures in two or three-dimensional space. Nevertheless, with the limitations and challenges posed by biological experiments at this scale, it becomes advantageous to use mathematical and 'in silico' (computational models as an alternate solution. This paper introduces a single-cell-based model representing the cross section of a typical tissue. Each cell in this model is an individual unit containing several sub-cellular elements, such as the elastic plasma membrane, enclosed viscoelastic elements that play the role of cytoskeleton, and the viscoelastic elements of the cell nucleus. The cell membrane is divided into segments where each segment (or point incorporates the cell's interaction and communication with other cells and its environment. The model is capable of simulating how cells cooperate and contribute to the overall structure and function of a particular tissue; it mimics many aspects of cellular behavior such as cell growth, division, apoptosis and polarization. The model allows for investigation of the biomechanical properties of cells, cell-cell interactions, effect of environment on cellular clusters, and how individual cells work together and contribute to the structure and function of a particular tissue. To evaluate the current approach in modeling different topologies of growing tissues in distinct biochemical conditions of the surrounding media, we model several key cellular phenomena, namely monolayer cell culture, effects of adhesion intensity, growth of epithelial cell through interaction with extra-cellular matrix (ECM, effects of a gap in the ECM, tensegrity and tissue morphogenesis and formation of hollow epithelial acini. The proposed computational model enables one to isolate the effects of biomechanical properties of individual cells and the

  20. Modeling Integrated Cellular Machinery Using Hybrid Petri-Boolean Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berestovsky, Natalie; Zhou, Wanding; Nagrath, Deepak; Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-01-01

    The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM) that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them using such more

  1. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Berestovsky

    Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them

  2. The virtual cell animation collection: tools for teaching molecular and cellular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Katie M; White, Alan R; Johnson, Christina; Vender, Bradley; Slator, Brian M; McClean, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    A cell is a minifactory in which structures and molecules are assembled, rearranged, disassembled, packaged, sorted, and transported. Because cellular structures and molecules are invisible to the human eye, students often have difficulty conceptualizing the dynamic nature of cells that function at multiple scales across time and space. To represent these dynamic cellular processes, the Virtual Cell Productions team at North Dakota State University develops freely available multimedia materials to support molecular and cellular biology learning inside and outside the high school and university classroom.

  3. The Virtual Cell Animation Collection: Tools for Teaching Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Katie M.; White, Alan R.; Johnson, Christina; Vender, Bradley; Slator, Brian M.; McClean, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    A cell is a minifactory in which structures and molecules are assembled, rearranged, disassembled, packaged, sorted, and transported. Because cellular structures and molecules are invisible to the human eye, students often have difficulty conceptualizing the dynamic nature of cells that function at multiple scales across time and space. To represent these dynamic cellular processes, the Virtual Cell Productions team at North Dakota State University develops freely available multimedia materials to support molecular and cellular biology learning inside and outside the high school and university classroom. PMID:25856580

  4. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  5. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  6. ADVERTISING BETWEEN RULES AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SUSANU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Where would the world be without advertising? Stuart Henderson Britt strongly believed in it. Hesaid: “Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what youare doing, but she doesn’t.” The work reviews the evolution of advertising, highlighting theuncontestable part played by it within organizations and society in general and it focuses on anessential element of it, that is the advertising print. The purpose of this paperwork is to highlight thenecessary rules for the making of a quality print, with the help of a comparative study on prints ofeight organizations. The print represents an exercise of writing and design, in words and images, fortransmitting the advertising message. The fulfillment of this task depends on the perspicacity,imagination and the creativity of the maker.

  7. Rule of Law Fully Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN CHUNYING

    2011-01-01

    Governing the country according to the law and building a socialist state with rule of law are fundamental strategies for running the country under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.Since the founding of the People's Republic of China,especially over the past three decades of reform and opening-up,through the unremitting efforts of the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee,the State Council,the local people's congresses and their standing committees,as well as all sectors of society,by the end of August,2011,China had enacted the Constitution and the 240 laws,706 administrative regulations and more than 8,600 local regulations that are now in force.

  8. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark......'s implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... assumed that the respondents could still recall the prior state of the law, making it possible for us to gather sufficient information to compare the situation before and after the Amending Act entered into force.The Amending Act involved a number of amendments to the Danish Sale of Goods Act. Certain...

  9. Refining Linear Fuzzy Rules by Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap S.; Malkani, Anil

    1996-01-01

    Linear fuzzy rules are increasingly being used in the development of fuzzy logic systems. Radial basis functions have also been used in the antecedents of the rules for clustering in product space which can automatically generate a set of linear fuzzy rules from an input/output data set. Manual methods are usually used in refining these rules. This paper presents a method for refining the parameters of these rules using reinforcement learning which can be applied in domains where supervised input-output data is not available and reinforcements are received only after a long sequence of actions. This is shown for a generalization of radial basis functions. The formation of fuzzy rules from data and their automatic refinement is an important step in closing the gap between the application of reinforcement learning methods in the domains where only some limited input-output data is available.

  10. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    regimes. However, the analysis here indicates that there are different drivers, both internal and external, that cause companies to adopt new rules or modify their existing ones, such as changes in organizational structures, organizational conflicts, and changes in ownership or strategy. In addition......, contrary to the predictions in previous research, companies sometimes move back and forth between different generations of rules. Companies that have moved to a more flexible third generation of rules might revert to their second generation rules, or supplement their flexibility with an increased level...... indicate that many factors influence the modification of rules, and that there is no simple linear progression from one generation to another. Organizational learning is one among several other factors that influences the dynamics of rules for managing product development. Further research is needed...

  11. Generating Concise Rules for Human Motion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tomohiko; Wakisaka, Ken-Ichi; Kuriyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for retrieving human motion data with concise retrieval rules based on the spatio-temporal features of motion appearance. Our method first converts motion clip into a form of clausal language that represents geometrical relations between body parts and their temporal relationship. A retrieval rule is then learned from the set of manually classified examples using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP automatically discovers the essential rule in the same clausal form with a user-defined hypothesis-testing procedure. All motions are indexed using this clausal language, and the desired clips are retrieved by subsequence matching using the rule. Such rule-based retrieval offers reasonable performance and the rule can be intuitively edited in the same language form. Consequently, our method enables efficient and flexible search from a large dataset with simple query language.

  12. Image segmentation using association rule features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, John A; Ranganath, Heggere; Hinke, Thomas H; Graves, Sara J

    2002-01-01

    A new type of texture feature based on association rules is described. Association rules have been used in applications such as market basket analysis to capture relationships present among items in large data sets. It is shown that association rules can be adapted to capture frequently occurring local structures in images. The frequency of occurrence of these structures can be used to characterize texture. Methods for segmentation of textured images based on association rule features are described. Simulation results using images consisting of man made and natural textures show that association rule features perform well compared to other widely used texture features. Association rule features are used to detect cumulus cloud fields in GOES satellite images and are found to achieve higher accuracy than other statistical texture features for this problem.

  13. Ruled Austere Submanifolds of Dimension Four

    CERN Document Server

    Ionel, Marianty

    2010-01-01

    We classify 4-dimensional austere submanifolds in Euclidean space ruled by 2-planes. The algebraic possibilities for second fundamental forms of an austere 4-fold M were classified by Bryant, falling into three types which we label A, B, and C. We show that if M is 2-ruled of Type A, then the ruling map from M into the Grassmannian of 2-planes in R^n is holomorphic, and we give a construction for M starting with a holomorphic curve in an appropriate twistor space. If M is 2-ruled of Type B, then M is either a generalized helicoid in R^6 or the product of two classical helicoids in R^3. If M is 2-ruled of Type C, then M is either a one of the above, or a generalized helicoid in R^7. We also construct examples of 2-ruled austere hypersurfaces in R^5 with degenerate Gauss map.

  14. Circulation-strain sum rule in stochastic magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriconi, L; Nobre, F A S

    2002-03-01

    We study probability density functions (PDFs) of the circulation of velocity and magnetic fields in magnetohydrodynamics, computed for a circular contour within inertial range scales. The analysis is based on the instanton method as adapted to the Martin-Siggia-Rose field theory formalism. While in the viscous limit the expected Gaussian behavior of fluctuations is indeed verified, the case of vanishing viscosity is not suitable of a direct saddle-point treatment. To study the latter limit, we take into account fluctuations around quasistatic background fields, which allows us to derive a sum rule relating PDFs of the circulation observables and the rate of the strain tensor. A simple inspection of the sum rule definition leads straightforwardly to the algebraic decay rho(Gamma)-1/Gamma(2) at the circulation PDF tails.

  15. Direct instantons, topological charge screening and QCD glueball sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Forkel, H

    2003-01-01

    Nonperturbative Wilson coefficients of the operator product expansion (OPE) for the spin-0 glueball correlators are derived and analyzed. A systematic treatment of the direct instanton contributions is given, based on realistic instanton size distributions and renormalization at the operator scale. In the pseudoscalar channel, topological charge screening is identified as an additional source of (semi-) hard nonperturbative physics. The screening contributions are shown to be vital for consistency with the anomalous axial Ward identity, and previously encountered pathologies (positivity violations and the disappearance of the 0^{-+} glueball signal) are traced to their neglect. On the basis of the extended OPE, a comprehensive quantitative analysis of eight Borel-moment sum rules in both spin-0 glueball channels is then performed. The nonperturbative OPE coefficients turn out to be indispensable for consistent sum rules and for their reconciliation with the underlying low-energy theorems. The topological shor...

  16. Optimal Rules for Single Machine Scheduling with Stochastic Breakdowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of scheduling a set of jobs on a single machine subject to stochastic breakdowns, where jobs have to be restarted if preemptions occur because of breakdowns. The breakdown process of the machine is independent of the jobs processed on the machine. The processing times required to complete the jobs are constants if no breakdown occurs. The machine uptimes are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d. and are subject to a uniform distribution. It is proved that the Longest Processing Time first (LPT rule minimizes the expected makespan. For the large-scale problem, it is also showed that the Shortest Processing Time first (SPT rule is optimal to minimize the expected total completion times of all jobs.

  17. Linear mixing rule in screened binary ionic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrier, G.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1990-01-01

    The validity of the linear mixing rule is examined for the following two cases (1) when the response of the electron gas is taken into account in the effective ionic interaction and (2) when finite-temperature effects are included in the dielectric response of the electrons, i.e., when the ions interact with both temperature- and density-dependent screened Coulomb potentials. It is found that the linear mixing rule remains valid when the electron response is taken into account in the interionic potential at any density, even though the departure from linearity can reach a few percent for the asymmetric mixtures in the region of weak degeneracy for the electron gas. A physical explanation of this behavior is proposed which is based on a simple additional length scale.

  18. Recent development of cellular manufacturing systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Arora; A Haleem; M K Singh

    2013-06-01

    Cellular manufacturing system has been proved a vital approach for batch and job shop production systems. Group technology has been an essential tool for developing a cellular manufacturing system. The paper aims to discuss various cell formation techniques and highlights the significant research work done in past over the years and attempts to points out the gap in research.

  19. Cellular encoding for interactive evolutionary robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruau, F.C.; Quatramaran, K.

    1996-01-01

    This work reports experiments in interactive evolutionary robotics. The goal is to evolve an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to control the locomotion of an 8-legged robot. The ANNs are encoded using a cellular developmental process called cellular encoding. In a previous work similar experiments ha

  20. LMS filters for cellular CDMA overlay

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper extends and complements previous research we have performed on the performance of nonadaptive narrowband suppression filters when used in cellular CDMA overlay situations. In this paper, an adaptive LMS filter is applied to cellular CDMA overlay situations in order to reject narrowband interference.