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Sample records for cellular plasticity fuel

  1. 33 CFR 183.552 - Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plastic encased fuel tanks... § 183.552 Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank encased in cellular plastic foam or in fiber reinforced plastic must have the connections, fittings, and labels accessible...

  2. External insulation with cellular plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Nielsen, Anker

    2014-01-01

    External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) can be used as extra insulation of existing buildings. The system can be made of cellular plastic materials or mineral wool. There is a European Technical guideline, ETAG 004, that describe the tests that shall be conducted on such systems....... This paper gives a comparison of systems with mineral wool and cellular plastic, based on experience from practice and literature. It is important to look at the details in the system and at long time stability of the properties such as thermal insulation, moisture and fire. Investigation of fire properties...... insulation....

  3. Cellular Plasticity in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dima Y. Jadaan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Experimental data suggest that tumour cells can reversibly transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states (EMT and MET, a phenomenon known as cellular plasticity. The aim of this review was to appraise the clinical evidence for the role of cellular plasticity in prostate cancer (PC bone metastasis. Methods. An electronic search was performed using PubMed for studies that have examined the differential expression of epithelial, mesenchymal, and stem cell markers in human PC bone metastasis tissues. Results. The review included nineteen studies. More than 60% of the studies used ≤20 bone metastasis samples, and there were several sources of heterogeneity between studies. Overall, most stem cell markers analysed, except for CXCR4, were positively expressed in bone metastasis tissues, while the expression of EMT and MET markers was heterogeneous between and within samples. Several EMT and stemness markers that are involved in osteomimicry, such as Notch, Met receptor, and Wnt/β pathway, were highly expressed in bone metastases. Conclusions. Clinical findings support the role of cellular plasticity in PC bone metastasis and suggest that epithelial and mesenchymal states cannot be taken in isolation when targeting PC bone metastasis. The paper also highlights several challenges in the clinical detection of cellular plasticity.

  4. Molecular kinesis in cellular function and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedge, H; Bloom, F E; Richter, D

    2001-06-19

    Intracellular transport and localization of cellular components are essential for the functional organization and plasticity of eukaryotic cells. Although the elucidation of protein transport mechanisms has made impressive progress in recent years, intracellular transport of RNA remains less well understood. The National Academy of Sciences Colloquium on Molecular Kinesis in Cellular Function and Plasticity therefore was devised as an interdisciplinary platform for participants to discuss intracellular molecular transport from a variety of different perspectives. Topics covered at the meeting included RNA metabolism and transport, mechanisms of protein synthesis and localization, the formation of complex interactive protein ensembles, and the relevance of such mechanisms for activity-dependent regulation and synaptic plasticity in neurons. It was the overall objective of the colloquium to generate momentum and cohesion for the emerging research field of molecular kinesis.

  5. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  6. Cellular and molecular connections between sleep and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benington, Joel H; Frank, Marcos G

    2003-02-01

    The hypothesis that sleep promotes learning and memory has long been a subject of active investigation. This hypothesis implies that sleep must facilitate synaptic plasticity in some way, and recent studies have provided evidence for such a function. Our knowledge of both the cellular neurophysiology of sleep states and of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity has expanded considerably in recent years. In this article, we review findings in these areas and discuss possible mechanisms whereby the neurophysiological processes characteristic of sleep states may serve to facilitate synaptic plasticity. We address this issue first on the cellular level, considering how activation of T-type Ca(2+) channels in nonREM sleep may promote either long-term depression or long-term potentiation, as well as how cellular events of REM sleep may influence these processes. We then consider how synchronization of neuronal activity in thalamocortical and hippocampal-neocortical networks in nonREM sleep and REM sleep could promote differential strengthening of synapses according to the degree to which activity in one neuron is synchronized with activity in other neurons in the network. Rather than advocating one specific cellular hypothesis, we have intentionally taken a broad approach, describing a range of possible mechanisms whereby sleep may facilitate synaptic plasticity on the cellular and/or network levels. We have also provided a general review of evidence for and against the hypothesis that sleep does indeed facilitate learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity.

  7. Cellular and molecular bases of memory: synaptic and neuronal plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J H; Ko, G Y; Kelly, P T

    1997-07-01

    Discoveries made during the past decade have greatly improved our understanding of how the nervous system functions. This review article examines the relation between memory and the cellular mechanisms of neuronal and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. Evidence indicating that activity-dependent short- and long-term changes in strength of synaptic transmission are important for memory processes is examined. Focus is placed on one model of synaptic plasticity called long-term potentiation, and its similarities with memory processes are illustrated. Recent studies show that the regulation of synaptic strength is bidirectional (e.g., synaptic potentiation or depression). Mechanisms involving intracellular signaling pathways that regulate synaptic strength are described, and the specific roles of calcium, protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and retrograde messengers are emphasized. Evidence suggests that changes in synaptic ultrastructure, dendritic ultrastructure, and neuronal gene expression may also contribute to mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. Also discussed are recent findings about postsynaptic mechanisms that regulate short-term synaptic facilitation and neuronal burst-pattern activity, as well as evidence about the subcellular location (presynaptic or postsynaptic) of mechanisms involved in long-term synaptic plasticity.

  8. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%, and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%, and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

  9. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, M.; Al-Mamun, M. R.; Hasan, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. PMID:27433168

  10. Investigation of Performance Analysis and Emission Characteristics of Waste Plastic Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, M.; Ramasubramanian, S.; Pugazhenthi, R.; Sivaganesan

    2017-03-01

    Today the world is confronted with the twin crisis of fossil fuel depletion and stringent emission norms, because of the environmental awareness. The disposal and degradation of waste plastic is a major issue and scarcities of fuel were major focus area of the researchers. In this virtue the waste plastic fuel extraction makes more attention to the researchers. In this research work focused to find the performance of the waste plastic fuel and compared to diesel. The waste plastic fuel extract from thermal cracking method this process the polymer chains were breakdown into useful lower molecular weight compounds and it becomes plastic pyrolysis it can be utilized as a fuel. The properties of the waste plastic fuel is obtained by various testing process and which is analyze and compare with the fossil fuel diesel. It is found that almost it has similar properties to the diesel and almost all properties of the pyrolysis is closer to that of diesel. The characteristics of the pyrolysis were tested in the engine test bed. The pyrolysis / waste plastic fuel can be directly used in diesel engines over the entire load spectrum smoothly without any major modification. The performance of the waste plastic fuel / pyrolysis is evidenced that it is one of the best alternative fuel as well as the waste plastic can be converted into a useful fuel

  11. Cellular plasticity of CD4+ T cells in the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena eBrucklacher-Waldert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Barrier sites such as the gastrointestinal tract are in constant contact with the environment which contains both beneficial and harmful components. The immune system at the epithelia must make the distinction between these components to balance tolerance, protection and immunopathology. This is achieved via multifaceted immune recognition, highly organised lymphoid structures and the interaction of many types of immune cells. The adaptive immune response in the gut is orchestrated by CD4+ helper T (Th cells which are integral to gut immunity. In recent years it has become apparent that the functional identity of these Th cells is not as fixed as initially thought. Plasticity in differentiated T cell subsets has now been firmly established, in both health and disease. The gut, in particular, utilises CD4+ T cell plasticity to mould CD4+ T cell phenotypes to maintain its finely poised balance of tolerance and inflammation and to encourage biodiversity within the enteric microbiome. In this review we will discuss intestinal helper T cell plasticity and our current understanding of its mechanisms, including our growing knowledge of an evolutionarily ancient symbiosis between microbiota and malleable CD4+ T cell effectors.

  12. Cancer Stem Cells: Cellular Plasticity, Niche, and its Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gina; Hall, Robert R; Ahmed, Atique U

    2016-10-01

    Cancer handles an estimated 7.6 million deaths worldwide per annum. A recent theory focuses on the role Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in driving tumorigenesis and disease progression. This theory hypothesizes that a population of the tumor cell with similar functional and phenotypic characteristics as normal tissue stem cells are responsible for formation and advancement of many human cancers. The CSCs subpopulation can differentiate into non-CSC tumor cells and promote phenotypic and functional heterogeneity within the tumor. The presence of CSCs has been reported in a number of human cancers including blood, breast, brain, colon, lung, pancreas prostate and liver. Although the origin of CSCs remains a mystery, recent reports suggest that the phenotypic characteristics of CSCs may be plastic and are influenced by the microenvironment specific for the individual tumor. Such factors unique to each tumor preserve the dynamic balance between CSCs to non-CSCs cell fate, as well as maintain the proper equilibrium. Alternating such equilibrium via dedifferentiation can result in aggressiveness, as CSCs are considered to be more resistant to the conventional cancer treatments of chemotherapy and radiation. Understanding how the tumoral microenvironment affects the plasticity driven CSC niche will be critical for developing a more effective treatment for cancer by eliminating its aggressive and recurring nature that now is believed to be perpetuated by CSCs.

  13. Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    transition occurs is unknown. In this proposal, we are studying the molecular and cellular mechanisms that cause this transition to occur in...weekly cancer center and pathology grand rounds amongst others. d. How were the results disseminated to communities of interest? Nothing to report...process and obtain high quality data recently. Therefore, we will be performing RNA sequencing on samples of EGFR mutant SCLC in the next couple of

  14. Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of notch effect in cellular plastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsavina, L.; Linul, E.; Voiconi, T.; Negru, R.

    2016-04-01

    Cellular plastics are light weight structures with many applications in civil, aeronautical, automotive and mechanical engineering. Properties of cellular materials depend on the properties of the solid material, on the shape and dimensions of the cellular structure and on the relative density of the cellular material. Most of cellular plastic materials are crushing in compression and have a brittle behavior in tension. The effect of notches represents an important issue in such materials, taking into account that for packing applications for example, notches/holes should be introduced in the cellular material. This paper investigates the effect of notches in compression for three different densities 100, 145 and 300 kg/m3 polyurethane (PUR) foams. Experimental investigations were performed on rectangular blocks of 100×100×25 mm with 16, 28 and 40 mm central holes. The mechanism of damage was monitored with an IR camera FLIR A40M. Purpose of the numerical simulations was to calibrate a material model, based on compression test for un-notched specimens using the CRUSHABLE FOAM models implemented in ABAQUS SIMULIA. Then the material models were used to simulate the experimental tests on notched blocks. Good agreement was obtained for the load - displacement curves obtained experimentally and from simulation. Also the plastic deformation patterns observed experimentally by IR thermograpghy were obtained numerically using the CRUSHABLE FOAM material model.

  15. CANCELLED EMT and back again: does cellular plasticity fuelneoplasticprogressi on?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turley, Eva A.; Veiseh, Mandana; Radisky, Derek C.; Bissell, MinaJ.

    2007-02-24

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular transdifferentiation program that facilitates organ morphogenesis and tissue remodeling in physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing. However, a similar phenotypic conversion is also detected in fibrotic diseases and neoplasia, in which it is associated with disease progression. EMT in cancer epithelial cells often appears to be an incomplete and bi-directional process. Here we discuss the phenomenon of EMT as it pertains to tumor development, focusing on exceptions to the commonly held rule that EMT promotes invasion and metastasis. We also highlight the role of the Ras-controlled signaling mediators, ERK1, ERK2 and PI3-kinase, as microenvironmental responsive regulators of EMT.

  16. Three-dimensional thermal aging and dimensional stability of cellular plastic insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Youchen; Kokko, E. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Puilding Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    The requirement of producing environmental-friendly plastic foam results in the replacement of the traditional blowing agents, CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), with zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) alternatives. The tool which is able to evaluate the quality of the new generation of plastic foams becomes practically important. A 3-dimensional (3-D) heat and mass (gases) transfer model with respect to rigid closed-cell cellular plastics has been carefully deduced and furnished based on our previous understanding of such problems. To solve the 3-D parabolic partial differential equations subject to the third type of boundary conditions, a modified alternative direction implicit (AD I) finite difference method was developed by using the natural laws. To predict the long-term dimensional stability of a plastic foam insulation in air, a simplified mechanical model has been presented. In addition, to closure the prediction of foam dimensional stability, we have deduced a general relationship between the elastic modulus (Young`s modulus) of a rigid closed-cell cellular plastic, E{sub f} and its density, {phi}{sub p}. In comparison to the published measurements and other two well-known E{sub f} - {phi}{sub p} models, it is found that our E{sub f} - up relationship gives better prediction and is valid over the entire rigid plastic foam density range. Thermal aging and average volume change of zero ODP foams with different facing will be addressed. In addition, the application of the model shows the effects of foam dimension and facing on its thermal aging and deformation. (orig.) (13 refs.)

  17. Short-term plasticity in thalamocortical pathways: cellular mechanisms and functional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alamancos, M A

    1997-01-01

    Information reaches the neocortex through different types of thalamocortical pathways. These differ in many morphological and physiological properties. One interesting aspect in which thalamocortical pathways differ is in their temporal dynamics, such as their short-term plasticity. Primary pathways display frequency-dependent depression, while secondary pathways display frequency-dependent enhancement. The cellular mechanisms underlying these dynamic responses involve pre- and post-synaptic and circuit properties. They may serve to synchronize, amplify and/or filter neural activity in neocortex depending on behavioral demands, and thus to adapt each pathway to its specific function.

  18. Converting Biomass and Waste Plastic to Solid Fuel Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zannikos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the production of briquettes for household use from biomass in combination with plastic materials from different sources. Additionally, the combustion characteristics of the briquettes in a common open fireplace were studied. It is clear that the geometry of the briquettes has no influence on the smoke emissions. When the briquettes have a small amount of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, the behavior in the combustion is steadier because of the increase of oxygen supply. The smoke levels are between the 3rd and 4th grades of the smoke number scale. Measuring the carbon monoxide emission, it was observed that the burning of the plastic in the mixture with biomass increases the carbon monoxide emissions from 10% to 30% as compared to carbon monoxide emission from sawdust biomass emissions which was used as a reference.

  19. Converting Biomass and Waste Plastic to Solid Fuel Briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    Zannikos, F.; Kalligeros, S.; Anastopoulos, G.; Lois, E.

    2013-01-01

    This work examines the production of briquettes for household use from biomass in combination with plastic materials from different sources. Additionally, the combustion characteristics of the briquettes in a common open fireplace were studied. It is clear that the geometry of the briquettes has no influence on the smoke emissions. When the briquettes have a small amount of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), the behavior in the combustion is steadier because of the increase of oxygen supply. T...

  20. Waste plastics as supplemental fuel in the blast furnace process: improving combustion efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Shin, Sunghye; Sohn, Seungman; Choi, Jinshik; Ban, Bongchan

    2002-10-14

    The possibility of using waste plastics as a source of secondary fuel in a blast furnace has been of recent interest. The success of this process, however, will be critically dependent upon the optimization of operating systems. For instance, the supply of waste plastics must be reliable as well as economically attractive compared with conventional secondary fuels such as heavy oil, natural gas and pulverized coal. In this work, we put special importance on the improvement of the combustibility of waste plastics as a way to enhance energy efficiency in a blast furnace. As experimental variables to approach this target, the effects of plastic particle size, blast temperature, and the level of oxygen enrichment were investigated using a custom-made blast model designed to simulate a real furnace. Lastly, the combustion efficiency of the mixture of waste plastics and pulverized coal was tested. The observations made from these experiments led us to the conclusion that with the increase of both blast temperature and the level of oxygen enrichment, and with a decrease in particle size, the combustibility of waste polyethylene could be improved at a given distance from the tuyere. Also it was found that the efficiency of coal combustion decreased with the addition of plastics; however, the combustion efficiency of mixture could be comparable at a longer distance from the tuyere.

  1. Control of Cellular Arrangement by Surface Topography Induced by Plastic Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aira Matsugaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The anisotropic microstructure of bone tissue is crucial for appropriate mechanical and biological functions of bone. We recently revealed that the construction of oriented bone matrix is established by osteoblast alignment; there is a quite unique correlation between cell alignment and cell-produced bone matrix orientation governed by the molecular interactions between material surface and cells. Titanium and its alloys are one of the most attractive materials for biomedical applications. We previously succeeded in controlling cellular arrangement using the dislocations of a crystallographic slip system in titanium single crystals with hexagonal close-packing (hcp crystal lattice. Here, we induced a specific surface topography by deformation twinning and dislocation motion to control cell orientation. Dislocation and deformation twinning were introduced into α-titanium polycrystals in compression, inducing a characteristic surface structure involving nanometer-scale highly concentrated twinning traces. The plastic deformation-induced surface topography strongly influenced osteoblast orientation, causing them to align preferentially along the slip and twinning traces. This surface morphology, exhibiting a characteristic grating structure, controlled the localization of focal adhesions and subsequent elongation of stress fibers in osteoblasts. These results indicate that cellular responses against dislocation and deformation twinning are useful for controlling osteoblast alignment and the resulting bone matrix anisotropy.

  2. Cellular plasticity enables adaptation to unforeseen cell-cycle rewiring challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Katzir

    Full Text Available The fundamental dynamics of the cell cycle, underlying cell growth and reproduction, were previously found to be robust under a wide range of environmental and internal perturbations. This property was commonly attributed to its network structure, which enables the coordinated interactions among hundreds of proteins. Despite significant advances in deciphering the components and autonomous interactions of this network, understanding the interfaces of the cell cycle with other major cellular processes is still lacking. To gain insight into these interfaces, we used the process of genome-rewiring in yeast by placing an essential metabolic gene HIS3 from the histidine biosynthesis pathway, under the exclusive regulation of different cell-cycle promoters. In a medium lacking histidine and under partial inhibition of the HIS3p, the rewired cells encountered an unforeseen multitasking challenge; the cell-cycle regulatory genes were required to regulate the essential histidine-pathway gene in concert with the other metabolic demands, while simultaneously driving the cell cycle through its proper temporal phases. We show here that chemostat cell populations with rewired cell-cycle promoters adapted within a short time to accommodate the inhibition of HIS3p and stabilized a new phenotypic state. Furthermore, a significant fraction of the population was able to adapt and grow into mature colonies on plates under such inhibiting conditions. The adapted state was shown to be stably inherited across generations. These adaptation dynamics were accompanied by a non-specific and irreproducible genome-wide transcriptional response. Adaptation of the cell-cycle attests to its multitasking capabilities and flexible interface with cellular metabolic processes and requirements. Similar adaptation features were found in our previous work when rewiring HIS3 to the GAL system and switching cells from galactose to glucose. Thus, at the basis of cellular plasticity is

  3. A strategy for tissue self-organization that is robust to cellular heterogeneity and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiari, Alec E; Garbe, James C; Jee, Noel Y; Todhunter, Michael E; Broaders, Kyle E; Peehl, Donna M; Desai, Tejal A; LaBarge, Mark A; Thomson, Matthew; Gartner, Zev J

    2015-02-17

    Developing tissues contain motile populations of cells that can self-organize into spatially ordered tissues based on differences in their interfacial surface energies. However, it is unclear how self-organization by this mechanism remains robust when interfacial energies become heterogeneous in either time or space. The ducts and acini of the human mammary gland are prototypical heterogeneous and dynamic tissues comprising two concentrically arranged cell types. To investigate the consequences of cellular heterogeneity and plasticity on cell positioning in the mammary gland, we reconstituted its self-organization from aggregates of primary cells in vitro. We find that self-organization is dominated by the interfacial energy of the tissue-ECM boundary, rather than by differential homo- and heterotypic energies of cell-cell interaction. Surprisingly, interactions with the tissue-ECM boundary are binary, in that only one cell type interacts appreciably with the boundary. Using mathematical modeling and cell-type-specific knockdown of key regulators of cell-cell cohesion, we show that this strategy of self-organization is robust to severe perturbations affecting cell-cell contact formation. We also find that this mechanism of self-organization is conserved in the human prostate. Therefore, a binary interfacial interaction with the tissue boundary provides a flexible and generalizable strategy for forming and maintaining the structure of two-component tissues that exhibit abundant heterogeneity and plasticity. Our model also predicts that mutations affecting binary cell-ECM interactions are catastrophic and could contribute to loss of tissue architecture in diseases such as breast cancer.

  4. Cellular basis of morphological variation and temperature-related plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster strains with divergent wing shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Libéria Souza; Mattos, Daniel; Matta, Bruna Palma; Bitner-Mathé, Blanche Christine

    2014-12-01

    Organ shape evolves through cross-generational changes in developmental patterns at cellular and/or tissue levels that ultimately alter tissue dimensions and final adult proportions. Here, we investigated the cellular basis of an artificially selected divergence in the outline shape of Drosophila melanogaster wings, by comparing flies with elongated or rounded wing shapes but with remarkably similar wing sizes. We also tested whether cellular plasticity in response to developmental temperature was altered by such selection. Results show that variation in cellular traits is associated with wing shape differences, and that cell number may play an important role in wing shape response to selection. Regarding the effects of developmental temperature, a size-related plastic response was observed, in that flies reared at 16 °C developed larger wings with larger and more numerous cells across all intervein regions relative to flies reared at 25 °C. Nevertheless, no conclusive indication of altered phenotypic plasticity was found between selection strains for any wing or cellular trait. We also described how cell area is distributed across different intervein regions. It follows that cell area tends to decrease along the anterior wing compartment and increase along the posterior one. Remarkably, such pattern was observed not only in the selected strains but also in the natural baseline population, suggesting that it might be canalized during development and was not altered by the intense program of artificial selection for divergent wing shapes.

  5. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette

  6. Profile extrusion of wood plastic cellular composites and formulation evaluation using compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rubyet

    Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) have experienced a healthy growth during the last decade. However, improvement in properties is necessary to increase their utility for structural applications. The toughness of WPCs can be improved by creating a fine cellular structure while reducing the density. Extrusion processing is one of the most economical methods for profile formation. For our study, rectangular profiles were extruded using a twin-screw extrusion system with different grades of HDPE and with varying wood fibre and lubricant contents together with maleated polyethylene (MAPE) coupling agent to investigate their effects on WPC processing and mechanical properties. Work has been done to redesign the extrusion system setup to achieve smoother and stronger profiles. A guiding shaper, submerged in the water, has been designed to guide the material directly through water immediately after exiting the die; instead of passing it through a water cooled vacuum calibrator and then through water. In this way a skin was formed quickly that facilitated the production of smoother profiles. Later on chemical blowing agent (CBA) was used to generate cellular structure in the profile by the same extrusion system. CBA contents die temperatures, drawdown ratios (DDR) and wood fibre contents (WF) were varied for optimization of mechanical properties and morphology. Cell morphology and fibre alignment was characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A new compression molding system was developed to help in quick evaluation of different material formulations. This system forces the materials to flow in one direction to achieve higher net alignment of fibres during sample preparation, which is the case during profile extrusion. Operation parameters were optimized and improvements in WPC properties were observed compared to samples prepared by conventional hot press and profile extrusion.

  7. Polystyrene (PS waste plastic conversion into aviation/kerosene category of fuel by using fractional column distillation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Muhammad Sadikur Rahman, Mohammed Molla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and depleting fuel reserves are matters of great concern around the global. Solid waste plastic is currently receiving renewed interest for fuel generation. Waste plastic to fuel is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in the world because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively low environmental degradation. A post-commercial PS polymer waste was thermal degradation and fractional distillation without catalysts using a steel reactor operating thermally at ambient pressure under fume hood without vacuum system. Two types of temperature profile was used for this experiment such as PS waste plastic liquefaction purposed temperature used 100-400 ºC and fractional column distillation temperature was used 180-305 ºC for collection kerosene or aviation grade fuel. Produced fuel was analyzed by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometer and fuel hydrocarbon range showed into GC/MS analysis is C6 to C16.

  8. An experimental study on usage of plastic oil and B20 algae biodiesel blend as substitute fuel to diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesha, D K; Kumara, G Prema; Lalsaheb; Mohammed, Aamir V T; Mohammad, Haseeb A; Kasma, Mufteeb Ain

    2016-05-01

    Usage of plastics has been ever increasing and now poses a tremendous threat to the environment. Millions of tons of plastics are produced annually worldwide, and the waste products have become a common feature at overflowing bins and landfills. The process of converting waste plastic into value-added fuels finds a feasible solution for recycling of plastics. Thus, two universal problems such as problems of waste plastic management and problems of fuel shortage are being tackled simultaneously. Converting waste plastics into fuel holds great promise for both the environmental and economic scenarios. In order to carry out the study on plastic wastes, the pyrolysis process was used. Pyrolysis runs without oxygen and in high temperature of about 250-300 °C. The fuel obtained from plastics is blended with B20 algae oil, which is a biodiesel obtained from microalgae. For conducting the various experiments, a 10-HP single-cylinder four-stroke direct-injection water-cooled diesel engine is employed. The engine is made to run at 1500 rpm and the load is varied gradually from 0 to 100 %. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics are observed. The BTE was observed to be higher with respect to diesel for plastic-biodiesel blend and biodiesel blend by 15.7 and 12.9 %, respectively, at full load. For plastic-biodiesel blend, the emission of UBHC and CO decreases with a slight increase in NO x as compared to diesel. It reveals that fuel properties are comparable with petroleum products. Also, the process of converting plastic waste to fuel has now turned the problems into an opportunity to make wealth from waste.

  9. Solid-shape energy fuels from recyclable municipal solid waste and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, Jeongin

    Diversion of waste streams, such as plastics, wood and paper, from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest across the country, especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling MSW (municipal solid waste) is to burn the high energy content components in standard coal boilers. This research seeks to reform wastes into briquette that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, moisture resistance, and retain high fuel value. Household waste with high paper and fibers content was used as the base material for this study. It was combined with recyclable plastics such as PE, PP, PET and PS for enhanced binding and energy efficiency. Fuel pellets were processed using a compression molding technique. The resulting moisture absorption, proximate analysis from burning, and mechanical properties were investigated after sample production and then compared with reference data for commercial coals and biomass briquettes. The effects of moisture content, compression pressure and processing temperature were studied to identify the optimal processing conditions with water uptake tests for the durability of samples under humid conditions and burning tests to examine the composition of samples. Lastly, mechanical testing revealed the structural stability of solid fuels. The properties of fuel briquettes produced from waste and recycled plastics improved with higher processing temperature but without charring the material. Optimization of moisture content and removal of air bubbles increased the density, stability and mechanical strength. The sample composition was found to be more similar to biomass fuels than coals because the majority of the starting material was paper-based solid waste. According to the proximate analysis results, the waste fuels can be expected to have

  10. Car plastic fuel tanks: closed loop recycling process, design and lifecycle assessment (RECAFUTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yernaux, J-M. [SOLVAY SA, Research and Technology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    A cooperative European Union-sponsored project to recycle high density plastic material from used automobile fuel tanks back into the original application is discussed. The goal of the project was to introduce 40 per cent of regenerate into new plastic fuel tanks. The project involved the development of design-for-recycling guidelines, development of a process for efficient recovery of the material by using super-critical carbon dioxide directly in the extruder, development of a process for upgrading the recycled material, and life cycle assessment to determine the reliability of the recycling process by comparing it to other alternatives such as landfilling or energy recovery. The project was recently completed and international validation tests are currently underway. The feasibility of upgrading the laboratory extrusion facility to industrial scale is in the process of being evaluated, concurrently with the development of an appropriate business plan. 7 figs.

  11. A new technology proposed to recycle waste plastics into hydrocarbon fuel in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Mohammed Molla, Muhammad Sadikur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis and environmental degradation by polymer wastes have been imperative to find and propose technologies for recovery of raw materials and energy from non-conventional sources like plastic wastes. A variety of methods and processes connected with global or national policies have been proposed worldwide. A new type of steel reactor is proposed for conversion of waste plastics to fuel like mixture of hydrocarbons. The results of the thermal degradation of waste plastics in the laboratory scale set-up based on this process in the paper. The melting and thermal cracking processes were carried out in a single batch process at the temperature range is 200–420 ºC. The final product consisted of light gas 6.3 % and liquid product 90%. 3.7% solid black products were produced. The light, ‘‘gas” fraction of the hydrocarbons mixture (C1–C4 and rest of liquid fuel made over 90% of the liquid product. It may be used for fuel production refinery or electricity generation.

  12. Postnatal odorant exposure induces peripheral olfactory plasticity at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiou, Hervé; Aoudé, Imad; Tazir, Bassim; Molinas, Adrien; Fenech, Claire; Meunier, Nicolas; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2014-04-01

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) form the primary elements of the olfactory system. Inserted in the olfactory mucosa lining of the nasal cavity, they are exposed to the environment and their lifespan is brief. Several reports say that OSNs are regularly regenerated during the entire life and that odorant environment affects the olfactory epithelium. However, little is known about the impact of the odorant environment on OSNs at the cellular level and more precisely in the context of early postnatal olfactory exposure. Here we exposed MOR23-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and M71-GFP mice to lyral or acetophenone, ligands for MOR23 or M71, respectively. Daily postnatal exposure to lyral induces plasticity in the population of OSNs expressing MOR23. Their density decreases after odorant exposure, whereas the amount of MOR23 mRNA and protein remain stable in the whole epithelium. Meanwhile, quantitative PCR indicates that each MOR23 neuron has higher levels of olfactory receptor transcripts and also expresses more CNGA2 and phosphodiesterase 1C, fundamental olfactory transduction pathway proteins. Transcript levels return to baseline after 4 weeks recovery. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that exposed MOR23 neurons respond to lyral with higher sensitivity and broader dynamic range while the responses' kinetics were faster. These effects are specific to the odorant-receptor pair lyral-MOR23: there was no effect of acetophenone on MOR23 neurons and no effect of acetophenone and lyral on the M71 population. Together, our results clearly demonstrate that OSNs undergo specific anatomical, molecular, and functional adaptation when chronically exposed to odorants in the early stage of life.

  13. Synthesis of Petroleum-Based Fuel from Waste Plastics and Performance Analysis in a CI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cleetus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves the synthesis of a petroleum-based fuel by the catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics. Catalytic pyrolysis involves the degradation of the polymeric materials by heating them in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a catalyst. In the present study different oil samples are produced using different catalysts under different reaction conditions from waste plastics. The synthesized oil samples are subjected to a parametric study based on the oil yield, selectivity of the oil, fuel properties, and reaction temperature. Depending on the results from the above study, an optimization of the catalyst and reaction conditions was done. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the selected optimized sample was done to find out its chemical composition. Finally, performance analysis of the selected oil sample was carried out on a compression ignition (CI engine. Polythene bags are selected as the source of waste plastics. The catalysts used for the study include silica, alumina, Y zeolite, barium carbonate, zeolite, and their combinations. The pyrolysis reaction was carried at polymer to catalyst ratio of 10 : 1. The reaction temperature ranges between 400°C and 550°C. The inert atmosphere for the pyrolysis was provided by using nitrogen as a carrier gas.

  14. Study on Conversion of Municipal Plastic Wastes into Liquid Fuel Compounds, Analysis of Crdi Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar Shetty, A. S.; Kumar, R. Ravi; Kumarappa, S.; Antony, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The rate of economic evolution is untenable unless we save or stops misusing the fossil fuels like coal, crude oil or fossil fuels. So we are in need of start count on the alternate or renewable energy sources. In this experimental analysis an attempt has been made to investigate the conversion of municipal plastic wastes like milk covers and water bottles are selected as feed stocks to get oil using pyrolysis method, the performance analysis on CRDI diesel engine and to assess emission characteristics like HC, CO, NOX and smoke by using blends of Diesel-Plastic liquid fuels. The plastic fuel is done with the pH test using pH meter after the purification process and brought to the normal by adding KOH and NaOH. Blends of 0 to 100% plastic liquid fuel-diesel mixture have been tested for performance and emission aspect as well. The experimental results shows the efficiently convert weight of municipal waste plastics into 65% of useful liquid hydrocarbon fuels without emitting much pollutants.

  15. H₂-rich syngas production by fluidized bed gasification of biomass and plastic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoppolo, G; Ammendola, P; Chirone, R; Miccio, F

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports the results of gasification tests using a catalytic fluidized bed gasifier to obtain a H(2)-rich stream by feeding different pellets made of wood, biomass/plastic and olive husks to the gasifier. The effects of both the steam supply and an in-bed catalyst on gasifier performance have been investigated. In general, pelletization was an effective pre-treatment for improving the homogeneity of the fuel and the reliability of the feeding devices. The use of biomass/plastic pellets in a catalyst bed yielded good results in terms of the hydrogen concentration (up to 32%vol.), even if an increase in tar production and in the fine/carbon elutriation rate was observed in comparison with wood pellets.

  16. A study on synthesis of energy fuel from waste plastic and assessment of its potential as an alternative fuel for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Viswanath K; Vijayabalan, P

    2016-05-01

    The demand for plastic is ever increasing and has produced a huge amount of plastic waste. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste plastic. This paper assesses the potential of using Waste Plastic Oil (WPO), synthesized using pyrolysis of waste plastic, as an alternative for diesel fuel. In this research work, the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with WPO and its blends with diesel are studied. In addition to neat plastic oil, three blends (PO25, PO50 and PO75) were prepared on a volumetric basis and the engine was able to run on neat plastic oil. Brake thermal efficiency of blends was lower compared to diesel, but PO25 showed similar performance to that of diesel. The emissions were reduced considerably while using blends when compared to neat plastic oil. The smoke and NOX were reduced by 22% and 17.8% respectively for PO25 than that of plastic oil.

  17. Feasibility study of a mini fuel cell to detect interference from a cellular phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. O.; Gan, Y. K.

    Fuel cells produce electricity without involving combustion processes. They generate no noise, vibration or air pollution and are therefore suitable for use in many vibration-free power-generating applications. In this study, a mini alkaline fuel cell signal detector system has been designed, constructed and tested. The initial results have shown the applicability of such system for used as an indicator of signal disturbance from cellular phones. A small disturbance even at 4 mV cm -1, corresponding to an amplitude of 12-18 mG in terms of electromagnetic field, can be well detected by such a device. Subsequently, a thermodynamics model has been developed to provide a parametric study by simulation to show the likely performance of the fuel cell alone in other environments. As such the model can provide many useful generic design data for alkaline fuel cells. Two general conclusions can be drawn from the present theoretical study: (i) fuel cell performance increases with temperature, pressure and correction factor, C f; (ii) the temperature factor (E/ T) increases with increasing temperature and with increasing pressure factor.

  18. Simulations of a PSD Plastic Neutron Collar for Assaying Fresh Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausladen, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newby, Jason [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The potential performance of a notional active coincidence collar for assaying uranium fuel based on segmented detectors constructed from the new PSD plastic fast organic scintillator with pulse shape discrimination capability was investigated in simulation. Like the International Atomic Energy Agency s present Uranium Neutron Collar for LEU (UNCL), the PSD plastic collar would also function by stimulating fission in the 235U content of the fuel with a moderated 241Am/Li neutron source and detecting instances of induced fission via neutron coincidence counting. In contrast to the moderated detectors of the UNCL, the fast time scale of detection in the scintillator eliminates statistical errors due to accidental coincidences that limit the performance of the UNCL. However, the potential to detect a single neutron multiple times historically has been one of the properties of organic scintillator detectors that has prevented their adoption for international safeguards applications. Consequently, as part of the analysis of simulated data, a method was developed by which true neutron-neutron coincidences can be distinguished from inter-detector scatter that takes advantage of the position and timing resolution of segmented detectors. Then, the performance of the notional simulated coincidence collar was evaluated for assaying a variety of fresh fuels, including some containing burnable poisons and partial defects. In these simulations, particular attention was paid to the analysis of fast mode measurements. In fast mode, a Cd liner is placed inside the collar to shield the fuel from the interrogating source and detector moderators, thereby eliminating the thermal neutron flux that is most sensitive to the presence of burnable poisons that are ubiquitous in modern nuclear fuels. The simulations indicate that the predicted precision of fast mode measurements is similar to what can be achieved by the present UNCL in thermal mode. For example, the statistical accuracy of a

  19. Weakly faceted cellular patterns versus growth-induced plastic deformation in thin-sample directional solidification of monoclinic biphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Akamatsu, Silvère; Faivre, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    We present an experimental study of thin-sample directional solidification (T-DS) in impure biphenyl. The platelike growth shape of the monoclinic biphenyl crystals includes two low-mobility (001) facets and four high-mobility {110} facets. Upon T-DS, biphenyl plates oriented with (001) facets parallel to the sample plane can exhibit either a strong growth-induced plastic deformation (GID), or deformation-free weakly faceted (WF) growth patterns. We determine the respective conditions of appearance of these phenomena. GID is shown to be a long-range thermal-stress effect, which disappears when the growth front has a cellular structure. An early triggering of the cellular instability allowed us to avoid GID and study the dynamics of WF patterns as a function of the orientation of the crystal.

  20. Conversion of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and Polypropylene (PP) Waste Plastics into Liquid Fuel Using Thermal Cracking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    In every sector of the world today energy is essential. Energy has many forms such as electricity, transportation fuel and so on. A large amount of energy is produced from crude oil, which is used to produce petroleum and petroleum to produce daily usable plastics. The solution to the above mentioned problems can be solved through the utilization of the new develop technology. This new developed technology will remove these hazardous waste plastics from the environment and convert them into e...

  1. Comparison of the Characteristics of Solid Type and Annular Type Nuclear Fuels Using Thermoelastic-Plastic-Creep FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Doo Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the characteristics of two types of nuclear fuel using the finite element program of thermoelastic-plastic-creep analysis. The analyzed fuel rods are of two types, solid and annular ones, and their thermomechanical characteristics are compared. Thermoelastic-plastic-creep analyses were made using an in-house finite element analysis program that adopts the “effective-stress-function” algorithm. The temperature-dependent material properties, which were obtained from the experiments for actual nuclear reactors, are adopted. The effects of type of fuel systems are revealed in both stresses and temperature distributions. The maximum tensile and compressive hoop stress of pellet and cladding are monitored to evaluate the mechanical behavior, and the maximum temperature is used to evaluate the thermal behavior. Although the annular type of fuel has certain disadvantage, it would be used very effectively or safely in future nuclear power plants.

  2. The toxicity of plastic nanoparticles to green algae as influenced by surface modification, medium hardness and cellular adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tom M; Hartmann, Nanna B; Kleijn, J Mieke; Garnæs, Jørgen; van de Meent, Dik; Jan Hendriks, A; Baun, Anders

    2017-02-01

    To investigate processes possibly underlying accumulation and ecological effects of plastic nano-particles we have characterized their interaction with the cell wall of green algae. More specifically, we have investigated the influence of particle surface functionality and water hardness (Ca(2+) concentration) on particle adsorption to algae cell walls. Polystyrene nanoparticles with different functional groups (non-functionalized, -COOH and -NH2) as well as coated (starch and PEG) gold nanoparticles were applied in these studies. Depletion measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that adsorption of neutral and positively charged plastic nanoparticles onto the cell wall of P. subcapitata was stronger than that of negatively charged plastic particles. Results indicated that binding affinity is a function of both inter-particle and particle-cell wall interactions which are in turn influenced by the medium hardness and particle concentration. Physicochemical modelling using DLVO theory was used to interpret the experimental data, using also values for interfacial surface free energies. Our study shows that material properties and medium conditions play a crucial role in the rate and state of nanoparticle bio-adsorption for green algae. The results show that the toxicity of nanoparticles can be better described and assessed by using appropriate dose metrics including material properties, complexation/agglomeration behavior and cellular attachment and adsorption. The applied methodology provides an efficient and feasible approach for evaluating potential accumulation and hazardous effects of nanoparticles to algae caused by particle interactions with the algae cell walls.

  3. Functional adaptation and phenotypic plasticity at the cellular and whole plant level

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karl J Niklas

    2009-10-01

    The ability to adaptively alter morphological, anatomical, or physiological functional traits to local environmental variations using external environmental cues is especially well expressed by all terrestrial and most aquatic plants. A ubiquitous cue eliciting these plastic phenotypic responses is mechanical perturbation (MP), which can evoke dramatic differences in the size, shape, or mechanical properties of conspecifics. Current thinking posits that MP is part of a very ancient ``stress-perception response system” that involves receptors located at the cell membrane/cell wall interface capable of responding to a broad spectrum of stress-inducing factors. This hypothesis is explored here from the perspective of cell wall evolution and the control of cell wall architecture by unicellular and multicellular plants. Among the conclusions that emerge from this exploration is the perspective that the plant cell is phenotypically plastic.

  4. Adrenergic regulation of cellular plasticity in brown, beige/brite and white adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of brown adipose tissue in adult humans along with the recognition of adipocyte heterogeneity and plasticity of white fat depots has renewed the interest in targeting adipose tissue for therapeutic benefit. Adrenergic activation is a well-established means of recruiting catabolic adipocyte phenotypes in brown and white adipose tissues. In this article, we review mechanisms of brown adipocyte recruitment by the sympathetic nervous system and by direct β-adrenergic receptor activation. We highlight the distinct modes of brown adipocyte recruitment in brown, beige/brite, and white adipose tissues, UCP1-independent thermogenesis, and potential non-thermogenic, metabolically beneficial effects of brown adipocytes.

  5. Systemic molecular and cellular changes induced in rats upon inhalation of JP-8 petroleum fuel vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanas, Jay S; Bruce Briggs, G; Lerner, Megan R; Lightfoot, Stan A; Larabee, Jason L; Karsies, Todd J; Epstein, Robert B; Hanas, Rushie J; Brackett, Daniel J; Hocker, James R

    2010-05-01

    Limited information is available regarding systemic changes in mammals associated with exposures to petroleum/hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, systemic toxicity of JP-8 jet fuel was observed in a rat inhalation model at different JP-8 fuel vapor concentrations (250, 500, or 1000 mg/m(3), for 91 days). Gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry sequencing identified the alpha-2 microglobulin protein to be elevated in rat kidney in a JP-8 dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis of kidney and lung tissue extracts revealed JP-8 dependent elevation of inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Tissue changes were observed histologically (hematoxylin and eosin staining) in liver, kidney, lung, bone marrow, and heart, and more prevalently at medium or high JP-8 vapor phase exposures (500-1000 mg/m(3)) than at low vapor phase exposure (250 mg/m(3)) or non-JP-8 controls. JP-8 fuel-induced liver alterations included dilated sinusoids, cytoplasmic clumping, and fat cell deposition. Changes to the kidneys included reduced numbers of nuclei, and cytoplasmic dumping in the lumen of proximal convoluted tubules. JP-8 dependent lung alterations were edema and dilated alveolar capillaries, which allowed clumping of red blood cells (RBCs). Changes in the bone marrow in response to JP-8 included reduction of fat cells and fat globules, and cellular proliferation (RBCs, white blood cells-WBCs, and megakaryocytes). Heart tissue from JP-8 exposed animals contained increased numbers of inflammatory and fibroblast cells, as well as myofibril scarring. cDNA array analysis of heart tissue revealed a JP-8 dependent increase in atrial natriuretic peptide precursor mRNA and a decrease in voltage-gated potassium (K+) ion channel mRNA.

  6. Mechanisms of disease: epithelial-mesenchymal transition and back again: does cellular plasticity fuel neoplastic progression?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Turley, Eva A.; Veiseh, Mandana; Radisky, Derek C.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-02-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a conversion that facilitates organ morphogenesis and tissue remodeling in physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing. A similar phenotypic conversion is also detected in fibrotic diseases and neoplasia, which is associated with disease progression. EMT in cancer epithelial cells often seems to be an incomplete and bi-directional process. In this Review, we discuss the phenomenon of EMT as it pertains to tumor development, focusing on exceptions to the commonly held rule that EMT promotes invasion and metastasis. We also highlight the role of the RAS-controlled signaling mediators, ERK1, ERK2 and PI3-kinase, as microenvironmental responsive regulators of EMT.

  7. Tinnitus: pathology of synaptic plasticity at the cellular and system levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu J Guitton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite being more and more common, and having a high impact on the quality of life of sufferers, tinnitus does not yet have a cure. This has been mostly the result of limited knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying this adverse pathology. However, the last decade has witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. Animal models have demonstrated that tinnitus is a pathology of neural plasticity, and has two main components: a molecular, peripheral component related to the initiation phase of tinnitus; and a system-level, central component related to the long-term maintenance of tinnitus. Using the most recent experimental data and the molecular/system dichotomy as a framework, we describe here the biological basis of tinnitus. We then discuss these mechanisms from an evolutionary perspective, highlighting similarities with memory. Finally, we consider how these discoveries can translate into therapies, and we suggest operative strategies to design new and effective combined therapeutic solutions using both pharmacological (local and systemic and behavioral tools (e.g., using tele-medicine and virtual reality settings.

  8. The effect of heat and mass transfer on the cellular plastic insulation and the long-term aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Youchen [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1997-12-31

    To produce environmental-friendly products, foamed plastic industries are facing the challenge to replace the traditional blowing agents chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) with zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) alternatives. After a series of studies were completed, more understandings and new findings have been achieved with respect to the rigid closed-cell cellular plastic insulations or foamed plastic insulations (FPIs). The mechanism of heat transfer within the FPIs was examined. A new formula for calculating the solid polymer matrix thermal conductivity has been deduced based on the law of energy conservation and Fourier equation of heat conduction. All the parameters involved in this formula can be easily measured. By comparing the simulation results with measurements, the Brokaw equation is recommended for the prediction of the thermal conductivity of a cell-gas mixture. The foamed plastic deformation was also discussed. A new model has been established for predicting the elastic modulus of the foamed plastics. In comparison to the published measurements, it was found that the new model gives fairly good results. A diffusion chamber has been designed and constructed for measuring the gaseous transport properties within the FPIs. To overcome the difficulties of the traditional method, a new measurement procedure and post test data treatment have been suggested. The measurement accuracy is equivalent to the traditional method with an exception of much short time being required. The diffusion coefficients of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} within five n-pentane/CO{sub 2} based polyurethane (PUR) foams have been obtained from the diffusion chamber tests. Measurements showed that the relationship between the gaseous diffusion coefficients within FPIs and temperature follows the Arrhenius type. No identical relationship between diffusion coefficients and foam density was reached. To predict the long-term aging property of CFC-free foamed plastic insulations, a two

  9. Engine performance and emission characteristics of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene and its blends with diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo (Canada)], Email: tanz@uwaterloo.ca

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes an experiment to determine the possibility of transforming waste plastics into a potential source of diesel fuel. Experiments were done on the use of various blends of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene (WPE) with diesel fuel (D) at different volumetric ratios and the results were reviewed. WPE was thermally degraded with catalysis of sodium aluminum silicate at optimum conditions (414-480 degree celsius range and 1 h reaction time) and the collected oil was fractionated at various temperatures. The properties of the fuel blends at different volumetric ratios were measured in this study. It was shown that these blends can be used as fuel in compression ignition engines without any modification. With respect to engine performance and exhaust emission, it was found that using a 5% WPE-D (WPE5) blend instead of diesel fuel reduced carbon monoxide (CO) emission. However, the results of experiment showed that carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission rose.

  10. Cellular and Molecular Dynamics of Th17 Differentiation and its Developmental Plasticity in the Intestinal Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Suniti; Basu, Rajatava

    2017-01-01

    After emerging from the thymus, naive CD4 T cells circulate through secondary lymphoid tissues, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue of the intestine. The activation of naïve CD4 T cells by antigen-presenting cells offering cognate antigen initiate differentiation programs that lead to the development of highly specialized T helper (Th) cell lineages. Although initially believed that developmental programing of effector T cells such as T helper 1 (Th1) or T helper 2 (Th2) resulted in irreversible commitment to a fixed fate, subsequent studies have demonstrated greater flexibility, or plasticity, in effector T cell stability than originally conceived. This is particularly so for the Th17 subset, differentiation of which is a highly dynamic process with overlapping developmental axes with inducible regulatory T (iTreg), T helper 22 (Th22), and Th1 cells. Accordingly, intermediary stages of Th17 cells are found in various tissues, which co-express lineage-specific transcription factor(s) or cytokine(s) of developmentally related CD4 T cell subsets. A highly specialized tissue like that of the intestine, which harbors the largest immune compartment of the body, adds several layers of complexity to the intricate process of Th differentiation. Due to constant exposure to millions of commensal microbes and periodic exposure to pathogens, the intestinal mucosa maintains a delicate balance between regulatory and effector T cells. It is becoming increasingly clear that equilibrium between tolerogenic and inflammatory axes is maintained in the intestine by shuttling the flexible genetic programming of a developing CD4 T cell along the developmental axis of iTreg, Th17, Th22, and Th1 subsets. Currently, Th17 plasticity remains an unresolved concern in the field of clinical research as targeting Th17 cells to cure immune-mediated disease might also target its related subsets. In this review, we discuss the expanding sphere of Th17 plasticity through its shared

  11. Oma1 Links Mitochondrial Protein Quality Control and TOR Signaling To Modulate Physiological Plasticity and Cellular Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohovych, Iryna; Kastora, Stavroula; Christianson, Sara; Topil, Danelle; Kim, Heejeong; Fangman, Teresa; Zhou, You J; Barrientos, Antoni; Lee, Jaekwon; Brown, Alistair J P; Khalimonchuk, Oleh

    2016-09-01

    A network of conserved proteases known as the intramitochondrial quality control (IMQC) system is central to mitochondrial protein homeostasis and cellular health. IMQC proteases also appear to participate in establishment of signaling cues for mitochondrion-to-nucleus communication. However, little is known about this process. Here, we show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation of the membrane-bound IMQC protease Oma1 interferes with oxidative-stress responses through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during logarithmic growth and reduced stress signaling via the TORC1-Rim15-Msn2/Msn4 axis. Pharmacological or genetic prevention of ROS accumulation in Oma1-deficient cells restores this defective TOR signaling. Additionally, inactivation of the Oma1 ortholog in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans also alters TOR signaling and, unexpectedly, leads to increased resistance to neutrophil killing and virulence in the invertebrate animal model Galleria mellonella Our findings reveal a novel and evolutionarily conserved link between IMQC and TOR-mediated signaling that regulates physiological plasticity and pancellular oxidative-stress responses.

  12. Plastics wastes as secondary fuel in a cement plant; Residuos plasticos como combustible secundario en una cementera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Irasarri, L.; Arnaiz, S.; Cacho, I.

    2000-07-01

    The use of secondary fuel derived from plastics wastes from municipal source has been tested in an industrial cement plant. The recovered materials have been conditioned in order to fulfill the texture, composition and energetic requirements of the cement kiln. The performed long-term trials have shown the stability of the industrial facility during the operation with this alternative fuels. Several controls carried out over gaseous emissions confirmed the absence of differences in the emitted pollutant levels when compared with normal operation. The quality of the obtained clinker, checked using the established standard measurements, was found identical to the one in a clinker prepared using conventional fuels. The LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) tool was applied to evaluate a series of environmental impacts and proved that the energetic valorization alternative is more favourable then the disposal practice. Finally, a positive economical balance reinforced the option of energy recovery previously supported by favourable technical and environmental considerations. (Author) 16 refs.

  13. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more

  14. Recovery of plastic wastes from dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel and its utilization in small gasification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Charnnok, Boonya; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2010-03-01

    An effort to utilize solid wastes at dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was carried out. The produced RDF briquette was then utilized in the gasification system. These wastes were initially examined for their physical composition and chemical characteristics. The wastes contained high plastic content of 24.6-44.8%, majority in polyethylene plastic bag form. The plastic wastes were purified by separating them from other components through manual separation and trommel screen after which their content increased to 82.9-89.7%. Subsequently, they were mixed with binding agent (cassava root) and transformed into RDF briquette. Maximum plastic content in RDF briquette was limit to 55% to maintain physical strength and maximum chlorine content. The RDF briquette was tested in a down-draft gasifier. The produced gas contained average energy content of 1.76 MJ/m(3), yielding cold gas efficiency of 66%. The energy production cost from this RDF process was estimated as USD0.05 perkWh.

  15. Catalytic thermal cracking of post-consumer waste plastics to fuels: Part 1 - Kinetics and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics such as prescription bottles (polypropylene/PP), high density polyethylene, landfill liners (polyethylene/PE), packing materials (polystyrene/PS), and foams (polyurethane/PU) into crude plastic...

  16. Development of a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell for Power and Fuels Cogeneration Directly from Plastic Trash Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a simple processing concept based-on an advanced direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) technology enabling...

  17. The potential for adding plastic waste fuel at a coal gasification power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P E; Evans, R H; McMullan, J T; Williams, B C

    2001-12-01

    Plastics wastes from a municipal solid waste plant have a high energy content which make it an interesting option for co-processing with coal. The potential for adding plastic waste to a coal fired Texaco IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power station is examined. The resulting efficiency increases due to the improved gasification qualities of plastic over coal. For the overall economics to be the same as the coal only case, the maximum amount that the power station can afford to spend on preparing the plastic waste for use is similar to the assumed coal cost, plus the avoided landfill cost, minus the transport cost. The location of the power station plays a key role, since this has an effect on the transport costs as well as on the landfill charges. The sensitivity of the economics of co-processing plastic waste with coal for a variety of power station operational parameters is presented.

  18. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    The combined use of brush anodes and glass fiber (GF1) separators, and plastic mesh supporters were used here for the first time to create a scalable microbial fuel cell architecture. Separators prevented short circuiting of closely-spaced electrodes, and cathode supporters were used to avoid water gaps between the separator and cathode that can reduce power production. The maximum power density with a separator and supporter and a single cathode was 75±1W/m3. Removing the separator decreased power by 8%. Adding a second cathode increased power to 154±1W/m3. Current was increased by connecting two MFCs connected in parallel. These results show that brush anodes, combined with a glass fiber separator and a plastic mesh supporter, produce a useful MFC architecture that is inherently scalable due to good insulation between the electrodes and a compact architecture. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Characteristics of Waste Plastics Pyrolytic Oil and Its Applications as Alternative Fuel on Four Cylinder Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Nugroho Pratama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastics recycling using pyrolysis method is not only able to decrease a number of environment pollutant but also able to produce economical and high quality hydrocarbon products. Two experiments were conducted to completely study Waste Plastic Pyrolytic Oil (WPPO characteristics and its applications.  First experiment investigated oil characteristics derived from pyrolysis process in two stages batch reactors: pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactor, at maximum temperature 500oC and 450oC respectively. Waste Polyethylene (PE, Polypropylene (PP, Polystyrene (PS, Polyethylene Terepthalate (PET and others were used as raw material. Nitrogen flow rate at 0.8 l/minutes was used to increase oil weight percentage. Indonesian natural zeolite was used as catalyst. Then, second experiment was carried out on Diesel Engine Test Bed (DETB used blending of WPPO and Biodiesel fuel with a volume ratio of 1:9. This experiment was specifically conducted to study how much potency of blending of WPPO and biodiesel in diesel engine. The result of first experiment showed that the highest weight percentage of WPPO derived from mixture of PE waste (50%wt, PP waste (40%wt and PS waste (10%wt is 45.13%wt. The more weight percentage of PE in feedstock effected on the less weight percentage of WPPO, the more percentage of C12-C20 content in WPPO and the higher calorific value of WPPO. Characteristics of WPPO such as, Specific Gravity, Flash point, Pour Point, Kinematic Viscosity, Calorific value and percentage of C12-C20 showed interesting result that WPPO could be developed as alternative fuel on diesel fuel blending due to the proximity of their characteristics. Performance of diesel engine using blending of WPPO and biodiesel on second experiment gave good result so the WPPO will have great potency to be valuable alternative liquid fuel in future, especially on stationary diesel engine and transportation engine application.

  20. Sleep, Plasticity and the Pathophysiology of Neurodevelopmental Disorders: The Potential Roles of Protein Synthesis and Other Cellular Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Picchioni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is important for neural plasticity, and plasticity underlies sleep-dependent memory consolidation. It is widely appreciated that protein synthesis plays an essential role in neural plasticity. Studies of sleep-dependent memory and sleep-dependent plasticity have begun to examine alterations in these functions in populations with neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such an approach acknowledges that disordered sleep may have functional consequences during wakefulness. Although neurodevelopmental disorders are not considered to be sleep disorders per se, recent data has revealed that sleep abnormalities are among the most prevalent and common symptoms and may contribute to the progression of these disorders. The main goal of this review is to highlight the role of disordered sleep in the pathology of neurodevelopmental disorders and to examine some potential mechanisms by which sleep-dependent plasticity may be altered. We will also briefly attempt to extend the same logic to the other end of the developmental spectrum and describe a potential role of disordered sleep in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. We conclude by discussing ongoing studies that might provide a more integrative approach to the study of sleep, plasticity, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

  1. Liquid and Gaseous Fuel from Waste Plastics by Sequential Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming Processes over Indonesian Natural Zeolite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Syamsiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of several differently treated natural zeolites in a sequential pyrolysis and catalytic reforming of plastic materials i.e. polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS were investigated. The experiments were carried out on two stage reactor using semi-batch system. The samples were degraded at 500°C in the pyrolysis reactor and then reformed at 450°C in the catalytic reformer. The results show that the mordenite-type natural zeolites could be used as efficient catalysts for the conversion of PP and PS into liquid and gaseous fuel. The treatment of natural zeolites in HCl solution showed an increase of the surface area and the Si/Al ratio while nickel impregnation increased the activity of catalyst. As a result, liquid product was reduced while gaseous product was increased. For PP, the fraction of gasoline (C5-C12 increased in the presence of catalysts. Natural zeolite catalysts could also be used to decrease the heavy oil fraction (>C20. The gaseous products were found that propene was dominated in all conditions. For PS, propane and propene were the main components of gases in the presence of nickel impregnated natural zeolite catalyst. Propene was dominated in pyrolysis over natural zeolite catalyst. The high quality of gaseous product can be used as a fuel either for driving gas engines or for dual-fuel diesel engine.

  2. The toxicity of plastic nanoparticles to green algae as influenced by surface modification, medium hardness and cellular adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, Tom M.; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Kleijn, Mieke; Garnæs, Jørgen; Meent, van de Dik; Jan Hendriks, A.; Baun, Anders

    2017-01-01

    To investigate processes possibly underlying accumulation and ecological effects of plastic nano-particles we have characterized their interaction with the cell wall of green algae. More specifically, we have investigated the influence of particle surface functionality and water hardness (Ca2+ conce

  3. Renewable hydrocarbons for jet fuels from biomass and plastics via microwave-induced pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong

    This dissertation aims to enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis, and maximize the production of renewable cycloalkanes for jet fuels in the hydrogenation process. In the process, ZSM-5 catalyst as the highly efficient catalyst was employed for catalyzing the pyrolytic volatiles from thermal decomposition of cellulose (a model compound of lignocellulosic biomass). A central composite experiment design (CCD) was used to optimize the product yields as a function of independent factors (e.g. catalytic temperature and catalyst to feed mass ratio). The low-density polyethylene (a mode compound of waste plastics) was then carried out in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis in the presence of ZSM-5 catalyst. Thereafter, the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis of cellulose with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was conducted over ZSM-5 catalyst. The results showed that the production of aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly enhanced and the coke formation was also considerably reduced comparing with the catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose or LDPE alone. Moreover, practical lignocellulosic biomass (Douglas fir sawdust pellets) was converted into aromatics-enriched bio-oil by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. The bio-oil was subsequently hydrogenated by using the Raney Ni catalyst. A liquid-liquid extraction step was implemented to recover the liquid organics and remove the water content. Over 20% carbon yield of liquid product regarding lignocellulosic biomass was obtained. Up to 90% selectivity in the liquid product belongs to jet fuel range cycloalkanes. As the integrated processes was developed, catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose with LDPE was conducted to improve aromatic production. After the liquid-liquid extraction by the optimal solvent (n-heptane), over 40% carbon yield of hydrogenated organics based on cellulose and LDPE were achieved in the hydrogenation process. As such, real

  4. Study of combustion and emission characteristics of fuel derived from waste plastics by various waste to energy (W-t-E) conversion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrat, M. A.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of plastic wastes by means of producing energy can be treated as a good investment in the waste management and recycling sectors. In this article, conversion of plastics into liquid fuel by two thermo-chemical processes, pyrolysis and gasification, are reviewed. The study showed that the catalytic pyrolysis of homogenous waste plastics produces better quality and higher quantity of liquefied fuel than that of non-catalytic pyrolysis process at a lower operating temperature. The syngas produced from gasification process, which occurs at higher temperature than the pyrolysis process, can be converted into diesel by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction process. Conducive bed material like Olivine in the gasification conversion process can remarkably reduce the production of tar. The waste plastics pyrolysis oil showed brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of about 27.75%, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 0.292 kg/kWh, unburned hydrocarbon emission (uHC) of 91 ppm and NOx emission of 904 ppm in comparison with the diesel for BTE of 28%, BSFC of 0.276 kg/kWh, uHC of 57 ppm and NOx of 855 ppm. Dissolution of Polystyrene (PS) into biodiesel also showed the potential of producing alternative transport fuel. It has been found from the literature that at higher engine speed, increased EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) quantity based biodiesel blends reduces CO, CO2, NOx and smoke emission. EPS-biodiesel fuel blend increases the brake thermal efficiency by 7.8%, specific fuel consumption (SFC) by 7.2% and reduces brake power (Pb) by 3.2%. More study using PS and EPS with other thermoplastics is needed to produce liquid fuel by dissolving them into biodiesel and to assess their suitability as a transport fuel. Furthermore, investigation to find out most suitable W-t-E process for effective recycling of the waste plastics as fuel for internal combustion engines is necessary to reduce environmental pollution and generate revenue which will be addressed in this article.

  5. The toxicity of plastic nanoparticles to green algae as influenced by surface modification, medium hardness and cellular adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolte, Tom M.; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Kleijn, J. Mieke

    2017-01-01

    of nanoparticle bio-adsorption for green algae. The results show that the toxicity of nanoparticles can be better described and assessed by using appropriate dose metrics including material properties, complexation/agglomeration behavior and cellular attachment and adsorption. The applied methodology provides...

  6. KSR2 mutations are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and impaired cellular fuel oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Laura R; Atanassova, Neli; Banton, Matthew C; Bottomley, Bill; van der Klaauw, Agatha A; Revelli, Jean-Pierre; Hendricks, Audrey; Keogh, Julia M; Henning, Elana; Doree, Deon; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Garg, Sumedha; Bochukova, Elena G; Bounds, Rebecca; Ashford, Sofie; Gayton, Emma; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Shield, Julian P H; Crowne, Elizabeth; Barford, David; Wareham, Nick J; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Murphy, Michael P; Powell, David R; Barroso, Ines; Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2013-11-07

    Kinase suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) is an intracellular scaffolding protein involved in multiple signaling pathways. Targeted deletion of Ksr2 leads to obesity in mice, suggesting a role in energy homeostasis. We explored the role of KSR2 in humans by sequencing 2,101 individuals with severe early-onset obesity and 1,536 controls. We identified multiple rare variants in KSR2 that disrupt signaling through the Raf-MEKERK pathway and impair cellular fatty acid oxidation and glucose oxidation in transfected cells; effects that can be ameliorated by the commonly prescribed antidiabetic drug, metformin. Mutation carriers exhibit hyperphagia in childhood, low heart rate, reduced basal metabolic rate and severe insulin resistance. These data establish KSR2 as an important regulator of energy intake, energy expenditure, and substrate utilization in humans. Modulation of KSR2-mediated effects may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California: a report from the International Symposium on Epigenetic Control and Cellular Plasticity, UCI, December 15-16, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barbara P

    2012-04-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15-16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu).

  8. Manifestation of the shape-memory effect in polyetherurethane cellular plastics, fabric composites, and sandwich structures under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaevskii, P. G.; Kozlov, N. A.; Agapov, I. G.; Reznichenko, G. M.; Churilo, N. V.; Churilo, I. V.

    2016-09-01

    The results of experiments that were performed to test the feasibility of creating sandwich structures (consisting of thin-layer sheaths of polymer composites and a cellular polymer core) with the shapememory effect as models of the transformable components of space structures have been given. The data obtained indicate that samples of sandwich structures under microgravity conditions on board the International Space Station have recovered their shape to almost the same degree as under terrestrial conditions, which makes it possible to recommend them for creating components of transformable space structures on their basis.

  9. 1,2,4-Triazolium perfluorobutanesulfonate as an archetypal pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal electrolyte for all-solid-state fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jiangshui; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Brooks, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    1,2,4-Triazolium perfluorobutanesulfonate (1), a novel, pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal (POIPC) with a wide plastic crystalline phase, has been explored as a proof-of-principle anhydrous proton conductor for all-solid-state high temperature hydrogen/air fuel cells. Its physicochemical...... weakening of hydrogen bonds at 82 C seems to be coupled with the onset of orientational or rotational disorder of the ions. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity in the solid and molten states is measured via impedance spectroscopy and current interruption technique, respectively. The Arrhenius......), plastic crystalline (phase II and I) and melt phases successively from 173 C to 200 C. Differential scanning calorimetry and temperature dependent powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements together with polarized optical microscopy and thermomechanical analysis reveal the two solid–solid phase...

  10. PLASTIC WASTE CONVERSION TO LIQUID FUELS OVER MODIFIED-RESIDUAL CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYSTS: MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION USING HYBRID ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK – GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The plastic waste utilization can be addressed toward different valuable products. A promising technology for the utilization is by converting it to fuels. Simultaneous modeling and optimization representing effect of reactor temperature, catalyst calcinations temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio toward performance of liquid fuel production was studied over modified catalyst waste. The optimization was performed to find optimal operating conditions (reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio that maximize the liquid fuel product. A Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA method was used for the modeling and optimization, respectively. The variable interaction between the reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, as well as plastic/catalyst ratio is presented in surface plots. From the GC-MS characterization, the liquid fuels product was mainly composed of C4 to C13 hydrocarbons.KONVERSI LIMBAH PLASTIK MENJADI BAHAN BAKAR CAIR DENGAN METODE PERENGKAHAN KATALITIK MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS BEKAS YANG TERMODIFIKASI: PEMODELAN DAN OPTIMASI MENGGUNAKAN GABUNGAN METODE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK DAN GENETIC ALGORITHM. Pemanfaatan limbah plastik dapat dilakukan untuk menghasilkan produk yang lebih bernilai tinggi. Salah satu teknologi yang menjanjikan adalah dengan mengkonversikannya menjadi bahan bakar. Permodelan, simulasi dan optimisasi simultan yang menggambarkan efek dari suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis terhadap kinerja produksi bahan bakar cair telah dipelajari menggunakan katalis bekas termodifikasi Optimisasi ini ditujukan untuk mencari kondisi operasi optimum (suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis yang memaksimalkan produk bahan bakar cair. Metode Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA telah digunakan untuk permodelan dan optimisasi simultan tersebut. Inetraksi antar variabel

  11. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20 μm Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to be very close to ideal values of commercial fuel oil. Moreover, GC-MS was used to resolve the range of trace mass hydrocarbon present in the liquefied hydrocarbon. Our robust recycling system can be exploited as economical technique to solve the nuisance of waste plastic hazardous to ecosystem.

  12. Cellular and molecular neuronal plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Grace S; Hovda, David A

    2015-01-01

    The brain has the capability to adapt to function when tissue is compromised. This capability of adaptation paves the road to recovery and allows for rehabilitation after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This chapter addresses neuroplasticity within the context of TBI. Here neuroplasticity is defined as changes in neuronal structure and function, including synaptic changes as well as modifications in neural pathways. First, the influence of TBI pathology on neuroplasticity is addressed. Here, proteins that are important in neuroplasticity are introduced and a description given of how these are affected in a temporal and severity-dependent manner. Secondly, given that we are becoming increasingly aware that the brain's response to injury is highly influenced by the environmental milieu, the manner in which behavioral manipulations have an effect on TBI-associated neuroplasticity is addressed. A description is given of how specific environmental qualities may facilitate or hinder neuroplasticity. Finally, the long-term effects of neuroplasticity and the relevance it has to rehabilitation are described.

  13. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  14. Molecular characterization of urban organic aerosol in tropical India: contributions of biomass/biofuel burning, plastic burning, and fossil fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular composition of PM10 samples, collected at Chennai in tropical India, was studied using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twelve organic compound classes were detected in the aerosols, including aliphatic lipids, sugar compounds, lignin products, terpenoid biomarkers, sterols, aromatic acids, phthalates, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. At daytime, phthalates was found to be the most abundant compound class; while at nighttime, fatty acids was the dominant one. Concentrations of total quantified organics were higher in summer (611–3268 ng m−3, average 1586 ng m−3 than in winter (362–2381 ng m−3, 1136 ng m−3, accounting for 11.5±1.93% and 9.35±1.77% of organic carbon mass in summer and winter, respectively. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, C16 fatty acid, and levoglucosan were identified as the most abundant single compounds. The nighttime maxima of most organics in the aerosols indicate a land/sea breeze effect in tropical India, although some other factors such as local emissions and long-range transport may also influence the composition of organic aerosols. The abundances of anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, lignin and resin products, hopanes and PAHs in the Chennai aerosols suggest that biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion are significant sources of organic aerosols in tropical India. Interestingly, terephthalic acid was maximized at nighttime, which is different from those of phthalic and isophthalic acids. A positive correlation was found between the concentration of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (a tracer for plastic burning and terephthalic acid, suggesting that field burning of municipal solid wastes including plastics is a significant source of terephthalic acid. This study demonstrates that, in addition to biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, the open-burning of plastics also contributes to the organic

  15. Cancer stem cells display extremely large evolvability: alternating plastic and rigid networks as a potential Mechanism: network models, novel therapeutic target strategies, and the contributions of hypoxia, inflammation and cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Peter; Hódsági, János; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Módos, Dezső; Perez-Lopez, Áron R; Szalay, Kristóf; Veres, Dániel V; Lenti, Katalin; Wu, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2015-02-01

    Cancer is increasingly perceived as a systems-level, network phenomenon. The major trend of malignant transformation can be described as a two-phase process, where an initial increase of network plasticity is followed by a decrease of plasticity at late stages of tumor development. The fluctuating intensity of stress factors, like hypoxia, inflammation and the either cooperative or hostile interactions of tumor inter-cellular networks, all increase the adaptation potential of cancer cells. This may lead to the bypass of cellular senescence, and to the development of cancer stem cells. We propose that the central tenet of cancer stem cell definition lies exactly in the indefinability of cancer stem cells. Actual properties of cancer stem cells depend on the individual "stress-history" of the given tumor. Cancer stem cells are characterized by an extremely large evolvability (i.e. a capacity to generate heritable phenotypic variation), which corresponds well with the defining hallmarks of cancer stem cells: the possession of the capacity to self-renew and to repeatedly re-build the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise a tumor in new environments. Cancer stem cells represent a cell population, which is adapted to adapt. We argue that the high evolvability of cancer stem cells is helped by their repeated transitions between plastic (proliferative, symmetrically dividing) and rigid (quiescent, asymmetrically dividing, often more invasive) phenotypes having plastic and rigid networks. Thus, cancer stem cells reverse and replay cancer development multiple times. We describe network models potentially explaining cancer stem cell-like behavior. Finally, we propose novel strategies including combination therapies and multi-target drugs to overcome the Nietzschean dilemma of cancer stem cell targeting: "what does not kill me makes me stronger".

  16. Theory of a new elastic-plastic-viscous model and its application to the nuclear fuel mechanical analysis; Teoria y aplicacion a los combustibles nucleares de un nuevo modelo de respuesta de un solido elasto-visco-plastico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.

    1977-07-01

    In this work a new elastic-plastic-viscous model is described. The model is one of the multiple integral type, and has been included in a numerical code to predict the behaviour of a nuclear fuel of cylindrical form. Some features of this code are also described. (Author) 91 refs.

  17. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  18. Calculation of the linear heat generation rates which violate the thermomechanical limit of plastic deformation of the fuel cladding in function of the burn up of a BWR fuel rod type; Calculo de las razones de generacion de calor lineal que violen el limite termomecanico de deformacion plastica de la camisa en funcion del quemado de una barra combustible tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucatero, M.A.; Hernandez L, H. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mal@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    The linear heat generation rates (LHGR) for a BWR type generic fuel rod, as function of the burnup that violate the thermomechanical limit of circumferential plastic deformation of the can (canning) in nominal operation in stationary state of the fuel rod are calculated. The evaluation of the LHGR in function of the burnt of the fuel, is carried out under the condition that the deformation values of the circumferential plastic deformation of the can exceeds in 0.1 the thermomechanical value operation limit of 1%. The results of the calculations are compared with the generation rates of linear operation heat in function of the burnt for this fuel rod type. The calculations are carried out with the FEMAXI-V and RODBURN codes. The results show that for exhibitions or burnt between 0 and 16,000 M Wd/tU a minimum margin of 160.8 W/cm exists among LHGR (439.6 W/cm) operation peak for the given fuel and maximum LHGR of the fuel (calculated) to reach 1.1% of circumferential plastic deformation of the can, for the peak factor of power of 1.40. For burnt of 20,000 MWd/tU and 60,000 MWd/tU exist a margin of 150.3 and 298.6 W/cm, respectively. (Author)

  19. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  20. Cellular plasticity and tumor therapy resistance:research advances%细胞可塑性与肿瘤治疗耐药的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚琼; 刘卫; 彭晖

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance,tumor relapse and metastasis remain the main obstacles to the success of cancer treatments. Chemotherapies,targeted therapies and immunotherapies can successfully achieve remissions in cancer patients,but durable responses are rare. Although the mechanisms of diverse therapies vary,plasticity alteration of tumor and immune cells in response to therapy-induced tumor tissue injury and inflammation contributes to the development of drug resistance. This review summarizes research progress in the adaptive phenotypic plasticity of tumor cells and immune cells during tumor progression as well as the successful combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in cancer treatment to tackle resistance.%肿瘤的耐药、复发和转移是肿瘤治疗的首要难题。化疗、靶向治疗和免疫治疗对肿瘤患者效果显著,但持续时间短暂。尽管不同治疗方式下耐药性产生的机制各异,但由多种治疗手段引起肿瘤组织损伤和炎症共同介导的细胞可塑性的改变是肿瘤耐药产生的主要原因。本文综述了肿瘤细胞和免疫细胞可塑性改变对肿瘤发展的影响,以及联合免疫治疗和靶向治疗逆转肿瘤耐药的研究进展。

  1. High-to-low CO2 acclimation reveals plasticity of the photorespiratory pathway and indicates regulatory links to cellular metabolism of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Timm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photorespiratory carbon metabolism was long considered as an essentially closed and nonregulated pathway with little interaction to other metabolic routes except nitrogen metabolism and respiration. Most mutants of this pathway cannot survive in ambient air and require CO(2-enriched air for normal growth. Several studies indicate that this CO(2 requirement is very different for individual mutants, suggesting a higher plasticity and more interaction of photorespiratory metabolism as generally thought. To understand this better, we examined a variety of high- and low-level parameters at 1% CO(2 and their alteration during acclimation of wild-type plants and selected photorespiratory mutants to ambient air. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The wild type and four photorespiratory mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis were grown to a defined stadium at 1% CO(2 and then transferred to normal air (0.038% CO(2. All other conditions remained unchanged. This approach allowed unbiased side-by-side monitoring of acclimation processes on several levels. For all lines, diel (24 h leaf growth, photosynthetic gas exchange, and PSII fluorescence were monitored. Metabolite profiling was performed for the wild type and two mutants. During acclimation, considerable variation between the individual genotypes was detected in many of the examined parameters, which correlated with the position of the impaired reaction in the photorespiratory pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Photorespiratory carbon metabolism does not operate as a fully closed pathway. Acclimation from high to low CO(2 was typically steady and consistent for a number of features over several days, but we also found unexpected short-term events, such as an intermittent very massive rise of glycine levels after transition of one particular mutant to ambient air. We conclude that photorespiration is possibly exposed to redox regulation beyond known substrate-level effects. Additionally, our data

  2. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  3. WE(EE) Demand - Recycled Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Førby, Marie; Pedersen, Jakob; Borgen, Nanna; Hansen, Rasmus Nør

    2015-01-01

    Plastic management – from production to waste – has massive negative effects on the environment of which one of the main problems are the CO2 released from the fossil fuels. The focus of this paper lies on the possibilities of increasing demand for recycled plastics from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE-plastic) through modifications in the Danish waste systems. Due to the chemical build of plastic, it is not possible to reprocess it with mechanical recycle technologies while keeping t...

  4. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  5. Progress in neural plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POO; Mu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    One of the properties of the nervous system is the use-dependent plasticity of neural circuits.The structure and function of neural circuits are susceptible to changes induced by prior neuronal activity,as reflected by short-and long-term modifications of synaptic efficacy and neuronal excitability.Regarded as the most attractive cellular mechanism underlying higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory,activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has been in the spotlight of modern neuroscience since 1973 when activity-induced long-term potentiation(LTP) of hippocampal synapses was first discovered.Over the last 10 years,Chinese neuroscientists have made notable contributions to the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity,as well as of the plasticity beyond synapses,including activity-dependent changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability,dendritic integration functions,neuron-glia signaling,and neural network activity.This work highlight some of these significant findings.

  6. Multiscale modeling and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Upinder S

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a major convergence point for theory and computation, and the process of plasticity engages physiology, cell, and molecular biology. In its many manifestations, plasticity is at the hub of basic neuroscience questions about memory and development, as well as more medically themed questions of neural damage and recovery. As an important cellular locus of memory, synaptic plasticity has received a huge amount of experimental and theoretical attention. If computational models have tended to pick specific aspects of plasticity, such as STDP, and reduce them to an equation, some experimental studies are equally guilty of oversimplification each time they identify a new molecule and declare it to be the last word in plasticity and learning. Multiscale modeling begins with the acknowledgment that synaptic function spans many levels of signaling, and these are so tightly coupled that we risk losing essential features of plasticity if we focus exclusively on any one level. Despite the technical challenges and gaps in data for model specification, an increasing number of multiscale modeling studies have taken on key questions in plasticity. These have provided new insights, but importantly, they have opened new avenues for questioning. This review discusses a wide range of multiscale models in plasticity, including their technical landscape and their implications.

  7. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  8. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  9. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375

  10. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  11. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  12. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  13. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  14. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments.

  15. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  16. Mechanisms of GABAergic Homeostatic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wenner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic plasticity ensures that appropriate levels of activity are maintained through compensatory adjustments in synaptic strength and cellular excitability. For instance, excitatory glutamatergic synapses are strengthened following activity blockade and weakened following increases in spiking activity. This form of plasticity has been described in a wide array of networks at several different stages of development, but most work and reviews have focussed on the excitatory inputs of excitatory neurons. Here we review homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic neurons and their synaptic connections. We propose a simplistic model for homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic components of the circuitry (GABAergic synapses onto excitatory neurons, excitatory connections onto GABAergic neurons, cellular excitability of GABAergic neurons: following chronic activity blockade there is a weakening of GABAergic inhibition, and following chronic increases in network activity there is a strengthening of GABAergic inhibition. Previous work on GABAergic homeostatic plasticity supports certain aspects of the model, but it is clear that the model cannot fully account for some results which do not appear to fit any simplistic rule. We consider potential reasons for these discrepancies.

  17. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  18. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  19. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  20. Cellular Telephone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨周

    1996-01-01

    Cellular phones, used in automobiles, airliners, and passenger trains, are basically low-power radiotelephones. Calls go through radio transmitters that are located within small geographical units called cells. Because each cell’s signals are too weak to interfere with those of other cells operating on the same fre-

  1. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  2. Serendipity and the discovery of novel compounds that restore mitochondrial plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, H H; Birk, A V

    2014-12-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) plays a central role in energy generation in the cell. Mitochondrial dysfunctions diminish adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and result in insufficient energy to maintain cell function. As energy output declines, the most energetic tissues are preferentially affected. To satisfy cellular energy demands, the mitochondrial ETC needs to be able to elevate its capacity to produce ATP at times of increased metabolic demand or decreased fuel supply. This mitochondrial plasticity is reduced in many age-associated diseases. In this review, we describe the serendipitous discovery of a novel class of compounds that selectively target cardiolipin on the inner mitochondrial membrane to optimize efficiency of the ETC and thereby restore cellular bioenergetics in aging and diverse disease models, without any effect on the normal healthy organism. The first of these compounds, SS-31, is currently in multiple clinical trials.

  3. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  4. Nicotinic mechanisms influencing synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andon Nicholas PLACZEK; Tao A ZHANG; John Anthony DANI

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed throughout the hippocampus, and nicotinic signaling plays an important role in neuronal function. In the context of learning and memory related behaviors associated with hippocampal function, a potentially significant feature of nAChR activity is the impact it has on synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons has long been considered a contributing cellular mechanism of learning and memory. These same kinds of cellular mechanisms are a factor in the development of nicotine addiction. Nicotinic signaling has been demonstrated by in vitro studies to affect synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons via multiple steps, and the signaling has also been shown to evoke synaptic plasticity in vivo. This review focuses on the nAChRs subtypes that contribute to hippocampal synaptic plasticity at the cellular and circuit level. It also considers nicotinic influences over long-term changes in the hippocampus that may contribute to addiction.

  5. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  6. Genetic Regulation of Phenotypic Plasticity and Canalisation in Yeast Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Anupama; Dhole, Kaustubh; Sinha, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a genotype to show diverse phenotypes in different environments is called phenotypic plasticity. Phenotypic plasticity helps populations to evade extinctions in novel environments, facilitates adaptation and fuels evolution. However, most studies focus on understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic regulation in specific environments. As a result, while it’s evolutionary relevance is well established, genetic mechanisms regulating phenotypic plasticity and their overlap with ...

  7. Engineering Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-10

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds, and pharmaceuticals. However, making cells into efficient factories is challenging because cells have evolved robust metabolic networks with hard-wired, tightly regulated lines of communication between molecular pathways that resist efforts to divert resources. Here, we will review the current status and challenges of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.

  8. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  9. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  10. Plasticity of intestinal epithelial cells in regeneration and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular plasticity refers to the ability of a cell to change its fate or identity in response to external or intrinsic factors. Regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury is driven mainly by plasticity of crypt stem cells that can rapidly divide to replace all the lost cells. Stem cell

  11. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  12. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  13. 76 FR 44506 - Petition Requesting Non-See-Through Packaging for Torch Fuel and Lamp Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... distillates in clear plastic bottles causes needless danger, as children may mistake it for juice. Petitioner... clear plastic bottle. While torch fuel and lamp oil are already subject to child- resistant packaging... could be accomplished ``by packaging the fuel in a solid container or opaque plastic...

  14. Maximizing the life cycle of plastics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, W. L.

    1980-02-01

    The Plastics Research Institute has conducted a coordinated research program designed to extend the useful life of plastics. Since feedstock for practically all synthetic plastics is derived from fossil fuel, every effort should be made to obtain the maximum useful life from these materials. Eventually, plastic scrap may be used as a fuel supplement, but this disposal route should be followed only after the scrap is no longer reusable in its polymeric form. The extent to which plastic scrap will be recovered and reused will be affected by the economic situation as well as the available supply of fossil fuel. The Institute's program was conducted at five major universities. Dedicated faculty members were assembled into a research team and met frequently with members of the Institute's Board of Trustees to review progress of the program. The research was conducted by graduate students in partial fulfillment of degree requirements. Summaries are presented of the following research projects: Improved Stabilization; Separation of Mixed Plastic Scrap; Compatibilizing Agents for Mixed Plastic Scrap; Controlled Degradation of Plastic Scrap; and Determination of Compatibility.

  15. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  16. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  17. Genetic Regulation of Phenotypic Plasticity and Canalisation in Yeast Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anupama; Dhole, Kaustubh; Sinha, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a genotype to show diverse phenotypes in different environments is called phenotypic plasticity. Phenotypic plasticity helps populations to evade extinctions in novel environments, facilitates adaptation and fuels evolution. However, most studies focus on understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic regulation in specific environments. As a result, while it's evolutionary relevance is well established, genetic mechanisms regulating phenotypic plasticity and their overlap with the environment specific regulators is not well understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is highly sensitive to the environment, which acts as not just external stimulus but also as signalling cue for this unicellular, sessile organism. We used a previously published dataset of a biparental yeast population grown in 34 diverse environments and mapped genetic loci regulating variation in phenotypic plasticity, plasticity QTL, and compared them with environment-specific QTL. Plasticity QTL is one whose one allele exhibits high plasticity whereas the other shows a relatively canalised behaviour. We mapped phenotypic plasticity using two parameters-environmental variance, an environmental order-independent parameter and reaction norm (slope), an environmental order-dependent parameter. Our results show a partial overlap between pleiotropic QTL and plasticity QTL such that while some plasticity QTL are also pleiotropic, others have a significant effect on phenotypic plasticity without being significant in any environment independently. Furthermore, while some plasticity QTL are revealed only in specific environmental orders, we identify large effect plasticity QTL, which are order-independent such that whatever the order of the environments, one allele is always plastic and the other is canalised. Finally, we show that the environments can be divided into two categories based on the phenotypic diversity of the population within them and the two categories have differential regulators of

  18. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60- 1600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming.

  19. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  20. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  1. Fluidized-Bed Gasification of Plastic Waste, Wood, and Their Blends with Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Zaccariello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fuel composition on gasification process performance was investigated by performing mass and energy balances on a pre-pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor fed with mixtures of plastic waste, wood, and coal. The fuels containing plastic waste produced less H2, CO, and CO2 and more light hydrocarbons than the fuels including biomass. The lower heating value (LHV progressively increased from 5.1 to 7.9 MJ/Nm3 when the plastic waste fraction was moved from 0% to 100%. Higher carbonaceous fines production was associated with the fuel containing a large fraction of coal (60%, producing 87.5 g/kgFuel compared to only 1.0 g/kgFuel obtained during the gasification test with just plastic waste. Conversely, plastic waste gasification produced the highest tar yield, 161.9 g/kgFuel, while woody biomass generated only 13.4 g/kgFuel. Wood gasification showed a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE of 0.93, while the tests with two fuels containing coal showed lowest CCE values (0.78 and 0.70, respectively. Plastic waste and wood gasification presented similar cold gas efficiency (CGE values (0.75 and 0.76, respectively, while that obtained during the co-gasification tests varied from 0.53 to 0.73.

  2. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  3. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  4. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  5. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  6. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  7. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  8. Molecular and cellular biology of caveolae paradoxes and plasticities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couet, J; Shengwen, L; Okamoto, T; Scherer, P E; Lisanti, M P

    1997-05-01

    Caveolae are 50-100 nm invaginations that represent an appendage or subcompartment of the plasma membrane. They are found in most cell types but are abundant in fibroblasts, adipocytes, endothelial cells, type I pneumocytes, epithelial cells, and smooth and striated muscle cells. Functionally, caveolae have been implicated in three major processes: endothelial transcytosis, potocytosis, and signal transduction. Caveolin, a 21-24 kD integral membrane protein, is a principal component of the caveolar membrane in vivo. Within caveolar microdomains, caveolin functions as a multivalent docking site for recruiting and sequestering signaling molecules. More specifically, caveolin interacts directly in a regulated manner with multiple lipid-modified signaling molecules (such as Src-tyrosine kinases, Gα subunits, and H-Ras), preferring the inactive conformation of these molecules. Here, we present a general overview of our current knowledge of caveolae and caveolin functioning and possible implications for treatment of human disease. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:103-110). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  9. Cellular plasticity within the pancreas--lessons learned from development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Sapna; Hebrok, Matthias

    2010-03-16

    The pancreas has been the subject of intense research due to the debilitating diseases that result from its dysfunction. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the critical tissue interactions and intracellular regulatory events that take place during formation of the pancreas from a small cluster of cells in the foregut domain of the mouse embryo. Importantly, an understanding of principles that govern the development of this organ has equipped us with the means to manipulate both embryonic and differentiated adult cells in the context of regenerative medicine. The emerging area of lineage modulation within the adult pancreas is of particular interest, and this review summarizes recent findings that exemplify how lessons learned from development are being applied to reveal the potential of fully differentiated cells to change fate.

  10. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  11. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Almeida; Maria de Fátima Marques

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolit...

  12. Cellular and molecular approaches to memory storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, S

    2000-01-01

    There has been nearly a century of interest in the idea that information is stored in the brain as changes in the efficacy of synaptic connections on neurons that are activated during learning. The discovery and detailed report of the phenomenon generally known as long-term potentiation opened a new chapter in the study of synaptic plasticity in the vertebrate brain, and this form of synaptic plasticity has now become the dominant model in the search for the cellular bases of learning and memory. To date, considerable progress has been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity and in identifying the neural systems which express it. In parallel, the hypothesis that the mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity are activated during learning and serve learning and memory has gained much empirical support. Accumulating evidence suggests that the rapid activation of the genetic machinery is a key mechanism underlying the enduring modification of neural networks required for the laying down of memory. These advances are reviewed below.

  13. [Cellular and molecular mechanisms of memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Serge

    2010-01-01

    A defining characteristic of the brain is its remarkable capacity to undergo activity-dependent functional and morphological remodelling via mechanisms of plasticity that form the basis of our capacity to encode and retain memories. Today, it is generally accepted that one key neurobiological mechanism underlying the formation of memories reside in activity-driven modifications of synaptic strength and structural remodelling of neural networks activated during learning. The discovery and detailed report of the phenomenon generally known as long-term potentiation, a long-lasting activity-dependent form of synaptic strengthening, opened a new chapter in the study of the neurobiological substrate of memory in the vertebrate brain, and this form of synaptic plasticity has now become the dominant model in the search for the cellular bases of learning and memory. To date, the key events in the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity and memory formation are starting to be identified. They require the activation of specific receptors and of several molecular cascades to convert extracellular signals into persistent functional changes in neuronal connectivity. Accumulating evidence suggests that the rapid activation of neuronal gene programs is a key mechanism underlying the enduring modification of neural networks required for the laying down of memory. The recent developments in the search for the cellular and molecular mechanisms of memory storage are reviewed.

  14. Ventral striatal plasticity and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Valentina; Roullet, Pascal; Sargolini, Francesca; Rinaldi, Arianna; Perri, Valentina; Del Fabbro, Martina; Costantini, Vivian J A; Annese, Valentina; Scesa, Gianluigi; De Stefano, Maria Egle; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea

    2010-04-27

    Spatial memory formation is a dynamic process requiring a series of cellular and molecular steps, such as gene expression and protein translation, leading to morphological changes that have been envisaged as the structural bases for the engram. Despite the role suggested for medial temporal lobe plasticity in spatial memory, recent behavioral observations implicate specific components of the striatal complex in spatial information processing. However, the potential occurrence of neural plasticity within this structure after spatial learning has never been investigated. In this study we demonstrate that blockade of cAMP response element binding protein-induced transcription or inhibition of protein synthesis or extracellular proteolytic activity in the ventral striatum impairs long-term spatial memory. These findings demonstrate that, in the ventral striatum, similarly to what happens in the hippocampus, several key molecular events crucial for the expression of neural plasticity are required in the early stages of spatial memory formation.

  15. Ventral striatal plasticity and spatial memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Valentina; Roullet, Pascal; Sargolini, Francesca; Rinaldi, Arianna; Perri, Valentina; Del Fabbro, Martina; Costantini, Vivian J. A.; ANNESE, VALENTINA; Scesa, Gianluigi; De Stefano, Maria Egle; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Spatial memory formation is a dynamic process requiring a series of cellular and molecular steps, such as gene expression and protein translation, leading to morphological changes that have been envisaged as the structural bases for the engram. Despite the role suggested for medial temporal lobe plasticity in spatial memory, recent behavioral observations implicate specific components of the striatal complex in spatial information processing. However, the potential occurrence of neural plasti...

  16. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plastic...... materials and provides an extensive knowhow on the industrial plastic welding process. The objectives of the report include: - Provide the general knowhow of laser welding for the beginners - Summarize the state-of-the-art information on the laser welding of plastics - Find the technological limits in terms...... of design, materials and process - Find the best technology, process and machines adaptive to Sonion’s components - Provide the skills to Sonion’s Design Engineers for successful design of the of the plastic components suitable for the laser welding The ultimate goal of this report is to serve...

  17. Homeostatic role of heterosynaptic plasticity: Models and experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eChistiakova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Homosynaptic Hebbian-type plasticity provides a cellular mechanism of learning and refinement of connectivity during development in a variety of biological systems. In this review we argue that a complimentary form of plasticity - heterosynaptic plasticity - represents a necessary cellular component for homeostatic regulation of synaptic weights and neuronal activity. The required properties of a homeostatic mechanism which acutely constrains the runaway dynamics imposed by Hebbian associative plasticity have been well-articulated by theoretical and modeling studies. Such mechanism(s should robustly support the stability of operation of neuronal networks and synaptic competition, include changes at non-active synapses, and operate on a similar time scale to Hebbian-type plasticity. The experimentally observed properties of heterosynaptic plasticity have introduced it as a strong candidate to fulfill this homeostatic role. Subsequent modeling studies which incorporate heterosynaptic plasticity into model neurons with Hebbian synapses (utilizing an STDP learning rule have confirmed its ability to robustly provide stability and competition. In contrast, properties of homeostatic synaptic scaling, which is triggered by extreme and long lasting (hours and days changes of neuronal activity, do not fit two crucial requirements for a hypothetical homeostatic mechanism needed to provide stability of operation in the face of on-going synaptic changes driven by Hebbian-type learning rules. Both the trigger and the time scale of homeostatic synaptic scaling are fundamentally different from those of the Hebbian-type plasticity. We conclude that heterosynaptic plasticity, which is triggered by the same episodes of strong postsynaptic activity and operates on the same time scale as Hebbian-type associative plasticity, is ideally suited to serve homeostatic role during on-going synaptic plasticity.

  18. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  19. Plasticity-rigidity cycles: A general adaptation mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Csermely, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Successful adaptation helped the emergence of complexity. Alternating plastic- and rigid-like states were recurrently considered to play a role in adaptive processes. However, this extensive knowledge remained fragmented. In this paper I describe plasticity-rigidity cycles as a general adaptation mechanism operating in molecular assemblies, assisted protein folding, cellular differentiation, learning, memory formation, creative thinking, as well as the organization of social groups and ecosys...

  20. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  1. Flat Cellular (UMTS) Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Samuel, L.G.; Mullender, S.J.; Polakos, P.; Rittenhouse, G.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, cellular systems have been built in a hierarchical manner: many specialized cellular access network elements that collectively form a hierarchical cellular system. When 2G and later 3G systems were designed there was a good reason to make system hierarchical: from a cost-perspective i

  2. The Role of GABAergic Inhibition in Ocular Dominance Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alexander Heimel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, we have gained much insight into the mechanisms that open and close a sensitive period of plasticity in the visual cortex. This brings the hope that novel treatments can be developed for brain injuries requiring renewed plasticity potential and neurodevelopmental brain disorders caused by defective synaptic plasticity. One of the central mechanisms responsible for opening the sensitive period is the maturation of inhibitory innervation. Many molecular and cellular events have been identified that drive this developmental process, including signaling through BDNF and IGF-1, transcriptional control by OTX2, maturation of the extracellular matrix, and GABA-regulated inhibitory synapse formation. The mechanisms through which the development of inhibitory innervation triggers and potentially closes the sensitive period may involve plasticity of inhibitory inputs or permissive regulation of excitatory synapse plasticity. Here, we discuss the current state of knowledge in the field and open questions to be addressed.

  3. 麻疯树籽油生物柴油-0#柴油混合燃料与橡胶、塑料的兼容性%Compatibility of rubbers and plastics in Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel-0#diesel blended fuels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家栋; 尚琼; 鲁厚芳; 梁斌

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel derived from transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. oil has a good application prospect as a renewable energy. To analyze and evaluate the compatibility of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel and its blends of petroleum diesel with materials which were used in transportation,storage and application,interactions between eight materials (four types of rubbers and four types of plastics) and Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel-0#diesel were analyzed. The results showed that acid value and viscosity of fuels met national standards after immersion for 28-56 days. Fluorine rubber showed a good compatibility with the fuels,its weight and hardness changed a little,the increase rate of thickness was less than 18.00%,and the decrease rate of tensile strength was less than −22.00%. On the contrary,chloroprene rubber,EPDM rubber and butadiene acrylonitrile rubber were incompatible with the fuels for a long time. The changes of thickness and weight of four types of plastics were small,and their mechanical properties showed good stability.%  麻疯树籽油是制备生物柴油的优良原料油,由其制得的生物柴油具有良好的应用前景。为了分析和评价在运输、储存和使用过程中麻疯树籽油生物柴油与材料的相互影响,本文主要考察了4种橡胶和4种塑料分别与麻疯树籽油生物柴油-0#柴油混合燃料的相互作用及影响。试验结果表明:生物柴油混合燃料与材料接触28~56天后,其酸值和运动黏度仍满足国家标准要求;氟橡胶质量、硬度变化小,厚度的变化率小于18.00%,拉伸强度变化率小于−22.00%,有较好的耐甲酯性,而氯丁橡胶、三元乙丙橡胶及丁腈橡胶不能长期使用;生物柴油混合燃料对4种塑料厚度、质量的影响较小,其稳定性较好。

  4. Utilization of Alternative Fuels in Cement Pyroprocessing : the Messebo Factory case study in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ebuy Teka, Axumawi

    2015-01-01

    Energy costs and environmental standards encouraged cement manufacturers worldwide to evaluate to what extent conventional fuels (Furnace oil, Coal and Petcock) can be replaced by alternative fuels in cement production, i.e. biomass or processed waste materials like sewage sludge, MSW (municipal solid waste), Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF), Tire Derived Fuel (TDF), Plastic Derived Fuel (PDF), Biomass Derived Fuels (BDF), meat and bone meal (MBM), etc.  High temperature of >1500 C, long residen...

  5. Combustion of large solid fuels in cement rotary kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma

    (MBM), waste wood, sewage sludge, paper and plastics. The alternative fuel share of the total energy varies significantly from region to region, but the general trend is towards increased alternative fuel utilization. Solid alternative fuels typically have physical and chemical properties that differ......The cement industry has a significant interest in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels in order to minimize production costs and reduce CO2 emissions. These new alternative fuels are in particular solid fuels such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), tire-derived fuel (TDF), meat and bone meal...... from traditional solid fossil fuels. This creates a need for new combustion equipment or modification of existing kiln systems, because alternative fuels may influence process stability and product quality. Process stability is mainly influenced by exposing the raw material bed in the rotary kiln...

  6. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  7. Acute Dermal Irritation Study of Six Jet Fuels in New Zealand White Rabbits: Comparison of Four Bio-Based Jet Fuels with Two Petroleum JP-8 Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    irritation among airmen. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dermal irritation, jet fuels, alternative fuels, synthetic paraffinic kerosene, JP-8, biobased /bio-based... plastic wrap to occlude the test site. The trunk of animals in both the occluded and semi-occluded groups was then wrapped with a gauze binder...secured with Dermiform® tape (Johnson and Johnson, New Brunswick NJ). Plastic restraint collars were applied to the animals to prevent ingestion of the

  8. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  9. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  10. Construction of an electrolytic photocell fuel cell system used to energize a cellular telephone; Construccion de un sistema fotocelda-electrolizador-celda de combustible, utilizado para energizar un telefono celular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Quezada, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Solorza Feria, O. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: edfq_1986@hotmail.com

    2009-09-15

    An increase in the worldwide population (roughly 6.3 billion people) has brought about a considerable increase in the demand for energy in order to meet national energy and development needs. Oil and carbon are currently the fuels that are most widely used to generate energy. Nevertheless, their extraction and transport, in addition to their combustion, produce residual pollutants, such as carbon bioxide which is released into the atmosphere and contributes to a large amount of the planet's global warming. An alternative to electric energy generation is the use of polymeric membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), which enable the use of alternative fuels such as hydrogen. This work presents the start-up of a system consisting of a photovoltage cell, an electrolyzer and a PEMFC. The photovoltage cell transforms the solar energy into electric energy which electrolyzes the water to provide hydrogen (fuel) and oxygen (combustion). An electrolyzer was designed and built and was characterized with polarization tests. The gases obtained from the electrolyzer are fed to the fuel cell designed and built in the laboratory. To apply this work, the energy produced in the fuel cell is fed to a low-power device such as the electrical charge of a mobile phone. The integration of electrochemical devices will completely revolutionize today's energy sources, which are based on oil derivatives. These integrated systems are efficient for producing electric energy without emitting gas pollutants. [Spanish] Con el crecimiento de la poblacion mundial, (cercana a 6.3 miles de millones de habitantes en el mundo), se incrementa considerablemente la demanda de energia para cubrir las necesidades energeticas propias y del desarrollo de un pais. El petroleo y el carbon son los combustibles mas empleados en la actualidad para la generacion de energia. Sin embargo, su extraccion y transporte ademas de su combustion traen como consecuencia la produccion de residuos contaminantes, como el bioxido

  11. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plastics waste, and (iii) greenhouse gas emissions caused by combusting fossil fuels. To tackle these sustainability challenges, two strategies have been proposed. First, use bio-based polymers to repl...

  12. Performance and Emission Studies of a SI Engine using Distilled Plastic Pyrolysis Oil-Petrol Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Kareddula Vijaya; Puli Ravi Kumar; Swarna Kumari A.; Shailesh P.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental investigation is carried out to evaluate the use of plastic oil derived from waste plastic which used in a Spark Ignition engine. Experiments are conducted, the measured performance and emissions of plastic oil blends at different proportions are compared with the baseline operation of the SI engine running with gasoline fuel. Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions such as carbon monoxide, total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and oxides of nit...

  13. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  14. Protein-kinase C : its role in activity-dependent Purkinje cell dendritic development and plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzger, F; Kapfhammer, JP

    2003-01-01

    The cerebellum is a central organ in the control of motor learning and performance. In this respect, the cellular plasticity model systems of multiple climbing fiber elimination and long-term depression have been intensively studied. The signalling pathways involved in these plastic changes are now

  15. Microfabrication of Microchannels for Fuel Cell Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Su Jang; Dong Sam Park

    2009-01-01

    Portable electronic devices such as notebook computers, PDAs, cellular phones, etc., are being widely used, and they increasingly need cheap, efficient, and lightweight power sources. Fuel cells have been proposed as possible power sources to address issues that involve energy production and the environment. In particular, a small type of fuel-cell system is known to be suitable for portable electronic devices. The development of micro fuel cell systems can be achieved by the application of m...

  16. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  17. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  18. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  20. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  1. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  2. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1976-04-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  3. Stress, stress hormones, and the behavioral neurobiology of brain plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B; Luiten, PGM; Beldhuis, HJA; vanderZee, EA; Roozendaal, B; Douma, B; Ishikawa, K; McGaugh, JL; Sakata, H

    1996-01-01

    Efforts have long been directed toward studying stress-induced alterations via stress hormones on brain excitability and synaptic plasticity as inferred from combined behavioral, electrophysiological, and immunohistochemical cellular/molecular observations. Kindling of the brain in the rat serves as

  4. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  5. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  6. New Mechanical Model for the Transmutation Fuel Performance Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K. Miller

    2008-04-01

    A new mechanical model has been developed for implementation into the TRU fuel performance code. The new model differs from the existing FRAPCON 3 model, which it is intended to replace, in that it will include structural deformations (elasticity, plasticity, and creep) of the fuel. Also, the plasticity algorithm is based on the “plastic strain–total strain” approach, which should allow for more rapid and assured convergence. The model treats three situations relative to interaction between the fuel and cladding: (1) an open gap between the fuel and cladding, such that there is no contact, (2) contact between the fuel and cladding where the contact pressure is below a threshold value, such that axial slippage occurs at the interface, and (3) contact between the fuel and cladding where the contact pressure is above a threshold value, such that axial slippage is prevented at the interface. The first stage of development of the model included only the fuel. In this stage, results obtained from the model were compared with those obtained from finite element analysis using ABAQUS on a problem involving elastic, plastic, and thermal strains. Results from the two analyses showed essentially exact agreement through both loading and unloading of the fuel. After the cladding and fuel/clad contact were added, the model demonstrated expected behavior through all potential phases of fuel/clad interaction, and convergence was achieved without difficulty in all plastic analysis performed. The code is currently in stand alone form. Prior to implementation into the TRU fuel performance code, creep strains will have to be added to the model. The model will also have to be verified against an ABAQUS analysis that involves contact between the fuel and cladding.

  7. Fuel distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.

  8. Reversible quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, B

    2004-01-01

    We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...

  9. Flash Cracking Reactor for Waste Plastic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Gonzalez, Lino A.; Broadbelt, Linda; Raviknishan, Vinu

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of waste plastic to energy is a growing problem that is especially acute in space exploration applications. Moreover, utilization of heavy hydrocarbon resources (wastes, waxes, etc.) as fuels and chemicals will be a growing need in the future. Existing technologies require a trade-off between product selectivity and feedstock conversion. The objective of this work was to maintain high plastic-to-fuel conversion without sacrificing the liquid yield. The developed technology accomplishes this goal with a combined understanding of thermodynamics, reaction rates, and mass transport to achieve high feed conversion without sacrificing product selectivity. The innovation requires a reaction vessel, hydrocarbon feed, gas feed, and pressure and temperature control equipment. Depending on the feedstock and desired product distribution, catalyst can be added. The reactor is heated to the desired tempera ture, pressurized to the desired pressure, and subject to a sweep flow at the optimized superficial velocity. Software developed under this project can be used to determine optimal values for these parameters. Product is vaporized, transferred to a receiver, and cooled to a liquid - a form suitable for long-term storage as a fuel or chemical. An important NASA application is the use of solar energy to convert waste plastic into a form that can be utilized during periods of low solar energy flux. Unlike previous work in this field, this innovation uses thermodynamic, mass transport, and reaction parameters to tune product distribution of pyrolysis cracking. Previous work in this field has used some of these variables, but never all in conjunction for process optimization. This method is useful for municipal waste incinerator operators and gas-to-liquids companies.

  10. Study of an anisotropic polymeric cellular material under compression loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Francisco Caliri Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the influence of micro mechanisms of failure of a cellular material on its phenomenological response. Most of the applications of cellular materials comprise a compression loading. Thus, the study focuses on the influence of the anisotropy in the mechanical behavior of cellular material under cyclic compression loadings. For this study, a Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique (named Correli was applied, as well as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy images were analyzed. The experimental results are discussed in detail for a closed-cell rigid poly (vinyl chloride (PVC foam, showing stress-strain curves in different directions and why the material can be assumed as transversely isotropic. Besides, the present paper shows elastic and plastic Poisson's ratios measured in different planes, explaining why the plastic Poisson's ratios approach to zero. Yield fronts created by the compression loadings in different directions and the influence of spring-back phenomenon on hardening curves are commented, also.

  11. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood...

  12. Plasticity resembling spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity: the evidence in human cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Müller-Dahlhaus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP has been studied extensively in a variety of animal models during the past decade but whether it can be studied at the systems level of the human cortex has been a matter of debate. Only recently newly developed non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS have made it possible to induce and assess timing dependent plasticity in conscious human subjects. This review will present a critical synopsis of these experiments, which suggest that several of the principal characteristics and molecular mechanisms of TMS-induced plasticity correspond to those of STDP as studied at a cellular level. TMS combined with a second phasic stimulation modality can induce bidirectional long-lasting changes in the excitability of the stimulated cortex, whose polarity depends on the order of the associated stimulus-evoked events within a critical time window of tens of milliseconds. Pharmacological evidence suggests an NMDA receptor mediated form of synaptic plasticity. Studies in human motor cortex demonstrated that motor learning significantly modulates TMS-induced timing dependent plasticity, and, conversely, may be modulated bidirectionally by prior TMS-induced plasticity, providing circumstantial evidence that long-term potentiation-like mechanisms may be involved in motor learning. In summary, convergent evidence is being accumulated for the contention that it is now possible to induce STDP-like changes in the intact human central nervous system by means of TMS to study and interfere with synaptic plasticity in neural circuits in the context of behaviour such as learning and memory.

  13. Creating Methane from Plastic: Recycling at a Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Captain, Janine; Devor, Robert; Gleaton, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of re-supply from Earth demands resources to be utilized to the fullest extent for exploration missions. The ability to refuel on the lunar surface would reduce the vehicle mass during launch and provide excess payload capability. Recycling is a key technology that maximizes the available resources by converting waste products into useful commodities. One example of this is to convert crew member waste such as plastic packaging, food scraps, and human waste into fuel. This process thermally degrades plastic in the presence of oxygen producing CO2 and CO. The CO2 and CO are then reacted with hydrogen over catalyst (Sabatier reaction) producing methane. An end-to-end laboratory-scale system has been designed and built to produce methane from plastic, in this case polyethylene. This first generation system yields 12-16% CH4 by weight of plastic used.

  14. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolites can be used as catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis and influence the final products obtained.

  15. Adipose tissue plasticity from WAT to BAT and in between.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Mottillo, Emilio P; Granneman, James G

    2014-03-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in regulating energy balance through its metabolic, cellular and endocrine functions. Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue and catabolic brown adipose tissue. An explosion of new data, however, points to the remarkable heterogeneity among the cells types that can become adipocytes, as well as the inherent metabolic plasticity of mature cells. These data indicate that targeting cellular and metabolic plasticity of adipose tissue might provide new avenues for treatment of obesity-related diseases. This review will discuss the developmental origins of adipose tissue, the cellular complexity of adipose tissues, and the identification of progenitors that contribute to adipogenesis throughout development. We will touch upon the pathological remodeling of adipose tissue and discuss how our understanding of adipose tissue remodeling can uncover new therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  16. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  17. Performance and Emission Studies of a SI Engine using Distilled Plastic Pyrolysis Oil-Petrol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Kareddula Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental investigation is carried out to evaluate the use of plastic oil derived from waste plastic which used in a Spark Ignition engine. Experiments are conducted, the measured performance and emissions of plastic oil blends at different proportions are compared with the baseline operation of the SI engine running with gasoline fuel. Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions such as carbon monoxide, total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen are measured. From the experiments it is observed that 50% Distilled Plastic Pyrolysis Oil (50%DPPO exhibits the substantial enhancement in brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake specific fuel consumption running at full load conditions among different blends and pure petrol. There is also noticed decrement of carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons emissions at the same blend. The experimental result shows that plastic oil shall conveniently be used as a substitute to gasoline in the existing SI engines without any modifications.

  18. Alternative fuels in cement industry; Alternativa braenslen i cementindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, K.E.; Ek, R. [Finnsementti Oy, Parainen (Finland); Maekelae, K. [Finreci Oy (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the cement industry`s possibilities to replace half of the fossil fuels with waste derived fuels are investigated. Bench-scale experiments, pilot plant tests and full scale tests have been done with used tires and plastics wastes

  19. Glutamatergic metabolites are associated with visual plasticity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtenburg, S Andrea; West, Jeffrey; Korenic, Stephanie A; Kuhney, Franchesca; Gaston, Frank E; Chen, Hongji; Roberts, Meredith; Kochunov, Peter; Hong, L Elliot; Rowland, Laura M

    2017-02-10

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a basic cellular mechanism underlying learning and memory. LTP-like plasticity in the visual cortex can be induced by high frequency visual stimulation in rodents and humans. Since glutamate plays a fundamental role in LTP, this study investigated if visual cortical glutamate and glutamine levels, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), relate to visual plasticity in humans. Since plasticity requires a delicate excitation and inhibition balance, GABA was also explored. Eighteen healthy participants completed MRS and a visual fMRI paradigm. Results revealed enhanced fMRI activations after high frequency visual stimulation, suggesting visual plasticity occurred. Higher activations were associated with higher resting glutamine levels after family wise error-correction. Exploratory analyses revealed that higher resting glutamate and GABA levels were associated with visual plasticity, suggesting there may be a critical excitation-inhibition balance necessary for experience dependent plasticity. This is the first empirical evidence that resting glutamine levels and potentially glutamate and GABA levels are associated with visual plasticity in humans.

  20. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  1. Nanostructured cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, P; Taylor, M D R; Brust, M

    2002-12-01

    Au nanocrystals spin-coated onto silicon from toluene form cellular networks. A quantitative statistical crystallography analysis shows that intercellular correlations drive the networks far from statistical equilibrium. Spin-coating from hexane does not produce cellular structure, yet a strong correlation is retained in the positions of nanocrystal aggregates. Mechanisms based on Marangoni convection alone cannot account for the variety of patterns observed, and we argue that spinodal decomposition plays an important role in foam formation.

  2. Waste-to-energy: Dehalogenation of plastic-containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yafei; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Xingming; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    The dehalogenation measurements could be carried out with the decomposition of plastic wastes simultaneously or successively. This paper reviewed the progresses in dehalogenation followed by thermochemical conversion of plastic-containing wastes for clean energy production. The pre-treatment method of MCT or HTT can eliminate the halogen in plastic wastes. The additives such as alkali-based metal oxides (e.g., CaO, NaOH), iron powders and minerals (e.g., quartz) can work as reaction mediums and accelerators with the objective of enhancing the mechanochemical reaction. The dehalogenation of waste plastics could be achieved by co-grinding with sustainable additives such as bio-wastes (e.g., rice husk), recyclable minerals (e.g., red mud) via MCT for solid fuels production. Interestingly, the solid fuel properties (e.g., particle size) could be significantly improved by HTT in addition with lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, the halogenated compounds in downstream thermal process could be eliminated by using catalysts and adsorbents. Most dehalogenation of plastic wastes primarily focuses on the transformation of organic halogen into inorganic halogen in terms of halogen hydrides or salts. The integrated process of MCT or HTT with the catalytic thermal decomposition is a promising way for clean energy production. The low-cost additives (e.g., red mud) used in the pre-treatment by MCT or HTT lead to a considerable synergistic effects including catalytic effect contributing to the follow-up thermal decomposition.

  3. Producing a solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K.; Nisino, A.; Sonedaka, V.; Takeuti, Y.

    1982-08-21

    Coal, semicoke, coke, graphite and other hydrocarbon fuels are formed into cellular briquets with the addition as a binder of 3 percent by weight of alumina or Portland cement, which operates as a sulfur removing agent. To provide for high thermal resistance and resistance to oxidation, cement which consists of 30 to 60 percent lime, 40 to 60 percent alumina and 2 to 10 percent iron oxide is recommended. Ca(OH)/sub 2/, CaCO/sub 3/, dolomite, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, MgO and ZnO are added to promote the removal of the sulfur.

  4. SABIC Innovative Plastics: Be the World Best Plastic Resin Manufacturer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny Du

    2007-01-01

    @@ "SABIC Innovative Plastics is a global supplier of plastic resins, manufacturing and compounding polycarbonate, ABS, SAN, ASA, PPE, PC/ABS, PBT and PEI resins, as well as the LNP* line of high performance specialty compounds," said Hiroshi Yoshida, the Global Market Director for Electronics of SABIC Innovative Plastics based in Tokyo at the press conference held by SABIC Innovative Plastics, November 8th 2007, Shanghai.

  5. Augmenting Plasticity Induction in Human Motor Cortex by Disinhibition Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Robin F H; Murakami, Takenobu; Chen, Robert; Thickbroom, Gary W; Ziemann, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Cellular studies showed that disinhibition, evoked pharmacologically or by a suitably timed priming stimulus, can augment long-term plasticity (LTP) induction. We demonstrated previously that transcranial magnetic stimulation evokes a period of presumably GABA(B)ergic late cortical disinhibition (LCD) in human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we hypothesized that, in keeping with cellular studies, LCD can augment LTP-like plasticity in humans. In Experiment 1, patterned repetitive TMS was applied to left M1, consisting of 6 trains (intertrain interval, 8 s) of 4 doublets (interpulse interval equal to individual peak I-wave facilitation, 1.3-1.5 ms) spaced by the individual peak LCD (interdoublet interval (IDI), 200-250 ms). This intervention (total of 48 pulses applied over ∼45 s) increased motor-evoked potential amplitude, a marker of corticospinal excitability, in a right hand muscle by 147% ± 4%. Control experiments showed that IDIs shorter or longer than LCD did not result in LTP-like plasticity. Experiment 2 indicated topographic specificity to the M1 hand region stimulated by TMS and duration of the LTP-like plasticity of 60 min. In conclusion, GABA(B)ergic LCD offers a powerful new approach for augmenting LTP-like plasticity induction in human cortex. We refer to this protocol as disinhibition stimulation (DIS).

  6. Combustion of char from plastic wastes pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptoadi, Harwin; Rohmat, Tri Agung; Sutoyo

    2016-06-01

    A popular method to recycle plastic wastes is pyrolysis, where oil, gas and char can be produced. These products can be utilized as fuels because they are basically hydrocarbons. The research investigates char properties, including their performance as fuel briquettes. There are 13 char samples from PE (Polyethylene) pyrolyzed at temperatures of around 450 °C, with and without a catalyst. Some of the samples were obtained from PE mixed with other types, such as Polystyrene (PS), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), and Others. Char properties, such as moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, are revealed from the proximate analysis, whereas calorific values were measured with a bomb calorimeter. Briquettes are made by mixing 4 g of char with 0.5 - 1 g binder. Briquettes are hollow cylinders with an outer and inner diameter of around 1.75 cm and 0.25 cm, respectively. Combustion is carried out in a furnace with wall temperatures of about 230°C and a constant air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Five out of 13 char briquettes are not feasible because they melt during combustion. Briquettes made from 100% PE wastes burn in substantially shorter duration than those from mixed plastic wastes. Char #1 and #5 are excellent due to their highest energy release, whereas #10 show the worst performance.

  7. Discrete dislocation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, E.; Finel, A; Maziere, D; Veron, M

    2003-01-01

    Conventional continuum mechanics models of inelastic deformation processes axe size scale independent. In contrast, there is considerable experimental evidence that plastic flow in crystalline materials is size dependent over length scales of the order of tens of microns and smaller. At present ther

  8. Preserving in Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  9. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  10. Persisting Plastic Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The policy on curbing plastic shopping bag use implemented three years ago has produced mixed results In a bustling farmers’market tucked in a narrow street in Xisanqi residential community in north Beijing,stalls selling vegetables,fruits and other foods line the sidewalk.

  11. Bio-Degradable Plastics Impact On Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of biodegradable polymers and more particularly that of polymers obtained from renewable resources such as the polysaccharides (e.g., starch have long been recognized. However, these biodegradable polymers have been largely used in some applications (e.g., food industry and have not found extensive applications in the packaging industries to replace conventional plastic materials, although they could be an interesting way to overcome the limitation of the petrochemical resources in the future. The fossil fuel and gas could be partially replaced by greener agricultural sources, which should participate in the reduction of CO2 emissions. Bio-based and biodegradable plastics can form the basis for environmentally preferable, sustainable alternative to current materials based exclusively on petroleum feed stocks. These bio-based materials offer value in the sustainability/life-cycle equation by being a part of the biological carbon cycle, especially as it relates to carbon-based polymeric materials such as plastics, water soluble polymers and other carbon based products like lubricants, biodiesel, and detergents. Identification and quantification of bio based content uses radioactive C-14 signature. Biopolymers are generally capable of being utilized by living matter (biodegraded, and so can be disposed in safe and ecologically sound ways through disposal processes (waste management like composting, soil application, and biological wastewater treatment. Single use, short-life, disposable products can be engineered to be bio-based and biodegradable.

  12. A mathematical model of cancer cells with phenotypic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The phenotypic plasticity of cancer cells is recently becoming a cutting-edge research area in cancer, which challenges the cellular hierarchy proposed by the conventional cancer stem cell theory. In this study, we establish a mathematical model for describing the phenotypic plasticity of cancer cells, based on which we try to find some salient features that can characterize the dynamic behavior of the phenotypic plasticity especially in comparison to the hierarchical model of cancer cells. Methods: We model cancer as population dynamics composed of different phenotypes of cancer cells. In this model, not only can cancer cells divide (symmetrically and asymmetrically and die, but they can also convert into other cellular phenotypes. According to the Law of Mass Action, the cellular processes can be captured by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs. On one hand, we can analyze the long-term stability of the model by applying qualitative method of ODEs. On the other hand, we are also concerned about the short-term behavior of the model by studying its transient dynamics. Meanwhile, we validate our model to the cell-state dynamics in published experimental data.Results: Our results show that the phenotypic plasticity plays important roles in both stabilizing the distribution of different phenotypic mixture and maintaining the cancer stem cells proportion. In particular, the phenotypic plasticity model shows decided advantages over the hierarchical model in predicting the phenotypic equilibrium and cancer stem cells’ overshoot reported in previous biological experiments in cancer cell lines.Conclusion: Since the validity of the phenotypic plasticity paradigm and the conventional cancer stem cell theory is still debated in experimental biology, it is worthy of theoretically searching for good indicators to distinguish the two models through quantitative methods. According to our study, the phenotypic equilibrium and overshoot

  13. Microenvironment-derived factors driving metastatic plasticity in melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Isabella S; Heilmann, Silja; Kansler, Emily R

    2017-01-01

    Cellular plasticity is a state in which cancer cells exist along a reversible phenotypic spectrum, and underlies key traits such as drug resistance and metastasis. Melanoma plasticity is linked to phenotype switching, where the microenvironment induces switches between invasive/MITF(LO) versus...... proliferative/MITF(HI) states. Since MITF also induces pigmentation, we hypothesize that macrometastatic success should be favoured by microenvironments that induce a MITF(HI)/differentiated/proliferative state. Zebrafish imaging demonstrates that after extravasation, melanoma cells become pigmented and enact...

  14. Cancer stem cell plasticity and tumor hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina Carla Cabrera; Robert E Hollingsworth; Elaine M Hurt

    2015-01-01

    The origins of the complex process of intratumoralheterogeneity have been highly debated and differentcellular mechanisms have been hypothesized to accountfor the diversity within a tumor. The clonal evolution andcancer stem cell (CSC) models have been proposed asdrivers of this heterogeneity. However, the concept ofcancer stem cell plasticity and bidirectional conversionbetween stem and non-stem cells has added additionalcomplexity to these highly studied paradigms and may helpexplain the tumor heterogeneity observed in solid tumors.The process of cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancercells harbor the dynamic ability of shifting from a non-CSCstate to a CSC state and vice versa may be modulated byspecific microenvironmental signals and cellular interactionsarising in the tumor niche. In addition to promoting CSCplasticity, these interactions may contribute to the cellulartransformation of tumor cells and affect response tochemotherapeutic and radiation treatments by providingCSCs protection from these agents. Herein, we review theliterature in support of this dynamic CSC state, discussthe effectors of plasticity, and examine their role in thedevelopment and treatment of cancer.

  15. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  16. A QSPR for the plasticization efficiency of polyvinylchloride plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Mridula; Marathe, Sujata

    2008-01-01

    A simple quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for correlating the plasticization efficiency of 25 polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers was obtained using molecular modeling. The plasticizers studied were-aromatic esters (phthalate, terephthalate, benzoate, trimellitate), aliphatic esters (adipate, sebacate, azelate), citrates and a phosphate. The low temperature flex point, Tf, of plasticized polyvinylchloride resins was considered as an indicator of plasticization efficiency. Initially, we attempted to predict plasticization efficiency of PVC plasticizers from physical and structural descriptors derived from the plasticizer molecule alone. However, the correlation of these descriptors with Tf was not very good with R=0.78 and r2=0.613. This implied that the selected descriptors were unable to predict all the interactions between PVC and plasticizer. Hence, to account for these interactions, a model containing two polyvinylchloride (PVC) chain segments along with a plasticizer molecule in a simulation box was constructed, using molecular mechanics. A good QSPR equation correlating physical and structural descriptors derived from the model to Tf of the plasticized resins was obtained with R=0.954 and r2=0.909.

  17. Cellular blue naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old man had asymptomatic, stationary, 1.5X2 cm, shiny, smooth, dark blue nodule on dorsum of right hand since 12-14 years. In addition he had developed extensive eruption of yellow to orange papulonodular lesions on extensors of limbs and buttocks since one and half months. Investigations confirmed that yellow papules were xanthomatosis and he had associated diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. Biopsy of blue nodule confirmed the clinical diagnosis of cellular blue naevus. Cellular blue naevus is rare and its association with xanthomatosis and diabetes mellitus were interesting features of above patients which is being reported for its rarity.

  18. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bing, X

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and pr...

  19. The Functional Upregulation of Piriform Cortex Is Associated with Cross-Modal Plasticity in Loss of Whisker Tactile Inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Ye; Li Huang; Zilong. Gao; Ping Chen; Hong Ni; Sudong Guan; Yan Zhu; Jin-Hui Wang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-modal plasticity is characterized as the hypersensitivity of remaining modalities after a sensory function is lost in rodents, which ensures their awareness to environmental changes. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cross-modal sensory plasticity remain unclear. We aim to study the role of different types of neurons in cross-modal plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In addition to behavioral tasks in mice, whole-cell recordings at the excitatory and inhib...

  20. Plasticity modeling & computation

    CERN Document Server

    Borja, Ronaldo I

    2013-01-01

    There have been many excellent books written on the subject of plastic deformation in solids, but rarely can one find a textbook on this subject. “Plasticity Modeling & Computation” is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids. It adopts a simple narrative style that is not mathematically overbearing, and has been written to emulate a professor giving a lecture on this subject inside a classroom. Each section is written to provide a balance between the relevant equations and the explanations behind them. Where relevant, sections end with one or more exercises designed to reinforce the understanding of the “lecture.” Color figures enhance the presentation and make the book very pleasant to read. For professors planning to use this textbook for their classes, the contents are sufficient for Parts A and B that can be taught in sequence over a period of two semesters or quarters.

  1. Synthesis Gas from Pyrolysed Plastics for Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chríbik Andrej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the application of synthesis gas from pyrolysis of plastics in petrol engine. The appropriate experimental measurements were performed on a combustion engine LGW 702 designated for micro-cogeneration unit. The power parameters, economic and internal parameters of the engine were compared to the engine running on the reference fuel - natural gas and synthesis gas. Burning synthesis gas leads to decreased performance by about 5% and to increased mass hourly consumption by 120%. In terms of burning, synthesis gas has similar properties as natural gas. More significant changes are observed in even burning of fuel in consecutive cycles.

  2. Low temperature creep plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kassner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The creep behavior of crystalline materials at low temperatures (T < 0.3Tm is discussed. In particular, the phenomenological relationships that describe primary creep are reviewed and analyzed. A discussion of the activation energy for creep at T < 0.3Tm is discussed in terms of the context of higher temperature activation energy. The basic mechanism(s of low temperature creep plasticity are discussed, as well.

  3. Cellular rehabilitation of photobiomodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Yuan, Jian-Qin; Wang, Yan-Fang; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Liu, Song-Hao

    2007-05-01

    Homeostasis is a term that refers to constancy in a system. A cell in homeostasis normally functions. There are two kinds of processes in the internal environment and external environment of a cell, the pathogenic processes (PP) which disrupts the old homeostasis (OH), and the sanogenetic processes (SP) which restores OH or establishes a new homeostasis (NH). Photobiomodualtion (PBM), the cell-specific effects of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems, is a kind of modulation on PP or SP so that there is no PBM on a cell in homeostasis. There are two kinds of pathways mediating PBM, the membrane endogenetic chromophores mediating pathways which often act through reactive oxygen species, and membrane proteins mediating pathways which often enhance cellular SP so that it might be called cellular rehabilitation. The cellular rehabilitation of PBM will be discussed in this paper. It is concluded that PBM might modulate the disruption of cellular homeostasis induced by pathogenic factors such as toxin until OH has been restored or NH has been established, but can not change homeostatic processes from one to another one.

  4. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  5. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur unidire

  6. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  7. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  8. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation.

  9. Future Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Storage Devices, Fuel Management, Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch, Syngas , Hubberts’s Peak UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS UU 80 Dr. Sujata Millick (703) 696...prices ever higher, and perhaps lead to intermittent fuel shortages as production fluctuates. Clearly, this competition for resources also provides oil...producers multiple options for selling their products, and raises the possibility that the US could face shortages resulting from shifts in

  10. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs.

  11. Reactive Oxygen Species: Physiological and Physiopathological Effects on Synaptic Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is counterbalanced by antioxidant defenses. When large amounts of ROS accumulate, antioxidant mechanisms become overwhelmed and oxidative cellular stress may occur. Therefore, ROS are typically characterized as toxic molecules, oxidizing membrane lipids, changing the conformation of proteins, damaging nucleic acids, and causing deficits in synaptic plasticity. High ROS concentrations are associated with a declin...

  12. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  13. Plastic Surgery and Suicide: A Clinical Guide for Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vikram; Coffey, M Justin

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have identified an increased risk of suicide among patient populations which a plastic surgeon may have a high risk of encountering: women undergoing breast augmentation, cosmetic surgery patients, and breast cancer patients. No formal guidelines exist to assist a plastic surgeon when faced with such a patient, and not every plastic surgery team has mental health clinicians that are readily accessible for consultation or referral. The goal of this clinical guide is to offer plastic surgeons a set of practical approaches to manage potentially suicidal patients. In addition, the authors review a screening tool, which can assist surgeons when encountering high-risk patients.

  14. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  15. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Xi, Fengming; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO(2)e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kg ce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption.

  16. Tree plastic bark

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Arroyo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    “Tree plastic bark" consiste en la realización de una intervención artística en un entorno natural concreto, generando de esta manera un Site Specific(1). Como hace alusión Rosalind Krauss en sus reflexiones “La escultura en el campo expandido”(2), comenta que su origen esta claramente ligado con el concepto de monumentalidad. La escultura es un monumento, se crea para conmemorar algún hecho o personaje relevante y está realizada para una ubicación concreta. La investigación parte de la id...

  17. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  18. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  19. Activin receptor signaling regulates cocaine-primed behavioral and morphological plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarz, Amy M; Wang, Zi-Jun; Schroeder, Gabrielle L; Damez-Werno, Diane; Braunscheidel, Kevin M; Mueller, Lauren E; Humby, Monica S; Caccamise, Aaron; Martin, Jennifer A; Dietz, Karen C; Neve, Rachael L; Dietz, David M

    2015-07-01

    Activin receptor signaling, including the transcription factor Smad3, was upregulated in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell following withdrawal from cocaine. Direct genetic and pharmacological manipulations of this pathway bidirectionally altered cocaine seeking while governing morphological plasticity in NAc neurons. Thus, Activin/Smad3 signaling is induced following withdrawal from cocaine, and such regulation may be a key molecular mechanism underlying behavioral and cellular plasticity in the brain following cocaine self-administration.

  20. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  1. [Erythropoietin in plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, C I; Rezaeian, F; Harder, Y; Lohmeyer, J A; Egert, S; Bader, A; Schilling, A F; Machens, H-G

    2013-04-01

    EPO is an autologous hormone, which is known to regulate erythropoiesis. For 30 years it has been used for the therapy of diverse forms of anaemia, such as renal anaemia, tumour-related anaemias, etc. Meanwhile, a multitude of scientific publications were able to demonstrate its pro-regenerative effects after trauma. These include short-term effects such as the inhibition of the "primary injury response" or apoptosis, and mid- and long-term effects for example the stimulation of stem cell recruitment, growth factor production, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation. Known adverse reactions are increases of thromboembolic events and blood pressure, as well as a higher mortality in patients with tumour anaemias treated with EPO. Scientific investigations of EPO in the field of plastic surgery included: free and local flaps, nerve regeneration, wound healing enhancement after dermal thermal injuries and in chronic wounds.Acute evidence for the clinical use of EPO in the field of plastic surgery is still not satisfactory, due to the insufficient number of Good Clinical Practice (GCP)-conform clinical trials. Thus, the initiation of more scientifically sound trials is indicated.

  2. Optogenetics and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu-feng; Jackson, Michael F; Macdonald, John F

    2013-11-01

    The intricate and complex interaction between different populations of neurons in the brain has imposed limits on our ability to gain detailed understanding of synaptic transmission and its integration when employing classical electrophysiological approaches. Indeed, electrical field stimulation delivered via traditional microelectrodes does not permit the targeted, precise and selective control of neuronal activity amongst a varied population of neurons and their inputs (eg, cholinergic, dopaminergic or glutamatergic neurons). Recently established optogenetic techniques overcome these limitations allowing precise control of the target neuron populations, which is essential for the elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors. Indeed, by introducing light-activated channels (ie, microbial opsin genes) into specific neuronal populations, optogenetics enables non-invasive optical control of specific neurons with milliseconds precision. These approaches can readily be applied to freely behaving live animals. Recently there is increased interests in utilizing optogenetics tools to understand synaptic plasticity and learning/memory. Here, we summarize recent progress in applying optogenetics in in the study of synaptic plasticity.

  3. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...

  4. Solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J.R.

    1978-11-17

    The paper is concerned with (1) the thermodynamic and kinetic limits for the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy as it is received on the earth's surface, and (2) the evaluation of a number of possible photochemical reactions with particular emphasis on the production of solar hydrogen from water. Procedures for generating hydrogen fuel are considered. Topics examined include the general requirements for a fuel-generation reaction, the photochemical reaction, limits on the conversion of light energy to chemical energy, an estimate of chemical storage efficiency, and the water decomposition reaction.

  5. Plastic fiber scintillator response to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Sjue, S.; Wilde, C. H.; Merrill, F. E.; Haight, R. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The Neutron Imaging System at NIF uses an array of plastic scintillator fibers in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to form an image of the neutron emission from the imploded capsule. By gating on neutrons that have scattered from the 14.1 MeV DT energy to lower energy ranges, an image of the dense, cold fuel around the hotspot is also obtained. An unmoderated spallation neutron beamline at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos was used in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to measure the yield of a scintillating fiber array over several energy bands ranging from 1 to 15 MeV. The results and comparison to simulation are presented.

  6. Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Safadi, J. Zeaiter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.

  7. Cellular communication through light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fels

    Full Text Available Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  8. Cancer cells exhibit clonal diversity in phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Robert Austin; Sokol, Ethan S; Gupta, Piyush B

    2017-02-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity in cancers is associated with invasive progression and drug resistance. This heterogeneity arises in part from the ability of cancer cells to switch between phenotypic states, but the dynamics of this cellular plasticity remain poorly understood. Here we apply DNA barcodes to quantify and track phenotypic plasticity across hundreds of clones in a population of cancer cells exhibiting epithelial or mesenchymal differentiation phenotypes. We find that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell ratio is highly variable across the different clones in cancer cell populations, but remains stable for many generations within the progeny of any single clone-with a heritability of 0.89. To estimate the effects of combination therapies on phenotypically heterogeneous tumours, we generated quantitative simulations incorporating empirical data from our barcoding experiments. These analyses indicated that combination therapies which alternate between epithelial- and mesenchymal-specific treatments eventually select for clones with increased phenotypic plasticity. However, this selection could be minimized by increasing the frequency of alternation between treatments, identifying designs that may minimize selection for increased phenotypic plasticity. These findings establish new insights into phenotypic plasticity in cancer, and suggest design principles for optimizing the effectiveness of combination therapies for phenotypically heterogeneous tumours.

  9. Cellular automata: structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ollinger, Nicolas

    2002-01-01

    Jury : François Blanchard (Rapporteur), Marianne Delorme (Directeur), Jarkko Kari (Président), Jacques Mazoyer (Directeur), Dominique Perrin, Géraud Sénizergues (Rapporteur); Cellular automata provide a uniform framework to study an important problem of "complex systems" theory: how and why do system with a easily understandable -- local -- microscopic behavior can generate a more complicated -- global -- macroscopic behavior? Since its introduction in the 40s, a lot of work has been done to ...

  10. Failover in cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2010-01-01

    A cellular automata (CA) configuration is constructed that exhibits emergent failover. The configuration is based on standard Game of Life rules. Gliders and glider-guns form the core messaging structure in the configuration. The blinker is represented as the basic computational unit, and it is shown how it can be recreated in case of a failure. Stateless failover using primary-backup mechanism is demonstrated. The details of the CA components used in the configuration and its working are described, and a simulation of the complete configuration is also presented.

  11. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  12. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  13. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  14. Synchronization in multicell systems exhibiting dynamic plasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Suguna; Somdatta Sinha

    2008-08-01

    Collective behaviour in multicell systems arises from exchange of chemicals/signals between cells and may be different from their intrinsic behaviour. These chemicals are products of regulated networks of biochemical pathways that underlie cellular functions, and can exhibit a variety of dynamics arising from the non-linearity of the reaction processes. We have addressed the emergent synchronization properties of a ring of cells, diffusively coupled by the end product of an intracellular model biochemical pathway exhibiting non-robust birhythmic behaviour. The aim is to examine the role of intercellular interaction in stabilizing the non-robust dynamics in the emergent collective behaviour in the ring of cells. We show that, irrespective of the inherent frequencies of individual cells, depending on the coupling strength, the collective behaviour does synchronize to only one type of oscillations above a threshold number of cells. Using two perturbation analyses, we also show that this emergent synchronized dynamical state is fairly robust under external perturbations. Thus, the inherent plasticity in the oscillatory phenotypes in these model cells may get suppressed to exhibit collective dynamics of a single type in a multicell system, but environmental influences can sometimes expose this underlying plasticity in its collective dynamics.

  15. New Life for Old Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recycling joint venture utilizes innovative technology to reuse plastics Recycling,despite its green connotations,can be a messy business.In China,more than 400,000 companies are engaged in plastic recycling,but 70 percent of them are family enterprises,

  16. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  17. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  18. Phenotypic Plasticity and Species Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Ecologists are increasingly interested in predicting how intraspecific variation and changing trait values impact species interactions and community composition. For many traits, much of this variation is caused by phenotypic plasticity, and thus the impact of plasticity on species coexistence deserves robust quantification. Partly due to a lack of sound theoretical expectations, empirical studies make contradictory claims regarding plasticity effects on coexistence. Our critical review of this literature, framed in modern coexistence theory, reveals that plasticity affects species interactions in ways that could impact stabilizing niche differences and competitive asymmetries. However, almost no study integrates these measures to quantify the net effect of plasticity on species coexistence. To address this challenge, we outline novel empirical approaches grounded in modern theory.

  19. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  20. Towards Extrusion of Ionomers to Process Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Sanchez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available While Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC membranes are currently prepared by film casting, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of extrusion, a solvent-free alternative process. Thanks to water-soluble process-aid plasticizers, duly selected, it was possible to extrude acidic and alkaline polysulfone ionomers. Additionally, the feasibility to extrude composites was demonstrated. The impact of the plasticizers on the melt viscosity was investigated. Following the extrusion, the plasticizers were fully removed in water. The extrusion was found to impact neither on the ionomer chains, nor on the performances of the membrane. This environmentally friendly process was successfully validated for a variety of high performance ionomers.

  1. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  2. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  3. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  4. Multiuser Cellular Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Modern radio communication is faced with a problem about how to distribute restricted frequency to users in a certain space. Since our task is to minimize the number of repeaters, a natural idea is enlarging coverage area. However, coverage has restrictions. First, service area has to be divided economically as repeater's coverage is limited. In this paper, our fundamental method is to adopt seamless cellular network division. Second, underlying physics content in frequency distribution problem is interference between two close frequencies. Consequently, we choose a proper frequency width of 0.1MHz and a relevantly reliable setting to apply one frequency several times. We make a few general assumptions to simplify real situation. For instance, immobile users yield to homogenous distribution; repeaters can receive and transmit information in any given frequency in duplex operation; coverage is mainly decided by antenna height. Two models are built up to solve 1000 users and 10000 users situations respectively....

  5. Microbial Fuel Cells for Powering Navy Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-20

    length × width for a planar electrode of negligible thickness) to capture a larger flux of reactant. Very large anodes, however, are difficult to...Monterey BMFC was constructed from a piece of plastic sewer pipe and included a 3-m-long carbon brush anode (6); a 4-m-long carbon brush cathode (7); two...features on the seafloor that exhibit high rates of fuel mass transport (e.g., at methane hydrate outcrops), which may constitute BMFC hotspots where

  6. Plasticity and beyond microstructures, crystal-plasticity and phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hackl, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The book presents the latest findings in experimental plasticity, crystal plasticity, phase transitions, advanced mathematical modeling of finite plasticity and multi-scale modeling. The associated algorithmic treatment is mainly based on finite element formulations for standard (local approach) as well as for non-standard (non-local approach) continua and for pure macroscopic as well as for directly coupled two-scale boundary value problems. Applications in the area of material design/processing are covered, ranging from grain boundary effects in polycrystals and phase transitions to deep-drawing of multiphase steels by directly taking into account random microstructures.

  7. Mechanical modelling of transient- to- failure SFR fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L. E.

    2014-07-01

    The response of Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) fuel rods to transient accident conditions is an important safety concern. During transients the cladding strain caused by the stress due to pellet cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) can lead to failure. Due to the fact that SFR fuel rods are commonly clad with strengthened material made of stainless steel (SS), cladding is usually treated as an elastic-perfectly-plastic material. However, viscoplastic behaviour can contribute to mechanical strain at high temperature (> 1000 K). (Author)

  8. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-02-18

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source.

  9. Fuel control system for dual fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Ryan, W.P.; Marvin, D.H.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel governing system for an engine adapted for operation on a first fuel and a second fuel is described comprising: a first fuel governing system including a spontaneous motion metering means; and a second fuel governing system, the second fuel governing system further comprising: means for providing a first signal indicative of position of the first fuel metering means, which signal approximates total load on the engine, means for providing a second signal of the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine, which flow causes reflective displacement of the first fuel metering means, means for determining the difference between the first signal and the second signal, which difference is indicative of distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, and means for causing operation of the means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine to cause displacement of the first fuel metering means equal to the distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load.

  10. plasticity of TGF-β signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cellière Geraldine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of TGF-β ligands is large and its members are involved in many different signaling processes. These signaling processes strongly differ in type with TGF-β ligands eliciting both sustained or transient responses. Members of the TGF-β family can also act as morphogen and cellular responses would then be expected to provide a direct read-out of the extracellular ligand concentration. A number of different models have been proposed to reconcile these different behaviours. We were interested to define the set of minimal modifications that are required to change the type of signal processing in the TGF-β signaling network. Results To define the key aspects for signaling plasticity we focused on the core of the TGF-β signaling network. With the help of a parameter screen we identified ranges of kinetic parameters and protein concentrations that give rise to transient, sustained, or oscillatory responses to constant stimuli, as well as those parameter ranges that enable a proportional response to time-varying ligand concentrations (as expected in the read-out of morphogens. A combination of a strong negative feedback and fast shuttling to the nucleus biases signaling to a transient rather than a sustained response, while oscillations were obtained if ligand binding to the receptor is weak and the turn-over of the I-Smad is fast. A proportional read-out required inefficient receptor activation in addition to a low affinity of receptor-ligand binding. We find that targeted modification of single parameters suffices to alter the response type. The intensity of a constant signal (i.e. the ligand concentration, on the other hand, affected only the strength but not the type of the response. Conclusions The architecture of the TGF-β pathway enables the observed signaling plasticity. The observed range of signaling outputs to TGF-β ligand in different cell types and under different conditions can be explained with

  11. Phenotypic plasticity, costs of phenotypes, and costs of plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Hilary S; Maughan, Heather; Steiner, Uli

    2008-01-01

    Why are some traits constitutive and others inducible? The term costs often appears in work addressing this issue but may be ambiguously defined. This review distinguishes two conceptually distinct types of costs: phenotypic costs and plasticity costs. Phenotypic costs are assessed from patterns...... of covariation, typically between a focal trait and a separate trait relevant to fitness. Plasticity costs, separable from phenotypic costs, are gauged by comparing the fitness of genotypes with equivalent phenotypes within two environments but differing in plasticity and fitness. Subtleties associated with both...... types of costs are illustrated by a body of work addressing predator-induced plasticity. Such subtleties, and potential interplay between the two types of costs, have also been addressed, often in studies involving genetic model organisms. In some instances, investigators have pinpointed the mechanistic...

  12. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  13. Automobile materials competition: energy implications of fiber-reinforced plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings-Saxton, J.

    1981-10-01

    The embodied energy, structural weight, and transportation energy (fuel requirement) characteristics of steel, fiber-reinforced plastics, and aluminum were assessed to determine the overall energy savings of materials substitution in automobiles. In body panels, a 1.0-lb steel component with an associated 0.5 lb in secondary weight is structurally equivalent to a 0.6-lb fiber-reinforced plastic component with 0.3 lb in associated secondary weight or a 0.5-lb aluminum component with 0.25 lb of secondary weight. (Secondary weight refers to the combined weight of the vehicle's support structure, engine, braking system, and drive train, all of which can be reduced in response to a decrease in total vehicle weight.) The life cycle transportation energy requirements of structurally equivalent body panels (including their associated secondary weights) are 174.4 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 104.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. The embodied energy requirements are 37.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 22.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. These results can be combined to yield total energy requirements of 211.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 126.7 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 174.3 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. Fiber-reinforced plastics offer the greatest improvements over steel in both embodied and total energy requirements. Aluminum achieves the greatest savings in transportation energy.

  14. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  15. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plas

  16. Unraveling the cellular and molecular mechanisms of repetitive magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eMüller-Dahlhaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous clinical studies, which have investigated the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS in various brain diseases, our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying rTMS-based therapies remains limited. Thus, a deeper understanding of rTMS-induced neural plasticity is required to optimize current treatment protocols. Studies in small animals or appropriate in vitro preparations (including models of brain diseases provide highly useful experimental approaches in this context. State-of-the-art electrophysiological and live-cell imaging techniques that are well established in basic neuroscience can help answering some of the major questions in the field, such as (i which neural structures are activated during TMS, (ii how does rTMS induce Hebbian plasticity, and (iii are other forms of plasticity (e.g., metaplasticity, structural plasticity induced by rTMS? We argue that data gained from these studies will support the development of more effective and specific applications of rTMS in clinical practice.

  17. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  18. Mechanical behaviors of the dispersion nuclear fuel plates induced by fuel particle swelling and thermal effect II: Effects of variations of the fuel particle diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shurong; Wang, Qiming; Huo, Yongzhong

    2010-02-01

    In order to predict the irradiation mechanical behaviors of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements, the total burnup is divided into two stages: the initial stage and the increasing stage. At the initial stage, the thermal effects induced by the high temperature differences between the operation temperatures and the room temperature are mainly considered; and at the increasing stage, the intense mechanical interactions between the fuel particles and the matrix due to the irradiation swelling of fuel particles are focused on. The large-deformation thermo-elasto-plasticity finite element analysis is performed to evaluate the effects of particle diameters on the in-pile mechanical behaviors of fuel elements. The research results indicate that: (1) the maximum Mises stresses and equivalent plastic strains at the matrix increase with the fuel particle diameters; the effects of particle diameters on the maximum first principal stresses vary with burnup, and the considered case with the largest particle diameter holds the maximum values all along; (2) at the cladding near the interface between the fuel meat and the cladding, the Mises stresses and the first principal stresses undergo major changes with increasing burnup, and different variations exist for different particle diameter cases; (3) the maximum Mises stresses at the fuel particles rise with the particle diameters.

  19. Cellular bioluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David K; Noguchi, Takako

    2012-08-01

    Bioluminescence imaging of live cells has recently been recognized as an important alternative to fluorescence imaging. Fluorescent probes are much brighter than bioluminescent probes (luciferase enzymes) and, therefore, provide much better spatial and temporal resolution and much better contrast for delineating cell structure. However, with bioluminescence imaging there is virtually no background or toxicity. As a result, bioluminescence can be superior to fluorescence for detecting and quantifying molecules and their interactions in living cells, particularly in long-term studies. Structurally diverse luciferases from beetle and marine species have been used for a wide variety of applications, including tracking cells in vivo, detecting protein-protein interactions, measuring levels of calcium and other signaling molecules, detecting protease activity, and reporting circadian clock gene expression. Such applications can be optimized by the use of brighter and variously colored luciferases, brighter microscope optics, and ultrasensitive, low-noise cameras. This article presents a review of how bioluminescence differs from fluorescence, its applications to cellular imaging, and available probes, optics, and detectors. It also gives practical suggestions for optimal bioluminescence imaging of single cells.

  20. Cellular neurothekeoma with melanocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-Chin; Hsieh, Yi-Yueh; Chang, Yi-Chin; Kuo, Tseng-Tong

    2008-02-01

    Cellular neurothekeoma (CNT) is a benign dermal tumor mainly affecting the head and neck and the upper extremities. It is characterized histologically by interconnecting fascicles of plump spindle or epithelioid cells with ample cytoplasm infiltrating in the reticular dermis. The histogenesis of CNT has been controversial, although it is generally regarded as an immature counterpart of classic/myxoid neurothekeoma, a tumor with nerve sheath differentiation. Two rare cases of CNT containing melanin-laden cells were described. Immunohistochemical study with NKI/C3, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle antigen, CD34, factor XIIIa, collagen type IV, S100 protein and HMB-45 was performed. Both cases showed typical growth pattern of CNT with interconnecting fascicles of epithelioid cells infiltrating in collagenous stroma. One of the nodules contained areas exhibiting atypical cytological features. Melanin-laden epithelioid or dendritic cells were diffusely scattered throughout one nodule, and focally present in the peripheral portion of the other nodule. Both nodules were strongly immunoreactive to NKI/C3 and vimentin, but negative to all the other markers employed. CNT harboring melanin-laden cells may pose diagnostic problems because of their close resemblance to nevomelanocytic lesions and other dermal mesenchymal tumors. These peculiar cases may also provide further clues to the histogenesis of CNT.

  1. Smartphones and the plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithy, Nada; Ghosh, Sudip

    2013-06-01

    Surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive. Smartphone sales are increasing and have usurped computer sales for the first time. In this context, smartphones are an important portable reference and educational tool, already in the possession of the majority of surgeons in training. Technology in the palm of our hands has led to a revolution of accessible information for the plastic surgery trainee and surgeon. This article reviews the uses of smartphones and applications for plastic surgeons in education, telemedicine and global health. A comprehensive guide to existing and upcoming learning materials and clinical tools for the plastic surgeon is included. E-books, podcasts, educational videos, guidelines, work-based assessment tools and online logbooks are presented. In the limited resource setting of modern clinical practice, savvy plastic surgeons can select technological tools to democratise access to education and best clinical care.

  2. Exceptional plasticity of silicon nanobridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki [University of Tokyo, Institute of Industrial Science, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Cleri, Fabrizio [Institut d' Electronique Microelectronique et Nanotechnologie (CNRS UMR 8520), Universite de Lille I, Avenue Poincare BP60069 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Kakushima, Kuniyuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuda, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mita, Makoto [Department of Spacecraft Engineering, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Miyata, Masaki; Itamura, Noriaki; Sasaki, Naruo [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kitamachi, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Endo, Junji, E-mail: tadashii@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [FK Optical laboratory, 1-13-4 Nakano Niiza Saitama, 352-0005 (Japan)

    2011-09-02

    The plasticity of covalently bonded materials is a subject at the forefront of materials science, bearing on a wide range of technological and fundamental aspects. However, covalent materials fracture in a brittle manner when the deformation exceeds just a few per cent. It is predicted that a macroscopically brittle material like silicon can show nanoscale plasticity. Here we report the exceptional plasticity observed in silicon nanocontacts ('nanobridges') at room temperature using a special experimental setup combining a transmission electron microscope and a microelectromechanical system. When accounting for surface diffusion, we succeeded in elongating the nanocontact into a wire-like structure, with a fivefold increase in volume, up to more than twenty times the original length. Such a large plasticity was caused by the stress-assisted diffusion and the sliding of the intergranular, amorphous-like material among the nanocrystals.

  3. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline (NC) Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature. The activation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni, including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary. The formation and storage of 60? full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains. The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips, leading to dislocation pile-up, severe lattice distortion, and formation of sub-grain boundary. The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation. The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  4. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XiaoLei

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline(NC)Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature.The acti vation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni,including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary.The formation and storage of 60° full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains.The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips,leading to dislocation pile-up,severe lattice distortion,and formation of sub-grain boundary.The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation.The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  5. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  6. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRS PRS GO PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us Cosmetic Surgery New procedures and advanced technologies offer plastic surgery ... David Berman MD 14 Pidgeon Hill Drive Berman Cosmetic Surgery & S... Sterling, VA 20165 Website Franklin Richards MD Suite ...

  7. Plasticity and creep of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Rusinko, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Here is a systematic presentation of the postulates, theorems and principles of mathematical theories of plasticity and creep in metals, and their applications. Special attention is paid to analysis of the advantages and shortcomings of the classical theories.

  8. Chemical recycle of plastics waste; Hai purasuchikku no kemikaru risaikuru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, A. [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Chemical recycling of the wasted plastics contains from regeneration to monomer as a constructing component in the case of single element polymer to conversion to fuel oil through thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics and application to chemical raw material. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) decomposes to methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer with high selection rate at max temperature of 400{+-}50degC. The Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Signed a cooperative development contract on the recycling technique of PMMA The ICI., Ltd., Great Britain. Depolymerization technique of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is already used actually on methanolysis with Coca-Cola Corp. (Hoechst-Celanese Corp.) and glycolysis with Pepsi-Cola Corp. (Goodyear Inc.). The chemical recycle due to thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics is established as a technique of gasification of the mixed wasted plastics to generate methanol in Japan by the Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., Ltd., and is operated in a pilot plant of 2 ton/day. Here was summarized on these trends in and out of Japan. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tab.

  9. Mechanical behaviors of the dispersion nuclear fuel plates induced by fuel particle swelling and thermal effect I: Effects of variations of the fuel particle volume fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming; Yan, Xiaoqing; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong

    2010-05-01

    A new method of modeling the in-pile mechanical behaviors of dispersion nuclear fuel elements is proposed. Considering the irradiation swelling together with the thermal effect, numerical simulations of the in-pile mechanical behaviors are performed with the developed finite element models for different fuel particle volume fractions of the fuel meat. The effects of the particle volume fractions on the mechanical performances of the fuel element are studied. The research results indicate that: (1) the maximum Mises stresses and equivalent plastic strains at the matrix increase with the particle volume fractions at each burnup; the locations of the maximum first principal stresses shift with increasing burnup; at low burnups, the maximum first principal stresses increase with the particle volume fractions; while at high burnups, the 20% volume fraction case holds the lowest value; (2) at the cladding, the maximum equivalent plastic strains and the tensile principal stresses increase with the particle volume fractions; while the maximum Mises stresses do not follow this order at high burnups; (3) the maximum Mises stresses at the fuel particles increase with the particle volume fractions, and the particles will engender plastic strains until the particle volume fraction reaches high enough.

  10. Plastic bronchitis: a management challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Michael H; Drummond, Michael B; Haponik, Edward F

    2008-02-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and underdiagnosed entity, characterized by recurrent expectoration of large, branching bronchial casts. We describe a 39-year-woman with no prior lung disease who had episodic wheezing, severe dyspnea with expectoration of large and thick secretions, branching in appearance, which she described as resembling squid. A comprehensive evaluation revealed no specific cause and a diagnosis of idiopathic plastic bronchitis was made. In plastic bronchitis the bronchial casts may vary in size from small segmental casts of a bronchus to casts filling the airways of an entire lung. Plastic bronchitis can therefore present as an acute life-threatening emergency if mechanical obstruction of major airways occurs. The casts are differentiated into type I, inflammatory casts, or type II, acellular casts. The type I inflammatory casts are often associated with bronchial disease and often have an acute presentation. The acellular type of cast production is often chronic or recurrent. Numerous systemic illnesses are associated with plastic bronchitis, but often, as in our patient, no underlying cause can be identified. The treatment of plastic bronchitis includes acute therapy to aid the removal and expectoration of casts, and specific short- or long-term treatments attempting to address the underlying hypersecretory process. The therapeutic options are supported only by anecdotal evidence based on case reports as the rarity and heterogeneity of plastic bronchitis confounds systematic investigations of its treatment. Improved understanding of the regulation of mucus production may allow for new treatment options in plastic bronchitis and other chronic lung diseases characterized by hypersecretion of mucus.

  11. Sorting Techniques for Plastics Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles of three different types of separating methods and a general guideline for choosing the most effective method for sorting plastic mixtures. It also presents the results of the tests carried out for separation of PVC, ABS and PET from different kinds of plastic mixtures in order to improve the grade of the raw input used in mechanical or feedstock recycling.

  12. Computational materials science: Nanoscale plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour.......How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour....

  13. Sleep, plasticity and memory from molecules to whole-brain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert; Saletin, Jared M; Walker, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sleep across phylogeny, its function remains elusive. In this review, we consider one compelling candidate: brain plasticity associated with memory processing. Focusing largely on hippocampus-dependent memory in rodents and humans, we describe molecular, cellular, network, wh

  14. Aviation fuels outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  15. Environment and brain plasticity: towards an endogenous pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Alessandro; Berardi, Nicoletta; Maffei, Lamberto

    2014-01-01

    Brain plasticity refers to the remarkable property of cerebral neurons to change their structure and function in response to experience, a fundamental theoretical theme in the field of basic research and a major focus for neural rehabilitation following brain disease. While much of the early work on this topic was based on deprivation approaches relying on sensory experience reduction procedures, major advances have been recently obtained using the conceptually opposite paradigm of environmental enrichment, whereby an enhanced stimulation is provided at multiple cognitive, sensory, social, and motor levels. In this survey, we aim to review past and recent work concerning the influence exerted by the environment on brain plasticity processes, with special emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms and starting from experimental work on animal models to move to highly relevant work performed in humans. We will initiate introducing the concept of brain plasticity and describing classic paradigmatic examples to illustrate how changes at the level of neuronal properties can ultimately affect and direct key perceptual and behavioral outputs. Then, we describe the remarkable effects elicited by early stressful conditions, maternal care, and preweaning enrichment on central nervous system development, with a separate section focusing on neurodevelopmental disorders. A specific section is dedicated to the striking ability of environmental enrichment and physical exercise to empower adult brain plasticity. Finally, we analyze in the last section the ever-increasing available knowledge on the effects elicited by enriched living conditions on physiological and pathological aging brain processes.

  16. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint...

  17. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  18. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  19. The transformation of synaptic to system plasticity in motor output from the sacral cord of the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingchen C; Elbasiouny, Sherif M; Collins, William F; Heckman, C J

    2015-09-01

    Synaptic plasticity is fundamental in shaping the output of neural networks. The transformation of synaptic plasticity at the cellular level into plasticity at the system level involves multiple factors, including behavior of local networks of interneurons. Here we investigate the synaptic to system transformation for plasticity in motor output in an in vitro preparation of the adult mouse spinal cord. System plasticity was assessed from compound action potentials (APs) in spinal ventral roots, which were generated simultaneously by the axons of many motoneurons (MNs). Synaptic plasticity was assessed from intracellular recordings of MNs. A computer model of the MN pool was used to identify the middle steps in the transformation from synaptic to system behavior. Two input systems that converge on the same MN pool were studied: one sensory and one descending. The two synaptic input systems generated very different motor outputs, with sensory stimulation consistently evoking short-term depression (STD) whereas descending stimulation had bimodal plasticity: STD at low frequencies but short-term facilitation (STF) at high frequencies. Intracellular and pharmacological studies revealed contributions from monosynaptic excitation and stimulus time-locked inhibition but also considerable asynchronous excitation sustained from local network activity. The computer simulations showed that STD in the monosynaptic excitatory input was the primary driver of the system STD in the sensory input whereas network excitation underlies the bimodal plasticity in the descending system. These results provide insight on the roles of plasticity in the monosynaptic and polysynaptic inputs converging on the same MN pool to overall motor plasticity.

  20. Thermal adaptation of cellular membranes in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brandon S; Hammad, Loubna A; Montooth, Kristi L

    2014-08-01

    Changes in temperature disrupt the fluidity of cellular membranes, which can negatively impact membrane integrity and cellular processes. Many ectotherms, including Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen), adjust the glycerophospholipid composition of their membranes to restore optimal fluidity when temperatures change, a type of trait plasticity termed homeoviscous adaptation.Existing data suggest that plasticity in the relative abundances of the glycerophospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) underlies cellular adaptation to temporal variability in the thermal environment. For example, laboratory populations of D. melanogaster evolved in the presence of temporally variable temperatures have greater developmental plasticity of the ratio of PE to PC (PE/PC) and greater fecundity than do populations evolved at constant temperatures.Here, we extend this work to natural populations of D. melanogaster by evaluating thermal plasticity of glycerophospholipid composition at different life stages, in genotypes isolated from Vermont, Indiana and North Carolina, USA. We also quantify the covariance between developmental and adult (reversible) plasticity, and between adult responses of the membrane to cool and warm thermal shifts.As predicted by physiological models of homeoviscous adaptation, flies from all populations decrease PE/PC and the degree of lipid unsaturation in response to warm temperatures. Furthermore, these populations have diverged in their degree of membrane plasticity. Flies from the most variable thermal environment (Vermont, USA) decrease PE/PC to a greater extent than do other populations when developed at a warm temperature, a pattern that matches our previous observation in laboratory-evolved populations. We also find that developmental plasticity and adult plasticity of PE/PC covary across genotypes, but that adult responses to cool and warm thermal shifts do not.When combined with our previous observations of laboratory

  1. Deformation mechanisms of plasticized starch materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, P-Y; Alix, S; Soulestin, J; Lacrampe, M F; Krawczak, P; Coqueret, X; Dole, P

    2014-12-19

    The aim of this paper is to understand the influence of plasticizer and plasticizer amount on the mechanical and deformation behaviors of plasticized starch. Glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol have been used as plasticizers. After extrusion of the various samples, dynamic mechanical analyses and video-controlled tensile tests have been performed. It was found that the nature of plasticizer, its amount as well as the aging of the material has an impact on the involved deformation mechanism. The variations of volume deformation could be explained by an antiplasticization effect (low plasticizer amount), a phase-separation phenomenon (excess of plasticizer) and/or by the retrogradation of starch.

  2. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  3. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life.

  4. Fibrogenic Cell Plasticity Blunts Tissue Regeneration and Aggravates Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Pessina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of cell identity is necessary for homeostasis of most adult tissues. This process is challenged every time a tissue undergoes regeneration after stress or injury. In the lethal Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, skeletal muscle regenerative capacity declines gradually as fibrosis increases. Using genetically engineered tracing mice, we demonstrate that, in dystrophic muscle, specialized cells of muscular, endothelial, and hematopoietic origins gain plasticity toward a fibrogenic fate via a TGFβ-mediated pathway. This results in loss of cellular identity and normal function, with deleterious consequences for regeneration. Furthermore, this fibrogenic process involves acquisition of a mesenchymal progenitor multipotent status, illustrating a link between fibrogenesis and gain of progenitor cell functions. As this plasticity also was observed in DMD patients, we propose that mesenchymal transitions impair regeneration and worsen diseases with a fibrotic component.

  5. Polarity Determinants in Dendritic Spine Development and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaye

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric distribution of various proteins and RNAs is essential for all stages of animal development, and establishment and maintenance of this cellular polarity are regulated by a group of conserved polarity determinants. Studies over the last 10 years highlight important functions for polarity proteins, including apical-basal polarity and planar cell polarity regulators, in dendritic spine development and plasticity. Remarkably, many of the conserved polarity machineries function in similar manners in the context of spine development as they do in epithelial morphogenesis. Interestingly, some polarity proteins also utilize neuronal-specific mechanisms. Although many questions remain unanswered in our understanding of how polarity proteins regulate spine development and plasticity, current and future research will undoubtedly shed more light on how this conserved group of proteins orchestrates different pathways to shape the neuronal circuitry.

  6. Origin and plasticity of MHC I-associated self peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Verteuil, Danielle; Granados, Diana Paola; Thibault, Pierre; Perreault, Claude

    2012-07-01

    Endogenous peptides presented by MHC I molecules represent the essence of self for CD8 T lymphocytes. These MHC I peptides (MIPs) regulate all key events that occur during the lifetime of CD8 T cells. CD8 T cells are selected on self-MIPs, sustained by self-MIPs, and activated in the presence of self-MIPs. Recently, large-scale mass spectrometry studies have revealed that the self-MIP repertoire is more complex and plastic than previously anticipated. The composition of the self-MIP repertoire varies from one cell type to another and can be perturbed by cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors including dysregulation of cellular metabolism and infection. The complexity and plasticity of the self-MIP repertoire represent a major challenge for the maintenance of self tolerance and can have pervasive effects on the global functioning of the immune system.

  7. Fibrogenic Cell Plasticity Blunts Tissue Regeneration and Aggravates Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, Patrizia; Kharraz, Yacine; Jardí, Mercè; Fukada, So-ichiro; Serrano, Antonio L; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2015-06-09

    Preservation of cell identity is necessary for homeostasis of most adult tissues. This process is challenged every time a tissue undergoes regeneration after stress or injury. In the lethal Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), skeletal muscle regenerative capacity declines gradually as fibrosis increases. Using genetically engineered tracing mice, we demonstrate that, in dystrophic muscle, specialized cells of muscular, endothelial, and hematopoietic origins gain plasticity toward a fibrogenic fate via a TGFβ-mediated pathway. This results in loss of cellular identity and normal function, with deleterious consequences for regeneration. Furthermore, this fibrogenic process involves acquisition of a mesenchymal progenitor multipotent status, illustrating a link between fibrogenesis and gain of progenitor cell functions. As this plasticity also was observed in DMD patients, we propose that mesenchymal transitions impair regeneration and worsen diseases with a fibrotic component.

  8. Polarity Determinants in Dendritic Spine Development and Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaye Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric distribution of various proteins and RNAs is essential for all stages of animal development, and establishment and maintenance of this cellular polarity are regulated by a group of conserved polarity determinants. Studies over the last 10 years highlight important functions for polarity proteins, including apical-basal polarity and planar cell polarity regulators, in dendritic spine development and plasticity. Remarkably, many of the conserved polarity machineries function in similar manners in the context of spine development as they do in epithelial morphogenesis. Interestingly, some polarity proteins also utilize neuronal-specific mechanisms. Although many questions remain unanswered in our understanding of how polarity proteins regulate spine development and plasticity, current and future research will undoubtedly shed more light on how this conserved group of proteins orchestrates different pathways to shape the neuronal circuitry.

  9. Free fall and cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arrighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three reasonable hypotheses lead to the thesis that physical phenomena can be described and simulated with cellular automata. In this work, we attempt to describe the motion of a particle upon which a constant force is applied, with a cellular automaton, in Newtonian physics, in Special Relativity, and in General Relativity. The results are very different for these three theories.

  10. About Strongly Universal Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Margenstern

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a strongly universal cellular automaton on the line with 11 states and the standard neighbourhood. We embed this construction into several tilings of the hyperbolic plane and of the hyperbolic 3D space giving rise to strongly universal cellular automata with 10 states.

  11. Reactive Programming of Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Boussinot, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    Implementation of cellular automata using reactive programming gives a way to code cell behaviors in an abstract and modular way. Multiprocessing also becomes possible. The paper describes the implementation of cellular automata with the reactive programming language LOFT, a thread-based extension of C. Self replicating loops considered in artificial life are coded to show the interest of the approach.

  12. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  13. Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup-Thomsen, S.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1999-01-01

    Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...... analysis leads to an equivalent ideal plastic yield limit that gives good coincidence between the simulated distributions and the experimentally determined distributions. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  15. Simulation of Dynamic Recrystallization Using Cellular Automaton Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hong; XIE Hong-biao; YAN Yan-hong; Jun YANAGIMOTO

    2004-01-01

    A new modeling approach that couples fundamental metallurgical principles of dynamical recrystallization with the cellular automaton method was developed to simulate the microstructural evolution linking with the plastic flow behavior during thermomechanical processing. The driving force for the nucleation and growth of dynamically recrystallized grain is the volume free energy due to the stored dislocation density of a deformation matrix. The growth terminates the impingement. The model is capable of simulating kinetics, microstructure and texture evolution during recrystallization. The predictions of microstructural evolution agree with the experimental results.

  16. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  17. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  18. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  19. Simulation of cylindrical cup drawing of AZ31 sheet metal with crystal plasticity finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiqin; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Shaorui; Peng, Yinghong

    2013-12-01

    As a light-weight structural material, magnesium alloys show good potential in improving the fuel efficiency of vehicles and reducing CO2 emissions. However, it is well known that polycrystalline Mg alloys develop pronounced crystallographic texture and plastic anisotropy during rolling, which leads to earing phenomenon during deep drawing of the rolled sheets. It is vital to predict this phenomenon accurately for application of magnesium sheet metals. In the present study, a crystal plasticity model for AZ31 magnesium alloy that incorporates both slip and twinning is established. Then the crystal plasticity model is implemented in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit through secondary development interface (VUMAT). Finally, the stamping process of a cylindrical cup is simulated using the developed crystal plasticity finite element model, and the predicting method is verified by comparing with experimental results from both earing profile and deformation texture.

  20. Future aviation fuels overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  1. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  2. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  3. Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Xu, Jin-Yu; Li, Weimin

    2015-09-01

    Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material (BFRPGCM) was prepared. The stress-strain curve has been worked out. The ideal energy-absorbing efficiency has been analyzed and the application prospect has been explored. The results show the following: fiber reinforced cellular material has successively sized pore structures; the stress-strain curve has two stages: elastic stage and yielding plateau stage; the greatest value of the ideal energy-absorbing efficiency of BFRPGCM is 89.11%, which suggests BFRPGCM has excellent energy-absorbing property. Thus, it can be seen that BFRPGCM is easy and simple to make, has high plasticity, low density and excellent energy-absorbing features. So, BFRPGCM is a promising energy-absorbing material used especially in civil defense engineering.

  4. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  5. A remote reactor monitoring with plastic scintillation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Georgadze, A Sh; Ponkratenko, O A; Litvinov, D A

    2016-01-01

    Conceiving the possibility of using plastic scintillator bars as robust detectors for antineutrino detection for the remote reactor monitoring and nuclear safeguard application we study expected basic performance by Monte Carlo simulation. We present preliminary results for a 1 m3 highly segmented detector made of 100 rectangular scintillation bars forming an array which is sandwiched at both sides by the continuous light guides enabling light sharing between all photo detectors. Light detection efficiency is calculated for several light collection configurations, considering different scintillation block geometries and number of photo-detectors. The photo-detectors signals are forming the specific hit pattern, which is characterizing the impinging particle. The statistical analysis of hit patterns allows effectively select antineutrino events and rejects backgrounds. To evaluate detector sensitivity to fuel isotopic composition evolution during fuel burning cycle we have calculated antineutrino spectra. The ...

  6. Internal Combustion Engine Powered by Synthesis Gas from Pyrolysed Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chríbik Andrej

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the application of synthesis gas from pyrolysis of plastics in petrol engine. The appropriate experimental measurements were performed on a combustion engine LGW 702 designated for micro-cogeneration unit. The power parameters, economic parameters in term of brake specific fuel consumption, and internal parameters of the engine were compared to the engine running on the reference fuel - natural gas and synthesis gas. Burning synthesis gas leads to decreased performance by about 5% and to increased mass hourly consumption by 120 %. In terms of burning, synthesis gas has similar properties as natural gas. Compared with [5] a more detailed study has been prepared on the effects of angle of spark advance on the engine torque, giving more detailed assessment of engine cycle variability and considering specification of start and end of combustion in the logarithm p-V diagram.

  7. Mitochondria, synaptic plasticity, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shachar, Dorit; Laifenfeld, Daphna

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization of schizophrenia as a disorder of connectivity, i.e., of neuronal?synaptic plasticity, suggests abnormal synaptic modeling and neuronal signaling, possibly as a consequence of flawed interactions with the environment, as at least a secondary mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. Indeed, deficits in episodic memory and malfunction of hippocampal circuitry, as well as anomalies of axonal sprouting and synapse formation, are all suggestive of diminished neuronal plasticity in schizophrenia. Evidence supports a dysfunction of mitochondria in schizophrenia, including mitochondrial hypoplasia, and a dysfunction of the oxidative phosphorylation system, as well as altered mitochondrial-related gene expression. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to alterations in ATP production and cytoplasmatic calcium concentrations, as well as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production. All of the latter processes have been well established as leading to altered synaptic strength or plasticity. Moreover, mitochondria have been shown to play a role in plasticity of neuronal polarity, and studies in the visual cortex show an association between mitochondria and synaptogenesis. Finally, mitochondrial gene upregulation has been observed following synaptic and neuronal activity. This review proposes that mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia could cause, or arise from, anomalies in processes of plasticity in this disorder.

  8. Essential Role for Vav GEFs in Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)-induced Dendritic Spine Growth and Synapse Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Carly F.; Dietz, Karen C.; Varela, Juan A.; Wood, Cody B.; Zirlin, Benjamin C.; Leah S. Leverich; Greene, Robert W.; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor, TrkB, regulate a wide range of cellular processes, including dendritic spine formation and functional synapse plasticity. However, the signaling mechanisms that link BDNF-activated TrkB to F-actin remodeling enzymes and dendritic spine morphological plasticity remain poorly understood. We report here that BDNF/TrkB signaling in neurons activates the Vav family of Rac/RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) through a no...

  9. Synaptic Plasticity, Dementia and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura; Zusso, Morena; Giusti, Pietro

    2017-01-13

    Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment. Degenerative diseases of the human brain continue to pose one of biomedicine's most intractable problems. Research on human neurodegeneration is now moving from descriptive to mechanistic analyses. At the same time, it is increasing apparent that morphological lesions traditionally used by neuropathologists to confirm post-mortem clinical diagnosis might furnish us with an experimentally tractable handle to understand causative pathways. Consider the aging-dependent neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is characterised at the neuropathological level by deposits of insoluble amyloid b-peptide (Ab) in extracellular plaques and aggregated tau protein, which is found largely in the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. We now appreciate that mild cognitive impairment in early AD may be due to synaptic dysfunction caused by accumulation of non-fibrillar, oligomeric Ab, occurring well in advance of evident widespread synaptic loss and neurodegeneration. Soluble Ab oligomers can adversely affect synaptic structure and plasticity at extremely low concentrations, although the molecular substrates by which synaptic memory mechanisms are disrupted remain to be fully elucidated. The dendritic spine constitutes a primary locus of excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. These structures protruding from dendritic shafts

  10. Cellular systems biology profiling applied to cellular models of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Kenneth A; Premkumar, Daniel R; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Patricia; Taylor, Lansing

    2009-11-01

    Building cellular models of disease based on the approach of Cellular Systems Biology (CSB) has the potential to improve the process of creating drugs as part of the continuum from early drug discovery through drug development and clinical trials and diagnostics. This paper focuses on the application of CSB to early drug discovery. We discuss the integration of protein-protein interaction biosensors with other multiplexed, functional biomarkers as an example in using CSB to optimize the identification of quality lead series compounds.

  11. Phenotypic plasticity and population differentiation in an ongoing species invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matesanz

    Full Text Available The ability to succeed in diverse conditions is a key factor allowing introduced species to successfully invade and spread across new areas. Two non-exclusive factors have been suggested to promote this ability: adaptive phenotypic plasticity of individuals, and the evolution of locally adapted populations in the new range. We investigated these individual and population-level factors in Polygonum cespitosum, an Asian annual that has recently become invasive in northeastern North America. We characterized individual fitness, life-history, and functional plasticity in response to two contrasting glasshouse habitat treatments (full sun/dry soil and understory shade/moist soil in 165 genotypes sampled from nine geographically separate populations representing the range of light and soil moisture conditions the species inhabits in this region. Polygonum cespitosum genotypes from these introduced-range populations expressed broadly similar plasticity patterns. In response to full sun, dry conditions, genotypes from all populations increased photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, and allocation to root tissues, dramatically increasing reproductive fitness compared to phenotypes expressed in simulated understory shade. Although there were subtle among-population differences in mean trait values as well as in the slope of plastic responses, these population differences did not reflect local adaptation to environmental conditions measured at the population sites of origin. Instead, certain populations expressed higher fitness in both glasshouse habitat treatments. We also compared the introduced-range populations to a single population from the native Asian range, and found that the native population had delayed phenology, limited functional plasticity, and lower fitness in both experimental environments compared with the introduced-range populations. Our results indicate that the future spread of P. cespitosum in its introduced range will likely be

  12. Hormones and phenotypic plasticity: Implications for the evolution of integrated adaptive phenotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sean C.LEMA; Jun KITANO

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that taxa exhibit genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity,but many questions remain unanswered about how divergent plastic responses evolve under dissimilar ecological conditions.Hormones are signaling molecules that act as proximate mediators of phenotype expression by regulating a variety of cellular,physiological,and behavioral responses.Hormones not only change cellular and physiological states but also influence gene expression directly or indirectly,thereby linking environmental conditions to phenotypic development.Studying how hormonal pathways respond to environmental variation and how those responses differ between individuals,populations,and species can expand our understanding of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity.Here,we explore the ways that the study of hormone signaling is providing new insights into the underlying proximate bases for individual,population or species variation in plasticity.Using several studies as exemplars,we examine how a 'norm of reaction' approach can be used in investigations of hormone-mediated plasticity to inform the following:1) how environmental cues affect the component hormones,receptors and enzymes that comprise any endocrine signaling pathway,2) how genetic and epigenetic variation in endocrine-associated genes can generate variation in plasticity among these diverse components,and 3) how phenotypes mediated by the same hormone can be coupled and decoupled via independent plastic responses of signaling components across target tissues.Future studies that apply approaches such as reaction norms and network modeling to questions concerning how hormones link environmental stimuli to ecologically-relevant phenotypic responses should help unravel how phenotypic plasticity evolves.

  13. Hormones and phenotypic plasticity: Implications for the evolution of integrated adaptive phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. LEMA, Jun KITANO

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that taxa exhibit genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity, but many questions remain unanswered about how divergent plastic responses evolve under dissimilar ecological conditions. Hormones are signaling molecules that act as proximate mediators of phenotype expression by regulating a variety of cellular, physiological, and behavioral responses. Hormones not only change cellular and physiological states but also influence gene expression directly or indirectly, thereby linking environmental conditions to phenotypic development. Studying how hormonal pathways respond to environmental variation and how those responses differ between individuals, populations, and species can expand our understanding of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Here, we explore the ways that the study of hormone signaling is providing new insights into the underlying proximate bases for individual, population or species variation in plasticity. Using several studies as exemplars, we examine how a ‘norm of reaction’ approach can be used in investigations of hormone-mediated plasticity to inform the following: 1 how environmental cues affect the component hormones, receptors and enzymes that comprise any endocrine signaling pathway, 2 how genetic and epigenetic variation in endocrine-associated genes can generate variation in plasticity among these diverse components, and 3 how phenotypes mediated by the same hormone can be coupled and decoupled via independent plastic responses of signaling components across target tissues. Future studies that apply approaches such as reaction norms and network modeling to questions concerning how hormones link environmental stimuli to ecologically-relevant phenotypic responses should help unravel how phenotypic plasticity evolves [Current Zoology 59 (4: 506–525, 2013].

  14. China Plastics Industry (2011) China Plastics Processing Industry Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2012-01-01

    General situation of China plastics industry in 2011 was reviewed, including the output and export/import of plastics products, synthetic resins,and plastics processing machinery, as well as major economic data, such as the total industrial values, sales and profits of plastics products, etc. Analysis of the market of plastics products in 2011 was made, and the developing trend of China plastics industry in 2012 was proposed.

  15. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    contains significant quantities of common plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Fluidized bed experiments to examine the pyrolysis of polymers have shown that bed agglomeration can result from melting plastics or sticky char residues in the case...... materials such as plastic and paper than mixed MSW [2]. The inhomogeneous nature of SRF [3] makes it difficult to combust and many problems may arise concerning e.g. combustion control, feeding of fuel [2,4], deposit formation [5], or accumulation of impurities [3]. Laboratory ash fusion tests typically...... of PET [11,12]. The main objective of this study was to characterize the combustion of SRF and especially the deposition propensity of SRF and the main constituents of SRF. This relates both to the low temperature deposits formed during plastic pyrolysis and the high temperature deposits formed by ash...

  16. Cancer Stem Cell Plasticity as Tumor Growth Promoter and Catalyst of Population Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Poleszczuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly argued that cancer stem cells are not a cellular phenotype but rather a transient state that cells can acquire, either through intrinsic signaling cascades or in response to environmental cues. While cancer stem cell plasticity is generally associated with increased aggressiveness and treatment resistance, we set out to thoroughly investigate the impact of different rates of plasticity on early and late tumor growth dynamics and the response to therapy. We develop an agent-based model of cancer stem cell driven tumor growth, in which plasticity is defined as a spontaneous transition between stem and nonstem cancer cell states. Simulations of the model show that plasticity can substantially increase tumor growth rate and invasion. At high rates of plasticity, however, the cells get exhausted and the tumor will undergo spontaneous remission in the long term. In a series of in silico trials, we show that such remission can be facilitated through radiotherapy. The presented study suggests that stem cell plasticity has rather complex, nonintuitive implications on tumor growth and treatment response. Further theoretical, experimental, and integrated studies are needed to fully decipher cancer stem cell plasticity and how it can be harnessed for novel therapeutic approaches.

  17. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  18. Plasticity in glutamatergic NTS neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, David D

    2008-12-10

    Changes in the physiological state of an animal or human can result in alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory system in order to maintain homeostasis. Accordingly, the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are not static but readily adapt under a variety of circumstances. The same can be said for the brainstem circuits that control these systems. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the central integration site of baroreceptor and chemoreceptor sensory afferent fibers. This central nucleus, and in particular the synapse between the sensory afferent and second-order NTS cell, possesses a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to a variety of stimuli, both acute and chronic. This brief review is intended to describe the plasticity observed in the NTS as well as the locus and mechanisms as they are currently understood. The functional consequence of NTS plasticity is also discussed.

  19. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void......Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...

  20. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  1. A Course in Cellular Bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    Gives an overview of a course in chemical engineering entitled "Cellular Bioengineering," dealing with how chemical engineering principles can be applied to molecular cell biology. Topics used are listed and some key references are discussed. Listed are 85 references. (YP)

  2. Energy Landscape of Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2008-03-01

    Cellular Networks are in general quite robust and perform their biological functions against the environmental perturbations. Progresses have been made from experimental global screenings, topological and engineering studies. However, there are so far few studies of why the network should be robust and perform biological functions from global physical perspectives. In this work, we will explore the global properties of the network from physical perspectives. The aim of this work is to develop a conceptual framework and quantitative physical methods to study the global nature of the cellular network. The main conclusion of this presentation is that we uncovered the underlying energy landscape for several small cellular networks such as MAPK signal transduction network and gene regulatory networks, from the experimentally measured or inferred inherent chemical reaction rates. The underlying dynamics of these networks can show bi-stable as well as oscillatory behavior. The global shapes of the energy landscapes of the underlying cellular networks we have studied are robust against perturbations of the kinetic rates and environmental disturbances through noise. We derived a quantitative criterion for robustness of the network function from the underlying landscape. It provides a natural explanation of the robustness and stability of the network for performing biological functions. We believe the robust landscape is a global universal property for cellular networks. We believe the robust landscape is a quantitative realization of Darwinian principle of natural selection at the cellular network level. It may provide a novel algorithm for optimizing the network connections, which is crucial for the cellular network design and synthetic biology. Our approach is general and can be applied to other cellular networks.

  3. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740/sup 0/C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th-/sup 233/U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized.

  4. Phenotypic plasticity and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the behaviour and therapeutic response of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Navin; Mackenzie, Ian C; Biddle, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    It is increasingly recognised that phenotypic plasticity, apparently driven by epigenetic mechanisms, plays a key role in tumour behaviour and markedly influences the important processes of therapeutic survival and metastasis. An important source of plasticity in malignancy is epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a common epigenetically controlled event that results in transition of malignant cells between different phenotypic states that confer motility and enhance survival. In this review, we discuss the importance of phenotypic plasticity and its contribution to cellular heterogeneity in oral squamous cell carcinoma with emphasis on aspects of drug resistance and EMT.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolism basically consists of the conversion of chemical compounds taken up from the extracellular environment into energy (conserved in energy-rich bonds of organic phosphates) and a wide array of organic molecules serving as catalysts (enzymes), information carriers (nucleic acids), and building blocks for cellular structures such as membranes or ribosomes. Metabolic modeling aims at the construction of mathematical representations of the cellular metabolism that can be used to calculate the concentration of cellular molecules and the rates of their mutual chemical interconversion in response to varying external conditions as, for example, hormonal stimuli or supply of essential nutrients. Based on such calculations, it is possible to quantify complex cellular functions as cellular growth, detoxification of drugs and xenobiotic compounds or synthesis of exported molecules. Depending on the specific questions to metabolism addressed, the methodological expertise of the researcher, and available experimental information, different conceptual frameworks have been established, allowing the usage of computational methods to condense experimental information from various layers of organization into (self-) consistent models. Here, we briefly outline the main conceptual frameworks that are currently exploited in metabolism research.

  6. Algae fuels : a tantalizing alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2010-11-15

    This article surveyed the current state of research and development in the area of algae use as a basis for fuel and as a feedstock for the chemical industry. The constraints inhibiting the commercialization of algae-related processes were discussed and a brief overview of the history of algae research was presented. Interest in algae research has ebbed and flowed in conjunction with economic and social concerns. It is unknown whether algae can be grown on a scale and cost that is commercially viable. A bench-scale algae cultivation system involving photobioreactors was described. Algae are increasingly being used in treating wastewater from industrial processes, as algae can reduce ammonia and phosphate loads in effluent. Exhaust carbon dioxide is being used to feed algae crops. Advances are needed to make turning algae oil into fuel cost effective. A bench-stage process for extracting algae oil from water for biofuel conversion was described. The process results in easier-to-dry biomass without using chemical solvents or centrifuges. Algae biomass is also being explored for used as a polymer feedstock. Algae can be grown anywhere there is sun, but the challenge is in developing a large enough supply of algae biomass. Second generation algae plastic products will be more complex and may involve the creation of a monomer out of algae itself, which could make algae competitive with oil in the plastics industry. Skeptics doubt that algae processes can be commercialized, but some within the industry believe that algae biomass will eventually work within the norms of industrial processes. 5 figs.

  7. Pattern transformations in periodic cellular solids under external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Zhao, X. W.; Duan, H. L.; Karihaloo, B. L.; Wang, J.

    2011-04-01

    The structural patterns of periodic cellular materials play an important role in their properties. Here, we investigate how these patterns transform dramatically under external stimuli in simple periodic cellular structures that include a nanotube bundle and a millimeter-size plastic straw bundle. Under gradual hydrostatic straining up to 20%, the cross-section of the single walled carbon nanotube bundle undergoes several pattern transformations, while an amazing new hexagram pattern is triggered from the circular shape when the strain of 20% is applied suddenly in one step. Similar to the nanotube bundle, the circular plastic straw bundle is transformed into a hexagonal pattern on heating by conduction through a baseplate but into a hexagram pattern when heated by convection. Besides the well-known elastic buckling, we find other mechanisms of pattern transformation at different scales; these include the minimization of the surface energy at the macroscale or of the van der Waals energy at the nanoscale and the competition between the elastic energy of deformation and either the surface energy at the macroscale or the van der Waals energy at the nanoscale. The studies of the pattern transformations of periodic porous materials offer new insights into the fabrication of novel materials and devices with tailored properties.

  8. The role of actin networks in cellular mechanosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azatov, Mikheil

    Physical processes play an important role in many biological phenomena, such as wound healing, organ development, and tumor metastasis. During these processes, cells constantly interact with and adapt to their environment by exerting forces to mechanically probe the features of their surroundings and generating appropriate biochemical responses. The mechanisms underlying how cells sense the physical properties of their environment are not well understood. In this thesis, I present my studies to investigate cellular responses to the stiffness and topography of the environment. In order to sense the physical properties of their environment, cells dynamically reorganize the structure of their actin cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of biopolymers, altering the shape and spatial distribution of protein assemblies. Several observations suggest that proteins that crosslink actin filaments may play an important role in cellular mechanosensitivity. Palladin is an actin-crosslinking protein that is found in the lamellar actin network, stress fibers and focal adhesions, cellular structures that are critical for mechanosensing of the physical environment. By virtue of its close interactions with these structures in the cell, palladin may play an important role in cell mechanics. However, the role of actin crosslinkers in general, and palladin in particular, in cellular force generation and mechanosensing is not well known. I have investigated the role of palladin in regulating the plasticity of the actin cytoskeleton and cellular force generation in response to alterations in substrate stiffness. I have shown that the expression levels of palladin modulate the forces exerted by cells and their ability to sense substrate stiffness. Perturbation experiments also suggest that palladin levels in cells altered myosin motor activity. These results suggest that the actin crosslinkers, such as palladin, and myosin motors coordinate for optimal cell function and to prevent aberrant

  9. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A DIESEL ENGINE WITH BLENDS OF DIESEL-PLASTIC PYROLYSIS OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Rajesh Guntur,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and depletion of oil reserves are matters of great concern around the globe. Developing countries like India depend heavily on crude oil import of about 125 Mt per annum (7:1diesel/gasoline. Diesel being the main transportation fuel in India, finding a suitable fuel alternative to diesel is an urgent need. In this context, pyrolysis of waste plastic solid is currently receiving renewed interest. Waste plastic pyrolysis oil is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in India because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively low environmental degradation. In the present work the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, constant speed, and direct injection diesel engine using waste plastic pyrolysis oil blends as an alternate fuel were evaluated and the results are compared with the standard diesel fuel operation. Results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency was highercompared to diesel at part load condition. Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions were higher and oxygen emission was lower compared to diesel operation.

  10. Creating Methane from Plastics: Recycling at a Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Wheeler, Ray; Strayer, RIchard; Garland, Jay; Parrish, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of re-supply from Earth demands resources to be utilized to the fullest extent for exploration missions. Recycling is a key technology that maximizes the available resources by converting waste products into useful commodities. One example of this is to convert crew member waste such as plastic packaging, food scraps, and human waste, into fuel. The ability to refuel on the lunar surface would reduce the vehicle mass during launch and provide excess payload capability. The goal of this project is to determine the feasibility of recycling waste into methane on the lunar outpost by performing engineering assessments and lab demonstrations of the technology. The first goal of the project was to determine how recycling could influence lunar exploration. Table I shows an estimation of the typical dried waste stream generated each day for a crew of four. Packaging waste accounts for nearly 86% of the dry waste stream and is a significant source of carbon on the lunar surface. This is important because methane (CH4) can be used as fuel and no other source of carbon is available on the lunar surface. With the initial assessment indicating there is sufficient resources in the waste stream to provide refueling capabilities, the project was designed to examine the conversion of plastics into methane.

  11. Oxytocin and Maternal Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular…

  12. Plasticity Theory of Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with simple methods for calculation of fillet welds based on the theory of plasticity. In developing the solutions the lower-bound theorem is used. The welding material and parts of the base material are subdivided into triangular regions with homogeneous stress fields; thereby...

  13. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.

    2012-01-01

    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain useful appl

  14. For the Classroom: "Plastic" Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students monitor the plastic waste production in their households, research its effects on freshwater and marine life, and propose ways to lessen the problem. Provides objectives, background information, materials, procedures, extension activities, and an evaluation for students. (Author/RT)

  15. Biobased plastics in a bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, J C; Ritchie, R J; Guy, K

    2013-02-01

    Bioeconomy plans include a biobased industries sector in which some oil-derived plastics and chemicals are replaced by new or equivalent products derived, at least partially, from biomass. Some of these biobased products are here today, but to fulfil their societal potential, greater attention is required to promote awareness, and to improve their market share while making valuable contributions to climate change mitigation.

  16. Vascular plasticity in cerebrovascular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars I H; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with little advancement in subacute treatment options. This review aims to cover and discuss novel insight obtained during the last decade into plastic changes in the vasoconstrictor receptor profiles of cerebral arteries and micr...

  17. Exercise and plasticize the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mala, Hana; Wilms, Inge

    Neuroscientific studies continue to shed light on brain’s plasticity and its innate mechanisms to recover. The recovery process includes re-wiring of the existing circuitry, establishment of new connections, and recruitment of peri-lesional and homologous areas in the opposite hemisphere. The pla......Neuroscientific studies continue to shed light on brain’s plasticity and its innate mechanisms to recover. The recovery process includes re-wiring of the existing circuitry, establishment of new connections, and recruitment of peri-lesional and homologous areas in the opposite hemisphere....... The plasticity of the brain can be stimulated and enhanced through training, which serves as a fundamental element of neurorehabilitative strategies. For instance, intensive cognitive and physical training promote the activation of processes that may help the brain to adapt to new conditions and needs. However...... neurorehabilitation is to understand and define how to stimulate the injured brain to elicit the desired adaptation. Research focuses on uncovering specific elements relevant for training planning and execution in order to create an environment that stimulates and maximizes the exploitation of the brain’s plastic...

  18. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the risks and trust a board-certified plastic surgeon to perform your cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. ASPS member surgeons have the training and experience that ... 1300 Chain Bridge Road McLean, VA 22101 (703) 790-5454 Timothy Germain ...

  19. Alternative Fuels (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    SASOL Jet Fuel Qatar GTL Syntroleum Jet fuel in B-52 Nigeria GTL China Coal GTL Shell Bintulu GTL Cellulose ethanol for ground use Ocean Bio...Bintulu GTL Ocean Bio-fuel Factories Bio-butanol for ground use Future Energy Source Resurgence in Nuclear Power Bio-jet tests done ASTM Spec...High energy deoxygenated bio-jet fuel from algae PSU coal derived JP-8 B-52 emissions Scoping study HBR TF emissions New bio- fuel impacts Adv

  20. Evaluation of engine performance, emissions, of a twin cylinder diesel engine fuelled with waste plastic oil and diesel blends with a fraction of methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tarun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the methanol and waste plastic oil as an alternative fuel has been carried out. This report deals with the exhaust emission of waste plastic fuel on twin cylinder diesel engine. The objectives of this report are to analyse the fuel consumption and the emission characteristic of a twin cylinder diesel engine that are using waste plastic oil compared to usage of ordinary diesel that are available in the market. This report describes the setups and the procedures for the experiment which is to analyse the emission characteristics and fuel consumption of diesel engine due to usage of the both fuels. Detail studies about the experimental setup and components have been done before the experiment started. Data that are required for the analysis is observed from the experiments. Calculations and analysis have been done after all the required data needed for the thesis is obtained. The experiment used diesel engine with no load which means no load exerted on it. A four stroke Twin cylinder diesel engine was adopted to study the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, mechanical efficiency, brake power, volumetric efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency and emissions at full load with the fuel of fraction methanol in bio-diesel. In this study, the diesel engine was tested using methanol blended with bio-diesel at certain mixing ratios of (WPO: Diesel 20:80, 40:60 and 60:40 methanol to bio-diesel respectively. By the end of the report, the successful of the project have been started which is Kirloskar engine is able to run with waste plastic oil (WPO but the engine needs to run by using diesel fuel first, then followed by waste plastic oil and finished with diesel fuel as the last fuel usage before the engine turned off. The performance of the engine using blended fuel compared to the performance of engine with diesel fuel. Experimental results of blended fuel and diesel fuel are also compared.   Keywords

  1. Mechanical modeling of porous oxide fuel pellet A Test Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Barai, Pallab [ORNL; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL

    2009-10-01

    A poro-elasto-plastic material model has been developed to capture the response of oxide fuels inside the nuclear reactors under operating conditions. Behavior of the oxide fuel and variation in void volume fraction under mechanical loading as predicted by the developed model has been reported in this article. The significant effect of void volume fraction on the overall stress distribution of the fuel pellet has also been described. An important oxide fuel issue that can have significant impact on the fuel performance is the mechanical response of oxide fuel pellet and clad system. Specifically, modeling the thermo-mechanical response of the fuel pellet in terms of its thermal expansion, mechanical deformation, swelling due to void formation and evolution, and the eventual contact of the fuel with the clad is of significant interest in understanding the fuel-clad mechanical interaction (FCMI). These phenomena are nonlinear and coupled since reduction in the fuel-clad gap affects thermal conductivity of the gap, which in turn affects temperature distribution within the fuel and the material properties of the fuel. Consequently, in order to accurately capture fuel-clad gap closure, we need to account for fuel swelling due to generation, retention, and evolution of fission gas in addition to the usual thermal expansion and mechanical deformation. Both fuel chemistry and microstructure also have a significant effect on the nucleation and growth of fission gas bubbles. Fuel-clad gap closure leading to eventual contact of the fuel with the clad introduces significant stresses in the clad, which makes thermo-mechanical response of the clad even more relevant. The overall aim of this test problem is to incorporate the above features in order to accurately capture fuel-clad mechanical interaction. Because of the complex nature of the problem, a series of test problems with increasing multi-physics coupling features, modeling accuracy, and complexity are defined with the

  2. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  3. Phenotypic plasticity with instantaneous but delayed switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, Margarete; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Loeschcke, Volker; Gabriel, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon, allowing organisms to better adapt to changing environments. Most empirical and theoretical studies are restricted to irreversible plasticity where the expression of a specific phenotype is mostly determined during development. However, reversible pl

  4. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  5. Plastic Surgeons Often Miss Patients' Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Health News on: Mental Disorders Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Mental Disorders Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  6. Lecture notes on Elasto-plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hededal, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Brief introduction to material modelling within the framework of rate independent elasto-plastic constitutive modelling......Brief introduction to material modelling within the framework of rate independent elasto-plastic constitutive modelling...

  7. Innovation Promotes Development of Plastic Assistant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Driven by the rapid growth of China's plastic product sector, the development of the plastic sector has been accelerated and assistant products are now becoming more multi-function, high performance, high in molecular weight and environmentfriendly.

  8. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K

    2011-01-01

    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  9. Pathway to fuel additives or designer fuels from bio-based alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitkreuz, Klaas; Menne, Andreas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Kraft, Axel

    2013-06-01

    A continuous heterogeneous-catalytic gas-phase process developed by Fraunhofer UMSICHT makes it possible to condense small alcohols and ketones to larger hydrocarbon molecules containing only one atom of oxygen per molecule. After an optional oxygen-removing step such as hydrotreatment, fuel-identical hydrocarbons are yielded. The overall conversion of feedstock to fuel additives or fuels is depicted below: Alcohol - Conversion to higher alcohols - Condensation with acetone - Hydrotreatment (Schematic process flow for the production of fuel-identical hydrocarbons and additives). Depending on raw materials and process conditions, a tailor-made product distribution is possible. The products can be used as fuel additives or as drop-in fuel, matching either diesel or kerosene specifications. The intermediates - secondary alcohols - are valuable as raw materials for several chemical applications, i.e. plasticizer, surfactants, solvents or lubricants. This process offers an attractive alternative to other competing processes producing long-chain hydrocarbons, like Fischer-Tropsch or hydrotreatment of fats and oils. Being based on economical, stable and commercially available catalysts as well as on a wide range of possible raw materials, this method 1s ready for scale up and related process development. (orig.)

  10. Emerging Links between Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity and Neurological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion eDickman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic signaling systems are ubiquitous forms of biological regulation, having been studied for hundreds of years in the context of diverse physiological processes including body temperature and osmotic balance. However, only recently has this concept been brought to the study of excitatory and inhibitory electrical activity that the nervous system uses to establish and maintain stable communication. Synapses are a primary target of neuronal regulation with a variety of studies over the past 15 years demonstrating that these cellular junctions are under bidirectional homeostatic control. Recent work from an array of diverse systems and approaches has revealed exciting new links between homeostatic synaptic plasticity and a variety of seemingly disparate neurological and psychiatric diseases. These include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, schizophrenia, and Fragile X Syndrome. Although the molecular mechanisms through which defective homeostatic signaling may lead to disease pathogenesis remain unclear, rapid progress is likely to be made in the coming years using a powerful combination of genetic, imaging, electrophysiological, and next generation sequencing approaches. Importantly, understanding homeostatic synaptic plasticity at a cellular and molecular level may lead to developments in new therapeutic innovations to treat these diseases. In this review we will examine recent studies that demonstrate homeostatic control of postsynaptic protein translation, retrograde signaling, and presynaptic function that may contribute to the etiology of complex neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  11. Emerging links between homeostatic synaptic plasticity and neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondolowski, Joyce; Dickman, Dion

    2013-11-21

    Homeostatic signaling systems are ubiquitous forms of biological regulation, having been studied for hundreds of years in the context of diverse physiological processes including body temperature and osmotic balance. However, only recently has this concept been brought to the study of excitatory and inhibitory electrical activity that the nervous system uses to establish and maintain stable communication. Synapses are a primary target of neuronal regulation with a variety of studies over the past 15 years demonstrating that these cellular junctions are under bidirectional homeostatic control. Recent work from an array of diverse systems and approaches has revealed exciting new links between homeostatic synaptic plasticity and a variety of seemingly disparate neurological and psychiatric diseases. These include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, schizophrenia, and Fragile X Syndrome. Although the molecular mechanisms through which defective homeostatic signaling may lead to disease pathogenesis remain unclear, rapid progress is likely to be made in the coming years using a powerful combination of genetic, imaging, electrophysiological, and next generation sequencing approaches. Importantly, understanding homeostatic synaptic plasticity at a cellular and molecular level may lead to developments in new therapeutic innovations to treat these diseases. In this review we will examine recent studies that demonstrate homeostatic control of postsynaptic protein translation, retrograde signaling, and presynaptic function that may contribute to the etiology of complex neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  12. Think small: nanotechnology for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Amir R; Brenner, Sara A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the topic of nanotechnology to plastic surgeons and to discuss its relevance to medicine in general and plastic surgery in particular. Nanotechnology will be defined, and some important historical milestones discussed. Common applications of nanotechnology in various medical and surgical subspecialties will be reviewed. Future applications of nanotechnology to plastic surgery will be examined. Finally, the critical field of nanotoxicology and the safe use of nanotechnology in medicine and plastic surgery will be addressed.

  13. The advent of the restorative plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Matthew J; Pribaz, Julian J; Talbot, Simon G; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    Plastic surgery is presently typified by the existence of discrete clinical identities, namely that of the cosmetic plastic surgeon and the reconstructive plastic surgeon. The emergence of vascularized composite allotransplantation has been accompanied by the development of a third distinct clinical identity, that of the restorative plastic surgeon. The authors describe the core competencies that characterize this new identity, and discuss the implications of the advent of this new professional paradigm.

  14. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, LIU; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  15. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  16. Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.

  17. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI. Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. The mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain pathways in the spinal cord may emerge with certain patterns of activity, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after spinal cord injury. We review these basic phenomena, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and discuss implications of these findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after spinal cord injury.

  18. Catalytic transformation of waste polymers to fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Waste not, want not: The increase in waste polymer generation, which continues to exceed recycle, represents a critical environmental burden. However, plastic waste may be viewed as a potential resource and, with the correct treatment, can serve as hydrocarbon raw material or as fuel oil, as described in this Minireview.Effective waste management must address waste reduction, reuse, recovery, and recycle. The consumption of plastics continues to grow, and, while plastic recycle has seen a significant increase since the early 1990s, consumption still far exceeds recycle. However, waste plastic can be viewed as a potential resource and can serve, with the correct treatment, as hydrocarbon raw material or as fuel oil. This Minireview considers the role of catalysis in waste polymer reprocessing and provides a critical overview of the existing waste plastic treatment technologies. Thermal pyrolysis results in a random scissioning of the polymer chains, generating products with varying molecular weights. Catalytic degradation provides control over the product composition/distribution and serves to lower significantly the degradation temperature. Incineration of waste PVC is very energy demanding and can result in the formation of toxic chloro emissions. The efficacy of a catalytic transformation of PVC is also discussed.

  19. Classifying cellular automata using grossone

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alotto, Louis

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes an application of the Infinite Unit Axiom and grossone, introduced by Yaroslav Sergeyev (see [7] - [12]), to the development and classification of one and two-dimensional cellular automata. By the application of grossone, new and more precise nonarchimedean metrics on the space of definition for one and two-dimensional cellular automata are established. These new metrics allow us to do computations with infinitesimals. Hence configurations in the domain space of cellular automata can be infinitesimally close (but not equal). That is, they can agree at infinitely many places. Using the new metrics, open disks are defined and the number of points in each disk computed. The forward dynamics of a cellular automaton map are also studied by defined sets. It is also shown that using the Infinite Unit Axiom, the number of configurations that follow a given configuration, under the forward iterations of cellular automaton maps, can now be computed and hence a classification scheme developed based on this computation.

  20. Prognosis of Different Cellular Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetish Ranjan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement in mobile telephony from 1G to 3G, 4G and 5G has a very axiomatic fact that made an entire world a global village. The cellular system employs a different design approach and technology that most commercial radio and television system use. In the cellular system, the service area is divided into cells and a transmitter is designed to serve an individual cell. The system seeks to make efficient use of available channels by using low-power transmitters to allow frequency reuse at a smaller distance. Maximizing the number of times each channel can be reused in a given geographical area is the key to an efficient cellular system design. During the past three decades, the world has seen significant changes in telecommunications industry. There have been some remarkable aspects to the rapid growth in wireless communications, as seen by the large expansion in mobile systems. This paper focuses on “Past, Present & Future of Cellular Telephony” and some light has been thrown upon the technologies of the cellular systems, namely 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G and future generations like 4G and 5G systems as well.

  1. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream acceptable for the manufacture of U.S....

  2. The evolution of age-dependent plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Barbara; van Doorn, G. Sander; Dieckmann, Ulf; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    When organisms encounter environments that are heterogeneous in time, phenotypic plasticity is often favored by selection. The degree of such plasticity can vary during an organism''s lifetime, but the factors promoting differential plastic responses at different ages or life stages remain poorly un

  3. Adult myelination:wrapping up neuronal plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan ORourke; Robert Gasperini; Kaylene M.Young

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we outline the major neural plasticity mechanisms that have been identiifed in the adult central nervous system (CNS), and offer a perspective on how they regulate CNS function. In particular we examine how myelin plasticity can operate alongside neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity to inlfuence information processing and transfer in the mature CNS.

  4. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson... have occurred involving workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic...

  5. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, M. J.; Siviour, C. R.

    2012-08-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) polymers - an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10-3 to 103s-1 and temperatures from - 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  6. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviour C.R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride (PVC polymers – an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 103s−1 and temperatures from − 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  7. HTGR Fuel performance basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

    1982-05-01

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600/sup 0/C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660/sup 0/C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents.

  8. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...

  9. Thermoplastic Starch Prepared with Different Plasticizers:Relation between Degree of Plasticization and Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yingfeng; GU Jiyou; TAN Haiyan; ZHANG Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, formamide, and urea were used as plasticizers for the preparation of thermoplastic starch (TPS) from corn starch. The properties of TPS were tested by analysis method. The results showed that TPSs were more highly plasticized with amines than alcohols. For the same type of plasticizer, the degree of plasticization decreased as the molecular weight of plasticizer increased. The relationship between plasticization degree and TPS properties was characterized and described by mechanical properties and water absorption. The experimental results showed that when the degree of plasticization increased, the tensile strength decreased and the elongation at breakage and water absorption increased.

  10. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi

    The monitoring of cellular behavior is useful for the advancement of biomedical diagnostics, drug development and the understanding of a cell as the main unit of the human body. Micro- and nanotechnology allow for the creation of functional devices that enhance the study of cellular dynamics...... modifications for electrochemical nanosensors for the detection of analytes released from cells. Two type of materials were investigated, each pertaining to the two different aspects of such devices: peptide nanostructures were studied for the creation of cellular sensing substrates that mimic in vivo surfaces...... and that offer advantages of functionalization, and conducting polymers were used as electrochemical sensor surface modifications for increasing the sensitivity towards relevant analytes, with focus on the detection of dopamine released from cells via exocytosis. Vertical peptide nanowires were synthesized from...

  11. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...... product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications...

  12. Cellular models for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenburger, Björn H; Saridaki, Theodora; Dinter, Elisabeth

    2016-10-01

    Developing new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease requires cellular models. Current models reproduce the two most salient changes found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease: The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the existence of protein aggregates consisting mainly of α-synuclein. Cultured cells offer many advantages over studying Parkinson's disease directly in patients or in animal models. At the same time, the choice of a specific cellular model entails the requirement to focus on one aspect of the disease while ignoring others. This article is intended for researchers planning to use cellular models for their studies. It describes for commonly used cell types the aspects of Parkinson's disease they model along with technical advantages and disadvantages. It might also be helpful for researchers from other fields consulting literature on cellular models of Parkinson's disease. Important models for the study of dopaminergic neuron degeneration include Lund human mesencephalic cells and primary neurons, and a case is made for the use of non-dopaminergic cells to model pathogenesis of non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. With regard to α-synuclein aggregates, this article describes strategies to induce and measure aggregates with a focus on fluorescent techniques. Cellular models reproduce the two most salient changes of Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the existence of α-synuclein aggregates. This article is intended for researchers planning to use cellular models for their studies. It describes for commonly used cell types and treatments the aspects of Parkinson's disease they model along with technical advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this article describes strategies to induce and measure aggregates with a focus on fluorescent techniques. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease.

  13. Recycling and recovery of post-consumer plastic solid waste in a European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewil Raf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of waste plastics has become a major worldwide environmental problem. The USA, Europe and Japan generate annually about 50 million tons of post-consumer plastic waste, previously landfilled, generally considered as a non-sustainable and environmentally questionable option. Landfill sites and their capacity are, moreover, decreasing rapidly, and legislation is stringent. Several European Directives and US legislation concern plastic wastes and the required management. They are briefly discussed in this paper. New processes have emerged, i.e., advanced mechanical recycling of plastic waste as virgin or second grade plastic feedstock, and thermal treatments to recycle the waste as virgin monomer, as synthetic fuel gas, or as heat source (incineration with energy recovery. These processes avoid land filling, where the non-biodegradable plastics remain a lasting environmental burden. The paper reviews these alternative options through mostly thermal processing (pyrolysis, gasification and waste-to-energy. Additional research is, however, still needed to confirm the potential on pilot and commercial scale. [Acknowledgments. The research was partly funded by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities RC1101 (PR China and partly funded by Project KP/09/005 (SCORES4CHEM Knowledge Platform of the Industrial Research Council of the KU Leuven (Belgium.

  14. Cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Jitin; Halima, Saoussen Ben; Felmy, Boas; Goodger, Zoe; Zurbriggen, Sebastian; Rajendran, Lawrence

    2010-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. A characteristic feature of the disease is the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) which either in its soluble oligomeric form or in the plaque-associated form is causally linked to neurodegeneration. Aβ peptide is liberated from the membrane-spanning -amyloid precursor protein by sequential proteolytic processing employing β- and γ-secretases. All these proteins involved in the production of Aβ peptide are membrane associated and hence, membrane trafficking and cellular compartmentalization play important roles. In this review, we summarize the key cellular events that lead to the progression of AD.

  15. Plastic waste as a resource. Strategies for reduction and utilization of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqual i Camprubí, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Plastic materials have experienced a spectacular rate of growth in recent decades, consequently, production of plastics, and likewise their consumption, has increased markedly since 1950. Moreover, they are lightweight and durable, as well as can be moulded into a variety of products that can be manufactured in many different types of plastic and in a wide range of applications. Inevitably, continually increasing amounts of used plastic are originating daily, resulting in a plastic waste prob...

  16. Industrial thermoforming simulation of automotive fuel tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesche, S. aus der [Kautex Textron GmbH and Co., Bonn (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    An industrial thermoforming simulation with regard to automotive plastic fuel tanks is presented including all relevant process stages. The radiative and conductive heat transfer during the reheat stage, the deformation and stress behaviour during the forming stage, and the final cooling stage are simulated. The modelling of the thermal and rheological behaviour of the involved material is investigated in greater detail. By means of experimental data it is found that modelling of the phase transition during the process is highly important for predicting correct wall thickness distributions. (author)

  17. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  18. Process for remediation of plastic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Vilas G [Westmont, IL; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan [Germantown, MD

    2012-04-10

    A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically egg-shaped and spherical-shaped solid carbons. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  19. Public health impact of plastics: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S K; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-09-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future.

  20. Public health impact of plastics: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Rustagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today′s industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer′s health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future.

  1. Public health impact of plastics: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S. K.; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future. PMID:22412286

  2. Spinal Plasticity and Behavior: BDNF-Induced Neuromodulation in Uninjured and Injured Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Garraway

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a member of the neurotrophic factor family of signaling molecules. Since its discovery over three decades ago, BDNF has been identified as an important regulator of neuronal development, synaptic transmission, and cellular and synaptic plasticity and has been shown to function in the formation and maintenance of certain forms of memory. Neural plasticity that underlies learning and memory in the hippocampus shares distinct characteristics with spinal cord nociceptive plasticity. Research examining the role BDNF plays in spinal nociception and pain overwhelmingly suggests that BDNF promotes pronociceptive effects. BDNF induces synaptic facilitation and engages central sensitization-like mechanisms. Also, peripheral injury-induced neuropathic pain is often accompanied with increased spinal expression of BDNF. Research has extended to examine how spinal cord injury (SCI influences BDNF plasticity and the effects BDNF has on sensory and motor functions after SCI. Functional recovery and adaptive plasticity after SCI are typically associated with upregulation of BDNF. Although neuropathic pain is a common consequence of SCI, the relation between BDNF and pain after SCI remains elusive. This article reviews recent literature and discusses the diverse actions of BDNF. We also highlight similarities and differences in BDNF-induced nociceptive plasticity in naïve and SCI conditions.

  3. Hormones and phenotypic plasticity in an ecological context: linking physiological mechanisms to evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Sean C

    2014-11-01

    Hormones are chemical signaling molecules that regulate patterns of cellular physiology and gene expression underlying phenotypic traits. Hormone-signaling pathways respond to an organism's external environment to mediate developmental stage-specific malleability in phenotypes, so that environmental variation experienced at different stages of development has distinct effects on an organism's phenotype. Studies of hormone-signaling are therefore playing a central role in efforts to understand how plastic phenotypic responses to environmental variation are generated during development. But, how do adaptive, hormonally mediated phenotypes evolve if the individual signaling components (hormones, conversion enzymes, membrane transporters, and receptors) that comprise any hormone-signaling pathway show expressional flexibility in response to environmental variation? What relevance do these components hold as molecular targets for selection to couple or decouple correlated hormonally mediated traits? This article explores how studying the endocrine underpinnings of phenotypic plasticity in an ecologically relevant context can provide insights into these, and other, crucial questions into the role of phenotypic plasticity in evolution, including how plasticity itself evolves. These issues are discussed in the light of investigations into how thyroid hormones mediate morphological plasticity in Death Valley's clade of pupfishes (Cyprinodon spp.). Findings from this work with pupfish illustrate that the study of hormone-signaling from an ecological perspective can reveal how phenotypic plasticity contributes to the generation of phenotypic novelty, as well as how physiological mechanisms developmentally link an organism's phenotype to its environmental experiences.

  4. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    parameters by TEM and EBSD and apply strength-structural relationships established for the bulk metal deformed to high strains. This technique has been applied to steel deformed by high energy shot peening and a calculated stress gradient at or near the surface has been successfully validated by hardness......Plastic deformation of metal surfaces by sliding and abrasion between moving parts can be detrimental. However, when the plastic deformation is controlled for example by applying different peening techniques hard surfaces can be produced which can increase the fracture resistance and fatigue life...... of metal components. An optimization of processes and material parameters must be based on a quantification of stress and strain gradients at the surface and in near surface layer where the structural scale can reach few tens of nanometers. For such fine structures it is suggested to quantify structural...

  5. The rise of plastic bioelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Takao; Bao, Zhenan; Malliaras, George G.

    2016-12-01

    Plastic bioelectronics is a research field that takes advantage of the inherent properties of polymers and soft organic electronics for applications at the interface of biology and electronics. The resulting electronic materials and devices are soft, stretchable and mechanically conformable, which are important qualities for interacting with biological systems in both wearable and implantable devices. Work is currently aimed at improving these devices with a view to making the electronic-biological interface as seamless as possible.

  6. Brain plasticity and aerobic fitness

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Regular aerobic exercise has a wide range of positive effects on health and cognition. Exercise has been demonstrated to provide a particularly powerful and replicable method of triggering a wide range of structural changes within both human and animal brains. However, the details and mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. This thesis undertakes a comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain plasticity and aerobic exercise. A large, longitudinal experiment ...

  7. The Future of Plastic Surgery: Surgeon's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sinan; Karagoz, Huseyin; Zor, Fatih

    2015-11-01

    Since the days of Sushruta, innovation has shaped the history of plastic surgery. Plastic surgeons have always been known as innovators or close followers of innovations. With this descriptive international survey study, the authors aimed to evaluate the future of plastic surgeons by analyzing how plastic surgery and plastic surgeons will be affected by new trends in medicine. Aesthetic surgery is the main subclass of plastic surgery thought to be the one that will change the most in the future. Stem cell therapy is considered by plastic surgeons to be the most likely "game changer." Along with changes in surgery, plastic surgeons also expect changes in plastic surgery education. The most approved assumption for the future of plastic surgery is, "The number of cosmetic nonsurgical procedures will increase in the future." If surgeons want to have better outcomes in their practice, they must at least be open minded for innovations if they do not become innovators themselves. Besides the individual effort of each surgeon, international and local plastic surgery associations should develop new strategies to adopt these innovations in surgical practice and education.

  8. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  9. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NDPA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal DSC using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  10. Environmental evaluation of plastic waste management scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigamonti, L.; Grosso, M.; Møller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    with energy recovery and partly to mechanical biological treatment. A range of potential improvements in plastic management is introduced in the other four scenarios (P1–P4). P1 includes a source separation of clean plastic fractions for material recycling, whereas P2 a source separation of mixed plastic...... fraction for mechanical upgrading and separation into specific polymer types, with the residual plastic fraction being down-cycled and used for “wood items”. In P3 a mixed plastic fraction is source separated together with metals in a “dry bin”. In P4 plastic is mechanically separated from residual waste....... The study confirmed the difficulty to clearly identify an optimal strategy for plastic waste management. In fact none of the examined scenarios emerged univocally as the best option for all impact categories. When moving from the P0 treatment strategy to the other scenarios, substantial improvements can...

  11. Regulatory mechanisms link phenotypic plasticity to evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have a remarkable capacity to respond to environmental change. They can either respond directly, by means of phenotypic plasticity, or they can slowly adapt through evolution. Yet, how phenotypic plasticity links to evolutionary adaptability is largely unknown. Current studies of plasticity tend to adopt a phenomenological reaction norm (RN) approach, which neglects the mechanisms underlying plasticity. Focusing on a concrete question - the optimal timing of bacterial sporulation - we here also consider a mechanistic approach, the evolution of a gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying plasticity. Using individual-based simulations, we compare the RN and GRN approach and find a number of striking differences. Most importantly, the GRN model results in a much higher diversity of responsive strategies than the RN model. We show that each of the evolved strategies is pre-adapted to a unique set of unseen environmental conditions. The regulatory mechanisms that control plasticity therefore critically link phenotypic plasticity to the adaptive potential of biological populations.

  12. Applications and societal benefits of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L; Neal, Mike A

    2009-07-27

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed 'plastics'. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years.

  13. Anaesthetic complications in plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Sankar Nath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia related complications in plastic surgeries are fortunately rare, but potentially catastrophic. Maintaining patient safety in the operating room is a major concern of anaesthesiologists, surgeons, hospitals and surgical facilities. Circumventing preventable complications is essential and pressure to avoid these complications in cosmetic surgery is increasing. Key aspects of patient safety in the operating room are outlined, including patient positioning, airway management and issues related to some specific conditions, essential for minimizing post-operative morbidity. Risks associated with extremes of age in the plastic surgery population, may be minimised by a better understanding of the physiologic changes as well as the pre-operative and post-operative considerations in caring for this special group of patients. An understanding of the anaesthesiologist′s concerns during paediatric plastic surgical procedures can facilitate the coordination of efforts between the multiple services involved in the care of these children. Finally, the reader will have a better understanding of the perioperative care of unique populations including the morbidly obese and the elderly. Attention to detail in these aspects of patient safety can help avoid unnecessary complication and significantly improve the patients′ experience and surgical outcome.

  14. Anaesthetic complications in plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Soumya Sankar; Roy, Debashis; Ansari, Farrukh; Pawar, Sundeep T

    2013-05-01

    Anaesthesia related complications in plastic surgeries are fortunately rare, but potentially catastrophic. Maintaining patient safety in the operating room is a major concern of anaesthesiologists, surgeons, hospitals and surgical facilities. Circumventing preventable complications is essential and pressure to avoid these complications in cosmetic surgery is increasing. Key aspects of patient safety in the operating room are outlined, including patient positioning, airway management and issues related to some specific conditions, essential for minimizing post-operative morbidity. Risks associated with extremes of age in the plastic surgery population, may be minimised by a better understanding of the physiologic changes as well as the pre-operative and post-operative considerations in caring for this special group of patients. An understanding of the anaesthesiologist's concerns during paediatric plastic surgical procedures can facilitate the coordination of efforts between the multiple services involved in the care of these children. Finally, the reader will have a better understanding of the perioperative care of unique populations including the morbidly obese and the elderly. Attention to detail in these aspects of patient safety can help avoid unnecessary complication and significantly improve the patients' experience and surgical outcome.

  15. Plasticity Approach to Shear Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in no...... in uncracked concrete. Good agree between theory and tests has been found.Keywords: dsign, plasticity, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, shear, web crushing.......The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in non......-shear reinforced beams as well as in lightly shear reinforced beams. For such beams the shear strength is determined by the recently developed crack sliding model. This model is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed...

  16. On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao

    To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.

  17. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, MQT; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian H.;

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN(-...

  18. The pulverization and handling of soft plastics for energy recovery; Soenderdelning och hantering av mjuka plaster foer energiutvinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Sven-Erik

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the project has primarily been to investigate suitable equipment (mills, crushers, shredders) for the pulverization of different types of soft plastics from the agricultural sector (large sacks and silage plastic) and the peat extraction industry (plastic covers) with the aim of being able to use the plastic material as fuel in conventional solid waste-fired plants. Many of the mills that are used for pulverizing different types of biofuel have proved not to be particularly suitable for soft plastics. The project has comprised the following: * Contact with a number of plant owners with different types of plants (grate, CFB and BFB boilers) for a review of existing fuel handling and fuel feed equipment as well as the demands they make on the fuel that is to be fired. * Contact with Trio Plast concerning previous tests carried out in connection with the collection, baling, handling, pulverization and combustion of plastics from the agricultural sector. * Contact with mill suppliers for participation in the tests and for feedback on experience gained in connection with the pulverization of soft plastics. * Choice of a suitable plant for practical trials based on contact with the above plant owners as a reference group. * Practical trials in 5 mills with the pulverization of soft plastics from agriculture (silage plastic and large sacks) as well as plastic from peat extraction (plastic covers) and * Evaluation of technical, economic, energy-related and environmental preconditions. Following contact with several owners of solid waste-fired combustion plants, and after hearing their opinions, it became clear that many of them were doubtful about the combustion of plastic. They are primarily afraid of tripping superheaters, etc. Consequently, two plants without superheaters, one in Oestersund and the other in Malmoe, were chosen for the tests. The mills that were tested were: * A SIM mill from WahIkvist, Oedeshoeg Plant - a mobile slow-action pulverizer for

  19. Dynamic Monitoring of Cellular Remodeling Induced by the Transforming Growth Factor-β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubala Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The plasticity of differentiated adult cells could have a great therapeutic potential, but at the same time, it is characteristic of progression of serious pathological states such as cancer and fibrosis. In this study, we report on the application of a real-time noninvasive system for dynamic monitoring of cellular plasticity. Analysis of the cell impedance profile recorded as cell index using a real-time cell analyzer revealed its significant increase after the treatment of prostate epithelial cells with the transforming growth factor-β1. Changes in the cell index profile were paralleled with cytoskeleton rebuilding and induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition and negatively correlated with cell proliferation. This novel application of such approach demonstrated a great potential of the impedance-based system for noninvasive and real-time monitoring of cellular fate.

  20. Synaptic and cellular profile of neurons in the lateral habenula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Julius Meye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb is emerging as a crucial structure capable of conveying rewarding and aversive information. Recent evidence indicates that a rapid increase in the activity of LHb neurons drives negative states and avoidance. Furthermore, the hyperexcitability of neurons in the lateral habenula, especially those projecting to the midbrain, may represent an important cellular correlate for neuropsychiatric disorders like depression and drug addiction. Despite the recent insights regarding the implications of the LHb in the context of reward and aversion, the exact nature of the synaptic and cellular players regulating LHb neuronal functions remains largely unknown. Here we focus on the synaptic and cellular physiology of LHb neurons. First, we discuss the properties of excitatory transmission and the implications of glutamate receptors for long-term synaptic plasticity; second, we review the features of GABAergic transmission onto LHb neurons; and finally, we describe the contribution that neuromodulators such as dopamine and serotonin may have for LHb neuronal physiology. We relate these findings to the role that the LHb can play in processing aversive and rewarding stimuli, both in health and disease states.

  1. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagland, S T; Kilgallon, P; Coveney, R; Garg, A; Smith, R; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N

    2011-06-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidized bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal+10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal+10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  2. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  3. Navy Fuel Specification Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    surfaced periodically to convert further to a single-fuel operation, i.e., one fuel for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This study...lead to the development of a single distillate fuel for ship propulsion , resulting eventually in the MIL-F-16884 Naval Distillate Fuel (NDF) used today...for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This report summarizes a study to consider this problem in light of current systems and

  4. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  5. Age- and location-dependent differences in store depletion-induced h-channel plasticity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Ann M; Johnston, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Disruptions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) homeostasis are heavily linked to neuronal pathology. Depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores can result in cellular dysfunction and potentially cell death, although adaptive processes exist to aid in survival. We examined the age and region dependence of one postulated, adaptive response to ER store-depletion (SD), hyperpolarization-activated cation-nonspecific (h)-channel plasticity in neurons of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus (DHC and VHC, respectively) from adolescent and adult rats. With the use of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the soma and dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, we observed a change in h-sensitive measurements in response to SD, induced by treatment with cyclopiazonic acid, a sarcoplasmic reticulum/ER Ca(2+)-ATPase blocker. We found that whereas DHC and VHC neurons in adolescent animals respond to SD with a perisomatic expression of SD h plasticity, adult animals express SD h plasticity with a dendritic and somatodendritic locus of plasticity in DHC and VHC neurons, respectively. Furthermore, SD h plasticity in adults was dependent on membrane potential and on the activation of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. These results suggest that cellular responses to the impairment of ER function, or ER stress, are dependent on brain region and age and that the differential expression of SD h plasticity could provide a neural basis for region- and age-dependent disease vulnerabilities.

  6. Driving Cellular Plasticity and Survival Through the Signal Transduction Pathways of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) share a common molecular morphology with other G protein–linked receptors, but there expression throughout the mammalian nervous system places these receptors as essential mediators not only for the initial development of an organism, but also for the vital determination of a cell’s fate during many disorders in the nervous system that include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Multiple Scler...

  7. Retrotransposon-Encoded Reverse Transcriptase in the Genesis, Progression and Cellular Plasticity of Human Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Matteucci, Claudia [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome (Italy); Spadafora, Corrado, E-mail: cspadaf@tin.it [Italian National Institute of Health (ISS), Rome (Italy)

    2011-03-07

    LINE-1 (Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements) and HERVs (Human Endogenous Retroviruses) are two families of autonomously replicating retrotransposons that together account for about 28% of the human genome. Genes harbored within LINE-1 and HERV retrotransposons, particularly those encoding the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme, are generally expressed at low levels in differentiated cells, but their expression is upregulated in transformed cells and embryonic tissues. Here we discuss a recently discovered RT-dependent mechanism that operates in tumorigenesis and reversibly modulates phenotypic and functional variations associated with tumor progression. Downregulation of active LINE-1 elements drastically reduces the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells, paralleled by reduced proliferation and increased differentiation. Pharmacological RT inhibitors (e.g., nevirapine and efavirenz) exert similar effects on tumorigenic cell lines, both in culture and in animal models. The HERV-K family play a distinct complementary role in stress-dependent transition of melanoma cells from an adherent, non-aggressive, to a non-adherent, highly malignant, growth phenotype. In synthesis, the retrotransposon-encoded RT is increasingly emerging as a key regulator of tumor progression and a promising target in a novel anti-cancer therapy.

  8. Cellular plasticity : the good, the bad, and the ugly? Microenvironmental influences on progenitor cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, Jan-Renier A. J.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Krenning, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Progenitor cell based therapies have emerged for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular diseases where there is insufficient endogenous repair. However, clinical success has been limited, which challenges the original premise that transplanted progenitor cells would orchestrate repair. In this rev

  9. p53-Dependent Nestin Regulation Links Tumor Suppression to Cellular Plasticity in Liver Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tschaharganeh, Darjus F; Xue, Wen; Calvisi, Diego F

    2014-01-01

    nestin in an Sp1/3 transcription-factor-dependent manner and that Nestin is required for tumor initiation in vivo. Moreover, loss of p53 facilitates dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes into nestin-positive progenitor-like cells, which are poised to differentiate into hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs...

  10. Fontan patient with plastic bronchitis treated successfully using aerosolized tissue plasminogen activator: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thomas B; Chu, James M; Berdjis, Farhouch; Anas, Nick G

    2009-04-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon condition characterized by the production of large pale bronchial casts that obstruct the tracheobronchial tree. The cellular content, cohesiveness, and often rubber-like consistency distinguish bronchial casts from the usual mucus plugs found with such disease states as asthma. Plastic bronchitis can be found secondary to many conditions, and a simplified classification scheme organizes it into two groups: an inflammatory type consisting of casts with an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate and an acellular type with a predominance of fibrin distinguished by its relative lack of cellular infiltrate, its mucin predominance, and its appearance only in children with congenital cyanotic heart disease. This report describes a 5-year-old girl who experienced plastic bronchitis 3 months after a Fontan procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome that was treated successfully with aerosolized tissue plasminogen activator.

  11. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, M K; Martín-Fernández, J A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-08-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

  12. P2Y Receptors in Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity: Therapeutic Potential in Cognitive Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo J. Guzman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ATP released from neurons and astrocytes during neuronal activity or under pathophysiological circumstances is able to influence information flow in neuronal circuits by activation of ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors and subsequent modulation of cellular excitability, synaptic strength, and plasticity. In the present paper we review cellular and network effects of P2Y receptors in the brain. We show that P2Y receptors inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, modulate voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, and differentially influence the induction of synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The findings discussed here may explain how P2Y1 receptor activation during brain injury, hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer’s disease leads to an impairment of cognitive processes. Hence, it is suggested that the blockade of P2Y1 receptors may have therapeutic potential against cognitive disturbances in these states.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  14. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  15. A review of plastic waste biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Yanful, Ernest K; Bassi, Amarjeet S

    2005-01-01

    With more and more plastics being employed in human lives and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. This review looks at the technological advancement made in the development of more easily biodegradable plastics and the biodegradation of conventional plastics by microorganisms. Additives, such as pro-oxidants and starch, are applied in synthetic materials to modify and make plastics biodegradable. Recent research has shown that thermoplastics derived from polyolefins, traditionally considered resistant to biodegradation in ambient environment, are biodegraded following photo-degradation and chemical degradation. Thermoset plastics, such as aliphatic polyester and polyester polyurethane, are easily attacked by microorganisms directly because of the potential hydrolytic cleavage of ester or urethane bonds in their structures. Some microorganisms have been isolated to utilize polyurethane as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen source. Aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters have active commercial applications because of their good mechanical properties and biodegradability. Reviewing published and ongoing studies on plastic biodegradation, this paper attempts to make conclusions on potentially viable methods to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment.

  16. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  17. Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Gershenfeld, Neil

    2013-09-13

    We introduce composite materials made by reversibly assembling a three-dimensional lattice of mass-produced carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite parts with integrated mechanical interlocking connections. The resulting cellular composite materials can respond as an elastic solid with an extremely large measured modulus for an ultralight material (12.3 megapascals at a density of 7.2 milligrams per cubic centimeter). These materials offer a hierarchical decomposition in modeling, with bulk properties that can be predicted from component measurements and deformation modes that can be determined by the placement of part types. Because site locations are locally constrained, structures can be produced in a relative assembly process that merges desirable features of fiber composites, cellular materials, and additive manufacturing.

  18. Glycosylation regulates prestin cellular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Lavanya; Organ-Darling, Louise E; Liu, Haiying; Davidson, Amy L; Raphael, Robert M; Brownell, William E; Pereira, Fred A

    2010-03-01

    Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins and is implicated in a variety of cellular functions including protein folding, degradation, sorting and trafficking, and membrane protein recycling. The membrane protein prestin is an essential component of the membrane-based motor driving electromotility changes (electromotility) in the outer hair cell (OHC), a central process in auditory transduction. Prestin was earlier identified to possess two N-glycosylation sites (N163, N166) that, when mutated, marginally affect prestin nonlinear capacitance (NLC) function in cultured cells. Here, we show that the double mutant prestin(NN163/166AA) is not glycosylated and shows the expected NLC properties in the untreated and cholesterol-depleted HEK 293 cell model. In addition, unlike WT prestin that readily forms oligomers, prestin(NN163/166AA) is enriched as monomers and more mobile in the plasma membrane, suggesting that oligomerization of prestin is dependent on glycosylation but is not essential for the generation of NLC in HEK 293 cells. However, in the presence of increased membrane cholesterol, unlike the hyperpolarizing shift in NLC seen with WT prestin, cells expressing prestin(NN163/166AA) exhibit a linear capacitance function. In an attempt to explain this finding, we discovered that both WT prestin and prestin(NN163/166AA) participate in cholesterol-dependent cellular trafficking. In contrast to WT prestin, prestin(NN163/166AA) shows a significant cholesterol-dependent decrease in cell-surface expression, which may explain the loss of NLC function. Based on our observations, we conclude that glycosylation regulates self-association and cellular trafficking of prestin(NN163/166AA). These observations are the first to implicate a regulatory role for cellular trafficking and sorting in prestin function. We speculate that the cholesterol regulation of prestin occurs through localization to and internalization from membrane microdomains by

  19. Stochastic Nature in Cellular Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 刘圣君; 王祺; 晏世伟; 耿轶钊; SAKATA Fumihiko; GAO Xing-Fa

    2011-01-01

    The importance of stochasticity in cellular processes is increasingly recognized in both theoretical and experimental studies. General features of stochasticity in gene regulation and expression are briefly reviewed in this article, which include the main experimental phenomena, classification, quantization and regulation of noises. The correlation and transmission of noise in cascade networks are analyzed further and the stochastic simulation methods that can capture effects of intrinsic and extrinsic noise are described.

  20. Cellular fiber–reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Isachenko S.; Kodzoev M.

    2016-01-01

    Methods disperse reinforcement of concrete matrix using polypropylene, glass, basalt and metal fibers allows to make the construction of complex configuration, solve the problem of frost products. Dispersed reinforcement reduces the overall weight of the structures. The fiber replaces the secondary reinforcement, reducing the volume of use of structural steel reinforcement. Cellular Fiber concretes are characterized by high-performance properties, especially increased bending strength and...

  1. Identification of Nonstationary Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AndrewI.Adamatzky

    1992-01-01

    The principal feature of nonstationary cellular automata(NCA) is that a local transitiol rule of each cell is changed at each time step depending on neighborhood configuration at previous time step.The identification problem for NCA is extraction of local transition rules and the establishment of mechanism for changing these rules using sequence of NCA configurations.We present serial and parallel algorithms for identification of NCA.

  2. CELLULAR INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY GLYCONECTIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, O.; Sumanovski, L. T.; I. Checiu; Elisabeta Popescu; G. N. Misevic

    1999-01-01

    Cellular interactions involve many types of cell surface molecules and operate via homophilic and/or heterophilic protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate binding. Our investigations in different model-systems (marine invertebrates and mammals) have provided direct evidence that a novel class of primordial proteoglycans, named by us gliconectins, can mediate cell adhesion via a new alternative molecular mechanism of polyvalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate binding. Biochemical characterization of...

  3. "Oriental anthropometry" in plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senna-Fernandes Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to Chinese medicine, the acupuncture-points′ (acupoints locations are proportionally and symmetrically distributed in well-defined compartment zones on the human body surface Oriental Anthropometry" (OA. Acupoints, if considered as aesthetic-loci, might be useful as reference guides in plastic surgery (PS. Aim: This study aimed to use aesthetic-loci as anatomical reference in surgical marking of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Method: This was an observational study based on aesthetic surgeries performed in private clinic. This study was based on 106 cases, comprising of 102 women and 4 men, with ages varying from 07 to 73 years, and with heights of between 1.34 m and 1.80 m. Patients were submitted to aesthetic surgical planning by relating aesthetic-loci to conventional surgical marking, including breast surgeries, abdominoplasty, rhytidoplasty, blepharoplasty, and hair implant. The aesthetic-surgical-outcome (ASO of the patients was assessed by a team of plastic surgeons (who were not involved in the surgical procedures over a follow-up period of one year by using a numeric-rating-scale in percentage (% terms. A four-point-verbal-rating-scale was used to record the patients′ opinion of therapeutic-satisfaction (TS. Results: ASO was 75.3 ± 9.4% and TS indicated that most patients (58.5% obtained "good" results. Of the remainder, 38.7% found the results "excellent", and 2.8% found them "fair". Discussion and Conclusion : The data suggested that the use of aesthetic-loci may be a useful tool for PS as an anatomical reference for surgical marking. However, further investigation is required to assess the efficacy of the OA by providing the patients more reliable balance and harmony in facial and body contours surgeries.

  4. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  5. The insect cellular immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R. Strand

    2008-01-01

    The innate immune system of insects is divided into humoral defenses that include the production of soluble effector molecules and cellular defenses like phagocytosis and encapsulation that are mediated by hemocytes. This review summarizes current understanding of the cellular immune response. Insects produce several terminally differentiated types of hemocytes that are distinguished by morphology, molecular and antigenic markers, and function. The differentiated hemocytes that circulate in larval or nymphal stage insects arise from two sources: progenitor cells produced during embryogenesis and mesodermally derived hematopoietic organs. Regulation of hematopoiesis and hemocyte differentiation also involves several different signaling pathways. Phagocytosis and encapsulation require that hemocytes first recognize a given target as foreign followed by activation of downstream signaling and effector responses. A number of humoral and cellular receptors have been identified that recognize different microbes and multicellular parasites. In turn, activation of these receptors stimulates a number of signaling pathways that regulate different hemocyte functions. Recent studies also identify hemocytes as important sources of a number of humoral effector molecules required for killing different foreign invaders.

  6. Progress of cellular dedifferentiation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hu-xian; HU Da-hai; JIA Chi-yu; FU Xiao-bing

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation, the stepwise specialization of cells, and transdifferentiation, the apparent switching of one cell type into another, capture much of the stem cell spotlight. But dedifferentiation, the developmental reversal of a cell before it reinvents itself, is an important process too. In multicellular organisms, cellular dedifferentiation is the major process underlying totipotency, regeneration and formation of new stem cell lineages. In humans,dedifferentiation is often associated with carcinogenesis.The study of cellular dedifferentiation in animals,particularly early events related to cell fate-switch and determination, is limited by the lack of a suitable,convenient experimental system. The classic example of dedifferentiation is limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians, such as salamanders. Recently, several investigators have shown that certain mammalian cell types can be induced to dedifferentiate to progenitor cells when stimulated with the appropriate signals or materials. These discoveries open the possibility that researchers might enhance the endogenous regenerative capacity of mammals by inducing cellular dedifferentiation in vivo.

  7. Mitochondrially mediated plasticity in the pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge A; Gray, Neil A; Kato, Tadafumi; Manji, Husseini K

    2008-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) has traditionally been conceptualized as a neurochemical disorder, but there is mounting evidence for impairments of cellular plasticity and resilience. Here, we review and synthesize the evidence that critical aspects of mitochondrial function may play an integral role in the pathophysiology and treatment of BPD. Retrospective database searches were performed, including MEDLINE, abstract booklets, and conference proceedings. Articles were also obtained from references therein and personal communications, including original scientific work, reviews, and meta-analyses of the literature. Material regarding the potential role of mitochondrial function included genetic studies, microarray studies, studies of intracellular calcium regulation, neuroimaging studies, postmortem brain studies, and preclinical and clinical studies of cellular plasticity and resilience. We review these data and discuss their implications not only in the context of changing existing conceptualizations regarding the pathophysiology of BPD, but also for the strategic development of improved therapeutics. We have focused on specific aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction that may have major relevance for the pathophysiology and treatment of BPD. Notably, we discuss calcium dysregulation, oxidative phosphorylation abnormalities, and abnormalities in cellular resilience and synaptic plasticity. Accumulating evidence from microarray studies, biochemical studies, neuroimaging, and postmortem brain studies all support the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of BPD. We propose that although BPD is not a classic mitochondrial disease, subtle deficits in mitochondrial function likely play an important role in various facets of BPD, and that enhancing mitochondrial function may represent a critical component for the optimal long-term treatment of the disorder.

  8. Glassy features of crystal plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Arttu; Costantini, Giulio; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano; Laurson, Lasse

    2016-08-01

    Crystal plasticity occurs by deformation bursts due to the avalanchelike motion of dislocations. Here we perform extensive numerical simulations of a three-dimensional dislocation dynamics model under quasistatic stress-controlled loading. Our results show that avalanches are power-law distributed and display peculiar stress and sample size dependence: The average avalanche size grows exponentially with the applied stress, and the amount of slip increases with the system size. These results suggest that intermittent deformation processes in crystalline materials exhibit an extended critical-like phase in analogy to glassy systems instead of originating from a nonequilibrium phase transition critical point.

  9. Constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity: limits and costs of phenotype and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murren, C J; Auld, J R; Callahan, H; Ghalambor, C K; Handelsman, C A; Heskel, M A; Kingsolver, J G; Maclean, H J; Masel, J; Maughan, H; Pfennig, D W; Relyea, R A; Seiter, S; Snell-Rood, E; Steiner, U K; Schlichting, C D

    2015-10-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generally regarded as a key mechanism for enabling organisms to survive in the face of environmental change. Because no organism is infinitely or ideally plastic, theory suggests that there must be limits (for example, the lack of ability to produce an optimal trait) to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, or that plasticity may have inherent significant costs. Yet numerous experimental studies have not detected widespread costs. Explicitly differentiating plasticity costs from phenotype costs, we re-evaluate fundamental questions of the limits to the evolution of plasticity and of generalists vs specialists. We advocate for the view that relaxed selection and variable selection intensities are likely more important constraints to the evolution of plasticity than the costs of plasticity. Some forms of plasticity, such as learning, may be inherently costly. In addition, we examine opportunities to offset costs of phenotypes through ontogeny, amelioration of phenotypic costs across environments, and the condition-dependent hypothesis. We propose avenues of further inquiry in the limits of plasticity using new and classic methods of ecological parameterization, phylogenetics and omics in the context of answering questions on the constraints of plasticity. Given plasticity's key role in coping with environmental change, approaches spanning the spectrum from applied to basic will greatly enrich our understanding of the evolution of plasticity and resolve our understanding of limits.

  10. Evolution of environmental cues for phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Lande, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Phenotypically plastic characters may respond to multiple variables in their environment, but the evolutionary consequences of this phenomenon have rarely been addressed theoretically. We model the evolution of linear reaction norms in response to several correlated environmental variables, in a population undergoing stationary environmental fluctuations. At evolutionary equilibrium, the linear combination of environmental variables that acts as a developmental cue for the plastic trait is the multivariate best linear predictor of changes in the optimum. However, the reaction norm with respect to any single environmental variable may exhibit nonintuitive patterns. Apparently maladaptive, or hyperadaptive plasticity can evolve with respect to single environmental variables, and costs of plasticity may increase, rather than reduce, plasticity in response to some variables. We also find conditions for the evolution of an indirect environmental indicator that affects expression of a plastic phenotype, despite not influencing natural selection on it.

  11. Tunable plasticity in amorphous silicon carbide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yusuke; Kim, Namjun; King, Sean W; Bielefeld, Jeff; Stebbins, Jonathan F; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2013-08-28

    Plasticity plays a crucial role in the mechanical behavior of engineering materials. For instance, energy dissipation during plastic deformation is vital to the sufficient fracture resistance of engineering materials. Thus, the lack of plasticity in brittle hybrid organic-inorganic glasses (hybrid glasses) often results in a low fracture resistance and has been a significant challenge for their integration and applications. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films, a class of hybrid glasses, can exhibit a plasticity that is even tunable by controlling their molecular structure and thereby leads to an increased and adjustable fracture resistance in the films. We decouple the plasticity contribution from the fracture resistance of the films by estimating the "work-of-fracture" using a mean-field approach, which provides some insight into a potential connection between the onset of plasticity in the films and the well-known rigidity percolation threshold.

  12. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Mateus Dias Nunes; Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ul...

  13. Analysis of cellular and extracellular DNA in fingerprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, Julie M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-09

    It has been previously shown that DNA can be recovered from latent fingerprints left on various surfaces [R. A. H. van Oorschot and M. K. Jones, Nature 387, 767 (1997)]. However, the source of the DNA, extracellular versus cellular origin, is difficult to determine. If the DNA is cellular, it is believed to belong to skin cells while extracellular DNA is believed to originate from body fluids such as sweat [D. J. Daly et. al, Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 6, 41-46 (2012); V. V. Vlassov et. al, BioEssays 29, 654-667 (2007)]. The origin of the DNA in fingerprints has implications for processing and interpretation of forensic evidence. The determination of the origin of DNA in fingerprints is further complicated by the fact that the DNA in fingerprints tends to be at a very low quantity [R. A. H. van Oorschot and M. K. Jones, Nature 387, 767 (1997)]. This study examined fingerprints from five volunteers left on sterilized glass slides and plastic pens. Three fingerprints were left on each glass slide (thumb, index, and middle fingers) while the pens were held as if one was writing with them. The DNA was collected from the objects using the wet swabbing technique (TE buffer). Following collection, the cellular and extracellular components of each sample were separated using centrifugation and an acoustofluidics system. Centrifugation is still the primary separation technique utilized in forensics laboratories, while acoustic focusing uses sound waves to focus large particles (cells) into low pressure nodes, separating them from the rest of the sample matrix. After separation, all samples were quantified using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The overall trend is that there is more DNA in the extracellular fractions than cellular fractions for both centrifugation and acoustofluidic processing. Additionally, more DNA was generally collected from the pen samples than the samples left on glass slides.

  14. Global self-regulation of the cellular metabolic structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso M De la Fuente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different studies have shown that cellular enzymatic activities are able to self-organize spontaneously, forming a metabolic core of reactive processes that remain active under different growth conditions while the rest of the molecular catalytic reactions exhibit structural plasticity. This global cellular metabolic structure appears to be an intrinsic characteristic common to all cellular organisms. Recent work performed with dissipative metabolic networks has shown that the fundamental element for the spontaneous emergence of this global self-organized enzymatic structure could be the number of catalytic elements in the metabolic networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate the factors that may affect the catalytic dynamics under a global metabolic structure characterized by the presence of metabolic cores we have studied different transitions in catalytic patterns belonging to a dissipative metabolic network. The data were analyzed using non-linear dynamics tools: power spectra, reconstructed attractors, long-term correlations, maximum Lyapunov exponent and Approximate Entropy; and we have found the emergence of self-regulation phenomena during the transitions in the metabolic activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The analysis has also shown that the chaotic numerical series analyzed correspond to the fractional Brownian motion and they exhibit long-term correlations and low Approximate Entropy indicating a high level of predictability and information during the self-regulation of the metabolic transitions. The results illustrate some aspects of the mechanisms behind the emergence of the metabolic self-regulation processes, which may constitute an important property of the global structure of the cellular metabolism.

  15. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  16. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  17. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... temperature. The flue gas produced thus consists primarily of carbon dioxide and water. Much research on the different aspects of an oxy-fuel power plant has been performed during the last decade. Focus has mainly been on retrofits of existing pulverized-coal-fired power plant units. Green-field plants which...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy-fuel...

  18. Phenotypic plasticity: molecular mechanisms and adaptive significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Panhuis, Tami M; Stoehr, Andrew M

    2012-04-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential adaptive significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human health perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity.

  19. Biobased additive plasticizing Polylactic acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Maiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is an attractive candidate for replacing petrochemical polymers because it is from renewable resources. In this study, a specific PLA 2002D was melt-mixed with two plasticizers: triethyl citrate (TEC and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC. The plasticized PLA with various concentrations were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, melt flow index (MFI, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-Visible spectroscopy and plasticizer migration test. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the addition of TEC and ATBC resulted in a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg, and the reduction was the largest with the plasticizer having the lowest molecular weight (TEC. Plasticizing effect was also shown by decrease in the dynamic storage modulus and viscosity of plasticized mixtures compared to the treated PLA. The TGA results indicated that ATBC and TEC promoted a decrease in thermal stability of the PLA. The X-ray diffraction showed that the PLA have not polymorphic crystalline transition. Analysis by UV-Visible spectroscopy showed that the two plasticizers: ATBC and TEC have no effect on the color change of the films. The weight loss plasticizer with heating time and at 100°C is lesser than at 135 °C. Migration of TEC and ATBC results in cracks and changed color of material. We have concluded that the higher molecular weight of citrate in the studied exhibited a greater plasticizing effect to the PLA.

  20. Interaction between vegetable oil based plasticizer molecules and polyvinyl chloride, and their plasticization effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Agus; Triwulandari, Evi; Jiang, Pingping

    2017-01-01

    Plasticizer molecules are low molecular weight compounds that are widely used in polymer industries especially in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin. As an additive in PVC resin, the important role of plasticizer molecules is to improve the flexibility and processability of PVC by lowering the glass transition temperature (Tg). However, the commercial plasticizer like di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is known to cause liver cancer, at least in laboratory rats. DEHP can leach out from PVC into blood, certain drug solutions and fatty foods, which has been detected in the bloodstream of patients undergoing transfusion. Vegetable oil based plasticizers have some attractive properties such as non-toxic, bio-degradable, good heat and light stability, renewable resources, and environmentally friendly. Here we discussed the main results and development of vegetable oil based plasticizer, and especially palm oil based plasticizer. The interaction between plasticizer and polymer was discussed from the properties of the plasticized polymeric material.

  1. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    at a full-scale cement plant with alternative fuels to examine their compatibility with the cement production process. Construction and demolition waste, woodchips, and soybean seeds were used as alternative fuels at a full-scale cement production facility. These fuels were co-fired with coal and waste plastics. The alternative fuels used in this trial accounted for 5 to 16 % of the total energy consumed during these burns. The overall performance of the portland cement produced during the various trial burns performed for practical purposes very similar to the cement produced during the control burn. The cement plant was successful in implementing alternative fuels to produce a consistent, high-quality product that increased cement performance while reducing the environmental footprint of the plant. The utilization of construction and demolition waste, woodchips and soybean seeds proved to be viable replacements for traditional fuels. The future use of these fuels depends on local availability, associated costs, and compatibility with a facility's production process.

  2. Phenotypic plasticity in bacterial plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul E

    2004-01-01

    Plasmid pB15 was previously shown to evolve increased horizontal (infectious) transfer at the expense of reduced vertical (intergenerational) transfer and vice versa, a key trade-off assumed in theories of parasite virulence. Whereas the models predict that susceptible host abundance should determine which mode of transfer is selectively favored, host density failed to mediate the trade-off in pB15. One possibility is that the plasmid's transfer deviates from the assumption that horizontal spread (conjugation) occurs in direct proportion to cell density. I tested this hypothesis using Escherichia coli/pB15 associations in laboratory serial culture. Contrary to most models of plasmid transfer kinetics, my data show that pB15 invades static (nonshaking) bacterial cultures only at intermediate densities. The results can be explained by phenotypic plasticity in traits governing plasmid transfer. As cells become more numerous, the plasmid's conjugative transfer unexpectedly declines, while the trade-off between transmission routes causes vertical transfer to increase. Thus, at intermediate densities the plasmid's horizontal transfer can offset selection against plasmid-bearing cells, but at high densities pB15 conjugates so poorly that it cannot invade. I discuss adaptive vs. nonadaptive causes for the phenotypic plasticity, as well as potential mechanisms that may lead to complex transfer dynamics of plasmids in liquid environments. PMID:15166133

  3. Network-timing-dependent plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eDelattre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP. In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD, with STDP-induced long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding.

  4. Network-timing-dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding.

  5. Astrocyte-Synapse Structural Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Bernardinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function and efficacy of synaptic transmission are determined not only by the composition and activity of pre- and postsynaptic components but also by the environment in which a synapse is embedded. Glial cells constitute an important part of this environment and participate in several aspects of synaptic functions. Among the glial cell family, the roles played by astrocytes at the synaptic level are particularly important, ranging from the trophic support to the fine-tuning of transmission. Astrocytic structures are frequently observed in close association with glutamatergic synapses, providing a morphological entity for bidirectional interactions with synapses. Experimental evidence indicates that astrocytes sense neuronal activity by elevating their intracellular calcium in response to neurotransmitters and may communicate with neurons. The precise role of astrocytes in regulating synaptic properties, function, and plasticity remains however a subject of intense debate and many aspects of their interactions with neurons remain to be investigated. A particularly intriguing aspect is their ability to rapidly restructure their processes and modify their coverage of the synaptic elements. The present review summarizes some of these findings with a particular focus on the mechanisms driving this form of structural plasticity and its possible impact on synaptic structure and function.

  6. The plasticity of social emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimecki, Olga M

    2015-01-01

    Social emotions such as empathy or compassion greatly facilitate our interactions with others. Despite the importance of social emotions, scientific studies have only recently revealed functional neural plasticity associated with the training of such emotions. Using the framework of two antagonistic neural systems, the threat and social disconnection system on the one hand, and the reward and social connection system on the other, this article describes how training compassion and empathy can change the functioning of these systems in a targeted manner. Whereas excessive empathic sharing of suffering can increase negative feelings and activations in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex (corresponding to the threat and social disconnection system), compassion training can strengthen positive affect and neural activations in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and striatum (corresponding to the reward and social connection system). These neuroimaging findings are complemented by results from behavioral studies showing that compassion is linked to helping and forgiveness behavior, whereas empathic distress not only decreases helping behavior, but is even associated with increased aggressive behavior. Taken together, these data provide encouraging evidence for the plasticity of adaptive social emotions with wide-ranging implications for basic science and applied settings.

  7. [Galactorrhea after mammary plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguenault, C; Capon-Degardin, N; Martinot-Duquennoy, V; Pellerin, P

    2005-04-01

    Galactorrhoea is a complication rarely observed after mammary plastic surgery. Our experience in the domain extends to three clinical cases - two after prosthetic insertion and one after breast reduction - wich will be presented here. The origin of this complication is uncertain. Nevertheless, it is likely to be multifocal, as surgery alone is not the only cause. Postsurgical galactorrhoea often follows a benign course culminating in spontaneous resolution. However, it may reveal the presence of o prolactin secreting adenoma, as was the case with one of our patients. A detailed history, exploring antecedent factors, is an essential step in guiding subsequent management. When faced with postsurgical galactorrhoea, serum prolactin levels should be measured. If serum prolactin levels exceed 150 ng/ml further investigation by way of an MRI of the sella turcica is advisable to rule out pituitary adenoma. Depending on symptom severity, treatment may be medical with the prescription of dopaminergic agonists, and/or surgical with drainage or removal of prostheses. Increased awareness of galactorrhea as a possible complication of plastic surgery to the breast will improve management.

  8. The siderulgical process as way of recycling plastic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Diez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of new recycling ways to allow therecovery of plastics from municipal wastes is of greatinterest in order to keep as many options open,especially when the co-processing with raw materialscan be performed in consolidate industrial processes.In this context, integrated steel plants can beconsidered as an option for those wastes withtechnical limitations for conventional mechanicalrecycling. The combination of the blast furnace routeand coke plant in the steel industry provide a wayto expand feedstock recycling with severalenvironmental benefits such as saving fossil fuels,reducing landfill of the wastes and reducing solidparticles, SO2 and CO2 emissions. This paper is anattempt to compile some relevant advances in theserecycling routes.

  9. Super plastic forming technology applied to aeroengine and space equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandai, Katsumi

    1992-03-01

    Titanium alloys, especially Ti-6Al-4V, are widely used for the aeroengine and space equipment because of their high strength ratio and excellent resistance to heat and corrosion. But this material is difficult to manufacture by conventional plastic forming technology. It has been reported that Ti-6Al-4V shows extensive ductility (superplasticity), more than 1000 percent under the condition of both low straining rate and high temperature ranges. Superplastic forming technology applying this characteristic is widely known as one of the most cost-effective methods to save material. At the plant, gas argon blowing equipment for the superplastic forming technology has been developed and 'V2500 nose fairing' and 'fuel tank of the H-II rocket second stage reaction control system' have been manufactured. This paper describes the superplastic forming equipment and the two products above.

  10. Combustion of large solid fuels in cement rotary kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma

    2012-03-15

    The cement industry has a significant interest in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels in order to minimize production costs and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. These new alternative fuels are in particular solid fuels such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), tire-derived fuel (TDF), meat and bone meal (MBM), waste wood, sewage sludge, paper and plastics. This thesis provides an insight into the utilization of solid alternative fuels in the material inlet end of rotary kilns. This position is interesting because it allows utilization of large fuel particles, thereby eliminating the need for an expensive shredding of the fuels. The challenge, however, is that the solid fuels will be mixed into the cement raw materials, which is likely to affect process stability and clinker quality, as described above. The mixing of fuels and raw materials was studied experimentally in a pilot-scale rotary drum and was found to be a fast process, reaching steady state within few drum revolutions. Thus, heat transfer by conduction from the cement raw materials to the fuel particles is a major heat transfer mechanism rather than convection or radiation from the freeboard gas above the material bed. Consequently, the temperature of the cement raw materials becomes a factor of great importance for heating the fuel particles. Combustion of different alternative fuels has been investigated experimentally in a pilot-scale rotary furnace under conditions similar to those in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns. The main focus was on tire rubber and pine wood which are relevant fuels in this context. Heating, drying and devolatilization of alternative fuels are fast processes that primarily depend on heat transfer and fuel particle size. Devolatilization of a large wood or tire particle with a thickness of 20 mm at 900 deg. C is for example around 2 minutes. By contrast, char oxidation is a slow process which may greatly reduce the amounts of solid fuels to be utilized in the

  11. Fuel safety research 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-07-01

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  12. Oligo cyclic plastic fatigue of Zircaloy-4 under vacuum and in iodinated methanol; Fatigue plastique oligocyclique du Zircaloy-4 sous vide et dans le methanol iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beloucif, A.

    1995-01-01

    Our study was bound to the Zircaloy-4 fuel can damage in PWR type reactors. The topic was the damage mechanisms of Zircaloy-4 by oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue in inert atmosphere and in iodinated methanol. The oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue tests, under vacuum, were performed with steady plastic deformation and deformation speed. The corrosion fatigue tests in iodinated methanol put to the fore one obvious harmful part of iodine on Zircaloy-4 resistance to cyclic solicitations. The observations proved the existence of a very strong synergic effect between cyclic mechanical damage and corrosion. (MML). 84 refs., 117 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Direct Fuel Injector Temporal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    optimize engine performance and emissions. Fuel injectors contain an actuator, pintle (or needle), and nozzle. The most common actuator is a solenoid ...Introduction Fuel injectors have a long history in metering fuel in modern engines by either port fuel injection (PFI) or direct fuel injection (DFI...Compared with a carburetor, fuel injectors have more accurate fuel delivering capability, thus giving engineers and technicians more flexibility to

  14. The second green revolution? Production of plant-based biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Biodegradable plastics are those that can be completely degraded in landfills, composters or sewage treatment plants by the action of naturally occurring micro-organisms. Truly biodegradable plastics leave no toxic, visible or distinguishable residues following degradation. Their biodegradability contrasts sharply with most petroleum-based plastics, which are essentially indestructible in a biological context. Because of the ubiquitous use of petroleum-based plastics, their persistence in the environment and their fossil-fuel derivation, alternatives to these traditional plastics are being explored. Issues surrounding waste management of traditional and biodegradable polymers are discussed in the context of reducing environmental pressures and carbon footprints. The main thrust of the present review addresses the development of plant-based biodegradable polymers. Plants naturally produce numerous polymers, including rubber, starch, cellulose and storage proteins, all of which have been exploited for biodegradable plastic production. Bacterial bioreactors fed with renewable resources from plants--so-called 'white biotechnology'--have also been successful in producing biodegradable polymers. In addition to these methods of exploiting plant materials for biodegradable polymer production, the present review also addresses the advances in synthesizing novel polymers within transgenic plants, especially those in the polyhydroxyalkanoate class. Although there is a stigma associated with transgenic plants, especially food crops, plant-based biodegradable polymers, produced as value-added co-products, or, from marginal land (non-food), crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), have the potential to become viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics and an environmentally benign and carbon-neutral source of polymers.

  15. Gene Expression Patterns Underlying the Reinstatement of Plasticity in the Adult Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Tiraboschi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is highly sensitive to experience during early postnatal life, but this phase of heightened plasticity decreases with age. Recent studies have demonstrated that developmental-like plasticity can be reactivated in the visual cortex of adult animals through environmental or pharmacological manipulations. These findings provide a unique opportunity to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of adult plasticity. Here we used the monocular deprivation paradigm to investigate large-scale gene expression patterns underlying the reinstatement of plasticity produced by fluoxetine in the adult rat visual cortex. We found changes, confirmed with RT-PCRs, in gene expression in different biological themes, such as chromatin structure remodelling, transcription factors, molecules involved in synaptic plasticity, extracellular matrix, and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Our findings reveal a key role for several molecules such as the metalloproteases Mmp2 and Mmp9 or the glycoprotein Reelin and open up new insights into the mechanisms underlying the reopening of the critical periods in the adult brain.

  16. Low Doses of Ethanol Enhance LTD-like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhl, Anna; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Lücke, Caroline; Toennes, Stefan W; Ziemann, Ulf

    2015-12-01

    Humans liberally use ethanol for its facilitating effects on social interactions but its effects on central nervous system function remain underexplored. We have recently described that very low doses of ethanol abolish long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in human cortex, most likely through enhancement of tonic inhibition [Lücke et al, 2014, Neuropsychopharmacology 39:1508-18]. Here, we studied the effects of low-dose ethanol on long-term depression (LTD)-like plasticity. LTD-like plasticity was induced in human motor cortex by paired associative transcranial magnetic stimulation (PASLTD), and measured as decreases of motor evoked potential input-output curve (IO-curve). In addition, sedation was measured by decreases in saccade peak velocity (SPV). Ethanol in two low doses (EtOHethanol, easily reached during social drinking, enhance LTD-like plasticity in human cortex. This effect is most likely explained by the activation of extrasynaptic α4-subunit containing gamma-aminobutyric type A receptors by low-dose EtOH, resulting in increased tonic inhibition. Findings may stimulate cellular research on the role of tonic inhibition in regulating excitability and plasticity of cortical neuronal networks.

  17. Assortment of GABAergic plasticity in the cortical interneuron melting pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Pablo; Bacci, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Cortical structures of the adult mammalian brain are characterized by a spectacular diversity of inhibitory interneurons, which use GABA as neurotransmitter. GABAergic neurotransmission is fundamental for integrating and filtering incoming information and dictating postsynaptic neuronal spike timing, therefore providing a tight temporal code used by each neuron, or ensemble of neurons, to perform sophisticated computational operations. However, the heterogeneity of cortical GABAergic cells is associated to equally diverse properties governing intrinsic excitability as well as strength, dynamic range, spatial extent, anatomical localization, and molecular components of inhibitory synaptic connections that they form with pyramidal neurons. Recent studies showed that similarly to their excitatory (glutamatergic) counterparts, also inhibitory synapses can undergo activity-dependent changes in their strength. Here, some aspects related to plasticity and modulation of adult cortical and hippocampal GABAergic synaptic transmission will be reviewed, aiming at providing a fresh perspective towards the elucidation of the role played by specific cellular elements of cortical microcircuits during both physiological and pathological operations.

  18. Motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Kaviraja; Chen, Robert

    2013-09-04

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), there are alterations of the basal ganglia (BG) thalamocortical networks, primarily due to degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. These changes in subcortical networks lead to plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1), which mediates cortical motor output and is a potential target for treatment of PD. Studies investigating the motor cortical plasticity using non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have found altered plasticity in PD, but there are inconsistencies among these studies. This is likely because plasticity depends on many factors such as the extent of dopaminergic loss and disease severity, response to dopaminergic replacement therapies, development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID), the plasticity protocol used, medication, and stimulation status in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). The influences of LID and DBS on BG and M1 plasticity have been explored in animal models and in PD patients. In addition, many other factors such age, genetic factors (e.g., brain derived neurotropic factor and other neurotransmitters or receptors polymorphism), emotional state, time of the day, physical fitness have been documented to play role in the extent of plasticity induced by TMS in human studies. In this review, we summarize the studies that investigated M1 plasticity in PD and demonstrate how these afore-mentioned factors affect motor cortical plasticity in PD. We conclude that it is important to consider the clinical, demographic, and technical factors that influence various plasticity protocols while developing these protocols as diagnostic or prognostic tools in PD. We also discuss how the modulation of cortical excitability and the plasticity with these non-invasive brain stimulation techniques facilitate the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD and help design potential therapeutic possibilities in this disorder.

  19. Method of forming a package for MEMS-based fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D; Jankowski, Alan F

    2013-05-21

    A MEMS-based fuel cell package and method thereof is disclosed. The fuel cell package comprises seven layers: (1) a sub-package fuel reservoir interface layer, (2) an anode manifold support layer, (3) a fuel/anode manifold and resistive heater layer, (4) a Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer containing a fuel cell, (5) an air manifold layer, (6) a cathode manifold support structure layer, and (7) a cap. Fuel cell packages with more than one fuel cell are formed by positioning stacks of these layers in series and/or parallel. The fuel cell package materials such as a molded plastic or a ceramic green tape material can be patterned, aligned and stacked to form three dimensional microfluidic channels that provide electrical feedthroughs from various layers which are bonded together and mechanically support a MEMS-based miniature fuel cell. The package incorporates resistive heating elements to control the temperature of the fuel cell stack. The package is fired to form a bond between the layers and one or more microporous flow host structures containing fuel cells are inserted within the Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer of the package.

  20. Cellular immune responses to HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Andrew J.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2001-04-01

    The cellular immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus, mediated by T lymphocytes, seems strong but fails to control the infection completely. In most virus infections, T cells either eliminate the virus or suppress it indefinitely as a harmless, persisting infection. But the human immunodeficiency virus undermines this control by infecting key immune cells, thereby impairing the response of both the infected CD4+ T cells and the uninfected CD8+ T cells. The failure of the latter to function efficiently facilitates the escape of virus from immune control and the collapse of the whole immune system.

  1. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in rat...... pancreatic alpha-cells and somatotrophs. We found a pharmacological dissociation between the actions on KATP channels and exocytosis and suggest that compounds that, unlike repaglinide, have direct stimulatory effects on exocytosis in somatotrophs and alpha- and beta-cells, such as sulphonylureas...

  2. Game of Life Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s, British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells' states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway's Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational

  3. Cellular automata a parallel model

    CERN Document Server

    Mazoyer, J

    1999-01-01

    Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.

  4. ING proteins in cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Camino; Abad, María; Gómez-Cabello, Daniel; Moreno, Alberto; Palmero, Ignacio

    2009-05-01

    Cellular senescence is an effective anti-tumor barrier that acts by restraining the uncontrolled proliferation of cells carrying potentially oncogenic alterations. ING proteins are putative tumor suppressor proteins functionally linked to the p53 pathway and to chromatin regulation. ING proteins exert their tumor-protective action through different types of responses. Here, we review the evidence on the participation of ING proteins, mainly ING1 and ING2, in the implementation of the senescent response. The currently available data support an important role of ING proteins as regulators of senescence, in connection with the p53 pathway and chromatin organization.

  5. Cellular Analogs of Operant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-31

    ing of single units can be demonstrated, does such a cellular subset of neighboring pyramidal cells and interneurons as well as process contribute...excite dopamine neurons by -hyperpolarization of local interneurons . J. Neurosci. 12:483-488; 1992. Kosterlitz, H. W. Biosynthesis of morphine in the...II 197 1 1 ocation preltereite iindiis- HOIdlod VA. artdo \\M I . \\.ill I ’’’’i i R i l’)89) ( pioid mediationl lserilI1 reintoree-Cd bK amlphetcamine

  6. 5G Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xiaohu; Tu, Song; Mao, Guoqiang; Wang, Cheng-xiang; Han, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Traditional ultra-dense wireless networks are recommended as a complement for cellular networks and are deployed in partial areas, such as hotspot and indoor scenarios. Based on the massive multiple-input multi-output (MIMO) antennas and the millimeter wavecommunication technologies, the 5G ultra-dense cellular network is proposed to deploy in overall cellular scenarios. Moreover, a distribution network architecture is presented for 5G ultra-dense cellular networks. Furthermore, the backhaul ...

  7. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  8. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  9. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  10. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    A quarter of humanity's current energy consumption is used for transportation (1). Low-temperature hydrogen fuel cells offer much promise for replacing this colossal use of fossil fuels with renewables; these fuel cells produce negligible emissions and have a mileage and filling time equal...... to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10......% of the annual automotive vehicle production. Lowering the Pt loading in a fuel cell to a sustainable level requires the reactivity of Pt to be tuned so that it accelerates oxygen reduction more effectively (3). Two reports in this issue address this challenge (4, 5)....

  11. Spiral cooled fuel nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Timothy; Schilp, Reinhard

    2012-09-25

    A fuel nozzle for delivery of fuel to a gas turbine engine. The fuel nozzle includes an outer nozzle wall and a center body located centrally within the nozzle wall. A gap is defined between an inner wall surface of the nozzle wall and an outer body surface of the center body for providing fuel flow in a longitudinal direction from an inlet end to an outlet end of the fuel nozzle. A turbulating feature is defined on at least one of the central body and the inner wall for causing at least a portion of the fuel flow in the gap to flow transverse to the longitudinal direction. The gap is effective to provide a substantially uniform temperature distribution along the nozzle wall in the circumferential direction.

  12. RNA Directed Modulation of Phenotypic Plasticity in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Laura; Hewson, Chris; Burdach, Jon; Morris, Kevin V

    2016-01-01

    Natural selective processes have been known to drive phenotypic plasticity, which is the emergence of different phenotypes from one genome following environmental stimulation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been observed to modulate transcriptional and epigenetic states of genes in human cells. We surmised that lncRNAs are governors of phenotypic plasticity and drive natural selective processes through epigenetic modulation of gene expression. Using heat shocked human cells as a model we find several differentially expressed transcripts with the top candidates being lncRNAs derived from retro-elements. One particular retro-element derived transcripts, Retro-EIF2S2, was found to be abundantly over-expressed in heat shocked cells. Over-expression of Retro-EIF2S2 significantly enhanced cell viability and modulated a predisposition for an adherent cellular phenotype upon heat shock. Mechanistically, we find that this retro-element derived transcript interacts directly with a network of proteins including 40S ribosomal protein S30 (FAU), Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (EIF5A), and Ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40 (UBA52) to affect protein modulated cell adhesion pathways. We find one motif in Retro-EIF2S2 that exhibits binding to FAU and modulates phenotypic cell transitions from adherent to suspension states. The observations presented here suggest that retroviral derived transcripts actively modulate phenotypic plasticity in human cells in response to environmental selective pressures and suggest that natural selection may play out through the action of retro-elements in human cells.

  13. Indestructible plastic: The neuroscience of the new aging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance eHolman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on experience-dependent plasticity has provided valuable insight on adaptation to environmental input across the lifespan, and advances in understanding the minute cellular changes underlying the brain’s capacity for self-reorganization have opened exciting new possibilities for treating illness and injury. Ongoing work in this line of inquiry has also come to deeply influence another field: the cognitive neuroscience of the normal aging. This complex process, once dubbed as inevitable or beyond the reach of treatment, has been transformed into an arena of intense investigation and strategic intervention. However, important questions remain about this characterization of the aging brain, and the assumptions it makes about the social, cultural, and biological space occupied by cognition in the older individual and body. The following paper will provide a critical examination of the move from basic experiments on the neurophysiology of experience-dependent plasticity to the growing market for (and public conception of cognitive aging as a medicalized space for intervention by neuroscience-backed technologies. Entangled with changing concepts of normality, pathology, and self-preservation, we will argue that this new understanding, led by personalized cognitive training strategies, is approaching a point where interdisciplinary research is crucial to provide a holistic and nuanced understanding of the aging process. This new outlook will allow us to move forward in a space where our knowledge, like our new conception of the brain, is never static.

  14. Plasticity in the Neonatal Brain following Hypoxic-Ischaemic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan Rocha-Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischaemic damage to the developing brain is a leading cause of child death, with high mortality and morbidity, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and cognitive disabilities. The developmental stage of the brain and the severity of the insult influence the selective regional vulnerability and the subsequent clinical manifestations. The increased susceptibility to hypoxia-ischaemia (HI of periventricular white matter in preterm infants predisposes the immature brain to motor, cognitive, and sensory deficits, with cognitive impairment associated with earlier gestational age. In term infants HI causes selective damage to sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem. Even though the immature brain is more malleable to external stimuli compared to the adult one, a hypoxic-ischaemic event to the neonate interrupts the shaping of central motor pathways and can affect normal developmental plasticity through altering neurotransmission, changes in cellular signalling, neural connectivity and function, wrong targeted innervation, and interruption of developmental apoptosis. Models of neonatal HI demonstrate three morphologically different types of cell death, that is, apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, which crosstalk and can exist as a continuum in the same cell. In the present review we discuss the mechanisms of HI injury to the immature brain and the way they affect plasticity.

  15. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  16. Fuel safety research 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  17. Fuel Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    structures b) - Equal thermic inertia c) - Equal fluid volume d) - Equal pressure variation on both wings at the change of the room temperature - This...individual fuel sections. Each fuel section is further ccmpartmentated by metall tank shear walls and tank floors into three individual fuel cells to...plate Dy a stretch forming process, and the metallic tank floors . The air intake segments extend from one bulkhead to the other, thus reducing assembly

  18. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  19. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  20. Plasticity under rough surface contact and friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, F.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the plastic behavior of rough metal surfaces under contact loading. Attention in this thesis focuses on the study of single and multiple asperities with micrometer scale dimensions, a scale at which plasticity is known to be si

  1. Medical leech therapy in plastic reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houschyar, Khosrow S; Momeni, Arash; Maan, Zeshaan N; Pyles, Malcolm N; Jew, Olivia S; Strathe, Marion; Michalsen, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of Hirudo medicinalis in clinical practice has increased in recent years. The primary indication in plastic surgery has traditionally been venous congestion. However, other reported clinical applications were in varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, and osteoarthritis. In this review, we summarize recent data elucidating the role that medicinal leeches play in the field of plastic surgery.

  2. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  3. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Rietman; J.-P. Sommeijer; C.N. Levelt; J.A. Heimel; A.B. Brussaard; J.G.G. Borst; Y. Elgersma; N. Galjart; G.T. van der Horst; C.M. Pennartz; A.B. Smit; B.M. Spruijt; M. Verhage; C.I. de Zeeuw

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. To discover new candidate genes, we have reexamined data from one such study on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains. We have correlated

  4. Plastic soep komt op ons bord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.

    2011-01-01

    De wereldwijd verspreide 'soep' van kleine plastic deeltjes in zeeën en oceanen vormt een omvangrijk mondiaal milieuprobleem. Niet alleen leidt het plastic tot verstrikking en verstopping bij vogels en vissen, ook brengt de giftigheid van de materie de voedselketen in gevaar. Om te voorkomen dat die

  5. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  6. The Genetics of Phenotypic Plasticity. XIV. Coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Samuel M; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Holt, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Plastic changes in organisms' phenotypes can result from either abiotic or biotic effectors. Biotic effectors create the potential for a coevolutionary dynamic. Through the use of individual-based simulations, we examined the coevolutionary dynamic of two species that are phenotypically plastic. We explored two modes of biotic and abiotic interactions: ecological interactions that determine the form of natural selection and developmental interactions that determine phenotypes. Overall, coevolution had a larger effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity than plasticity had on the outcome of coevolution. Effects on the evolution of plasticity were greater when the fitness-maximizing coevolutionary outcomes were antagonistic between the species pair (predator-prey interactions) than when those outcomes were augmenting (competitive or mutualistic). Overall, evolution in the context of biotic interactions reduced selection for plasticity even when trait development was responding to just the abiotic environment. Thus, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity must always be interpreted in the full context of a species' ecology. Our results show how the merging of two theory domains--coevolution and phenotypic plasticity--can deepen our understanding of both and point to new empirical research.

  7. Regulatory mechanisms link phenotypic plasticity to evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J

    2016-01-01

    Organisms have a remarkable capacity to respond to environmental change. They can either respond directly, by means of phenotypic plasticity, or they can slowly adapt through evolution. Yet, how phenotypic plasticity links to evolutionary adaptability is largely unknown. Current studies of plasticit

  8. Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Hasan, Fariha; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia

    2008-01-01

    Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastics. With the excessive use of plastics and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Awareness of the waste problem and its impact on the environment has awakened new interest in the area of degradable polymers. The interest in environmental issues is growing and there are increasing demands to develop material which do not burden the environment significantly. Biodegradation is necessary for water-soluble or water-immiscible polymers because they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated. It is important to consider the microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms and the biochemical changes involved. Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. This paper reviews the current research on the biodegradation of biodegradable and also the conventional synthetic plastics and also use of various techniques for the analysis of degradation in vitro.

  9. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  10. Plastic zonder olie : lesmodule voor nieuwe scheikunde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langejan, B.; Klein Douwel, C.; Horst, ter J.J.; Tijdink, K.; Marle, van N.; Klaasen, P.; Coolen, R.; Assenbergh, van P.; Sijbers, J.P.J.; Mast, A.

    2013-01-01

    Lesmodule voor nieuwe scheikunde voor leerlingen uit 5 en 6 vwo. Bioplastics worden gemaakt uit natuurlijke grondstoffen. Als ze de synthetische plastics vervangen kan de voorraad aardolie ontzien worden. Omdat veel bioplastics afbreekbaar zijn, kan ook de berg plastic afval krimpen. Maar zijn biopl

  11. Cyclic Plastic Deformation and Welding Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Horn, C.H.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the concerns of a fitness for purpose analysis is the quantification of the relevant material properties. It is known from experiments that the mechanical properties of a material can change due to a monotonic plastic deformation or a cyclic plastic deformation. For a fitness for purpose anal

  12. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  13. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  14. Constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murren, Courtney J; Auld, Josh R.; Callahan, Hilary S

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generally regarded as a key mechanism for enabling organisms to survive in the face of environmental change. Because no organism is infinitely or ideally plastic, theory suggests that there must be limits (for example, the lack of ability to produce an opti...

  15. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M.I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    and strain gradient plasticity formulations predict a negligible size effect under shear loading. By contrast, under equi-biaxial loading both plasticity formulations predict a strong size dependence with the flow strength approximately scaling inversely with the void spacing. Excellent agreement is obtained...

  16. Incipient plasticity in metallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W. A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Minor, A. M.; Shan, Z.; Asif, S. A. Syed; Warren, O. L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have compared the incipient plastic behaviors of Al and Al-Mg thin films during indentation under load control and displacement control. In Al-Mg, solute pinning limits the ability of dislocations to propagate into the crystal and thus substantially affects the appearance of plastic inst

  17. Demonstrating Fluorescence with Neon Paper and Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, Jennifer J.; Roe, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Several papers in this journal have dealt with the fluorescence in orange neon plastic, olive oil, and soda. In each case, the fluorescent emission was excited by either green or violet-blue laser light. In this paper, we examine the fluorescent emission spectra of so-called neon colored papers and plastic clipboards available in department and…

  18. Marine Debris and Plastic Source Reduction Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many plastic food service ware items originate on college and university campuses—in cafeterias, snack rooms, cafés, and eateries with take-out dining options. This Campus Toolkit is a detailed “how to” guide for reducing plastic waste on college campuses.

  19. Reliability of Elasto-Plastic Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delmar, M. V.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for generating safety margins and failure mode equations for elasto-plastic structures where interaction of load effects is taken into account. Structural failure is defined by large nodal displacements or plastic collapse. A branch-and-bound technique is used...

  20. Bibliometric trend analyses of plastic surgery research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, M.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The present thesis was designed to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative aspects of plastic surgery research by means of a bibliometric citation analysis of plastic surgical presentations and publications. Citations to such published work provides an indication of the impact and the relevance of