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Sample records for cellular responses inhibiting

  1. Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. A.; Kim, Yonggyun

    2008-01-01

    Several immunosuppressive factors are associated with parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes a large number of putative protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which may play a role in inhibiting host cellular immunity. To address this inhibitory hypothesis of CpBV-PTPs, we performed transient expression of individual CpBV-PTPs in hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and analyzed their cellular immune responses. Two different forms of CpBV-PTPs were chosen and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the p10 promoter of baculovirus: one with the normal cysteine active site (CpBV-PTP1) and the other with a mutated active site (CpBV-PTP5). The hemocytes transfected with CpBV-PTP1 significantly increased in PTP activity compared to control hemocytes, but those with CpBV-PTP5 exhibited a significant decrease in the PTP activity. All transfected hemocytes exhibited a significant reduction in both cell spreading and encapsulation activities compared to control hemocytes. Co-transfection of CpBV-PTP1 together with its double-stranded RNA reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of CpBV-PTP1 and resulted in recovery of both hemocyte behaviors. This is the first report demonstrating that the polydnaviral PTPs can manipulate PTP activity of the hemocytes to interrupt cellular immune responses.

  2. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses

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    Iwai Ohbayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized pathway of this stress response involves p53 and MDM2 as key players. p53 is a crucial transcription factor that functions in response to not only nucleolar stress but also other cellular stresses such as DNA damage stress. These cellular stresses release p53 from the inhibition by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting p53, in various ways, which leads to p53-dependent activation of a set of genes. In plants, genetic impairments of ribosome biogenesis factors or ribosome components have been shown to cause characteristic phenotypes, including a narrow and pointed leaf shape, implying a common signaling pathway connecting ribosomal perturbations and certain aspects of growth and development. Unlike animals, however, plants have neither p53 nor MDM2 family proteins. Then the question arises whether plant cells have a nucleolar stress response pathway. In recent years, it has been reported that several members of the plant-specific transcription factor family NAC play critical roles in the pathways responsive to various cellular stresses. In this mini review, we outline the plant cellular stress response pathways involving NAC transcription factors with reference to the p53-MDM2-dependent pathways of animal cells, and discuss the possible involvement of a plant-unique, NAC-mediated pathway in the nucleolar stress response in plants.

  3. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Iwai; Sugiyama, Munetaka

    2017-01-01

    The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized pathway of this stress response involves p53 and MDM2 as key players. p53 is a crucial transcription factor that functions in response to not only nucleolar stress but also other cellular stresses such as DNA damage stress. These cellular stresses release p53 from the inhibition by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting p53, in various ways, which leads to p53-dependent activation of a set of genes. In plants, genetic impairments of ribosome biogenesis factors or ribosome components have been shown to cause characteristic phenotypes, including a narrow and pointed leaf shape, implying a common signaling pathway connecting ribosomal perturbations and certain aspects of growth and development. Unlike animals, however, plants have neither p53 nor MDM2 family proteins. Then the question arises whether plant cells have a nucleolar stress response pathway. In recent years, it has been reported that several members of the plant-specific transcription factor family NAC play critical roles in the pathways responsive to various cellular stresses. In this mini review, we outline the plant cellular stress response pathways involving NAC transcription factors with reference to the p53-MDM2-dependent pathways of animal cells, and discuss the possible involvement of a plant-unique, NAC-mediated pathway in the nucleolar stress response in plants.

  4. TNF-α inhibits trophoblast integration into endothelial cellular networks.

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    Xu, B; Nakhla, S; Makris, A; Hennessy, A

    2011-03-01

    Preeclampsia has been linked to shallow trophoblast invasion and failure of uterine spiral artery transformation. Interaction between trophoblast cells and maternal uterine endothelium is critically important for this remodelling. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of TNF-α on the interactions of trophoblast-derived JEG-3 cells into capillary-like cellular networks. We have employed an in vitro trophoblast-endothelial cell co-culture model to quantify trophoblast integration into endothelial cellular networks and to investigate the effects of TNF-α. Controlled co-cultures were also treated with anti-TNF-α antibody (5 μg/ml) to specifically block the effect of TNF-α. The invasion was evaluated by performing quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) to analyse gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, integrins (α(1)β(1) and α(6)β(4)), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, E-cadherin and VE-cadherin. JEG-3 cell integration into endothelial networks was significantly inhibited by exogenous TNF-α. The inhibition was observed in the range of 0.2-5 ng/ml, to a maximum 56% inhibition at the highest concentration. This inhibition was reversed by anti-TNF-α antibody. Q-PCR analysis showed that mRNA expression of integrins α(1)β(1) and MMP-2 was significantly decreased. VE-cadherin mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated (32-80%, p integration into maternal endothelial cellular networks, and this process involves the inhibition of MMP-2 and a failure of integrins switch from α(6)β(4) to α(1)β(1.) These molecular correlations reflect the changes identified in human preeclampsia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Lawsonia inermis Extracts Inhibits Chromium(VI-Induced Cellular and DNA Toxicity

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    Gunjan Guha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI is a very strong oxidant which consequently causes high cytotoxicity through oxidative stress. Prevention of Cr(VI-induced cellular damage has been sought in this study in aqueous and methanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Lythraceae, commonly known as Henna. The extracts showed significant (P < .05 potential in scavenging free radicals (DPPH• and ABTS•+ and Fe3+, and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. DNA damage caused by exposure of pBR322 to Cr(VI-UV is markedly inhibited by both extracts in varying degrees. A distinct decline in Cr(VI-induced cytotoxicity was noticed in MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells with an increase in dosage of both extracts individually. Furthermore, both extracts proved to contain a high content of phenolic compounds which were found to have a strong and significant (P < .05 positive correlation to the radical scavenging potential, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity and cyto-protective efficiency against Cr(VI-induced oxidative cellular damage. HPLC analysis identified some of the major phenolic compounds in both extracts, which might be responsible for the antioxidant potential and the properties of DNA and cyto-protection. This study contributes to the search for natural resources that might yield potent therapeutic drugs against Cr(VI-induced oxidative cell damage.

  6. Alteration of cellular behavior and response to PI3K pathway inhibition by culture in 3D collagen gels.

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    Brian Fallica

    Full Text Available Most investigations into cancer cell drug response are performed with cells cultured on flat (2D tissue culture plastic. Emerging research has shown that the presence of a three-dimensional (3D extracellular matrix (ECM is critical for normal cell behavior including migration, adhesion, signaling, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigate differences between cancer cell signaling in 2D culture and a 3D ECM, employing real-time, live cell tracking to directly observe U2OS human osteosarcoma and MCF7 human breast cancer cells embedded in type 1 collagen gels. The activation of the important PI3K signaling pathway under these different growth conditions is studied, and the response to inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR with PI103 investigated. Cells grown in 3D gels show reduced proliferation and migration as well as reduced PI3K pathway activation when compared to cells grown in 2D. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that a collagen ECM can protect U2OS cells from PI103. Overall, our data suggests that 3D gels may provide a better medium for investigation of anti-cancer drugs than 2D monolayers, therefore allowing better understanding of cellular response and behavior in native like environments.

  7. Ketoconazole inhibits the cellular uptake of anandamide via inhibition of FAAH at pharmacologically relevant concentrations.

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    Emmelie Björklund

    Full Text Available The antifungal compound ketoconazole has, in addition to its ability to interfere with fungal ergosterol synthesis, effects upon other enzymes including human CYP3A4, CYP17, lipoxygenase and thromboxane synthetase. In the present study, we have investigated whether ketoconazole affects the cellular uptake and hydrolysis of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide (AEA.The effects of ketoconazole upon endocannabinoid uptake were investigated using HepG2, CaCo2, PC-3 and C6 cell lines. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH activity was measured in HepG2 cell lysates and in intact C6 cells. Ketoconazole inhibited the uptake of AEA by HepG2 cells and CaCo2 cells with IC50 values of 17 and 18 µM, respectively. In contrast, it had modest effects upon AEA uptake in PC-3 cells, which have a low expression of FAAH. In cell-free HepG2 lysates, ketoconazole inhibited FAAH activity with an IC50 value (for the inhibitable component of 34 µM.The present study indicates that ketoconazole can inhibit the cellular uptake of AEA at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, primarily due to its effects upon FAAH. Ketoconazole may be useful as a template for the design of dual-action FAAH/CYP17 inhibitors as a novel strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  8. Role of toll-like receptors 3, 4 and 7 in cellular uptake and response to titanium dioxide nanoparticles

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    Peng Chen, Koki Kanehira and Akiyoshi Taniguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune response is believed to be among the earliest provisional cellular responses, and mediates the interactions between microbes and cells. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are critical to these interactions. We hypothesize that TLRs also play an important role in interactions between nanoparticles (NPs and cells, although little information has been reported concerning such an interaction. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR7 in cellular uptake of titanium dioxide NP (TiO2 NP agglomerates and the resulting inflammatory responses to these NPs. Our data indicate that TLR4 is involved in the uptake of TiO2 NPs and promotes the associated inflammatory responses. The data also suggest that TLR3, which has a subcellular location distinct from that of TLR4, inhibits the denaturation of cellular protein caused by TiO2 NPs. In contrast, the unique cellular localization of TLR7 has middle-ground functional roles in cellular response after TiO2 NP exposure. These findings are important for understanding the molecular interaction mechanisms between NPs and cells.

  9. Silencing of ribosomal protein S9 elicits a multitude of cellular responses inhibiting the growth of cancer cells subsequent to p53 activation.

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    Mikael S Lindström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disruption of the nucleolus often leads to activation of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway through inhibition of MDM2 that is mediated by a limited set of ribosomal proteins including RPL11 and RPL5. The effects of ribosomal protein loss in cultured mammalian cells have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we characterize the cellular stress response caused by depletion of ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Depletion of RPS9 impaired production of 18S ribosomal RNA and induced p53 activity. It promoted p53-dependent morphological differentiation of U343MGa Cl2:6 glioma cells as evidenced by intensified expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and profound changes in cell shape. U2OS osteosarcoma cells displayed a limited senescence response with increased expression of DNA damage response markers, whereas HeLa cervical carcinoma cells underwent cell death by apoptosis. Knockdown of RPL11 impaired p53-dependent phenotypes in the different RPS9 depleted cell cultures. Importantly, knockdown of RPS9 or RPL11 also markedly inhibited cell proliferation through p53-independent mechanisms. RPL11 binding to MDM2 was retained despite decreased levels of RPL11 protein following nucleolar stress. In these settings, RPL11 was critical for maintaining p53 protein stability but was not strictly required for p53 protein synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: p53 plays an important role in the initial restriction of cell proliferation that occurs in response to decreased level of RPS9. Our results do not exclude the possibility that other nucleolar stress sensing molecules act upstream or in parallel to RPL11 to activate p53. Inhibiting the expression of certain ribosomal proteins, such as RPS9, could be one efficient way to reinitiate differentiation processes or to induce senescence or apoptosis in rapidly proliferating tumor cells.

  10. Characterizing heterogeneous cellular responses to perturbations.

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    Slack, Michael D; Martinez, Elisabeth D; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J

    2008-12-09

    Cellular populations have been widely observed to respond heterogeneously to perturbation. However, interpreting the observed heterogeneity is an extremely challenging problem because of the complexity of possible cellular phenotypes, the large dimension of potential perturbations, and the lack of methods for separating meaningful biological information from noise. Here, we develop an image-based approach to characterize cellular phenotypes based on patterns of signaling marker colocalization. Heterogeneous cellular populations are characterized as mixtures of phenotypically distinct subpopulations, and responses to perturbations are summarized succinctly as probabilistic redistributions of these mixtures. We apply our method to characterize the heterogeneous responses of cancer cells to a panel of drugs. We find that cells treated with drugs of (dis-)similar mechanism exhibit (dis-)similar patterns of heterogeneity. Despite the observed phenotypic diversity of cells observed within our data, low-complexity models of heterogeneity were sufficient to distinguish most classes of drug mechanism. Our approach offers a computational framework for assessing the complexity of cellular heterogeneity, investigating the degree to which perturbations induce redistributions of a limited, but nontrivial, repertoire of underlying states and revealing functional significance contained within distinct patterns of heterogeneous responses.

  11. Extracellular cystatin SN and cathepsin B prevent cellular senescence by inhibiting abnormal glycogen accumulation.

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    Oh, Sang-Seok; Park, Soojong; Lee, Ki-Won; Madhi, Hamadi; Park, Sae Gwang; Lee, Hee Gu; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Yoo, Jiyun; Dong Kim, Kwang

    2017-04-06

    Cystatin SN (CST1), a known inhibitor of cathepsin B (CatB), has important roles in tumor development. Paradoxically, CatB is a member of the cysteine cathepsin family that acts in cellular processes, such as tumor development and invasion. However, the relationship between CST1 and CatB, and their roles in tumor development are poorly understood. In this study, we observed that the knockdown of CST1 induced the activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, a marker of cellular senescence, and expression of senescence-associated secretory phenotype genes, including interleukin-6 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20, in MDA-MB-231 and SW480 cancer cells. Furthermore, CST1 knockdown decreased extracellular CatB activity, and direct CatB inhibition, using specific inhibitors or shCatB, induced cellular senescence. Reconstitution of CST1 restored CatB activity and inhibited cellular senescence in CST1 knockdown cells. CST1 knockdown or CatB inhibition increased glycogen synthase (GS) kinase 3β phosphorylation at serine 9, resulting in the activation of GS and the induction of glycogen accumulation associated with cellular senescence. Importantly, CST1 knockdown suppressed cancer cell proliferation, soft agar colony growth and tumor growth in a xenograft model. These results indicate that CST1-mediated extracellular CatB activity enhances tumor development by preventing cellular senescence. Our findings suggest that antagonists of CST1 or inhibitors of CatB are potential anticancer agents.

  12. Cellular response of Campylobacter jejuni to trisodium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Cohn, M. T.; Stabler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The highly alkaline compound trisodium phosphate (TSP) is used as an intervention to reduce the load of Campylobacter on poultry meat in U.S. poultry slaughter plants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular responses of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 when exposed to sublethal...... exposure; however, the response was mainly associated with ion transport processes. C. jejuni NCTC11168 nhaA1 (Cj1655c) and nhaA2 (Cj1654c), which encode orthologues to the Escherichia coli NhaA cation/proton antiporter, were able to partially restore TSP, alkaline, and sodium resistance phenotypes to an E....... coli cation/proton antiporter mutant. In addition, inhibition of resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) multidrug efflux pumps by the inhibitor PaβN (Phe-Arg β-naphthylamide dihydrochloride) decreased tolerance to sublethal TSP. Therefore, we propose that NhaA1/NhaA2 cation/proton antiporters...

  13. CD83 Antibody Inhibits Human B Cell Responses to Antigen as well as Dendritic Cell-Mediated CD4 T Cell Responses.

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    Wong, Kuan Y; Baron, Rebecca; Seldon, Therese A; Jones, Martina L; Rice, Alison M; Munster, David J

    2018-05-15

    Anti-CD83 Ab capable of Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity can deplete activated CD83 + human dendritic cells, thereby inhibiting CD4 T cell-mediated acute graft-versus-host disease. As CD83 is also expressed on the surface of activated B lymphocytes, we hypothesized that anti-CD83 would also inhibit B cell responses to stimulation. We found that anti-CD83 inhibited total IgM and IgG production in vitro by allostimulated human PBMC. Also, Ag-specific Ab responses to immunization of SCID mice xenografted with human PBMC were inhibited by anti-CD83 treatment. This inhibition occurred without depletion of all human B cells because anti-CD83 lysed activated CD83 + B cells by Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and spared resting (CD83 - ) B cells. In cultured human PBMC, anti-CD83 inhibited tetanus toxoid-stimulated B cell proliferation and concomitant dendritic cell-mediated CD4 T cell proliferation and expression of IFN-γ and IL-17A, with minimal losses of B cells (80% of B cells but had no effect on CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine expression. By virtue of the ability of anti-CD83 to selectively deplete activated, but not resting, B cells and dendritic cells, with the latter reducing CD4 T cell responses, anti-CD83 may be clinically useful in autoimmunity and transplantation. Advantages might include inhibited expansion of autoantigen- or alloantigen-specific B cells and CD4 T cells, thus preventing further production of pathogenic Abs and inflammatory cytokines while preserving protective memory and regulatory cells. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Submicron and nano formulations of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide stimulate unique cellular toxicological responses in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

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    Gunawan, Cindy, E-mail: c.gunawan@unsw.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Sirimanoonphan, Aunchisa [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Teoh, Wey Yang [Clean Energy and Nanotechnology (CLEAN) Laboratory, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Marquis, Christopher P., E-mail: c.marquis@unsw.edu.au [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Amal, Rose [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Uptake of TiO{sub 2} solids by C. reinhardtii generates ROS as an early stress response. • Submicron and nanoTiO{sub 2} exhibit benign effect on cell proliferation. • Uptake of ZnO solids and leached zinc by C. reinhardtii inhibit the alga growth. • No cellular oxidative stress is detected with submicron and nano ZnO exposure. • The toxicity of particles is not necessarily mediated by cellular oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The work investigates the eco-cytoxicity of submicron and nano TiO{sub 2} and ZnO, arising from the unique interactions of freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to soluble and undissolved components of the metal oxides. In a freshwater medium, submicron and nano TiO{sub 2} exist as suspended aggregates with no-observable leaching. Submicron and nano ZnO undergo comparable concentration-dependent fractional leaching, and exist as dissolved zinc and aggregates of undissolved ZnO. Cellular internalisation of solid TiO{sub 2} stimulates cellular ROS generation as an early stress response. The cellular redox imbalance was observed for both submicron and nano TiO{sub 2} exposure, despite exhibiting benign effects on the alga proliferation (8-day EC50 > 100 mg TiO{sub 2}/L). Parallel exposure of C. reinhardtii to submicron and nano ZnO saw cellular uptake of both the leached zinc and solid ZnO and resulting in inhibition of the alga growth (8-day EC50 ≥ 0.01 mg ZnO/L). Despite the sensitivity, no zinc-induced cellular ROS generation was detected, even at 100 mg ZnO/L exposure. Taken together, the observations confront the generally accepted paradigm of cellular oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of particles. The knowledge of speciation of particles and the corresponding stimulation of unique cellular responses and cytotoxicity is vital for assessment of the environmental implications of these materials.

  15. Submicron and nano formulations of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide stimulate unique cellular toxicological responses in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawan, Cindy; Sirimanoonphan, Aunchisa; Teoh, Wey Yang; Marquis, Christopher P.; Amal, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Uptake of TiO 2 solids by C. reinhardtii generates ROS as an early stress response. • Submicron and nanoTiO 2 exhibit benign effect on cell proliferation. • Uptake of ZnO solids and leached zinc by C. reinhardtii inhibit the alga growth. • No cellular oxidative stress is detected with submicron and nano ZnO exposure. • The toxicity of particles is not necessarily mediated by cellular oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The work investigates the eco-cytoxicity of submicron and nano TiO 2 and ZnO, arising from the unique interactions of freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to soluble and undissolved components of the metal oxides. In a freshwater medium, submicron and nano TiO 2 exist as suspended aggregates with no-observable leaching. Submicron and nano ZnO undergo comparable concentration-dependent fractional leaching, and exist as dissolved zinc and aggregates of undissolved ZnO. Cellular internalisation of solid TiO 2 stimulates cellular ROS generation as an early stress response. The cellular redox imbalance was observed for both submicron and nano TiO 2 exposure, despite exhibiting benign effects on the alga proliferation (8-day EC50 > 100 mg TiO 2 /L). Parallel exposure of C. reinhardtii to submicron and nano ZnO saw cellular uptake of both the leached zinc and solid ZnO and resulting in inhibition of the alga growth (8-day EC50 ≥ 0.01 mg ZnO/L). Despite the sensitivity, no zinc-induced cellular ROS generation was detected, even at 100 mg ZnO/L exposure. Taken together, the observations confront the generally accepted paradigm of cellular oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of particles. The knowledge of speciation of particles and the corresponding stimulation of unique cellular responses and cytotoxicity is vital for assessment of the environmental implications of these materials

  16. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

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    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Fukushima, Nobuyuki [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • LPA{sub 5} inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA{sub 5} suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA{sub 5} on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA{sub 1} in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA{sub 5} in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA{sub 5} acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA{sub 1}–LPA{sub 6}) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA{sub 1} inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA{sub 5} in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 5} on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA{sub 5} may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA{sub 1}.

  17. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • LPA 5 inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA 5 suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA 5 on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA 1 in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA 5 in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA 5 acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA 1 –LPA 6 ) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA 1 inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA 5 in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA 1 and LPA 5 on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA 5 may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA 1

  18. Inhibition of Catalase by Tea Catechins in Free and Cellular State: A Biophysical Approach

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    Pal, Sandip; Dey, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Chabita

    2014-01-01

    Tea flavonoids bind to variety of enzymes and inhibit their activities. In the present study, binding and inhibition of catalase activity by catechins with respect to their structure-affinity relationship has been elucidated. Fluorimetrically determined binding constants for (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with catalase were observed to be 2.27×106 M−1 and 1.66×106 M−1, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters evidence exothermic and spontaneous interaction between catechins and catalase. Major forces of interaction are suggested to be through hydrogen bonding along with electrostatic contributions and conformational changes. Distinct loss of α-helical structure of catalase by interaction with EGCG was captured in circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Gallated catechins demonstrated higher binding constants and inhibition efficacy than non-gallated catechins. EGCG exhibited maximum inhibition of pure catalase. It also inhibited cellular catalase in K562 cancer cells with significant increase in cellular ROS and suppression of cell viability (IC50 54.5 µM). These results decipher the molecular mechanism by which tea catechins interact with catalase and highlight the potential of gallated catechin like EGCG as an anticancer drug. EGCG may have other non-specific targets in the cell, but its anticancer property is mainly defined by ROS accumulation due to catalase inhibition. PMID:25025898

  19. Calicivirus 3C-like proteinase inhibits cellular translation by cleavage of poly(A)-binding protein.

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    Kuyumcu-Martinez, Muge; Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Green, Kim Y; Lloyd, Richard E

    2004-08-01

    Caliciviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a wide range of diseases in both humans and animals, but little is known about the regulation of cellular translation during infection. We used two distinct calicivirus strains, MD145-12 (genus Norovirus) and feline calicivirus (FCV) (genus Vesivirus), to investigate potential strategies used by the caliciviruses to inhibit cellular translation. Recombinant 3C-like proteinases (r3CL(pro)) from norovirus and FCV were found to cleave poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in the absence of other viral proteins. The norovirus r3CL(pro) PABP cleavage products were indistinguishable from those generated by poliovirus (PV) 3C(pro) cleavage, while the FCV r3CL(pro) products differed due to cleavage at an alternate cleavage site 24 amino acids downstream of one of the PV 3C(pro) cleavage sites. All cleavages by calicivirus or PV proteases separated the C-terminal domain of PABP that binds translation factors eIF4B and eRF3 from the N-terminal RNA-binding domain of PABP. The effect of PABP cleavage by the norovirus r3CL(pro) was analyzed in HeLa cell translation extracts, and the presence of r3CL(pro) inhibited translation of both endogenous and exogenous mRNAs. Translation inhibition was poly(A) dependent, and replenishment of the extracts with PABP restored translation. Analysis of FCV-infected feline kidney cells showed that the levels of de novo cellular protein synthesis decreased over time as virus-specific proteins accumulated, and cleavage of PABP occurred in virus-infected cells. Our data indicate that the calicivirus 3CL(pro), like PV 3C(pro), mediates the cleavage of PABP as part of its strategy to inhibit cellular translation. PABP cleavage may be a common mechanism among certain virus families to manipulate cellular translation.

  20. The Cellular Prion Protein Prevents Copper-Induced Inhibition of P2X4 Receptors

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    Ramón A. Lorca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrPC remains unknown, several evidences support the notion of its role in copper homeostasis. PrPC binds Cu2+ through a domain composed by four to five repeats of eight amino acids. Previously, we have shown that the perfusion of this domain prevents and reverses the inhibition by Cu2+ of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP-evoked currents in the P2X4 receptor subtype, highlighting a modulatory role for PrPC in synaptic transmission through regulation of Cu2+ levels. Here, we study the effect of full-length PrPC in Cu2+ inhibition of P2X4 receptor when both are coexpressed. PrPC expression does not significantly change the ATP concentration-response curve in oocytes expressing P2X4 receptors. However, the presence of PrPC reduces the inhibition by Cu2+ of the ATP-elicited currents in these oocytes, confirming our previous observations with the Cu2+ binding domain. Thus, our observations suggest a role for PrPC in modulating synaptic activity through binding of extracellular Cu2+.

  1. Resveratrol Inhibition of Cellular Respiration: New Paradigm for an Old Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Madrigal-Perez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, RSV has emerged as an important molecule in the biomedical area. This is due to its antioxidant and health benefits exerted in mammals. Nonetheless, early studies have also demonstrated its toxic properties toward plant-pathogenic fungi of this phytochemical. Both effects appear to be opposed and caused by different molecular mechanisms. However, the inhibition of cellular respiration is a hypothesis that might explain both toxic and beneficial properties of resveratrol, since this phytochemical: (1 decreases the production of energy of plant-pathogenic organisms, which prevents their proliferation; (2 increases adenosine monophosphate/adenosine diphosphate (AMP/ADP ratio that can lead to AMP protein kinase (AMPK activation, which is related to its health effects, and (3 increases the reactive oxygen species generation by the inhibition of electron transport. This pro-oxidant effect induces expression of antioxidant enzymes as a mechanism to counteract oxidative stress. In this review, evidence is discussed that supports the hypothesis that cellular respiration is the main target of resveratrol.

  2. Inhibition of TGFbeta1 Signaling Attenutates ATM Activity inResponse to Genotoxic Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam B.; Lavin, Martin J.; Koslov, Sergei; Shiloh, Yosef; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}), which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiological and pathological processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}1 null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17 and p53, reduced {gamma}H2AX radiation-induced foci, and increased radiosensitivity compared to TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM that directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate and tissue integrity. Thus, TGF{beta}1, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.

  3. Programmed cellular response to ionizing radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crompton, N.E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Three forms of radiation response were investigated to evaluate the hypothesis that cellular radiation response is the result of active molecular signaling and not simply a passive physicochemical process. The decision whether or not a cell should respond to radiation-induced damage either by induction of rescue systems, e.g. mobilization of repair proteins, or induction of suicide mechanisms, e.g. programmed cell death, appears to be the expression of intricate cellular biochemistry. A cell must recognize damage in its genetic material and then activate the appropriate responses. Cell type is important; the response of a fibroblast to radiation damage is both quantitatively and qualitatively different form that of a lymphocyte. The programmed component of radiation response is significant in radiation oncology and predicted to create unique opportunities for enhanced treatment success. (orig.)

  4. Proactive modulation of long-interval intracortical inhibition during response inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Matthew J.; MacDonald, Hayley J.; Cirillo, John

    2016-01-01

    Daily activities often require sudden cancellation of preplanned movement, termed response inhibition. When only a subcomponent of a whole response must be suppressed (required here on Partial trials), the ensuing component is markedly delayed. The neural mechanisms underlying partial response inhibition remain unclear. We hypothesized that Partial trials would be associated with nonselective corticomotor suppression and that GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition within primary motor cortex might be responsible for the nonselective corticomotor suppression contributing to Partial trial response delays. Sixteen right-handed participants performed a bimanual anticipatory response inhibition task while single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to elicit motor evoked potentials in the left first dorsal interosseous muscle. Lift times, amplitude of motor evoked potentials, and long-interval intracortical inhibition were examined across the different trial types (Go, Stop-Left, Stop-Right, Stop-Both). Go trials produced a tight distribution of lift times around the target, whereas those during Partial trials (Stop-Left and Stop-Right) were substantially delayed. The modulation of motor evoked potential amplitude during Stop-Right trials reflected anticipation, suppression, and subsequent reinitiation of movement. Importantly, suppression was present across all Stop trial types, indicative of a “default” nonselective inhibitory process. Compared with blocks containing only Go trials, inhibition increased when Stop trials were introduced but did not differ between trial types. The amount of inhibition was positively correlated with lift times during Stop-Right trials. Tonic levels of inhibition appear to be proactively modulated by task context and influence the speed at which unimanual responses occur after a nonselective “brake” is applied. PMID:27281744

  5. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  6. A biphasic endothelial stress-survival mechanism regulates the cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, Antony M.; Odell, Adam F.; Mughal, Nadeem A.; Issitt, Theo; Ulyatt, Clare; Walker, John H.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is an essential cytokine that regulates endothelial function and angiogenesis. VEGF-A binding to endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases such as VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 triggers cellular responses including survival, proliferation and new blood vessel sprouting. Increased levels of a soluble VEGFR1 splice variant (sFlt-1) correlate with endothelial dysfunction in pathologies such as pre-eclampsia; however the cellular mechanism(s) underlying the regulation and function of sFlt-1 are unclear. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a biphasic stress response in endothelial cells, using serum deprivation as a model of endothelial dysfunction. The early phase is characterized by a high VEGFR2:sFlt-1 ratio, which is reversed in the late phase. A functional consequence is a short-term increase in VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling. In the late phase, sFlt-1 is secreted and deposited at the extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that under stress, increased endothelial sFlt-1 levels reduce VEGF-A bioavailability: VEGF-A treatment induces sFlt-1 expression at the cell surface and VEGF-A silencing inhibits sFlt-1 anchorage to the extracellular matrix. Treatment with recombinant sFlt-1 inhibits VEGF-A-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and sFlt-1 silencing enhances this process. In this response, increased VEGFR2 levels are regulated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and PKB/Akt signaling pathways and increased sFlt-1 levels by the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. We conclude that during serum withdrawal, cellular sensing of environmental stress modulates sFlt-1 and VEGFR2 levels, regulating VEGF-A bioavailability and ensuring cell survival takes precedence over cell proliferation and migration. These findings may underpin an important mechanism contributing to endothelial dysfunction in pathological states. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells mount a stress response under conditions of low serum. ► Endothelial VEGFR levels are

  7. Prior acetaminophen consumption impacts the early adaptive cellular response of human skeletal muscle to resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lugos, Andrew C; Patel, Shivam H; Ormsby, Jordan C; Curtis, Donald P; Fry, Christopher S; Carroll, Chad C; Dickinson, Jared M

    2018-04-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) is a powerful stimulus for skeletal muscle adaptation. Previous data demonstrate that cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibiting drugs alter the cellular mechanisms regulating the adaptive response of skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior consumption of the COX inhibitor acetaminophen (APAP) alters the immediate adaptive cellular response in human skeletal muscle after RE. In a double-blinded, randomized, crossover design, healthy young men ( n = 8, 25 ± 1 yr) performed two trials of unilateral knee extension RE (8 sets, 10 reps, 65% max strength). Subjects ingested either APAP (1,000 mg/6 h) or placebo (PLA) for 24 h before RE (final dose consumed immediately after RE). Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were collected at rest and 1 h and 3 h after exercise. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 signaling was assessed through immunoblot and immunohistochemistry, and mRNA expression of myogenic genes was examined via RT-qPCR. At 1 h p-rpS6 Ser240/244 was increased in both groups but to a greater extent in PLA. At 3 h p-S6K1 Thr389 was elevated only in PLA. Furthermore, localization of mTOR to the lysosome (LAMP2) in myosin heavy chain (MHC) II fibers increased 3 h after exercise only in PLA. mTOR-LAMP2 colocalization in MHC I fibers was greater in PLA vs. APAP 1 h after exercise. Myostatin mRNA expression was reduced 1 h after exercise only in PLA. MYF6 mRNA expression was increased 1 h and 3 h after exercise only in APAP. APAP consumption appears to alter the early adaptive cellular response of skeletal muscle to RE. These findings further highlight the mechanisms through which COX-inhibiting drugs impact the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The extent to which the cellular reaction to acetaminophen impacts the mechanisms regulating the adaptive response of human skeletal muscle to resistance exercise is not well understood. Consumption of acetaminophen before

  8. Proteomic characterization of an isolated fraction of synthetic proteasome inhibitor (PSI-induced inclusions in PC12 cells might offer clues to aggresomes as a cellular defensive response against proteasome inhibition by PSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing'an

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cooperation of constituents of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS with chaperone proteins in degrading proteins mediate a wide range of cellular processes, such as synaptic function and neurotransmission, gene transcription, protein trafficking, mitochondrial function and metabolism, antioxidant defence mechanisms, and apoptotic signal transduction. It is supposed that constituents of the UPS and chaperone proteins are recruited into aggresomes where aberrant and potentially cytotoxic proteins may be sequestered in an inactive form. Results To determinate the proteomic pattern of synthetic proteasome inhibitor (PSI-induced inclusions in PC12 cells after proteasome inhibition by PSI, we analyzed a fraction of PSI-induced inclusions. A proteomic feature of the isolated fraction was characterized by identification of fifty six proteins including twenty previously reported protein components of Lewy bodies, twenty eight newly identified proteins and eight unknown proteins. These proteins, most of which were recognized as a profile of proteins within cellular processes mediated by the UPS, a profile of constituents of the UPS and a profile of chaperone proteins, are classed into at least nine accepted categories. In addition, prolyl-4-hydroxylase beta polypeptide, an endoplasmic reticulum member of the protein disulfide isomerase family, was validated in the developmental process of PSI-induced inclusions in the cells. Conclusions It is speculated that proteomic characterization of an isolated fraction of PSI-induced inclusions in PC12 cells might offer clues to appearance of aggresomes serving as a cellular defensive response against proteasome inhibition.

  9. Influence of Macromolecular Biosynthesis on Cellular Autolysis in Streptococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayare, Mitchel; Daneo-Moore, Lolita; Shockman, Gerald D.

    1972-01-01

    The addition of several different antibiotics to growing cultures of Streptococcus faecalis, ATCC 9790, was found to inhibit autolysis of cells in sodium phosphate buffer. When added to exponential-phase cultures, mitomycin C (0.4 μg/ml) or phenethyl alcohol (3 mg/ml) inhibited deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, but did not appreciably affect the rate of cellular autolysis. Addition of chloramphenicol (10 μg/ml), tetracycline (0.5 μg/ml), puromycin (25 μg/ml), or 5-azacytidine (5 μg/ml) to exponential-phase cultures inhibited protein synthesis and profoundly decreased the rate of cellular autolysis. Actinomycin D (0.075 μg/ml) and rifampin (0.01 μg/ml), both inhibitors of ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis, also reduced the rate of cellular autolysis. However, the inhibitory effect of actinomycin D and rifampin on cellular autolysis was more closely correlated with their concomitant secondary inhibition of protein synthesis than with the more severe inhibition of RNA synthesis. The dose-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis by 5-azacytidine was quickly diluted out of a growing culture. Reversal of inhibition was accompanied by a disproportionately rapid increase in the ability of cells to autolyze. Thus, inhibition of the ability of cells to autolyze can be most closely related to inhibition of protein synthesis. Furthermore, the rapidity of the response of cellular autolysis to inhibitors of protein synthesis suggests that regulation is exerted at the level of autolytic enzyme activity and not enzyme synthesis. PMID:4116754

  10. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  11. Dual inhibition of γ-oryzanol on cellular melanogenesis: inhibition of tyrosinase activity and reduction of melanogenic gene expression by a protein kinase A-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hee-jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Bo-Ram; Seo, Woo-Duck; Kang, Hang-Won; Kim, Dong-Woo; Cho, Kang-Jin; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-10-26

    The in vitro effects on melanogenesis of γ-oryzanol (1), a rice bran-derived phytosterol, were investigated. The melanin content in B16F1 cells was significantly and dose-dependently reduced (-13% and -28% at 3 and 30 μM, respectively). Tyrosinase enzyme activity was inhibited by 1 both in a cell-free assay and when analyzed based on the measurement of cellular tyrosinase activity. Transcriptome analysis was performed to investigate the biological pathways altered by 1, and it was found that gene expression involving protein kinase A (PKA) signaling was markedly altered. Subsequent analyses revealed that 1 stimulation in B16 cells reduced cytosolic cAMP concentrations, PKA activity (-13% for cAMP levels and -40% for PKA activity), and phosphorylation of the cAMP-response element binding protein (-57%), which, in turn, downregulated the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF; -59% for mRNA and -64% for protein), a key melanogenic gene transcription factor. Accordingly, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1; -69% for mRNA and -82% for protein) and dopachrome tautomerase (-51% for mRNA and -92% for protein) in 1-stimulated B16F1 cells were also downregulated. These results suggest that 1 has dual inhibitory activities for cellular melanogenesis by inhibiting tyrosinase enzyme activity and reducing MITF and target genes in the PKA-dependent pathway.

  12. Cellular Stress Response to Engineered Nanoparticles: Effect of Size, Surface Coating, and Cellular Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    CELLULAR STRESS RESPONSE TO ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES: EFFECT OF SIZE, SURFACE COATING, AND CELLULAR UPTAKE RY Prasad 1, JK McGee2, MG Killius1 D Ackerman2, CF Blackman2 DM DeMarini2 , SO Simmons2 1 Student Services Contractor, US EPA, RTP, NC 2 US EPA, RTP, NC The num...

  13. Standardized Kaempferia parviflora Extract Inhibits Intrinsic Aging Process in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Hairless Mice by Inhibiting Cellular Senescence and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Eun Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic skin aging is a complex biological phenomenon mainly caused by cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of Kaempferia parviflora Wall ex. Baker ethanol extract (KPE on H2O2-stimulated cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction both in vitro and in vivo. KPE significantly increased cell growth and suppressed senescence-associated β-galactosidase activation. KPE inhibited the expression of cell-cycle inhibitors (p53, p21, p16, and pRb and stimulated the expression of cell-cycle activators (E2F1 and E2F2. H2O2-induced hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (AKT signaling pathway was suppressed by KPE through regulated expression of forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. KPE attenuated inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and increased the mRNA expression of PGC-1α, ERRα, NRF1, and Tfam, which modulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Consequently, reduced ATP levels and increased ROS level were also reversed by KPE treatment. In hairless mice, KPE inhibited wrinkle formation, skin atrophy, and loss of elasticity by increasing the collagen and elastic fibers. The results indicate that KPE prevents intrinsic aging process in hairless mice by inhibiting cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting its potential as a natural antiaging agent.

  14. Cellular responses to modified Plasmodium falciparum MSP119 antigens in individuals previously exposed to natural malaria infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awobode Henrietta O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MSP1 processing-inhibitory antibodies bind to epitopes on the 19 kDa C-terminal region of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119, inhibiting erythrocyte invasion. Blocking antibodies also bind to this antigen but prevent inhibitory antibodies binding, allowing invasion to proceed. Recombinant MSP119 had been modified previously to allow inhibitory but not blocking antibodies to continue to bind. Immunization with these modified proteins, therefore, has the potential to induce more effective protective antibodies. However, it was unclear whether the modification of MSP119 would affect critical T-cell responses to epitopes in this antigen. Methods The cellular responses to wild-type MSP119 and a panel of modified MSP119 antigens were measured using an in-vitro assay for two groups of individuals: the first were malaria-naïve and the second had been naturally exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection. The cellular responses to the modified proteins were examined using cells from malaria-exposed infants and adults. Results Interestingly, stimulation indices (SI for responses induced by some of the modified proteins were at least two-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type MSP119. A protein with four amino acid substitutions (Glu27→Tyr, Leu31→Arg, Tyr34→Ser and Glu43→Leu had the highest stimulation index (SI up to 360 and induced large responses in 64% of the samples that had significant cellular responses to the modified proteins. Conclusion This study suggests that specific MSP119 variants that have been engineered to improve their antigenicity for inhibitory antibodies, retain T-cell epitopes and the ability to induce cellular responses. These proteins are candidates for the development of MSP1-based malaria vaccines.

  15. Modulation of cellular radiation responses by 2-deoxy-D-glucose and other glycolytic inhibitors: Implications for cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalia Vijay; Prabhakara S; Narayanan Vidya

    2009-01-01

    Background: 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolytic inhibitor, was observed earlier to increase DNA, chromosomal, and cellular damage in tumor cells, by inhibiting energy-dependent repair processes. Lonidamine (LND) selectively inhibits glycolysis in cancer cells. It damages the condensed mitochondria in these cells, impairing thereby the activity of hexokinase (predominantly attached to the outer mitochondrial membranes). It inhibits repair of radiation-induced potentially lethal cellular da...

  16. Differential sensitivities of cellular XPA and PARP-1 to arsenite inhibition and zinc rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xixi; Cooper, Karen L; Huestis, Juliana; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2017-09-15

    Arsenite directly binds to the zinc finger domains of the DNA repair protein poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, and inhibits PARP-1 activity in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. PARP inhibition by arsenite enhances ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage in keratinocytes, and the increase in DNA damage is reduced by zinc supplementation. However, little is known about the effects of arsenite and zinc on the zinc finger nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). In this study, we investigated the difference in response to arsenite exposure between XPA and PARP-1, and the differential effectiveness of zinc supplementation in restoring protein DNA binding and DNA damage repair. Arsenite targeted both XPA and PARP-1 in human keratinocytes, resulting in zinc loss from each protein and a pronounced decrease in XPA and PARP-1 binding to chromatin as demonstrated by Chip-on-Western assays. Zinc effectively restored DNA binding of PARP-1 and XPA to chromatin when zinc concentrations were equal to those of arsenite. In contrast, zinc was more effective in rescuing arsenite-augmented direct UVR-induced DNA damage than oxidative DNA damage. Taken together, our findings indicate that arsenite interferes with PARP-1 and XPA binding to chromatin, and that zinc supplementation fully restores DNA binding activity to both proteins in the cellular context. Interestingly, rescue of arsenite-inhibited DNA damage repair by supplemental zinc was more sensitive for DNA damage repaired by the XPA-associated NER pathway than for the PARP-1-dependent BER pathway. This study expands our understanding of arsenite's role in DNA repair inhibition and co-carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellular Response to Ionizing Radiation: A MicroRNA Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Mohammad; Asghari, S. Mohsen; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Moslemi, Dariush; Parsian, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They play a crucial role in diverse cellular pathways. Ionizing radiation (IR) is one of the most important treatment protocols for patients that suffer from cancer and affects directly or indirectly cellular integration. Recently it has been discovered that microRNA-mediated gene regulation interferes with radio-related pathways in ionizing radiation. Here, we review the recent discoveries about miRNAs in cellular response to IR. Thoroughly understanding the mechanism of miRNAs in radiation response, it will be possible to design new strategies for improving radiotherapy efficiency and ultimately cancer treatment. PMID:24551775

  18. Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with concomitant induction of cellular immune responses by a tetraaza-macrocycle with acetate pendant arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S; Ordway, D; Arroz, M J; Costa, J; Delgado, R

    2001-01-01

    The novel tetraaza-macrocyclic compound 3,7,11-tris(carboxymethyl)-3,7,11,17-tetraaza-bicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),13,15-triene, abbreviated as ac3py14, was investigated for its activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for induction of protective cellular immune responses. Perspective results show that ac3py14 and its Fe3+ 1:1 complex, [Fe(ac3py14)], inhibited radiometric growth of several strains of M. tuberculosis. Inhibition with 25 microg/mL varied from 99% for H37Rv to 80% and above for multiple drug-resistant clinical isolates. The capacity of ac3py14 to elicit a beneficial immune response without cellular apoptosis was assessed and compared to the effects of virulent M. tuberculosis. The present study produces evidence that after stimulation with ac3py14 there was significant production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), whereas the production of interleukin-5 (IL-5) remained low, and there was development of a memory population (CD45RO). The level of binding of Annexin V, a marker of apoptosis, was not sufficient to result in toxic effects toward alphabeta and gammadelta T cells and CD14+ macrophages. This preliminary study is the first report of a compound that simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect against M. tuberculosis and induces factors associated with protective immune responses.

  19. Humoral and cellular immune responses to modified hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings indicate that the vaccine induced both a humoral and cellular ... Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Plasmid DNA, Vaccine, Spleen cytokines, Humoral and cellular immune responses ... produced in mice. ... were performed and HBsAg specific IgM and IgG ..... and protection elicited against Plasmodium berghei.

  20. Exogenously triggered response inhibition in developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between children's exogenously triggered response inhibition and stuttering. Participants were 18 children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 9;01 years) and 18 children who not stutter (CWNS; mean age = 9;01 years). Participants were matched on age (±3 months) and gender. Response inhibition was assessed by a stop signal task (Verbruggen, Logan, & Stevens, 2008). Results suggest that CWS, compared to CWNS, perform comparable to CWNS in a task where response control is externally triggered. Our findings seem to indicate that previous questionnaire-based findings (Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) of a decreased efficiency of response inhibition cannot be generalized to all types of response inhibition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dose-dependent inhibition of BACE-1 by the monoterpenoid 2,3,4,4-tetramethyl-5-methylenecyclopent-2-enone in cellular and mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira, Rita; Castanheira, Pedro; Grãos, Mário; Resende, Rosa; Salgueiro, Lígia; Faro, Carlos; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2014-06-27

    BACE-1 is an aspartic protease involved in the conversion of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to amyloid-β (Aβ) in vivo, which is one of the key steps in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease. In a previous screening procedure for inhibitors of BACE-1 activity, the oil of Lavandula luisieri was identified as the most potent among several essential oils. The inhibitory effect of this essential oil on Aβ production was also demonstrated in a cellular assay. The composition of the volatile oil and the isolation of the compound responsible for the inhibitory activity were also reported. The present work focused on the characterization of the inhibition of BACE-1 by this active compound, a monoterpene necrodane ketone, 2,3,4,4-tetramethyl-5-methylenecyclopent-2-enone (1), with assessment of its Ki value and the type of inhibition. The dose-related effects of the compound were also evaluated using two different cell lines, with determinations of the respective EC50 values. The entire oil and the 2,3,4,4-tetramethyl-5-methylenecyclopent-2-enone (1) were tested on a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The overall results showed that compound 1 displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of BACE-1 in cellular and mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and is therefore capable of passing through cellular membranes and the blood-brain barrier.

  2. ISG15 inhibits Nedd4 ubiquitin E3 activity and enhances the innate antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, Oxana A; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2008-04-04

    Interferons regulate diverse immune functions through the transcriptional activation of hundreds of genes involved in anti-viral responses. The interferon-inducible ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 is expressed in cells in response to a variety of stress conditions like viral or bacterial infection and is present in its free form or is conjugated to cellular proteins. In addition, protein ubiquitination plays a regulatory role in the immune system. Many viruses modulate the ubiquitin (Ub) pathway to alter cellular signaling and the antiviral response. Ubiquitination of retroviral group-specific antigen precursors and matrix proteins of the Ebola, vesicular stomatitis, and rabies viruses by Nedd4 family HECT domain E3 ligases is an important step in facilitating viral release. We found that Nedd4 is negatively regulated by ISG15. Free ISG15 specifically bound to Nedd4 and blocked its interaction with Ub-E2 molecules, thus preventing further Ub transfer from E2 to E3. Furthermore, overexpression of ISG15 diminished the ability of Nedd4 to ubiquitinate viral matrix proteins and led to a decrease in the release of Ebola VP40 virus-like particles from the cells. These results point to a mechanistically novel function of ISG15 in the enhancement of the innate anti-viral response through specific inhibition of Nedd4 Ub-E3 activity. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a Ub-like protein with the ability to interfere with Ub-E2 and E3 interaction to inhibit protein ubiquitination.

  3. Carica Papaya Seed Extract Enhances Cellular Response to Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the role of Carica papaya seed (CPS) extract that contains, Benzyl Isothiocyanates, one of the inducers of phase II enzymes in the regulation of cellular stress. The cellular responses were observed in U937 cells (human monocyte/macrophage cell line) at the ...

  4. Anthelminthic drug niclosamide sensitizes the responsiveness of cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel via oxidative stress-mediated mTOR inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liping; Wang, Li; Shen, Haibin; Lin, Hui; Li, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drug repurposing represents an alternative therapeutic strategy to cancer treatment. The potent anti-cancer activities of a FDA-approved anthelminthic drug niclosamide have been demonstrated in various cancers. However, whether niclosamide is active against cervical cancer is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of niclosamide alone and its combination with paclitaxel in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. We found that niclosamide significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of a panel of cervical cancer cell lines, regardless of their cellular origin and genetic pattern. Niclosamide also inhibited tumor growth in cervical cancer xenograft mouse model. Importantly, niclosamide significantly enhanced the responsiveness of cervical cancer cell to paclitaxel. We further found that niclosamide induced mitochondrial dysfunctions via inhibiting mitochondrial respiration, complex I activity and ATP generation, which led to oxidative stress. ROS scavenge agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) completely reversed the effects of niclosamide in increasing cellular ROS, inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis, suggesting that oxidative stress induction is the mechanism of action of niclosamide in cervical cancer cells. In addition, niclosamide significantly inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in cervical cancer cells and its inhibitory effect on mTOR is modulated by oxidative stress. Our work suggests that niclosamide is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for cervical cancer and induction of oxidative stress may be a potential therapeutic strategy in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • Niclosamide is active against cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide sensitizes cervical cancer cell response to paclitaxel. • Niclosamide induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. • Niclosamide inhibits mTOR signaling in an oxidative stress-dependent manner.

  5. STIR: Assessing and Training Response Inhibition Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    Learning to stop responding to alcohol cues reduces alcohol intake via reduced affective associations rather than increased response inhibition. Addiction ...requires an abstract application of the core learning principle1,2, and viable examples are often hard to find and/or assess. If exposure to non...inhibition training that expands upon previous successful “near transfer” response inhibition training efforts—such as treating alcohol addictions by

  6. Systematic screen for mutants resistant to TORC1 inhibition in fission yeast reveals genes involved in cellular ageing and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Rallis

    2014-01-01

    Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1, which controls growth in response to nutrients, promotes ageing in multiple organisms. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe emerges as a valuable genetic model system to study TORC1 function and cellular ageing. Here we exploited the combinatorial action of rapamycin and caffeine, which inhibit fission yeast growth in a TORC1-dependent manner. We screened a deletion library, comprising ∼84% of all non-essential fission yeast genes, for drug-resistant mutants. This screen identified 33 genes encoding functions such as transcription, kinases, mitochondrial respiration, biosynthesis, intra-cellular trafficking, and stress response. Among the corresponding mutants, 5 showed shortened and 21 showed increased maximal chronological lifespans; 15 of the latter mutants showed no further lifespan increase with rapamycin and might thus represent key targets downstream of TORC1. We pursued the long-lived sck2 mutant with additional functional analyses, revealing that the Sck2p kinase functions within the TORC1 network and is required for normal cell growth, global protein translation, and ribosomal S6 protein phosphorylation in a nutrient-dependent manner. Notably, slow cell growth was associated with all long-lived mutants while oxidative-stress resistance was not.

  7. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrer, Joerg; Wagner, Silvia; Buerkle, Alexander; Koenigsrainer, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  8. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrer, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.fahrer@uni-ulm.de [Molecular Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz (Germany); Wagner, Silvia [Clinic of General, Visceral- and Transplantation Surgery, ZMF, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany); Buerkle, Alexander [Molecular Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz (Germany); Koenigsrainer, Alfred [Clinic of General, Visceral- and Transplantation Surgery, ZMF, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-08-14

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  9. 3-bromopyruvate inhibits glycolysis, depletes cellular glutathione, and compromises the viability of cultured primary rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, Eric; Arend, Christian; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an electrophilic alkylator that is considered a promising anticancer drug because it has been shown to kill cancer cells efficiently while having little toxic effect on nontumor cells. To test for potential adverse effects of 3-BP on brain cells, we exposed cultured primary rat astrocytes to 3-BP and investigated the effects of this compound on cell viability, glucose metabolism, and glutathione (GSH) content. The presence of 3-BP severely compromised cell viability and slowed cellular glucose consumption and lactate production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 100 µM 3-BP after 4 hr of incubation. The cellular hexokinase activity was not affected in 3-BP-treated astrocytes, whereas within 30 min after application of 3-BP the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was inhibited, and cellular GSH content was depleted in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 30 µM 3-BP. The depletion of cellular GSH after exposure to 100 µM 3-BP was not prevented by the presence of 10 mM of the monocarboxylates lactate or pyruvate, suggesting that 3-BP is not taken up into astrocytes predominantly by monocarboxylate transporters. The data suggest that inhibition of glycolysis by inactivation of GAPDH and GSH depletion contributes to the toxicity that was observed for 3-BP-treated cultured astrocytes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cellular biomarker responses of bagrid catfish, Chrysichthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the pollution status of Agboyi creek, a water body associated with various anthropogenic activities was carried out in order to determine responses induced in Catfishes, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus inhabiting it. Cellular biomarkers of stress including the antioxidative stress enzyme, catalase (CAT), lipid ...

  11. Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Diez, Cristina; Miguel, Verónica; Mennerich, Daniela; Kietzmann, Thomas; Sánchez-Pérez, Patricia; Cadenas, Susana; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and to establish networks with other critical enzymes such as peroxiredoxins. We discuss the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as an example of a transcriptional antioxidant response and we summarize transcriptional routes related to redox activation. As examples of pathophysiological cellular and tissular settings where antioxidant responses are major players we highlight endoplasmic reticulum stress and ischemia reperfusion. Topologically confined redox-mediated post-translational modifications of thiols are considered important molecular mechanisms mediating many antioxidant responses, whereas redox-sensitive microRNAs have emerged as key players in the posttranscriptional regulation of redox-mediated gene expression. Understanding such mechanisms may provide the basis for antioxidant-based therapeutic interventions in redox-related diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Cellular mechanisms within the juxtaglomerular apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briggs, J P; Skøtt, O; Schnermann, J

    1990-01-01

    Cl concentration at the macular densa. This change also results in inhibition of secretion of renin. The macula densa has a unique location near the terminal end of the thick ascending limb, where NaCl concentration is highly flow dependent. The cellular mechanisms by which changes in tubular fluid NaCl produce...... vasoconstriction and inhibition of renin secretion are unknown, but the anatomy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus strongly suggests that such responses may be mediated by the extraglomerular mesangial cells located in the polar cushion underlying the macula densa. Recent evidence suggests that interstitial chloride...

  13. Activation of the cellular unfolded protein response by recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available The unfolded protein response (UPR is a stress-induced cyto-protective mechanism elicited towards an influx of large amount of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. In the present study, we evaluated if AAV manipulates the UPR pathways during its infection. We first examined the role of the three major UPR axes, namely, endoribonuclease inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1α, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6 and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK in AAV infected cells. Total RNA from mock or AAV infected HeLa cells were used to determine the levels of 8 different ER-stress responsive transcripts from these pathways. We observed a significant up-regulation of IRE1α (up to 11 fold and PERK (up to 8 fold genes 12-48 hours after infection with self-complementary (scAAV2 but less prominent with single-stranded (ssAAV2 vectors. Further studies demonstrated that scAAV1 and scAAV6 also induce cellular UPR in vitro, with AAV1 vectors activating the PERK pathway (3 fold while AAV6 vectors induced a significant increase on all the three major UPR pathways [6-16 fold]. These data suggest that the type and strength of UPR activation is dependent on the viral capsid. We then examined if transient inhibition of UPR pathways by RNA interference has an effect on AAV transduction. siRNA mediated silencing of PERK and IRE1α had a modest effect on AAV2 and AAV6 mediated gene expression (∼1.5-2 fold in vitro. Furthermore, hepatic gene transfer of scAAV2 vectors in vivo, strongly elevated IRE1α and PERK pathways (2 and 3.5 fold, respectively. However, when animals were pre-treated with a pharmacological UPR inhibitor (metformin during scAAV2 gene transfer, the UPR signalling and its subsequent inflammatory response was attenuated concomitant to a modest 2.8 fold increase in transgene expression. Collectively, these data suggest that AAV vectors activate the cellular UPR pathways and their selective inhibition may be beneficial during AAV mediated gene transfer.

  14. E3 Ligase cIAP2 Mediates Downregulation of MRE11 and Radiosensitization in Response to HDAC Inhibition in Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Judith; Jevons, Sarah J; Groselj, Blaz; Ellermann, Sophie; Konietzny, Rebecca; Kerr, Martin; Kessler, Benedikt M; Kiltie, Anne E

    2017-06-01

    The MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) complex mediates DNA repair pathways, including double-strand breaks induced by radiotherapy. Meiotic recombination 11 homolog (MRE11) is downregulated by histone deacetylase inhibition (HDACi), resulting in reduced levels of DNA repair in bladder cancer cells and radiosensitization. In this study, we show that the mechanism of this downregulation is posttranslational and identify a C-terminally truncated MRE11, which is formed after HDAC inhibition as full-length MRE11 is downregulated. Truncated MRE11 was stabilized by proteasome inhibition, exhibited a decreased half-life after treatment with panobinostat, and therefore represents a newly identified intermediate induced and degraded in response to HDAC inhibition. The E3 ligase cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) was upregulated in response to HDAC inhibition and was validated as a new MRE11 binding partner whose upregulation had similar effects to HDAC inhibition. cIAP2 overexpression resulted in downregulation and altered ubiquitination patterns of MRE11 and mediated radiosensitization in response to HDAC inhibition. These results highlight cIAP2 as a player in the DNA damage response as a posttranscriptional regulator of MRE11 and identify cIAP2 as a potential target for biomarker discovery or chemoradiation strategies in bladder cancer. Cancer Res; 77(11); 3027-39. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Mitochondria, Energetics, Epigenetics, and Cellular Responses to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Kimberly; Worth, Leroy; Haugen, Astrid C.; Meyer, Joel N.; Domann, Frederick E.; Van Houten, Bennett; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Bultman, Scott J.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Begley, Thomas J.; Sobol, Robert W.; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Ideker, Trey; Santos, Janine H.; Copeland, William C.; Tice, Raymond R.; Balshaw, David M.; Tyson, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cells respond to environmental stressors through several key pathways, including response to reactive oxygen species (ROS), nutrient and ATP sensing, DNA damage response (DDR), and epigenetic alterations. Mitochondria play a central role in these pathways not only through energetics and ATP production but also through metabolites generated in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as mitochondria–nuclear signaling related to mitochondria morphology, biogenesis, fission/fusion, mitophagy, apoptosis, and epigenetic regulation. Objectives: We investigated the concept of bidirectional interactions between mitochondria and cellular pathways in response to environmental stress with a focus on epigenetic regulation, and we examined DNA repair and DDR pathways as examples of biological processes that respond to exogenous insults through changes in homeostasis and altered mitochondrial function. Methods: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences sponsored the Workshop on Mitochondria, Energetics, Epigenetics, Environment, and DNA Damage Response on 25–26 March 2013. Here, we summarize key points and ideas emerging from this meeting. Discussion: A more comprehensive understanding of signaling mechanisms (cross-talk) between the mitochondria and nucleus is central to elucidating the integration of mitochondrial functions with other cellular response pathways in modulating the effects of environmental agents. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of mitochondrial functions in epigenetic regulation and DDR with environmental stress. Development and application of novel technologies, enhanced experimental models, and a systems-type research approach will help to discern how environmentally induced mitochondrial dysfunction affects key mechanistic pathways. Conclusions: Understanding mitochondria–cell signaling will provide insight into individual responses to environmental hazards, improving prediction of hazard and susceptibility to

  16. Blockade of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 inhibits immune responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, G C; Blake, J T; Talento, A; Nguyen, M; Lin, S; Sirotina, A; Shah, K; Mulvany, K; Hora, D; Cunningham, P; Wunderler, D L; McManus, O B; Slaughter, R; Bugianesi, R; Felix, J; Garcia, M; Williamson, J; Kaczorowski, G; Sigal, N H; Springer, M S; Feeney, W

    1997-06-01

    The voltage activated K+ channel (Kv1.3) has recently been identified as the molecule that sets the resting membrane potential of peripheral human T lymphoid cells. In vitro studies indicate that blockage of Kv1.3 inhibits T cell activation, suggesting that Kv1.3 may be a target for immunosuppression. However, despite the in vitro evidence, there has been no in vivo demonstration that blockade of Kv1.3 will attenuate an immune response. The difficulty is due to species differences, as the channel does not set the membrane potential in rodent peripheral T cells. In this study, we show that the channel is present on peripheral T cells of miniswine. Using the peptidyl Kv1.3 inhibitor, margatoxin, we demonstrate that Kv1.3 also regulates the resting membrane potential, and that blockade of Kv1.3 inhibits, in vivo, both a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and an Ab response to an allogeneic challenge. In addition, prolonged Kv1.3 blockade causes reduced thymic cellularity and inhibits the thymic development of T cell subsets. These results provide in vivo evidence that Kv1.3 is a novel target for immunomodulation.

  17. Bistable switches control memory and plasticity in cellular differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Walker, Brandon L.; Iannaccone, Stephen; Bhatt, Devang; Kennedy, Patrick J.; Tse, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Development of stem and progenitor cells into specialized tissues in multicellular organisms involves a series of cell fate decisions. Cellular differentiation in higher organisms is generally considered irreversible, and the idea of developmental plasticity in postnatal tissues is controversial. Here, we show that inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in a human bone marrow stromal cell-derived myogenic subclone suppresses their myogenic ability and converts them into satellite cell-like precursors that respond to osteogenic stimulation. Clonal analysis of the induced osteogenic response reveals ultrasensitivity and an “all-or-none” behavior, hallmarks of a bistable switch mechanism with stochastic noise. The response demonstrates cellular memory, which is contingent on the accumulation of an intracellular factor and can be erased by factor dilution through cell divisions or inhibition of protein synthesis. The effect of MAPK inhibition also exhibits memory and appears to be controlled by another bistable switch further upstream that determines cell fate. Once the memory associated with osteogenic differentiation is erased, the cells regain their myogenic ability. These results support a model of cell fate decision in which a network of bistable switches controls inducible production of lineage-specific differentiation factors. A competitive balance between these factors determines cell fate. Our work underscores the dynamic nature of cellular differentiation and explains mechanistically the dual properties of stability and plasticity associated with the process. PMID:19366677

  18. Reconstitution of the cellular response to DNA damage in vitro using damage-activated extracts from mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, Katherine; Coverley, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    In proliferating mammalian cells, DNA damage is detected by sensors that elicit a cellular response which arrests the cell cycle and repairs the damage. As part of the DNA damage response, DNA replication is inhibited and, within seconds, histone H2AX is phosphorylated. Here we describe a cell-free system that reconstitutes the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks using damage-activated cell extracts and naïve nuclei. Using this system the effect of damage signalling on nuclei that do not contain DNA lesions can be studied, thereby uncoupling signalling and repair. Soluble extracts from G1/S phase cells that were treated with etoposide before isolation, or pre-incubated with nuclei from etoposide-treated cells during an in vitro activation reaction, restrain both initiation and elongation of DNA replication in naïve nuclei. At the same time, H2AX is phosphorylated in naïve nuclei in a manner that is dependent upon the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinases. Notably, phosphorylated H2AX is not focal in naïve nuclei, but is evident throughout the nucleus suggesting that in the absence of DNA lesions the signal is not amplified such that discrete foci can be detected. This system offers a novel screening approach for inhibitors of DNA damage response kinases, which we demonstrate using the inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. -- Highlights: ► A cell free system that reconstitutes the response to DNA damage in the absence of DNA lesions. ► Damage-activated extracts impose the cellular response to DNA damage on naïve nuclei. ► PIKK-dependent response impacts positively and negatively on two separate fluorescent outputs. ► Can be used to screen for inhibitors that impact on the response to damage but not on DNA repair. ► LY294002 and wortmannin demonstrate the system's potential as a pathway focused screening approach.

  19. Contrasting neural effects of aging on proactive and reactive response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendaal, Mirjam; Zandbelt, Bram; Wegman, Joost; Rest, van de O.; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct forms of response inhibition may underlie observed deficits in response inhibition in aging. We assessed whether age-related neurocognitive impairments in response inhibition reflect deficient reactive inhibition (outright stopping) or also deficient proactive inhibition

  20. Response inhibition in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A; Hallett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Characterization of cellular immune response and innate immune signaling in human and nonhuman primate primary mononuclear cells exposed to Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shahabuddin; Amemiya, Kei; Bernhards, Robert C; Ulrich, Robert G; Waag, David M; Saikh, Kamal U

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei infection causes melioidosis and is often characterized by severe sepsis. Although rare in humans, Burkholderia mallei has caused infections in laboratory workers, and the early innate cellular response to B. mallei in human and nonhuman primates has not been characterized. In this study, we examined the primary cellular immune response to B. mallei in PBMC cultures of non-human primates (NHPs), Chlorocebus aethiops (African Green Monkeys), Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque), and Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) and humans. Our results demonstrated that B. mallei elicited strong primary pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) equivalent to the levels of B. pseudomallei in primary PBMC cultures of NHPs and humans. When we examined IL-1β and other cytokine responses by comparison to Escherichia coli LPS, African Green Monkeys appears to be most responsive to B. mallei than Cynomolgus or Rhesus. Characterization of the immune signaling mechanism for cellular response was conducted by using a ligand induced cell-based reporter assay, and our results demonstrated that MyD88 mediated signaling contributed to the B. mallei and B. pseudomallei induced pro-inflammatory responses. Notably, the induced reporter activity with B. mallei, B. pseudomallei, or purified LPS from these pathogens was inhibited and cytokine production was attenuated by a MyD88 inhibitor. Together, these results show that in the scenario of severe hyper-inflammatory responses to B. mallei infection, MyD88 targeted therapeutic intervention may be a successful strategy for therapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Pathway-Enriched Gene Signature Associated with 53BP1 Response to PARP Inhibition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saima; Esch, Amanda; Liby, Tiera; Gray, Joe W; Heiser, Laura M

    2017-12-01

    Effective treatment of patients with triple-negative (ER-negative, PR-negative, HER2-negative) breast cancer remains a challenge. Although PARP inhibitors are being evaluated in clinical trials, biomarkers are needed to identify patients who will most benefit from anti-PARP therapy. We determined the responses of three PARP inhibitors (veliparib, olaparib, and talazoparib) in a panel of eight triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Therapeutic responses and cellular phenotypes were elucidated using high-content imaging and quantitative immunofluorescence to assess markers of DNA damage (53BP1) and apoptosis (cleaved PARP). We determined the pharmacodynamic changes as percentage of cells positive for 53BP1, mean number of 53BP1 foci per cell, and percentage of cells positive for cleaved PARP. Inspired by traditional dose-response measures of cell viability, an EC 50 value was calculated for each cellular phenotype and each PARP inhibitor. The EC 50 values for both 53BP1 metrics strongly correlated with IC 50 values for each PARP inhibitor. Pathway enrichment analysis identified a set of DNA repair and cell cycle-associated genes that were associated with 53BP1 response following PARP inhibition. The overall accuracy of our 63 gene set in predicting response to olaparib in seven breast cancer patient-derived xenograft tumors was 86%. In triple-negative breast cancer patients who had not received anti-PARP therapy, the predicted response rate of our gene signature was 45%. These results indicate that 53BP1 is a biomarker of response to anti-PARP therapy in the laboratory, and our DNA damage response gene signature may be used to identify patients who are most likely to respond to PARP inhibition. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(12); 2892-901. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Neural Synchrony during Response Production and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Viktor; Anokhin, Andrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of irrelevant information (conflict monitoring) and/or of prepotent actions is an essential component of adaptive self-organized behavior. Neural dynamics underlying these functions has been studied in humans using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited in Go/NoGo tasks that require a speeded motor response to the Go stimuli and withholding a prepotent response when a NoGo stimulus is presented. However, averaged ERP waveforms provide only limited information about the neuronal mechanisms underlying stimulus processing, motor preparation, and response production or inhibition. In this study, we examine the cortical representation of conflict monitoring and response inhibition using time-frequency analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings during continuous performance Go/NoGo task in 50 young adult females. We hypothesized that response inhibition would be associated with a transient boost in both temporal and spatial synchronization of prefrontal cortical activity, consistent with the role of the anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices in cognitive control. Overall, phase synchronization across trials measured by Phase Locking Index and phase synchronization between electrode sites measured by Phase Coherence were the highest in the Go and NoGo conditions, intermediate in the Warning condition, and the lowest under Neutral condition. The NoGo condition was characterized by significantly higher fronto-central synchronization in the 300–600 ms window, whereas in the Go condition, delta- and theta-band synchronization was higher in centro-parietal regions in the first 300 ms after the stimulus onset. The present findings suggest that response production and inhibition is supported by dynamic functional networks characterized by distinct patterns of temporal and spatial synchronization of brain oscillations. PMID:22745691

  4. Neural synchrony during response production and inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Müller

    Full Text Available Inhibition of irrelevant information (conflict monitoring and/or of prepotent actions is an essential component of adaptive self-organized behavior. Neural dynamics underlying these functions has been studied in humans using event-related brain potentials (ERPs elicited in Go/NoGo tasks that require a speeded motor response to the Go stimuli and withholding a prepotent response when a NoGo stimulus is presented. However, averaged ERP waveforms provide only limited information about the neuronal mechanisms underlying stimulus processing, motor preparation, and response production or inhibition. In this study, we examine the cortical representation of conflict monitoring and response inhibition using time-frequency analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG recordings during continuous performance Go/NoGo task in 50 young adult females. We hypothesized that response inhibition would be associated with a transient boost in both temporal and spatial synchronization of prefrontal cortical activity, consistent with the role of the anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices in cognitive control. Overall, phase synchronization across trials measured by Phase Locking Index and phase synchronization between electrode sites measured by Phase Coherence were the highest in the Go and NoGo conditions, intermediate in the Warning condition, and the lowest under Neutral condition. The NoGo condition was characterized by significantly higher fronto-central synchronization in the 300-600 ms window, whereas in the Go condition, delta- and theta-band synchronization was higher in centro-parietal regions in the first 300 ms after the stimulus onset. The present findings suggest that response production and inhibition is supported by dynamic functional networks characterized by distinct patterns of temporal and spatial synchronization of brain oscillations.

  5. Transcriptome dynamics of the microRNA inhibition response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Jiayu; Leucci, Elenora; Vendramin, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We report a high-resolution time series study of transcriptome dynamics following antimiR-mediated inhibition of miR-9 in a Hodgkin lymphoma cell-line-the first such dynamic study of the microRNA inhibition response-revealing both general and specific aspects of the physiological response. We show...... validate the key observations with independent time series qPCR and we experimentally validate key predicted miR-9 targets. Methodologically, we developed sensitive functional data analytic predictive methods to analyse the weak response inherent in microRNA inhibition experiments. The methods...... of this study will be applicable to similar high-resolution time series transcriptome analyses and provides the context for more accurate experimental design and interpretation of future microRNA inhibition studies....

  6. Squalene Inhibits ATM-Dependent Signaling in γIR-Induced DNA Damage Response through Induction of Wip1 Phosphatase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Tatewaki

    Full Text Available Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM kinase plays a crucial role as a master controller in the cellular DNA damage response. Inhibition of ATM leads to inhibition of the checkpoint signaling pathway. Hence, addition of checkpoint inhibitors to anticancer therapies may be an effective targeting strategy. A recent study reported that Wip1, a protein phosphatase, de-phosphorylates serine 1981 of ATM during the DNA damage response. Squalene has been proposed to complement anticancer therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, there is little mechanistic information supporting this idea. Here, we report the inhibitory effect of squalene on ATM-dependent DNA damage signals. Squalene itself did not affect cell viability and the cell cycle of A549 cells, but it enhanced the cytotoxicity of gamma-irradiation (γIR. The in vitro kinase activity of ATM was not altered by squalene. However, squalene increased Wip1 expression in cells and suppressed ATM activation in γIR-treated cells. Consistent with the potential inhibition of ATM by squalene, IR-induced phosphorylation of ATM effectors such as p53 (Ser15 and Chk1 (Ser317 was inhibited by cell treatment with squalene. Thus, squalene inhibits the ATM-dependent signaling pathway following DNA damage through intracellular induction of Wip1 expression.

  7. Repair and mutagenesis in procaryotes as cellular responses to ambiental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The correct and incorrect mechanisms of DNA repair are discussed, as well as the cellular responses induced by the DNA lesions; the reductone mollecular effects; the cellular interactions among irradiated populations of microorganisms and the utilization of microbial assays for the detection of oncogenic activities of chemicals. (M.A.) [pt

  8. Sorafenib enhances proteasome inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity via inhibition of unfolded protein response and keratin phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to conventional systemic therapies and prognosis for advanced HCC patients remains poor. Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor initiation and progression have identified several potential molecular targets in HCC. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor shown to have survival benefits in advanced HCC. It acts by inhibiting the serine/threonine kinases and the receptor type tyrosine kinases. In preclinical experiments sorafenib had anti-proliferative activity in hepatoma cells and it reduced tumor angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib include its inhibitory effects on protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response (UPR) and keratin phosphorylation in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, we show that combined treatment with sorafenib and proteasome inhibitors (PIs) synergistically induced a marked increase in cell death in hepatoma- and hepatocyte-derived cells. These observations may open the way to potentially interesting treatment combinations that may augment the effect of sorafenib, possibly including drugs that promote ER stress. Because sorafenib blocked the cellular defense mechanisms against hepatotoxic injury not only in hepatoma cells but also in hepatocyte-derived cells, we must be careful to avoid severe liver injury. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •We examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib in hepatoma cells. •Sorafenib induces cell death via apoptotic and necrotic fashion. •Sorafenib inhibits protein ubiquitination and unfolded protein response. •Autophagy induced by sorafenib may affect its cytotoxicity. •Sorafenib inhibits keratin phosphorylation and cytoplasmic inclusion formation

  9. Linking physiological and cellular responses to thermal stress: β-adrenergic blockade reduces the heat shock response in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, Nicole M; LeBlanc, Sacha; Perry, Steve F; Currie, Suzanne

    2014-08-01

    When faced with stress, animals use physiological and cellular strategies to preserve homeostasis. We were interested in how these high-level stress responses are integrated at the level of the whole animal. Here, we investigated the capacity of the physiological stress response, and specifically the β-adrenergic response, to affect the induction of the cellular heat shock proteins, HSPs, following a thermal stress in vivo. We predicted that blocking β-adrenergic stimulation during an acute heat stress in the whole animal would result in reduced levels of HSPs in red blood cells (RBCs) of rainbow trout compared to animals where adrenergic signaling remained intact. We first determined that a 1 h heat shock at 25 °C in trout acclimated to 13 °C resulted in RBC adrenergic stimulation as determined by a significant increase in cell swelling, a hallmark of the β-adrenergic response. A whole animal injection with the β2-adrenergic antagonist, ICI-118,551, successfully reduced this heat-induced RBC swelling. The acute heat shock caused a significant induction of HSP70 in RBCs of 13 °C-acclimated trout as well as a significant increase in plasma catecholamines. When heat-shocked fish were treated with ICI-118,551, we observed a significant attenuation of the HSP70 response. We conclude that circulating catecholamines influence the cellular heat shock response in rainbow trout RBCs, demonstrating physiological/hormonal control of the cellular stress response.

  10. Stochastic cellular automata model of neurosphere growth: Roles of proliferative potential, contact inhibition, cell death, and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Rifat; Zupanc, Günther K H

    2018-05-14

    Neural stem and progenitor cells isolated from the central nervous system form, under specific culture conditions, clonal cell clusters known as neurospheres. The neurosphere assay has proven to be a powerful in vitro system to study the behavior of such cells and the development of their progeny. However, the theory of neurosphere growth has remained poorly understood. To overcome this limitation, we have, in the present paper, developed a cellular automata model, with which we examined the effects of proliferative potential, contact inhibition, cell death, and clearance of dead cells on growth rate, final size, and composition of neurospheres. Simulations based on this model indicated that the proliferative potential of the founder cell and its progenitors has a major influence on neurosphere size. On the other hand, contact inhibition of proliferation limits the final size, and reduces the growth rate, of neurospheres. The effect of this inhibition is particularly dramatic when a stem cell becomes encapsulated by differentiated or other non-proliferating cells, thereby suppressing any further mitotic division - despite the existing proliferative potential of the stem cell. Conversely, clearance of dead cells through phagocytosis is predicted to accelerate growth by reducing contact inhibition. A surprising prediction derived from our model is that cell death, while resulting in a decrease in growth rate and final size of neurospheres, increases the degree of differentiation of neurosphere cells. It is likely that the cellular automata model developed as part of the present investigation is applicable to the study of tissue growth in a wide range of systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alterations in cellular metabolism modulate CD1d-mediated NKT-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Tonya J; Carey, Gregory B; East, James E; Sun, Wenji; Bollino, Dominique R; Kimball, Amy S; Brutkiewicz, Randy R

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play a critical role in the host's innate immune response. CD1d-mediated presentation of glycolipid antigens to NKT cells has been established; however, the mechanisms by which NKT cells recognize infected or cancerous cells remain unclear. 5(')-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of lipogenic pathways. We hypothesized that activation of AMPK during infection and malignancy could alter the repertoire of antigens presented by CD1d and serve as a danger signal to NKT cells. In this study, we examined the effect of alterations in metabolism on CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells and found that an infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus rapidly increased CD1d-mediated antigen presentation. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) enhance T-cell effector functions during infection, therefore antigen presenting cells pretreated with pharmacological agents that inhibit glycolysis, induce HIF and activate AMPK were assessed for their ability to induce NKT-cell responses. Pretreatment with 2-deoxyglucose, cobalt chloride, AICAR and metformin significantly enhanced CD1d-mediated NKT-cell activation. In addition, NKT cells preferentially respond to malignant B cells and B-cell lymphomas express HIF-1α. These data suggest that targeting cellular metabolism may serve as a novel means of inducing innate immune responses. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The role of nuclear factor κB in the cellular response to different radiation qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is currently one of the most important limiting factors for manned space flight. During such missions, there is a constant exposure to low doses of galactic cosmic radiation and in particular high-energy heavy ions. Together this is associated with an increased cancer risk which currently cannot be sufficiently reduced by shielding. As such, cellular radiation response needs to be further studied in order to improve risk estimation and develop appropriate countermeasures. It has been shown that exposure of human cells to accelerated heavy ions, in fluences that can be reached during long-term missions, leads to activation of the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Heavy ions with a linear energy transfer (LET) of 90 to 300 keV/μm were most effective in activating NF-κB. NF-κB as an important modulating factor in the cellular radiation response could improve cellular survival after heavy ion exposure, thereby influencing the cancer risk of astronauts. The NF-κB pathway may be a potential pharmacological target in the mitigation of radiation response during space missions; such as the prevention of massive cell death after high dose irradiation (acute effects), in addition to neoplastic cell transformation during chronic low-dose exposure (late effects). The aim of this work was to examine the role of NF-κB in the cellular response to space-relevant radiation. Firstly, NF-κB activation in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) after exposure to different radiation qualities and quantities was investigated. Key elements of different NF-κB sub-pathways were chemically inhibited to analyze their role in NF-κB activation induced by low and high LET ionizing radiation. Finally a cell line, stably transfected with a plasmid coding for a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) for a knockdown of the NF-κB subunit RelA, was established to assess the role of RelA in the cellular response to space-relevant radiation. The knockdown was verified on several levels and the cell

  13. The role of nuclear factor κB in the cellular response to different radiation qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Kristina

    2013-04-11

    Radiation is currently one of the most important limiting factors for manned space flight. During such missions, there is a constant exposure to low doses of galactic cosmic radiation and in particular high-energy heavy ions. Together this is associated with an increased cancer risk which currently cannot be sufficiently reduced by shielding. As such, cellular radiation response needs to be further studied in order to improve risk estimation and develop appropriate countermeasures. It has been shown that exposure of human cells to accelerated heavy ions, in fluences that can be reached during long-term missions, leads to activation of the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Heavy ions with a linear energy transfer (LET) of 90 to 300 keV/μm were most effective in activating NF-κB. NF-κB as an important modulating factor in the cellular radiation response could improve cellular survival after heavy ion exposure, thereby influencing the cancer risk of astronauts. The NF-κB pathway may be a potential pharmacological target in the mitigation of radiation response during space missions; such as the prevention of massive cell death after high dose irradiation (acute effects), in addition to neoplastic cell transformation during chronic low-dose exposure (late effects). The aim of this work was to examine the role of NF-κB in the cellular response to space-relevant radiation. Firstly, NF-κB activation in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) after exposure to different radiation qualities and quantities was investigated. Key elements of different NF-κB sub-pathways were chemically inhibited to analyze their role in NF-κB activation induced by low and high LET ionizing radiation. Finally a cell line, stably transfected with a plasmid coding for a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) for a knockdown of the NF-κB subunit RelA, was established to assess the role of RelA in the cellular response to space-relevant radiation. The knockdown was verified on several levels and the cell

  14. Genetic variation in the cellular response of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to its bacterial parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Stuart K J R; Scholefield, Jennifer A; Little, Tom J

    2010-11-07

    Linking measures of immune function with infection, and ultimately, host and parasite fitness is a major goal in the field of ecological immunology. In this study, we tested for the presence and timing of a cellular immune response in the crustacean Daphnia magna following exposure to its sterilizing endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa. We found that D. magna possesses two cell types circulating in the haemolymph: a spherical one, which we call a granulocyte and an irregular-shaped amoeboid cell first described by Metchnikoff over 125 years ago. Daphnia magna mounts a strong cellular response (of the amoeboid cells) just a few hours after parasite exposure. We further tested for, and found, considerable genetic variation for the magnitude of this cellular response. These data fostered a heuristic model of resistance in this naturally coevolving host-parasite interaction. Specifically, the strongest cellular responses were found in the most susceptible hosts, indicating resistance is not always borne from a response that destroys invading parasites, but rather stems from mechanisms that prevent their initial entry. Thus, D. magna may have a two-stage defence--a genetically determined barrier to parasite establishment and a cellular response once establishment has begun.

  15. NSs protein of Schmallenberg virus counteracts the antiviral response of the cell by inhibiting its transcriptional machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Gerald; Varela, Mariana; Ratinier, Maxime; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Caporale, Marco; Seehusen, Frauke; Hahn, Kerstin; Schnettler, Esther; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Kohl, Alain; Palmarini, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Bunyaviruses have evolved a variety of strategies to counteract the antiviral defence systems of mammalian cells. Here we show that the NSs protein of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) induces the degradation of the RPB1 subunit of RNA polymerase II and consequently inhibits global cellular protein synthesis and the antiviral response. In addition, we show that the SBV NSs protein enhances apoptosis in vitro and possibly in vivo, suggesting that this protein could be involved in SBV pathogenesis in different ways. © 2014 The Authors.

  16. The cellular adaptive response the role in life organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of living cells to ionizing radiation may cause DNA damage that are generally harmful to the organism. This paper discuss the cellular adaptive response which may be seen when cells which have already been exposed to low concentration radiation doses are subsequently exposed to high concentration doses. It also discusses evidence of the adaptive response in laboratory animals and from limited epidemiological studies. (Author)

  17. The role of thiols in cellular response to radiation and drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaglow, J.E.; Varnes, M.E.; Clark, E.P.; Epp, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    Cellular nonprotein thiols (NPSH) consist of glutathione (GSH) and other low molecular weight species such as cysteine, cysteamine, and coenzyme A. GSH is usually less than the total cellular NPSH, and with thiol reactive agents, such as diethyl maleate (DEM), its rate of depletion is in part dependent upon the cellular capacity for its resynthesis. If resynthesis is blocked by buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine(BSO), the NPSH, including GSH, is depleted more rapidly, Cellular thiol depletion by diamide, N-ethylmaleimide, and BSO may render oxygenated cells more sensitive to radiation. These cells may or may not show a reduction in the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). Human A549 lung carcinoma cells depleted of their NPSH either by prolonged culture or by BSO treatment do not show a reduced OER but do show increased aerobic responses to radiation. Some nitroheterocyclic radiosensitizing drugs also deplete cellular thiols under aerobic conditions. Such reactivity may be the reason that they show anomalous radiation sensitization (i.e., better than predicted on the basis of electron affinity). Other nitrocompounds, such as misonidazole, are activated under hypoxic conditions to radical intermediates. When cellular thiols are depleted peroxide is formed. Under hypoxic conditions thiols are depleted because metabolically reduced intermediates react with GSH instead of oxygen. Thiol depletion, under hypoxic conditions, may be the reason that misonidazole and other nitrocompounds show an extra enhancement ratio with hypoxic cells. Thiol depletion by DEM or BSO alters the radiation response of hypoxic cells to misonidazole

  18. Differential cellular responses to prolonged LDR-IR in MLH1-proficient and MLH1-deficient colorectal cancer HCT116 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Seo, Yuji; Kinsella, Timothy J

    2009-11-15

    MLH1 is a key DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein involved in maintaining genomic stability by participating in the repair of endogenous and exogenous mispairs in the daughter strands during S phase. Exogenous mispairs can result following treatment with several classes of chemotherapeutic drugs, as well as with ionizing radiation. In this study, we investigated the role of the MLH1 protein in determining the cellular and molecular responses to prolonged low-dose rate ionizing radiation (LDR-IR), which is similar to the clinical use of cancer brachytherapy. An isogenic pair of MMR(+) (MLH1(+)) and MMR(-) (MLH1(-)) human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells was exposed to prolonged LDR-IR (1.3-17 cGy/h x 24-96 h). The clonogenic survival and gene mutation rates were examined. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed with flow cytometry. Changes in selected DNA damage repair proteins, DNA damage response proteins, and cell death marker proteins were examined with Western blotting. MLH1(+) HCT116 cells showed greater radiosensitivity with enhanced expression of apoptotic and autophagic markers, a reduced HPRT gene mutation rate, and more pronounced cell cycle alterations (increased late-S population and a G(2)/M arrest) following LDR-IR compared with MLH1(-) HCT116 cells. Importantly, a progressive increase in MLH1 protein levels was found in MLH1(+) cells during prolonged LDR-IR, which was temporally correlated with a progressive decrease in Rad51 protein (involved in homologous recombination) levels. MLH1 status significantly affects cellular responses to prolonged LDR-IR. MLH1 may enhance cell radiosensitivity to prolonged LDR-IR through inhibition of homologous recombination (through inhibition of Rad51).

  19. Toxicity evaluation of e-juice and its soluble aerosols generated by electronic cigarettes using recombinant bioluminescent bacteria responsive to specific cellular damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Shiv; Mitchell, Robert J; Qureshi, Anjum; Niazi, Javed H

    2017-04-15

    Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette) are widely used as an alternative to traditional cigarettes but their safety is not well established. Herein, we demonstrate and validate an analytical method to discriminate the deleterious effects of e-cigarette refills (e-juice) and soluble e-juice aerosol (SEA) by employing stress-specific bioluminescent recombinant bacterial cells (RBCs) as whole-cell biosensors. These RBCs carry luxCDABE-operon tightly controlled by promoters that specifically induced to DNA damage (recA), superoxide radicals (sodA), heavy metals (copA) and membrane damage (oprF). The responses of the RBCs following exposure to various concentrations of e-juice/SEA was recorded in real-time that showed dose-dependent stress specific-responses against both the e-juice and vaporized e-juice aerosols produced by the e-cigarette. We also established that high doses of e-juice (4-folds diluted) lead to cell death by repressing the cellular machinery responsible for repairing DNA-damage, superoxide toxicity, ion homeostasis and membrane damage. SEA also caused the cellular damages but the cells showed enhanced bioluminescence expression without significant growth inhibition, indicating that the cells activated their global defense system to repair these damages. DNA fragmentation assay also revealed the disintegration of total cellular DNA at sub-toxic doses of e-juice. Despite their state of matter, the e-juice and its aerosols induce cytotoxicity and alter normal cellular functions, respectively that raises concerns on use of e-cigarettes as alternative to traditional cigarette. The ability of RBCs in detecting both harmful effects and toxicity mechanisms provided a fundamental understanding of biological response to e-juice and aerosols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition and Conflict Control on Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongran Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition and conflict control on affective information can be regarded as two important emotion regulation and cognitive control processes. The emotional Go/Nogo flanker paradigm was adopted and participant’s event-related potentials (ERPs were analyzed to investigate how response inhibition and conflict control interplayed. The behavioral findings revealed that participants showed higher accuracy to identify happy faces in congruent condition relative to that in incongruent condition. The electrophysiological results manifested that response inhibition and conflict control interplayed during the detection/conflict monitoring stage, and Nogo-N2 was more negative in the incongruent trials than the congruent trials. With regard to the inhibitory control/conflict resolution stage, Nogo responses induced greater frontal P3 and parietal P3 responses than Go responses did. The difference waveforms of N2 and parietal P3 showed that response inhibition and conflict control had distinct processes, and the multiple responses requiring both conflict control and response inhibition processes induced stronger monitoring and resolution processes than conflict control. The current study manifested that response inhibition and conflict control on emotional information required separable neural mechanisms during emotion regulation processes.

  1. HTLV-1 Tax Oncoprotein Subverts the Cellular DNA Damage Response via Binding to DNA-dependent Protein Kinase*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah S.; Guo, Xin; Fryrear, Kimberly A.; Mihaylova, Valia T.; Gupta, Saurabh K.; Belgnaoui, S. Mehdi; Haoudi, Abdelali; Kupfer, Gary M.; Semmes, O. John

    2008-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 is the causative agent for adult T-cell leukemia. Previous research has established that the viral oncoprotein Tax mediates the transformation process by impairing cell cycle control and cellular response to DNA damage. We showed previously that Tax sequesters huChk2 within chromatin and impairs the response to ionizing radiation. Here we demonstrate that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a member of the Tax·Chk2 nuclear complex. The catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs, and the regulatory subunit, Ku70, were present. Tax-containing nuclear extracts showed increased DNA-PK activity, and specific inhibition of DNA-PK prevented Tax-induced activation of Chk2 kinase activity. Expression of Tax induced foci formation and phosphorylation of H2AX. However, Tax-induced constitutive signaling of the DNA-PK pathway impaired cellular response to new damage, as reflected in suppression of ionizing radiation-induced DNA-PK phosphorylation and γH2AX stabilization. Tax co-localized with phospho-DNA-PK into nuclear speckles and a nuclear excluded Tax mutant sequestered endogenous phospho-DNA-PK into the cytoplasm, suggesting that Tax interaction with DNA-PK is an initiating event. We also describe a novel interaction between DNA-PK and Chk2 that requires Tax. We propose that Tax binds to and stabilizes a protein complex with DNA-PK and Chk2, resulting in a saturation of DNA-PK-mediated damage repair response. PMID:18957425

  2. Arctigenin preferentially induces tumor cell death under glucose deprivation by inhibiting cellular energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Qi, Chunting; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Xiuquan; Zhang, Haohao; Hu, Lihong; Yuan, Junying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-08-15

    Selectively eradicating cancer cells with minimum adverse effects on normal cells is a major challenge in the development of anticancer therapy. We hypothesize that nutrient-limiting conditions frequently encountered by cancer cells in poorly vascularized solid tumors might provide an opportunity for developing selective therapy. In this study, we investigated the function and molecular mechanisms of a natural compound, arctigenin, in regulating tumor cell growth. We demonstrated that arctigenin selectively promoted glucose-starved A549 tumor cells to undergo necrosis by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. In doing so, arctigenin elevated cellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blocked cellular energy metabolism in the glucose-starved tumor cells. We also demonstrated that cellular ROS generation was caused by intracellular ATP depletion and played an essential role in the arctigenin-induced tumor cell death under the glucose-limiting condition. Furthermore, we combined arctigenin with the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and examined their effects on tumor cell growth. Interestingly, this combination displayed preferential cell-death inducing activity against tumor cells compared to normal cells. Hence, we propose that the combination of arctigenin and 2DG may represent a promising new cancer therapy with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 17-AAG inhibits vemurafenib-associated MAP kinase activation and is synergistic with cellular immunotherapy in a murine melanoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sandeep S; Jiang, Shunlin; Unni, Emmanual; Goding, Stephen R; Fan, Tao; Antony, Paul A; Hornyak, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone which stabilizes client proteins with important roles in tumor growth. 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an inhibitor of HSP90 ATPase activity, occupies the ATP binding site of HSP90 causing a conformational change which destabilizes client proteins and directs them towards proteosomal degradation. Malignant melanomas have active RAF-MEK-ERK signaling which can occur either through an activating mutation in BRAF (BRAFV600E) or through activation of signal transduction upstream of BRAF. Prior work showed that 17-AAG inhibits cell growth in BRAFV600E and BRAF wildtype (BRAFWT) melanomas, although there were conflicting reports about the dependence of BRAFV600E and BRAFWT upon HSP90 activity for stability. Here, we demonstrate that BRAFWT and CRAF are bound by HSP90 in BRAFWT, NRAS mutant melanoma cells. HSP90 inhibition by 17-AAG inhibits ERK signaling and cell growth by destabilizing CRAF but not BRAFWT in the majority of NRAS mutant melanoma cells. The highly-selective BRAFV600E inhibitor, PLX4032 (vemurafenib), inhibits ERK signaling and cell growth in mutant BRAF melanoma cells, but paradoxically enhances signaling in cells with wild-type BRAF. In our study, we examined whether 17-AAG could inhibit PLX4032-enhanced ERK signaling in BRAFWT melanoma cells. As expected, PLX4032 alone enhanced ERK signaling in the BRAFWT melanoma cell lines Mel-Juso, SK-Mel-2, and SK-Mel-30, and inhibited signaling and cell growth in BRAFV600E A375 cells. However, HSP90 inhibition by 17-AAG inhibited PLX4032-enhanced ERK signaling and inhibited cell growth by destabilizing CRAF. Surprisingly, 17-AAG also stimulated melanin production in SK-Mel-30 cells and enhanced TYRP1 and DCT expression without stimulating TYR production in all three BRAFWT cell lines studied as well as in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. In vivo, the combination of 17-AAG and cellular immunotherapy directed against Tyrp1 enhanced the inhibition of

  4. 17-AAG inhibits vemurafenib-associated MAP kinase activation and is synergistic with cellular immunotherapy in a murine melanoma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, Emmanual; Goding, Stephen R.; Fan, Tao; Antony, Paul A.; Hornyak, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone which stabilizes client proteins with important roles in tumor growth. 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an inhibitor of HSP90 ATPase activity, occupies the ATP binding site of HSP90 causing a conformational change which destabilizes client proteins and directs them towards proteosomal degradation. Malignant melanomas have active RAF-MEK-ERK signaling which can occur either through an activating mutation in BRAF (BRAFV600E) or through activation of signal transduction upstream of BRAF. Prior work showed that 17-AAG inhibits cell growth in BRAFV600E and BRAF wildtype (BRAFWT) melanomas, although there were conflicting reports about the dependence of BRAFV600E and BRAFWT upon HSP90 activity for stability. Here, we demonstrate that BRAFWT and CRAF are bound by HSP90 in BRAFWT, NRAS mutant melanoma cells. HSP90 inhibition by 17-AAG inhibits ERK signaling and cell growth by destabilizing CRAF but not BRAFWT in the majority of NRAS mutant melanoma cells. The highly-selective BRAFV600E inhibitor, PLX4032 (vemurafenib), inhibits ERK signaling and cell growth in mutant BRAF melanoma cells, but paradoxically enhances signaling in cells with wild-type BRAF. In our study, we examined whether 17-AAG could inhibit PLX4032-enhanced ERK signaling in BRAFWT melanoma cells. As expected, PLX4032 alone enhanced ERK signaling in the BRAFWT melanoma cell lines Mel-Juso, SK-Mel-2, and SK-Mel-30, and inhibited signaling and cell growth in BRAFV600E A375 cells. However, HSP90 inhibition by 17-AAG inhibited PLX4032-enhanced ERK signaling and inhibited cell growth by destabilizing CRAF. Surprisingly, 17-AAG also stimulated melanin production in SK-Mel-30 cells and enhanced TYRP1 and DCT expression without stimulating TYR production in all three BRAFWT cell lines studied as well as in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. In vivo, the combination of 17-AAG and cellular immunotherapy directed against Tyrp1 enhanced the inhibition of

  5. The role of factor inhibiting HIF (FIH-1 in inhibiting HIF-1 transcriptional activity in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfeng Wang

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM accounts for about 38% of primary brain tumors in the United States. GBM is characterized by extensive angiogenesis induced by vascular growth factors and cytokines. The transcription of these growth factors and cytokines is regulated by the Hypoxia-Inducible-Factor-1(HIF-1, which is a key regulator mediating the cellular response to hypoxia. It is known that Factor Inhibiting HIF-1, or FIH-1, is also involved in the cellular response to hypoxia and has the capability to physically interact with HIF-1 and block its transcriptional activity under normoxic conditions. Delineation of the regulatory role of FIH-1 will help us to better understand the molecular mechanism responsible for tumor growth and progression and may lead to the design of new therapies targeting cellular pathways in response to hypoxia. Previous studies have shown that the chromosomal region of 10q24 containing the FIH-1 gene is often deleted in GBM, suggesting a role for the FIH-1 in GBM tumorigenesis and progression. In the current study, we found that FIH-1 is able to inhibit HIF-mediated transcription of GLUT1 and VEGF-A, even under hypoxic conditions in human glioblastoma cells. FIH-1 has been found to be more potent in inhibiting HIF function than PTEN. This observation points to the possibility that deletion of 10q23-24 and loss or decreased expression of FIH-1 gene may lead to a constitutive activation of HIF-1 activity, an alteration of HIF-1 targets such as GLUT-1 and VEGF-A, and may contribute to the survival of cancer cells in hypoxia and the development of hypervascularization observed in GBM. Therefore FIH-1 can be potential therapeutic target for the treatment of GBM patients with poor prognosis.

  6. Tyrphostin AG-related compounds attenuate H2O2-induced TRPM2-dependent and -independent cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Toda, Takahiro; Yonezawa, Ryo; Negoro, Takaharu; Shimizu, Shunichi

    2017-05-01

    TRPM2 is a Ca 2+ -permeable channel that is activated by H 2 O 2 . TRPM2-mediated Ca 2+ signaling has been implicated in the aggravation of inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the development of TRPM2 inhibitors to prevent the aggravation of these diseases is expected. We recently reported that some Tyrphostin AG-related compounds inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced activation of TRPM2 by scavenging the intracellular hydroxyl radical. In the present study, we examined the effects of AG-related compounds on H 2 O 2 -induced cellular responses in human monocytic U937 cells, which functionally express TRPM2. The effects of AG-related compounds on H 2 O 2 -induced changes in intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, and CXCL8 secretion were assessed using U937 cells. Ca 2+ influxes via TRPM2 in response to H 2 O 2 were blocked by AG-related compounds. AG-related compounds also inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced activation of ERK, and subsequent secretion of CXCL8 mediated by TRPM2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our results show that AG-related compounds inhibit H 2 O 2 -induced CXCL8 secretion following ERK activation, which is mediated by TRPM2-dependent and -independent mechanisms in U937 cells. We previously reported that AG-related compounds blocked H 2 O 2 -induced TRPM2 activation by scavenging the hydroxyl radical. The inhibitory effects of AG-related compounds on TRPM2-independent responses may be due to scavenging of the hydroxyl radical. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of partially purified fumonisins on cellular immune response in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After 7 days, cellular immune response was evaluated by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and lymphoproliferative assays (LA) using spleen cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production by spleen cells was also evaluated. The specific LA response to Pb antigen was higher in group PB than in FB and CTR groups (p< 0.05) but not ...

  8. Inhibition of cyclic AMP response element-directed transcription by decoy oligonucleotides enhances tumor-specific radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Serk In, E-mail: serkin@korea.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The BK21 Plus Program for Biomedical Sciences, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medicine and Center for Bone Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Park, Sung-Jun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Obesity and Aging Research, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lee, Junghan; Kim, Hye Eun; Park, Su Jin; Sohn, Jeong-Won [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yun Gyu, E-mail: parkyg@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The radiation stress induces cytotoxic responses of cell death as well as cytoprotective responses of cell survival. Understanding exact cellular mechanism and signal transduction pathways is important in improving cancer radiotherapy. Increasing evidence suggests that cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) family proteins act as a survival factor and a signaling molecule in response to stress. We postulated that CREB inhibition via CRE decoy oligonucleotide increases tumor cell sensitization to γ-irradiation-induced cytotoxic stress. In the present study, we demonstrate that CREB phosphorylation and CREB DNA-protein complex formation increased in time- and radiation dose-dependent manners, while there was no significant change in total protein level of CREB. In addition, CREB was phosphorylated in response to γ-irradiation through p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation revealed that CREB blockade by decoy oligonucleotides functionally inhibited transactivation of CREB, and significantly increased radiosensitivity of multiple human cancer cell lines including TP53- and/or RB-mutated cells with minimal effects on normal cells. We also demonstrate that tumor cells ectopically expressing dominant negative mutant CREB (KCREB) and the cells treated with p38 MAPK inhibitors were more sensitive to γ-irradiation than wild type parental cells or control-treated cells. Taken together, we conclude that CREB protects tumor cells from γ-irradiation, and combination of CREB inhibition plus ionizing radiation will be a promising radiotherapeutic approach. - Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced CREB phosphorylation and CRE-directed transcription in tumor. • γ-Irradiation-induced transcriptional activation of CREB was via p38 MAPK pathway. • CRE blockade increased radiosensitivity of tumor cells but not of normal cells. • CRE decoy oligonucleotides or p38 MAPK inhibitors can be used as radiosensitizers.

  9. Inhibition of cyclic AMP response element-directed transcription by decoy oligonucleotides enhances tumor-specific radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Serk In; Park, Sung-Jun; Lee, Junghan; Kim, Hye Eun; Park, Su Jin; Sohn, Jeong-Won; Park, Yun Gyu

    2016-01-01

    The radiation stress induces cytotoxic responses of cell death as well as cytoprotective responses of cell survival. Understanding exact cellular mechanism and signal transduction pathways is important in improving cancer radiotherapy. Increasing evidence suggests that cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) family proteins act as a survival factor and a signaling molecule in response to stress. We postulated that CREB inhibition via CRE decoy oligonucleotide increases tumor cell sensitization to γ-irradiation-induced cytotoxic stress. In the present study, we demonstrate that CREB phosphorylation and CREB DNA-protein complex formation increased in time- and radiation dose-dependent manners, while there was no significant change in total protein level of CREB. In addition, CREB was phosphorylated in response to γ-irradiation through p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation revealed that CREB blockade by decoy oligonucleotides functionally inhibited transactivation of CREB, and significantly increased radiosensitivity of multiple human cancer cell lines including TP53- and/or RB-mutated cells with minimal effects on normal cells. We also demonstrate that tumor cells ectopically expressing dominant negative mutant CREB (KCREB) and the cells treated with p38 MAPK inhibitors were more sensitive to γ-irradiation than wild type parental cells or control-treated cells. Taken together, we conclude that CREB protects tumor cells from γ-irradiation, and combination of CREB inhibition plus ionizing radiation will be a promising radiotherapeutic approach. - Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced CREB phosphorylation and CRE-directed transcription in tumor. • γ-Irradiation-induced transcriptional activation of CREB was via p38 MAPK pathway. • CRE blockade increased radiosensitivity of tumor cells but not of normal cells. • CRE decoy oligonucleotides or p38 MAPK inhibitors can be used as radiosensitizers.

  10. Role of thiols in cellular response to radiation and drugs. Symposium: thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaglow, J.E.; Varnes, M.E.; Clark, E.P.; Epp, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    Cellular nonprotein thiols (NPSH) consist of glutathione (GSH) and other low molecular weight species such as cysteine, cysteamine, and coenzyme. A GSH is usually less than the total cellular NPSH, and with thiol reactive agents, such as diethyl maleate (DEM), its rate of depletion is in part dependent upon the cellular capacity for its resynthesis. If resynthesis is blocked by buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine(BSO), the NPSH, including GSH, is depleted more rapidly, Cellular thiol depletion by diamide, N-ethylmaleimide, and BSO may render oxygenated cells more sensitive to radiation. These cells may or may not show a reduction in the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). Human A549 lung carcinoma cells depleted of their NPSH either by prolonged culture or by BSO treatment do not show a reduced OER but do show increased aerobic responses to radiation. Other nitrocompounds, such as misonidazole, are activated under hypoxic conditions to radical intermediates. When cellular thiols are depleted peroxide is formed. Under hypoxic conditions thiols are depleted because metabolically reduced intermediates react with GSH instead of oxygen. Thiol depletion, under hypoxic conditions, may be the reason that misonidazole and other nitrocompounds show an extra enhancement ratio with hypoxic cells. Thiol depletion by DEM or BSO alters the radiation response of hypoxic cells to misonidazole. In conclusion, we propose an altered thiol model which includes a mechanism for thiol involvement in the aerobic radiation response of cells

  11. The cellular response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle L. Phillips

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs especially those of carbon nanotubes (CNTs have remarkable properties that are very desirable in various biological and biomedical applications. This has necessitated the rapid study of CNT toxicities, to augment their safe use, particularly, in yeast cells. The yeast cell; Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used industrial and biological organism with very limited data regarding their cellular behaviour in NPs. The current study examines the cellular response of S. cerevisiae to MWCNTs. The CNTs were produced by the swirled floating catalytic chemical vapour deposition (SFCCVD method and covalently functionalised using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The CNT properties such as size, surface area, quality and surface vibrations were characterized using TEM, SEM, BET, TGA and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The cellular uptake was confirmed with a FITC functionalised MWCNTs using 1H NMR, SEM and TEM. The CNT concentrations of 2–40 μg/ml were used to determine the cellular response through cell growth phases and cell viability characteristics. The TEM and SEM analyses showed the production of MWCNTs with an average diameter of 53 ± 12 nm and a length of 2.5 ± 0.5 μm. The cellular uptake of FITC-MWCNTs showed 100% internalisation in the yeast cells. The growth curve responses to the MWCNT doses showed no significant differences at P > 0.05 on the growth rate and viability of the S. cerevisiae cells.

  12. pH-Responsive Micelle-Based Cytoplasmic Delivery System for Induction of Cellular Immunity

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    Eiji Yuba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Cytoplasmic delivery of antigens is crucial for the induction of cellular immunity, which is an important immune response for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. To date, fusogenic protein-incorporated liposomes and pH-responsive polymer-modified liposomes have been used to achieve cytoplasmic delivery of antigen via membrane rupture or fusion with endosomes. However, a more versatile cytoplasmic delivery system is desired for practical use. For this study, we developed pH-responsive micelles composed of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC and deoxycholic acid and investigated their cytoplasmic delivery performance and immunity-inducing capability. (2 Methods: Interaction of micelles with fluorescence dye-loaded liposomes, intracellular distribution of micelles, and antigenic proteins were observed. Finally, antigen-specific cellular immune response was evaluated in vivo using ELIspot assay. (3 Results: Micelles induced leakage of contents from liposomes via lipid mixing at low pH. Micelles were taken up by dendritic cells mainly via macropinocytosis and delivered ovalbumin (OVA into the cytosol. After intradermal injection of micelles and OVA, OVA-specific cellular immunity was induced in the spleen. (4 Conclusions: pH-responsive micelles composed of DLPC and deoxycholic acid are promising as enhancers of cytosol delivery of antigens and the induction capability of cellular immunity for the treatment of cancer immunotherapy and infectious diseases.

  13. Differential Cellular Responses to Hedgehog Signalling in Vertebrates—What is the Role of Competence?

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Kiecker; Anthony Graham; Malcolm Logan

    2016-01-01

    A surprisingly small number of signalling pathways generate a plethora of cellular responses ranging from the acquisition of multiple cell fates to proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis and cell death. These diverse responses may be due to the dose-dependent activities of signalling factors, or to intrinsic differences in the response of cells to a given signal—a phenomenon called differential cellular competence. In this review, we focus on temporal and spatial differences in compete...

  14. Cellular response to DNA damage. Link between p53 and DNA-PK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles-Passador, I.; Fotedar, R.; Fotedar, A.

    1999-01-01

    Cells which lack DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK) are very susceptible to ionizing radiation and display an inability to repair double-strand DNA breaks. DNA-PK is a member of a protein kinase family that includes ATR and ATM which have strong homology in their carboxy-terminal kinase domain with Pl-3 kinase. ATM has been proposed to act upstream of p53 in cellular response to ionizing radiation. DNA-PK may similarly interact with p53 in cellular growth control and in mediation of the response to ionizing radiation. (author)

  15. Characterization of humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with human papilloma virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clares Pochet, Maria del Carmen; Ferrer Cosme, Belkis Maria; Dominguez Cardosa, Magda

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 30 females infected with the human papilloma virus, attended in the office of Immunology of the Specialty Polyclinic belonging to 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Clinical Surgical Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from June 2009 to June 2010, in order to characterize them according to immune response. To evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response rosetting assay and quantification of immunoglobulins were used respectively. Women between 25-36 years of age (40 %) infected with this virus, especially those coming from urban areas, prevailed in the series, and a significant decrease of the cellular response as compared to the humoral response was evidenced

  16. Prepotent response inhibition predicts treatment outcome in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oord, S.; Geurts, H.M.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inhibition deficits, including deficits in prepotent response inhibition and interference control, are core deficits in ADHD. The predictive value of prepotent response inhibition and interference control was assessed for outcome in a 10-week treatment trial with methylphenidate. Methods:

  17. Prepulse inhibition of auditory change-related cortical responses

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    Inui Koji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle response is an important tool to investigate the biology of schizophrenia. PPI is usually observed by use of a startle reflex such as blinking following an intense sound. A similar phenomenon has not been reported for cortical responses. Results In 12 healthy subjects, change-related cortical activity in response to an abrupt increase of sound pressure by 5 dB above the background of 65 dB SPL (test stimulus was measured using magnetoencephalography. The test stimulus evoked a clear cortical response peaking at around 130 ms (Change-N1m. In Experiment 1, effects of the intensity of a prepulse (0.5 ~ 5 dB on the test response were examined using a paired stimulation paradigm. In Experiment 2, effects of the interval between the prepulse and test stimulus were examined using interstimulus intervals (ISIs of 50 ~ 350 ms. When the test stimulus was preceded by the prepulse, the Change-N1m was more strongly inhibited by a stronger prepulse (Experiment 1 and a shorter ISI prepulse (Experiment 2. In addition, the amplitude of the test Change-N1m correlated positively with both the amplitude of the prepulse-evoked response and the degree of inhibition, suggesting that subjects who are more sensitive to the auditory change are more strongly inhibited by the prepulse. Conclusions Since Change-N1m is easy to measure and control, it would be a valuable tool to investigate mechanisms of sensory gating or the biology of certain mental diseases such as schizophrenia.

  18. Selective transcription and cellular proliferation induced by PDGF require histone deacetylase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catania, Annunziata; Iavarone, Carlo; Carlomagno, Stella M.; Chiariello, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key regulatory enzymes involved in the control of gene expression and their inhibition by specific drugs has been widely correlated to cell cycle arrest, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we investigated whether HDAC activity was required for PDGF-dependent signal transduction and cellular proliferation. Exposure of PDGF-stimulated NIH3T3 fibroblasts to the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) potently repressed the expression of a group of genes correlated to PDGF-dependent cellular growth and pro-survival activity. Moreover, we show that TSA interfered with STAT3-dependent transcriptional activity induced by PDGF. Still, neither phosphorylation nor nuclear translocation and DNA-binding in vitro and in vivo of STAT3 were affected by using TSA to interfere with PDGF stimulation. Finally, TSA treatment resulted in the suppression of PDGF-dependent cellular proliferation without affecting cellular survival of NIH3T3 cells. Our data indicate that inhibition of HDAC activity antagonizes the mitogenic effect of PDGF, suggesting that these drugs may specifically act on the expression of STAT-dependent, PDGF-responsive genes

  19. A Computational Model of Cellular Response to Modulated Radiation Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, Stephen J., E-mail: stephen.mcmahon@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Karl T. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McGarry, Conor K. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Trainor, Colman [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); O' Sullivan, Joe M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clinical Oncology, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hounsell, Alan R. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies. Materials and Methods: A Monte Carlo model of cellular radiation response was developed. This model incorporated damage from both direct radiation and intercellular communication including bystander signaling. The predictions of this model were compared to previously measured survival curves for a normal human fibroblast line (AGO1522) and prostate tumor cells (DU145) exposed to spatially modulated fields. Results: The model was found to be able to accurately reproduce cell survival both in populations which were directly exposed to radiation and those which were outside the primary treatment field. The model predicts that the bystander effect makes a significant contribution to cell killing even in uniformly irradiated cells. The bystander effect contribution varies strongly with dose, falling from a high of 80% at low doses to 25% and 50% at 4 Gy for AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This was verified using the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine to inhibit the bystander effect in cells exposed to different doses, which showed significantly larger reductions in cell killing at lower doses. Conclusions: The model presented in this work accurately reproduces cell survival following modulated radiation exposures, both in and out of the primary treatment field, by incorporating a bystander component. In addition, the model suggests that the bystander effect is responsible for a significant portion of cell killing in uniformly irradiated cells, 50% and 70% at doses of 2 Gy in AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This description is a significant departure from accepted radiobiological models and may have a significant impact on optimization of treatment planning approaches if proven to be applicable in vivo.

  20. A Computational Model of Cellular Response to Modulated Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Stephen J.; Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; Trainor, Colman; O’Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies. Materials and Methods: A Monte Carlo model of cellular radiation response was developed. This model incorporated damage from both direct radiation and intercellular communication including bystander signaling. The predictions of this model were compared to previously measured survival curves for a normal human fibroblast line (AGO1522) and prostate tumor cells (DU145) exposed to spatially modulated fields. Results: The model was found to be able to accurately reproduce cell survival both in populations which were directly exposed to radiation and those which were outside the primary treatment field. The model predicts that the bystander effect makes a significant contribution to cell killing even in uniformly irradiated cells. The bystander effect contribution varies strongly with dose, falling from a high of 80% at low doses to 25% and 50% at 4 Gy for AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This was verified using the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine to inhibit the bystander effect in cells exposed to different doses, which showed significantly larger reductions in cell killing at lower doses. Conclusions: The model presented in this work accurately reproduces cell survival following modulated radiation exposures, both in and out of the primary treatment field, by incorporating a bystander component. In addition, the model suggests that the bystander effect is responsible for a significant portion of cell killing in uniformly irradiated cells, 50% and 70% at doses of 2 Gy in AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This description is a significant departure from accepted radiobiological models and may have a significant impact on optimization of treatment planning approaches if proven to be applicable in vivo.

  1. Human metapneumovirus M2-2 protein inhibits innate immune response in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Ren

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Repeated hMPV infections occur throughout life. However, immune evasion mechanisms of hMPV infection are largely unknown. Recently, our group has demonstrated that hMPV M2-2 protein, an important virulence factor, contributes to immune evasion in airway epithelial cells by targeting the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS. Whether M2-2 regulates the innate immunity in human dendritic cells (DC, an important family of immune cells controlling antigen presenting, is currently unknown. We found that human DC infected with a virus lacking M2-2 protein expression (rhMPV-ΔM2-2 produced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and IFNs, compared to cells infected with wild-type virus (rhMPV-WT, suggesting that M2-2 protein inhibits innate immunity in human DC. In parallel, we found that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, an essential adaptor for Toll-like receptors (TLRs, plays a critical role in inducing immune response of human DC, as downregulation of MyD88 by siRNA blocked the induction of immune regulatory molecules by hMPV. Since M2-2 is a cytoplasmic protein, we investigated whether M2-2 interferes with MyD88-mediated antiviral signaling. We found that indeed M2-2 protein associated with MyD88 and inhibited MyD88-dependent gene transcription. In this study, we also identified the domains of M2-2 responsible for its immune inhibitory function in human DC. In summary, our results demonstrate that M2-2 contributes to hMPV immune evasion by inhibiting MyD88-dependent cellular responses in human DC.

  2. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  3. Atomoxetine restores the response inhibition network in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Charlotte L; Nombela, Cristina; Rodríguez, Patricia Vázquez; Ye, Zheng; Hughes, Laura E; Jones, P Simon; Ham, Timothy; Rittman, Timothy; Coyle-Gilchrist, Ian; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J; Barker, Roger A; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease impairs the inhibition of responses, and whilst impulsivity is mild for some patients, severe impulse control disorders affect ∼10% of cases. Based on preclinical models we proposed that noradrenergic denervation contributes to the impairment of response inhibition, via changes in the prefrontal cortex and its subcortical connections. Previous work in Parkinson's disease found that the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine could improve response inhibition, gambling decisions and reflection impulsivity. Here we tested the hypotheses that atomoxetine can restore functional brain networks for response inhibition in Parkinson's disease, and that both structural and functional connectivity determine the behavioural effect. In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 19 patients with mild-to-moderate idiopathic Parkinson's disease underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a stop-signal task, while on their usual dopaminergic therapy. Patients received 40 mg atomoxetine or placebo, orally. This regimen anticipates that noradrenergic therapies for behavioural symptoms would be adjunctive to, not a replacement for, dopaminergic therapy. Twenty matched control participants provided normative data. Arterial spin labelling identified no significant changes in regional perfusion. We assessed functional interactions between key frontal and subcortical brain areas for response inhibition, by comparing 20 dynamic causal models of the response inhibition network, inverted to the functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared using random effects model selection. We found that the normal interaction between pre-supplementary motor cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus was absent in Parkinson's disease patients on placebo (despite dopaminergic therapy), but this connection was restored by atomoxetine. The behavioural change in response inhibition (improvement indicated by reduced stop-signal reaction

  4. HSPB8 and BAG3 cooperate to promote spatial sequestration of ubiquitinated proteins and coordinate the cellular adaptive response to proteasome insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Solenn M; Lambert, Herman; Rodrigue, Marc-Antoine; Fuchs, Margit; Landry, Jacques; Lavoie, Josée N

    2018-02-05

    BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG)-3 is viewed as a platform that would physically and functionally link distinct classes of molecular chaperones of the heat shock protein (HSP) family for the stabilization and clearance of damaged proteins. In this study, we show that HSPB8, a member of the small heat shock protein subfamily, cooperates with BAG3 to coordinate the sequestration of harmful proteins and the cellular adaptive response upon proteasome inhibition. Silencing of HSPB8, like depletion of BAG3, inhibited targeting of ubiquitinated proteins to the juxtanuclear aggresome, a mammalian system of spatial quality control. However, aggresome targeting was restored in BAG3-depleted cells by a mutant BAG3 defective in HSPB8 binding, uncoupling HSPB8 function from its binding to BAG3. Depletion of HSPB8 impaired formation of ubiquitinated microaggregates in an early phase and interfered with accurate modifications of the stress sensor p62/sequestosome (SQSTM)-1. This impairment correlated with decreased coupling of BAG3 to p62/SQSTM1 in response to stress, hindering Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (KEAP)-1 sequestration and stabilization of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf)-2, an important arm of the antioxidant defense. Notably, the myopathy-associated mutation of BAG3 (P209L), which lies within the HSPB8-binding motif, deregulated the association between BAG3 and p62/SQSTM1 and the KEAP1-Nrf2 signaling axis. Together, our findings support a so-far-unrecognized role for the HSPB8-BAG3 connection in mounting of an efficient stress response, which may be involved in BAG3-related human diseases.-Guilbert, S. M., Lambert, H., Rodrigue, M.-A., Fuchs, M., Landry, J., Lavoie, J. N. HSPB8 and BAG3 cooperate to promote spatial sequestration of ubiquitinated proteins and coordinate the cellular adaptive response to proteasome insufficiency.

  5. Ion channel signaling influences cellular proliferation and phagocyte activity during axolotl tail regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Brandon M; Voss, S Randal; Osborn, Jeffrey L

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the potential for ion channels to regulate cellular behaviors during tissue regeneration. Here, we utilized an amphibian tail regeneration assay coupled with a chemical genetic screen to identify ion channel antagonists that altered critical cellular processes during regeneration. Inhibition of multiple ion channels either partially (anoctamin1/Tmem16a, anoctamin2/Tmem16b, K V 2.1, K V 2.2, L-type Ca V channels and H/K ATPases) or completely (GlyR, GABA A R, K V 1.5 and SERCA pumps) inhibited tail regeneration. Partial inhibition of tail regeneration by blocking the calcium activated chloride channels, anoctamin1&2, was associated with a reduction of cellular proliferation in tail muscle and mesenchymal regions. Inhibition of anoctamin 1/2 also altered the post-amputation transcriptional response of p44/42 MAPK signaling pathway genes, including decreased expression of erk1/erk2. We also found that complete inhibition via voltage gated K + channel blockade was associated with diminished phagocyte recruitment to the amputation site. The identification of H + pumps as required for axolotl tail regeneration supports findings in Xenopus and Planaria models, and more generally, the conservation of ion channels as regulators of tissue regeneration. This study provides a preliminary framework for an in-depth investigation of the mechanistic role of ion channels and their potential involvement in regulating cellular proliferation and other processes essential to wound healing, appendage regeneration, and tissue repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. HSV-I and the cellular DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samantha; Weller, Sandra K

    2015-04-01

    Peter Wildy first observed genetic recombination between strains of HSV in 1955. At the time, knowledge of DNA repair mechanisms was limited, and it has only been in the last decade that particular DNA damage response (DDR) pathways have been examined in the context of viral infections. One of the first reports addressing the interaction between a cellular DDR protein and HSV-1 was the observation by Lees-Miller et al . that DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit levels were depleted in an ICP0-dependent manner during Herpes simplex virus 1 infection. Since then, there have been numerous reports describing the interactions between HSV infection and cellular DDR pathways. Due to space limitations, this review will focus predominantly on the most recent observations regarding how HSV navigates a potentially hostile environment to replicate its genome.

  7. Response inhibition under alcohol: effects of cognitive and motivational conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, M T; Vogel-Sprott, M

    2000-03-01

    This experiment tested the effect of cognitive and motivational conflict on response inhibition under alcohol. Fifty-six male social drinkers were randomly assigned to one of eight groups (n = 8). Four pairs of groups received 0.62 g/kg of alcohol, or a placebo, and each pair performed a go/stop choice reaction time task under one of four conflict conditions. One condition (C) produced cognitive conflict by presenting "go" and "stop" signals in the task. Another condition (IR) added motivational conflict by administering an equal monetary reward for inhibiting responses to stop-signals, and for responding to go-signals. The remaining two conditions resolved the motivational conflict by administering the monetary reward only for inhibitions (I), or only for responses (R). Compared with placebo, alcohol reduced inhibitions (i.e., impaired inhibitory control) under cognitive conflict (C; p = .041) and under motivational conflict (IR; p = .012). No significant effect of alcohol on inhibitions was observed in conditions where conflict was resolved (i.e., I and R). The study shows that alcohol can reduce the ability to inhibit a response. However, impaired inhibitory control is not an inevitable outcome of the drug action, because it can be counteracted by the consequences of behavior in the situation.

  8. Improving response inhibition in Parkinson's disease with atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Altena, Ellemarije; Nombela, Cristina; Housden, Charlotte R; Maxwell, Helen; Rittman, Timothy; Huddleston, Chelan; Rae, Charlotte L; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J; Barker, Roger A; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2015-04-15

    Dopaminergic drugs remain the mainstay of Parkinson's disease therapy but often fail to improve cognitive problems such as impulsivity. This may be due to the loss of other neurotransmitters, including noradrenaline, which is linked to impulsivity and response inhibition. We therefore examined the effect of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine on response inhibition in a stop-signal paradigm. This pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study used a double-blinded randomized crossover design with low-frequency inhibition trials distributed among frequent Go trials. Twenty-one patients received 40 mg atomoxetine or placebo. Control subjects were tested on no-drug. The effects of disease and drug on behavioral performance, regional brain activity, and functional connectivity were analyzed using general linear models. Anatomical connectivity was examined using diffusion-weighted imaging. Patients with Parkinson's disease had longer stop-signal reaction times, less stop-related activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and weaker functional connectivity between the RIFG and striatum compared with control subjects. Atomoxetine enhanced stop-related RIFG activation in proportion to disease severity. Although there was no overall behavioral benefit from atomoxetine, analyses of individual differences revealed that enhanced response inhibition by atomoxetine was associated with increased RIFG activation and functional frontostriatal connectivity. Improved performance was more likely in patients with higher structural frontostriatal connectivity. This study suggests that enhanced prefrontal cortical activation and frontostriatal connectivity by atomoxetine may improve response inhibition in Parkinson's disease. These results point the way to new stratified clinical trials of atomoxetine to treat impulsivity in selected patients with Parkinson's disease. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Severe Malaria Infections Impair Germinal Center Responses by Inhibiting T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ryg-Cornejo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops only after years of repeated exposure to Plasmodium parasites. Despite the key role antibodies play in protection, the cellular processes underlying the slow acquisition of immunity remain unknown. Using mouse models, we show that severe malaria infection inhibits the establishment of germinal centers (GCs in the spleen. We demonstrate that infection induces high frequencies of T follicular helper (Tfh cell precursors but results in impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Despite high expression of Bcl-6 and IL-21, precursor Tfh cells induced during infection displayed low levels of PD-1 and CXCR5 and co-expressed Th1-associated molecules such as T-bet and CXCR3. Blockade of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IFN-γ or T-bet deletion restored Tfh cell differentiation and GC responses to infection. Thus, this study demonstrates that the same pro-inflammatory mediators that drive severe malaria pathology have detrimental effects on the induction of protective B cell responses.

  10. Dietary uptake of Cu sorbed to hydrous iron oxide is linked to cellular toxicity and feeding inhibition in a benthic grazer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Fuller, Christopher C.; Ringwood, Amy H.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas feeding inhibition caused by exposure to contaminants has been extensively documented, the underlying mechanism(s) are less well understood. For this study, the behavior of several key feeding processes, including ingestion rate and assimilation efficiency, that affect the dietary uptake of Cu were evaluated in the benthic grazer Lymnaea stagnalis following 4–5 h exposures to Cu adsorbed to synthetic hydrous ferric oxide (Cu–HFO). The particles were mixed with a cultured alga to create algal mats with Cu exposures spanning nearly 3 orders of magnitude at variable or constant Fe concentrations, thereby allowing first order and interactive effects of Cu and Fe to be evaluated. Results showed that Cu influx rates and ingestion rates decreased as Cu exposures of the algal mat mixture exceeded 104 nmol/g. Ingestion rate appeared to exert primary control on the Cu influx rate. Lysosomal destabilization rates increased directly with Cu influx rates. At the highest Cu exposure where the incidence of lysosomal membrane damage was greatest (51%), the ingestion rate was suppressed 80%. The findings suggested that feeding inhibition was a stress response emanating from excessive uptake of dietary Cu and cellular toxicity.

  11. The E-domain region of mechano-growth factor inhibits cellular apoptosis and preserves cardiac function during myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommatis, Evangelos; Shioura, Krystyna M; Los, Tamara; Goldspink, Paul H

    2013-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) isoforms are expressed via alternative splicing. Expression of the minor isoform IGF-1Eb [also known as mechano-growth factor (MGF)] is responsive to cell stress. Since IGF-1 isoforms differ in their E-domain regions, we are interested in determining the biological function of the MGF E-domain. To do so, a synthetic peptide analog was used to gain mechanistic insight into the actions of the E-domain. Treatment of H9c2 cells indicated a rapid cellular uptake mechanism that did not involve IGF-1 receptor activation but resulted in a nuclear localization. Peptide treatment inhibited the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in H9c2 cells subjected to cell stress with sorbitol by preventing the collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Therefore, we administered the peptide at the time of myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. At 2 weeks post-MI cardiac function, gene expression and cell death were assayed. A significant decline in both systolic and diastolic function was evident in untreated mice based on PV loop analysis. Delivery of the E-peptide ameliorated the decline in function and resulted in significant preservation of cardiac contractility. Associated with these changes were an inhibition of pathologic hypertrophy and significantly fewer apoptotic nuclei in the viable myocardium of E-peptide-treated mice post-MI. We conclude that administration of the MGF E-domain peptide may provide a means of modulating local tissue IGF-1 autocrine/paracrine actions to preserve cardiac function, prevent cell death, and pathologic remodeling in the heart.

  12. Andrographolide Suppresses MV4-11 Cell Proliferation through the Inhibition of FLT3 Signaling, Fatty Acid Synthesis and Cellular Iron Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Andrographolide (ADR, the main active component of Andrographis paniculata, displays anticancer activity in various cancer cell lines, among which leukemia cell lines exhibit the highest sensitivity to ADR. In particular, ADR was also reported to have reduced drug resistance in multidrug resistant cell lines. However, the mechanism of action (MOA of ADR’s anticancer and anti-drug-resistance activities remain elusive. Methods: In this study, we used the MV4-11 cell line, a FLT3 positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML cell line that displays multidrug resistance, as our experimental system. We first evaluated the effect of ADR on MV4-11 cell proliferation. Then, a quantitative proteomics approach was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins in ADR-treated MV4-11 cells. Finally, cellular processes and signal pathways affected by ADR in MV4-11 cell were predicted with proteomic analysis and validated with in vitro assays. Results: ADR inhibits MV4-11 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. With a proteomic approach, we discovered that ADR inhibited fatty acid synthesis, cellular iron uptake and FLT3 signaling pathway in MV4-11 cells. Conclusions: ADR inhibits MV4-11 cell proliferation through inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, iron uptake and protein synthesis. Furthermore, ADR reduces drug resistance by blocking FLT3 signaling.

  13. Inhibition of the immune response to experimental fresh osteoarticular allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, J.J.; Schnaser, A.M.; Reynolds, H.M. Jr.; Biggart, J.M. III; Leathers, M.W.; Chism, S.E.; Thorson, E.; Grotz, T.; Yang, Q.M.

    1989-01-01

    The immune response to osteoarticular allografts is capable of destroying the cartilage--a tissue that has antigens on its cells identical to those on the bone and marrow cells. Osteoarticular allografts of the distal femur were performed in rats using various methods to attempt to temporarily inhibit the antibody response. The temporary systemic immunosuppressant regimens investigated were cyclophosphamide, azathioprine and prednisolone, cyclosporine A, and total lymphoid irradiation. The most successful appeared to be cyclosporine A, but significant side effects were observed. To specifically inhibit the immune response in the allograft antigens without systemically inhibiting the entire immune system, passive enhancement and preadministration of donor blood were tried. Neither was as effective as coating the donor bone with biodegradable cements, a method previously found to be successful. Cyclosporine A was investigated in dogs in a preliminary study of medial compartmental knee allografts and was found to be successful in inhibiting the antibody response and in producing a more successful graft; however, some significant side effects were similarly observed

  14. Sex differences in emotional contexts modulation on response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; Angulo-Chavira, Armando; Llamas-Alonso, Luis A; González-Garrido, Andrés A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore sex differences in the effects that emotional contexts exert on the temporal course of response inhibition using event-related potentials (ERP). Participants performed a Go-NoGo response inhibition task under 3 context conditions: with 1) neutral background stimuli, and 2) pleasant, and 3) unpleasant emotional contexts. No sex differences were found in relation to accuracy. Women showed higher N2NoGo amplitudes than men in both emotional contexts; whereas during inhibition men tended to show higher P3NoGo amplitudes than women in the unpleasant context. Both groups experienced a relevant effect of the presence of the unpleasant context during inhibition processing, as shown by the enhancement of the N2NoGo amplitudes in frontal regions compared to results from the neutral and pleasant conditions. In addition, women showed differences between the pleasant and unpleasant contexts, with the latter inducing higher amplitude values. Only in men did inhibition accuracy correlate with higher N2NoGo and lower P3NoGo amplitudes in the emotional context conditions. These findings suggest that when an inhibition task is performed in an emotionally-neutral background context no sex differences are observed in either accuracy or ERP components. However, when the emotional context was introduced -especially the unpleasant one- some gender differences did become evident. The higher N2NoGo amplitude at the presence of the unpleasant context may reflect an effect on attention and conflict monitoring. In addition, results suggest that during earlier processing stages, women invested more resources to process inhibition than men. Furthermore, men who invested more neural resources during earlier stages showed better response inhibition than those who did it during later processing stages, more closely-related to cognitive and motor inhibition processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ebselen inhibits iron-induced tau phosphorylation by attenuating DMT1 up-regulation and cellular iron uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ling; Zheng, Wei; Xin, Na; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Zhan-You

    2012-08-01

    Dysregulation of iron homeostasis is involved in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have recently reported that divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) is upregulated in an AD transgenic mouse brain, and that silencing of DMT1, which reduces cellular iron influx, results in inhibition of amyloidogenesis in vitro, suggesting a potential target of DMT1 for AD therapy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of DMT1 with ebselen, a DMT1 transport inhibitor, could affect tau phosphorylation. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were pre-treated with ebselen and then treated with ferrous sulfate (dissolved in ascorbic acid), and the effects of ebselen on tau phosphorylation and the relative signaling pathways were examined. Our results showed that ebselen decreased iron influx, reduced iron-induced ROS production, inhibited the activities of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and ultimately attenuated the levels of tau phosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Ser396 and Thr231. The present study indicates that the neuroprotective effect of ebselen on AD is not only related to its antioxidant activity as reported previously, but is also associated with a reduction in tau phosphorylation by inhibition of DMT1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Response inhibition signals and miscoding of direction in dorsomedial striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Bryden

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to inhibit action is critical for everyday behavior and is affected by a variety of disorders. Behavioral control and response inhibition is thought to depend on a neural circuit that includes the dorsal striatum, yet the neural signals that lead to response inhibition and its failure are unclear. To address this issue, we recorded from neurons in rat dorsomedial striatum (mDS in a novel task in which rats responded to a spatial cue that signaled that reward would be delivered either to the left or to the right. On 80% of trials rats were instructed to respond in the direction cued by the light (GO. On 20% of trials a second light illuminated instructing the rat to refrain from making the cued movement and move in the opposite direction (STOP. Many neurons in mDS encoded direction, firing more or less strongly for GO movements made ipsilateral or contralateral to the recording electrode. Neurons that fired more strongly for contralateral GO responses were more active when rats were faster, showed reduced activity on STOP trials, and miscoded direction on errors, suggesting that when these neurons were overly active, response inhibition failed. Neurons that decreased firing for contralateral movement were excited during trials in which the rat was required to stop the ipsilateral movement. For these neurons activity was reduced when errors were made and was negatively correlated with movement time suggesting that when these neurons were less active on STOP trials, response inhibition failed. Finally, the activity of a significant number of neurons represented a global inhibitory signal, firing more strongly during response inhibition regardless of response direction. Breakdown by cell type suggests that putative medium spiny neurons tended to fire more strongly under STOP trials, whereas putative interneurons exhibited both activity patterns. 

  17. Silver Nanoparticle-Mediated Cellular Responses in Various Cell Lines: An in Vitro Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have attracted increased interest and are currently used in various industries including medicine, cosmetics, textiles, electronics, and pharmaceuticals, owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, particularly as antimicrobial and anticancer agents. Recently, several studies have reported both beneficial and toxic effects of AgNPs on various prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. To develop nanoparticles for mediated therapy, several laboratories have used a variety of cell lines under in vitro conditions to evaluate the properties, mode of action, differential responses, and mechanisms of action of AgNPs. In vitro models are simple, cost-effective, rapid, and can be used to easily assess efficacy and performance. The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and biocompatibility of AgNPs depend on many factors such as size, shape, surface charge, surface coating, solubility, concentration, surface functionalization, distribution of particles, mode of entry, mode of action, growth media, exposure time, and cell type. Cellular responses to AgNPs are different in each cell type and depend on the physical and chemical nature of AgNPs. This review evaluates significant contributions to the literature on biological applications of AgNPs. It begins with an introduction to AgNPs, with particular attention to their overall impact on cellular effects. The main objective of this review is to elucidate the reasons for different cell types exhibiting differential responses to nanoparticles even when they possess similar size, shape, and other parameters. Firstly, we discuss the cellular effects of AgNPs on a variety of cell lines; Secondly, we discuss the mechanisms of action of AgNPs in various cellular systems, and try to elucidate how AgNPs interact with different mammalian cell lines and produce significant effects; Finally, we discuss the cellular activation of various signaling molecules in response to AgNPs, and conclude with

  18. Atomoxetine restores the response inhibition network in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Charlotte L.; Nombela, Cristina; Rodríguez, Patricia Vázquez; Ye, Zheng; Hughes, Laura E.; Jones, P. Simon; Ham, Timothy; Rittman, Timothy; Coyle-Gilchrist, Ian; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Barker, Roger A.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Parkinson’s disease impairs the inhibition of responses, and whilst impulsivity is mild for some patients, severe impulse control disorders affect ∼10% of cases. Based on preclinical models we proposed that noradrenergic denervation contributes to the impairment of response inhibition, via changes in the prefrontal cortex and its subcortical connections. Previous work in Parkinson’s disease found that the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine could improve response inhibition, gambling decisions and reflection impulsivity. Here we tested the hypotheses that atomoxetine can restore functional brain networks for response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease, and that both structural and functional connectivity determine the behavioural effect. In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 19 patients with mild-to-moderate idiopathic Parkinson’s disease underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a stop-signal task, while on their usual dopaminergic therapy. Patients received 40 mg atomoxetine or placebo, orally. This regimen anticipates that noradrenergic therapies for behavioural symptoms would be adjunctive to, not a replacement for, dopaminergic therapy. Twenty matched control participants provided normative data. Arterial spin labelling identified no significant changes in regional perfusion. We assessed functional interactions between key frontal and subcortical brain areas for response inhibition, by comparing 20 dynamic causal models of the response inhibition network, inverted to the functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared using random effects model selection. We found that the normal interaction between pre-supplementary motor cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus was absent in Parkinson’s disease patients on placebo (despite dopaminergic therapy), but this connection was restored by atomoxetine. The behavioural change in response inhibition (improvement indicated by reduced

  19. Cellular and mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the cellular and mucosal responses in the respiratory tract of Nigerian goats vaccinated intranasally with recombinant Mannheimia hemolytica bacterine. Twenty one goats were divided into five groups, five goats each in three vaccinated groups while three goats each ...

  20. Cellular immune response in prognosis of Bell's palsy and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the cellular immune response in Bell's palsy (BP) and its prognostic value in relation to clinical and electrophysiological findings. Methods: Twenty patients with BP were subjected to: Facial nerve paralysis assessment according to House–Brackmann (H&B) grading system, bilateral facial nerve ...

  1. Study on cellular survival adaptive response induced by low dose irradiation of 153Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Xiao Dong

    1999-01-01

    The present study engages in determining whether low dose irradiation of 153 Sm could cut down the responsiveness of cellular survival to subsequent high dose exposure of 153 Sm so as to make an inquiry into approach the protective action of adaptive response by second irradiation of 153 Sm. Experimental results indicate that for inductive low dose of radionuclide 153 Sm 3.7 kBq/ml irradiated beforehand to cells has obvious resistant effect in succession after high dose irradiation of 153 Sm 3.7 x 10 2 kBq/ml was observed. Cells exposed to low dose irradiation of 153 Sm become adapted and therefore the subsequent cellular survival rate induced by high dose of 153 Sm is sufficiently higher than high dose of 153 Sm merely. It is evident that cellular survival adaptive response could be induced by pure low dose irradiation of 153 Sm only

  2. Silymarin Suppresses Cellular Inflammation By Inducing Reparative Stress Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; MacDonald, James; Bammler, Theo; Bruckner, Jacob; Brownell, Jessica; Beyer, Richard; Zink, Erika M.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Metz, Thomas O.; Farin, Federico; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Polyak, Steve

    2015-08-28

    Silymarin (SM), a natural product, is touted as a liver protectant and preventer of both chronic inflammation and diseases. To define how SM elicits these effects at a systems level, we performed transcriptional profiling, metabolomics, and signaling studies in human liver and T cell lines. Multiple pathways associated with cellular stress and metabolism were modulated by SM treatment within 0.5 to four hours: activation of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF-4) and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, the latter being associated with induction of DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4). Metabolomics analyses revealed suppression of glycolytic, TCA cycle, and amino acid metabolism by SM treatment. Antiinflammatory effects arose with prolonged (i.e. 24 hours) SM exposure, with suppression of multiple proinflammatory mRNAs and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and forkhead box O (FOXO) signaling. Studies with murine knock out cells revealed that SM inhibition of both mTOR and NF-κB was partially AMPK dependent, while SM inhibition of the mTOR pathway in part required DDIT4. Thus, SM activates stress and repair responses that culminate in an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Other natural products induced similar stress responses, which correlated with their ability to suppress inflammation. Therefore, natural products like SM may be useful as tools to define how metabolic, stress, and repair pathways regulate cellular inflammation.

  3. Widespread Inhibition of Posttranscriptional Splicing Shapes the Cellular Transcriptome following Heat Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reut Shalgi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During heat shock and other proteotoxic stresses, cells regulate multiple steps in gene expression in order to globally repress protein synthesis and selectively upregulate stress response proteins. Splicing of several mRNAs is known to be inhibited during heat stress, often meditated by SRp38, but the extent and specificity of this effect have remained unclear. Here, we examined splicing regulation genome-wide during heat shock in mouse fibroblasts. We observed widespread retention of introns in transcripts from ∼1,700 genes, which were enriched for tRNA synthetase, nuclear pore, and spliceosome functions. Transcripts with retained introns were largely nuclear and untranslated. However, a group of 580+ genes biased for oxidation reduction and protein folding functions continued to be efficiently spliced. Interestingly, these unaffected transcripts are mostly cotranscriptionally spliced under both normal and stress conditions, whereas splicing-inhibited transcripts are mostly spliced posttranscriptionally. Altogether, our data demonstrate widespread repression of splicing in the mammalian heat stress response, disproportionately affecting posttranscriptionally spliced genes.

  4. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo eOtvos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC. In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399. The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400 was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400 at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  5. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  6. Changes in cerebro-cerebellar interaction during response inhibition after performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Satoshi; Jimura, Koji; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyashita, Yasushi; Konishi, Seiki

    2014-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that motor learning is supported by the cerebellum and the cerebro-cerebellar interaction. Response inhibition involves motor responses and the higher-order inhibition that controls the motor responses. In this functional MRI study, we measured the cerebro-cerebellar interaction during response inhibition in two separate days of task performance, and detected the changes in the interaction following performance improvement. Behaviorally, performance improved in the second day, compared to the first day. The psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed the interaction decrease from the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) to the cerebellum (lobule VII or VI). It was also revealed that the interaction increased from the same cerebellar region to the primary motor area. These results suggest the involvement of the cerebellum in response inhibition, and raise the possibility that the performance improvement was supported by the changes in the cerebro-cerebellar interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cellular distribution, purification and electrophoretic properties of malate dehydrogenase in Trichuris ovis and inhibition by benzimidazoles and pyrimidine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Moreno, M; Ortega, J E; Valero, A

    1989-12-01

    High levels of malate dehydrogenase were found in Trichuris ovis. Two molecular forms of the enzyme, of different cellular location and electrophoretic pattern, were isolated and purified. The activity of soluble malate dehydrogenase was greater than that of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. Both forms also displayed different electrophoretic profiles in comparison with purified extracts from goat (Capra hircus) liver. Substrate concentration directly affected enzyme activity. Host and parasite malate dehydrogenase activity were both inhibited by a series of benzimidazoles and pyrimidine-derived compounds, some of which markedly reduced parasite enzyme activity, but not host enzyme activity. Percentage inhibition by some pyrimidine derivatives was greater than that produced by benzimidazoles.

  8. Frequent cellular phone use modifies hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to a cellular phone call after mental stress in healthy children and adolescents: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronikolou, Styliani A; Chamakou, Aikaterini; Mantzou, Aimilia; Chrousos, George; KanakaGantenbein, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the main "gate-keeper" of the organism's response to every somatic or mental stress. This prospective study aims to investigate the HPA-axis response to a cellular phone call exposure after mental stress in healthy children and adolescents and to assess the possible predictive role of baseline endocrine markers to this response. Two groups of healthy school-age children aged 11-14 (12.5±1.5) years were included in the study, the one comprising those who are occasional users of a cellular phone (Group A) while the second those who do regularly use one (Group B). Blood samples were obtained from all participants at 8.00 am after a 12-hour overnight fasting for thyroid hormone, glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels determination. The participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) (5 minoral task followed by 5 min arithmetic task). Salivary cortisol samples were obtained at baseline, 10' and 20' min after the TSST-C and 10' and 20' after a 5 minute cellular phone call. Significant changes in the salivary cortisol levels were noted between 10' and 20' mins after the cellular phone call with different responses between the two groups. Baseline thyroid hormone levels seem to predict the cortisol response to mental stress mainly in group A, while HOMA had no impact on salivary cortisol response at any phase of the test, in either group. HPA axis response to cellular phone after mental stress in children and adolescents follow a different pattern in frequent users than in occasional users that seems to be influenced by the baseline thyroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effectiveness of Reward and Punishment Contingencies on Response Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Arthur F.; Hoving, Kenneth L.

    1973-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of reward and punishment on the development of response inhibition was evaluated developmentally with kindergarteners and second graders. Removal of positive reinforcers was apparently more effective than reward in producing inhibiting at both age levels. Transfer of inhibition training was also evaluated. (DP)

  10. A critical role of a cellular membrane traffic protein in poliovirus RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Belov

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Replication of many RNA viruses is accompanied by extensive remodeling of intracellular membranes. In poliovirus-infected cells, ER and Golgi stacks disappear, while new clusters of vesicle-like structures form sites for viral RNA synthesis. Virus replication is inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA, implicating some components(s of the cellular secretory pathway in virus growth. Formation of characteristic vesicles induced by expression of viral proteins was not inhibited by BFA, but they were functionally deficient. GBF1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small cellular GTPases, Arf, is responsible for the sensitivity of virus infection to BFA, and is required for virus replication. Knockdown of GBF1 expression inhibited virus replication, which was rescued by catalytically active protein with an intact N-terminal sequence. We identified a mutation in GBF1 that allows growth of poliovirus in the presence of BFA. Interaction between GBF1 and viral protein 3A determined the outcome of infection in the presence of BFA.

  11. On the effects of geometry, defects, and material asymmetry on the mechanical response of shape memory alloy cellular lattice structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravari, M R Karamooz; Kadkhodaei, M; Ghaei, A; Esfahani, S Nasr; Andani, M Taheri; Elahinia, M; Karaca, H

    2016-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (such as NiTi) cellular lattice structures are a new class of advanced materials with many potential applications. The cost of fabrication of these structures however is high. It is therefore necessary to develop modeling methods to predict the functional behavior of these alloys before fabrication. The main aim of the present study is to assess the effects of geometry, microstructural imperfections and material asymmetric response of dense shape memory alloys on the mechanical response of cellular structures. To this end, several cellular and dense NiTi samples are fabricated using a selective laser melting process. Both cellular and dense specimens were tested in compression in order to obtain their stress–strain response. For modeling purposes, a three -dimensional (3D) constitutive model based on microplane theory which is able to describe the material asymmetry was employed. Five finite element models based on unit cell and multi-cell methods were generated to predict the mechanical response of cellular lattices. The results show the considerable effects of the microstructural imperfections on the mechanical response of the cellular lattice structures. The asymmetric material response of the bulk material also affects the mechanical response of the corresponding cellular structure. (paper)

  12. Acrolein in cigarette smoke inhibits T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Cherie; McCue, Jesica; Portas, Mary; Ouyang, Yanli; Li, JiMei; Rosano, Thomas G; Lazis, Alexander; Freed, Brian M

    2005-10-01

    Cigarette smoking inhibits T-cell responses in the lungs, but the immunosuppressive compounds have not been fully identified. Cigarette smoke extracts inhibit IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha production in stimulated lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, even when the extracts were diluted 100-fold to 1000-fold. The objective of these studies was to identify the immunosuppressive compounds found in cigarette smoke. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and HPLC were used to identify and quantitate volatile compounds found in cigarette smoke extracts. Bioactivity was measured by viability and production of cytokine mRNA and protein levels in treated human lymphocytes. The vapor phase of the cigarette smoke extract inhibited cytokine production, indicating that the immunosuppressive compounds were volatile. Among the volatile compounds identified in cigarette smoke extracts, only the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein (inhibitory concentration of 50% [IC50] = 3 micromol/L) and crotonaldehyde (IC50 = 6 micromol/L), exhibited significant inhibition of cytokine production. Although the levels of aldehydes varied 10-fold between high-tar (Camel) and ultralow-tar (Carlton) extracts, even ultralow-tar cigarettes produced sufficient levels of acrolein (34 micromol/L) to suppress cytokine production by >95%. We determined that the cigarette smoke extract inhibited transcription of cytokine genes. The inhibitory effects of acrolein could be blocked with the thiol compound N-acetylcysteine. The vapor phase from cigarette smoke extracts potently suppresses cytokine production. The compound responsible for this inhibition appears to be acrolein.

  13. Response Inhibition and Internet Gaming Disorder: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Evangelia; Davison, Christopher B; Lee, Tayla T C

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has multiple negative effects in psychological functioning and health. This makes the identification of its underpinnings, such as response inhibition, essential for the development of relevant interventions that target these core features of the disorder resulting in more effective treatment. Several empirical studies have evaluated the relationship between response inhibition deficits and IGD using neurocognitive tasks, but provided mixed results. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies using three neurocognitive tasks, the Go/No Go, the Stroop, and the Stop-Signal tasks, to integrate existing research and estimate the magnitude of this relationship. We found a medium overall effect size (d=0.56, 95% CI [0.32, 0.80]) indicating that compared with healthy individuals, individuals with IGD are more likely to exhibit impaired response inhibition. This finding is in alignment with literature on inhibition and addictive and impulsive behaviors, as well as with neuroimaging research. Theoretical implications regarding the conceptualization of IGD as a clinical disorder, shared commonalities with externalizing psychopathology, and clinical implications for treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reinforcement and stimulant medication ameliorate deficient response inhibition in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, Keri S.; Fosco, Whitney D.; Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Bubnik, Michelle G.; Hawk, Larry W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which reinforcement, stimulant medication, and their combination impact response inhibition in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Across three studies, participants with ADHD (n=111, 25 girls) and typically-developing (TD) controls (n=33, 6 girls) completed a standard version of the stop signal task (SST) and/or a reinforcement-manipulation SST with performance-contingent points. In two of these studies, these tasks were performed under placebo or 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH) conditions. Cross-study comparisons were conducted to test hypotheses regarding the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and methylphenidate on response inhibition among children with ADHD relative to TD controls. Baseline response inhibition was worse among children with ADHD compared to controls. MPH produced dose-related improvements in response inhibition in children with ADHD; compared to non-medicated TD controls, 0.3 mg/kg MPH normalized deficient response inhibition, and 0.6 mg/kg MPH resulted in better inhibition in children with ADHD. Reinforcement improved response inhibition to a greater extent for children with ADHD than for TD children, normalizing response inhibition. The combination of MPH and reinforcement improved response inhibition among children with ADHD compared to reinforcement alone and MPH alone, also resulting in normalization of response inhibition despite repeated task exposure. Deficient response inhibition commonly observed in children with ADHD is significantly improved with MPH and/or reinforcement, normalizing inhibition relative to TD children tested under standard conditions. PMID:25985978

  15. Coordination between p21 and DDB2 in the cellular response to UV radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor p53 guides the cellular response to DNA damage mainly by regulating expression of target genes. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, which is induced by p53, can both arrest the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis. Interestingly, p53-inducible DDB2 (damaged-DNA binding protein 2 promotes apoptosis by mediating p21 degradation after ultraviolet (UV-induced DNA damage. Here, we developed an integrated model of the p53 network to explore how the UV-irradiated cell makes a decision between survival and death and how the activities of p21 and DDB2 are modulated. By numerical simulations, we found that p53 is activated progressively and the promoter selectivity of p53 depends on its concentration. For minor DNA damage, p53 settles at an intermediate level. p21 is induced by p53 to arrest the cell cycle via inhibiting E2F1 activity, allowing for DNA repair. The proapoptotic genes are expressed at low levels. For severe DNA damage, p53 undergoes a two-phase behavior and accumulates to high levels in the second phase. Consequently, those proapoptotic proteins accumulate remarkably. Bax activates the release of cytochrome c, while DDB2 promotes the degradation of p21, which leads to activation of E2F1 and induction of Apaf-1. Finally, the caspase cascade is activated to trigger apoptosis. We revealed that the downregulation of p21 is necessary for apoptosis induction and PTEN promotes apoptosis by amplifying p53 activation. This work demonstrates that how the dynamics of the p53 network can be finely regulated through feed-forward and feedback loops within the network and emphasizes the importance of p21 regulation in the DNA damage response.

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase reduces inflammatory responses and cellular senescence in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Yu; Li, Yang-Yang; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jun; Yao, Hong-Wei

    2017-04-04

    Current drug therapy fails to reduce lung destruction of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as an important integrator of signals that control energy balance and lipid metabolism. However, there are no studies regarding the role of AMPK in reducing inflammatory responses and cellular senescence during the development of emphysema. Therefore, we hypothesize that AMPK reduces inflammatroy responses, senescence, and lung injury. To test this hypothesis, human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in the presence of a specific AMPK activator (AICAR, 1 mM) and inhibitor (Compound C, 5 μM). Elastase injection was performed to induce mouse emphysema, and these mice were treated with a specific AMPK activator metformin as well as Compound C. AICAR reduced, whereas Compound C increased CSE-induced increase in IL-8 and IL-6 release and expression of genes involved in cellular senescence. Knockdown of AMPKα1/α2 increased expression of pro-senescent genes (e.g., p16, p21, and p66shc) in BEAS-2B cells. Prophylactic administration of an AMPK activator metformin (50 and 250 mg/kg) reduced while Compound C (4 and 20 mg/kg) aggravated elastase-induced airspace enlargement, inflammatory responses and cellular senescence in mice. This is in agreement with therapeutic effect of metformin (50 mg/kg) on airspace enlargement. Furthermore, metformin prophylactically protected against but Compound C further reduced mitochondrial proteins SOD2 and SIRT3 in emphysematous lungs. In conclusion, AMPK reduces abnormal inflammatory responses and cellular senescence, which implicates as a potential therapeutic target for COPD/emphysema.

  17. Resisting distraction and response inhibition trigger similar enhancements of future performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Patrick G; Grant, Lauren D; Weissman, Daniel H

    2017-10-01

    Resisting distraction and response inhibition are crucial aspects of cognitive control. Interestingly, each of these abilities transiently improves just after it is utilized. Competing views differ, however, as to whether utilizing either of these abilities (e.g., resisting distraction) enhances future performance involving the other ability (e.g., response inhibition). To distinguish between these views, we combined a Stroop-like task that requires resisting distraction with a restraint variant of the stop-signal task that requires response inhibition. We observed similar sequential-trial effects (i.e., performance enhancements) following trials in which participants (a) resisted distraction (i.e., incongruent go trials) and (b) inhibited a response (i.e., congruent stop trials). First, the congruency effect in go trials, which indexes overall distractibility, was smaller after both incongruent go trials and congruent stop trials than it was after congruent go trials. Second, stop failures were less frequent after both incongruent go trials and congruent stop trials than after congruent go trials. A control experiment ruled out the possibility that perceptual conflict or surprise engendered by occasional stop signals triggers sequential-trial effects independent of stopping. Thus, our findings support a novel, integrated view in which resisting distraction and response inhibition trigger similar sequential enhancements of future performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Maturation of cognitive control: delineating response inhibition and interference suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Brydges

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is integral to the ability to attend to a relevant task whilst suppressing distracting information or inhibiting prepotent responses. The current study examined the development of these two subprocesses by examining electrophysiological indices elicited during each process. Thirteen 18 year-old adults and thirteen children aged 8-11 years (mean=9.77 years completed a hybrid Go/Nogo flanker task while continuous EEG data were recorded. The N2 topography for both response inhibition and interference suppression changed with increasing age. The neural activation associated with response inhibition became increasingly frontally distributed with age, and showed decreases of both amplitude and peak latency from childhood to adulthood, possibly due to reduced cognitive demands and myelination respectively occurring during this period. Interestingly, a significant N2 effect was apparent in adults, but not observed in children during trials requiring interference suppression. This could be due to more diffuse activation in children, which would require smaller levels of activation over a larger region of the brain than is reported in adults. Overall, these results provide evidence of distinct maturational processes occurring throughout late childhood and adolescence, highlighting the separability of response inhibition and interference suppression.

  19. The neural markers of an imminent failure of response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengson, Jesse J; Mangun, George R; Mazaheri, Ali

    2012-01-16

    In his novel Ulysses, James Joyce wrote that mistakes are the "…portals of discovery". The present study investigated the pre-stimulus oscillatory EEG signatures of selective attention and motor preparation that predicted failures of overt response inhibition. We employed a trial-by-trial spatial cueing task using a go/no-go response paradigm with bilateral target stimuli. Subjects were required to covertly attend to the spatial location cued on each trial and respond to most of the number targets (go trials) at that location while withholding responses for one designated number (no-go trials). We analyzed the post-cue/pre-target spectral patterns comparing no-go trials in which a response occurred in error (False Alarms, FA) with trials in which participants correctly withheld a response (Correct Rejections, CR). We found that cue-induced occipital alpha (8-12 Hz) lateralization and inter-frequency anti-correlations between the motor beta (18-24 Hz) and pre-frontal theta (3-5 Hz) bands each independently predicted subsequent failures of response inhibition. Based on these findings, we infer that independent perceptual and motor mechanisms operate in parallel to contribute to failures of response inhibition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving Response Inhibition in Parkinson’s Disease with Atomoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Altena, Ellemarije; Nombela, Cristina; Housden, Charlotte R.; Maxwell, Helen; Rittman, Timothy; Huddleston, Chelan; Rae, Charlotte L.; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Barker, Roger A.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dopaminergic drugs remain the mainstay of Parkinson’s disease therapy but often fail to improve cognitive problems such as impulsivity. This may be due to the loss of other neurotransmitters, including noradrenaline, which is linked to impulsivity and response inhibition. We therefore examined the effect of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine on response inhibition in a stop-signal paradigm. Methods This pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study used a double-blinded randomized crossover design with low-frequency inhibition trials distributed among frequent Go trials. Twenty-one patients received 40 mg atomoxetine or placebo. Control subjects were tested on no-drug. The effects of disease and drug on behavioral performance, regional brain activity, and functional connectivity were analyzed using general linear models. Anatomical connectivity was examined using diffusion-weighted imaging. Results Patients with Parkinson’s disease had longer stop-signal reaction times, less stop-related activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and weaker functional connectivity between the RIFG and striatum compared with control subjects. Atomoxetine enhanced stop-related RIFG activation in proportion to disease severity. Although there was no overall behavioral benefit from atomoxetine, analyses of individual differences revealed that enhanced response inhibition by atomoxetine was associated with increased RIFG activation and functional frontostriatal connectivity. Improved performance was more likely in patients with higher structural frontostriatal connectivity. Conclusions This study suggests that enhanced prefrontal cortical activation and frontostriatal connectivity by atomoxetine may improve response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease. These results point the way to new stratified clinical trials of atomoxetine to treat impulsivity in selected patients with Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24655598

  1. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Nederkoorn, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking

  2. Impaired right inferior frontal gyrus response to contextual cues in male veterans with PTSD during response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Sanne J H; Rademaker, Arthur R; Kennis, Mitzy; Vink, Matthijs; Kahn, René S; Geuze, Elbert

    2014-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with impaired fear inhibition and decreased safety cue processing; however, studies capturing the cognitive aspect of inhibition and contextual cue processing are limited. In this fMRI study, the role of contextual cues in response inhibition was investigated. Male medication-naive war veterans with PTSD, male control veterans (combat controls) and healthy nonmilitary men (healthy controls) underwent fMRI while performing the stop-signal anticipation task (SSAT). The SSAT evokes 2 forms of response inhibition: reactive inhibition (outright stopping) and proactive inhibition (anticipation of stopping based on contextual cues). We enrolled 28 veterans with PTSD, 26 combat controls and 25 healthy controls in our study. Reduced reactive inhibition was observed in all veterans, both with and without PTSD, but not in nonmilitary controls, whereas decreased inhibition of the left pre/postcentral gyrus appeared to be specifically associated with PTSD. Impaired behavioural proactive inhibition was also specific to PTSD. Furthermore, the PTSD group showed a reduced right inferior frontal gyrus response during proactive inhibition compared with the combat control group. Most patients with PTSD had comorbid psychiatric disorders, but such comorbidity is common in patients with PTSD. Also, the education level (estimate of intelligence) of participants, but not of their parents, differed among the groups. Our findings of reduced proactive inhibition imply that patients with PTSD show reduced contextual cue processing. These results complement previous findings on fear inhibition and demonstrate that contextual cue processing in patients with PTSD is also reduced during cognitive processes, indicating a more general deficit.

  3. Restoration of microRNA‑218 increases cellular chemosensitivity to cervical cancer by inhibiting cell‑cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruofan; Qiu, Haifeng; Du, Guiqiang; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Jinjin; Mao, Caiping

    2014-12-01

    We previously reported frequent loss of microRNA‑218 (miR‑218) in human cervical cancer, which was associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated whether restoration of the miR‑218 level is a valid strategy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The expression of miR‑218 in cervical cancer samples and cell lines was quantified by reverse transcription TaqMan quantitative (RT‑q)PCR. Overexpression of miR‑218 was achieved by both transient and stable transfection, using a miR‑218 mimic and a miR‑218‑expressing plasmid, respectively. Alterations in cellular proliferation and cell‑cycle progression were measured by the MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis. Nude mice bearing SiHa xenografts were used to investigate the functions of miR‑218 and carboplatin on tumor growth and weight. The expression of cycle‑related proteins was detected by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In vitro, miR‑218 significantly inhibited cellular growth in all four cell lines tested (P=0.021 for CaSki, P=0.009 for HeLa, P=0.016 for SiHa, and P=0.029 for C33A). Overexpression of miR‑218 induced G1 phase arrest and reduced expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4. In vivo, restoration of miR‑218 notably inhibited tumor growth and decreased tumor weight. In primary cultured samples, tumors with high levels of miR‑218 were more sensitive to carboplatin (R2=0.3319, P=0.0026); consistently, miR‑218 overexpression suppressed tumor growth, induced cell‑cycle arrest, and reduced the cyclin D1 level. Based on these and previous results, we conclude that restoration of the miR‑218 level inhibits the growth of cervical cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo; furthermore, overexpression of miR‑218 sensitizes cervical cancer cells to carboplatin. Our findings suggest a novel therapy for cervical cancer based on miR‑218, especially in patients with reduced levels of miR‑218.

  4. Curcumin-induced inhibition of cellular reactive oxygen species generation: novel therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanyam, M; Koteswari, A Adaikala; Kumar, R Sampath; Monickaraj, S Finny; Maheswari, J Uma; Mohan, V

    2003-12-01

    There is evidence for increased levels of circulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetics, as indirectly inferred by the findings of increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant status. Direct measurements of intracellular generation of ROS using fluorescent dyes also demonstrate an association of oxidative stress with diabetes. Although phenolic compounds attenuate oxidative stress-related tissue damage, there are concerns over toxicity of synthetic phenolic antioxidants and this has considerably stimulated interest in investigating the role of natural phenolics in medicinal applications. Curcumin (the primary active principle in turmeric, Curcuma longa Linn.) has been claimed to represent a potential antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent with phytonutrient and bioprotective properties. However there are lack of molecular studies to demonstrate its cellular action and potential molecular targets. In this study the antioxidant effect of curcumin as a function of changes in cellular ROS generation was tested. Our results clearly demonstrate that curcumin abolished both phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA) and thapsigargin-induced ROS generation in cells from control and diabetic subjects. The pattern of these ROS inhibitory effects as a function of dose-dependency suggests that curcumin mechanistically interferes with protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium regulation. Simultaneous measurements of ROS and Ca2+ influx suggest that a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ may be a trigger for increased ROS generation. We suggest that the antioxidant and antiangeogenic actions of curcumin, as a mechanism of inhibition of Ca2+ entry and PKC activity, should be further exploited to develop suitable and novel drugs for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic complications.

  5. Depolarization-stimulated 42K+ efflux in rat aorta is calcium- and cellular volume-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magliola, L.; Jones, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors controlling membrane permeability to potassium of smooth muscle cells from rat aorta stimulated by depolarization. The increase 42 K+ efflux (change in the rate constant) induced by depolarization (application of high concentrations of potassium chloride) was inhibited significantly by the calcium antagonists diltiazem and nisoldipine. Parallel inhibitory effects on contraction were observed. Diltiazem also inhibited potassium-stimulated 36 Cl- efflux. The addition of 25-150 mM KCl to normal physiologic solution stimulated 42 K+ efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. Diltiazem suppressed potassium-stimulated 42 K+ efflux approximately 90% at 25 mM KCl and approximately 40% at 150 mM KCl. The ability of nisoldipine to inhibit 42 K+ efflux also diminished as the potassium chloride concentration was elevated. The component of efflux that was resistant to calcium antagonists probably resulted from a decrease in the electrochemical gradient for potassium. Cellular water did not change during potassium addition. Substitution of 80 and 150 mM KCl for sodium chloride produced cellular swelling and enhanced potassium-stimulated 42 K+ efflux compared with potassium chloride addition. The addition of sucrose to prevent cellular swelling reduced efflux response to potassium substitution toward that of potassium addition. A hypoosmolar physiologic solution produced an increase in the 42 K+ efflux and a contracture that were both prevented by the addition of sucrose. We concluded that the depolarization-mediated 42 K+ efflux has three components: one is calcium dependent; a second is dependent on cellular volume; and a third is resistant to inhibition by calcium antagonists

  6. Evasion of Apoptosis as a Cellular Stress Response in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fulda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of human cancers is the intrinsic or acquired resistance to apoptosis. Evasion of apoptosis can be part of a cellular stress response to ensure the cell's survival upon exposure to stressful stimuli. Apoptosis resistance may contribute to carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and also treatment resistance, since most current anticancer therapies including chemotherapy as well as radio- and immunotherapies primarily act by activating cell death pathways including apoptosis in cancer cells. Hence, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding how cellular stress stimuli trigger antiapoptotic mechanisms and how this contributes to tumor resistance to apoptotic cell death is expected to provide the basis for a rational approach to overcome apoptosis resistance mechanisms in cancers.

  7. Genetic influences on phase synchrony of brain oscillations supporting response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Viktor; Anokhin, Andrey P; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2017-05-01

    Phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations is a fundamental mechanism underlying cognitive processing and behavior, including context-dependent response production and inhibition. Abnormalities in neural synchrony can lead to abnormal information processing and contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, little is known about genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in cortical oscillatory dynamics underlying response inhibition. This study examined heritability of event-related phase synchronization of brain oscillations in 302 young female twins including 94 MZ and 57 DZ pairs performing a cued Go/No-Go version of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). We used the Phase Locking Index (PLI) to assess inter-trial phase clustering (synchrony) in several frequency bands in two time intervals after stimulus onset (0-300 and 301-600ms). Response inhibition (i.e., successful response suppression in No-Go trials) was characterized by a transient increase in phase synchronization of delta- and theta-band oscillations in the fronto-central midline region. Genetic analysis showed significant heritability of the phase locking measures related to response inhibition, with 30 to 49% of inter-individual variability being accounted for by genetic factors. This is the first study providing evidence for heritability of task-related neural synchrony. The present results suggest that PLI can serve as an indicator of genetically transmitted individual differences in neural substrates of response inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Infection Induces Autophagy as a Prosurvival Mechanism to Alleviate Hepatic ER-Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Srikanta; Chava, Srinivas; Aydin, Yucel; Chandra, Partha K.; Ferraris, Pauline; Chen, Weina; Balart, Luis A.; Wu, Tong; Garry, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently leads to chronic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular mechanisms by which HCV infection leads to chronic liver disease and HCC are not well understood. The infection cycle of HCV is initiated by the attachment and entry of virus particles into a hepatocyte. Replication of the HCV genome inside hepatocytes leads to accumulation of large amounts of viral proteins and RNA replication intermediates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), resulting in production of thousands of new virus particles. HCV-infected hepatocytes mount a substantial stress response. How the infected hepatocyte integrates the viral-induced stress response with chronic infection is unknown. The unfolded protein response (UPR), an ER-associated cellular transcriptional response, is activated in HCV infected hepatocytes. Over the past several years, research performed by a number of laboratories, including ours, has shown that HCV induced UPR robustly activates autophagy to sustain viral replication in the infected hepatocyte. Induction of the cellular autophagy response is required to improve survival of infected cells by inhibition of cellular apoptosis. The autophagy response also inhibits the cellular innate antiviral program that usually inhibits HCV replication. In this review, we discuss the physiological implications of the HCV-induced chronic ER-stress response in the liver disease progression. PMID:27223299

  9. The Bioavailability of Soluble Cigarette Smoke Extract Is Reduced through Interactions with Cells and Affects the Cellular Response to CSE Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Jeffrey S; Jacob, Jeeva; Garewal, Aram; Ndahayo, Renata; Paxson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Cellular exposure to cigarette smoke leads to an array of complex responses including apoptosis, cellular senescence, telomere dysfunction, cellular aging, and neoplastic transformation. To study the cellular response to cigarette smoke, a common in vitro model exposes cultured cells to a nominal concentration (i.e. initial concentration) of soluble cigarette smoke extract (CSE). However, we report that use of the nominal concentration of CSE as the only measure of cellular exposure is inadequate. Instead, we demonstrate that cellular response to CSE exposure is dependent not only on the nominal concentration of CSE, but also on specific experimental variables, including the total cell number, and the volume of CSE solution used. As found in other similar xenobiotic assays, our work suggests that the effective dose of CSE is more accurately related to the amount of bioavailable chemicals per cell. In particular, interactions of CSE components both with cells and other physical factors limit CSE bioavailability, as demonstrated by a quantifiably reduced cellular response to CSE that is first modified by such interactions. This has broad implications for the nature of cellular response to CSE exposure, and for the design of in vitro assays using CSE.

  10. Topoisomerase 1 Inhibition Promotes Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase-Dependent Antiviral Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Pépin, Geneviève; Nejad, Charlotte; Ferrand, Jonathan; Thomas, Belinda J.; Stunden, H. James; Sanij, Elaine; Foo, Chwan-Hong; Stewart, Cameron R.; Cain, Jason E.; Bardin, Philip G.; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Gantier, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammatory responses, while essential for pathogen clearance, can also be deleterious to the host. Chemical inhibition of topoisomerase 1 (Top1) by low-dose camptothecin (CPT) can suppress transcriptional induction of antiviral and inflammatory genes and protect animals from excessive and damaging inflammatory responses. We describe the unexpected finding that minor DNA damage from topoisomerase 1 inhibition with low-dose CPT can trigger a strong antiviral immune response through c...

  11. Cellular corepressor TLE2 inhibits replication-and-transcription- activator-mediated transactivation and lytic reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiheng; Liu, Yunhua; Liang, Deguang; Wang, Zhuo; Robertson, Erle S; Lan, Ke

    2010-02-01

    Replication and transcription activator (RTA) encoded by open reading frame 50 (ORF50) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is essential and sufficient to initiate lytic reactivation. RTA activates its target genes through direct binding with high affinity to its responsive elements or by interaction with cellular factors, such as RBP-Jkappa, Ap-1, C/EBP-alpha, and Oct-1. In this study, we identified transducin-like enhancer of split 2 (TLE2) as a novel RTA binding protein by using yeast two-hybrid screening of a human spleen cDNA library. The interaction between TLE2 and RTA was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) binding and coimmunoprecipitation assays. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that TLE2 and RTA were colocalized in the same nuclear compartment in KSHV-infected cells. This interaction recruited TLE2 to RTA bound to its recognition sites on DNA and repressed RTA auto-activation and transactivation activity. Moreover, TLE2 also inhibited the induction of lytic replication and virion production driven by RTA. We further showed that the Q (Gln-rich), SP (Ser-Pro-rich), and WDR (Trp-Asp repeat) domains of TLE2 and the Pro-rich domain of RTA were essential for this interaction. RBP-Jkappa has been shown previously to bind to the same Pro-rich domain of RTA, and this binding can be subject to competition by TLE2. In addition, TLE2 can form a complex with RTA to access the cognate DNA sequence of the RTA-responsive element at different promoters. Intriguingly, the transcription level of TLE2 could be upregulated by RTA during the lytic reactivation process. In conclusion, we identified a new RTA binding protein, TLE2, and demonstrated that TLE2 inhibited replication and transactivation mediated by RTA. This provides another potentially important mechanism for maintenance of KSHV viral latency through interaction with a host protein.

  12. Acute LSD effects on response inhibition neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A; Müller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; Schmid, Y; Zanchi, D; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2017-10-02

    Recent evidence shows that the serotonin 2A receptor (5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor, 5-HT2AR) is critically involved in the formation of visual hallucinations and cognitive impairments in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced states and neuropsychiatric diseases. However, the interaction between 5-HT2AR activation, cognitive impairments and visual hallucinations is still poorly understood. This study explored the effect of 5-HT2AR activation on response inhibition neural networks in healthy subjects by using LSD and further tested whether brain activation during response inhibition under LSD exposure was related to LSD-induced visual hallucinations. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, LSD (100 µg) and placebo were administered to 18 healthy subjects. Response inhibition was assessed using a functional magnetic resonance imaging Go/No-Go task. LSD-induced visual hallucinations were measured using the 5 Dimensions of Altered States of Consciousness (5D-ASC) questionnaire. Relative to placebo, LSD administration impaired inhibitory performance and reduced brain activation in the right middle temporal gyrus, superior/middle/inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex and in the left superior frontal and postcentral gyrus and cerebellum. Parahippocampal activation during response inhibition was differently related to inhibitory performance after placebo and LSD administration. Finally, activation in the left superior frontal gyrus under LSD exposure was negatively related to LSD-induced cognitive impairments and visual imagery. Our findings show that 5-HT2AR activation by LSD leads to a hippocampal-prefrontal cortex-mediated breakdown of inhibitory processing, which might subsequently promote the formation of LSD-induced visual imageries. These findings help to better understand the neuropsychopharmacological mechanisms of visual hallucinations in LSD-induced states and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) inhibits vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and interleukin-8 production in human coronary arterial endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Keiko; Hasegawa, Shunji; Suzuki, Yasuo; Hirano, Reiji; Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kittaka, Setsuaki; Ichiyama, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile vasculitis of childhood that is associated with elevated production of inflammatory cytokines, causing damage to the coronary arteries. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules in human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) is regulated by nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. We have previously reported that the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3)), inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB activation. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) on TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression (vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)) and cytokine production (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8) in HCAECs. Pretreatment with 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression and IL-8 production in HCAECs. Our results suggest that adjunctive 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) therapy may modulate the inflammatory response during Kawasaki disease vasculitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cellular and molecular response to irradiation in ataxia telangiectasia and in Fanconi's anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridet, A.; Guillouf, C.; Duchaud, E.; Moustacchi, E.; Rosselli, F.

    1997-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Fanconi anemia (FA) are recessive genetic diseases featuring chromosomal instability, increased predisposition to cancer and in vitro hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (AT) or DNA cross-linking agents (FA). Moreover, an in vivo hypersensitivity to γ-rays exposure was reported in both syndromes. Cellular response to irradiation includes growth arrest (cell cycle modification) and cell death (by apoptosis or necrosis). Since it is generally accepted that apoptosis modulates cellular sensitivity to genotoxic stress, it was of interest to investigate the contribution of apoptosis in determining FA and AT responses to DNA Damaging Agents. The results support the contention that the in vivo hypersensitivity to radiation in these syndromes is not related to a higher rate of apoptotic cells but could be to a higher necrotic response triggering inflammatory reactions in the patients affected by this syndromes. (authors)

  15. Electrolyte effects on the surface chemistry and cellular response of anodized titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Naofumi; Kozuka, Taro; Hirano, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ti samples were anodized using various electrolytes. • Anodization decreased carbon adsorption, improving hydrophilicity. • Improved hydrophilicity led to improved cellular attachment. • Only one electrolyte showed any heteroatom incorporation into the TiO 2 layer. • Choice of electrolyte played no role on the effects of anodization. - Abstract: Anodic oxidation of titanium (Ti) material is used to enhance biocompatibility, yet the effects of various electrolytes on surface characteristics and cellular behavior have not been completely elucidated. To investigate this topic, oxide layers were produced on Ti substrates by anodizing them in aqueous electrolytes of (NH 4 ) 2 O·5B 2 O 3 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , or (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 , after which their surface characteristics and cellular responses were examined. Overall, no surface differences between the electrolytes were visually observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the anodized surfaces are composed of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), while incorporation from electrolyte was only observed for (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 . Surface adsorption of carbon contaminants during sterilization was suppressed by anodization, leading to lower water contact angles. The attachment of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells was also improved by anodization, as evidenced by visibly enlarged pseudopods. This improved attachment performance is likely due to TiO 2 formation. Overall, electrolyte selection showed no effect on either surface chemistry or cellular response of Ti materials

  16. In vitro studies of cellular response to DNA damage induced by boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M.; Pontiggia, O.; Carpano, M.; Thomasz, L.; Thorp, S.; Pozzi, E.; Simian, M.; Kahl, S.; Juvenal, G.; Pisarev, M.; Dagrosa, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the mechanisms of cellular response to DNA damage induced by BNCT. Thyroid carcinoma cells were incubated with 10 BPA or 10 BOPP and irradiated with thermal neutrons. The surviving fraction, the cell cycle distribution and the expression of p53 and Ku70 were analyzed. Different cellular responses were observed for each irradiated group. The decrease of Ku70 in the neutrons +BOPP group could play a role in the increase of sensitization to radiation.

  17. Hydroxylase inhibition attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function and ameliorates experimental diarrhea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, Joseph B J

    2012-02-01

    Hydroxylases are oxygen-sensing enzymes that regulate cellular responses to hypoxia. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion, the driving force for fluid secretion, is dependent on O(2) availability for generation of cellular energy. Here, we investigated the role of hydroxylases in regulating epithelial secretion and the potential for targeting these enzymes in treatment of diarrheal disorders. Ion transport was measured as short-circuit current changes across voltage-clamped monolayers of T(84) cells and mouse colon. The antidiarrheal efficacy of dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) was tested in a mouse model of allergic disease. Hydroxylase inhibition with DMOG attenuated Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent secretory responses in voltage-clamped T(84) cells to 20.2 +\\/- 2.6 and 38.8 +\\/- 6.7% (n=16; P<\\/=0.001) of those in control cells, respectively. Antisecretory actions of DMOG were time and concentration dependent, being maximal after 18 h of DMOG (1 mM) treatment. DMOG specifically inhibited Na(+)\\/K(+)-ATPase pump activity without altering its expression or membrane localization. In mice, DMOG inhibited agonist-induced secretory responses ex vivo and prevented allergic diarrhea in vivo. In conclusion, hydroxylases are important regulators of epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion and present a promising target for development of new drugs to treat transport disorders.

  18. Hydroxylase inhibition attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function and ameliorates experimental diarrhea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, Joseph B J

    2011-02-01

    Hydroxylases are oxygen-sensing enzymes that regulate cellular responses to hypoxia. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion, the driving force for fluid secretion, is dependent on O(2) availability for generation of cellular energy. Here, we investigated the role of hydroxylases in regulating epithelial secretion and the potential for targeting these enzymes in treatment of diarrheal disorders. Ion transport was measured as short-circuit current changes across voltage-clamped monolayers of T(84) cells and mouse colon. The antidiarrheal efficacy of dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) was tested in a mouse model of allergic disease. Hydroxylase inhibition with DMOG attenuated Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent secretory responses in voltage-clamped T(84) cells to 20.2 ± 2.6 and 38.8 ± 6.7% (n=16; P≤0.001) of those in control cells, respectively. Antisecretory actions of DMOG were time and concentration dependent, being maximal after 18 h of DMOG (1 mM) treatment. DMOG specifically inhibited Na(+)\\/K(+)-ATPase pump activity without altering its expression or membrane localization. In mice, DMOG inhibited agonist-induced secretory responses ex vivo and prevented allergic diarrhea in vivo. In conclusion, hydroxylases are important regulators of epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion and present a promising target for development of new drugs to treat transport disorders.

  19. No effects of bilateral tDCS over inferior frontal gyrus on response inhibition and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Schuhmann, T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Sack, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression.

  20. Down-regulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (Long Form contributes to apoptosis induced by Hsp90 inhibition in human lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qilin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular FLICE-Inhibitory Protein (long form, c-FLIPL is a critical negative regulator of death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Overexpression of c-FLIPL has been reported in many cancer cell lines and is associated with chemoresistance. In contrast, down-regulation of c-FLIP may drive cancer cells into cellular apoptosis. This study aims to demonstrate that inhibition of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 either by inhibitors geldanamycin/17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (GA/17-AAG or siRNA technique in human lung cancer cells induces c-FLIPL degradation and cellular apoptosis through C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP-mediated mechanisms. Methods Calu-1 and H157 cell lines (including H157-c-FLIPL overexpressing c-FLIPL and control cell H157-lacZ were treated with 17-AAG and the cell lysates were prepared to detect the given proteins by Western Blot and the cell survival was assayed by SRB assay. CHIP and Hsp90 α/β proteins were knocked down by siRNA technique. CHIP and c-FLIPL plasmids were transfected into cells and immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to testify the interactions between c-FLIPL, CHIP and Hsp90. Results c-FLIPL down-regulation induced by 17-AAG can be reversed with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, which suggested that c-FLIPL degradation is mediated by a ubiquitin-proteasome system. Inhibition of Hsp90α/β reduced c-FLIPL level, whereas knocking down CHIP expression with siRNA technique inhibited c-FLIPL degradation. Furthermore, c-FLIPL and CHIP were co-precipitated in the IP complexes. In addition, overexpression of c-FLIPL can rescue cancer cells from apoptosis. When 17-AAG was combined with an anti-cancer agent celecoxib(CCB, c-FLIPL level declined further and there was a higher degree of caspase activation. Conclusion We have elucidated c-FLIPL degradation contributes to apoptosis induced by Hsp90 inhibition, suggesting c-FLIP and Hsp90 may be the promising combined targets

  1. The Role of Instabilities on the Mechanical Response of Cellular Solids and Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyriakides, S

    1997-01-01

    .... The relatively regular and periodic microstructure of these two-dimensional materials makes them excellent models for studying the mechanisms that govern the compressive response of cellular materials...

  2. Thiol peroxidases mediate specific genome-wide regulation of gene expression in response to hydrogen peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Koc, Ahmet; Agisheva, Natalia; Jacobsen, Michael; Kaya, Alaattin; Malinouski, Mikalai; Rutherford, Julian C.; Siu, Kam-Leung; Jin, Dong-Yan; Winge, Dennis R.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is thought to regulate cellular processes by direct oxidation of numerous cellular proteins, whereas antioxidants, most notably thiol peroxidases, are thought to reduce peroxides and inhibit H2O2 response. However, thiol peroxidases have also been implicated in activation of transcription factors and signaling. It remains unclear if these enzymes stimulate or inhibit redox regulation and whether this regulation is widespread or limited to a few cellular components. Herein, w...

  3. Giardia-specific cellular immune responses in post-giardiasis chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanevik, Kurt; Kristoffersen, Einar; Mørch, Kristine; Rye, Kristin Paulsen; Sørnes, Steinar; Svärd, Staffan; Bruserud, Øystein; Langeland, Nina

    2017-01-28

    The role of pathogen specific cellular immune responses against the eliciting pathogen in development of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS) is not known and such studies are difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to evaluate specific anti-Giardia cellular immunity in cases that developed CFS after Giardia infection compared to cases that recovered well. Patients reporting chronic fatigue in a questionnaire study three years after a Giardia outbreak were clinically evaluated five years after the outbreak and grouped according to Fukuda criteria for CFS and idiopathic chronic fatigue. Giardia specific immune responses were evaluated in 39 of these patients by proliferation assay, T cell activation and cytokine release analysis. 20 Giardia exposed non-fatigued individuals and 10 healthy unexposed individuals were recruited as controls. Patients were clinically classified into CFS (n = 15), idiopathic chronic fatigue (n = 5), fatigue from other causes (n = 9) and recovered from fatigue (n = 10). There were statistically significant antigen specific differences between these Giardia exposed groups and unexposed controls. However, we did not find differences between the Giardia exposed fatigue classification groups with regard to CD4 T cell activation, proliferation or cytokine levels in 6 days cultured PBMCs. Interestingly, sCD40L was increased in patients with PI-CFS and other persons with fatigue after Giardia infection compared to the non-fatigued group, and correlated well with fatigue levels at the time of sampling. Our data show antigen specific cellular immune responses in the groups previously exposed to Giardia and increased sCD40L in fatigued patients.

  4. Sorafenib targets the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes and ATP synthase to activate the PINK1-Parkin pathway and modulate cellular drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Conggang; Liu, Zeyu; Bunker, Eric; Ramirez, Adrian; Lee, Schuyler; Peng, Yinghua; Tan, Aik-Choon; Eckhardt, S Gail; Chapnick, Douglas A; Liu, Xuedong

    2017-09-08

    Sorafenib (Nexavar) is a broad-spectrum multikinase inhibitor that proves effective in treating advanced renal-cell carcinoma and liver cancer. Despite its well-characterized mechanism of action on several established cancer-related protein kinases, sorafenib causes variable responses among human tumors, although the cause for this variation is unknown. In an unbiased screening of an oncology drug library, we found that sorafenib activates recruitment of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Parkin to damaged mitochondria. We show that sorafenib inhibits the activity of both complex II/III of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase. Dual inhibition of these complexes, but not inhibition of each individual complex, stabilizes the serine-threonine protein kinase PINK1 on the mitochondrial outer membrane and activates Parkin. Unlike the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m -chlorophenylhydrazone, which activates the mitophagy response, sorafenib treatment triggers PINK1/Parkin-dependent cellular apoptosis, which is attenuated upon Bcl-2 overexpression. In summary, our results reveal a new mechanism of action for sorafenib as a mitocan and suggest that high Parkin activity levels could make tumor cells more sensitive to sorafenib's actions, providing one possible explanation why Parkin may be a tumor suppressor gene. These insights could be useful in developing new rationally designed combination therapies with sorafenib. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Cellular immune responses against CT7 (MAGE-C1) and humoral responses against other cancer-testis antigens in multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Nikoletta; Gnjatic, Sacha; Ritter, Erika; Mangone, Michael; Austin, Wayne; Reyner, Karina; Jayabalan, David; Niesvizky, Ruben; Jagannath, Sundar; Bhardwaj, Nina; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Old, Lloyd J; Cho, Hearn Jay

    2010-01-29

    The type I melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) proteins CT7 (MAGE-C1) and MAGE-A3 are commonly expressed in multiple myeloma (MM), and their expression correlates with increased plasma cell proliferation and poor clinical outcome. They belong to the cancer-testis antigen (CTAg) group of tumor-associated proteins, some of which elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients. CT7 and MAGE-A3 are promising antigenic targets for therapeutic tumor vaccines in myeloma; therefore, it is critical to determine if they are immunogenic in MM patients. We analyzed cellular and humoral immune responses against CTAgs in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias: MM, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). Bone marrow lymphocytes from two of four untreated MM patients exhibited CT7-specific cellular immune responses as measured by an autologous cellular immunity assay, the first such immune response to CT7 to be reported in cancer patients. Sera from 24 patients were screened by ELISA for humoral immune responses to CTAgs. Two patients with MM demonstrated positive titers, one for MAGE-A1 and the other for SSX1. These data demonstrate that CTAgs, particularly CT7, are immunogenic in MM patients and merit further exploration as targets of immunological therapy in MM.

  6. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai Ohbayashi; Munetaka Sugiyama

    2018-01-01

    The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized p...

  7. Seasonal variations of cellular stress response of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Lazou, Antigone; Pörtner, Hans O; Michaelidis, Basile

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the seasonal cellular stress response in vital organs, like the heart, the liver, the whole blood and the skeletal (red and white) muscles of the Mediterranean fish Sparus aurata during a 1-year acclimatization period in the field, in two examined depths (0-2 m and 10-12 m). Processes studied included heat shock protein expression and protein kinase activation. Molecular responses were addressed through the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90, the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases and particularly p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3). The induction of Hsp70 and Hsp90 and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, JNKs and ERKs in the examined five tissues of the gilthead sea bream indicated a cellular stress response under the prism of a seasonal pattern which was characterized by distinct tissue specificity. Specifically, Hsp induction and MAPK activation occurred before peak summer water temperatures, with no further increases in their levels despite increases in water temperatures. Moreover, although water temperature did not vary significantly with depth of immersion, significant effects of depth on cellular stress response were observed, probably caused by different light regime. The expression and the activation of these certain proteins can be used as tools to define the extreme thermal limits of the gilthead sea bream.

  8. Emotion potentiates response activation and inhibition in masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotion can have 2-fold effects on perception. At the object-level, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific boost in visual attention at the relative expense of competing stimuli. At the visual feature-level, recent findings indicate that emotion may inhibit the processing of small visual details and facilitate the processing of coarse visual features. In the present study, we investigated whether emotion can boost the activation and inhibition of automatic motor responses that are generated prior to overt perception. To investigate this, we tested whether an emotional cue affects covert motor responses in a masked priming task. We used a masked priming paradigm in which participants responded to target arrows that were preceded by invisible congruent or incongruent prime arrows. In the standard paradigm, participants react faster, and commit fewer errors responding to the directionality of target arrows, when they are preceded by congruent vs. incongruent masked prime arrows (positive congruency effect, PCE). However, as prime-target SOAs increase, this effect reverses (negative congruency effect, NCE). These findings have been explained as evidence for an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition of a partial response elicited by the masked prime arrow. Our results show that the presentation of fearful face cues, compared to neutral face cues, increased the size of both the PCE and NCE, despite the fact that the primes were invisible. This is the first demonstration that emotion prepares an individual's visuomotor system for automatic activation and inhibition of motor responses in the absence of visual awareness.

  9. High-dose alcohol intoxication differentially modulates cognitive subprocesses involved in response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Schulz, Tom; Lenhardt, Martin; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aside from well-known physiological effects, high-dose alcohol intoxication (a.k.a. binge drinking) can lead to aversive social and legal consequences because response inhibition is usually compromised under the influence of alcohol. Although the behavioral aspects of this phenomenon were reported on extensively, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms mediating this disinhibition are unclear. To close this gap, we used both behavioral and neurophysiological measures (event-related potentials, ERPs) to investigate which subprocesses of response inhibition are altered under the influence of high-dose alcohol intoxication. Using a within-subject design, we asked young healthy participants (n = 27) to complete a GO/NOGO task once sober and once intoxicated (approximately 1.2‰). During intoxication, high-dose alcohol effects were highest in a condition where the participants could not rely on automated stimulus-response mapping processes during response inhibition. In this context, the NOGO-P3 (ERP), that likely depends on dopaminergic signaling within mesocorticolimbic pathways and is thought to reflect motor inhibition and/or the evaluation of inhibitory processes, was altered in the intoxicated state. In contrast to this, the N2 component, which largely depends on nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and is thought to reflect inhibition on a pre-motor level, was not altered. Based on these results, we demonstrate that alcohol-induced changes of dopaminergic neurotransmission do not exert a global effect on response inhibition. Instead, changes are highly subprocess-specific and seem to mainly target mesocorticolimbic pathways that contribute to motor inhibition and the evaluation of such. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Norepinephrine transporter inhibition alters the hemodynamic response to hypergravitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strempel, Sebastian; Schroeder, Christoph; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Boese, Andrea; Tank, Jens; Diedrich, André; Heer, Martina; Luft, Friedrich C; Jordan, Jens

    2008-03-01

    Sympathetically mediated tachycardia and vasoconstriction maintain blood pressure during hypergravitational stress, thereby preventing gravitation-induced loss of consciousness. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition prevents neurally mediated (pre)syncope during gravitational stress imposed by head-up tilt testing. Thus it seems reasonable that NET inhibition could increase tolerance to hypergravitational stress. We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in 11 healthy men (26 +/- 1 yr, body mass index 24 +/- 1 kg/m2), who ingested the selective NET inhibitor reboxetine (4 mg) or matching placebo 25, 13, and 1 h before testing on separate days. We monitored heart rate, blood pressure, and thoracic impedance in three different body positions (supine, seated, standing) and during a graded centrifuge run (incremental steps of 0.5 g for 3 min each, up to a maximal vertical acceleration load of 3 g). NET inhibition increased supine blood pressure and heart rate. With placebo, blood pressure increased in the seated position and was well maintained during standing. However, with NET inhibition, blood pressure decreased in the seated and standing position. During hypergravitation, blood pressure increased in a graded fashion with placebo. With NET inhibition, the increase in blood pressure during hypergravitation was profoundly diminished. Conversely, the tachycardic responses to sitting, standing, and hypergravitation all were greatly increased with NET inhibition. In contrast to our expectation, short-term NET inhibition did not improve tolerance to hypergravitation. Redistribution of sympathetic activity to the heart or changes in baroreflex responses could explain the excessive tachycardia that we observed.

  11. Design, characterization, and in vitro cellular inhibition and uptake of optimized genistein-loaded NLC for the prevention of posterior capsular opacification using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenji; Li, Xuedong; Ye, Tiantian; Chen, Fen; Sun, Xiao; Kong, Jun; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan; Li, Sanming

    2013-09-15

    This study was to design an innovative nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) for drug delivery of genistein applied after cataract surgery for the prevention of posterior capsular opacification. NLC loaded with genistein (GEN-NLC) was produced with Compritol 888 ATO, Gelucire 44/14 and Miglyol 812N, stabilized by Solutol(®) HS15 by melt emulsification method. A 2(4) central composite design of 4 independent variables was performed for optimization. Effects of drug concentration, Gelucire 44/14 concentration in total solid lipid, liquid lipid concentration, and surfactant concentration on the mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency were investigated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical test was used to assess the optimization. The optimized GEN-NLC showed a homogeneous particle size of 90.16 nm (with PI=0.33) of negatively charged surface (-25.08 mv) and high encapsulation efficiency (91.14%). Particle morphology assessed by TEM revealed a spherical shape. DSC analyses confirmed that GEN was mostly entrapped in amorphous state. In vitro release experiments indicated a prolonged and controlled genistein release for 72 h. In vitro growth inhibition assay showed an effective growth inhibition of GEN-NLCs on human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). Preliminary cellular uptake test proved a enhanced penetration of genistein into HLECs when delivered in NLC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The C protein of measles virus inhibits the type I interferon response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, Jessica A.; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNα/β) are an important part of innate immunity to viral infections because they induce an antiviral response and limit viral replication until the adaptive response clears the infection. Since the nonstructural proteins of several paramyxoviruses inhibit the IFNα/β response, we chose to explore the role of the C protein of measles virus (MV) in such inhibition. Previous studies have suggested that the MV C protein may serve as a virulence factor, but its role in the pathogenesis of MV remains undefined. In the present study, a recombinant MV strain that does not express the C protein (MV C-) and its parental strain (Ed Tag) were used. Growth of MV C- was restricted in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HeLa cells, but in the presence of neutralizing antibodies to IFNα/β, MV C- produced titers that were equivalent to those of Ed Tag. In addition, expression of the MV C protein from plasmid DNA inhibited the production of an IFNα/β responsive reporter gene and, to a lesser extent, inhibited an IFNγ responsive reporter gene. The ability of the MV C protein to suppress the IFNα/β response was confirmed using a biologic assay. After IFNβ stimulation, HeLa cells infected with Ed Tag produced five-fold less IFNα/β than cells infected with MV C-. While the mechanism of inhibition remains unclear, these data suggest that the MV C protein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MV by inhibiting IFNα/β signaling

  13. Response inhibition and interference control in obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S van Velzen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, motor response inhibition and interference control have received considerable scientific effort and attention, due to their important role in behavior and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Results of neuroimaging studies indicate that motor response inhibition and interference control are dependent on cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC circuits. Structural and functional abnormalities within the CSTC circuits have been reported for many neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and related disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, Tourette’s syndrome (TS and trichotillomania. These disorders also share impairments in motor response inhibition and interference control, which may underlie some of their behavioral and cognitive symptoms. Results of task-related neuroimaging studies on inhibitory functions in these disorders show that impaired task performance is related to altered recruitment of the CSTC circuits. Previous research has shown that inhibitory performance is dependent upon dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin signaling, neurotransmitters that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In this review we discuss the common and disorder-specific pathophysiological mechanisms of inhibition-related dysfunction in OCD and related disorders.

  14. Improving response inhibition systems in frontotemporal dementia with citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Laura E; Rittman, Timothy; Regenthal, Ralf; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2015-07-01

    Disinhibition is a cardinal feature of the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia, presenting as impulsive and impetuous behaviours that are often difficult to manage. The options for symptomatic treatments are limited, but a potential target for therapy is the restoration of serotonergic function, which is both deficient in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and closely associated with inhibitory control. Based on preclinical studies and psychopharmacological interventions in other disorders, we predicted that inhibition would be associated with the right inferior frontal gyrus and dependent on serotonin. Using magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography of a Go-NoGo paradigm, we investigated the neural basis of behavioural disinhibition in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibition on the neural systems for response inhibition. In a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover design study, 12 patients received either a single 30 mg dose of citalopram or placebo. Twenty age-matched healthy controls underwent the same magnetoencephalography/electroencephalography protocol on one session without citalopram, providing normative data for this task. In the control group, successful NoGo trials evoked two established indices of successful response inhibition: the NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3. Both of these components were significantly attenuated by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. Cortical sources associated with successful inhibition in control subjects were identified in the right inferior frontal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe, which have been strongly associated with behavioural inhibition in imaging and lesion studies. These sources were impaired by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. Critically, citalopram enhanced the NoGo-P3 signal in patients, relative to placebo treatment, and increased the evoked response in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Voxel

  15. Species as Stressors: Heterospecific Interactions and the Cellular Stress Response under Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R; King, Emily E; Boyer, Kirsten; Tsukimura, Brian; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic global change is predicted to increase the physiological stress of organisms through changes in abiotic conditions such as temperature, pH, and pollution. However, organisms can also experience physiological stress through interactions with other species, especially parasites, predators, and competitors. The stress of species interactions could be an important driver of species' responses to global change as the composition of biological communities change through factors such as distributional and phenological shifts. Interactions between biotic and abiotic stressors could also induce non-linear physiological stress responses under global change. One of the primary means by which organisms deal with physiological stress is through the cellular stress response (CSR), which is broadly the upregulation of a conserved set of genes that facilitate the removal and repair of damaged macromolecules. Here, we present data on behavioral interactions and CSR gene expression for two competing species of intertidal zone porcelain crab (Petrolisthes cinctipes and Petrolisthes manimaculis). We found that P. cinctipes and P. manimaculis engage in more agonistic behaviors when interacting with heterospecifics than conspecifics; however, we found no evidence that heterospecific interactions induced a CSR in these species. In addition to our new data, we review the literature with respect to CSR induction via species interactions, focusing on predator-prey systems and heterospecific competition. We find extensive evidence for predators to induce cellular stress and aspects of the CSR in prey, even in the absence of direct physical contact between species. Effects of heterospecific competition on the CSR have been studied far less, but we do find evidence that agonistic interactions with heterospecifics can induce components of the CSR. Across all published studies, there is clear evidence that species interactions can lead to cellular stress and induction of the CSR

  16. Characterization of the cellular response triggered by gold nanoparticle-mediated laser manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, Stefan; Keil, Sebastian; Sender, Sina; Hammer, Susanne C; Antonopoulos, Georgios C; Schomaker, Markus; Ripken, Tammo; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Meyer, Heiko; Heinemann, Dag

    2015-11-01

    Laser-based transfection techniques have proven high applicability in several cell biologic applications. The delivery of different molecules using these techniques has been extensively investigated. In particular, new high-throughput approaches such as gold nanoparticle–mediated laser transfection allow efficient delivery of antisense molecules or proteins into cells preserving high cell viabilities. However, the cellular response to the perforation procedure is not well understood. We herein analyzed the perforation kinetics of single cells during resonant gold nanoparticle–mediated laser manipulation with an 850-ps laser system at a wavelength of 532 nm. Inflow velocity of propidium iodide into manipulated cells reached a maximum within a few seconds. Experiments based on the inflow of FM4-64 indicated that the membrane remains permeable for a few minutes for small molecules. To further characterize the cellular response postmanipulation, we analyzed levels of oxidative heat or general stress. Although we observed an increased formation of reactive oxygen species by an increase of dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, heat shock protein 70 was not upregulated in laser-treated cells. Additionally, no evidence of stress granule formation was visible by immunofluorescence staining. The data provided in this study help to identify the cellular reactions to gold nanoparticle–mediated laser manipulation.

  17. Response inhibition is associated with white matter microstructure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William; Vestergaard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive control of thoughts, actions and emotions is important for normal behaviour and the development of such control continues throughout childhood and adolescence. Several lines of evidence suggest that response inhibition is primarily mediated by a right-lateralized network involving...... to the prediction of performance variability. Observed associations may be related to variation in phase of maturation, to activity-dependent alterations in the network subserving response inhibition, or to stable individual differences in underlying neural system connectivity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  18. Stability and cellular responses to fluorapatite-collagen composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Ho; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Su-Hee; Bae, Chang-Jun; Koh, Young-Hag; Kong, Young-Min; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2005-06-01

    Fluorapatite (FA)-collagen composites were synthesized via a biomimetic coprecipitation method in order to improve the structural stability and cellular responses. Different amounts of ammonium fluoride (NH4F), acting as a fluorine source for FA, were added to the precipitation of the composites. The precipitated composites were freeze-dried and isostatically pressed in a dense body. The added fluorine was incorporated nearly fully into the apatite structure (fluoridation), and a near stoichiometric FA-collagen composite was obtained with complete fluoridation. The freeze-dried composites had a typical biomimetic network, consisting of collagen fibers and precipitates of nano-sized apatite crystals. The human osteoblast-like cells on the FA-collagen composites exhibited significantly higher proliferation and differentiation (according to alkaline phosphatase activity) than those on the hydroxyapatite-collagen composite. These enhanced osteoblastic cell responses were attributed to the fluorine release and the reduced dissolution rate.

  19. Fluoxetine regulates cell growth inhibition of interferon-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Min; Yu, Bu-Chin; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Sun, Hung-Yu; Chien, Yu-Chieh; Su, Hui-Chen; Yen, Shu-Yang; Lai, Hsin-Wen; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Young, Kung-Chia; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Fluoxetine, a well-known anti-depression agent, may act as a chemosensitizer to assist and promote cancer therapy. However, how fluoxetine regulates cellular signaling to enhance cellular responses against tumor cell growth remains unclear. In the present study, addition of fluoxetine promoted growth inhibition of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in human bladder carcinoma cells but not in normal uroepithelial cells through lessening the IFN-α-induced apoptosis but switching to cause G1 arrest, and maintaining the IFN-α-mediated reduction in G2/M phase. Activations and signal transducer and transactivator (STAT)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) were involved in this process. Chemical inhibitions of STAT-1 or PPAR-α partially rescued bladder carcinoma cells from IFN-α-mediated growth inhibition via blockades of G1 arrest, cyclin D1 reduction, p53 downregulation and p27 upregulation in the presence of fluoxetine. However, the functions of both proteins were not involved in the control of fluoxetine over apoptosis and maintained the declined G2/M phase of IFN-α. These results indicated that activation of PPAR-α and STAT-1 participated, at least in part, in growth inhibition of IFN-α in the presence of fluoxetine.

  20. Memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition in normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Thapliyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concepts of aging-related cognitive changes have appeared to be a major challenge in the society. In this context, the present study was planned to find out the functioning of aging population on different neurocognitive measures. Aims: The aim of the study was to find out the neurocognitive functioning, namely memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition of normal aging population. Materials and Methods: Following purposive sampling technique, a total of 50 healthy subjects (30 males and 20 females in the age range of 60-70 years were recruited from Jaipur city of Rajasthan. Mini-mental state Examination, PGI memory scale, animal names test, and Stroop test were administered. Results: The findings reveal dysfunction in almost all the domains of memory, namely mental balance, attention and concentration, delayed recall, verbal retention for dissimilar pairs, visual retention and recognition, immediate recall, verbal retention for similar pairs, and visual retention. In domain of verbal fluency, all subjects gave low responses on the animal names test. In domain of response inhibition, all the subjects took less time in color test as compared to color word test on the Stroop task. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there are dysfunction in the area of memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition in persons aged 60-70 years. However, recent and remote memory were found to be intact.

  1. Cellular and molecular response to irradiation in ataxia telangiectasia and in Fanconi`s anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridet, A.; Guillouf, C.; Duchaud, E.; Moustacchi, E.; Rosselli, F. [Institut Curie-Recherche, UMR 218, CNRS, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-03-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Fanconi anemia (FA) are recessive genetic diseases featuring chromosomal instability, increased predisposition to cancer and in vitro hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (AT) or DNA cross-linking agents (FA). Moreover, an in vivo hypersensitivity to {gamma}-rays exposure was reported in both syndromes. Cellular response to irradiation includes growth arrest (cell cycle modification) and cell death (by apoptosis or necrosis). Since it is generally accepted that apoptosis modulates cellular sensitivity to genotoxic stress, it was of interest to investigate the contribution of apoptosis in determining FA and AT responses to DNA Damaging Agents. The results support the contention that the in vivo hypersensitivity to radiation in these syndromes is not related to a higher rate of apoptotic cells but could be to a higher necrotic response triggering inflammatory reactions in the patients affected by this syndromes. (authors)

  2. Intraglomerular inhibition maintains mitral cell response contrast across input frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Shipley, Michael T

    2013-11-01

    Odor signals are transmitted to the olfactory bulb by olfactory nerve (ON) synapses onto mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs); ETCs provide additional feed-forward excitation to MTCs. Both are strongly regulated by intraglomerular inhibition that can last up to 1 s and, when blocked, dramatically increases ON-evoked MC spiking. Intraglomerular inhibition thus limits the magnitude and duration of MC spike responses to sensory input. In vivo, sensory input is repetitive, dictated by sniffing rates from 1 to 8 Hz, potentially summing intraglomerular inhibition. To investigate this, we recorded MTC responses to 1- to 8-Hz ON stimulation in slices. Inhibitory postsynaptic current area (charge) following each ON stimulation was unchanged from 1 to 5 Hz and modestly paired-pulse attenuated at 8 Hz, suggesting there is no summation and only limited decrement at the highest input frequencies. Next, we investigated frequency independence of intraglomerular inhibition on MC spiking. MCs respond to single ON shocks with an initial spike burst followed by reduced spiking decaying to baseline. Upon repetitive ON stimulation peak spiking is identical across input frequencies but the ratio of peak-to-minimum rate before the stimulus (max-min) diminishes from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 15:1 at 8 Hz. When intraglomerular inhibition is selectively blocked, peak spike rate is unchanged but trough spiking increases markedly decreasing max-min firing ratios from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 2:1 at 8 Hz. Together, these results suggest intraglomerular inhibition is relatively frequency independent and can "sharpen" MC responses to input across the range of frequencies. This suggests that glomerular circuits can maintain "contrast" in MC encoding during sniff-sampled inputs.

  3. Neomycin inhibits PDGF-induced IP3 formation and DNA synthesis but not PDGF-stimulated uptake of inorganic phosphate in C3H/10T1/2 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Langeland, N; Holmsen, H

    1990-09-01

    Porcine PDGF was found to increase [3H]inositol trisphosphate, [3H]thymidine incorporation and 32P-labelling of polyphosphoinositides in C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 fibroblasts. These responses to PDGF stimulation were all inhibited by 5 mM neomycin, a polycationic aminoglycoside formerly known to inhibit polyphosphoinositide turnover. PDGF also markedly increased the cellular uptake of inorganic [32P]Pi. This response of PDGF was not inhibited by neomycin (5 mM). Thus, neomycin inhibited PDGF-induced IP3 formation, 32P-labelling of polyphosphoinositides and DNA synthesis, but not cellular uptake of inorganic phosphate. These effects of neomycin suggest a bifurcation of the initial part of the PDGF-induced signal transduction, separating at the receptor level or before phospholipase C activation.

  4. Indomethacin Inhibits Cancer Cell Migration via Attenuation of Cellular Calcium Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Li Tsai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were shown to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and are widely used to modulate inflammatory responses. Indomethacin is an NSAID. Herein, we reported that indomethacin can suppress cancer cell migration through its influence on the focal complexes formation. Furthermore, endothelial growth factor (EGF-mediated Ca2+ influx was attenuated by indomethacin in a dose dependent manner. Our results identified a new mechanism of action for indomethacin: inhibition of calcium influx that is a key determinant of cancer cell migration.

  5. No Effects of Bilateral tDCS over Inferior Frontal Gyrus on Response Inhibition and Aggression.

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    Franziska Dambacher

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP. We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of t

  6. Simulating Quantitative Cellular Responses Using Asynchronous Threshold Boolean Network Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Imran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing knowledge about the potential mechanisms underlying cellular functions, it is becoming feasible to predict the response of biological systems to genetic and environmental perturbations. Due to the lack of homogeneity in living tissues it is difficult to estimate the physiological effect of chemicals, including potential toxicity. Here we investigate a biologically motivated model for estimating tissue level responses by aggregating the behavior of a cell population. We assume that the molecular state of individual cells is independently governed by discrete non-deterministic signaling mechanisms. This results in noisy but highly reproducible aggregate level responses that are consistent with experimental data. Results We developed an asynchronous threshold Boolean network simulation algorithm to model signal transduction in a single cell, and then used an ensemble of these models to estimate the aggregate response across a cell population. Using published data, we derived a putative crosstalk network involving growth factors and cytokines - i.e., Epidermal Growth Factor, Insulin, Insulin like Growth Factor Type 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor α - to describe early signaling events in cell proliferation signal transduction. Reproducibility of the modeling technique across ensembles of Boolean networks representing cell populations is investigated. Furthermore, we compare our simulation results to experimental observations of hepatocytes reported in the literature. Conclusion A systematic analysis of the results following differential stimulation of this model by growth factors and cytokines suggests that: (a using Boolean network ensembles with asynchronous updating provides biologically plausible noisy individual cellular responses with reproducible mean behavior for large cell populations, and (b with sufficient data our model can estimate the response to different concentrations of extracellular ligands. Our

  7. dNP2-ctCTLA-4 inhibits German cockroach extract-induced allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness via inhibition of Th2 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sangho; Ho Sohn, Jung; Koo, Ja-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won; Choi, Je-Min

    2017-08-04

    German cockroaches are major household allergens that can trigger allergic airway inflammatory diseases with sensitive T-cell responses. Although the use of immune modulatory biologics, such as antibodies, to mediate allergic responses has recently been examined, only systemic administration is available because of the size limitations on intranasal administration. Here we utilized a cell-permeable peptide, dNP2, to deliver the cytoplasmic domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (ctCTLA-4) through the airway epithelium to modulate Th2 responses in a German cockroach extract (GCE)-induced allergic airway inflammation model. The intranasal delivery efficiency of the dNP2-dTomato protein to the lungs was higher in GCE-induced asthmatic lung parenchymal cells compared to the sham cells. Intranasal administration of the dNP2-ctCTLA-4 protein inhibited airway hyper-responsiveness and reduced airway inflammation and remodeling, including goblet cell metaplasia and collagen deposition around the bronchi. The number of infiltrated cells, including eosinophils, and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IFN-γ in the lungs were significantly reduced, presumably owing to inhibition of Th2 differentiation. However, intranasal administration of CTLA4-Ig did not inhibit airway inflammation. These results collectively suggest that dNP2-ctCTLA-4 is an efficient intranasally applicable candidate biologic for treating allergic asthma.

  8. Uptake rate of cationic mitochondrial inhibitor MKT-077 determines cellular oxygen consumption change in carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Chunta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Since tumor radiation response is oxygen-dependent, radiosensitivity can be enhanced by increasing tumor oxygenation. Theoretically, inhibiting cellular oxygen consumption is the most efficient way to increase oxygen levels. The cationic, rhodacyanine dye-analog MKT-077 inhibits mitochondrial respiration and could be an effective metabolic inhibitor. However, the relationship between cellular MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition is unknown. We hypothesized that rat and human mammary carcinoma cells would take up MKT-077, causing a decrease in oxygen metabolism related to drug uptake. METHODS: R3230Ac rat breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to MKT-077. Cellular MKT-077 concentration was quantified using spectroscopy, and oxygen consumption was measured using polarographic electrodes. MKT-077 uptake kinetics were modeled by accounting for uptake due to both the concentration and potential gradients across the plasma and mitochondrial membranes. These kinetic parameters were used to model the relationship between MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition. MKT-077-induced changes in oxygen consumption were also characterized in MDA-MB231 human breast carcinoma cells. RESULTS: Cells took up MKT-077 with a time constant of ∼1 hr, and modeling showed that over 90% of intracellular MKT-077 was bound or sequestered, likely by the mitochondria. The uptake resulted in a rapid decrease in oxygen consumption, with a time constant of ∼30 minutes. Surprisingly the change in oxygen consumption was proportional to uptake rate, not cellular concentration. MKT-077 proved a potent metabolic inhibitor, with dose-dependent decreases of 45-73% (p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: MKT-077 caused an uptake rate-dependent decrease in cellular metabolism, suggesting potential efficacy for increasing tumor oxygen levels and radiosensitivity in vivo.

  9. FTIR spectroscopic studies of bacterial cellular responses to environmental factors, plant-bacterial interactions and signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Kamnev, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Modern spectroscopic techniques are highly useful in studying diverse processes in microbial cells related to or incited by environmental factors. Spectroscopic data for whole cells, supramolecular structures or isolated cellular constituents can reflect structural and/or compositional changes occurring in the course of cellular metabolic responses to the effects of pollutants, environmental conditions (stress factors); nutrients, signalling molecules (communication factors), etc. This inform...

  10. Alzheimer's Disease Brain-Derived Amyloid-{beta}-Mediated Inhibition of LTP In Vivo Is Prevented by Immunotargeting Cellular Prion Protein.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Andrew E

    2011-05-18

    Synthetic amyloid-β protein (Aβ) oligomers bind with high affinity to cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), but the role of this interaction in mediating the disruption of synaptic plasticity by such soluble Aβ in vitro is controversial. Here we report that intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ-containing aqueous extracts of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) brain robustly inhibits long-term potentiation (LTP) without significantly affecting baseline excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampus in vivo. Moreover, the disruption of LTP was abrogated by immunodepletion of Aβ. Importantly, intracerebroventricular administration of antigen-binding antibody fragment D13, directed to a putative Aβ-binding site on PrP(C), prevented the inhibition of LTP by AD brain-derived Aβ. In contrast, R1, a Fab directed to the C terminus of PrP(C), a region not implicated in binding of Aβ, did not significantly affect the Aβ-mediated inhibition of LTP. These data support the pathophysiological significance of SDS-stable Aβ dimer and the role of PrP(C) in mediating synaptic plasticity disruption by soluble Aβ.

  11. How Do Parameters of Motor Response Influence Selective Inhibition? Evidence from the Stop-Signal Paradigm

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    Chien Hui Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to selectively inhibit the execution of an action while performing other ones is crucial in humans' multitasking daily life. The current study aims to compare selective inhibition for choice reaction involving two effectors or response directions. We adopted a variation of the stop-signal paradigm to examine how selective inhibition is modulated by the way potential motor responses are combined and inhibited. Experiment 1 investigated selective inhibition under different combinations of effectors, namely “index and middle fingers” versus “hand and foot”. The results showed SSRT of the index finger was longer when the other response option was the foot than the middle finger. Experiment 2 examined how selective inhibition differs between selective stopping of effectors and movement directions, and that for most of the situations SSRT is longer for stopping a response based on its direction than effector. After equating complexity of response mapping between direction and effector conditions in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 still showed that SSRT differs between selecting direction or effectors. To summarize, SSRT varies depending on the way response effectors are paired and selectively stopped. Selective inhibition is thus likely not amodal and may involve different inhibitory mechanisms depending on parameters specifying the motor response.

  12. Functional neural networks underlying response inhibition in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael C; Kiehl, Kent A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2007-07-19

    This study provides the first description of neural network dynamics associated with response inhibition in healthy adolescents and adults. Functional and effective connectivity analyses of whole brain hemodynamic activity elicited during performance of a Go/No-Go task were used to identify functionally integrated neural networks and characterize their causal interactions. Three response inhibition circuits formed a hierarchical, inter-dependent system wherein thalamic modulation of input to premotor cortex by fronto-striatal regions led to response suppression. Adolescents differed from adults in the degree of network engagement, regional fronto-striatal-thalamic connectivity, and network dynamics. We identify and characterize several age-related differences in the function of neural circuits that are associated with behavioral performance changes across adolescent development.

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase 3 promotes cellular anti-dengue virus response via interaction with transcription factor NFκB in cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiangyang; Pan, Wen; Feng, Tingting; Shi, Xiaohong; Dai, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), the causative agent of human Dengue hemorrhagic fever, is a mosquito-borne virus of immense global health importance. Characterization of cellular factors promoting or inhibiting DENV infection is important for understanding the mechanism of DENV infection. In this report, MMP3 (stromelysin-1), a secretory endopeptidase that degrades extracellular matrices, has been shown promoting cellular antiviral response against DENV infection. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blot showed that the expression of MMP3 was upregulated in DENV-infected RAW264.7 cells. The intracellular viral loads were significantly higher in MMP3 silenced cells compared with controls. The expression level of selective anti-viral cytokines were decreased in MMP3 siRNA treated cells, and the transcription factor activity of NFκB was significantly impaired upon MMP3 silencing during DENV infection. Further, we found that MMP3 moved to cell nucleus upon DENV infection and colocalized with NFκB P65 in nucleus. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis suggested that MMP3 directly interacted with NFκB in nucleus during DENV infection and the C-terminal hemopexin-like domain of MMP3 was required for the interaction. This study suggested a novel role of MMP3 in nucleus during viral infection and provided new evidence for MMPs in immunomodulation.

  14. Cancer patients treated with sunitinib or sorafenib have sufficient antibody and cellular immune responses to warrant influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Sasja F; Jacobs, Joannes F M; Olde Nordkamp, Michel A M; Galama, Joep M D; Desar, Ingrid M E; Torensma, Ruurd; Teerenstra, Steven; Mulders, Peter F A; Vissers, Kris C P; Punt, Cornelis J A; de Vries, I Jolanda M; van Herpen, Carla M L

    2011-07-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors sorafenib and sunitinib have efficacy in several types of cancer. Recent studies indicate that these agents affect the immune system. The way it affects the immune response to influenza vaccination is unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the specific immune response to seasonal flu vaccination in cancer patients treated with sunitinib or sorafenib. Sunitinib- or sorafenib-treated cancer patients were vaccinated against seasonal influenza with an inactivated vaccine. Healthy controls and patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) without systemic treatment (nontreated mRCC controls) were included for comparison. Antibody responses were measured at baseline, day 8, and day 22 by a standard hemagglutination inhibition assay and cellular T-cell responses at baseline and day 8 by proliferation assay and secretion of cytokines. Forty subjects were enrolled: 16 patients treated with sunitinib, 6 patients with sorafenib, 7 nontreated mRCC controls, and 11 healthy controls. All patients treated with sunitinib and sorafenib developed seroprotection rates comparable with controls. Functional T-cell reactivity was observed in all groups, except for patients treated with sorafenib who showed a decreased proliferation rate and IFN-γ/IL-2 production and increased IL-10 compared with healthy controls. We conclude that influenza vaccination should be recommended to cancer patients treated with sunitinib or sorafenib.

  15. A Review on Hemeoxygenase-2: Focus on Cellular Protection and Oxygen Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Muñoz-Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemeoxygenase (HO system is responsible for cellular heme degradation to biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide. Two isoforms have been reported to date. Homologous HO-1 and HO-2 are microsomal proteins with more than 45% residue identity, share a similar fold and catalyze the same reaction. However, important differences between isoforms also exist. HO-1 isoform has been extensively studied mainly by its ability to respond to cellular stresses such as hemin, nitric oxide donors, oxidative damage, hypoxia, hyperthermia, and heavy metals, between others. On the contrary, due to its apparently constitutive nature, HO-2 has been less studied. Nevertheless, its abundance in tissues such as testis, endothelial cells, and particularly in brain, has pointed the relevance of HO-2 function. HO-2 presents particular characteristics that made it a unique protein in the HO system. Since attractive results on HO-2 have been arisen in later years, we focused this review in the second isoform. We summarize information on gene description, protein structure, and catalytic activity of HO-2 and particular facts such as its cellular impact and activity regulation. Finally, we call attention on the role of HO-2 in oxygen sensing, discussing proposed hypothesis on heme binding motifs and redox/thiol switches that participate in oxygen sensing as well as evidences of HO-2 response to hypoxia.

  16. ANKRD1 modulates inflammatory responses in C2C12 myoblasts through feedback inhibition of NF-κB signaling activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Hua [National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Bauman, William A. [National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher, E-mail: chris.cardozo@va.gov [National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Transcription factors of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) family play a pivotal role in inflammation, immunity and cell survival responses. Recent studies revealed that NF-κB also regulates the processes of muscle atrophy. NF-κB activity is regulated by various factors, including ankyrin repeat domain 2 (AnkrD2), which belongs to the muscle ankyrin repeat protein family. Another member of this family, AnkrD1 is also a transcriptional effector. The expression levels of AnkrD1 are highly upregulated in denervated skeletal muscle, suggesting an involvement of AnkrD1 in NF-κB mediated cellular responses to paralysis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactive role of AnkrD1 in NF-κB mediated cellular responses is not well understood. In the current study, we examined the effect of AnkrD1 on NF-κB activity and determined the interactions between AnkrD1 expression and NF-κB signaling induced by TNFα in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts. TNFα upregulated AnkrD1 mRNA and protein levels. AnkrD1-siRNA significantly increased TNFα-induced transcriptional activation of NF-κB, whereas overexpression of AnkrD1 inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activity. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AnkrD1 was able to bind p50 subunit of NF-κB and vice versa. Finally, CHIP assays revealed that AnkrD1 bound chromatin at a NF-κB binding site in the AnrkD2 promoter and required NF-κB to do so. These results provide evidence of signaling integration between AnkrD1 and NF-κB pathways, and suggest a novel anti-inflammatory role of AnkrD1 through feedback inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity by which AnkrD1 modulates the balance between physiological and pathological inflammatory responses in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • AnkrD1 is upregulated by TNFα and represses NF-κB-induced transcriptional activity. • AnkrD1 binds to p50 subunit of NF-κB and is recruited to NF-κB bound to chromatin. • AnkrD1 mediates a feed-back inhibitory loop

  17. Inhibition of p53 acetylation by INHAT subunit SET/TAF-Iβ represses p53 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Seol, Jin-Ee; Yu, Kweon; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Seo, Sang-Beom

    2012-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 responds to a wide variety of cellular stress signals. Among potential regulatory pathways, post-translational modifications such as acetylation by CBP/p300 and PCAF have been suggested for modulation of p53 activity. However, exactly how p53 acetylation is modulated remains poorly understood. Here, we found that SET/TAF-Iβ inhibited p300- and PCAF-mediated p53 acetylation in an INHAT (inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase) domain-dependent manner. SET/TAF-Iβ interacted with p53 and repressed transcription of p53 target genes. Consequently, SET/TAF-Iβ blocked both p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to cellular stress. Using different apoptosis analyses, including FACS, TUNEL and BrdU incorporation assays, we also found that SET/TAF-Iβ induced cellular proliferation via inhibition of p53 acetylation. Furthermore, we observed that apoptotic Drosophila eye phenotype induced by either dp53 overexpression or UV irradiation was rescued by expression of dSet. Inhibition of dp53 acetylation by dSet was observed in both cases. Our findings provide new insights into the regulation of stress-induced p53 activation by HAT-inhibiting histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ.

  18. Inhibition of HIV by Legalon-SIL is independent of its effect on cellular metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Janela [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Margineantu, Daciana H. [Department of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Sweet, Ian R. [Department of Medicine (Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Polyak, Stephen J., E-mail: polyak@uw.edu [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-01-20

    In this report, we further characterized the effects of silibinin (SbN), derived from milk thistle extract, and Legalon-SIL (SIL), a water-soluble derivative of SbN, on T cell metabolism and HIV infection. We assessed the effects of SbN and SIL on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CEM-T4 cells in terms of cellular growth, ATP content, metabolism, and HIV infection. SIL and SbN caused a rapid and reversible (upon removal) decrease in cellular ATP levels, which was associated with suppression of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. SbN, but not SIL inhibited glucose uptake. Exposure of T cells to SIL (but not SbN or metabolic inhibitors) during virus adsorption blocked HIV infection. Thus, both SbN and SIL rapidly perturb T cell metabolism in vitro, which may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects that arise with prolonged exposure of cells. However, the metabolic effects are not involved in SIL's unique ability to block HIV entry. - Highlights: • Silibinin (SbN) and Legalon-SIL (SIL) are cytoprotective mixtures of natural products. • SbN and SIL reduce T cell oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in vitro. • SIL but not SbN blocks entry of multiple HIV isolates into T cells in vitro. • SIL's suppression of HIV appears independent of its effects on T cell metabolism. • Metabolic effects of SIL and SbN may be relevant in inflammatory diseases.

  19. Inhibition of HIV by Legalon-SIL is independent of its effect on cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, Janela; Margineantu, Daciana H.; Sweet, Ian R.; Polyak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we further characterized the effects of silibinin (SbN), derived from milk thistle extract, and Legalon-SIL (SIL), a water-soluble derivative of SbN, on T cell metabolism and HIV infection. We assessed the effects of SbN and SIL on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CEM-T4 cells in terms of cellular growth, ATP content, metabolism, and HIV infection. SIL and SbN caused a rapid and reversible (upon removal) decrease in cellular ATP levels, which was associated with suppression of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. SbN, but not SIL inhibited glucose uptake. Exposure of T cells to SIL (but not SbN or metabolic inhibitors) during virus adsorption blocked HIV infection. Thus, both SbN and SIL rapidly perturb T cell metabolism in vitro, which may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects that arise with prolonged exposure of cells. However, the metabolic effects are not involved in SIL's unique ability to block HIV entry. - Highlights: • Silibinin (SbN) and Legalon-SIL (SIL) are cytoprotective mixtures of natural products. • SbN and SIL reduce T cell oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in vitro. • SIL but not SbN blocks entry of multiple HIV isolates into T cells in vitro. • SIL's suppression of HIV appears independent of its effects on T cell metabolism. • Metabolic effects of SIL and SbN may be relevant in inflammatory diseases

  20. Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, Z.; Sledziewska-Gojska, E.; Nowicka, A.; Mieczkowski, P.; Fikus, M.U.; Koprowski, P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text. Several experimental strategies have been used to study responses of S. cerevisiae cells to DNA damage. One approach was based on the isolation of novel genes, the expression of which is induced by lesions in DNA. One of these genes, DIN7, was cloned and partially characterized previously. The product of DIN7 belongs to a large family of proteins involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis. This family includes Rad2, Rad27 and ExoI proteins of S. cerevisiae and their respective human homologues, all of which are endowed with DNA nuclease activity. To study cellular function of Din7 we constructed the pPK3 plasmid carrying DIN7 fused to the GAL1 promoter. Effects of DIN7 overproduction on the phenotypes of wild-type cells and of rad27 and exoI mutants were examined. Overproduction of Din7 does not seem to affect the proficiency of wild-type S. cerevisiae cells in recombination and mutagenesis. Also, overexpression of DIN7 does not suppress the deficiency of the EXOI gene product, the closest homologue of Din7, both in recombination and in controlling the fidelity of DNA replication. Unexpectedly, we found that elevated levels of Din7 result in a very high frequency of mitochondrial rho - mutants. A high frequency of production of rho - mutants wa s also observed in strains defective in the functioning of the Dun1 protein kinase involved in signal transmission in cells exposed to DNA damaging agents. Interestingly, deficiency of Dun1 results also in a significant derepression of the DIN7 gene. Experiments are under way to distinguish whether a high cellular level of Din7 specifically decreases stability of mitochondrial DNA or affects stability of chromosomal DNA as well. Analysis of previously constructed S. cerevisiae strains carrying random geno mic fusions with reporter lacZ gene, allowed us to identify the reading frame YBR173c, on chromosome II as a novel damage inducible gene - DIN8. We have shown that DIN8-lacZ fusion is induced in yeast cells treated

  1. Intraspecific variation in cellular and biochemical heat response strategies of Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina [Pulmonata, Hygromiidae].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Troschinski

    Full Text Available Dry and hot environments challenge the survival of terrestrial snails. To minimize overheating and desiccation, physiological and biochemical adaptations are of high importance for these animals. In the present study, seven populations of the Mediterranean land snail species Xeropicta derbentina were sampled from their natural habitat in order to investigate the intraspecific variation of cellular and biochemical mechanisms, which are assigned to contribute to heat resistance. Furthermore, we tested whether genetic parameters are correlated with these physiological heat stress response patterns. Specimens of each population were individually exposed to elevated temperatures (25 to 52°C for 8 h in the laboratory. After exposure, the health condition of the snails' hepatopancreas was examined by means of qualitative description and semi-quantitative assessment of histopathological effects. In addition, the heat-shock protein 70 level (Hsp70 was determined. Generally, calcium cells of the hepatopancreas were more heat resistant than digestive cells - this phenomenon was associated with elevated Hsp70 levels at 40°C.We observed considerable variation in the snails' heat response strategy: Individuals from three populations invested much energy in producing a highly elevated Hsp70 level, whereas three other populations invested energy in moderate stress protein levels - both strategies were in association with cellular functionality. Furthermore, one population kept cellular condition stable despite a low Hsp70 level until 40°C exposure, whereas prominent cellular reactions were observed above this thermal limit. Genetic diversity (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene within populations was low. Nevertheless, when using genetic indices as explanatory variables in a multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis, population structure explained mean differences in cellular and biochemical heat stress responses, especially in the group

  2. Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Ana, M.G.; Moraes, R.; Bernardi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is able to alter the immune function. Previous studies have shown that, in mammals, chronic exposure to Cd decreases the release of macrophagic cytokines such as IL1 and TNα and decreases phagocytosis activity. On the other hand contradictory results showed an increase in the humoral response. The cellular response could be decreased by exposure to Cd. These alterations were observed in mammals. The present study aimed to investigate some of the toxic effects of Cd exposure in birds. In particular, the main objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of exposure to this pollutant on the cellular immune function of the Japanese quail as a model for the study of toxicity in animals exposed in nature. The animals were exposed to the metal (100 ppm, per os) during development, i.e., from 1 to 28 days old. Body weight, biochemical parameters, and cellular immune response were measured during and at the end of treatment. The results showed that the exposure to Cd for 28 days significantly reduced the body weight and induced hepatic toxicity. The kidney function and cellular immune response were not affected by the Cd exposure

  3. Spatial frequency information modulates response inhibition and decision-making processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jahfari

    Full Text Available We interact with the world through the assessment of available, but sometimes imperfect, sensory information. However, little is known about how variance in the quality of sensory information affects the regulation of controlled actions. In a series of three experiments, comprising a total of seven behavioral studies, we examined how different types of spatial frequency information affect underlying processes of response inhibition and selection. Participants underwent a stop-signal task, a two choice speed/accuracy balance experiment, and a variant of both these tasks where prior information was given about the nature of stimuli. In all experiments, stimuli were either intact, or contained only high-, or low- spatial frequencies. Overall, drift diffusion model analysis showed a decreased rate of information processing when spatial frequencies were removed, whereas the criterion for information accumulation was lowered. When spatial frequency information was intact, the cost of response inhibition increased (longer SSRT, while a correct response was produced faster (shorter reaction times and with more certainty (decreased errors. When we manipulated the motivation to respond with a deadline (i.e., be fast or accurate, removal of spatial frequency information slowed response times only when instructions emphasized accuracy. However, the slowing of response times did not improve error rates, when compared to fast instruction trials. These behavioral studies suggest that the removal of spatial frequency information differentially affects the speed of response initiation, inhibition, and the efficiency to balance fast or accurate responses. More generally, the present results indicate a task-independent influence of basic sensory information on strategic adjustments in action control.

  4. Frontal White Matter Damage Impairs Response Inhibition in Children Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipszyc, Jonathan; Levin, Harvey; Hanten, Gerri; Hunter, Jill; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition, the ability to suppress inappropriate cognitions or behaviors, can be measured using computer tasks and questionnaires. Inhibition depends on the frontal cortex, but the role of the underlying white matter (WM) is unclear. We assessed the specific impact of frontal WM damage on inhibition in 29 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (15 with and 14 without frontal WM damage), 21 children with orthopedic injury, and 29 population controls. We used the Stop Signal Task to measure response inhibition, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function to assess everyday inhibition, and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging to identify lesions. Children with frontal WM damage had impaired response inhibition compared with all other groups and poorer everyday inhibition than the orthopedic injury group. Frontal WM lesions most often affected the superior frontal gyrus. These results provide evidence for the critical role of frontal WM in inhibition. PMID:24618405

  5. Extended abstracts: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response [final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, David J.

    2000-01-01

    In July 1999, we organized the 4th International Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held in Killiney Bay, Dublin, Ireland, on July 17-18. Roughly 75 scientists (about equal numbers of physicists and biologists) attended the workshop, the fourth in a bi-annual series. Extended abstracts from the meeting were published in the Radiation Research journal, vol. 153, iss. 2, pp. 220-238 (February 2000)(attached). All the objectives in the proposal were met

  6. Antiviral activity of a small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitor occurs via induction of the unfolded protein response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Perry

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin (Ub is a vital regulatory component in various cellular processes, including cellular responses to viral infection. As obligate intracellular pathogens, viruses have the capacity to manipulate the ubiquitin (Ub cycle to their advantage by encoding Ub-modifying proteins including deubiquitinases (DUBs. However, how cellular DUBs modulate specific viral infections, such as norovirus, is poorly understood. To examine the role of DUBs during norovirus infection, we used WP1130, a small molecule inhibitor of a subset of cellular DUBs. Replication of murine norovirus in murine macrophages and the human norovirus Norwalk virus in a replicon system were significantly inhibited by WP1130. Chemical proteomics identified the cellular DUB USP14 as a target of WP1130 in murine macrophages, and pharmacologic inhibition or siRNA-mediated knockdown of USP14 inhibited murine norovirus infection. USP14 is a proteasome-associated DUB that also binds to inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1, a critical mediator of the unfolded protein response (UPR. WP1130 treatment of murine macrophages did not alter proteasome activity but activated the X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1 through an IRE1-dependent mechanism. In addition, WP1130 treatment or induction of the UPR also reduced infection of other RNA viruses including encephalomyocarditis virus, Sindbis virus, and La Crosse virus but not vesicular stomatitis virus. Pharmacologic inhibition of the IRE1 endonuclease activity partially rescued the antiviral effect of WP1130. Taken together, our studies support a model whereby induction of the UPR through cellular DUB inhibition blocks specific viral infections, and suggest that cellular DUBs and the UPR represent novel targets for future development of broad spectrum antiviral therapies.

  7. 7th International Workshop on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-21

    The extended abstracts that follow present a summary of the Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at Columbia University’s Kellogg Center in New York City on March 15–17, 2006. These International Workshops on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response have been held regularly since 1993 (1–5). Since the first workshop, there has been a rapid growth (see Fig. 1) in the number of centers developing microbeams for radiobiological research, and worldwide there are currently about 30 microbeams in operation or under development. Single-cell/single-particle microbeam systems can deliver beams of different ionizing radiations with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers down to a few tenths of a micrometer. Microbeams can be used to addressquestions relating to the effects of low doses of radiation (a single radiation track traversing a cell or group of cells), to probe subcellular targets (e.g. nucleus or cytoplasm), and to address questions regarding the propagation of information about DNA damage (for example, the radiation-induced bystander effect). Much of the recent research using microbeams has been to study low-dose effects and ‘‘non-targeted’’ responses such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. This Workshop provided a forum to assess the current state of microbeam technology and current biological applications and to discuss future directions for development, both technological and biological. Over 100 participants reviewed the current state of microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments in the fields of both physics and biology.

  8. Effects of High-Definition and Conventional tDCS on Response Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, J; Grafman, J; Aboseria, M; David, A; Bikson, M; Hauner, K K

    2016-01-01

    Response inhibition is a critical executive function, enabling the adaptive control of behavior in a changing environment. The inferior frontal cortex (IFC) is considered to be critical for response inhibition, leading researchers to develop transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) montages attempting to target the IFC and improve inhibitory performance. However, conventional tDCS montages produce diffuse current through the brain, making it difficult to establish causality between stimulation of any one given brain region and resulting behavioral changes. Recently, high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) methods have been developed to target brain regions with increased focality relative to conventional tDCS. Remarkably few studies have utilized HD-tDCS to improve cognitive task performance, however, and no study has directly compared the behavioral effects of HD-tDCS to conventional tDCS. In the present study, participants received either HD-tDCS or conventional tDCS to the IFC during performance of a response inhibition task (stop-signal task, SST) or a control task (choice reaction time task, CRT). A third group of participants completed the same behavioral protocols, but received tDCS to a control site (mid-occipital cortex). Post-stimulation improvement in SST performance was analyzed as a function of tDCS group and the task performed during stimulation using both conventional and Bayesian parameter estimation analyses. Bayesian estimation of the effects of HD- and conventional tDCS to IFC relative to control site stimulation demonstrated enhanced response inhibition for both conditions. No improvements were found after control task (CRT) training in any tDCS condition. Results support the use of both HD- and conventional tDCS to the IFC for improving response inhibition, providing empirical evidence that HD-tDCS can be used to facilitate performance on an executive function task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. FIH Regulates Cellular Metabolism through Hydroxylation of the Deubiquitinase OTUB1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten C Scholz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asparagine hydroxylase, factor inhibiting HIF (FIH, confers oxygen-dependence upon the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF, a master regulator of the cellular adaptive response to hypoxia. Studies investigating whether asparagine hydroxylation is a general regulatory oxygen-dependent modification have identified multiple non-HIF targets for FIH. However, the functional consequences of this outside of the HIF pathway remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the deubiquitinase ovarian tumor domain containing ubiquitin aldehyde binding protein 1 (OTUB1 is a substrate for hydroxylation by FIH on N22. Mutation of N22 leads to a profound change in the interaction of OTUB1 with proteins important in cellular metabolism. Furthermore, in cultured cells, overexpression of N22A mutant OTUB1 impairs cellular metabolic processes when compared to wild type. Based on these data, we hypothesize that OTUB1 is a target for functional hydroxylation by FIH. Additionally, we propose that our results provide new insight into the regulation of cellular energy metabolism during hypoxic stress and the potential for targeting hydroxylases for therapeutic benefit.

  10. Inhibition of AMPK catabolic action by GSK3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tsukasa; Bridges, Dave; Nakada, Daisuke; Skiniotis, Georgios; Morrison, Sean J.; Lin, Jiandie; Saltiel, Alan R.; Inoki, Ken

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates cellular energy homeostasis by inhibiting anabolic and activating catabolic processes. While AMPK activation has been extensively studied, mechanisms that inhibit AMPK remain elusive. Here we report that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibits AMPK function. GSK3 forms a stable complex with AMPK through interactions with the AMPK β regulatory subunit and phosphorylates the AMPK α catalytic subunit. This phosphorylation enhances the accessibility of the activation loop of the α subunit to phosphatases, thereby inhibiting AMPK kinase activity. Surprisingly, PI3K-Akt signaling, which is a major anabolic signaling and normally inhibits GSK3 activity, promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and inhibition of AMPK, thus revealing how AMPK senses anabolic environments in addition to cellular energy levels. Consistently, disrupting GSK3 function within the AMPK complex sustains higher AMPK activity and cellular catabolic processes even under anabolic conditions, indicating that GSK3 acts as a critical sensor for anabolic signaling to regulate AMPK. PMID:23623684

  11. Chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase augments the ACTH response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankord, Ryan; McAllister, Richard M; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Laughlin, M Harold

    2009-03-01

    Exercise can activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and regular exercise training can impact how the HPA axis responds to stress. The mechanism by which acute exercise induces HPA activity is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that nitric oxide modulates the neuroendocrine component of the HPA axis during exercise. Female Yucatan miniature swine were treated with N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to test the effect of chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the ACTH response to exercise. In addition, we tested the effect of NOS inhibition on blood flow to tissues of the HPA axis and report the effects of handling and treadmill exercise on the plasma concentrations of ACTH and cortisol. Chronic NOS inhibition decreased plasma NO(x) levels by 44%, increased mean arterial blood pressure by 46%, and increased expression of neuronal NOS in carotid arteries. Vascular conductance was decreased in the frontal cortex, the hypothalamus, and the adrenal gland. Chronic NOS inhibition exaggerated the ACTH response to exercise. In contrast, chronic NOS inhibition decreased the ACTH response to restraint, suggesting that the role of NO in modulating HPA activity is stressor dependent. These results demonstrate that NOS activity modulates the response of the neuroendocrine component of the HPA axis during exercise stress.

  12. The nociception genes painless and Piezo are required for the cellular immune response of Drosophila larvae to wasp parasitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokusumi, Yumiko; Tokusumi, Tsuyoshi; Schulz, Robert A

    2017-05-13

    In vertebrates, interaction between the nervous system and immune system is important to protect a challenged host from stress inputs from external sources. In this study, we demonstrate that sensory neurons are involved in the cellular immune response elicited by wasp infestation of Drosophila larvae. Multidendritic class IV neurons sense contacts from external stimuli and induce avoidance behaviors for host defense. Our findings show that inactivation of these sensory neurons impairs the cellular response against wasp parasitization. We also demonstrate that the nociception genes encoding the mechanosensory receptors Painless and Piezo, both expressed in class IV neurons, are essential for the normal cellular immune response to parasite challenge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Comparison of checkpoint responses triggered by DNA polymerase inhibition versus DNA damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.-S.; Kuo, S.-R.; Melendy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the different cellular responses to replication fork pausing versus blockage, early DNA damage response markers were compared after treatment of cultured mammalian cells with agents that either inhibit DNA polymerase activity (hydroxyurea (HU) or aphidicolin) or selectively induce S-phase DNA damage responses (the DNA alkylating agents, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and adozelesin). These agents were compared for their relative abilities to induce phosphorylation of Chk1, H2AX, and replication protein A (RPA), and intra-nuclear focalization of γ-H2AX and RPA. Treatment by aphidicolin and HU resulted in phosphorylation of Chk1, while HU, but not aphidicolin, induced focalization of γ-H2AX and RPA. Surprisingly, pre-treatment with aphidicolin to stop replication fork progression, did not abrogate HU-induced γ-H2AX and RPA focalization. This suggests that HU may act on the replication fork machinery directly, such that fork progression is not required to trigger these responses. The DNA-damaging fork-blocking agents, adozelesin and MMS, both induced phosphorylation and focalization of H2AX and RPA. Unlike adozelesin and HU, the pattern of MMS-induced RPA focalization did not match the BUdR incorporation pattern and was not blocked by aphidicolin, suggesting that MMS-induced damage is not replication fork-dependent. In support of this, MMS was the only reagent used that did not induce phosphorylation of Chk1. These results indicate that induction of DNA damage checkpoint responses due to adozelesin is both replication fork and fork progression dependent, induction by HU is replication fork dependent but progression independent, while induction by MMS is independent of both replication forks and fork progression

  14. Comparison of checkpoint responses triggered by DNA polymerase inhibition versus DNA damaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.-S.; Kuo, S.-R.; Melendy, Thomas

    2003-11-27

    To better understand the different cellular responses to replication fork pausing versus blockage, early DNA damage response markers were compared after treatment of cultured mammalian cells with agents that either inhibit DNA polymerase activity (hydroxyurea (HU) or aphidicolin) or selectively induce S-phase DNA damage responses (the DNA alkylating agents, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and adozelesin). These agents were compared for their relative abilities to induce phosphorylation of Chk1, H2AX, and replication protein A (RPA), and intra-nuclear focalization of {gamma}-H2AX and RPA. Treatment by aphidicolin and HU resulted in phosphorylation of Chk1, while HU, but not aphidicolin, induced focalization of {gamma}-H2AX and RPA. Surprisingly, pre-treatment with aphidicolin to stop replication fork progression, did not abrogate HU-induced {gamma}-H2AX and RPA focalization. This suggests that HU may act on the replication fork machinery directly, such that fork progression is not required to trigger these responses. The DNA-damaging fork-blocking agents, adozelesin and MMS, both induced phosphorylation and focalization of H2AX and RPA. Unlike adozelesin and HU, the pattern of MMS-induced RPA focalization did not match the BUdR incorporation pattern and was not blocked by aphidicolin, suggesting that MMS-induced damage is not replication fork-dependent. In support of this, MMS was the only reagent used that did not induce phosphorylation of Chk1. These results indicate that induction of DNA damage checkpoint responses due to adozelesin is both replication fork and fork progression dependent, induction by HU is replication fork dependent but progression independent, while induction by MMS is independent of both replication forks and fork progression.

  15. Cellular responses to a prolonged delay in mitosis are determined by a DNA damage response controlled by Bcl-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Didier J; Hain, Karolina O; Allan, Lindsey A; Clarke, Paul R

    2015-03-01

    Anti-cancer drugs that disrupt mitosis inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, although the mechanisms of these responses are poorly understood. Here, we characterize a mitotic stress response that determines cell fate in response to microtubule poisons. We show that mitotic arrest induced by these drugs produces a temporally controlled DNA damage response (DDR) characterized by the caspase-dependent formation of γH2AX foci in non-apoptotic cells. Following exit from a delayed mitosis, this initial response results in activation of DDR protein kinases, phosphorylation of the tumour suppressor p53 and a delay in subsequent cell cycle progression. We show that this response is controlled by Mcl-1, a regulator of caspase activation that becomes degraded during mitotic arrest. Chemical inhibition of Mcl-1 and the related proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL by a BH3 mimetic enhances the mitotic DDR, promotes p53 activation and inhibits subsequent cell cycle progression. We also show that inhibitors of DDR protein kinases as well as BH3 mimetics promote apoptosis synergistically with taxol (paclitaxel) in a variety of cancer cell lines. Our work demonstrates the role of mitotic DNA damage responses in determining cell fate in response to microtubule poisons and BH3 mimetics, providing a rationale for anti-cancer combination chemotherapies.

  16. Selective inhibition of influenza virus protein synthesis by inhibitors of DNA function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, P.D.; Dimmock, N.J.

    1977-01-01

    Various known inhibitors of cellular DNA function were shown to inhibit cellular RNA synthesis and influenza (fowl plague) virus multiplication. The drugs were investigated for their effect upon the synthesis of influenza virus proteins. According to this effect they could be classified with previously studied compounds as follows: Group I (ethidium bromide, proflavine, and N-nitroquinoline-N-oxide) inhibited both viral and cellular protein synthesis; Group II (nogalomycin, daunomycin and α-amanitin) inhibited viral but not cellular protein synthesis, and all viral proteins were inhibited coordinately; Group III (mithramycin, echinomycin, and actinomycin D) inhibited all viral but not cellular protein synthesis at high concentrations, but at a lower critical concentration inhibited the synthesis of viral haemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and M protein preferentially; Group IV(uv irradiation and camptothecin) inhibited the synthesis of viral haemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and M protein, but not other viral proteins, even at high doses. The mode of action of these inhibitors is discussed in relation to the mechanism of the nuclear events upon which influenza virus multiplication is dependent

  17. Response inhibition during cue reactivity in problem gamblers: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth J van Holst

    Full Text Available Disinhibition over drug use, enhanced salience of drug use and decreased salience of natural reinforcers are thought to play an important role substance dependence. Whether this is also true for pathological gambling is unclear. To understand the effects of affective stimuli on response inhibition in problem gamblers (PRGs, we designed an affective Go/Nogo to examine the interaction between response inhibition and salience attribution in 16 PRGs and 15 healthy controls (HCs.Four affective blocks were presented with Go trials containing neutral, gamble, positive or negative affective pictures. The No-Go trials in these blocks contained neutral pictures. Outcomes of interest included percentage of impulsive errors and mean reaction times in the different blocks. Brain activity related to No-Go trials was assessed to measure response inhibition in the various affective conditions and brain activity related to Go trials was assessed to measure salience attribution.PRGs made fewer errors during gamble and positive trials than HCs, but were slower during all trials types. Compared to HCs, PRGs activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and ventral striatum to a greater extent while viewing gamble pictures. The dorsal lateral and inferior frontal cortex were more activated in PRGs than in HCs while viewing positive and negative pictures. During neutral inhibition, PRGs were slower but similar in accuracy to HCs, and showed more dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex activity. In contrast, during gamble and positive pictures PRGs performed better than HCs, and showed lower activation of the dorsolateral and anterior cingulate cortex.This study shows that gambling-related stimuli are more salient for PRGs than for HCs. PRGs seem to rely on compensatory brain activity to achieve similar performance during neutral response inhibition. A gambling-related or positive context appears to facilitate response inhibition as

  18. Autophagy Facilitates IFN-γ-induced Jak2-STAT1 Activation and Cellular Inflammation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ping; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Wei-Ching; Wang, Chi-Yun; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yee-Shin; Kai, Jui-In; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Choi, Pui-Ching; Chen, Shun-Hua; Chang, Shih-Ping; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is regulated for IFN-γ-mediated antimicrobial efficacy; however, its molecular effects for IFN-γ signaling are largely unknown. Here, we show that autophagy facilitates IFN-γ-activated Jak2-STAT1. IFN-γ induces autophagy in wild-type but not in autophagy protein 5 (Atg5−/−)-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and, autophagy-dependently, IFN-γ induces IFN regulatory factor 1 and cellular inflammatory responses. Pharmacologically inhibiting autophagy using 3-methyladenine, a known inhibitor of class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, confirms these effects. Either Atg5−/− or Atg7−/− MEFs are, independent of changes in IFN-γ receptor expression, resistant to IFN-γ-activated Jak2-STAT1, which suggests that autophagy is important for IFN-γ signal transduction. Lentivirus-based short hairpin RNA for Atg5 knockdown confirmed the importance of autophagy for IFN-γ-activated STAT1. Without autophagy, reactive oxygen species increase and cause SHP2 (Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase 2)-regulated STAT1 inactivation. Inhibiting SHP2 reversed both cellular inflammation and the IFN-γ-induced activation of STAT1 in Atg5−/− MEFs. Our study provides evidence that there is a link between autophagy and both IFN-γ signaling and cellular inflammation and that autophagy, because it inhibits the expression of reactive oxygen species and SHP2, is pivotal for Jak2-STAT1 activation. PMID:20592027

  19. Depletion of gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase in cancer cells induces autophagy followed by cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Keiko; Matsumura, Kengo; Ii, Hiromi; Kageyama, Susumu; Ashihara, Eishi; Chano, Tokuhiro; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Yoshiki, Tatsuhiro; Nakata, Susumu

    2018-01-01

    Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT) was originally identified as a protein highly expressed in bladder cancer tissues by proteomic analysis, and its higher expression in a variety of cancers compared to normal tissues have been shown. Depletion of GGCT in various cancer cells results in antiproliferative effects both in vitro and in vivo ; thus it is considered a promising therapeutic target. Although it has been shown that knockdown of GGCT induces cellular senescence and non-apoptotic cell death, associated with upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) including p21 WAF1/CIP1 , the cellular events that follow GGCT depletion are not fully understood. Here, we show that GGCT depletion induced autophagy in MCF7 breast and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Conversely, overexpression of GGCT in NIH3T3 fibroblast under conditions of serum deprivation inhibited autophagy and increased proliferation. Simultaneous knockdown of autophagy related-protein 5, a critical effector of autophagy, along with GGCT in MCF7 and PC3 cells led to significant attenuation of the multiple cellular responses, including upregulation of CDKIs, increased numbers of senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive senescent cells, and growth inhibition. Furthermore, we show that autophagy-promoting signaling cascades including activation of the AMPK-ULK1 pathway and/or inactivation of the mTORC2-Akt pathway were triggered in GGCT-depleted cells. These results indicate that autophagy plays an important role in the growth inhibition of cancer cells caused by GGCT depletion.

  20. Response competition and response inhibition during different choice-discrimination tasks: evidence from ERP measured inside MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier J; Inuggi, Alberto; Blasi, Valeria; Cursi, Marco; Annovazzi, Pietro; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Leocani, Letizia

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the neural correlates underlying response inhibition and conflict detection processes using ERPs and source localization analyses simultaneously acquired during fMRI scanning. ERPs were elicited by a simple reaction time task (SRT), a Go/NoGo task, and a Stroop-like task (CST). The cognitive conflict was thus manipulated in order to probe the degree to which information processing is shared across cognitive systems. We proposed to dissociate inhibition and interference conflict effects on brain activity by using identical Stroop-like congruent/incongruent stimuli in all three task contexts and while varying the response required. NoGo-incongruent trials showed a larger N2 and enhanced activations of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and pre-supplementary motor area, whereas Go-congruent trials showed a larger P3 and increased parietal activations. Congruent and incongruent conditions of the CST task also elicited similar N2, P3 and late negativity (LN) ERPs, though CST-incongruent trials revealed a larger LN and enhanced prefrontal and ACC activations. Considering the stimulus probability and experimental manipulation of our study, current findings suggest that NoGo N2 and frontal NoGo P3 appear to be more associated to response inhibition rather than a specific conflict monitoring, whereas occipito-parietal P3 of Go and CST conditions may be more linked to a planned response competition between the prepared and required response. LN, however, appears to be related to higher level conflict monitoring associated with response choice-discrimination but not when the presence of cognitive conflict is associated with response inhibition. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Noreen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy. Methods Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. Results Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, glr1Δ and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK mutants of A. fumigatus (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ, indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC or fungicidal (MFC

  2. Marine Bivalve Cellular Responses to Beta Blocker Exposures ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    β blockers are prescription drugs used for medical treatment of hypertension and arrhythmias. They prevent binding of agonists such as catecholamines to β adrenoceptors. In the absence of agonist induced activation of the receptor, adenylate cyclase is not activated which in turn limits cAMP production and protein kinase A activation, preventing increases in blood pressure and arrhythmias. After being taken therapeutically, commonly prescribed β blockers may make their way to coastal habitats via discharge from waste water treatment plants (WWTP) posing a potential risk to aquatic organisms. The aim of our research is to evaluate cellular responses of three commercially important marine bivalves - Eastern oysters, blue mussels and hard clams - upon exposure to two β blocker drugs, propranolol and metoprolol, and to find molecular initiating events (MIEs) indicative of the exposure. Bivalves were obtained from Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA) and acclimated in the laboratory. Following acclimation, gills and hepatopancreas (HP) tissues were harvested and separately exposed to 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/l of each drug. Tissues were bathed in 30 parts per thousand (ppt) filtered seawater, antibiotic mix, Leibovitz nutrient media, and the test drug. Exposures were conducted for 24 hours and samples were saved for cellular biomarker assays. A lysosomal destabilization assay, which is a marker of membrane damage, was also performed at the end of each exposure.

  3. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Swart, Jennifer C; Schmidt, Kristin; Fekkes, Durk; Geurts, Dirk E M; Cools, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas, however, has been mixed. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of serotonin (5HT) in behavioural vigour as a function of incentive motivation. We employed dietary acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower the 5HT precursor tryptophan during the performance of a speeded visual discrimination task. Feedback valence and feedback probability were manipulated independently and cued prior to target onset. On feedback trials, fast correct responses led to either reward or avoidance of punishment, while slow or incorrect responses led to reward omission or punishment. We show that behavioural responding is inhibited under high incentive motivation (i.e. high-feedback probability) at baseline 5HT levels and that lowering these leads to behavioural disinhibition, while leaving accuracy unaffected. Surprisingly, there were no differential effects of motivational valence, with 5HT depletion releasing behavioural inhibition under both appetitive and aversive motivation. Our findings extend current theories on the role of 5HT in behavioural inhibition by showing that reductions in serotonin lead to increased behavioural vigour only if there is a motivational drive to inhibit behaviour at baseline.

  4. Pairing of heterochromatin in response to cellular stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Halim, H.I.; Mullenders, L.H.F.; Boei, J.J.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that exposure of human cells to DNA-damaging agents (X-rays and mitomycin C (MMC)) induces pairing of the homologous paracentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 9 (9q12-13). Here, we show that UV irradiation and also heat shock treatment of human cells lead to similar effects. Since the various agents induce very different types and frequencies of damage to cellular constituents, the data suggest a general stress response as the underlying mechanism. Moreover, local UV irradiation experiments revealed that pairing of heterochromatin is an event that can be triggered without induction of DNA damage in the heterochromatic sequences. The repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells (group F) previously shown to fail pairing after MMC displayed elevated pairing after heat shock treatment but not after UV exposure. Taken together, the present results indicate that pairing of heterochromatin following exposure to DNA-damaging agents is initiated by a general stress response and that the sensing of stress or the maintenance of the paired status of the heterochromatin might be dependent on DNA repair

  5. Training and Transfer Effects of Response Inhibition Training in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Chen, Ling; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2018-01-01

    Response inhibition is crucial for mental and physical health but studies assessing the trainability of this type of inhibition are rare. Thirty-nine children aged 10-12 years and 46 adults aged 18-24 years were assigned to an adaptive go/no-go inhibition training condition or an active control condition. Transfer of training effects to…

  6. The effect of methylphenidate on three forms of response inhibition in boys with AD/HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, A.; Oosterlaan, J.; Swanson, J.; Morein-Zamir, S.; Meiran, N.; Schut, H.; Vlasveld, L.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The current study was aimed at (a) investigating the effect of three doses methylphenidate (MPH) and placebo on inhibition of a prepotent response, inhibition of an ongoing response, and interference control in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), and (b) studying dose-response

  7. Differential regulation of striatal motor behavior and related cellular responses by dopamine D2L and D2S isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Daniela; Chiacchiaretta, Martina; Lewis, Robert G; Brami-Cherrier, Karen; Arcuri, Ludovico; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2018-01-02

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a major component of the dopamine system. D2R-mediated signaling in dopamine neurons is involved in the presynaptic regulation of dopamine levels. Postsynaptically, i.e., in striatal neurons, D2R signaling controls complex functions such as motor activity through regulation of cell firing and heterologous neurotransmitter release. The presence of two isoforms, D2L and D2S, which are generated by a mechanism of alternative splicing of the Drd2 gene, raises the question of whether both isoforms may equally control presynaptic and postsynaptic events. Here, we addressed this question by comparing behavioral and cellular responses of mice with the selective ablation of either D2L or D2S isoform. We establish that the presence of either D2L or D2S can support postsynaptic functions related to the control of motor activity in basal conditions. On the contrary, absence of D2S but not D2L prevents the inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and, thereby, of dopamine synthesis, supporting a major presynaptic role for D2S. Interestingly, boosting dopamine signaling in the striatum by acute cocaine administration reveals that absence of D2L, but not of D2S, strongly impairs the motor and cellular response to the drug, in a manner similar to the ablation of both isoforms. These results suggest that when the dopamine system is challenged, D2L signaling is required for the control of striatal circuits regulating motor activity. Thus, our findings show that D2L and D2S share similar functions in basal conditions but not in response to stimulation of the dopamine system.

  8. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    matter underlying these regions continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence, as indicated by in an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA), possibly reflecting ongoing myelination, and/or increase in axon diameter and density7,8. Here we used an emotional Go/Nogo task to test the hypothesis......The ability to inhibit inappropriate behavior is an essential cognitive and social skill. Response inhibition of pre-potent motor responses as measured with a stop-signal or a Go/Nogo task improves throughout adolescence1,2. Performance on these tasks can be modulated by the valence of task stimuli....... Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...

  9. Cellular targets of the myeloperoxidase-derived oxidant hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) and its role in the inhibition of glycolysis in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Love, D; Barrett, T.J.; White, M.Y.

    2016-01-01

    the cellular targets of HOSCN in macrophages (J774A.1). We report that multiple thiol-containing proteins involved in metabolism and glycolysis; fructose bisphosphate aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and creatine kinase, together with a number of chaperone......, antioxidant and structural proteins, were modified in a reversible manner in macrophages treated with HOSCN. The modification of the metabolic enzymes was associated with a decrease in basal glycolysis, glycolytic reserve, glycolytic capacity and lactate release, which was only partly reversible on further...... incubation in the absence of HOSCN. Inhibition of glycolysis preceded cell death and was seen in cells exposed to low concentrations (r25 mM) of HOSCN. The ability of HOSCN to inhibit glycolysis and perturb energy production is likely to contribute to the cell death seen in macrophages on further incubation...

  10. Interferon lambda inhibits dengue virus replication in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Ocampo, Helen K; Flores-Alonso, Juan C; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Herrera-Camacho, Irma; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora H; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2015-09-28

    In viral disease, infection is controlled at the cellular level by type I interferon (IFN-I), but dengue virus (DENV) has the ability to inhibit this response. Type III interferon, also known as lambda IFN (IFN-III or IFN-λ), is a complementary pathway to the antiviral response by IFN-I. This work analyzed the IFN-λ (IFN-III) mediated antiviral response against DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection. Dengue fever patients were sampled to determine their IFN-λ levels by ELISA. To study the IFN-λ response during DENV infection we selected the epithelial cell line C33-A, and we demonstrated that it is permissive to DENV-2 infection. The effect of IFN-λ on virus replication was determined in these cells, in parallel to the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS), genes measured by RT-qPCR. We found increased (~1.8 times) serological IFN-λ in dengue fever patients compared to healthy blood donors. IFN-λ inhibited DENV-2 replication in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The reduction of viral titer corresponded with increased ISG mRNA levels (MX1 and OAS1), with the highest inhibition occurring at ISG's peak expression. Presence of IFN-negative regulators, SOCS1 and SOCS3, during DENV-2 infection was associated with reduced IFN-λ1 expression. Evidence described here suggests that IFN-λ is a good candidate inhibitor of viral replication in dengue infection. Mechanisms for the cellular and organismal interplay between DENV and IFN- λ need to be further studied as they could provide insights into strategies to treat this disease. Furthermore, we report a novel epithelial model to study dengue infection in vitro.

  11. Cellular plasticity enables adaptation to unforeseen cell-cycle rewiring challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Yair; Stolovicki, Elad; Stern, Shay; Braun, Erez

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental dynamics of the cell cycle, underlying cell growth and reproduction, were previously found to be robust under a wide range of environmental and internal perturbations. This property was commonly attributed to its network structure, which enables the coordinated interactions among hundreds of proteins. Despite significant advances in deciphering the components and autonomous interactions of this network, understanding the interfaces of the cell cycle with other major cellular processes is still lacking. To gain insight into these interfaces, we used the process of genome-rewiring in yeast by placing an essential metabolic gene HIS3 from the histidine biosynthesis pathway, under the exclusive regulation of different cell-cycle promoters. In a medium lacking histidine and under partial inhibition of the HIS3p, the rewired cells encountered an unforeseen multitasking challenge; the cell-cycle regulatory genes were required to regulate the essential histidine-pathway gene in concert with the other metabolic demands, while simultaneously driving the cell cycle through its proper temporal phases. We show here that chemostat cell populations with rewired cell-cycle promoters adapted within a short time to accommodate the inhibition of HIS3p and stabilized a new phenotypic state. Furthermore, a significant fraction of the population was able to adapt and grow into mature colonies on plates under such inhibiting conditions. The adapted state was shown to be stably inherited across generations. These adaptation dynamics were accompanied by a non-specific and irreproducible genome-wide transcriptional response. Adaptation of the cell-cycle attests to its multitasking capabilities and flexible interface with cellular metabolic processes and requirements. Similar adaptation features were found in our previous work when rewiring HIS3 to the GAL system and switching cells from galactose to glucose. Thus, at the basis of cellular plasticity is the emergence of a yet

  12. Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on response inhibition in humans: an ERP investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronk, D.B.; De Bruijn, E.R.; van Wel, J.H.; Ramaekers, J.G.; Verkes, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with alterations in response inhibition in humans. Not much research has examined how the acute effects of drugs modify the neurophysiological correlates of response inhibition, or how these effects interact with individual variation in trait levels of

  13. Effect of chemical composition on corneal cellular response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of corneal cellular response to hydrogel materials is an important issue in ophthalmic applications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and material compatibility towards corneal stromal and endothelial cells. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Results of electrokinetic measurements showed that an increase in absolute zeta potential of photopolymerized membranes is observed with increasing the volume ratios of AAc/HEMA. Following 4 days of incubation with various hydrogels, the primary rabbit corneal stromal and endothelial cell cultures were examined for viability, proliferation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. The samples prepared from the solution mixture containing 0–10 vol.% AAc displayed good cytocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the decreased viability, inhibited proliferation, and stimulated inflammation were noted in both cell types, probably due to the stronger charge–charge interactions. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelial cells exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na + ,K + -ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of material samples having higher anionic charge density (i.e., zeta potential of − 38 to − 56 mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal stromal and endothelial cell responses to polymeric biomaterials. - Highlights: • We examine the corneal cellular responses to photopolymerized biomaterials. • Charge density of membranes was increased with increasing volume ratio of AAc/HEMA. • 15–20 vol.% AAc decreased viability and proliferation of all

  14. Effect of chemical composition on corneal cellular response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2013-10-15

    Characterization of corneal cellular response to hydrogel materials is an important issue in ophthalmic applications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and material compatibility towards corneal stromal and endothelial cells. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Results of electrokinetic measurements showed that an increase in absolute zeta potential of photopolymerized membranes is observed with increasing the volume ratios of AAc/HEMA. Following 4 days of incubation with various hydrogels, the primary rabbit corneal stromal and endothelial cell cultures were examined for viability, proliferation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. The samples prepared from the solution mixture containing 0–10 vol.% AAc displayed good cytocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the decreased viability, inhibited proliferation, and stimulated inflammation were noted in both cell types, probably due to the stronger charge–charge interactions. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelial cells exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of material samples having higher anionic charge density (i.e., zeta potential of − 38 to − 56 mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal stromal and endothelial cell responses to polymeric biomaterials. - Highlights: • We examine the corneal cellular responses to photopolymerized biomaterials. • Charge density of membranes was increased with increasing volume ratio of AAc/HEMA. • 15–20 vol.% AAc decreased viability and proliferation

  15. The Neural Basis of Cognitive Control: Response Selection and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M.; MacDonald, Angus W., III

    2009-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of tasks that recruit different forms of response selection and inhibition has to our knowledge, never been directly addressed in a single fMRI study using similar stimulus-response paradigms where differences between scanning time and sequence, stimuli, and experimenter instructions were minimized. Twelve right-handed…

  16. Learning to inhibit the response during instrumental (operant) extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Trask, Sydney; Carranza-Jasso, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    Five experiments tested implications of the idea that instrumental (operant) extinction involves learning to inhibit the learned response. All experiments used a discriminated operant procedure in which rats were reinforced for lever pressing or chain pulling in the presence of a discriminative stimulus (S), but not in its absence. In Experiment 1, extinction of the response (R) in the presence of S weakened responding in S, but equivalent nonreinforced exposure to S (without the opportunity to make R) did not. Experiment 2 replicated that result and found that extinction of R had no effect on a different R that had also been reinforced in the stimulus. In Experiments 3 and 4, rats first learned to perform several different stimulus and response combinations (S1R1, S2R1, S3R2, and S4R2). Extinction of a response in one stimulus (i.e., S1R1) transferred and weakened the same response, but not a different response, when it was tested in another stimulus (i.e., S2R1 but not S3R2). In Experiment 5, extinction still transferred between S1 and S2 when the stimuli set the occasion for R's association with different types of food pellets. The results confirm the importance of response inhibition in instrumental extinction: Nonreinforcement of the response in S causes the most effective suppression of responding, and response suppression is specific to the response but transfers and influences performance of the same response when it is occasioned by other stimuli. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Learning to inhibit the response during instrumental (operant) extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E.; Trask, Sydney; Carranza-Jasso, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Five experiments tested implications of the idea that instrumental (operant) extinction involves learning to inhibit the learned response. All experiments used a discriminated operant procedure in which rats were reinforced for lever pressing or chain pulling in the presence of a discriminative stimulus (S), but not in its absence. In Experiment 1, extinction of the response (R) in the presence of S weakened responding in S, but equivalent nonreinforced exposure to S (without the opportunity to make R) did not. Experiment 2 replicated that result and found that extinction of R had no effect on a different R that had also been reinforced in the stimulus. In Experiments 3 and 4, rats first learned to perform several different stimulus and response combinations (S1R1, S2R1, S3R2, and S4R2). Extinction of a response in one stimulus (i.e., S1R1) transferred and weakened the same response, but not a different response, when it was tested in another stimulus (i.e., S2R1 but not S3R2). In Experiment 5, extinction still transferred between S1 and S2 when the stimuli set the occasion for R's association with different types of food pellets. The results confirm the importance of response inhibition in instrumental extinction: Nonreinforcement of the response in S causes the most effective suppression of responding, and response suppression is specific to the response but transfers and influences performance of the same response when it is occasioned by other stimuli. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27379715

  18. Thiol peroxidases mediate specific genome-wide regulation of gene expression in response to hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Koc, Ahmet; Agisheva, Natalia; Jacobsen, Michael; Kaya, Alaattin; Malinouski, Mikalai; Rutherford, Julian C.; Siu, Kam-Leung; Jin, Dong-Yan; Winge, Dennis R.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is thought to regulate cellular processes by direct oxidation of numerous cellular proteins, whereas antioxidants, most notably thiol peroxidases, are thought to reduce peroxides and inhibit H2O2 response. However, thiol peroxidases have also been implicated in activation of transcription factors and signaling. It remains unclear if these enzymes stimulate or inhibit redox regulation and whether this regulation is widespread or limited to a few cellular components. Herein, we found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking all eight thiol peroxidases were viable and withstood redox stresses. They transcriptionally responded to various redox treatments, but were unable to activate and repress gene expression in response to H2O2. Further studies involving redox transcription factors suggested that thiol peroxidases are major regulators of global gene expression in response to H2O2. The data suggest that thiol peroxidases sense and transfer oxidative signals to the signaling proteins and regulate transcription, whereas a direct interaction between H2O2 and other cellular proteins plays a secondary role. PMID:21282621

  19. Purine receptor P2Y_6 mediates cellular response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Shunta; Nishimaki, Naoko; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Kojima, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that nucleotide P2 receptor agonists such as ATP and UTP amplify γ-ray-induced focus formation of phosphorylated histone H2A variant H2AX (γH2AX), which is considered to be an indicator of DNA damage so far, by activating purine P2Y_6 and P2Y_1_2 receptors. Therefore, we hypothesized that these P2 receptors play a role in inducing the repair response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage. In the present study, we tested this idea by using human lung cancer A549 cells. First, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that P2Y_6 receptor is highly expressed in A549 cells, but P2Y_1_2 receptor is only weakly expressed. Next, colony formation assay revealed that P2Y_6 receptor antagonist MRS2578 markedly reduced the survival rate of γ-ray-exposed A549 cells. The survival rate was also significantly reduced in P2Y_6-knock-down cells, compared with scramble siRNA-transfected cells. Since it has reported that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 after activation of EGFR via P2Y_6 and P2Y_1_2 receptors is involved in the repair response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage, we next examined whether γ-ray-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was also inhibited by MRS2578 in A549 cells. We found that it was. Taken together, these findings indicate that purinergic signaling through P2Y_6 receptor, followed by ERK1/2 activation, promotes the cellular repair response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage. (author)

  20. Identifying a compound modifying a cellular response, comprises attaching cells having a reporter system onto solid supports, releasing a library member, screening and identifying target cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for identifying compounds capable of modulating a cellular response. The methods involve attaching living cells to solid supports comprising a library of test compounds. Test compounds modulating a cellular response, for example via a cell surface molecule...... may be identified by selecting solid supports comprising cells, wherein the cellular response of interest has been modulated. The cellular response may for example be changes in signal transduction pathways modulated by a cell surface molecule....

  1. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  2. Stimulus-response mappings shape inhibition processes: a combined EEG-fMRI study of contextual stopping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina F Lavallee

    Full Text Available Humans are rarely faced with one simple task, but are typically confronted with complex stimulus constellations and varying stimulus-relevance in a given situation. Through modifying the prototypical stop-signal task and by combined recording and analysis of electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we studied the effects of stimulus relevance for the generation of a response or its inhibition. Stimulus response mappings were modified by contextual cues, indicating which of two different stimuli following a go stimulus was relevant for stopping. Overall, response inhibition, that is comparing successful stopping to a stop-signal against go-signal related processes, was associated with increased activity in right inferior and left midfrontal regions, as well as increased EEG delta and theta power; however, stimulus-response conditions in which the most infrequent stop-signal was relevant for inhibition, were associated with decreased activity in regions typically involved in response inhibition, as well as decreased activity in the delta and theta bands as compared to conditions wherein the relevant stop-signal frequency was higher. Behaviorally, this (aforementioned condition, which demanded inhibition only from the most infrequent stimulus, was also associated with reduced reaction times and lower error rates. This pattern of results does not align with typical stimulus frequency-driven findings and suggests interplay between task relevance and stimulus frequency of the stop-signal. Moreover, with a multimodal EEG-fMRI analysis, we demonstrated significant parameterization for response inhibition with delta, theta and beta time-frequency values, which may be interpreted as reflecting conflict monitoring, evaluative and/or motor processes as suggested by previous work (Huster et al., 2013; Aron, 2011. Further multimodal results suggest a possible neurophysiological and behavioral benefit under conditions

  3. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular response to biophysical cues using synthetic biology approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denning, Denise; Roos, Wouter H

    2016-01-01

    The use of synthetic surfaces and materials to influence and study cell behavior has vastly progressed our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in cellular response to physicochemical and biophysical cues. Reconstituting cytoskeletal proteins and interfacing them with a

  4. Adaptation and inhibition underlie responses to time-varying interaural phase cues in a model of inferior colliculus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, Alla; Semple, Malcolm N; Rinzel, John

    2002-10-01

    A mathematical model was developed for exploring the sensitivity of low-frequency inferior colliculus (IC) neurons to interaural phase disparity (IPD). The formulation involves a firing-rate-type model that does not include spikes per se. The model IC neuron receives IPD-tuned excitatory and inhibitory inputs (viewed as the output of a collection of cells in the medial superior olive). The model cell possesses cellular properties of firing rate adaptation and postinhibitory rebound (PIR). The descriptions of these mechanisms are biophysically reasonable, but only semi-quantitative. We seek to explain within a minimal model the experimentally observed mismatch between responses to IPD stimuli delivered dynamically and those delivered statically (McAlpine et al. 2000; Spitzer and Semple 1993). The model reproduces many features of the responses to static IPD presentations, binaural beat, and partial range sweep stimuli. These features include differences in responses to a stimulus presented in static or dynamic context: sharper tuning and phase shifts in response to binaural beats, and hysteresis and "rise-from-nowhere" in response to partial range sweeps. Our results suggest that dynamic response features are due to the structure of inputs and the presence of firing rate adaptation and PIR mechanism in IC cells, but do not depend on a specific biophysical mechanism. We demonstrate how the model's various components contribute to shaping the observed phenomena. For example, adaptation, PIR, and transmission delay shape phase advances and delays in responses to binaural beats, adaptation and PIR shape hysteresis in different ranges of IPD, and tuned inhibition underlies asymmetry in dynamic tuning properties. We also suggest experiments to test our modeling predictions: in vitro simulation of the binaural beat (phase advance at low beat frequencies, its dependence on firing rate), in vivo partial range sweep experiments (dependence of the hysteresis curve on

  5. Response inhibition and impulsive decision-making in sexual offenders against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Bockshammer, Tamara; Welsch, Robin; Rettenberger, Martin

    2018-05-31

    Current theories view impulsivity as an important factor in the explanation of sexual offending. While impulsivity itself is a multidimensional construct, response inhibition and impulsive decision-making are frequently discussed subcomponents. Impulsivity in sexual offenders could be triggered by sexual cues with high emotional significance. The present study compared response inhibition abilities and the degree of impulsive decision-making between 63 child sexual abusers and 63 nonoffending controls. A Go/No-Go task was used to assess response inhibition, while the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Game of Dice Task (GDT) were used for the assessment of decision-making. In contrast to previous studies, modified versions of the Go/No-Go task and the IGT were used, including pictures of the Not Real People-Set depicting nude adults and children. Child sexual abusers showed more deficits in response inhibition in the Go/No-Go task. Furthermore, decision-making was especially impaired by the presence of child images in child sexual abusers with more intense pedophilic sexual interests. In contrast, in the nonoffending controls the presence of preferred sexual cues (pictures of women) improved decision-making performance. No differences in overall GDT performance were found between the groups; however, child sexual abusers chose the riskiest option more frequently than nonoffending controls. In line with theoretical assumptions about the processes underlying sexual offending, child sexual abusers show more deficits in neuropsychological functioning, which may be related to more impulsive behaviors. These impairments could be triggered by the presence of sexually relevant cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Multiple Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Action of Lycopene in Cancer Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Trejo-Solís

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in regular dietary intake might prevent and reverse cellular carcinogenesis, reducing the incidence of primary tumours. Bioactive components present in food can simultaneously modulate more than one carcinogenic process, including cancer metabolism, hormonal balance, transcriptional activity, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and metastasis. Some studies have shown an inverse correlation between a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and carotenoids and a low incidence of different types of cancer. Lycopene, the predominant carotenoid found in tomatoes, exhibits a high antioxidant capacity and has been shown to prevent cancer, as evidenced by clinical trials and studies in cell culture and animal models. In vitro studies have shown that lycopene treatment can selectively arrest cell growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells without affecting normal cells. In vivo studies have revealed that lycopene treatment inhibits tumour growth in the liver, lung, prostate, breast, and colon. Clinical studies have shown that lycopene protects against prostate cancer. One of the main challenges in cancer prevention is the integration of new molecular findings into clinical practice. Thus, the identification of molecular biomarkers associated with lycopene levels is essential for improving our understanding of the mechanisms underlying its antineoplastic activity.

  7. The cellular magnetic response and biocompatibility of biogenic zinc- and cobalt-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Sandhya; Céspedes, Eva; Soukup, Dalibor; Byrne, James M.; El Haj, Alicia J.; Telling, Neil D.

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic moment and anisotropy of magnetite nanoparticles can be optimised by doping with transition metal cations, enabling their properties to be tuned for different biomedical applications. In this study, we assessed the suitability of bacterially synthesized zinc- and cobalt-doped magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications. To do this we measured cellular viability and activity in primary human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human osteosarcoma-derived cells. Using AC susceptibility we studied doping induced changes in the magnetic response of the nanoparticles both as stable aqueous suspensions and when associated with cells. Our findings show that the magnetic response of the particles was altered after cellular interaction with a reduction in their mobility. In particular, the strongest AC susceptibility signal measured in vitro was from cells containing high-moment zinc-doped particles, whilst no signal was observed in cells containing the high-anisotropy cobalt-doped particles. For both particle types we found that the moderate dopant levels required for optimum magnetic properties did not alter their cytotoxicity or affect osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells. Thus, despite the known cytotoxicity of cobalt and zinc ions, these results suggest that iron oxide nanoparticles can be doped to sufficiently tailor their magnetic properties without compromising cellular biocompatibility.

  8. Brain activation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction in internet gaming disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated neural substrates related to the loss of control in college students with internet gaming disorder (IGD. We hypothesized that deficit in response inhibition under gaming cue distraction was the possible mechanism for the loss of control internet use. Eleven cases of IGD and 11 controls performed Go/NoGo tasks with/without gaming distraction in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. When the gaming picture was shown as background while individuals were performing Go/NoGo tasks, the IGD group committed more commission errors. The control group increased their brain activations more over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and superior parietal lobe under gaming cue distraction in comparison with the IGD group. Furthermore, brain activation of the right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe were negatively associated with performance of response inhibition among the IGD group. The results suggest that the function of response inhibition was impaired under gaming distraction among the IGD group, and individuals with IGD could not activate right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe to keep cognitive control and attention allocation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction. This mechanism should be addressed in any intervention for IGD.

  9. Involvement of oxygen reactive species in the cellular response of carcinoma cells to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulard, A.

    2004-06-01

    After a presentation of oxygen reactive species and their sources, the author describes the enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative defenses, the physiological roles of oxygen reactive species, the oxidative stress, the water radiolysis, the anti-oxidative enzymes and the effects of ionizing radiations. The author then reports an investigation on the contribution of oxygen reactive species in the cellular response to irradiation, and an investigation on the influence of the breathing chain on the persistence of a radio-induced oxidative stress. He also reports a research on molecular mechanisms involved in the cellular radio-sensitivity

  10. Anticancer agent CHS-828 inhibits cellular synthesis of NAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, U.H.; Christensen, M.K.; Bjorkling, F.

    2008-01-01

    Malignant cells display increased demands for energy production and DNA repair. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is required for both processes and is also continuously degraded by cellular enzymes. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is a crucial factor in the resynthesis of NAD......, and thus in cancer cell survival. Here, we establish the cytotoxic mechanism of action of the small molecule inhibitor CHS-828 to result from impaired synthesis of NAD. Initially, we detected cross-resistance in cells between CHS-828 and a known inhibitor of Nampt, FK866, a compound of a structurally...... different class. We then showed that nicotinamide protects against CHS-828-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, we observed that treatment with CHS-828 depletes cellular NAD levels in sensitive cancer cells. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that, like FK866, CHS-828 kills cancer cells by depleting...

  11. Altered neural connectivity during response inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Daan; Hartman, Catharina A; Mennes, Maarten; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Franke, Barbara; Rommelse, Nanda; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition is one of the executive functions impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Increasing evidence indicates that altered functional and structural neural connectivity are part of the neurobiological basis of ADHD. Here, we investigated if adolescents with ADHD show altered functional connectivity during response inhibition compared to their unaffected siblings and healthy controls. Response inhibition was assessed using the stop signal paradigm. Functional connectivity was assessed using psycho-physiological interaction analyses applied to BOLD time courses from seed regions within inferior- and superior frontal nodes of the response inhibition network. Resulting networks were compared between adolescents with ADHD (N = 185), their unaffected siblings (N = 111), and controls (N = 125). Control subjects showed stronger functional connectivity than the other two groups within the response inhibition network, while subjects with ADHD showed relatively stronger connectivity between default mode network (DMN) nodes. Stronger connectivity within the response inhibition network was correlated with lower ADHD severity, while stronger connectivity with the DMN was correlated with increased ADHD severity. Siblings showed connectivity patterns similar to controls during successful inhibition and to ADHD subjects during failed inhibition. Additionally, siblings showed decreased connectivity with the primary motor areas as compared to both participants with ADHD and controls. Subjects with ADHD fail to integrate activation within the response inhibition network and to inhibit connectivity with task-irrelevant regions. Unaffected siblings show similar alterations only during failed stop trials, as well as unique suppression of motor areas, suggesting compensatory strategies. These findings support the role of altered functional connectivity in understanding the neurobiology and familial transmission of ADHD.

  12. Separating intentional inhibition of prepotent responses and resistance to proactive interference in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Xavier; Van der Linden, Martial; Brevers, Damien; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Hanak, Catherine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity is a hallmark of addictive behaviors. Addicts' weakened inhibition of irrelevant prepotent responses is commonly thought to explain this association. However, inhibition is not a unitary mechanism. This study investigated the efficiency of overcoming competition due to irrelevant responses (i.e., inhibition of a prepotent response) and overcoming competition in memory (i.e., resistance to proactive interference) in sober and recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals. Three cognitive tasks assessing the inhibition of a prepotent response (Hayling task, anti-saccade task and Stroop task) and two tasks tapping into the capacity to resist proactive interference (cued recall, Brown-Peterson variant) were administered to 30 non-amnesic recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals and 30 matched healthy participants without alcohol dependency. In addition, possible confounds such as verbal updating in working memory was assessed. Alcohol-dependent subjects performed worse than healthy participants on the three cognitive tasks assessing the inhibition of irrelevant prepotent responses but group performance was similar in the tasks assessing overcoming proactive interference in memory, updating of working memory and abstract reasoning. These findings suggest that alcohol-dependence is mainly associated with impaired capacity to intentionally suppress irrelevant prepotent response information. Control of proactive interference from memory is preserved. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cellular cytotoxic response induced by highly purified multi-wall carbon nanotube in human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao

    2011-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes, a promising nanomaterial with unique characteristics, have applications in a variety of fields. The cytotoxic effects of carbon nanotubes are partially due to the induction of oxidative stress; however, the detailed mechanisms of nanotube cytotoxicity and their interaction with cells remain unclear. In this study, the authors focus on the acute toxicity of vapor-grown carbon fiber, HTT2800, which is one of the most highly purified multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) by high-temperature thermal treatment. The authors exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to HTT2800 and measured the cellular uptake, mitochondrial function, cellular LDH release, apoptotic signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. The HTT2800-exposed cells showed cellular uptake of the carbon nanotube, increased cell death, enhanced DNA damage, and induced cytokine release. However, the exposed cells showed no obvious intracellular ROS generation. These cellular and molecular findings suggest that HTT2800 could cause a potentially adverse inflammatory response in BEAS-2B cells.

  14. A cellular stress response (CSR) that interacts with NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) is a new regulator of hypoxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Ami; Koyama, Chika; Xu, Jing; Imaoka, Susumu

    2014-02-28

    NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) was previously found to contribute to the hypoxic response of cells, but the mechanism was not clarified. In this study, we identified a cellular stress response (CSR) as a new factor interacting with NPR by a yeast two-hybrid system. Overexpression of CSR enhanced the induction of erythropoietin and hypoxia response element (HRE) activity under hypoxia in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (Hep3B), while knockdown of CSR suppressed them. This new finding regarding the interaction of NPR with CSR provides insight into the function of NPR in hypoxic response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK–PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. ► Metformin suppressed TNF-α-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. ► Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. ► NF-κB activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. ► AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-α-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK–PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 μM) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-κB activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Inhibiting AMPK and PTEN restored ROS levels stimulated with TNF-α. Taken together, PTEN could be a possible downstream regulator of AMPK, and the

  16. Cigarette smoke-exposed saliva suppresses cellular and humoral immune responses in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarzadeh, A.; Bakhshi, H.; Rezayati, M.T.; Nemati, M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed saliva on cellular and antibody responses in an animal model. The stimulatory and non-stimulatory saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy subjects and were then exposed to CS for 20 or 80 minutes. The CS-exposed saliva samples were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p) to male Balb/c mice. Then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was assessed. Moreover, the total white blood cells (WBC) counts and the blood lymphocytes counts were determined. The mean of DTH responses of animal groups received 20 minutes or 80 minutes CS-exposed saliva samples was significantly lower than that observed in control group. Moreover, The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibody was significantly lower in animal groups who received 80 minutes CS-exposed stimulatory or non-stimulatory saliva as compared to control group (P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). The mean counts of blood lymphocytes in 80 minutes CS exposed-stimulatory saliva group was also significantly lower as compared to control group (P<0.05). These results show that the CS-exposed saliva samples have profound suppressive effects on both cellular and humoral immune response in a mouse animal model (JPMA 59:760; 2009). (author)

  17. Interleukin-6 promotes the migration and cellular senescence and inhibits apoptosis of human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Dong, Juan; Bu, Xiu-Qin; Huang, Yong; Yang, Jing-Yu; Dong, Xuan; Liu, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Biliary epithelial cells (BEC) are closely related to some immune regulatory bile duct diseases. However, the complexity and polymorphism of the morphology and function of bile duct cells have hindered further investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate how interleukin-6 (IL-6) affects the migration, cellular senescence, and apoptosis of human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (HIBECs). The HIBECs were stimulated by different concentrations of IL-6 (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ng/mL, respectively). Transwell assay was performed in order to measure the migration abilities, positive β-Galactosidase staining for the cellular senescence of HIBECs, MTT assay for changes of proliferation after IL-6 treatment and flow cytometry for cell cycle and apoptosis. The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting were conducted in order to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in HIBECs. In comparison to the 0 ng/mL group, in the 5, 10, 15, and 20 ng/mL groups, a significant increase in the number of migratory HIBECs, proliferation, along with mRNA and protein expressions of EMT markers was observed. While the mRNA and protein expressions of epithelial markers, the number of β-galactosidase positive staining cells, as well as apoptosis rate of HIBECs dramatic decreased. Further, the aforementioned changes were significantly more evident in the 15 and 20 ng/mL groups in comparison to the 5 and 10 ng/mL groups. IL-6 may stimulate EMT, enhance the migration and proliferation, and inhibit apoptosis of HIBECs, thus delaying cellular senescence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Neural Correlates of Rewarded Response Inhibition in Youth at Risk for Problematic Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Tervo-Clemmens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk for substance use disorder (SUD is associated with poor response inhibition and heightened reward sensitivity. During adolescence, incentives improve performance on response inhibition tasks and increase recruitment of cortical control areas (Geier et al., 2010 associated with SUD (Chung et al., 2011. However, it is unknown whether incentives moderate the relationship between response inhibition and trait-level psychopathology and personality features of substance use risk. We examined these associations in the current project using a rewarded antisaccade (AS task (Geier et al., 2010 in youth at risk for substance use. Participants were 116 adolescents and young adults (ages 12–21 from the University of Pittsburgh site of the National Consortium on Adolescent Neurodevelopment and Alcohol [NCANDA] study, with neuroimaging data collected at baseline and 1 year follow up visits. Building upon previous work using this task in normative developmental samples (Geier et al., 2010 and adolescents with SUD (Chung et al., 2011, we examined both trial-wise BOLD responses and those associated with individual task-epochs (cue presentation, response preparation, and response and associated them with multiple substance use risk factors (externalizing and internalizing psychopathology, family history of substance use, and trait impulsivity. Results showed that externalizing psychopathology and high levels of trait impulsivity (positive urgency, SUPPS-P were associated with general decreases in antisaccade performance. Accompanying this main effect of poor performance, positive urgency was associated with reduced recruitment of the frontal eye fields (FEF and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG in both a priori regions of interest and at the voxelwise level. Consistent with previous work, monetary incentive improved antisaccade behavioral performance and was associated with increased activation in the striatum and cortical control areas. However, incentives did

  19. Aberrant cellular immune responses in humans infected persistently with parvovirus B19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, Adiba; Norbeck, Oscar; Hirbod, Taha

    2006-01-01

    A subset of parvovirus B19 (B19) infected patients retains the infection for years, as defined by detection of B19 DNA in bone marrow. Thus far, analysis of B19-specific humoral immune responses and viral genome variations has not revealed a mechanism for the absent viral clearance. In this study......, ex-vivo cellular immune responses were assessed by enzyme linked immunospot assay mounted against the majority of the translated viral genome. Compared to seropositive healthy individuals, individuals with B19 persistence (2-8 years) showed larger number of responses to the structural proteins (P = 0.......0022), whereas responses to the non-structural protein were of lower magnitude (P = 0.012). These observations provide the first findings of immunological discrepancies between individuals with B19 persistence and healthy individuals, findings that may reflect both failed immunity and antigenic exhaustion....

  20. Comparison of Cellular Uptake and Inflammatory Response via Toll-Like Receptor 4 to Lipopolysaccharide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Taniguchi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune response is the earliest cellular response to infectious agents and mediates the interactions between microbes and cells. Toll-like receptors (TLRs play an important role in these interactions. We have already shown that TLRs are involved with the uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs and promote inflammatory responses. In this paper, we compared role of cellular uptake and inflammatory response via TLR 4 to lipopolysaccharide (LPS and TiO2 NPs. In the case of LPS, LPS binds to LPS binding protein (LBP and CD 14, and then this complex binds to TLR 4. In the case of TiO2 NPs, the necessity of LBP and CD 14 to induce the inflammatory response and for uptake by cells was investigated using over-expression, antibody blocking, and siRNA knockdown experiments. Our results suggested that for cellular uptake of TiO2 NPs, TLR 4 did not form a complex with LBP and CD 14. In the TiO2 NP-mediated inflammatory response, TLR 4 acted as the signaling receptor without protein complex of LPS, LBP and CD 14. The results suggested that character of TiO2 NPs might be similar to the complex of LPS, LBP and CD 14. These results are important for development of safer nanomaterials.

  1. Poxviruses Utilize Multiple Strategies to Inhibit Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Daniel Brian; De Martini, William; Cottrell, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Cells have multiple means to induce apoptosis in response to viral infection. Poxviruses must prevent activation of cellular apoptosis to ensure successful replication. These viruses devote a substantial portion of their genome to immune evasion. Many of these immune evasion products expressed during infection antagonize cellular apoptotic pathways. Poxvirus products target multiple points in both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, thereby mitigating apoptosis during infection. Interestingly, recent evidence indicates that poxviruses also hijack cellular means of eliminating apoptotic bodies as a means to spread cell to cell through a process called apoptotic mimicry. Poxviruses are the causative agent of many human and veterinary diseases. Further, there is substantial interest in developing these viruses as vectors for a variety of uses including vaccine delivery and as oncolytic viruses to treat certain human cancers. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which poxviruses regulate the cellular apoptotic pathways remains a top research priority. In this review, we consider anti-apoptotic strategies of poxviruses focusing on three relevant poxvirus genera: Orthopoxvirus, Molluscipoxvirus, and Leporipoxvirus. All three genera express multiple products to inhibit both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways with many of these products required for virulence. PMID:28786952

  2. On the automaticity of response inhibition in individuals with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Xavier; Brevers, Damien; Hanak, Catherine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2016-06-01

    Response inhibition is usually considered a hallmark of executive control. However, recent work indicates that stop performance can become associatively mediated ('automatic') over practice. This study investigated automatic response inhibition in sober and recently detoxified individuals with alcoholism.. We administered to forty recently detoxified alcoholics and forty healthy participants a modified stop-signal task that consisted of a training phase in which a subset of the stimuli was consistently associated with stopping or going, and a test phase in which this mapping was reversed. In the training phase, stop performance improved for the consistent stop stimuli, compared with control stimuli that were not associated with going or stopping. In the test phase, go performance tended to be impaired for old stop stimuli. Combined, these findings support the automatic inhibition hypothesis. Importantly, performance was similar in both groups, which indicates that automatic inhibitory control develops normally in individuals with alcoholism.. This finding is specific to individuals with alcoholism without other psychiatric disorders, which is rather atypical and prevents generalization. Personalized stimuli with a stronger affective content should be used in future studies. These results advance our understanding of behavioral inhibition in individuals with alcoholism. Furthermore, intact automatic inhibitory control may be an important element of successful cognitive remediation of addictive behaviors.. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 14-3-3ε boosts bleomycin-induced DNA damage response by inhibiting the drug-resistant activity of MVP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Siwei; Bai, Chen; Yang, Pengyuan; Chen, Xian

    2013-06-07

    Major vault protein (MVP) is the predominant constituent of the vault particle, the largest known ribonuclear protein complex. Although emerging evidence have been establishing the links between MVP (vault) and multidrug resistance (MDR), little is known regarding exactly how the MDR activity of MVP is modulated during cellular response to drug-induced DNA damage (DDR). Bleomycin (BLM), an anticancer drug, induces DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) and consequently triggers the cellular DDR. Due to its physiological implications in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cell fate decision, 14-3-3ε was chosen as the pathway-specific bait protein to identify the critical target(s) responsible for HCC MDR. By using an LC-MS/MS-based proteomic approach, MVP was first identified in the BLM-induced 14-3-3ε interactome formed in HCC cells. Biological characterization revealed that MVP possesses specific activity to promote the resistance to the BLM-induced DDR. On the other hand, 14-3-3ε enhances BLM-induced DDR by interacting with MVP. Mechanistic investigation further revealed that 14-3-3ε, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, binds to the phosphorylated sites at both Thr52 and Ser864 of the monomer of MVP. Consequently, the phosphorylation-dependent binding between 14-3-3ε and MVP inhibits the drug-resistant activity of MVP for an enhanced DDR to BLM treatment. Our findings provide an insight into the mechanism underlying how the BLM-induced interaction between 14-3-3ε and MVP modulates MDR, implicating novel strategy to overcome the chemotherapeutic resistance through interfering specific protein-protein interactions.

  4. Hot or not: Response inhibition reduces the hedonic value and motivational incentive of sexual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Ferrey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The motivational incentive of reward-related stimuli can become so salient that it drives behavior at the cost of other needs. Here we show that response inhibition applied during a Go/No-go task not only impacts hedonic evaluations but also reduces the behavioral incentive of motivationally-relevant stimuli. We first examined the impact of response inhibition on the hedonic value of sex stimuli associated with strong behavioral-approach responses (Experiment 1. Sexually-appealing and non-appealing images were both rated as less attractive when previously encountered as No-go (inhibited than as Go (non-inhibited items. We then discovered that inhibition reduces the motivational incentive of sexual appealing stimuli (Experiment 2. Prior Go/No-go status affected the number of key-presses by heterosexual males to view erotic-female (sexually-appealing but not erotic-male or scrambled-control (non-appealing images. These findings may provide an important foundation for developing inhibition-based interventions to reduce the hedonic value and motivational incentive of stimuli associated with disorders of self-control.

  5. Hot or Not: Response Inhibition Reduces the Hedonic Value and Motivational Incentive of Sexual Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrey, Anne E.; Frischen, Alexandra; Fenske, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The motivational incentive of reward-related stimuli can become so salient that it drives behavior at the cost of other needs. Here we show that response inhibition applied during a Go/No-go task not only impacts hedonic evaluations but also reduces the behavioral incentive of motivationally relevant stimuli. We first examined the impact of response inhibition on the hedonic value of sex stimuli associated with strong behavioral-approach responses (Experiment 1). Sexually appealing and non-appealing images were both rated as less attractive when previously encountered as No-go (inhibited) than as Go (non-inhibited) items. We then discovered that inhibition reduces the motivational incentive of sexual appealing stimuli (Experiment 2). Prior Go/No-go status affected the number of key-presses by heterosexual males to view erotic-female (sexually appealing) but not erotic-male or scrambled-control (non-appealing) images. These findings may provide a foundation for developing inhibition-based interventions to reduce the hedonic value and motivational incentive of stimuli associated with disorders of self-control. PMID:23272002

  6. Differential Cellular Responses to Hedgehog Signalling in Vertebrates—What is the Role of Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecker, Clemens; Graham, Anthony; Logan, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    A surprisingly small number of signalling pathways generate a plethora of cellular responses ranging from the acquisition of multiple cell fates to proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis and cell death. These diverse responses may be due to the dose-dependent activities of signalling factors, or to intrinsic differences in the response of cells to a given signal—a phenomenon called differential cellular competence. In this review, we focus on temporal and spatial differences in competence for Hedgehog (HH) signalling, a signalling pathway that is reiteratively employed in embryos and adult organisms. We discuss the upstream signals and mechanisms that may establish differential competence for HHs in a range of different tissues. We argue that the changing competence for HH signalling provides a four-dimensional framework for the interpretation of the signal that is essential for the emergence of functional anatomy. A number of diseases—including several types of cancer—are caused by malfunctions of the HH pathway. A better understanding of what provides differential competence for this signal may reveal HH-related disease mechanisms and equip us with more specific tools to manipulate HH signalling in the clinic. PMID:29615599

  7. Differential Cellular Responses to Hedgehog Signalling in Vertebrates—What is the Role of Competence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Kiecker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A surprisingly small number of signalling pathways generate a plethora of cellular responses ranging from the acquisition of multiple cell fates to proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis and cell death. These diverse responses may be due to the dose-dependent activities of signalling factors, or to intrinsic differences in the response of cells to a given signal—a phenomenon called differential cellular competence. In this review, we focus on temporal and spatial differences in competence for Hedgehog (HH signalling, a signalling pathway that is reiteratively employed in embryos and adult organisms. We discuss the upstream signals and mechanisms that may establish differential competence for HHs in a range of different tissues. We argue that the changing competence for HH signalling provides a four-dimensional framework for the interpretation of the signal that is essential for the emergence of functional anatomy. A number of diseases—including several types of cancer—are caused by malfunctions of the HH pathway. A better understanding of what provides differential competence for this signal may reveal HH-related disease mechanisms and equip us with more specific tools to manipulate HH signalling in the clinic.

  8. Cyperus scariosus Chloroform Fraction Inhibits T cell Responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    CSC did not significantly (p < 0.01) suppress Th2 (IL-4) system. Conclusion: The findings from this investigation reveal that C. scariosus causes immunosuppression by inhibiting Th1 cytokines. Keywords: Cyperus scariosus; Immunosuppression; Humoral antibody titre; Cell-mediated immune response; CD 4+ T- helper cells ...

  9. Anterior cingulate serotonin 1B receptor binding is associated with emotional response inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup

    2017-01-01

    -offender controls, completed an emotional Go/NoGo task requiring inhibition of prepotent motor responses to emotional facial expressions. We also measured cerebral serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) binding with [11C]AZ10419369 positron emission tomography within regions of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that 5......-HT1BR would be positively associated with false alarms (failures to inhibit nogo responses) in the context of aversive (angry and fearful) facial expressions. Across groups, we found that frontal cortex 5-HT1BR binding was positively correlated with false alarms when angry faces were go stimuli......Serotonin has a well-established role in emotional processing and is a key neurotransmitter in impulsive aggression, presumably by facilitating response inhibition and regulating subcortical reactivity to aversive stimuli. In this study 44 men, of whom 19 were violent offenders and 25 were non...

  10. Response Inhibition in Adults and Teenagers: Spatiotemporal Differences in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Julie; Mills, Travis; Pang, Elizabeth W.; Taylor, Margot J.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition is a core executive function reliant on the frontal lobes that shows protracted maturation through to adulthood. We investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of response inhibition during a visual go/no-go task in 14 teenagers and 14 adults using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a contrast between two no-go experimental conditions…

  11. Topoisomerase 1 Inhibition Promotes Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase-Dependent Antiviral Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Pèépin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory responses, while essential for pathogen clearance, can also be deleterious to the host. Chemical inhibition of topoisomerase 1 (Top1 by low-dose camptothecin (CPT can suppress transcriptional induction of antiviral and inflammatory genes and protect animals from excessive and damaging inflammatory responses. We describe the unexpected finding that minor DNA damage from topoisomerase 1 inhibition with low-dose CPT can trigger a strong antiviral immune response through cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS detection of cytoplasmic DNA. This argues against CPT having only anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, expression of the simian virus 40 (SV40 large T antigen was paramount to the proinflammatory antiviral activity of CPT, as it potentiated cytoplasmic DNA leakage and subsequent cGAS recruitment in human and mouse cell lines. This work suggests that the capacity of Top1 inhibitors to blunt inflammatory responses can be counteracted by viral oncogenes and that this should be taken into account for their therapeutic development.

  12. Nuclear and cytoplasmic signalling in the cellular response to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szumiel, Irena

    2001-01-01

    DNA is the universal primary target for ionising radiation; however, the cellular response is highly diversified not only by differential DNA repair ability. The monitoring system for the ionising radiation-inflicted DNA damage consists of 3 apparently independently acting enzymes which are activated by DNA breaks: two protein kinases, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase) and a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, PARP-1. These 3 enzymes are the source of alarm signals, which affect to various extents DNA repair, progression through the cell cycle and eventually the pathway to cell death. Their functions probably are partly overlapping. On the side of DNA repair their role consists in recruiting and/or activating the repair enzymes, as well as preventing illegitimate recombination of the damaged sites. A large part of the nuclear signalling pathway, including the integrating role of TP53 has been revealed. Two main signalling pathways start at the plasma membrane: the MAPK/ERK (mitogen and extracellular signal regulated protein kinase family) 'survival pathway' and the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase) 'cell death pathway'. The balance between them is likely to determine the cell's fate. An additional important 'survival pathway' starts at the insulin-like growth factor type I receptor (IGF-IR), involves phosphoinositide- 3 kinase and Akt kinase and is targeted at inactivation of the pro-apoptotic BAD protein. Interestingly, over-expression of IGF-IR almost entirely abrogates the extreme radiation sensitivity of ataxia telangiectasia cells. When DNA break rejoining is impaired, the cell is unconditionally radiation sensitive. The fate of a repair-competent cell is determined by the time factor: the cell cycle arrest should be long enough to ensure the completion of repair. Incomplete repair or misrepair may be tolerated, when generation of the death signal is prevented. So, the character and timing

  13. Robust network topologies for generating switch-like cellular responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf A Shah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Signaling networks that convert graded stimuli into binary, all-or-none cellular responses are critical in processes ranging from cell-cycle control to lineage commitment. To exhaustively enumerate topologies that exhibit this switch-like behavior, we simulated all possible two- and three-component networks on random parameter sets, and assessed the resulting response profiles for both steepness (ultrasensitivity and extent of memory (bistability. Simulations were used to study purely enzymatic networks, purely transcriptional networks, and hybrid enzymatic/transcriptional networks, and the topologies in each class were rank ordered by parametric robustness (i.e., the percentage of applied parameter sets exhibiting ultrasensitivity or bistability. Results reveal that the distribution of network robustness is highly skewed, with the most robust topologies clustering into a small number of motifs. Hybrid networks are the most robust in generating ultrasensitivity (up to 28% and bistability (up to 18%; strikingly, a purely transcriptional framework is the most fragile in generating either ultrasensitive (up to 3% or bistable (up to 1% responses. The disparity in robustness among the network classes is due in part to zero-order ultrasensitivity, an enzyme-specific phenomenon, which repeatedly emerges as a particularly robust mechanism for generating nonlinearity and can act as a building block for switch-like responses. We also highlight experimentally studied examples of topologies enabling switching behavior, in both native and synthetic systems, that rank highly in our simulations. This unbiased approach for identifying topologies capable of a given response may be useful in discovering new natural motifs and in designing robust synthetic gene networks.

  14. Fisetin inhibits cellular proliferation and induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarwal, Akash; Agarwal, Rajesh; Singh, Rana P

    2017-02-01

    The anticancer effects of fisetin, a dietary agent, are largely unknown against human gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms of fisetin-induced inhibition of growth and survival of human gastric carcinoma AGS and SNU-1 cells. Fisetin (25-100 μM) caused significant decrease in the levels of G1 phase cyclins and CDKs, and increased the levels of p53 and its S15 phosphorylation in gastric cancer cells. We also observed that growth suppression and death of non-neoplastic human intestinal FHs74int cells were minimally affected by fisetin. Fisetin strongly increased apoptotic cells and showed mitochondrial membrane depolarization in gastric cancer cells. DNA damage was observed as early as 3 h after fisetin treatment which was accompanied with gamma-H2A.X(S139) phosphorylation and cleavage of PARP. Fisetin-induced apoptosis was observed to be independent of p53. DCFDA and MitoSOX analyses showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS generation in time- and dose-dependent fashion. It also increased cellular nitrite and superoxide generation. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) inhibited ROS generation and also caused protection from fisetin-induced DNA damage. The formation of comets were observed in only fisetin treated cells which was blocked by NAC pre-treatment. Further investigation of the source of ROS, using mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex inhibitors, suggested that fisetin caused ROS generation specifically through complex I. Collectively, these results for the first time demonstrated that fisetin possesses anticancer potential through ROS production most likely via MRC complex I leading to apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A new cellular stress response that triggers centriolar satellite reorganization and ciliogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Bine H; Danielsen, Jannie R; Povlsen, Lou

    2013-01-01

    uncover a new two-pronged signalling response, which by coupling p38-dependent phosphorylation with MIB1-catalysed ubiquitylation of ciliogenesis-promoting factors plays an important role in controlling centriolar satellite status and key centrosomal functions in a cell stress-regulated manner.......Centriolar satellites are small, granular structures that cluster around centrosomes, but whose biological function and regulation are poorly understood. We show that centriolar satellites undergo striking reorganization in response to cellular stresses such as UV radiation, heat shock......, and transcription blocks, invoking acute and selective displacement of the factors AZI1/CEP131, PCM1, and CEP290 from this compartment triggered by activation of the stress-responsive kinase p38/MAPK14. We demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MIB1 is a new component of centriolar satellites, which interacts...

  16. Periostin Limits Tumor Response to VEGFA Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Keklikoglou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to antiangiogenic drugs limits their applicability in cancer therapy. Here, we show that revascularization and progression of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs under extended vascular-endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA blockade are dependent on periostin (POSTN, a matricellular protein expressed by stromal cells. Genetic deletion of Postn in RIP1-Tag2 mice blunted tumor rebounds of M2-like macrophages and αSMA+ stromal cells in response to prolonged VEGFA inhibition and suppressed PNET revascularization and progression on therapy. POSTN deficiency also impeded the upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2, an adaptive mechanism previously implicated in PNET evasion from antiangiogenic therapy. Higher POSTN expression correlated with markers of M2-like macrophages in human PNETs, and depleting macrophages with a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R antibody inhibited PNET revascularization and progression under VEGFA blockade despite continued POSTN production. These findings suggest a role for POSTN in orchestrating resistance to anti-VEGFA therapy in PNETs.

  17. Identification of cellular responses to low-dose radiation by antibody array in human B-lymphoblasts IM-9 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Hyeon Soo; Kim, Ji Young; Nam, Seon Young [Low-dose Radiation Research Team, Radiation Health Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. LTD., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The low-dose radiation (LDR)-induced various responses can reduce genetic mutation, enhance cell survival, and increase infection resistance (1). The antibody array for global analysis of phosphorylated proteins might be very useful to study signaling networks of LDR-induced cellular responses (2). Therefore, global analysis of phospho- proteins in cells exposed to radiation is important to understand the signaling mechanisms induced by changes of protein phosphorylation which lead to various biological effects by radiation. The aim is to explore the possibility of LDR-specific signaling for various beneficial effects and elucidate the potential signaling pathways representing LDR responses. Our results suggest that LDR did not affect cell death and that the increased proteins phosphorylation by LDR might be involved in various cellular responses for cell homeostasis. These results might be useful to further studies aimed at investigating potential regulatory markers that represent responses to LDR.

  18. Identification of cellular responses to low-dose radiation by antibody array in human B-lymphoblasts IM-9 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Hyeon Soo; Kim, Ji Young; Nam, Seon Young

    2017-01-01

    The low-dose radiation (LDR)-induced various responses can reduce genetic mutation, enhance cell survival, and increase infection resistance (1). The antibody array for global analysis of phosphorylated proteins might be very useful to study signaling networks of LDR-induced cellular responses (2). Therefore, global analysis of phospho- proteins in cells exposed to radiation is important to understand the signaling mechanisms induced by changes of protein phosphorylation which lead to various biological effects by radiation. The aim is to explore the possibility of LDR-specific signaling for various beneficial effects and elucidate the potential signaling pathways representing LDR responses. Our results suggest that LDR did not affect cell death and that the increased proteins phosphorylation by LDR might be involved in various cellular responses for cell homeostasis. These results might be useful to further studies aimed at investigating potential regulatory markers that represent responses to LDR

  19. LYATK1 potently inhibits LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Feng [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China); Liu, Yuan [Department of Ophthalmology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Wang, Xiujuan; Kong, Wei [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China); Zhao, Feng, E-mail: taixingzhaofeng163@163.com [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China)

    2016-01-29

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed monocytes/macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could lead to endotoxin shock. TGF-β-activated kinase1 (TAK1) activation is involved in the process. In the current study, we studied the potential effect of a selective TAK1 inhibitor, LYTAK1, on LPS-stimulated response both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression and production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LYTAK1's activity was almost nullified with TAK1 shRNA-knockdown. Meanwhile, in both primary mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production was again attenuated with LYTAK1 co-treatment. Molecularly, LYTAK1 dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TAK1-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk, Jnk and p38) activation in RAW 264.7 cells, mouse BMDMs and human PBMCs. In vivo, oral administration of LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced activation of TAK1-NFκB-p38 in ex-vivo cultured PBMCs, and cytokine production and endotoxin shock in mice. Together, these results demonstrate that LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin shock probably through blocking TAK1-regulated signalings. - Highlights: • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in RAW 264.7 cells. • The effect by LYTAK1 is more potent than other known TAK1 inhibitors. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in primary macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced TAK1-NFκB and MAPK activation in macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 gavage inhibits LPS-induced endotoxin shock and cytokine production in mice.

  20. LYATK1 potently inhibits LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Feng; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiujuan; Kong, Wei; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed monocytes/macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could lead to endotoxin shock. TGF-β-activated kinase1 (TAK1) activation is involved in the process. In the current study, we studied the potential effect of a selective TAK1 inhibitor, LYTAK1, on LPS-stimulated response both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression and production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LYTAK1's activity was almost nullified with TAK1 shRNA-knockdown. Meanwhile, in both primary mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production was again attenuated with LYTAK1 co-treatment. Molecularly, LYTAK1 dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TAK1-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk, Jnk and p38) activation in RAW 264.7 cells, mouse BMDMs and human PBMCs. In vivo, oral administration of LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced activation of TAK1-NFκB-p38 in ex-vivo cultured PBMCs, and cytokine production and endotoxin shock in mice. Together, these results demonstrate that LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin shock probably through blocking TAK1-regulated signalings. - Highlights: • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in RAW 264.7 cells. • The effect by LYTAK1 is more potent than other known TAK1 inhibitors. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in primary macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced TAK1-NFκB and MAPK activation in macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 gavage inhibits LPS-induced endotoxin shock and cytokine production in mice.

  1. Aged blood factors decrease cellular responses associated with delayed gingival wound repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Saldías

    Full Text Available Aging is a gradual biological process characterized by a decrease in cell and organism functions. Gingival wound healing is one of the impaired processes found in old rats. Here, we studied the in vivo wound healing process using a gingival repair rat model and an in vitro model using human gingival fibroblast for cellular responses associated to wound healing. To do that, we evaluated cell proliferation of both epithelial and connective tissue cells in gingival wounds and found decreased of Ki67 nuclear staining in old rats when compared to their young counterparts. We next evaluated cellular responses of primary gingival fibroblast obtained from young subjects in the presence human blood serum of individuals of different ages. Eighteen to sixty five years old masculine donors were classified into 3 groups: "young" from 18 to 22 years old, "middle-aged" from 30 to 48 years old and "aged" over 50 years old. Cell proliferation, measured through immunofluorescence for Ki67 and flow cytometry for DNA content, was decreased when middle-aged and aged serum was added to gingival fibroblast compared to young serum. Myofibroblastic differentiation, measured through alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, was stimulated with young but not middle-aged or aged serum both the protein levels and incorporation of α-SMA into actin stress fibers. High levels of PDGF, VEGF, IL-6R were detected in blood serum from young subjects when compared to middle-aged and aged donors. In addition, the pro-inflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and TNF were increased in the serum of aged donors. In old rat wound there is an increased of staining for TNF compared to young wound. Moreover, healthy gingiva (non injury shows less staining compared to a wound site, suggesting a role in wound healing. Moreover, serum from middle-aged and aged donors was able to stimulate cellular senescence in young cells as determined by the expression of senescence associated beta-galactosidase and histone H2

  2. Cellular Oxygen Sensing: Crystal Structure of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough,M.; Li, V.; Flashman, E.; Chowdhury, R.; Mohr, C.; Lienard, B.; Zondlo, J.; Oldham, N.; Clifton, I.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-{alpha} subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 Angstroms resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded {beta}-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1-3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease.

  3. ACE polymorphism does not determine short-term renal response to ACE-inhibition in proteinuric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderKleij, FGH; Navis, GJ; Gansevoort, RT; Scheffer, H; deZeeuw, D; deJong, PE

    1997-01-01

    Background. The renal response to ACE inhibition is known to vary between individuals. The ACE genotype is a determinant of the ACE concentrations in plasma and tissue, and therefore might affect the renal response to ACE inhibition in renal patients. Methods. To test this hypothesis we studied the

  4. Development of response inhibition in the context of relevant versus irrelevant emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot A Schel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the influence of relevant and irrelevant emotions on response inhibition from childhood to early adulthood. Ninety-four participants between 6 and 25 years of age performed two go/nogo tasks with emotional faces (neutral, happy, and fearful as stimuli. In one go/nogo task emotion formed a relevant dimension of the task and in the other go/nogo task emotion was irrelevant and participants had to respond to the color of the faces instead. A special feature of the latter task, in which emotion was irrelevant, was the inclusion of free choice trials, in which participants could freely decide between acting and inhibiting. Results showed a linear increase in response inhibition performance with increasing age both in relevant and irrelevant affective contexts. Relevant emotions had a pronounced influence on performance across age, whereas irrelevant emotions did not. Overall, participants made more false alarms on trials with fearful faces than happy faces, and happy faces were associated with better performance on go trials (higher percentage correct and faster RTs than fearful faces. The latter effect was stronger for young children in terms of accuracy. Finally, during the free choice trials participants did not base their decisions on affective context, confirming that irrelevant emotions do not have a strong impact on inhibition. Together, these findings suggest that across development relevant affective context has a larger influence on response inhibition than irrelevant affective context. When emotions are relevant, a context of positive emotions is associated with better performance compared to a context with negative emotions, especially in young children.

  5. Studies on the cellular immune response in patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma compawed with those in patients with bladder carcinoma and it's postoperative change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Shunsuke

    1980-01-01

    Non-specific cellular immunity of patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma was studied by PPD reaction (in vivo or in vitro), lymphocytes subpopulation and macrophage migration inhibition test and the results were compared with those of patients with bladder carcinoma or benign urological diseases. 1) The preoperative cellular immunity of the malignant tumor group gave low values as compared to that in the benign disease group. Although the cellular immunity of patients with renal cell carcinoma showed no difference in the points of their grade and stage, significant differences were noted in patients with bladder carcinoma. The patients with renal pelvic and ureter carcinoma appeared to be similar to the patients with bladder carcinoma in the aspects of immune reactions. 2) In the majority of patients with upper urinary tract and bladder carcinoma, the cellular immunity after complete removal of the carcinoma gave an increased value of each marker as compared to the preoperative value. 3) The cellular immunity after irradiation decreased in the majority of the cases in terms of PPD reaction and T-cell ratio in lymphocyte subpopulation. Irradiation of 4000 - 6000 Rad. showed greater influence on T-cell than on B-cell, but influence of irradiation on cellular immunity was not different by irradiation dose. 4) The cellular immunity indicated decreased values for one to two months after discontinuation of irradiation, but then it showed a tendency to increase in terms of PPD and lymphocytes subpopulation in the patients with satisfactory postoperative courses. 5) Through the pre and postoperative courses, the immunity of the carcinomatous stage seems to be reflected better by the T-cell ratio than by the absolute number of T-cell. It is likely that macrophage migration inhibition test shows much sharper reaction than PPD reaction. (author)

  6. Striatal D1- and D2-type dopamine receptors are linked to motor response inhibition in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Chelsea L; Ishibashi, Kenji; Mandelkern, Mark A; Brown, Amira K; Ghahremani, Dara G; Sabb, Fred; Bilder, Robert; Cannon, Tyrone; Borg, Jacqueline; London, Edythe D

    2015-04-15

    Motor response inhibition is mediated by neural circuits involving dopaminergic transmission; however, the relative contributions of dopaminergic signaling via D1- and D2-type receptors are unclear. Although evidence supports dissociable contributions of D1- and D2-type receptors to response inhibition in rats and associations of D2-type receptors to response inhibition in humans, the relationship between D1-type receptors and response inhibition has not been evaluated in humans. Here, we tested whether individual differences in striatal D1- and D2-type receptors are related to response inhibition in human subjects, possibly in opposing ways. Thirty-one volunteers participated. Response inhibition was indexed by stop-signal reaction time on the stop-signal task and commission errors on the continuous performance task, and tested for association with striatal D1- and D2-type receptor availability [binding potential referred to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND)], measured using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]NNC-112 and [(18)F]fallypride, respectively. Stop-signal reaction time was negatively correlated with D1- and D2-type BPND in whole striatum, with significant relationships involving the dorsal striatum, but not the ventral striatum, and no significant correlations involving the continuous performance task. The results indicate that dopamine D1- and D2-type receptors are associated with response inhibition, and identify the dorsal striatum as an important locus of dopaminergic control in stopping. Moreover, the similar contribution of both receptor subtypes suggests the importance of a relative balance between phasic and tonic dopaminergic activity subserved by D1- and D2-type receptors, respectively, in support of response inhibition. The results also suggest that the stop-signal task and the continuous performance task use different neurochemical mechanisms subserving motor response inhibition. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355990-08$15.00/0.

  7. 4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits hyaluronan synthesis by depletion of cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and downregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultti, Anne; Pasonen-Seppaenen, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Marjo; Rilla, Kirsi J.; Kaernae, Riikka; Pyoeriae, Emma; Tammi, Raija H.; Tammi, Markku I.

    2009-01-01

    Hyaluronan accumulation on cancer cells and their surrounding stroma predicts an unfavourable disease outcome, suggesting that hyaluronan enhances tumor growth and spreading. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) inhibits hyaluronan synthesis and retards cancer spreading in experimental animals through mechanisms not fully understood. These mechanisms were studied in A2058 melanoma cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 breast, SKOV-3 ovarian and UT-SCC118 squamous carcinoma cells by analysing hyaluronan synthesis, UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) content, and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) mRNA levels. The maximal inhibition in hyaluronan synthesis ranged 22-80% in the cell lines tested. Active glucuronidation of 4-MU produced large quantities of 4-MU-glucuronide, depleting the cellular UDP-GlcUA pool. The maximal reduction varied between 38 and 95%. 4-MU also downregulated HAS mRNA levels: HAS3 was 84-60% lower in MDA-MB-361, A2058 and SKOV-3 cells. HAS2 was the major isoenzyme in MCF-7 cells and lowered by 81%, similar to 88% in A2058 cells. These data indicate that both HAS substrate and HAS2 and/or HAS3 mRNA are targeted by 4-MU. Despite different target point sensitivities, the reduction of hyaluronan caused by 4-MU was associated with a significant inhibition of cell migration, proliferation and invasion, supporting the importance of hyaluronan synthesis in cancer, and the therapeutic potential of hyaluronan synthesis inhibition.

  8. 4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits hyaluronan synthesis by depletion of cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and downregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kultti, Anne, E-mail: anne.kultti@uku.fi [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Kuopio, P.O.B. 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Pasonen-Seppaenen, Sanna [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Kuopio, P.O.B. 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Jauhiainen, Marjo [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Rilla, Kirsi J.; Kaernae, Riikka; Pyoeriae, Emma; Tammi, Raija H.; Tammi, Markku I. [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Kuopio, P.O.B. 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    Hyaluronan accumulation on cancer cells and their surrounding stroma predicts an unfavourable disease outcome, suggesting that hyaluronan enhances tumor growth and spreading. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) inhibits hyaluronan synthesis and retards cancer spreading in experimental animals through mechanisms not fully understood. These mechanisms were studied in A2058 melanoma cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 breast, SKOV-3 ovarian and UT-SCC118 squamous carcinoma cells by analysing hyaluronan synthesis, UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) content, and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) mRNA levels. The maximal inhibition in hyaluronan synthesis ranged 22-80% in the cell lines tested. Active glucuronidation of 4-MU produced large quantities of 4-MU-glucuronide, depleting the cellular UDP-GlcUA pool. The maximal reduction varied between 38 and 95%. 4-MU also downregulated HAS mRNA levels: HAS3 was 84-60% lower in MDA-MB-361, A2058 and SKOV-3 cells. HAS2 was the major isoenzyme in MCF-7 cells and lowered by 81%, similar to 88% in A2058 cells. These data indicate that both HAS substrate and HAS2 and/or HAS3 mRNA are targeted by 4-MU. Despite different target point sensitivities, the reduction of hyaluronan caused by 4-MU was associated with a significant inhibition of cell migration, proliferation and invasion, supporting the importance of hyaluronan synthesis in cancer, and the therapeutic potential of hyaluronan synthesis inhibition.

  9. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK-PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Ae [Department of Pharmacology, Aging-Associated Vascular Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyoung Chul, E-mail: hcchoi@med.yu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Aging-Associated Vascular Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-{alpha}-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK-PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 {mu}M) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-{kappa}B activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting AMPK

  10. Within-Subject Correlation Analysis to Detect Functional Areas Associated With Response Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Yamasaki

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional areas in fMRI studies are often detected by brain-behavior correlation, calculating across-subject correlation between the behavioral index and the brain activity related to a function of interest. Within-subject correlation analysis is also employed in a single subject level, which utilizes cognitive fluctuations in a shorter time period by correlating the behavioral index with the brain activity across trials. In the present study, the within-subject analysis was applied to the stop-signal task, a standard task to probe response inhibition, where efficiency of response inhibition can be evaluated by the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT. Since the SSRT is estimated, by definition, not in a trial basis but from pooled trials, the correlation across runs was calculated between the SSRT and the brain activity related to response inhibition. The within-subject correlation revealed negative correlations in the anterior cingulate cortex and the cerebellum. Moreover, the dissociation pattern was observed in the within-subject analysis when earlier vs. later parts of the runs were analyzed: negative correlation was dominant in earlier runs, whereas positive correlation was dominant in later runs. Regions of interest analyses revealed that the negative correlation in the anterior cingulate cortex, but not in the cerebellum, was dominant in earlier runs, suggesting multiple mechanisms associated with inhibitory processes that fluctuate on a run-by-run basis. These results indicate that the within-subject analysis compliments the across-subject analysis by highlighting different aspects of cognitive/affective processes related to response inhibition.

  11. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, T.

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive response to radiation stress was found as a suppressed induction of chromosomal damage including micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells pre-exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiations. The mechanism underlying this novel chromosomal response, called 'radio-adaptive response (RAR)' has been studied progressively. The following results were obtained in recent experiments. 1. Low doses of β-rays from tritiated water (HTO) as well as tritium-thymidine can cause RAR. 2. Thermal neutrons, a high LET radiation, can not act as tritium β-rays or γ-rays. 3. The RAR expression is suppressed not only by the treatment with an inhibitor of protein synthesis but also by RNA synthesis inhibition. 4. Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the RAR expression after the adapting doses, viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. These results suggests that the RAR might be a cellular stress response to a signal produced preferentially by very low doses of low LET radiation under restricted conditions, accompany the inducible specific gene expression. (author)

  12. Sensory and cross-network contributions to response inhibition in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hoptman

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia show response inhibition deficits equal to or greater than those seen in impulse-control disorders, and these deficits contribute to poor outcome. However, little is known about the circuit abnormalities underlying this impairment. To address this, we examined stop signal task performance in 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls using event related potential (ERP and resting state functional connectivity. Patients showed prolonged stop signal reaction time (SSRT and reduced N1, N2, and P3 amplitudes compared to controls. Across groups, P3 amplitudes were maximal after SSRT (i.e., after the time associated with the decision to stop occurred, suggesting that this component indexed response monitoring. Multiple regression analyses showed that longer SSRTs were independently related to 1 patient status, 2 reduced N1 amplitude on successful stop trials and 3 reduced anticorrelated resting state functional connectivity between visual and frontoparietal cortical networks. This study used a combined multimodal imaging approach to better understand the network abnormalities that underlie response inhibition in schizophrenia. It is the first of its kind to specifically assess the brain's resting state functional architecture in combination with behavioral and ERP methods to investigate response inhibition in schizophrenia. Keywords: EEG, Stop signal task, Impulsivity, Schizophrenia, Resting state functional connectivity

  13. Heritability of brain activity related to response inhibition: a longitudinal genetic study in adolescent twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon; Grant, Julia D.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to inhibit prepotent but context- or goal-inappropriate responses is essential for adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Deficits in response inhibition, a key component of impulsivity, have been implicated as a core dysfunction in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD and addictions. Identification of genetically transmitted variation in the neural underpinnings of response inhibition can help to elucidate etiological pathways to these disorders and establish the links between genes, brain, and behavior. However, little is known about genetic influences on the neural mechanisms of response inhibition during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by weak self-regulation of behavior. Here we investigated heritability of ERPs elicited in a Go/No-Go task in a large sample of adolescent twins assessed longitudinally at ages 12, 14, and 16. Genetic analyses showed significant heritability of inhibition-related frontal N2 and P3 components at all three ages, with 50 to 60% of inter-individual variability being attributable to genetic factors. These genetic influences included both common genetic factors active at different ages and novel genetic influences emerging during development. Finally, individual differences in the rate of developmental changes from age 12 to age 16 were significantly influenced by genetic factors. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for genetic influences on neural correlates of response inhibition during adolescence and suggests that ERPs elicited in the Go/No-Go task can serve as intermediate neurophysiological phenotypes (endophenotypes) for the study of disinhibition and impulse control disorders. PMID:28300615

  14. Differential modulation of the N2 and P3 event-related potentials by response conflict and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J; Cragg, Lucy

    2015-07-01

    Developing reliable and specific neural markers of cognitive processes is essential to improve understanding of healthy and atypical brain function. Despite extensive research there remains uncertainty as to whether two electrophysiological markers of cognitive control, the N2 and P3, are better conceptualised as markers of response inhibition or response conflict. The present study aimed to directly compare the effects of response inhibition and response conflict on the N2 and P3 event-related potentials, within-subjects. A novel hybrid go/no-go flanker task was performed by 19 healthy adults aged 18-25 years while EEG data were collected. The response congruence of a central target stimulus and 4 flanking stimuli was manipulated between trials to vary the degree of response conflict. Response inhibition was required on a proportion of trials. N2 amplitude was measured at two frontal electrode sites; P3 amplitude was measured at 4 midline electrode sites. N2 amplitude was greater on incongruent than congruent trials but was not enhanced by response inhibition when the stimulus array was congruent. P3 amplitude was greater on trials requiring response inhibition; this effect was more pronounced at frontal electrodes. P3 amplitude was also enhanced on incongruent compared with congruent trials. The findings support a role for N2 amplitude as a marker of response conflict and for the frontal shift of the P3 as a marker of response inhibition. This paradigm could be applied to clinical groups to help clarify the precise nature of impaired action control in disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellular plasticity enables adaptation to unforeseen cell-cycle rewiring challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Katzir

    Full Text Available The fundamental dynamics of the cell cycle, underlying cell growth and reproduction, were previously found to be robust under a wide range of environmental and internal perturbations. This property was commonly attributed to its network structure, which enables the coordinated interactions among hundreds of proteins. Despite significant advances in deciphering the components and autonomous interactions of this network, understanding the interfaces of the cell cycle with other major cellular processes is still lacking. To gain insight into these interfaces, we used the process of genome-rewiring in yeast by placing an essential metabolic gene HIS3 from the histidine biosynthesis pathway, under the exclusive regulation of different cell-cycle promoters. In a medium lacking histidine and under partial inhibition of the HIS3p, the rewired cells encountered an unforeseen multitasking challenge; the cell-cycle regulatory genes were required to regulate the essential histidine-pathway gene in concert with the other metabolic demands, while simultaneously driving the cell cycle through its proper temporal phases. We show here that chemostat cell populations with rewired cell-cycle promoters adapted within a short time to accommodate the inhibition of HIS3p and stabilized a new phenotypic state. Furthermore, a significant fraction of the population was able to adapt and grow into mature colonies on plates under such inhibiting conditions. The adapted state was shown to be stably inherited across generations. These adaptation dynamics were accompanied by a non-specific and irreproducible genome-wide transcriptional response. Adaptation of the cell-cycle attests to its multitasking capabilities and flexible interface with cellular metabolic processes and requirements. Similar adaptation features were found in our previous work when rewiring HIS3 to the GAL system and switching cells from galactose to glucose. Thus, at the basis of cellular plasticity is

  16. Ebola virus modulates transforming growth factor β signaling and cellular markers of mesenchyme-like transition in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrachuk, Jason; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Safronetz, David; Trost, Brett; Hoenen, Thomas; Arsenault, Ryan; Feldmann, Friederike; Traynor, Dawn; Postnikova, Elena; Kusalik, Anthony; Napper, Scott; Blaney, Joseph E; Feldmann, Heinz; Jahrling, Peter B

    2014-09-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans and nonhuman primates, with a median case fatality rate of 78.4%. Although EBOV is considered a public health concern, there is a relative paucity of information regarding the modulation of the functional host response during infection. We employed temporal kinome analysis to investigate the relative early, intermediate, and late host kinome responses to EBOV infection in human hepatocytes. Pathway overrepresentation analysis and functional network analysis of kinome data revealed that transforming growth factor (TGF-β)-mediated signaling responses were temporally modulated in response to EBOV infection. Upregulation of TGF-β signaling in the kinome data sets correlated with the upregulation of TGF-β secretion from EBOV-infected cells. Kinase inhibitors targeting TGF-β signaling, or additional cell receptors and downstream signaling pathway intermediates identified from our kinome analysis, also inhibited EBOV replication. Further, the inhibition of select cell signaling intermediates identified from our kinome analysis provided partial protection in a lethal model of EBOV infection. To gain perspective on the cellular consequence of TGF-β signaling modulation during EBOV infection, we assessed cellular markers associated with upregulation of TGF-β signaling. We observed upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9, N-cadherin, and fibronectin expression with concomitant reductions in the expression of E-cadherin and claudin-1, responses that are standard characteristics of an epithelium-to-mesenchyme-like transition. Additionally, we identified phosphorylation events downstream of TGF-β that may contribute to this process. From these observations, we propose a model for a broader role of TGF-β-mediated signaling responses in the pathogenesis of Ebola virus disease. Ebola virus (EBOV), formerly Zaire ebolavirus, causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans and nonhuman primates and is the most

  17. Network analysis of oyster transcriptome revealed a cascade of cellular responses during recovery after heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    Full Text Available Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.

  18. Measuring Cellular Immunity to Influenza: Methods of Detection, Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Coughlan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a respiratory pathogen which causes both seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics; infection continues to be a significant cause of mortality worldwide. Current influenza vaccines principally stimulate humoral immune responses that are largely directed towards the variant surface antigens of influenza. Vaccination can result in an effective, albeit strain-specific antibody response and there is a need for vaccines that can provide superior, long-lasting immunity to influenza. Vaccination approaches targeting conserved viral antigens have the potential to provide broadly cross-reactive, heterosubtypic immunity to diverse influenza viruses. However, the field lacks consensus on the correlates of protection for cellular immunity in reducing severe influenza infection, transmission or disease outcome. Furthermore, unlike serological methods such as the standardized haemagglutination inhibition assay, there remains a large degree of variation in both the types of assays and method of reporting cellular outputs. T-cell directed immunity has long been known to play a role in ameliorating the severity and/or duration of influenza infection, but the precise phenotype, magnitude and longevity of the requisite protective response is unclear. In order to progress the development of universal influenza vaccines, it is critical to standardize assays across sites to facilitate direct comparisons between clinical trials.

  19. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eToth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as C. parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response towards this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi’s virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses.In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host pathogen interactions.

  20. Exposure to low infective doses of HCV induces cellular immune responses without consistently detectable viremia or seroconversion in chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Tricoche, Nancy; Perkus, Marion; Tom, Darley; Brotman, Betsy; McCormack, Patricia; Pfahler, Wolfram; Lee, Dong-Hun; Tobler, Leslie H.; Busch, Michael; Prince, Alfred M.

    2003-01-01

    In hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, there is accumulating data suggesting the presence of cellular immune responses to HCV in exposed but seemingly uninfected populations. Some studies have suggested cross-reactive antigens rather than prior HCV exposure as the main reason for the immune responses. In this study we address this question by analyzing the immune response of chimpanzees that have been sequentially exposed to increasing doses of HCV virions. The level of viremia, as well as the immune responses to HCV at different times after virus inoculation, were examined. Our data indicate that HCV infective doses as low as 1-10 RNA (+) virions induce detectable cellular immune responses in chimpanzees without consistently detectable viremia or persistent seroconversion. However, increasing the infective doses of HCV to 100 RNA (+) virions overcame the low-inoculum-induced immune response and produced high-level viremia followed by seroconversion

  1. Cellular Responses to Cisplatin-Induced DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakananda Basu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is one of the most effective anticancer agents widely used in the treatment of solid tumors. It is generally considered as a cytotoxic drug which kills cancer cells by damaging DNA and inhibiting DNA synthesis. How cells respond to cisplatin-induced DNA damage plays a critical role in deciding cisplatin sensitivity. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage activates various signaling pathways to prevent or promote cell death. This paper summarizes our current understandings regarding the mechanisms by which cisplatin induces cell death and the bases of cisplatin resistance. We have discussed various steps, including the entry of cisplatin inside cells, DNA repair, drug detoxification, DNA damage response, and regulation of cisplatin-induced apoptosis by protein kinases. An understanding of how various signaling pathways regulate cisplatin-induced cell death should aid in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer.

  2. Resveratrol induces cellular senescence with attenuated mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B in glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Michael S.; Barnett, Tamara L.; Xu, C. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Resveratrol induces cellular senescence in glioma cell. → Resveratrol inhibits mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120. → Depletion of RNF20, phenocopies the inhibitory effects of resveratrol. → Mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 is a novel target of resveratrol. → RNF20 inhibits cellular senescence in proliferating glioma cells. -- Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol naturally occurring in grapes and other plants, has cancer chemo-preventive effects and therapeutic potential. Although resveratrol modulates multiple pathways in tumor cells, how resveratrol or its affected pathways converge on chromatin to mediate its effects is not known. Using glioma cells as a model, we showed here that resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular hypertrophy by transforming spindle-shaped cells to enlarged, irregular and flatten-shaped ones. We further showed that resveratrol-induced hypertrophic cells expressed senescence-associated-β-galactosidase, suggesting that resveratrol-induced cellular senescence in glioma cells. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited clonogenic efficiencies in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we found that acute treatment of resveratrol inhibited mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 (uH2B) in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, brain tumor cells as well as primary human cells. Chronic treatment with low doses of resveratrol also inhibited uH2B in the resveratrol-induced senescent glioma cells. Moreover, we showed that depletion of RNF20, a ubiquitin ligase of histone H2B, inhibited uH2B and induced cellular senescence in glioma cells in vitro, thereby recapitulated the effects of resveratrol. Taken together, our results suggest that uH2B is a novel direct or indirect chromatin target of resveratrol and RNF20 plays an important role in inhibiting cellular senescence programs that are

  3. Resveratrol induces cellular senescence with attenuated mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B in glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Michael S.; Barnett, Tamara L. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Xu, C. Wilson, E-mail: wxu@nvcancer.org [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Resveratrol induces cellular senescence in glioma cell. {yields} Resveratrol inhibits mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120. {yields} Depletion of RNF20, phenocopies the inhibitory effects of resveratrol. {yields} Mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 is a novel target of resveratrol. {yields} RNF20 inhibits cellular senescence in proliferating glioma cells. -- Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol naturally occurring in grapes and other plants, has cancer chemo-preventive effects and therapeutic potential. Although resveratrol modulates multiple pathways in tumor cells, how resveratrol or its affected pathways converge on chromatin to mediate its effects is not known. Using glioma cells as a model, we showed here that resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular hypertrophy by transforming spindle-shaped cells to enlarged, irregular and flatten-shaped ones. We further showed that resveratrol-induced hypertrophic cells expressed senescence-associated-{beta}-galactosidase, suggesting that resveratrol-induced cellular senescence in glioma cells. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited clonogenic efficiencies in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we found that acute treatment of resveratrol inhibited mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 (uH2B) in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, brain tumor cells as well as primary human cells. Chronic treatment with low doses of resveratrol also inhibited uH2B in the resveratrol-induced senescent glioma cells. Moreover, we showed that depletion of RNF20, a ubiquitin ligase of histone H2B, inhibited uH2B and induced cellular senescence in glioma cells in vitro, thereby recapitulated the effects of resveratrol. Taken together, our results suggest that uH2B is a novel direct or indirect chromatin target of resveratrol and RNF20 plays an important role in inhibiting cellular

  4. Zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits XMRV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlu Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP is a host factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses, including Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV, HIV-1, and certain alphaviruses and filoviruses. ZAP binds to specific viral mRNAs and recruits cellular mRNA degradation machinery to degrade the target RNA. The common features of ZAP-responsive RNA sequences remain elusive and thus whether a virus is susceptible to ZAP can only be determined experimentally. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a recently identified γ-retrovirus that was originally thought to be involved in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome but recently proved to be a laboratory artefact. Nonetheless, XMRV as a new retrovirus has been extensively studied. Since XMRV and MoMLV share only 67.9% sequence identity in the 3'UTRs, which is the target sequence of ZAP in MoMLV, whether XMRV is susceptible to ZAP remains to be determined. FINDINGS: We constructed an XMRV-luc vector, in which the coding sequences of Gag-Pol and part of Env were replaced with luciferase-coding sequence. Overexpression of ZAP potently inhibited the expression of XMRV-luc in a ZAP expression-level-dependent manner, while downregulation of endogenous ZAP rendered cells more sensitive to infection. Furthermore, ZAP inhibited the spreading of replication-competent XMRV. Consistent with the previously reported mechanisms by which ZAP inhibits viral infection, ZAP significantly inhibited the accumulation of XMRV-luc mRNA in the cytoplasm. The ZAP-responsive element in XMRV mRNA was mapped to the 3'UTR. CONCLUSIONS: ZAP inhibits XMRV replication by preventing the accumulation of viral mRNA in the cytoplasm. Documentation of ZAP inhibiting XMRV helps to broaden the spectrum of ZAP's antiviral activity. Comparison of the target sequences of ZAP in XMRV and MoMLV helps to better understand the features of ZAP-responsive elements.

  5. Opioid inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels and spinal analgesia couple to alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Arturo; Denome, Sylvia; Jiang, Yu-Qiu; Marangoudakis, Spiro; Lipscombe, Diane

    2010-10-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing occurs extensively in the nervous systems of complex organisms, including humans, considerably expanding the potential size of the proteome. Cell-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing is thought to optimize protein function for specialized cellular tasks, but direct evidence for this is limited. Transmission of noxious thermal stimuli relies on the activity of N-type Ca(V)2.2 calcium channels in nociceptors. Using an exon-replacement strategy in mice, we show that mutually exclusive splicing patterns in the Ca(V)2.2 gene modulate N-type channel function in nociceptors, leading to a change in morphine analgesia. Exon 37a (e37a) enhances μ-opioid receptor-mediated inhibition of N-type calcium channels by promoting activity-independent inhibition. In the absence of e37a, spinal morphine analgesia is weakened in vivo but the basal response to noxious thermal stimuli is not altered. Our data suggest that highly specialized, discrete cellular responsiveness in vivo can be attributed to alternative splicing events regulated at the level of individual neurons.

  6. Differential Recruitment of Brain Regions During Response Inhibition in Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Vikas N; Jacobson, Joseph L; Lindinger, Nadine M; Dodge, Neil C; Molteno, Christopher D; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2017-02-01

    Response inhibition is a distinct aspect of executive function that is frequently impaired in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We used a Go/NoGo (GNG) task in a functional MRI protocol to investigate differential activation of brain regions in the response inhibition network in children diagnosed with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), compared with healthy controls. A rapid, event-related task with 120 Go and 60 NoGo trials was used to study children aged 8 to 12 years-8 with FAS/PFAS, 17 controls. Letters were projected sequentially, with Go and NoGo trials randomly interspersed across the task. BOLD signal in the whole brain was contrasted for the correct NoGo minus correct Go trials between the FAS/PFAS and control groups. Compared to the FAS/PFAS group, controls showed greater activation of the inferior frontal and anterior cingulate network linked to response inhibition in typically developing children. By contrast, the FAS/PFAS group showed greater BOLD response in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and other middle prefrontal regions, suggesting compensation for inefficient function of pathways that normally mediate inhibitory processing. All group differences were significant after control for potential confounding variables. None of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on activation of the regions associated with response inhibition were attributable to the effects of this exposure on IQ. This is the first FASD GNG study in which all participants in the exposed group met criteria for a diagnosis of full FAS or PFAS. Although FASD is frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the pattern of brain activation seen in these disorders differs, suggesting that different neural pathways mediate response inhibition in FASD and that different interventions for FASD are, therefore, warranted. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Le Thi Minh; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2017-06-19

    The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs) indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF-EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications.

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Minh Phuc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF–EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications.

  9. Response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Abass; Bakhshian, Fereshteh; Narimani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals. This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder.

  10. Immune responses to an encapsulated allogeneic islet β-cell line in diabetic NOD mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Sasha P.; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Cui, Hong; Tucker-Burden, Carol; Weber, Collin J.; Safley, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    Our goal is to develop effective islet grafts for treating type 1 diabetes. Since human islets are scarce, we evaluated the efficacy of a microencapsulated insulin-secreting conditionally transformed allogeneic β-cell line (βTC-tet) in non-obese diabetic mice treated with tetracycline to inhibit cell growth. Relatively low serum levels of tetracycline controlled proliferation of βTC-tet cells without inhibiting effective control of hyperglycemia in recipients. There was no significant host cellular reaction to the allografts or host cell adherence to microcapsules, and host cytokine levels were similar to those of sham-operated controls. We conclude that encapsulated allogeneic β-cell lines may be clinically relevant, because they effectively restore euglycemia and do not elicit a strong cellular immune response following transplantation. To our knowledge, this is First extensive characterization of the kinetics of host cellular and cytokine responses to an encapsulated islet cell line in an animal model of type 1 diabetes

  11. Influence of extra-cellular and intra-cellular acting thiol oxidants on the 45calcium uptake by the islets of Langerhans of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegele, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The glucose-stimulated calcium uptake by the islets of Langerhans is dependent on the intra-cellular GSH/GSSG ratios. The inhibition of calcium uptake is not the consequence of a direct oxidation of membrane-fixed thiol groups. In contrast, direct oxidation of extra cellular thiols leads to an increase in calcium uptake when intra-cellular oxidation is simultaneously prevented. Since this effect only occurs at high intra-cellular GSH/GSSG ratios it can be assumed that the redox state of extra-cellular thiols is dependent on the redox state of the intra-cellular GSH/GSSG ratios. These findings support the theory that the oxidation of extra-cellular thiols by thiol oxidants leads to an increase in calcium uptake and that the extent of uptake is higher, the more the redox state of the extra-cellular thiols tends towards the reduced state prior to oxidation. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlR is required to neutralize the cellular immune response in a Drosophila melanogaster oral infection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Stefanie; Haller, Samantha; Drenkard, Eliana; Lee, Janice; Yu, Shen; Kocks, Christine; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    An in-depth mechanistic understanding of microbial infection necessitates a molecular dissection of host–pathogen relationships. Both Drosophila melanogaster and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been intensively studied. Here, we analyze the infection of D. melanogaster by P. aeruginosa by using mutants in both host and pathogen. We show that orally ingested P. aeruginosa crosses the intestinal barrier and then proliferates in the hemolymph, thereby causing the infected flies to die of bacteremia. Host defenses against ingested P. aeruginosa included an immune deficiency (IMD) response in the intestinal epithelium, systemic Toll and IMD pathway responses, and a cellular immune response controlling bacteria in the hemocoel. Although the observed cellular and intestinal immune responses appeared to act throughout the course of the infection, there was a late onset of the systemic IMD and Toll responses. In this oral infection model, P. aeruginosa PA14 did not require its type III secretion system or other well-studied virulence factors such as the two-component response regulator GacA or the protease AprA for virulence. In contrast, the quorum-sensing transcription factor RhlR, but surprisingly not LasR, played a key role in counteracting the cellular immune response against PA14, possibly at an early stage when only a few bacteria are present in the hemocoel. These results illustrate the power of studying infection from the dual perspective of host and pathogen by revealing that RhlR plays a more complex role during pathogenesis than previously appreciated. PMID:21987808

  13. Meta-Analysis of High-Throughput Datasets Reveals Cellular Responses Following Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C. Bowick

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing use of high-throughput assays to investigate cellular responses to infection is providing a large repository of information. Due to the large number of differentially expressed transcripts, often running into the thousands, the majority of these data have not been thoroughly investigated. Advances in techniques for the downstream analysis of high-throughput datasets are providing additional methods for the generation of additional hypotheses for further investigation. The large number of experimental observations, combined with databases that correlate particular genes and proteins with canonical pathways, functions and diseases, allows for the bioinformatic exploration of functional networks that may be implicated in replication or pathogenesis. Herein, we provide an example of how analysis of published high-throughput datasets of cellular responses to hemorrhagic fever virus infection can generate additional functional data. We describe enrichment of genes involved in metabolism, post-translational modification and cardiac damage; potential roles for specific transcription factors and a conserved involvement of a pathway based around cyclooxygenase-2. We believe that these types of analyses can provide virologists with additional hypotheses for continued investigation.

  14. A Library of Phosphoproteomic and Chromatin Signatures for Characterizing Cellular Responses to Drug Perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litichevskiy, Lev; Peckner, Ryan; Abelin, Jennifer G; Asiedu, Jacob K; Creech, Amanda L; Davis, John F; Davison, Desiree; Dunning, Caitlin M; Egertson, Jarrett D; Egri, Shawn; Gould, Joshua; Ko, Tak; Johnson, Sarah A; Lahr, David L; Lam, Daniel; Liu, Zihan; Lyons, Nicholas J; Lu, Xiaodong; MacLean, Brendan X; Mungenast, Alison E; Officer, Adam; Natoli, Ted E; Papanastasiou, Malvina; Patel, Jinal; Sharma, Vagisha; Toder, Courtney; Tubelli, Andrew A; Young, Jennie Z; Carr, Steven A; Golub, Todd R; Subramanian, Aravind; MacCoss, Michael J; Tsai, Li-Huei; Jaffe, Jacob D

    2018-04-25

    Although the value of proteomics has been demonstrated, cost and scale are typically prohibitive, and gene expression profiling remains dominant for characterizing cellular responses to perturbations. However, high-throughput sentinel assays provide an opportunity for proteomics to contribute at a meaningful scale. We present a systematic library resource (90 drugs × 6 cell lines) of proteomic signatures that measure changes in the reduced-representation phosphoproteome (P100) and changes in epigenetic marks on histones (GCP). A majority of these drugs elicited reproducible signatures, but notable cell line- and assay-specific differences were observed. Using the "connectivity" framework, we compared signatures across cell types and integrated data across assays, including a transcriptional assay (L1000). Consistent connectivity among cell types revealed cellular responses that transcended lineage, and consistent connectivity among assays revealed unexpected associations between drugs. We further leveraged the resource against public data to formulate hypotheses for treatment of multiple myeloma and acute lymphocytic leukemia. This resource is publicly available at https://clue.io/proteomics. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellular mechanisms for presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie; delgado-lezama, rodolfo; Christensen, Rasmus Kordt

    It is well established that presynaptic inhibition of primary afferents involves the activation of GABAA receptors located on presynaptic terminals. However, the source of GABA remains unknown. In an integrated preparation of the spinal cord of the adult turtle, we evoked dorsal root potentials...

  16. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones.

  17. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biaryl amide compounds reduce the inflammatory response in macrophages by regulating Dectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Kyeong Eun; Lee, Mi Ji; Lee, Yun-Jung; Lee, Do Ik; Min, Hye Young; Park, So-Young; Min, Kyung Hoon; Hwang, Kwang Woo

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages are archetypal innate immune cells that play crucial roles in the recognition and phagocytosis of invading pathogens, which they identify using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Dectin-1 is essential for antifungal immune responses, recognizing the fungal cellular component β-glucan, and its role as a PRR has been of increasing interest. Previously, we discovered and characterized a novel biaryl amide compound, MPS 03, capable of inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis of zymosan. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify other biaryl amide compounds with greater effectiveness than MPS 03, and elucidate their cellular mechanisms. Several MPS 03 derivatives were screened, four of which reduced zymosan phagocytosis in a similar manner to MPS 03. To establish whether such phagocytosis inhibition influenced the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured. The production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and NO was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammation-associated MAPK signaling pathway was also affected by biaryl amide compounds. To investigate the underlying cellular mechanism, PRR expression was measured. MPS 03 and its derivatives were found to inhibit zymosan phagocytosis by decreasing Dectin-1 expression. Furthermore, when macrophages were stimulated by zymosan after pretreatment with biaryl amide compounds, downstream transcription factors such as NFAT, AP-1, and NF-κB were downregulated. In conclusion, biaryl amide compounds reduce zymosan-induced inflammatory responses by downregulating Dectin-1 expression. Therefore, such compounds could be used to inhibit Dectin-1 in immunological experiments and possibly regulate excessive inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Proteomic analysis of cellular response induced by boron neutron capture reaction in human squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Itoh, Tasuku; Imamichi, Shoji; Kikuhara, Sota; Fujimori, Hiroaki; Hirai, Takahisa; Saito, Soichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of cell death induced by boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR), we performed proteome analyses of human squamous tumor SAS cells after BNCR. Cells were irradiated with thermal neutron beam at KUR after incubation under boronophenylalanine (BPA)(+) and BPA(−) conditions. BNCR mainly induced typical apoptosis in SAS cells 24 h post-irradiation. Proteomic analysis in SAS cells suggested that proteins functioning in endoplasmic reticulum, DNA repair, and RNA processing showed dynamic changes at early phase after BNCR and could be involved in the regulation of cellular response to BNCR. We found that the BNCR induces fragments of endoplasmic reticulum-localized lymphoid-restricted protein (LRMP). The fragmentation of LRMP was also observed in the rat tumor graft model 20 hours after BNCT treatment carried out at the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. These data suggest that dynamic changes of LRMP could be involved during cellular response to BNCR. - Highlights: • BNCR in human squamous carcinoma cells caused typical apoptotic features. • BNCR induced fragments of LRMP, in human squamous carcinoma and rat tumor model. • The fragmentation of LRMP could be involved in cellular response to BNCR.

  20. ROS accumulation and IGF-IR inhibition contribute to fenofibrate/PPARα -mediated inhibition of Glioma cell motility in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Valle Luis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastomas are characterized by rapid cell growth, aggressive CNS infiltration, and are resistant to all known anticancer regimens. Recent studies indicate that fibrates and statins possess anticancer potential. Fenofibrate is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα that can switch energy metabolism from glycolysis to fatty acid β-oxidation, and has low systemic toxicity. Fenofibrate also attenuates IGF-I-mediated cellular responses, which could be relevant in the process of glioblastoma cell dispersal. Methods The effects of fenofibrate on Glioma cell motility, IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling, PPARα activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism, mitochondrial potential, and ATP production were analyzed in human glioma cell lines. Results Fenofibrate treatment attenuated IGF-I signaling responses and repressed cell motility of LN-229 and T98G Glioma cell lines. In the absence of fenofibrate, specific inhibition of the IGF-IR had only modest effects on Glioma cell motility. Further experiments revealed that PPARα-dependent accumulation of ROS is a strong contributing factor in Glioma cell lines responses to fenofibrate. The ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, restored cell motility, improved mitochondrial potential, and increased ATP levels in fenofibrate treated Glioma cell lines. Conclusions Our results indicate that although fenofibrate-mediated inhibition of the IGF-IR may not be sufficient in counteracting Glioma cell dispersal, PPARα-dependent metabolic switch and the resulting ROS accumulation strongly contribute to the inhibition of these devastating brain tumor cells.

  1. ATF3 represses PPARγ expression and inhibits adipocyte differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho, E-mail: jung0603@pusan.ac.kr

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • ATF3 decrease the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • ATF3 represses the promoter activity of PPARγ2 gene. • ATF/CRE (−1537/−1530) is critical for ATF3-mediated downregulation of PPARγ. • ATF3 binds to the promoter region containing the ATF/CRE. • ER stress inhibits adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ by ATF3. - Abstract: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-adaptive transcription factor that mediates cellular stress response signaling. We previously reported that ATF3 represses CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) expression and inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we explored potential role of ATF3 in negatively regulating peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). ATF3 decreased the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ATF3 also repressed the activity of −2.6 Kb promoter of mouse PPARγ2. Overexpression of PPARγ significantly prevented the ATF3-mediated inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation. Transfection studies with 5′ deleted-reporters showed that ATF3 repressed the activity of −2037 bp promoter, whereas it did not affect the activity of −1458 bp promoter, suggesting that ATF3 responsive element is located between the −2037 and −1458. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 binds to ATF/CRE site (5′-TGACGTTT-3′) between −1537 and −1530. Mutation of the ATF/CRE site abrogated ATF3-mediated transrepression of the PPARγ2 promoter. Treatment with thapsigargin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, increased ATF3 expression, whereas it decreased PPARγ expression. ATF3 knockdown significantly blocked the thapsigargin-mediated downregulation of PPARγ expression. Furthermore, overexpression of PPARγ prevented inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation by thapsigargin. Collectively, these results suggest that ATF3-mediated

  2. TNF-driven adaptive response mediates resistance to EGFR inhibition in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ke; Guo, Gao; Gerber, David E; Gao, Boning; Peyton, Michael; Huang, Chun; Minna, John D; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Kernstine, Kemp; Cai, Ling; Xie, Yang; Zhu, Hong; Fattah, Farjana J; Zhang, Shanrong; Takahashi, Masaya; Mukherjee, Bipasha; Burma, Sandeep; Dowell, Jonathan; Dao, Kathryn; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A; Olivas, Victor; Bivona, Trever G; Zhao, Dawen; Habib, Amyn A

    2018-06-01

    Although aberrant EGFR signaling is widespread in cancer, EGFR inhibition is effective only in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR activating mutations. A majority of NSCLCs express EGFR wild type (EGFRwt) and do not respond to EGFR inhibition. TNF is a major mediator of inflammation-induced cancer. We find that a rapid increase in TNF level is a universal adaptive response to EGFR inhibition in NSCLC, regardless of EGFR status. EGFR signaling actively suppresses TNF mRNA levels by inducing expression of miR-21, resulting in decreased TNF mRNA stability. Conversely, EGFR inhibition results in loss of miR-21 and increased TNF mRNA stability. In addition, TNF-induced NF-κB activation leads to increased TNF transcription in a feed-forward loop. Inhibition of TNF signaling renders EGFRwt-expressing NSCLC cell lines and an EGFRwt patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model highly sensitive to EGFR inhibition. In EGFR-mutant oncogene-addicted cells, blocking TNF enhances the effectiveness of EGFR inhibition. EGFR plus TNF inhibition is also effective in NSCLC with acquired resistance to EGFR inhibition. We suggest concomitant EGFR and TNF inhibition as a potentially new treatment approach that could be beneficial for a majority of lung cancer patients.

  3. Cellular transport of l-arginine determines renal medullary blood flow in control rats, but not in diabetic rats despite enhanced cellular uptake capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Patrik; Fasching, Angelica; Teerlink, Tom; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability thereby affecting renal blood flow regulation. Previous reports have demonstrated that cellular uptake of l-arginine is rate limiting for nitric oxide production and that plasma l-arginine concentration is decreased in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether regional renal blood flow regulation is affected by cellular l-arginine uptake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital, and the left kidney was exposed. Total, cortical, and medullary renal blood flow was investigated before and after renal artery infusion of increasing doses of either l-homoarginine to inhibit cellular uptake of l-arginine or N ω -nitro- l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase. l-Homoarginine infusion did not affect total or cortical blood flow in any of the groups, but caused a dose-dependent reduction in medullary blood flow. l-NAME decreased total, cortical and medullary blood flow in both groups. However, the reductions in medullary blood flow in response to both l-homoarginine and l-NAME were more pronounced in the control groups compared with the diabetic groups. Isolated cortical tubular cells displayed similar l-arginine uptake capacity whereas medullary tubular cells isolated from diabetic rats had increased l-arginine uptake capacity. Diabetics had reduced l-arginine concentrations in plasma and medullary tissue but increased l-arginine concentration in cortical tissue. In conclusion, the reduced l-arginine availability in plasma and medullary tissue in diabetes results in reduced nitric oxide-mediated regulation of renal medullary hemodynamics. Cortical blood flow regulation displays less dependency on extracellular l-arginine and the upregulated cortical tissue l-arginine may protect cortical hemodynamics in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Periostin Limits Tumor Response to VEGFA Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklikoglou, Ioanna; Kadioglu, Ece; Bissinger, Stefan; Langlois, Benoît; Bellotti, Axel; Orend, Gertraud; Ries, Carola H; De Palma, Michele

    2018-03-06

    Resistance to antiangiogenic drugs limits their applicability in cancer therapy. Here, we show that revascularization and progression of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) under extended vascular-endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) blockade are dependent on periostin (POSTN), a matricellular protein expressed by stromal cells. Genetic deletion of Postn in RIP1-Tag2 mice blunted tumor rebounds of M2-like macrophages and αSMA + stromal cells in response to prolonged VEGFA inhibition and suppressed PNET revascularization and progression on therapy. POSTN deficiency also impeded the upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), an adaptive mechanism previously implicated in PNET evasion from antiangiogenic therapy. Higher POSTN expression correlated with markers of M2-like macrophages in human PNETs, and depleting macrophages with a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) antibody inhibited PNET revascularization and progression under VEGFA blockade despite continued POSTN production. These findings suggest a role for POSTN in orchestrating resistance to anti-VEGFA therapy in PNETs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The neural markers of an imminent failure of response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bengson, Jesse J.; Mangun, George R.; Mazaheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In his novel Ulysses, James Joyce wrote that mistakes are the "...portals of discovery". The present study investigated the pre-stimulus oscillatory EEG signatures of selective attention and motor preparation that predicted failures of overt response inhibition. We employed a trial-by-trial spatial

  6. The cellular bases of antibody responses during dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Yam-Puc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause from an asymptomatic disease to mild undifferentiated fever, classical dengue, and severe dengue. Neutralizing memory antibody (Ab responses are one of the most important mechanisms that counteract reinfections and are therefore the main aim of vaccination. However, it has also been proposed that in dengue, some of these class-switched (IgG memory Abs might worsen the disease. Although these memory Abs derive from B cells by T-cell dependent processes, we know rather little about the (acute, chronic or memory B cell responses and the complex cellular mechanisms generating these Abs during DENV infections.This review aims to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective of the B cell responses during DENV infection, starting since the very early events like the cutaneous DENV entrance and the arrival into draining lymph nodes, to the putative B cell activation, proliferation and germinal centers (GCs formation (the source of affinity-matured class-switched memory Abs, till the outcome of GC reactions such as the generation of plasmablasts, Ab-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. We discuss topics very poorly explored such as the possibility of B cell infection by DENV or even activation-induced B cell death. The current information about the nature of the Ab responses to DENV is also illustrated.

  7. Posintro™-HBsAg, a modified ISCOM including HBsAg, induces strong cellular and humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiött, Asa; Larsson, Kristina; Manniche, Søren

    2011-01-01

    HBsAg vaccine formulation, Posintro™-HBsAg, was compared to two commercial hepatitis B vaccines including aluminium or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the two adjuvant systems MF59 and QS21 in their efficiency to prime both cellular and humoral immune responses. The Posintro™-HBsAg induced...

  8. Cellular uptake of folate-conjugated lipophilic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Kyoungja; Moon, Jihyung; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2009-01-01

    We prepared five folate-conjugated lipophilic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (F 5 -Liposuperparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles(SPIONs), 5.5 and 11 nm) and investigated their cellular uptake with KB cells, which is one of the representative folate-receptor over-expressing human epidermoid carcinoma cells, using MRI. The cellular uptake tests with the respective 5.5 and 11 nm F 5 -LipoSPIONs at a fixed particle concentration showed appreciable amount of receptor-mediated uptakes and the specificity was higher in 5.5 nm SPIONs, due to its higher folic acid (FA) density, without inhibition. However, the numbers of the particles taken up under FA inhibition were similar, irrespective of their sizes.

  9. Differential cellular responses by oncogenic levels of c-Myc expression in long-term confluent retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Cheng, Xiangdong; Samma, Muhammad Kaleem; Kung, Sam K P; Lee, Clement M; Chiu, Sung Kay

    2018-06-01

    c-Myc is a highly pleiotropic transcription factor known to control cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and cellular transformation. Normally, ectopic expression of c-Myc is associated with promoting cell proliferation or triggering cell death via activating p53. However, it is not clear how the levels of c-Myc lead to different cellular responses. Here, we generated a series of stable RPE cell clones expressing c-Myc at different levels, and found that consistent low level of c-Myc induced cellular senescence by activating AP4 in post-confluent RPE cells, while the cells underwent cell death at high level of c-Myc. In addition, high level of c-Myc could override the effect of AP4 on cellular senescence. Further knockdown of AP4 abrogated senescence-like phenotype in cells expressing low level of c-Myc, and accelerated cell death in cells with medium level of c-Myc, indicating that AP4 was required for cellular senescence induced by low level of c-Myc.

  10. Perturbations of amino acid metabolism associated with glyphosate-dependent inhibition of shikimic acid metabolism affect cellular redox homeostasis and alter the abundance of proteins involved in photosynthesis and photorespiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Driscoll, Simon P; Bulman, Christopher A; Ying, Liu; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Mauve, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H

    2011-09-01

    The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an integrated study of photosynthesis, leaf proteomes, amino acid profiles, and redox profiles in the glyphosate-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype PAN809 and glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS). RRS leaves accumulated much more glyphosate than the sensitive line but showed relatively few changes in amino acid metabolism. Photosynthesis was unaffected by glyphosate in RRS leaves, but decreased abundance of photosynthesis/photorespiratory pathway proteins was observed together with oxidation of major redox pools. While treatment of a sensitive genotype with glyphosate rapidly inhibited photosynthesis and triggered the appearance of a nitrogen-rich amino acid profile, there was no evidence of oxidation of the redox pools. There was, however, an increase in starvation-associated and defense proteins. We conclude that glyphosate-dependent inhibition of soybean leaf metabolism leads to the induction of defense proteins without sustained oxidation. Conversely, the accumulation of high levels of glyphosate in RRS enhances cellular oxidation, possibly through mechanisms involving stimulation of the photorespiratory pathway.

  11. Response Inhibition Is Associated with White Matter Microstructure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baare, William F. C.; Vestergaard, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold; Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Ramsoy, Thomas Z.; Gerlach, Christian; Akeson, Per; Paulson, Olaf B.; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive control of thoughts, actions and emotions is important for normal behaviour and the development of such control continues throughout childhood and adolescence. Several lines of evidence suggest that response inhibition is primarily mediated by a right-lateralized network involving inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), presupplementary motor…

  12. Evaluation of Different Parameters of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in HIV Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples: Humoral Response Potentially Implicated in Modulating Transmission Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Julia Ruiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the HIV/AIDS pandemic still progresses, understanding the mechanisms governing viral transmission as well as protection from HIV acquisition is fundamental. In this context, cohorts of HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples (SDC represent a unique tool. The present study was aimed to evaluate specific parameters of innate, cellular and humoral immune responses in SDC. Specifically, plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines, HIV-specific T-cell responses, gp120-specific IgG and IgA antibodies, and HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC activity were assessed in nine HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (ESN and their corresponding HIV seropositive partners (HIV+-P, in eighteen chronically infected HIV subjects (C, nine chronically infected subjects known to be HIV transmitters (CT and ten healthy HIV− donors (HD. Very low magnitude HIV-specific cellular responses were found in two out of six ESN. Interestingly, HIV+-P had the highest ADCC magnitude, the lowest IgA levels and the highest IgG/IgA ratio, all compared to CT. Positive correlations between CD4+ T-cell counts and both IgG/IgA ratios and %ADCC killing uniquely distinguished HIV+-P. Additionally, evidence of IgA interference with ADCC responses from HIV+-P and CT is provided. These data suggest for the first time a potential role of ADCC and/or gp120-specific IgG/IgA balance in modulating heterosexual transmission. In sum, this study provides key information to understand the host factors that influence viral transmission, which should be considered in both the development of prophylactic vaccines and novel immunotherapies for HIV-1 infection.

  13. Cellular Response to Bleomycin-Induced DNA Damage in Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Outside the protection of the geomagnetic field, astronauts and other living organisms are constantly exposed to space radiation that consists of energetic protons and other heavier charged particles. Whether spaceflight factors, microgravity in particular, have effects on cellular responses to DNA damage induced by exposure to radiation or cytotoxic chemicals is still unknown, as is their impact on the radiation risks for astronauts and on the mutation rate in microorganisms. Although possible synergistic effects of space radiation and other spaceflight factors have been investigated since the early days of the human space program, the published results were mostly conflicting and inconsistent. To investigate effects of spaceflight on cellular responses to DNA damages, human fibroblast cells flown to the International Space Station (ISS) were treated with bleomycin for three hours in the true microgravity environment, which induced DNA damages including double-strand breaks (DSB) similar to the ionizing radiation. Damages in the DNA were measured by the phosphorylation of a histone protein H2AX (g-H2AX), which showed slightly more foci in the cells on ISS than in the ground control. The expression of genes involved in DNA damage response was also analyzed using the PCR array. Although a number of the genes, including CDKN1A and PCNA, were significantly altered in the cells after bleomycin treatment, no significant difference in the expression profile of DNA damage response genes was found between the flight and ground samples. At the time of the bleomycin treatment, the cells on the ISS were found to be proliferating faster than the ground control as measured by the percentage of cells containing positive Ki-67 signals. Our results suggested that the difference in g-H2AX focus counts between flight and ground was due to the faster growth rate of the cells in space, but spaceflight did not affect initial transcriptional responses of the DNA damage response genes to

  14. Inhibition of Cellular Adhesion by Immunological Targeting of Osteopontin Neoepitopes Generated through Matrix Metalloproteinase and Thrombin Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürets, Alexander; Le Bras, Marie; Staffler, Günther; Stein, Gesine; Leitner, Lukas; Neuhofer, Angelika; Tardelli, Matteo; Turkof, Edvin; Zeyda, Maximilian; Stulnig, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a secreted protein involved in inflammatory processes and cancer, induces cell adhesion, migration, and activation of inflammatory pathways in various cell types. Cells bind OPN via integrins at a canonical RGD region in the full length form as well as to a contiguous cryptic site that some have shown is unmasked upon thrombin or matrix metalloproteinase cleavage. Thus, the adhesive capacity of osteopontin is enhanced by proteolytic cleavage that may occur in inflammatory conditions such as obesity, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, tumor growth and metastasis. Our aim was to inhibit cellular adhesion to recombinant truncated proteins that correspond to the N-terminal cleavage products of thrombin- or matrix metalloproteinase-cleaved OPN in vitro. We specifically targeted the cryptic integrin binding site with monoclonal antibodies and antisera induced by peptide immunization of mice. HEK 293 cells adhered markedly stronger to truncated OPN proteins than to full length OPN. Without affecting cell binding to the full length form, the raised monoclonal antibodies specifically impeded cellular adhesion to the OPN fragments. Moreover, we show that the peptides used for immunization were able to induce antisera, which impeded adhesion either to all OPN forms, including the full-length form, or selectively to the corresponding truncated recombinant proteins. In conclusion, we developed immunological tools to selectively target functional properties of protease-cleaved OPN forms, which could find applications in treatment and prevention of various inflammatory diseases and cancers.

  15. Response Inhibition and Cognitive Appraisal in Clients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Abolghasemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals .Method:This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results:Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms .Conclusion:The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder

  16. Ripk3 regulates cardiac microvascular reperfusion injury: The role of IP3R-dependent calcium overload, XO-mediated oxidative stress and F-action/filopodia-based cellular migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Pingjun; Hu, Shunying; Ren, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Ripk3-mediated cellular apoptosis is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the mechanisms by which Ripk3 influences microvascular homeostasis and endothelial apoptosis are not completely understood. In this study, loss of Ripk3 inhibited endothelial apoptosis, alleviated luminal swelling, maintained microvasculature patency, reduced the expression of adhesion molecules and limited the myocardial inflammatory response. In vitro, Ripk3 deficiency protected endothelial cells from apoptosis and migratory arrest induced by HR injury. Mechanistically, Ripk3 had the ability to migrate onto the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to ER damage, as evidenced by increased IP3R and XO expression. The higher IP3R content was associated with cellular calcium overload, and increased XO expression was involved in cellular oxidative injury. Furthermore, IP3R-mediated calcium overload and XO-dependent oxidative damage were able to initiate cellular apoptosis. More importantly, IP3R and XO also caused F-actin degradation into G-actin via post-transcriptional modification of cofilin, impairing the formation of the filopodia and limiting the migratory response of endothelial cells. Altogether, our data confirmed that Ripk3 was involved in microvascular IR injury via regulation of IP3R-mediated calcium overload, XO-dependent oxidative damage and filopodia-related cellular migration, ultimately leading to endothelial apoptosis and migratory inhibition. These findings provide a potential target for treating cardiac microcirculatory IR injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. EBER2 RNA-induced transcriptome changes identify cellular processes likely targeted during Epstein Barr Virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benecke Bernd-Joachim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the physiological role of the EBER1 and 2 nuclear RNAs during Epstein Barr viral infection. The EBERs are transcribed by cellular RNA Polymerase III and their strong expression results in 106 to 107 copies per EBV infected cell, making them reliable diagnostic markers for the presence of EBV. Although the functions of most of the proteins targeted by EBER RNAs have been studied, the role of EBERs themselves still remains elusive. Findings The cellular transcription response to EBER2 expression using the wild-type and an internal deletion mutant was determined. Significant changes in gene expression patterns were observed. A functional meta-analysis of the regulated genes points to inhibition of stress and immune responses, as well as activation of cellular growth and cytoskeletal reorganization as potential targets for EBER2 RNA. Different functions can be assigned to different parts of the RNA. Conclusion These results provide new avenues to the understanding of EBER2 and EBV biology, and set the grounds for a more in depth functional analysis of EBER2 using transcriptome activity measurements.

  18. Mitochondrial correlates of signaling processes involved with the cellular response to eimeria infection in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host cellular responses to coccidiosis infection are consistent with elements of apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. These processes are enhanced in the cell through cell-directed signaling or repressed through parasite-derived inhibitors of these processes favoring the survival of the parasite. Acr...

  19. Unraveling the cellular response to oxidative stress in the endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Gram

    , disulfide bonds are predominantly generated by the two isoforms of the ER oxidoreductin-1 (Ero1) family: Ero1α and Ero1β. Both enzymes oxidize the active-site cysteines in protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs), which in turn introduce disulfide bonds into newly synthesized proteins. Ero1 is re......-oxidized by molecular oxygen and this step generates hydrogen peroxide: a reactive oxygen species. Intramolecular disulfide bonds tightly regulate the oxidase activity of Ero1α. Whereas the regulatory mechanisms that regulate Ero1α activity are well understood, the overall cellular response to oxidative stress....... Interestingly, depletion of GPx8 in cells induced expression of an antioxidant response marker only in the presence of Ero1. These findings imply that GPx8 is an important scavenger of Ero1-generated hydrogen peroxide, and thus provides a critical function in negotiating oxidative stress originating from...

  20. Testing differential susceptibility: Plasticity genes, the social environment, and their interplay in adolescent response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; van Rooij, Daan; van der Meer, Dennis; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Hartman, Catharina A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-06-01

    Impaired inhibitory control is a key feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated gene-environment interaction (GxE) as a possible contributing factor to response inhibition variation in context of the differential susceptibility theory. This states individuals carrying plasticity gene variants will be more disadvantaged in negative, but more advantaged in positive environments. Behavioural and neural measures of response inhibition were assessed during a Stop-signal task in participants with (N = 197) and without (N = 295) ADHD, from N = 278 families (age M = 17.18, SD =3.65). We examined GxE between candidate plasticity genes (DAT1, 5-HTT, DRD4) and social environments (maternal expressed emotion, peer affiliation). A DRD4 × Positive peer affiliation interaction was found on the right fusiform gyrus (rFG) activation during successful inhibition. Further, 5-HTT short allele carriers showed increased rFG activation during failed inhibitions. Maternal warmth and positive peer affiliation were positively associated with right inferior frontal cortex activation during successful inhibition. Deviant peer affiliation was positively related to the error rate. While a pattern of differential genetic susceptibility was found, more clarity on the role of the FG during response inhibition is warranted before firm conclusions can be made. Positive and negative social environments were related to inhibitory control. This extends previous research emphasizing adverse environments.

  1. Adrenaline inhibits osteogenesis via repressing miR-21 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danying; Wang, Zuolin

    2017-01-01

    Sympathetic signaling is involved in bone homeostasis; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we found that the psychological stress mediator adrenaline inhibited osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (hMSC) by reducing microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression. Briefly, adrenaline significantly inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, as observed with both Alizarin red staining and maker gene expression (RUNX2, OSX, OCN, and OPN). During this process, miR-21 was suppressed by adrenaline via inhibition of histone acetylation, as verified by H3K9Ac chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. MiR-21 was confirmed to promote hMSC osteogenic differentiation, and overexpression of miR-21 reversed the impeditive effect of adrenaline on hMSC osteogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-21 is responsible for the adrenaline-mediated inhibition of hMSC osteogenic differentiation. These findings indicate a regulation of bone metabolism by psychological stress and also provide a molecular basis for psychological stress-associated bone diseases. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. Sublethal pesticide doses negatively affect survival and the cellular responses in American foulbrood-infected honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier Hernández; Krainer, Sophie; Engert, Antonia; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-02-01

    Disclosing interactions between pesticides and bee infections is of most interest to understand challenges that pollinators are facing and to which extent bee health is compromised. Here, we address the individual and combined effect that three different pesticides (dimethoate, clothianidin and fluvalinate) and an American foulbrood (AFB) infection have on mortality and the cellular immune response of honeybee larvae. We demonstrate for the first time a synergistic interaction when larvae are exposed to sublethal doses of dimethoate or clothianidin in combination with Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of AFB. A significantly higher mortality than the expected sum of the effects of each individual stressor was observed in co-exposed larvae, which was in parallel with a drastic reduction of the total and differential hemocyte counts. Our results underline that characterizing the cellular response of larvae to individual and combined stressors allows unmasking previously undetected sublethal effects of pesticides in colony health.

  3. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K(+)channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K(+)efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol-plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma-plant interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Humoral and cellular immune responses to synthetic peptides of the Leishmania donovani kinetoplastid membrane protein-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Gasim, S; Ismail, A

    1998-01-01

    as solid-phase ligands in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and as stimulating antigens in lymphoproliferative assays in order to evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to well-defined sequences of the protein. Antibody reactivity against the three peptides was measured in plasma from 63...

  5. Data Portal for the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program: integrated access to diverse large-scale cellular perturbation response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleti, Amar; Terryn, Raymond; Stathias, Vasileios; Chung, Caty; Cooper, Daniel J; Turner, John P; Vidović, Dušica; Forlin, Michele; Kelley, Tanya T; D’Urso, Alessandro; Allen, Bryce K; Torre, Denis; Jagodnik, Kathleen M; Wang, Lily; Jenkins, Sherry L; Mader, Christopher; Niu, Wen; Fazel, Mehdi; Mahi, Naim; Pilarczyk, Marcin; Clark, Nicholas; Shamsaei, Behrouz; Meller, Jarek; Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Reichard, John; Medvedovic, Mario; Ma’ayan, Avi; Pillai, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program is a national consortium funded by the NIH to generate a diverse and extensive reference library of cell-based perturbation-response signatures, along with novel data analytics tools to improve our understanding of human diseases at the systems level. In contrast to other large-scale data generation efforts, LINCS Data and Signature Generation Centers (DSGCs) employ a wide range of assay technologies cataloging diverse cellular responses. Integration of, and unified access to LINCS data has therefore been particularly challenging. The Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) LINCS Data Coordination and Integration Center (DCIC) has developed data standards specifications, data processing pipelines, and a suite of end-user software tools to integrate and annotate LINCS-generated data, to make LINCS signatures searchable and usable for different types of users. Here, we describe the LINCS Data Portal (LDP) (http://lincsportal.ccs.miami.edu/), a unified web interface to access datasets generated by the LINCS DSGCs, and its underlying database, LINCS Data Registry (LDR). LINCS data served on the LDP contains extensive metadata and curated annotations. We highlight the features of the LDP user interface that is designed to enable search, browsing, exploration, download and analysis of LINCS data and related curated content. PMID:29140462

  6. Coupling mechanisms between nucleosome assembly and the cellular response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautrette, Aurelie

    2006-01-01

    Cells are continuously exposed to genotoxic stresses that induce a variety of DNA lesions. To protect their genome, cells have specific pathways that orchestrate the detection, signaling and repair of DNA damages. This work is dedicated to the characterization of such pathways that couple the DNA damage response to the assembly of chromatin, a complex that protects and regulates DNA accessibility. We have focused our study on two multifunctional proteins: Rad53, a central checkpoint kinase in the cellular response to DNA damage and Asf1, a histone chaperone involved in chromatin assembly. We have characterized in vitro the binding mode of Asf1 with Rad53 and Asfl with histones. This study is associated with the functional analysis of the role of these interactions in vivo in yeast cells. (author) [fr

  7. Inhibition of cellular oxidation by fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borei, H

    1945-01-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the inhibition by fluoride of the oxidative processes which occur in the cell by way of the cytochrome oxidase-cytochrome system. Some chemical and physical properties of the fluoride ion are discussed, together with certain quantitative methods for the determination of fluoride. An exhaustive review of the literature concerning the effect of fluoride on enzymic processes has been compiled. The experiments have shown that the point of the attack by fluoride is to be found among the cytochromes. The inhibitory mechanism appears to be such that the haemoprotein is prevented from taking part in the preceding and succeeding links in the reaction chain. The blocking action leaves the prosthetic group of the haemoprotein completely unchanged. The experimental results indicate the formation of a fluorophosphoprotein complex, analogous to that found in the case of enolase. Magnesium may possibly play a part in this process.

  8. Cycle Inhibiting Factors (Cifs: Cyclomodulins That Usurp the Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation Pathway of Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Oswald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs are type III secreted effectors produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria. Cifs are “cyclomodulins” that inhibit the eukaryotic host cell cycle and also hijack other key cellular processes such as those controlling the actin network and apoptosis. This review summarizes current knowledge on Cif since its first characterization in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, the identification of several xenologues in distant pathogenic bacteria, to its structure elucidation and the recent deciphering of its mode of action. Cif impairs the host ubiquitin proteasome system through deamidation of ubiquitin or the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 that regulates Cullin-Ring-ubiquitin Ligase (CRL complexes. The hijacking of the ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway of host cells results in the modulation of various cellular functions such as epithelium renewal, apoptosis and immune response. Cif is therefore a powerful weapon in the continuous arm race that characterizes host-bacteria interactions.

  9. Development of LC/MS/MS, high-throughput enzymatic and cellular assays for the characterization of compounds that inhibit kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Dirk; Beconi, Maria; Toledo-Sherman, Leticia M; Prime, Michael; Ebneth, Andreas; Dominguez, Celia; Muñoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    Kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Modulation of KMO activity has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington disease. Our goal is to develop potent and selective small-molecule KMO inhibitors with suitable pharmacokinetic characteristics for in vivo proof-of-concept studies and subsequent clinical development. We developed a comprehensive panel of biochemical and cell-based assays that use liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to quantify unlabeled kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine. We describe assays to measure KMO inhibition in cell and tissue extracts, as well as cellular assays including heterologous cell lines and primary rat microglia and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  10. Cellular uptake of folate-conjugated lipophilic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Kyoungja [Nano-Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kjwoo@kist.re.kr; Moon, Jihyung [Nano-Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-Dong, Sungbook-Ku, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu-Sil [Division of Molecular Imaging, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Tae-Yeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-Dong, Sungbook-Ku, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon-Ha [Institute for Radiological Imaging Science, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 344-2, Shinyong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    We prepared five folate-conjugated lipophilic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (F{sub 5}-Liposuperparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles(SPIONs), 5.5 and 11 nm) and investigated their cellular uptake with KB cells, which is one of the representative folate-receptor over-expressing human epidermoid carcinoma cells, using MRI. The cellular uptake tests with the respective 5.5 and 11 nm F{sub 5}-LipoSPIONs at a fixed particle concentration showed appreciable amount of receptor-mediated uptakes and the specificity was higher in 5.5 nm SPIONs, due to its higher folic acid (FA) density, without inhibition. However, the numbers of the particles taken up under FA inhibition were similar, irrespective of their sizes.

  11. Evaluation of cellular responses for a chimeric HBsAg-HCV core DNA vaccine in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yazdanian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Fusion of HBsAg to HCVcp in the context of a DNA vaccine modality could augment Th1-oriented cellular and CTL responses toward a protective epitope, comparable to that of HCVcp (subunit HCV vaccine immunization.

  12. Cellular Response to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Cells is Dependent on Endocytosis-Associated Structures and Mediated by EGFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Kristin; Schrader, Katrin; Klempt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most applied nanomaterials and widely used in food and non-food industries as an additive or coating material (E171). It has been shown that E171 contains up to 37% particles which are smaller than 100 nm and that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) induce cytotoxicity and inflammation. Using a nuclear factor Kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) reporter cell line (Caco-2nfkb-RE), Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and inhibition of dynamin and clathrin, it was shown that cellular responses induced by 5 nm and 10 nm TiO2 NPs (nominal size) depends on endocytic processes. As endocytosis is often dependent on the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), further investigations focused on the involvement of EGFR in the uptake of TiO2 NPs: (1) inhibition of EGFR reduced inflammatory markers of the cell (i.e., nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, mRNA of IL8, CCL20, and CXCL10); and (2) exposure of Caco-2 cells to TiO2 NPs activated the intracellular EGFR cascade beginning with EGFR-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, and including transcription factor ELK1. This was followed by the expression of ERK1/2 target genes CCL2 and CXCL3. We concluded that TiO2 NPs enter the cell via EGFR-associated endocytosis, followed by activation of the EGFR/ERK/ELK signaling pathway, which finally induces NF-κB. No changes in inflammatory response are observed in Caco-2 cells exposed to 32 nm and 490 nm TiO2 particles. PMID:28387727

  13. Cellular Response to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Cells is Dependent on Endocytosis-Associated Structures and Mediated by EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Kristin; Schrader, Katrin; Klempt, Martin

    2017-04-07

    Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is one of the most applied nanomaterials and widely used in food and non-food industries as an additive or coating material (E171). It has been shown that E171 contains up to 37% particles which are smaller than 100 nm and that TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) induce cytotoxicity and inflammation. Using a nuclear factor Kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) reporter cell line (Caco-2 nfkb-RE ), Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and inhibition of dynamin and clathrin, it was shown that cellular responses induced by 5 nm and 10 nm TiO₂ NPs (nominal size) depends on endocytic processes. As endocytosis is often dependent on the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), further investigations focused on the involvement of EGFR in the uptake of TiO₂ NPs: (1) inhibition of EGFR reduced inflammatory markers of the cell (i.e., nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, mRNA of IL8, CCL20, and CXCL10); and (2) exposure of Caco-2 cells to TiO₂ NPs activated the intracellular EGFR cascade beginning with EGFR-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, and including transcription factor ELK1. This was followed by the expression of ERK1/2 target genes CCL2 and CXCL3. We concluded that TiO₂ NPs enter the cell via EGFR-associated endocytosis, followed by activation of the EGFR/ERK/ELK signaling pathway, which finally induces NF-κB. No changes in inflammatory response are observed in Caco-2 cells exposed to 32 nm and 490 nm TiO₂ particles.

  14. Inhibitory effects of OK-432 (Picibanil) on cellular proliferation and adhesive capacity of breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yoshio; Iino, Yuichi; Maemura, Michio; Horiguchi, Jun; Morishita, Yasuo

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the potent inhibitory effects of OK-432 (Picibanil) on both cellular adhesion and cell proliferation of estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) or estrogen-independent (MDA-MB-231) breast carcinoma cells. Cellular proliferation of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was markedly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when the carcinoma cells were exposed to OK-432. Cell attachment assay demonstrated that incubation with OK-432 for 24 h reduced integrin-mediated cellular adhesion of both cell types. However, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis revealed that incubation with OK-432 for 24 h did not decrease the cell surface expressions of any integrins. These results suggest that the binding avidity of integrins is reduced by OK-432 without alteration of the integrin expression. We conclude that OK-432 inhibits integrin-mediated cellular adhesion as well as cell proliferation of breast carcinoma cells regardless of estrogen-dependence, and that these actions of OK-432 contribute to prevention or inhibition of breast carcinoma invasion and metastasis.

  15. Free-Radical-Scavenging, Antityrosinase, and Cellular Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activities of Synthetic Isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tzy-Ming; Ko, Horng-Huey; Ng, Lean-Teik; Hsieh, Yen-Pin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we examined the potential of synthetic isoflavones for application in cosmeceuticals. Twenty-five isoflavones were synthesized and their capacities of free-radical-scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, as well as their impact on cell viability of B16F10 murine melanoma cells and HaCaT human keratinocytes were evaluated. Isoflavones that showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities were further studied on reduction of cellular melanin formation and antityrosinase activities in B16F10 melanocytes in vitro. Among the isoflavones tested, 6-hydroxydaidzein (2) was the strongest scavenger of both ABTS(.+) and DPPH(.) radicals with SC50 values of 11.3 ± 0.3 and 9.4 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Texasin (20) exhibited the most potent inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase (IC50 14.9 ± 4.5 μM), whereas retusin (17) showed the most efficient inhibition both of cellular melanin formation and antityrosinase activity in B16F10 melanocytes, respectively. In summary, both retusin (17) and texasin (20) exhibited potent free-radical-scavenging capacities as well as efficient inhibition of cellular melanogenesis, suggesting that they are valuable hit compounds with potential for advanced cosmeceutical development. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Global phosphotyrosine proteomics identifies PKCδ as a marker of responsiveness to Src inhibition in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot T McKinley

    Full Text Available Sensitive and specific biomarkers of protein kinase inhibition can be leveraged to accelerate drug development studies in oncology by associating early molecular responses with target inhibition. In this study, we utilized unbiased shotgun phosphotyrosine (pY proteomics to discover novel biomarkers of response to dasatinib, a small molecule Src-selective inhibitor, in preclinical models of colorectal cancer (CRC. We performed unbiased mass spectrometry shotgun pY proteomics to reveal the pY proteome of cultured HCT-116 colonic carcinoma cells, and then extended this analysis to HCT-116 xenograft tumors to identify pY biomarkers of dasatinib-responsiveness in vivo. Major dasatinib-responsive pY sites in xenograft tumors included sites on delta-type protein kinase C (PKCδ, CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1, Type-II SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2, and receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPα. The pY313 site PKCδ was further supported as a relevant biomarker of dasatinib-mediated Src inhibition in HCT-116 xenografts by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting with a phosphospecific antibody. Reduction of PKCδ pY313 was further correlated with dasatinib-mediated inhibition of Src and diminished growth as spheroids of a panel of human CRC cell lines. These studies reveal PKCδ pY313 as a promising readout of Src inhibition in CRC and potentially other solid tumors and may reflect responsiveness to dasatinib in a subset of colorectal cancers.

  17. Response Inhibition Function of Obsessive-Compulsive Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD on response inhibition functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Methods: Forty-five obsessive-compulsive patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCD + OCPD, 42 obsessive-compulsive patients without obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCD - OCPD and 54 healthy volunteers were selected for the stop-signal task. Results: Obsessive-compulsive patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder had a higher score of depression and anxiety and more severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms than that of obsessive-compulsive patients without obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The two groups of obsessive-compulsive patients of had a greater stop-signal reaction time (SSRT during the inhibition process than the healthy volunteers of the control group (OCD + OCPD: 221.45 ± 31.78; OCD - OCPD: 218.36 ± 31.78; Controls: 199.29 ± 22.80; p < 0.05. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups of obsessive-compulsive patients. Conclusion: The findings show that the comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder has no effect on response inhibition function of obsessive-compulsive patients.

  18. Inhibition of RM-1 prostate carcinoma and eliciting robust immune responses in the mouse model by using VEGF-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqin; Alahdal, Murad; Ye, Jia; Jing, Liangliang; Liu, Xiaoxin; Chen, Huan; Jin, Liang; Cao, Rongyue

    2018-01-23

    GnRH and VEGF have been investigated as prostate carcinoma enhancers that support tumor spread and progression. Although both have documented roles in prostate carcinoma and many cancer types, the weak immunogenicity of these peptides has remained a major challenge for use in immunotherapy. Here, we describe a novel strategy to inhibit GnRH and VEGF production and assess the effect on the immune responses against these hormones using the RM-1 prostate cancer model. We designed a novel recombinant fusion protein which combined GnRH and VEGF as a vaccine against this tumor. The newly constructed fusion protein hVEGF121-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP contains the human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF121) and three copies of GnRH in sequential linear alignment and T helper epitope MVP as an immunogenic vaccine. The effectiveness of the vaccine in eliciting an immune response and attenuating the prostate tumor growth was evaluated. Results showed that administration of a new vaccine effectively elicited humoral and cellular immune responses. We found that, a novel fusion protein, hVEGF121-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP, effectively inhibited growth of RM-1 prostate model and effectively promoted immune response. In conclusion, hVEGF121-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP is an effective dual mechanism tumor vaccine that limits RM-1 prostate growth. This vaccine may be a promising strategy for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate malignancies.

  19. Lengthening our perspective: morphological, cellular, and molecular responses to eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldahl, Robert D; Hubal, Monica J

    2014-02-01

    The response of skeletal muscle to unaccustomed eccentric exercise has been studied widely, yet it is incompletely understood. This review is intended to provide an up-to-date overview of our understanding of how skeletal muscle responds to eccentric actions, with particular emphasis on the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of damage and recovery. This review begins by addressing the question of whether eccentric actions result in physical damage to muscle fibers and/or connective tissue. We next review the symptomatic manifestations of eccentric exercise (i.e., indirect damage markers, such as delayed onset muscle soreness), with emphasis on their relatively poorly understood molecular underpinnings. We then highlight factors that potentially modify the muscle damage response following eccentric exercise. Finally, we explore the utility of using eccentric training to improve muscle function in populations of healthy and aging individuals, as well as those living with neuromuscular disorders. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Enhanced prefrontal function with pharmacotherapy on a response inhibition task in adolescent bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N; Passarotti, Alessandra M; Harral, Erin M; Sweeney, John A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine whether pharmacotherapy normalizes cognitive circuitry function supporting voluntary behavioral inhibition in adolescent bipolar disorder. Healthy controls and unmedicated patients with DSM-IV adolescent bipolar disorder in manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes were matched on demographics and IQ (n = 13 per group; mean age = 14.4 ± 2.4 years). Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed at baseline and after 14 weeks, during which time patients with adolescent bipolar disorder were treated initially with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) followed by lamotrigine monotherapy. The primary outcome measure was a Response Inhibition Task, which involved a planned motor response, already "on the way" to execution, that had to be voluntarily inhibited by the subjects in the trials in which a stop signal was presented. There were 6 blocks, each with a predominant rate of either "go" or "stop" trials. The study was conducted from June 2006 through July 2009. All patients showed significant improvement (P adolescent bipolar disorder group than in healthy controls. Increased ventrolateral prefrontal cortex function was related to clinical treatment response. Treatment with SGAs followed by lamotrigine monotherapy enhanced prefrontal and temporal lobe activity during a Response Inhibition Task demonstrating the reversal of disorder-relevant neural circuitry dysfunction in patients with adolescent bipolar disorder. Patient performance was not slowed down with this treatment regimen. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00176228. © Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and inhibits retinoic acid-mediated biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K

    2011-02-11

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies.

  2. Azadirachtin Interacts with Retinoic Acid Receptors and Inhibits Retinoic Acid-mediated Biological Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B.; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies. PMID:21127062

  3. Canonical autophagy does not contribute to cellular radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, Marco B.E.; Jutten, Barry; Keulers, Tom G.; Savelkouls, Kim G.M.; Peeters, Hanneke J.M.; Beucken, Twan van den; Schooten, Frederik-Jan van; Godschalk, Roger W.; Vooijs, Marc; Rouschop, Kasper M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: (Pre)clinical studies indicate that autophagy inhibition increases response to anti-cancer therapies. Although promising, due to contradicting reports, it remains unclear if radiation therapy changes autophagy activity and if autophagy inhibition changes the cellular intrinsic radiosensitivity. Discrepancies may result from different assays and models through off-target effects and influencing other signaling routes. In this study, we directly compared the effects of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy after irradiation in human cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: Changes in autophagy activity after ionizing radiation (IR) were assessed by flux analysis in eight cell lines. Clonogenic survival, DNA damage (COMET-assay) and H2AX phosphorylation were assessed after chloroquine or 3-methyladenine pretreatment and after ATG7 or LC3b knockdown. Results: IR failed to induce autophagy and chloroquine failed to change intrinsic radiosensitivity of cells. Interestingly, 3-methyladenine and ATG7- or LC3b-deficiency sensitized cancer cells to irradiation. Surprisingly, the radiosensitizing effect of 3-methyladenine was also observed in ATG7 and LC3b deficient cells and was associated with attenuated γ-H2AX formation and DNA damage repair. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that the anti-tumor effects of chloroquine are independent of changes in intrinsic radioresistance. Furthermore, ATG7 and LC3b support radioresistance independent of canonical autophagy that involves lysosomal degradation

  4. Impaired Early-Response Inhibition in Overweight Females with and without Binge Eating Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Svaldi

    Full Text Available Several studies report increased reward sensitivity towards food in overweight individuals. By contrast, data is inconclusive with respect to response inhibition in overweight individuals without binge eating disorder (BED. Hence, the latter was addressed in the present study in a group of overweight/obese females with and without BED and a normal-weight control group without eating disorders.A group of women with BED (n = 29, a group of overweight women without BED (n = 33 and normal-weight females (n = 30 participated in a pictorial priming paradigm, with food items (relevant primes and office utensils (neutral primes and color blobs (neutral primes as stimuli. Increased response priming effects (i.e. priming with switches between stimulus categories were taken as indicators of deficient behavioral inhibition.Priming effects for neutral primes were moderate and comparable across all groups. However, primes associated with the food task set lead to increased priming effects in both overweight groups. But, effects were comparable for overweight/obese participants with and without BED.Results suggest that early response inhibition in the context of food is impaired in overweight individuals compared to normal-weight individuals.

  5. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mediates cellular responses to DNA damage and aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitanovic, Ana; Woelfl, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Response to DNA damage, lack of nutrients and other stress conditions is an essential property of living systems. The coordinate response includes DNA damage repair, activation of alternate biochemical pathways, adjustment of cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression as well as drastic measures like cellular suicide which prevents proliferation of severely damaged cells. Investigating the transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to low doses of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) we observed induction of genes involved in glucose metabolism. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the key enzyme in gluconeogenesis fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) was clearly up-regulated by MMS in glucose-rich medium. Interestingly, deletion of FBP1 led to reduced sensitivity to MMS, but not to other DNA-damaging agents, such as 4-NQO or phleomycin. Reintroduction of FBP1 in the knockout restored the wild-type phenotype while overexpression increased MMS sensitivity of wild-type, shortened life span and increased induction of RNR2 after treatment with MMS. Deletion of FBP1 reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to MMS treatment and in untreated aged cells, and increased the amount of cells able to propagate and to form colonies, but had no influence on the genotoxic effect of MMS. Our results indicate that FBP1 influences the connection between DNA damage, aging and oxidative stress through either direct signalling or an intricate adaptation in energy metabolism

  6. Distinctive behavioral and cellular responses to fluoxetine in the mouse model for Fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko eUutela

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine is used as a therapeutic agent for autism spectrum disorder (ASD, including Fragile X syndrome (FXS. The treatment often associates with disruptive behaviors such as agitation and disinhibited behaviors in FXS. To identify mechanisms that increase the risk to poor treatment outcome, we investigated the behavioral and cellular effects of fluoxetine on adult Fmr1 knockout (KO mice, a mouse model for FXS. We found that fluoxetine reduced anxiety-like behavior of both wild type and Fmr1 KO mice seen as shortened latency to enter the center area in the open field test. In Fmr1 KO mice, fluoxetine normalized locomotor hyperactivity but abnormally increased exploratory activity. Reduced Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and increased TrkB receptor expression levels in the hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice associated with inappropriate coping responses under stressful condition and abolished antidepressant activity of fluoxetine. Fluoxetine response in the cell proliferation was also missing in the hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice when compared with wild type controls. The postnatal expression of serotonin transporter was reduced in the thalamic nuclei of Fmr1 KO mice during the time of transient innervation of somatosensory neurons suggesting that developmental changes of serotonin transporter (SERT expression were involved in the differential cellular and behavioral responses to fluoxetine in wild type and Fmr1 mice. The results indicate that changes of BDNF/TrkB signaling contribute to differential behavioral responses to fluoxetine among individuals with ASD.

  7. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mediates cellular responses to DNA damage and aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanovic, Ana [Institut fuer Pharmazie und Molekulare Biotechnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Woelfl, Stefan [Institut fuer Pharmazie und Molekulare Biotechnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: wolfl@uni-hd.de

    2006-02-22

    Response to DNA damage, lack of nutrients and other stress conditions is an essential property of living systems. The coordinate response includes DNA damage repair, activation of alternate biochemical pathways, adjustment of cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression as well as drastic measures like cellular suicide which prevents proliferation of severely damaged cells. Investigating the transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to low doses of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) we observed induction of genes involved in glucose metabolism. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the key enzyme in gluconeogenesis fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) was clearly up-regulated by MMS in glucose-rich medium. Interestingly, deletion of FBP1 led to reduced sensitivity to MMS, but not to other DNA-damaging agents, such as 4-NQO or phleomycin. Reintroduction of FBP1 in the knockout restored the wild-type phenotype while overexpression increased MMS sensitivity of wild-type, shortened life span and increased induction of RNR2 after treatment with MMS. Deletion of FBP1 reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to MMS treatment and in untreated aged cells, and increased the amount of cells able to propagate and to form colonies, but had no influence on the genotoxic effect of MMS. Our results indicate that FBP1 influences the connection between DNA damage, aging and oxidative stress through either direct signalling or an intricate adaptation in energy metabolism.0.

  8. Topoisomerase 1 Inhibition Promotes Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase-Dependent Antiviral Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Geneviève; Nejad, Charlotte; Ferrand, Jonathan; Thomas, Belinda J; Stunden, H James; Sanij, Elaine; Foo, Chwan-Hong; Stewart, Cameron R; Cain, Jason E; Bardin, Philip G; Williams, Bryan R G; Gantier, Michael P

    2017-10-03

    Inflammatory responses, while essential for pathogen clearance, can also be deleterious to the host. Chemical inhibition of topoisomerase 1 (Top1) by low-dose camptothecin (CPT) can suppress transcriptional induction of antiviral and inflammatory genes and protect animals from excessive and damaging inflammatory responses. We describe the unexpected finding that minor DNA damage from topoisomerase 1 inhibition with low-dose CPT can trigger a strong antiviral immune response through cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) detection of cytoplasmic DNA. This argues against CPT having only anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, expression of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen was paramount to the proinflammatory antiviral activity of CPT, as it potentiated cytoplasmic DNA leakage and subsequent cGAS recruitment in human and mouse cell lines. This work suggests that the capacity of Top1 inhibitors to blunt inflammatory responses can be counteracted by viral oncogenes and that this should be taken into account for their therapeutic development. IMPORTANCE Recent studies suggest that low-dose DNA-damaging compounds traditionally used in cancer therapy can have opposite effects on antiviral responses, either suppressing (with the example of CPT) or potentiating (with the example of doxorubicin) them. Our work demonstrates that the minor DNA damage promoted by low-dose CPT can also trigger strong antiviral responses, dependent on the presence of viral oncogenes. Taken together, these results call for caution in the therapeutic use of low-dose chemotherapy agents to modulate antiviral responses in humans. Copyright © 2017 Pépin et al.

  9. Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shaheen; Liu Shengxi; Stoner, Matthew; Safe, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is expressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive ZR-75 breast cancer cells. Treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces CYP1A1 protein and mRNA levels and also activates inhibitory AhR-ERα crosstalk associated with hormone-induced reporter gene expression. In ZR-75 cells grown under hypoxia, induction of these AhR-mediated responses by TCDD was significantly inhibited. This was not accompanied by decreased nuclear AhR levels or decreased interaction of the AhR complex with the CYP1A1 gene promoter as determined in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Hypoxia-induced loss of Ah-responsiveness was not associated with induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α or other factors that sequester the AhR nuclear translocation (Arnt) protein, and overexpression of Arnt under hypoxia did not restore Ah-responsiveness. The p65 subunit of NFκB which inhibits AhR-mediated transactivation was not induced by hypoxia and was primarily cytosolic in ZR-75 cells grown under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. In ZR-75 cells maintained under hypoxic conditions for 24 h, BRCA1 (an enhancer of AhR-mediated transactivation in breast cancer cells) was significantly decreased and this contributed to loss of Ah-responsiveness. In cells grown under hypoxia for 6 h, BRCA1 was not decreased, but induction of CYP1A1 by TCDD was significantly decreased. Cotreatment of ZR-75 cells with TCDD plus the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide for 6 h enhanced CYP1A1 expression in cells grown under hypoxia and normoxia. These results suggest that hypoxia rapidly induces protein(s) that inhibit Ah-responsiveness and these may be similar to constitutively expressed inhibitors of Ah-responsiveness (under normoxia) that are also inhibited by cycloheximide

  10. Caspase-dependent inhibition of store-operated Ca2+ entry into apoptosis-committed Jurkat cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onopiuk, Marta; Wierzbicka, Katarzyna; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Szczepanowska, Joanna; Zablocki, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Activation of T-cells triggers store-operated Ca 2+ entry, which begins a signaling cascade leading to induction of appropriate gene expression and eventually lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation. The simultaneous enhancement of Fas ligand gene expression in activated cells allows the immune response to be limited by committing the activated cells to apoptosis. In apoptotic cells the store-operated calcium entry is significantly inhibited. It has been documented that moderate activation of Fas receptor may cause reversible inhibition of store-operated channels by ceramide released from hydrolyzed sphingomyelin. Here we show that activation of Fas receptor in T-cells results in caspase-dependent decrease of cellular STIM1 and Orai1 protein content. This effect may be responsible for the substantial inhibition of Ca 2+ entry into Jurkat cells undergoing apoptosis. In turn, this inhibition might prevent overloading of cells with calcium and protect them against necrosis. -- Research highlights: → Fas activation reduces STIM1 and Orai1 protein content in caspase dependent manner. → Fas activation partially reduces mitochondrial potential in caspase dependent manner. → Fas stimulation inhibits of store-operated Ca 2+ entry in caspase dependent manner. → Inhibition of Ca 2+ entry in apoptotic cells may protect them from secondary necrosis.

  11. Increased cellular levels of spermidine or spermine are required for optimal DNA synthesis in lymphocytes activated by concanavalin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingame, R H; Jorstad, C M; Morris, D R

    1975-01-01

    There are large increases in cellular levels of the polyamines spermidine and spermine in lymphocytes induced to transform by concanavalin A. The anti-leukemic agent methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) blocks synthesis of these polyamines by inhibiting S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Previous results showed that when cells are activated in the presence of MGBG the synthesis and processing of RNA, as well as protein synthesis, proceed as in the absence of the drug. In contrast, the incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine into DNA and the rate of entry of the cells into mitosis are inhibited by 60% in the presence of MGBG. Several experiments suggest that MGBG inhibits cell proliferation by directly blocking polyamine synthesis and not by an unrelated pharmacological effect: (1) the inhibitory action of MGBG is reversed by exogenously added spermidine or spermine; (2) inhibition of DNA synthesis by MGBG shows the same dose-response curve as does inhibition of spermidine and spermine synthesis; and (3) if MGBG is added to cells which have been allowed to accumulate their maximum complement of polyamines, there is no inhibition of thymidine incorporation. MGBG-treated and control cultures initiate DNA synthesis at the same time and show the same percentage of labeled cells by autoradiography. Therefore, it appears that in the absence of increased cellular levels of polyamines, lymphocytes progress normally from G0 through G1 and into S-phase. Furthermore, these experiments suggest that the increased levels of spermidine and spermine generally seen in rapidly proliferating eukaryotic systems are necessary for enhanced rates of DNA replication. PMID:1060087

  12. Ultraviolet Radiation: Cellular Antioxidant Response and the Role of Ocular Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitti, Satori A.; Chen, Ying; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposes the human eye to near constant oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that UVR is the most important environmental insult leading to the development of a variety of ophthalmoheliosis disorders. UVR-induced reactive oxygen species are highly reactive with DNA, proteins and cellular membranes, resulting in cellular and tissue damage. Antioxidant defense systems present in ocular tissues function to combat reactive oxygen species and protect the eye from oxidative damage. Important enzymatic antioxidants are the superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase and members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily. Glutathione, ascorbic and uric acids, α-tocopherol, NADPH and ferritin serve as small molecule, nonenzymatic antioxidants. Ocular tissues have high levels of these antioxidants which are essential for the maintenance of redox homeostasis in the eye and protection against oxidative damage. ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1, present abundantly in the cornea and lens, have been shown to have unique roles in the defense against UVR and the downstream effects of oxidative stress. This review presents the properties and functions of ocular antioxidants that play critical roles in the cellular response to UVR exposure, including a focused discussion of the unique roles that the ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 enzymes have as multi-functional ocular antioxidants. PMID:21670692

  13. Some bromo phenyl piperidine derivatives having plasmepsin inhibition with potent analgesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, K.; Saify, Z.S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the synthesized 4-(4?-Bromophenyl)-4-hydroxy piperdine derivatives for plasmepsin inhibition (antimalarial activity) and analgesic response to develop excellent moiety to work in malaria. The plasmepsin II and cathepsin D (Biodesign International, USA) assays were measured using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method. The inhibition of enzyme was done (in triplicates) in 96 well plate format and response were obtained on a Perkin Elmer LS55 Fluorescence spectrometer with an excitation and emission wavelengths of 336 and 490 nm, respectively and analgesic activity of synthesized derivatives of 4-(4-Bromophenyl)-4-hydroxy piperidine was conducted by Eddy's hot plate method in albino mice by providing standard colony conditions using Pethidine as standard drug. These novel compounds having the parent moiety 4-(4-Bromophenyl)-4-hydroxy piperdine were found to prove strong inhibition towards plasmepsin enzyme with 8-10 IC50 in micro M and highly significant analgesic response in albino mice. The current studies suggest that the designed molecules were found to work both on cellular level and also on the symptoms of disease as the headache, fever and muscle aches are the very common and initial symptoms associated with malaria and hence the molecules discovered as excellent analgesics. (author)

  14. Electrophysiological indices of response inhibition in a Go/NoGo task predict self-control in a social context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Nash

    Full Text Available Recent research demonstrates that response inhibition-a core executive function-may subserve self-regulation and self-control. However, it is unclear whether response inhibition also predicts self-control in the multifaceted, high-level phenomena of social decision-making. Here we examined whether electrophysiological indices of response inhibition would predict self-control in a social context. Electroencephalography was recorded as participants completed a widely used Go/NoGo task (the cued Continuous Performance Test. Participants then interacted with a partner in an economic exchange game that requires self-control. Results demonstrated that greater NoGo-Anteriorization and larger NoGo-P300 peak amplitudes-two established electrophysiological indices of response inhibition-both predicted more self-control in this social game. These findings support continued integration of executive function and self-regulation and help extend prior research into social decision-making processes.

  15. Response inhibition is modulated by functional cerebral asymmetries for facial expression perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eOcklenburg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of executive functions is critically modulated by information processing in earlier cognitive stages. For example, initial processing of verbal stimuli in the language-dominant left-hemisphere leads to more efficient response inhibition than initial processing of verbal stimuli in the non-dominant right hemisphere. However, it is unclear whether this organizational principle is specific for the language system, or a general principle that also applies to other types of lateralized cognition. To answer this question, we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of early attentional processes, facial expression perception and response inhibition during tachistoscopic presentation of facial ‘Go’ and ‘Nogo’ stimuli in the left and the right visual field. Participants committed fewer false alarms after Nogo-stimulus presentation in the left compared to the right visual field. This right-hemispheric asymmetry on the behavioral level was also reflected in the neurophysiological correlates of face perception, specifically in a right-sided asymmetry in the N170 amplitude. Moreover, the right-hemispheric dominance for facial expression processing also affected event-related potentials typically related to response inhibition, namely the Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3. These findings show that an effect of hemispheric asymmetries in early information processing on the efficacy of higher cognitive functions is not limited to left-hemispheric language functions, but can be generalized to predominantly right-hemispheric functions.

  16. Chronic Stress Impairs Prefrontal Cortex-Dependent Response Inhibition and Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Agnieszka; Mazur, Gabriel J.; Hoffman, Ann N.; Talboom, Joshua S.; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.; Sanabria, Federico; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress leads to neurochemical and structural alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that correspond to deficits in PFC-mediated behaviors. The present study examined the effects of chronic restraint stress on response inhibition (using a response-withholding task, fixed-minimum interval schedule of reinforcement, or FMI), and working memory (using a radial arm water maze, RAWM). Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were first trained on the RAWM and subsequently trained on FMI. Following acquisition of FMI, rats were assigned to a restraint stress (6h/d/28d in wire mesh restrainers) or control condition. Immediately after chronic stress, rats were tested on FMI and subsequently on RAWM. FMI results suggest that chronic stress reduces response inhibition capacity and motivation to initiate the task on selective conditions when food reward was not obtained on the preceding trial. RAWM results suggest that chronic stress produces transient deficits in working memory without altering previously consolidated reference memory. Behavioral measures from FMI failed to correlate with metrics from RAWM except for one in which changes in FMI timing precision negatively correlated with changes in RAWM working memory errors for the controls, a finding that was not observed following chronic stress. Fisher’s r to z transformation revealed no significant differences between control and stress with correlation coefficients. These findings are the first to show that chronic stress impairs both response inhibition and working memory, two behaviors that have never been direct compared within the same animals following chronic stress, using FMI, an appetitive task, and RAWM, a non-appetitive task. PMID:22905921

  17. Inhibition of estrogen-responsive gene activation by the retinoid X receptor beta: evidence for multiple inhibitory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, J H; Marks, M S; Hirschfeld, S; Driggers, P H; Martinez, E; Grippo, J F; Brown, M; Wahli, W; Ozato, K

    1993-04-01

    The retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta; H-2RIIBP) forms heterodimers with various nuclear hormone receptors and binds multiple hormone response elements, including the estrogen response element (ERE). In this report, we show that endogenous RXR beta contributes to ERE binding activity in nuclear extracts of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. To define a possible regulatory role of RXR beta regarding estrogen-responsive transcription in breast cancer cells, RXR beta and a reporter gene driven by the vitellogenin A2 ERE were transfected into estrogen-treated MCF-7 cells. RXR beta inhibited ERE-driven reporter activity in a dose-dependent and element-specific fashion. This inhibition occurred in the absence of the RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid. The RXR beta-induced inhibition was specific for estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated ERE activation because inhibition was observed in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells only following transfection of the estrogen-activated ER. No inhibition of the basal reporter activity was observed. The inhibition was not caused by simple competition of RXR beta with the ER for ERE binding, since deletion mutants retaining DNA binding activity but lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal domain failed to inhibit reporter activity. In addition, cross-linking studies indicated the presence of an auxiliary nuclear factor present in MCF-7 cells that contributed to RXR beta binding of the ERE. Studies using known heterodimerization partners of RXR beta confirmed that RXR beta/triiodothyronine receptor alpha heterodimers avidly bind the ERE but revealed the existence of another triiodothyronine-independent pathway of ERE inhibition. These results indicate that estrogen-responsive genes may be negatively regulated by RXR beta through two distinct pathways.

  18. 47 CFR 22.901 - Cellular service requirements and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular service requirements and limitations... SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.901 Cellular service requirements and limitations. The licensee of each cellular system is responsible for ensuring that its cellular system...

  19. Reduced short interval cortical inhibition correlates with atomoxetine response in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tina H; Wu, Steve W; Welge, Jeffrey A; Dixon, Stephan G; Shahana, Nasrin; Huddleston, David A; Sarvis, Adam R; Sallee, Floyd R; Gilbert, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    Clinical trials in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show variability in behavioral responses to the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. The objective of this study was to determine whether transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked short interval cortical inhibition might be a biomarker predicting, or correlating with, clinical atomoxetine response. At baseline and after 4 weeks of atomoxetine treatment in 7- to 12-year-old children with ADHD, transcranial magnetic stimulation short interval cortical inhibition was measured, blinded to clinical improvement. Primary analysis was by multivariate analysis of covariance. Baseline short interval cortical inhibition did not predict clinical responses. However, paradoxically, after 4 weeks of atomoxetine, mean short interval cortical inhibition was reduced 31.9% in responders and increased 6.1% in nonresponders (analysis of covariance t 41 = 2.88; P = .0063). Percentage reductions in short interval cortical inhibition correlated with reductions in the ADHD Rating Scale (r = 0.50; P = .0005). In children ages 7 to 12 years with ADHD treated with atomoxetine, improvements in clinical symptoms are correlated with reductions in motor cortex short interval cortical inhibition. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Münk, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors. PMID:22069525

  1. Effects of a brief mindfulness-meditation intervention on neural measures of response inhibition in cigarette smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine I Andreu

    Full Text Available Research suggests that mindfulness-practices may aid smoking cessation. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of mindfulness-practices on smoking are unclear. Response inhibition is a main deficit in addiction, is associated with relapse, and could therefore be a candidate target for mindfulness-based practices. The current study hence investigated the effects of a brief mindfulness-practice on response inhibition in smokers using behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG measures. Fifty participants (33 females, mean age 20 years old underwent a protocol of cigarette exposure to induce craving (cue-exposure and were then randomly assigned to a group receiving mindfulness-instructions or control-instructions (for 15 minutes approximately. Immediately after this, they performed a smoking Go/NoGo task, while their brain activity was recorded. At the behavioral level, no group differences were observed. However, EEG analyses revealed a decrease in P3 amplitude during NoGo vs. Go trials in the mindfulness versus control group. The lower P3 amplitude might indicate less-effortful response inhibition after the mindfulness-practice, and suggest that enhanced response inhibition underlies observed positive effects of mindfulness on smoking behavior.

  2. HDAC4 preserves skeletal muscle structure following long-term denervation by mediating distinct cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigna, Eva; Renzini, Alessandra; Greco, Emanuela; Simonazzi, Elena; Fulle, Stefania; Mancinelli, Rosa; Moresi, Viviana; Adamo, Sergio

    2018-02-24

    Denervation triggers numerous molecular responses in skeletal muscle, including the activation of catabolic pathways and oxidative stress, leading to progressive muscle atrophy. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) mediates skeletal muscle response to denervation, suggesting the use of HDAC inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to neurogenic muscle atrophy. However, the effects of HDAC4 inhibition in skeletal muscle in response to long-term denervation have not been described yet. To further study HDAC4 functions in response to denervation, we analyzed mutant mice in which HDAC4 is specifically deleted in skeletal muscle. After an initial phase of resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy, skeletal muscle with a deletion of HDAC4 lost structural integrity after 4 weeks of denervation. Deletion of HDAC4 impaired the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, delayed the autophagic response, and dampened the OS response in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system or the autophagic response, if on the one hand, conferred resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy; on the other hand, induced loss of muscle integrity and inflammation in mice lacking HDAC4 in skeletal muscle. Moreover, treatment with the antioxidant drug Trolox prevented loss of muscle integrity and inflammation in in mice lacking HDAC4 in skeletal muscle, despite the resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy. These results reveal new functions of HDAC4 in mediating skeletal muscle response to denervation and lead us to propose the combined use of HDAC inhibitors and antioxidant drugs to treat neurogenic muscle atrophy.

  3. Kinase inhibition by the Jamaican ball moss, Tillandsia recurvata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Henry I C; Watson, Charah T; Badal, Simone; Toyang, Ngeh J; Bryant, Joseph

    2012-10-01

    This research was undertaken in order to investigate the inhibitory potential of the Jamaican ball moss, Tillandsia recurvata against several kinases. The inhibition of these kinases has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites) assays, which have been previously established and authenticated. Four hundred and fifty one kinases were tested against the Jamaican ball moss extract and a dose-response was tested on 40 kinases, which were inhibited by more than 35% compared to the control. Out of the 40 kinases, the Jamaican ball moss selectively inhibited 5 (CSNK2A2, MEK5, GAK, FLT and DRAK1) and obtained Kd(50)s were below 20 μg/ml. Since MEK5 and GAK kinases have been associated with aggressive prostate cancer, the inhibitory properties of the ball moss against them, coupled with its previously found bioactivity towards the PC-3 cell line, makes it promising in the arena of drug discovery towards prostate cancer.

  4. Humoral and Cellular Response of Pheasants Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease and Haemorrhagic Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Graczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to define whether and to what extent can prophylactic vaccinations against Newcastle disease (ND and haemorrhagic enteritis (HE affect the humoral and cellular response in pheasants. The evaluation of humoral response was performed on a basis of agglutinin titre after administered antigen and the cellular immunity index was the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction. The pheasants were prophylactically vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND on the 1st, 28th and 56th day of life. Moreover, on the 49th day of life, part of the birds was given in the drinking water a vaccine containing the HEV (Haemorrhagic Enteritis Virus. Fourteen days after the HEV vaccination, the birds were intravenously given 0.5 ml of the 10% SRBC (sheep red blood cells suspension. Simultaneously with the SRBC administration the delayed hypersensitivity test was performed by intradermal administration of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA. It was shown that in pheasants vaccinated with NDV and additionally with HEV, the specific agglutinin anti-SRBC titre was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than in birds vaccinated against ND only. It also appeared that, the antibodies resistant to 2-mercaptoethanol were 43% of the total pool of specific anti-SRBC antibodies in the NDV vaccinated birds, whereas in birds vaccinated also with HEV they were 75%. No significant differences were found in the DTH test. Only in the HEV vaccinated pheasants the tendency to increase the wing index value was noted. The results confirm the observations concerning immunosuppressive effects of simultaneous vaccinations. They also indicate that overloading the pheasants with many antigens (ND and HEV vaccination may weaken the humoral response to administered SRBC.

  5. Ethanol cellular defense induce unfolded protein response in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet eNavarro-Tapia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, CECT10094 and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus

  6. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyi Xu; Fengzhong Wang; Zhongsheng Yu; Fengjiao Xin

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the proce...

  7. Transaldolase inhibition impairs mitochondrial respiration and induces a starvation-like longevity response in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Bennett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction can increase oxidative stress and extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Homeostatic mechanisms exist to cope with disruptions to mitochondrial function that promote cellular health and organismal longevity. Previously, we determined that decreased expression of the cytosolic pentose phosphate pathway (PPP enzyme transaldolase activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt and extends lifespan. Here we report that transaldolase (tald-1 deficiency impairs mitochondrial function in vivo, as evidenced by altered mitochondrial morphology, decreased respiration, and increased cellular H2O2 levels. Lifespan extension from knockdown of tald-1 is associated with an oxidative stress response involving p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK MAPKs and a starvation-like response regulated by the transcription factor EB (TFEB homolog HLH-30. The latter response promotes autophagy and increases expression of the flavin-containing monooxygenase 2 (fmo-2. We conclude that cytosolic redox established through the PPP is a key regulator of mitochondrial function and defines a new mechanism for mitochondrial regulation of longevity.

  8. The cellular memory disc of reprogrammed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2013-04-01

    The crucial facts underlying the low efficiency of cellular reprogramming are poorly understood. Cellular reprogramming occurs in nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation, cell fusion, and lineage-switching experiments. Despite these advances, there are three fundamental problems to be addressed: (1) the majority of cells cannot be reprogrammed, (2) the efficiency of reprogramming cells is usually low, and (3) the reprogrammed cells developed from a patient's own cells activate immune responses. These shortcomings present major obstacles for using reprogramming approaches in customised cell therapy. In this Perspective, the author synthesises past and present observations in the field of cellular reprogramming to propose a theoretical picture of the cellular memory disc. The current hypothesis is that all cells undergo an endogenous and exogenous holographic memorisation such that parts of the cellular memory dramatically decrease the efficiency of reprogramming cells, act like a barrier against reprogramming in the majority of cells, and activate immune responses. Accordingly, the focus of this review is mainly to describe the cellular memory disc (CMD). Based on the present theory, cellular memory includes three parts: a reprogramming-resistance memory (RRM), a switch-promoting memory (SPM) and a culture-induced memory (CIM). The cellular memory arises genetically, epigenetically and non-genetically and affects cellular behaviours. [corrected].

  9. Differential Cellular and Molecular Effects of Butyrate and Trichostatin A on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Ranganna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors, butyrate and trichostatin A (TSA, are epigenetic histone modifiers and proliferation inhibitors by downregulating cyclin D1, a positive cell cycle regulator, and upregulating p21Cip1 and INK family of proteins, negative cell cycle regulators. Our recent study indicated cyclin D1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC that are proliferation-arrested by butyrate. Here we investigate whether cyclin D1 upregulation is a unique response of VSMC to butyrate or a general response to HDAC inhibitors (HDACi by evaluating the effects of butyrate and TSA on VSMC. While butyrate and TSA inhibit VSMC proliferation via cytostatic and cytotoxic effects, respectively, they downregulate cdk4, cdk6, and cdk2, and upregulate cyclin D3, p21Cip1 and p15INK4B, and cause similar effects on key histone H3 posttranslational modifications. Conversely, cyclin D1 is upregulated by butyrate and inhibited by TSA. Assessment of glycogen synthase 3-dependent phosphorylation, subcellular localization and transcription of cyclin D1 indicates that differential effects of butyrate and TSA on cyclin D1 levels are linked to disparity in cyclin D1 gene expression. Disparity in butyrate- and TSA-induced cyclin D1 may influence transcriptional regulation of genes that are associated with changes in cellular morphology/cellular effects that these HDACi confer on VSMC, as a transcriptional modulator.

  10. Silver nanoparticles inhibit the function of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and target genes: insight into the cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tieshan; Yao, Qian; Cao, Fei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Binlei; Wang, Xiu-Hong

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is activated upon exposure to hypoxic stress. It modulates a number of cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metabolism by activating a panel of target genes in response to hypoxia. The HIF-1 level is often upregulated in the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, which contributes to cancer treatment failure. Here we report that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are widely used as an antimicrobial agent, are an effective inhibitor of HIF-1. AgNPs inhibited the activation of a HIF-dependent reporter construct after the cells were exposed to hypoxic conditions or treated with cobalt chloride, a hypoxia mimetic agent. The AgNPs also interfered with the accumulation of HIF-1α protein and the induction of the endogenous HIF target genes, VEGF-A and GLUT1. Since both HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A play an important role in angiogenesis, AgNPs also inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Our data reveal a new mechanism of how AgNPs act on cellular function, that is, they disrupt HIF signaling pathway. This finding provides a novel insight into how AgNPs can inhibit cancer cell growth and angiogenesis.

  11. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. ROCK inhibition as a therapy for spinal muscular atrophy: understanding the repercussions on multiple cellular targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eCoque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is the most common genetic disease causing infant death, due to an extended loss of motoneurons. This neuromuscular disorder results from deletions and/or mutations within the surviving motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene, leading to a pathological decreased expression of functional full-length SMN protein. Emerging studies suggest that the small GTPase RhoA and its major downstream effector Rho kinase (ROCK, which both play an instrumental role in cytoskeleton organization, contribute to the pathology of motoneuron diseases. Indeed, an enhanced activation of RhoA and ROCK has been reported in the spinal cord of an SMA mouse model. Moreover, the treatment of SMA mice with ROCK inhibitors leads to an increased lifespan as well as improved skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction pathology, without preventing motoneuron degeneration. Although motoneurons are the primary target in SMA, an increasing number of reports show that other cell types inside and outside the central nervous system contribute to SMA pathogenesis. As administration of ROCK inhibitors to SMA mice was systemic, the improvement in survival and phenotype could therefore be attributed to specific effects on motoneurons and/or on other non-neuronal cell types. In the present review, we will present the various roles of the RhoA/ROCK pathway in several SMA cellular targets including neurons, myocytes, glial cells, cardiomyocytes and pancreatic cells as well as discuss how ROCK inhibition may ameliorate their health and function. It is most likely a concerted influence of ROCK modulation on all these cell types that ultimately lead to the observed benefits of pharmacological ROCK inhibition in SMA mice.

  13. ROCK inhibition as a therapy for spinal muscular atrophy: understanding the repercussions on multiple cellular targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coque, Emmanuelle; Raoul, Cédric; Bowerman, Mélissa

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetic disease causing infant death, due to an extended loss of motoneurons. This neuromuscular disorder results from deletions and/or mutations within the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, leading to a pathological decreased expression of functional full-length SMN protein. Emerging studies suggest that the small GTPase RhoA and its major downstream effector Rho kinase (ROCK), which both play an instrumental role in cytoskeleton organization, contribute to the pathology of motoneuron diseases. Indeed, an enhanced activation of RhoA and ROCK has been reported in the spinal cord of an SMA mouse model. Moreover, the treatment of SMA mice with ROCK inhibitors leads to an increased lifespan as well as improved skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction pathology, without preventing motoneuron degeneration. Although motoneurons are the primary target in SMA, an increasing number of reports show that other cell types inside and outside the central nervous system contribute to SMA pathogenesis. As administration of ROCK inhibitors to SMA mice was systemic, the improvement in survival and phenotype could therefore be attributed to specific effects on motoneurons and/or on other non-neuronal cell types. In the present review, we will present the various roles of the RhoA/ROCK pathway in several SMA cellular targets including neurons, myoblasts, glial cells, cardiomyocytes and pancreatic cells as well as discuss how ROCK inhibition may ameliorate their health and function. It is most likely a concerted influence of ROCK modulation on all these cell types that ultimately lead to the observed benefits of pharmacological ROCK inhibition in SMA mice. PMID:25221469

  14. Cellular changes in tears associated with keratoconjunctival responses induced by nasal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, Z

    2014-04-01

    Allergic keratoconjunctivitis occurs in a primary form, caused by an allergic reaction localized in the conjunctiva, and in a secondary form, induced by an allergic reaction originating in the nasal mucosa. Various hypersensitivity mechanisms involved in the keratoconjunctivitis forms result in different keratoconjunctival response types. To investigate the cytologic changes in tears during the secondary immediate (SIKCR), late (SLKCR), and delayed (SDYKCR) keratoconjunctival responses. In 61 patients, comprising 20 SIKCRs, 23 SLKCRs, and 18 SDYKCRs, nasal provocation tests (NPTs) with allergens and 61 phosphate-buffered control challenges were repeated and supplemented with cell counting in the tears. The SIKCR (Ptears. The SLKCR (Ptears. The cells, except mast, epithelial and goblet cells, displaying no intracellular changes, migrated probably from the conjunctival capillaries, in response to the factors released during the primary allergic reaction in the nasal mucosa and subsequently penetrating into the conjunctiva. These results demonstrate a causal role of nasal allergy and diagnostic value of NPT combined with recording of ocular features and cellular profiles in tears in some keratoconjunctivitis patients.

  15. Addition of Alanyl-Glutamine to Dialysis Fluid Restores Peritoneal Cellular Stress Responses - A First-In-Man Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kratochwill

    Full Text Available Peritonitis and ultrafiltration failure remain serious complications of chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD. Dysfunctional cellular stress responses aggravate peritoneal injury associated with PD fluid exposure, potentially due to peritoneal glutamine depletion. In this randomized cross-over phase I/II trial we investigated cytoprotective effects of alanyl-glutamine (AlaGln addition to glucose-based PDF.In a prospective randomized cross-over design, 20 stable PD outpatients underwent paired peritoneal equilibration tests 4 weeks apart, using conventional acidic, single chamber 3.86% glucose PD fluid, with and without 8 mM supplemental AlaGln. Heat-shock protein 72 expression was assessed in peritoneal effluent cells as surrogate parameter of cellular stress responses, complemented by metabolomics and functional immunocompetence assays.AlaGln restored peritoneal glutamine levels and increased the primary outcome heat-shock protein expression (effect 1.51-fold, CI 1.07-2.14; p = 0.022, without changes in peritoneal ultrafiltration, small solute transport, or biomarkers reflecting cell mass and inflammation. Further effects were glutamine-like metabolomic changes and increased ex-vivo LPS-stimulated cytokine release from healthy donor peripheral blood monocytes. In patients with a history of peritonitis (5 of 20, AlaGln supplementation decreased dialysate interleukin-8 levels. Supplemented PD fluid also attenuated inflammation and enhanced stimulated cytokine release in a mouse model of PD-associated peritonitis.We conclude that AlaGln-supplemented, glucose-based PD fluid can restore peritoneal cellular stress responses with attenuation of sterile inflammation, and may improve peritoneal host-defense in the setting of PD.

  16. Differential cellular responses in healthy mice and in mice with established airway inflammation when exposed to hematite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Åsa, E-mail: asa.gustafsson@foi.se [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Dept of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University (Sweden); Bergström, Ulrika [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Dept of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, SE-751 Uppsala (Sweden); Ågren, Lina [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Österlund, Lars [Dept of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 Uppsala (Sweden); Sandström, Thomas [Dept of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University (Sweden); Bucht, Anders [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Dept of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University (Sweden)

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory and immunological responses in airways and lung-draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), following lung exposure to iron oxide (hematite) nanoparticles (NPs). The responses to the hematite NPs were evaluated in both healthy non-sensitized mice, and in sensitized mice with an established allergic airway disease. The mice were exposed intratracheally to either hematite NPs or to vehicle (PBS) and the cellular responses were evaluated on days 1, 2, and 7, post-exposure. Exposure to hematite NPs increased the numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the airways of non-sensitized mice on days 1 and 2 post-exposure; at these time points the number of lymphocytes was also elevated in the LDLNs. In contrast, exposing sensitized mice to hematite NPs induced a rapid and unspecific cellular reduction in the alveolar space on day 1 post-exposure; a similar decrease of lymphocytes was also observed in the LDLN. The results indicate that cells in the airways and in the LDLN of individuals with established airway inflammation undergo cell death when exposed to hematite NPs. A possible explanation for this toxic response is the extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pro-oxidative environment of inflamed airways. This study demonstrates how sensitized and non-sensitized mice respond differently to hematite NP exposure, and it highlights the importance of including individuals with respiratory disorders when evaluating health effects of inhaled nanomaterials. - Highlights: • Hematite NPs induce differential responses in airways of healthy and allergic mice. • Hematite induced an airway inflammation in healthy mice. • Hematite induced cellular reduction in the alveolus and lymph nodes of allergic mice. • Cell death is possible due to extensive pro-oxidative environment in allergic mice. • It is important to include sensitive individuals when valuing health effects of NPs.

  17. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.

  18. The cellular immune response of Daphnia magna under host-parasite genetic variation and variation in initial dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Stuart K J R; Edel, Kai H; Little, Tom J

    2012-10-01

    In invertebrate-parasite systems, the likelihood of infection following parasite exposure is often dependent on the specific combination of host and parasite genotypes (termed genetic specificity). Genetic specificity can maintain diversity in host and parasite populations and is a major component of the Red Queen hypothesis. However, invertebrate immune systems are thought to only distinguish between broad classes of parasite. Using a natural host-parasite system with a well-established pattern of genetic specificity, the crustacean Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa, we found that only hosts from susceptible host-parasite genetic combinations mounted a cellular response following exposure to the parasite. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that genetic specificity is attributable to barrier defenses at the site of infection (the gut), and that the systemic immune response is general, reporting the number of parasite spores entering the hemocoel. Further supporting this, we found that larger cellular responses occurred at higher initial parasite doses. By studying the natural infection route, where parasites must pass barrier defenses before interacting with systemic immune responses, these data shed light on which components of invertebrate defense underlie genetic specificity. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Chronic inhibition of dopamine β-hydroxylase facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Gaval-Cruz

    Full Text Available The anti-alcoholism medication, disulfiram (Antabuse, decreases cocaine use in humans regardless of concurrent alcohol consumption and facilitates cocaine sensitization in rats, but the functional targets are unknown. Disulfiram inhibits dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH, the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA to norepinephrine (NE in noradrenergic neurons. The goal of this study was to test the effects of chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition on behavioral responses to cocaine using DBH knockout (Dbh -/- mice, disulfiram, and the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Locomotor activity was measured in control (Dbh +/- and Dbh -/- mice during a 5 day regimen of saline+saline, disulfiram+saline, nepicastat+saline, saline+cocaine, disulfiram+cocaine, or nepicastat+cocaine. After a 10 day withdrawal period, all groups were administered cocaine, and locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. Drug-naïve Dbh -/- mice were hypersensitive to cocaine-induced locomotion and resembled cocaine-sensitized Dbh +/- mice. Chronic disulfiram administration facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion in some mice and induced stereotypy in others during the development of sensitization, while cocaine-induced stereotypy was evident in all nepicastat-treated mice. Cocaine-induced stereotypy was profoundly increased in the disulfiram+cocaine, nepicastat+cocaine, and nepicastat+saline groups upon cocaine challenge after withdrawal in Dbh +/- mice. Disulfiram or nepicastat treatment had no effect on behavioral responses to cocaine in Dbh -/- mice. These results demonstrate that chronic DBH inhibition facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine, although different methods of inhibition (genetic vs. non-selective inhibitor vs. selective inhibitor enhance qualitatively different cocaine-induced behaviors.

  20. Chronic Inhibition of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Facilitates Behavioral Responses to Cocaine in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Liles, Larry Cameron; Iuvone, Paul Michael; Weinshenker, David

    2012-01-01

    The anti-alcoholism medication, disulfiram (Antabuse), decreases cocaine use in humans regardless of concurrent alcohol consumption and facilitates cocaine sensitization in rats, but the functional targets are unknown. Disulfiram inhibits dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic neurons. The goal of this study was to test the effects of chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition on behavioral responses to cocaine using DBH knockout (Dbh −/−) mice, disulfiram, and the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Locomotor activity was measured in control (Dbh +/−) and Dbh −/− mice during a 5 day regimen of saline+saline, disulfiram+saline, nepicastat+saline, saline+cocaine, disulfiram+cocaine, or nepicastat+cocaine. After a 10 day withdrawal period, all groups were administered cocaine, and locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. Drug-naïve Dbh −/− mice were hypersensitive to cocaine-induced locomotion and resembled cocaine-sensitized Dbh +/− mice. Chronic disulfiram administration facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion in some mice and induced stereotypy in others during the development of sensitization, while cocaine-induced stereotypy was evident in all nepicastat-treated mice. Cocaine-induced stereotypy was profoundly increased in the disulfiram+cocaine, nepicastat+cocaine, and nepicastat+saline groups upon cocaine challenge after withdrawal in Dbh +/− mice. Disulfiram or nepicastat treatment had no effect on behavioral responses to cocaine in Dbh −/− mice. These results demonstrate that chronic DBH inhibition facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine, although different methods of inhibition (genetic vs. non-selective inhibitor vs. selective inhibitor) enhance qualitatively different cocaine-induced behaviors. PMID:23209785

  1. A cross-sectional analysis of the development of response inhibition in children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Shapiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with cognitive impairments and significantly elevated risk for developing schizophrenia. While impairments in response inhibition are central to executive dysfunction in schizophrenia, the nature and development of such impairments in children with 22q11.2DS, a group at high risk for the disorder, are not clear. Here we used a classic Go/No-Go paradigm to quantify proactive (anticipatory stopping and reactive (actual stopping response inhibition in 47 children with 22q11.2DS and 36 typically developing (TD children, all ages 7-14. A cross-sectional design was used to examine age-related associations with response inhibition. When compared with TD individuals, children with 22q11.2DS demonstrated typical proactive response inhibition at all ages. By contrast, reactive response inhibition was impaired in children with 22q11.2DS relative to TD children. While older age predicted better reactive response inhibition in TD children, there was no age-related association with reactive response inhibition in children with 22q11.2DS. Closer examination of individual performance data revealed a wide range of performance abilities in older children with 22q11.2DS; some typical and others highly impaired. The results of this cross-sectional analysis suggest an impaired developmental trajectory of reactive response inhibition in some children with 22q11.2DS that might be related to atypical development of neuroanatomical systems underlying this cognitive process. As part of a larger study, this investigation might help identify risk factors for conversion to schizophrenia and lead to early diagnosis and preventive intervention.

  2. DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajadhar Bhakta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of pEGFP (plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein-encapsulated PEGylated (meaning polyethylene glycol coated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles (referred to as MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles for the induction of immune responses was investigated in a mouse model. MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles induced enhanced serum antibody and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte responses, as well as increased IFN-γ and IL-12 levels compared to naked pEGFP when administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal or intramuscular routes. A significant macrophage response, both in size and activity, was also observed when mice were immunized with the nanoparticle formulation. The response was highly specific for the antigen, as the increase in interaction between macrophages and lymphocytes as well as lymphocyte proliferation took place only when they were re-stimulated with recombinant green fluorescence protein (rGFP. Thus the nanoparticle formulation elicited both humoral as well as cellular responses. Cytokine profiling revealed the induction of Th-1 type responses. The results suggest DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate (MgPi nanoparticles may constitute a safer, more stable and cost-efficient DNA vaccine formulation.

  3. Stopping at the sight of food - How gender and obesity impact on response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlberg, Christoph; Mathar, David; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette; Neumann, Jane

    2016-12-01

    Recent research indicates that reduced inhibitory control is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), higher food craving and increased food intake. However, experimental evidence for the relationship between response inhibition and weight status is inconsistent and to date has been investigated predominantly in women. In the current study, 56 participants (26 obese, 30 lean; 27 female, 29 male) performed a Food Picture Rating Task followed by a Stop Signal Task where pictures of palatable high or low caloric food or non-food items were presented prior to the Go signal. We further assessed participants' self-reported eating behavior and trait impulsivity as potential factors influencing response inhibition, in particular within the food context. Independent of BMI, women showed significantly higher liking for low caloric food items than men. This was accompanied by shorter Stop Signal Reaction Times (SSRT) after high compared to low caloric food pictures for women, and shorter SSRT in women compared to men for high caloric food. No influence of gender on SSRT was observable outside of the food context. While SSRTs did not differ between obese and lean participants across the three picture categories, we found a moderating effect of trait impulsivity on the relationship between BMI and SSRT, specifically in the high caloric food context. Higher BMI was predictive of longer SSRT only for participants with low to normal trait impulsivity, pointing at a complex interplay between response inhibition, general impulsivity and weight status. Our results support the notion that individuals with obesity do not suffer from diminished response inhibition capacity per se. Rather, the ability to withhold a response depends on context and social norms, and strongly interacts with factors like gender and trait impulsivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects Radiation on Cellular Components of the Immune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    The immune system describes the body's ability to defend itself against various foreign intruders named as antigens by calling on an immune mechanism. Antigens penetration into body activate the body's immune system that may be humoral response, cellular response, or both. The immune response is primarily mediated by two cell types, lymphocyte and macrophage. This paper will discuss the cellular component of immune system and the radiation effects on various cells involved in system. Moreover, the effects of radiation on humoral and cellular responses and the relation among immunity, cancer and radiotherapy are also described. (author)

  5. Is transcranial direct current stimulation a potential method for improving response inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Jung Won

    2013-04-15

    Inhibitory control of movement in motor learning requires the ability to suppress an inappropriate action, a skill needed to stop a planned or ongoing motor response in response to changes in a variety of environments. This study used a stop-signal task to determine whether transcranial direct-current stimulation over the pre-supplementary motor area alters the reaction time in motor inhibition. Forty healthy subjects were recruited for this study and were randomly assigned to either the transcranial direct-current stimulation condition or a sham-transcranial direct-current stimulation condition. All subjects consecutively performed the stop-signal task before, during, and after the delivery of anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation over the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-transcranial direct-current stimulation phase, transcranial direct-current stimulation phase, and post-transcranial direct-current stimulation phase). Compared to the sham condition, there were significant reductions in the stop-signal processing times during and after transcranial direct-current stimulation, and change times were significantly greater in the transcranial direct-current stimulation condition. There was no significant change in go processing-times during or after transcranial direct-current stimulation in either condition. Anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation was feasibly coupled to an interactive improvement in inhibitory control. This coupling led to a decrease in the stop-signal process time required for the appropriate responses between motor execution and inhibition. However, there was no transcranial direct-current stimulation effect on the no-signal reaction time during the stop-signal task. Transcranial direct-current stimulation can adjust certain behaviors, and it could be a useful clinical intervention for patients who have difficulties with response inhibition.

  6. Hydroxyurea-Mediated Cytotoxicity Without Inhibition of Ribonucleotide Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Li Phing; Lim, Zun Yi; Cohen, Matan; Kong, Ziqing; Marjavaara, Lisette; Chabes, Andrei; Bell, Stephen D

    2016-11-01

    In many organisms, hydroxyurea (HU) inhibits class I ribonucleotide reductase, leading to lowered cellular pools of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. The reduced levels for DNA precursors is believed to cause replication fork stalling. Upon treatment of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus with HU, we observe dose-dependent cell cycle arrest, accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks, stalled replication forks, and elevated levels of recombination structures. However, Sulfolobus has a HU-insensitive class II ribonucleotide reductase, and we reveal that HU treatment does not significantly impact cellular DNA precursor pools. Profiling of protein and transcript levels reveals modulation of a specific subset of replication initiation and cell division genes. Notably, the selective loss of the regulatory subunit of the primase correlates with cessation of replication initiation and stalling of replication forks. Furthermore, we find evidence for a detoxification response induced by HU treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Msx homeobox genes inhibit differentiation through upregulation of cyclin D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Lee, H; Price, S M; Shen, M M; Abate-Shen, C

    2001-06-01

    During development, patterning and morphogenesis of tissues are intimately coordinated through control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. We describe a mechanism by which vertebrate Msx homeobox genes inhibit cellular differentiation by regulation of the cell cycle. We show that misexpression of Msx1 via retroviral gene transfer inhibits differentiation of multiple mesenchymal and epithelial progenitor cell types in culture. This activity of Msx1 is associated with its ability to upregulate cyclin D1 expression and Cdk4 activity, while Msx1 has minimal effects on cellular proliferation. Transgenic mice that express Msx1 under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR) display impaired differentiation of the mammary epithelium during pregnancy, which is accompanied by elevated levels of cyclin D1 expression. We propose that Msx1 gene expression maintains cyclin D1 expression and prevents exit from the cell cycle, thereby inhibiting terminal differentiation of progenitor cells. Our model provides a framework for reconciling the mutant phenotypes of Msx and other homeobox genes with their functions as regulators of cellular proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis.

  8. Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses of Eimeria tenella-Infected Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Parmentier, H.K.; Li, W.K.; Yang, Z.Q.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of polysaccharide extracts from 2 mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on cellular and humoral immune responses of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. A total of 150 broiler chicks were assigned to 5

  9. The role of focal adhesion kinase in the regulation of cellular mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of mechanical properties is necessary for cell invasion into connective tissue or intra- and extravasation through the endothelium of blood or lymph vessels. Cell invasion is important for the regulation of many healthy processes such as immune response reactions and wound healing. In addition, cell invasion plays a role in disease-related processes such as tumor metastasis and autoimmune responses. Until now the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in regulating mechanical properties of cells and its impact on cell invasion efficiency is still not well known. Thus, this review focuses on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. Moreover, it points out the connection between cancer cell invasion and metastasis and FAK by showing that FAK regulates cellular mechanical properties required for cellular motility. Furthermore, it sheds light on the indirect interaction of FAK with vinculin by binding to paxillin, which then impairs the binding of paxillin to vinculin. In addition, this review emphasizes whether FAK fulfills regulatory functions similar to vinculin. In particular, it discusses the differences and the similarities between FAK and vinculin in regulating the biomechanical properties of cells. Finally, this paper highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK, synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as stiffness and contractile forces. Subsequently, these mechanical properties determine cellular invasiveness into tissues and provide a source sink for future drug developments to inhibit excessive cell invasion and hence, metastases formation. (paper)

  10. The role of focal adhesion kinase in the regulation of cellular mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The regulation of mechanical properties is necessary for cell invasion into connective tissue or intra- and extravasation through the endothelium of blood or lymph vessels. Cell invasion is important for the regulation of many healthy processes such as immune response reactions and wound healing. In addition, cell invasion plays a role in disease-related processes such as tumor metastasis and autoimmune responses. Until now the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in regulating mechanical properties of cells and its impact on cell invasion efficiency is still not well known. Thus, this review focuses on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. Moreover, it points out the connection between cancer cell invasion and metastasis and FAK by showing that FAK regulates cellular mechanical properties required for cellular motility. Furthermore, it sheds light on the indirect interaction of FAK with vinculin by binding to paxillin, which then impairs the binding of paxillin to vinculin. In addition, this review emphasizes whether FAK fulfills regulatory functions similar to vinculin. In particular, it discusses the differences and the similarities between FAK and vinculin in regulating the biomechanical properties of cells. Finally, this paper highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK, synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as stiffness and contractile forces. Subsequently, these mechanical properties determine cellular invasiveness into tissues and provide a source sink for future drug developments to inhibit excessive cell invasion and hence, metastases formation.

  11. Steroid receptor coactivator 1 deficiency increases MMTV-neu mediated tumor latency and differentiation specific gene expression, decreases metastasis, and inhibits response to PPAR ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Seung; Crowe, David L

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily is activated by a variety of natural and synthetic ligands. PPARs can heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors, which have homology to other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Ligand binding to PPAR/RXRs results in recruitment of transcriptional coactivator proteins such as steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and CREB binding protein (CBP). Both SRC-1 and CBP are histone acetyltransferases, which by modifying nucleosomal histones, produce more open chromatin structure and increase transcriptional activity. Nuclear hormone receptors can recruit limiting amounts of coactivators from other transcription factor binding sites such as AP-1, thereby inhibiting the activity of AP-1 target genes. PPAR and RXR ligands have been used in experimental breast cancer therapy. The role of coactivator expression in mammary tumorigenesis and response to drug therapy has been the subject of recent studies. We examined the effects of loss of SRC-1 on MMTV-neu mediated mammary tumorigenesis. SRC-1 null mutation in mammary tumor prone mice increased the tumor latency period, reduced tumor proliferation index and metastasis, inhibited response to PPAR and RXR ligands, and induced genes involved in mammary gland differentiation. We also examined human breast cancer cell lines overexpressing SRC-1 or CBP. Coactivator overexpression increased cellular proliferation with resistance to PPAR and RXR ligands and remodeled chromatin of the proximal epidermal growth factor receptor promoter. These results indicate that histone acetyltransferases play key roles in mammary tumorigenesis and response to anti-proliferative therapies

  12. Perturbations of Amino Acid Metabolism Associated with Glyphosate-Dependent Inhibition of Shikimic Acid Metabolism Affect Cellular Redox Homeostasis and Alter the Abundance of Proteins Involved in Photosynthesis and Photorespiration1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Driscoll, Simon P.; Bulman, Christopher A.; Ying, Liu; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Mauve, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an integrated study of photosynthesis, leaf proteomes, amino acid profiles, and redox profiles in the glyphosate-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype PAN809 and glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS). RRS leaves accumulated much more glyphosate than the sensitive line but showed relatively few changes in amino acid metabolism. Photosynthesis was unaffected by glyphosate in RRS leaves, but decreased abundance of photosynthesis/photorespiratory pathway proteins was observed together with oxidation of major redox pools. While treatment of a sensitive genotype with glyphosate rapidly inhibited photosynthesis and triggered the appearance of a nitrogen-rich amino acid profile, there was no evidence of oxidation of the redox pools. There was, however, an increase in starvation-associated and defense proteins. We conclude that glyphosate-dependent inhibition of soybean leaf metabolism leads to the induction of defense proteins without sustained oxidation. Conversely, the accumulation of high levels of glyphosate in RRS enhances cellular oxidation, possibly through mechanisms involving stimulation of the photorespiratory pathway. PMID:21757634

  13. Evaluation of cellular influences caused by calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Nishio, Keiko; Kato, Haruhisa; Endoh, Shigehisa; Fujita, Katsuhide; Nakamura, Ayako; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2014-03-05

    The cellular effects of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) nanoparticles were evaluated. Three kinds of CaCO₃ nanoparticles were employed in our examinations. One of the types of CaCO₃ nanoparticles was highly soluble. And solubility of another type of CaCO₃ nanoparticle was lower. A stable CaCO₃ nanoparticle medium dispersion was prepared and applied to human lung carcinoma A549 cells and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Then, mitochondrial activity, cell membrane damage, colony formation ability, DNA injury, induction of oxidative stress, and apoptosis were evaluated. Although the influences of CaCO₃ nanoparticles on mitochondrial activity and cell membrane damage were small, "soluble" CaCO₃ nanoparticles exerted some cellular influences. Soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles also induced a cell morphological change. Colony formation was inhibited by CaCO₃ nanoparticle exposure. In particular, soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles completely inhibited colony formation. The influence on intracellular the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was small. Soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles caused an increase in C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) expression and the activation of caspase-3. Moreover, CaCO₃ exposure increased intracellular the Ca²⁺ level and activated calpain. These results suggest that cellular the influences of CaCO₃ nanoparticles are mainly caused by intracellular calcium release and subsequently disrupt the effect of calcium signaling. In conclusion, there is possibility that soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles induce cellular influences such as a cell morphological change. Cellular influence of CaCO₃ nanoparticles is caused by intracellular calcium release. If inhaled CaCO₃ nanoparticles have the potential to influence cellular events. However, the effect might be not severe because calcium is omnipresent element in cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Event-related fields evoked by vocal response inhibition: a comparison of younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Meneses, Leidy J; Johnson, Blake W; Sowman, Paul F

    2016-06-01

    The current study examined event-related fields (ERFs) evoked by vocal response inhibition in a stimulus-selective stop-signal task. We compared inhibition-related ERFs across a younger and an older group of adults. Behavioural results revealed that stop-signal reaction times (RTs), go-RTs, ignore-stop RTs and failed stop RTs were longer in the older, relative to the younger group by 38, 123, 149 and 116 ms, respectively. The amplitude of the ERF M2 peak (approximately 200 ms after the stop signal) evoked on successful stop trials was larger compared to that evoked on both failed stop and ignore-stop trials. The M4 peak (approximately 450 ms after stop signal) was of larger amplitude in both successful and failed stops compared to ignore-stop trials. In the older group, the M2, M3 and M4 peaks were smaller in amplitude and peaked later in time (by 24, 50 and 76 ms, respectively). We demonstrate that vocal response inhibition-related ERFs exhibit a similar temporal evolution to those previously described for manual response inhibition: an early peak at 200 ms (i.e. M2) that differentiates successful from failed stopping, and a later peak (i.e. M4) that is consistent with a neural marker of response checking and error processing. Across groups, our data support a more general decline of stimulus processing speed with age.

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Risk for Social Inhibition: the Interplay between Parental Responsiveness and Genetic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ge, Xiaojia; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    To better understand mechanisms underlying the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety, we used a prospective adoption design to examine the roles of genetic influences (inferred from birth mothers’ social phobia) and rearing environment (adoptive mothers’ and fathers’ responsiveness) on the development of socially inhibited, anxious behaviors in children between 18 and 27 months of age. The sample consisted of 275 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Results indicated that children whose birth mothers met criteria for the diagnosis of social phobia showed elevated levels of observed behavioral inhibition in a social situation at 27 months of age if their adoptive mothers provided less emotionally and verbally responsive rearing environments at 18 months of age. Conversely, in the context of higher levels of maternal responsiveness, children of birth mothers with a history of social phobia did not show elevated levels of behavioral inhibition. These findings on maternal responsiveness were replicated in a model predicting parent reports of child social anxiety. The findings are discussed in terms of genotype × environment interactions in the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety. PMID:23398764

  16. Intergenerational transmission of risk for social inhibition: the interplay between parental responsiveness and genetic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Ge, Xiaojia; Reiss, David

    2013-02-01

    To better understand mechanisms underlying the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety, we used a prospective adoption design to examine the roles of genetic influences (inferred from birth mothers' social phobia) and rearing environment (adoptive mothers' and fathers' responsiveness) on the development of socially inhibited, anxious behaviors in children between 18 and 27 months of age. The sample consisted of 275 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Results indicated that children whose birth mothers met criteria for the diagnosis of social phobia showed elevated levels of observed behavioral inhibition in a social situation at 27 months of age if their adoptive mothers provided less emotionally and verbally responsive rearing environments at 18 months of age. Conversely, in the context of higher levels of maternal responsiveness, children of birth mothers with a history of social phobia did not show elevated levels of behavioral inhibition. These findings on maternal responsiveness were replicated in a model predicting parent reports of child social anxiety. The findings are discussed in terms of gene-environment interactions in the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety.

  17. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid; Silva Mendes, Diego da; Melo, Christianne Bandeira; Martins, Marco Aurélio; Silva Dias, Celidarque da; Piuvezam, Márcia Regina

    2013-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca ++ influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  18. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Mendes, Diego da [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Melo, Christianne Bandeira [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Martins, Marco Aurélio [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Dias, Celidarque da [Laboratório de Fitoquímica, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Piuvezam, Márcia Regina, E-mail: mrpiuvezam@ltf.ufpb.br [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-15

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca{sup ++} influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  19. IFN-γ fails to overcome inhibition of selected macrophage activation events in response to pathogenic mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala Thirunavukkarasu

    Full Text Available According to most models of mycobacterial infection, inhibition of the pro-inflammatory macrophage immune responses contributes to the persistence of bacteria. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is a highly successful pathogen in cattle and sheep and is also implicated as the causative agent of Crohn's disease in humans. Pathogenic mycobacteria such as MAP have developed multiple strategies to evade host defence mechanisms including interfering with the macrophages' capacity to respond to IFN-γ, a feature which might be lacking in non-pathogenic mycobacteria such as M. smegmatis. We hypothesized that pre-sensitisation of macrophages with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ would help in overcoming the inhibitory effect of MAP or its antigens on macrophage inflammatory responses. Herein we have compared a series of macrophage activation parameters in response to MAP and M. smegmatis as well as mycobacterial antigens. While IFN-γ did overcome the inhibition in immune suppressive mechanisms in response to MAP antigen as well as M. smegmatis, we could not find a clear role for IFN-γ in overcoming the inhibition of macrophage inflammatory responses to the pathogenic mycobacterium, MAP. We demonstrate that suppression of macrophage defence mechanisms by pathogenic mycobacteria is unlikely to be overcome by prior sensitization with IFN-γ alone. This indicates that IFN-γ signaling pathway-independent mechanisms may exist for overcoming inhibition of macrophage effector functions in response to pathogenic mycobacteria. These findings have important implications in understanding the survival mechanisms of pathogenic mycobacteria directed towards finding better therapeutics and vaccination strategies.

  20. The yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase Slt2 is involved in the cellular response to genotoxic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano-Carot María

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maintenance of genomic integrity is essential for cell viability. Complex signalling pathways (DNA integrity checkpoints mediate the response to genotoxic stresses. Identifying new functions involved in the cellular response to DNA-damage is crucial. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SLT2 gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade whose main function is the maintenance of the cell wall integrity. However, different observations suggest that SLT2 may also have a role related to DNA metabolism. Results This work consisted in a comprehensive study to connect the Slt2 protein to genome integrity maintenance in response to genotoxic stresses. The slt2 mutant strain was hypersensitive to a variety of genotoxic treatments, including incubation with hydroxyurea (HU, methylmetanosulfonate (MMS, phleomycin or UV irradiation. Furthermore, Slt2 was activated by all these treatments, which suggests that Slt2 plays a central role in the cellular response to genotoxic stresses. Activation of Slt2 was not dependent on the DNA integrity checkpoint. For MMS and UV, Slt2 activation required progression through the cell cycle. In contrast, HU also activated Slt2 in nocodazol-arrested cells, which suggests that Slt2 may respond to dNTP pools alterations. However, neither the protein level of the distinct ribonucleotide reductase subunits nor the dNTP pools were affected in a slt2 mutant strain. An analysis of the checkpoint function revealed that Slt2 was not required for either cell cycle arrest or the activation of the Rad53 checkpoint kinase in response to DNA damage. However, slt2 mutant cells showed an elongated bud and partially impaired Swe1 degradation after replicative stress, indicating that Slt2 could contribute, in parallel with Rad53, to bud morphogenesis control after genotoxic stresses. Conclusions Slt2 is activated by several genotoxic treatments and is required to properly cope with DNA damage. Slt

  1. Melatonin Promotes Apoptosis of Oxaliplatin-resistant Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Inhibition of Cellular Prion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Yoon, Yeo Min; Han, Yong-Seok; Yun, Chul Won; Lee, Sang Hun

    2018-04-01

    Drug resistance restricts the efficacy of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of drug resistance in colorectal cancer cells remains unclear. The level of cellular prion protein (PrP C ) in oxaliplatin-resistant colorectal cancer (SNU-C5/Oxal-R) cells was assessed. PrP C level in SNU-C5/Oxal-R cells was significantly increased compared to that in wild-type (SNU-C5) cells. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were higher in SNU-C5/Oxal-R cells than in SNU-C5 cells. Treatment of SNU-C5/Oxal-R cells with oxaliplatin and melatonin reduced PrP C expression, while suppressing antioxidant enzyme activity and increasing superoxide anion generation. In SNU-C5/Oxal-R cells, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis were significantly increased following co-treatment with oxaliplatin and melatonin compared to treatment with oxaliplatin alone. Co-treatment with oxaliplatin and melatonin increased endoplasmic reticulum stress in and apoptosis of SNU-C5/Oxal-R cells through inhibition of PrP C , suggesting that PrP C could be a key molecule in oxaliplatin resistance of colorectal cancer cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic Discrimination of Select List Agents by Monitoring Cellular Responses in a Multianalyte Microphysiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wikswo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing the potential of cells as complex biosensors promises the potential to create sensitive and selective detectors for discrimination of biodefense agents. Here we present toxin detection and suggest discrimination using cells in a multianalyte microphysiometer (MMP that is capable of simultaneously measuring flux changes in four extracellular analytes (acidification rate, glucose uptake, oxygen uptake, and lactate production in real-time. Differential short-term cellular responses were observed between botulinum neurotoxin A and ricin toxin with neuroblastoma cells, alamethicin and anthrax protective antigen with RAW macrophages, and cholera toxin, muscarine, 2,4-dinitro-phenol, and NaF with CHO cells. These results and the post exposure dynamics and metabolic recovery observed in each case suggest the usefulness of cell-based detectors to discriminate between specific analytes and classes of compounds in a complex matrix, and furthermore to make metabolic inferences on the cellular effects of the agents. This may be particularly valuable for classifying unknown toxins.

  3. Inhibition of the mitotic exit network in response to damaged telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Valerio-Santiago

    Full Text Available When chromosomal DNA is damaged, progression through the cell cycle is halted to provide the cells with time to repair the genetic material before it is distributed between the mother and daughter cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this cell cycle arrest occurs at the G2/M transition. However, it is also necessary to restrain exit from mitosis by maintaining Bfa1-Bub2, the inhibitor of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN, in an active state. While the role of Bfa1 and Bub2 in the inhibition of mitotic exit when the spindle is not properly aligned and the spindle position checkpoint is activated has been extensively studied, the mechanism by which these proteins prevent MEN function after DNA damage is still unclear. Here, we propose that the inhibition of the MEN is specifically required when telomeres are damaged but it is not necessary to face all types of chromosomal DNA damage, which is in agreement with previous data in mammals suggesting the existence of a putative telomere-specific DNA damage response that inhibits mitotic exit. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism of MEN inhibition when telomeres are damaged relies on the Rad53-dependent inhibition of Bfa1 phosphorylation by the Polo-like kinase Cdc5, establishing a new key role of this kinase in regulating cell cycle progression.

  4. Green propolis phenolic compounds act as vaccine adjuvants, improving humoral and cellular responses in mice inoculated with inactivated vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geferson Fischer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants play an important role in vaccine formulations by increasing their immunogenicity. In this study, the phenolic compound-rich J fraction (JFR of a Brazilian green propolis methanolic extract stimulated cellular and humoral immune responses when co-administered with an inactivated vaccine against swine herpesvirus type 1 (SuHV-1. When compared to control vaccines that used aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, the use of 10 mg/dose of JFR significantly increased (p < 0.05 neutralizing antibody titres against SuHV-1, as well as the percentage of protected animals following SuHV-1 challenge (p < 0.01. Furthermore, addition of phenolic compounds potentiated the performance of the control vaccine, leading to increased cellular and humoral immune responses and enhanced protection of animals after SuHV-1 challenge (p < 0.05. Prenylated compounds such as Artepillin C that are found in large quantities in JFR are likely to be the substances that are responsible for the adjuvant activity.

  5. The chemopreventive effect of the dietary compound kaempferol on the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line is dependent on inhibition of glucose cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Cláudia; Correia-Branco, Ana; Araújo, João R; Guimarães, João T; Keating, Elisa; Martel, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of several dietary polyphenols on glucose uptake by breast cancer cells. Uptake of (3)H-deoxy-D-glucose ((3)H-DG) by MCF-7 cells was time-dependent, saturable, and inhibited by cytochalasin B plus phloridzin. In the short-term (26 min), myricetin, chrysin, genistein, resveratrol, kaempferol, and xanthohumol (10-100 µM) inhibited (3)H-DG uptake. Kaempferol was found to be the most potent inhibitor of (3)H-DG uptake [IC50 of 4 µM (1.6-9.8)], behaving as a mixed-type inhibitor. In the long-term (24 h), kaempferol (30 µM) was also able to inhibit (3)H-DG uptake, associated with a 40% decrease in GLUT1 mRNA levels. Interestingly enough, kaempferol (100 µM) revealed antiproliferative (sulforhodamine B and (3)H-thymidine incorporation assays) and cytotoxic (extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity determination) properties, which were mimicked by low extracellular (1 mM) glucose conditions and reversed by high extracellular (20 mM) glucose conditions. Finally, exposure of cells to kaempferol (30 µM) induced an increase in extracellular lactate levels over time (to 731 ± 32% of control after a 24 h exposure), due to inhibition of MCT1-mediated lactate cellular uptake. In conclusion, kaempferol potently inhibits glucose uptake by MCF-7 cells, apparently by decreasing GLUT1-mediated glucose uptake. The antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of kaempferol in these cells appears to be dependent on this effect.

  6. Sustained ERK inhibition maximizes responses of BrafV600E thyroid cancers to radioiodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajah, James; Le, Mina; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Bolaender, Alexander; Irwin, Christopher; Krishnamoorthy, Gnana Prakasam; Saqcena, Mahesh; Larson, Steven M; Ho, Alan L; Seshan, Venkatraman; Ishii, Nobuya; Carrasco, Nancy; Rosen, Neal; Weber, Wolfgang A; Fagin, James A

    2016-11-01

    Radioiodide (RAI) therapy of thyroid cancer exploits the relatively selective ability of thyroid cells to transport and accumulate iodide. Iodide uptake requires expression of critical genes that are involved in various steps of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. ERK signaling, which is markedly increased in thyroid cancer cells driven by oncogenic BRAF, represses the genetic program that enables iodide transport. Here, we determined that a critical threshold for inhibition of MAPK signaling is required to optimally restore expression of thyroid differentiation genes in thyroid cells and in mice with BrafV600E-induced thyroid cancer. Although the MEK inhibitor selumetinib transiently inhibited ERK signaling, which subsequently rebounded, the MEK inhibitor CKI suppressed ERK signaling in a sustained manner by preventing RAF reactivation. A small increase in ERK inhibition markedly increased the expression of thyroid differentiation genes, increased iodide accumulation in cancer cells, and thereby improved responses to RAI therapy. Only a short exposure to the drug was necessary to obtain a maximal response to RAI. These data suggest that potent inhibition of ERK signaling is required to adequately induce iodide uptake and indicate that this is a promising strategy for the treatment of BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer.

  7. Recombinant human prion protein inhibits prion propagation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jue; Zhan, Yi-An; Abskharon, Romany; Xiao, Xiangzhu; Martinez, Manuel Camacho; Zhou, Xiaochen; Kneale, Geoff; Mikol, Jacqueline; Lehmann, Sylvain; Surewicz, Witold K; Castilla, Joaquín; Steyaert, Jan; Zhang, Shulin; Kong, Qingzhong; Petersen, Robert B; Wohlkonig, Alexandre; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2013-10-09

    Prion diseases are associated with the conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into the pathological scrapie isoform (PrP(Sc)) in the brain. Both the in vivo and in vitro conversion of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc) is significantly inhibited by differences in amino acid sequence between the two molecules. Using protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), we now report that the recombinant full-length human PrP (rHuPrP23-231) (that is unglycosylated and lacks the glycophosphatidylinositol anchor) is a strong inhibitor of human prion propagation. Furthermore, rHuPrP23-231 also inhibits mouse prion propagation in a scrapie-infected mouse cell line. Notably, it binds to PrP(Sc), but not PrP(C), suggesting that the inhibitory effect of recombinant PrP results from blocking the interaction of brain PrP(C) with PrP(Sc). Our findings suggest a new avenue for treating prion diseases, in which a patient's own unglycosylated and anchorless PrP is used to inhibit PrP(Sc) propagation without inducing immune response side effects.

  8. Attention Diversion Improves Response Inhibition of Immediate Reward, But Only When it Is Beneficial: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Franco; O’Connor, David A.; Orr, Catherine; Murphy, Kevin; Hester, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Deficits of self-control are associated with a number of mental state disorders. The ability to direct attention away from an alluring stimulus appears to aid inhibition of an impulsive response. However, further functional imaging research is required to assess the impact of shifts in attention on self-regulating processes. We varied the level of attentional disengagement in an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based Go/No-go task to probe whether diversion of attention away from alluring stimuli facilitates response inhibition. We used the attention-grabbing characteristic of faces to exogenously direct attention away from stimuli and investigated the relative importance of attention and response inhibition mechanisms under different delayed reward scenarios [i.e., where forgoing an immediate reward ($1) led to a higher ($10) or no payoff in the future]. We found that diverting attention improved response inhibition performance, but only when resistance to an alluring stimulus led to delayed reward. Region of interest analyses indicated significant increased activity in posterior right inferior frontal gyrus during successful No-go trials for delayed reward trials compared to no delayed reward trials, and significant reduction in activity in the superior temporal gyri and left caudate in contexts of high attentional diversion. Our findings imply that strategies that increase the perceived benefits of response inhibition might assist individuals in abstaining from problematic impulsive behaviors. PMID:27616988

  9. Prestimulus neural oscillations inhibit visual perception via modulation of response gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumon, Maximilien; Busch, Niko A

    2014-11-01

    The ongoing state of the brain radically affects how it processes sensory information. How does this ongoing brain activity interact with the processing of external stimuli? Spontaneous oscillations in the alpha range are thought to inhibit sensory processing, but little is known about the psychophysical mechanisms of this inhibition. We recorded ongoing brain activity with EEG while human observers performed a visual detection task with stimuli of different contrast intensities. To move beyond qualitative description, we formally compared psychometric functions obtained under different levels of ongoing alpha power and evaluated the inhibitory effect of ongoing alpha oscillations in terms of contrast or response gain models. This procedure opens the way to understanding the actual functional mechanisms by which ongoing brain activity affects visual performance. We found that strong prestimulus occipital alpha oscillations-but not more anterior mu oscillations-reduce performance most strongly for stimuli of the highest intensities tested. This inhibitory effect is best explained by a divisive reduction of response gain. Ongoing occipital alpha oscillations thus reflect changes in the visual system's input/output transformation that are independent of the sensory input to the system. They selectively scale the system's response, rather than change its sensitivity to sensory information.

  10. Cellular Responses to Beta Blocker Exposures in Marine ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    β blockers are prescription drugs used for medical treatment of hypertension and arrhythmias. They prevent activation of adenylate cyclase and increases in blood pressure by limiting cAMP production and protein kinase A activation. After being taken therapeutically, β blockers may make their way to coastal habitats via discharge from waste water treatment plants, posing a potential risk to aquatic organisms. The aim of our research is to evaluate cellular biomarkers of β blocker exposure using two drugs, propranolol and metoprolol, in three commercially important marine bivalves -Crassostrea virginica, Mytilus edulis and Mercenaria mercenaria. Bivalves were obtained from Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA) and acclimated in the laboratory. Following acclimation, gills and hepatopancreas tissues were harvested and separately exposed to 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/l of each drug for 24 hours. Samples were preserved for cellular biomarker assays. Elevated cellular damage and changes in enzymatic activities were noted at environmentally relevant concentrations, and M. mercenaria was found to be the most sensitive bivalve out of the three species tested. These studies enhance our understanding of the potential impacts of commonly used prescription medication on organisms in coastal ecosystems, and demonstrate that filter feeders such as marine bivalves may serve as good model organisms to examine the effects of water soluble drugs. Evaluating a suite of biomarkers

  11. Acrolein-exposed normal human lung fibroblasts in vitro: cellular senescence, enhanced telomere erosion, and degradation of Werner's syndrome protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun-Ho; Bruse, Shannon; Huneidi, Salam; Schrader, Ronald M; Monick, Martha M; Lin, Yong; Carter, A Brent; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Nyunoya, Toru

    2014-09-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous environmental hazard to human health. Acrolein has been reported to activate the DNA damage response and induce apoptosis. However, little is known about the effects of acrolein on cellular senescence. We examined whether acrolein induces cellular senescence in cultured normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF). We cultured NHLF in the presence or absence of acrolein and determined the effects of acrolein on cell proliferative capacity, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, the known senescence-inducing pathways (e.g., p53, p21), and telomere length. We found that acrolein induced cellular senescence by increasing both p53 and p21. The knockdown of p53 mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated acrolein-induced cellular senescence. Acrolein decreased Werner's syndrome protein (WRN), a member of the RecQ helicase family involved in DNA repair and telomere maintenance. Acrolein-induced down-regulation of WRN protein was rescued by p53 knockdown or proteasome inhibition. Finally, we found that acrolein accelerated p53-mediated telomere shortening. These results suggest that acrolein induces p53-mediated cellular senescence accompanied by enhanced telomere attrition and WRN protein down-regulation.

  12. DuCLOX-2/5 Inhibition Attenuates Inflammatory Response and Induces Mitochondrial Apoptosis for Mammary Gland Chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetlana Gautam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a pursuit to define implications of dual cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX (DuCLOX-2/5 inhibition on various aspects of cancer augmentation and chemoprevention. The monotherapy and combination therapy of zaltoprofen (COX-2 inhibitor and zileuton (5-LOX inhibitor were validated for their effect against methyl nitrosourea (MNU induced mammary gland carcinoma in albino wistar rats. The combination therapy demarcated significant effect upon the cellular proliferation as evidenced through decreased in alveolar bud count and restoration of the histopathological architecture when compared to toxic control. DuCLOX-2/5 inhibition also upregulated levels of caspase-3 and caspase-8, and restored oxidative stress markers (GSH, TBARs, protein carbonyl, SOD and catalase. The immunoblotting and qRT-PCR studies revealed the participation of the mitochondrial mediated death apoptosis pathway along with favorable regulation of COX-2, 5-LOX. Aforementioned combination restored the metabolic changes to normal when scrutinized through 1H NMR studies. Henceforth, the DuCLOX-2/5 inhibition was recorded to import significant anticancer effects in comparison to either of the individual treatments.

  13. Inhibition of microRNA-153 protects neurons against ischemia/reperfusion injury in an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation cellular model by regulating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiong; Gao, Jianbo; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Xueli; Zhou, Qiangqiang; Shi, Canxia; Yao, Meng; Chen, Xia

    2017-07-01

    MicroRNAs are emerging as critical regulators in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury; however, their exact roles remain poorly understood. miR-153 is reported to be a neuron-related miRNA involved in neuroprotection. I