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Sample records for cellular pituitary crosstalk

  1. Cellular and molecular specificity of pituitary gland physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Castro, Carolina; Renner, Ulrich; Haedo, Mariana R; Stalla, Gunter K; Arzt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland has the ability to respond to complex signals derived from central and peripheral systems. Perception of these signals and their integration are mediated by cell interactions and cross-talk of multiple signaling transduction pathways and transcriptional regulatory networks that cooperate for hormone secretion, cell plasticity, and ultimately specific pituitary responses that are essential for an appropriate physiological response. We discuss the physiopathological and molecular mechanisms related to this integrative regulatory system of the anterior pituitary gland and how it contributes to modulate the gland functions and impacts on body homeostasis. PMID:22298650

  2. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis induces cellular oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jereme G. Spiers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal gland in response to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis induce activity in the cellular reduction-oxidation (redox system. The redox system is a ubiquitous chemical mechanism allowing the transfer of electrons between donor/acceptors and target molecules during oxidative phosphorylation while simultaneously maintaining the overall cellular environment in a reduced state. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the current literature discussing the link between HPA axis-derived glucocorticoids and increased oxidative stress, particularly focussing on the redox changes observed in the hippocampus following glucocorticoid exposure.

  3. Skin under the (Spot)-Light: Cross-Talk with the Central Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozic, Ivan; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Kirsner, Robert S F; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2015-06-01

    UV radiation is among the most prevalent stressors in humans and diurnal rodents, exerting direct and indirect DNA damage, free-radical production, and interaction with specific chromophores that affects numerous biological processes. In addition to its panoply of effects, UVB (290-320 nm) radiation can specifically affect various local neuroendocrine activities by stimulating the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and POMC-derived peptides. Although very little is known about the interplay between the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the skin HPA axis analog, in the current issue Skobowiat and Slominski propose a novel mechanism by which exposure to UVB activates a local HPA axis in skin, which in turn activates the central HPA axis, with the requirement of a functional pituitary gland. This is the first evidence of the local HPA axis in skin contributing to the central neuroendocrine response. This raises intriguing possibilities regarding how local production of cortisol and other HPA axis molecules in skin influence overall systemic levels of cortisol and help regulate local and central HPA axes in the context of homeostasis, skin injury, and inflammatory skin disorders.

  4. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptor alpha in pituitary adenomas and its correlation with cellular replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Lima, Julia F S; Marroni, Caroline P; Pizarro, Cristina B; Barbosa-Coutinho, Ligia M; Ferreira, Nelson P; Oliveira, Miriam C

    2004-03-01

    With the aim of evaluating the relationship between pituitary tumorigenesis and the presence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) by immunohistochemistry (IH) and their relevance to patients' clinical presentation, hormonal phenotypes of adenomas, preoperative neuroimaging findings, and the index of cellular replication MIB-1, a study was conducted with material from 91 women and 67 men with pituitary adenomas. The patients had acromegaly (29.7%), Cushing's disease (14.6%), hyperprolactinemic syndrome (20.9%), and clinically nonfunctioning tumors (34.8%). Of the patients, 14.6% had microadenomas, 52.5% had macroadenomas with or without suprasellar growth, 28.5% had invasive macroadenomas and in 4.4% the adenoma was not visualized. IH showed that 43 were positive for growth hormone (GH), 16 for corticotropin (ACTH), 18 for prolactin (PRL), 18 for PRL+GH, 6 for luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 15 had a plurihormonal reaction, and 42 had nonfunctioning adenomas. The presence of ERalpha was positive in 9/158 adenomas with a median value for the percentage of labeled cells of 42.89%, and in 6/16 controls (autopsy samples) with a median value for the percentage of labeled cells of 0.024%. ERalpha was significantly more prevalent in controls than in patients with adenomas (37.5 versus 5.7%; p = 0.001); however, the mean ERalpha concentration in adenomas was significantly greater than in controls (42.89 versus 0.024%; p < 0.001). No significant difference in the concentration of ERalpha was found across the clinical presentations, hormonal phenotypes or findings of preoperative CT. Among the ERalpha-positive adenomas, ERalpha values were significantly greater in invasive macroadenomas (80%) than in microadenomas (3.33%). MIB-1 values did not differ significantly between ERalpha-positive and -negative adenomas, nor did the correlation between ERalpha values and the MIB-1 index attain significance in the total sample, even when only ERalpha

  5. Cellular robustness conferred by genetic crosstalk underlies resistance against chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Zoey; Eng, Ru Jun; Sajiki, Kenichi; Lim, Kim Kiat; Tang, Ming Yi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro; Chen, Ee Sin

    2013-01-01

    Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic that is among one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in the clinical setting. The usage of doxorubicin is faced with many problems including severe side effects and chemoresistance. To overcome these challenges, it is important to gain an understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms with regards to the mode of action of doxorubicin. To facilitate this aim, we identified the genes that are required for doxorubicin resistance in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We further demonstrated interplay between factors controlling various aspects of chromosome metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and membrane transport. In the nucleus we observed that the subunits of the Ino80, RSC, and SAGA complexes function in the similar epistatic group that shares significant overlap with the homologous recombination genes. However, these factors generally act in synergistic manner with the chromosome segregation regulator DASH complex proteins, possibly forming two major arms for regulating doxorubicin resistance in the nucleus. Simultaneous disruption of genes function in membrane efflux transport or the mitochondrial respiratory chain integrity in the mutants defective in either Ino80 or HR function resulted in cumulative upregulation of drug-specific growth defects, suggesting a rewiring of pathways that synergize only when the cells is exposed to the cytotoxic stress. Taken together, our work not only identified factors that are required for survival of the cells in the presence of doxorubicin but has further demonstrated that an extensive molecular crosstalk exists between these factors to robustly confer doxorubicin resistance.

  6. Cellular robustness conferred by genetic crosstalk underlies resistance against chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoey Tay

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic that is among one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in the clinical setting. The usage of doxorubicin is faced with many problems including severe side effects and chemoresistance. To overcome these challenges, it is important to gain an understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms with regards to the mode of action of doxorubicin. To facilitate this aim, we identified the genes that are required for doxorubicin resistance in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We further demonstrated interplay between factors controlling various aspects of chromosome metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and membrane transport. In the nucleus we observed that the subunits of the Ino80, RSC, and SAGA complexes function in the similar epistatic group that shares significant overlap with the homologous recombination genes. However, these factors generally act in synergistic manner with the chromosome segregation regulator DASH complex proteins, possibly forming two major arms for regulating doxorubicin resistance in the nucleus. Simultaneous disruption of genes function in membrane efflux transport or the mitochondrial respiratory chain integrity in the mutants defective in either Ino80 or HR function resulted in cumulative upregulation of drug-specific growth defects, suggesting a rewiring of pathways that synergize only when the cells is exposed to the cytotoxic stress. Taken together, our work not only identified factors that are required for survival of the cells in the presence of doxorubicin but has further demonstrated that an extensive molecular crosstalk exists between these factors to robustly confer doxorubicin resistance.

  7. Prolactin kinase activity in bovine anterior pituitary sub-cellular fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, J R; Brooks, C L

    1999-01-25

    Bovine anterior pituitary cells phosphorylate prolactin (PRL). We describe the phosphorylation of endogenous and exogenous bPRL in highly enriched subcellular fractions of bovine anterior pituitary using [gamma-32P]-ATP. 32P-labeling of endogenous and exogenous bPRL occurred in all subcellular membrane fractions, but most significantly in the fraction enriched for secretory granules. Zn2+ (0.8 mM), Cu2+ (0.8 mM), and Mn2+ (9.8 mM) increased bPRL phosphorylation by 268, 214, and 154%, respectively, relative to basal phosphorylation with no added cations. Neither Mg2+ (10 mM) nor Ca2+ (0.9 mM) increased bPRL phosphorylation above basal levels. Phosphorylation was dependent on the concentration of Zn2+ with an apparent Km of 570 microM. bPRL phosphorylation occurred over a wide pH range of 5.9-8.3, with the greatest activity at pH of 6.7 or greater. Phosphorylation of bPRL was time-dependent. The apparent Kms of the bPRL kinase for exogenous bPRL and ATP were 15.3 and 267 microM, respectively. bPRL incorporation of 32P was unaffected by the presence of calcium and calmodulin, cAMP, phosphotidylserine and diolein, or spermine. From these results we conclude that in vitro phosphorylation of bPRL occurs under physiological conditions that would be found in pituitary cells. PMID:10195699

  8. Pituitary apoplexy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LH Prolactin TSH Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) Sodium Osmolarity in blood and urine ... The outlook is good for people who have long-term (chronic) pituitary deficiency that is diagnosed and ...

  9. Pituitary apoplexy

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    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is rare endocrine emergency which can occur due to infarction or haemorrhage of pituitary gland. This disorder most often involves a pituitary adenoma. Occasionally it may be the first manifestation of an underlying adenoma. There is conflicting data regarding which type of pituitary adenoma is prone for apoplexy. Some studies showed predominance of non-functional adenomas while some other studies showed a higher prevalence in functioning adenomas amongst which prolactinoma have the highest risk. Although pituitary apoplexy can occur without any precipitating factor in most cases, there are some well recognizable risk factors such as hypertension, medications, major surgeries, coagulopathies either primary or following medications or infection, head injury, radiation or dynamic testing of the pituitary. Patients usually present with headache, vomiting, altered sensorium, visual defect and/or endocrine dysfunction. Hemodynamic instability may be result from adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency. Imaging with either CT scan or MRI should be performed in suspected cases. Intravenous fluid and hydrocortisone should be administered after collection of sample for baseline hormonal evaluation. Earlier studies used to advocate urgent decompression of the lesion but more recent studies favor conservative approach for most cases with surgery reserved for those with deteriorating level of consciousness or increasing visual defect. The visual and endocrine outcomes are almost similar with either surgery or conservative management. Once the acute phase is over, patient should be re-evaluated for hormonal deficiencies.

  10. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Pituitary Gland Mimicking a Pituitary Adenoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Da Mi; Yu, In Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han Kyu [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with diplopia. The patient had a relatively well-defined pituitary mass with high cellularity as well as weaker enhancement on imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), than a typical pituitary adenoma. The distinction between a pseudotumor and an invasive neoplasm is very difficult before biopsy. In this case report, we discuss the characteristic imaging features of a fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumor of the pituitary gland

  11. Crosstalk between mitochondria and NADPH oxidases

    OpenAIRE

    Dikalov, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in physiological and pathological processes. In recent years, a feed-forward regulation of the ROS sources has been reported. The interaction between main cellular sources of ROS, such as mitochondria and NADPH oxidases, however, remain obscure. This work summarizes the latest findings on the role of crosstalk between mitochondria and NADPH oxidases in pathophysiological processes. Mitochondria have the highest levels of antioxidants in the...

  12. Modeling crosstalk in silicon photomultipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego, L.; Rosado Vélez, Jaime; Arqueros Martínez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Optical crosstalk seriously limits the photon-counting resolution of silicon photomultipliers. In this work, realistic analytical models to describe the crosstalk effects on the response of these photodetectors are presented and compared with experimental data. The proposed models are based on the hypothesis that each pixel of the array has a finite number of available neighboring pixels to excite via crosstalk. Dead-time effects and geometrical aspects of the propagation of crosstalk between...

  13. Acute pituitary apoplexy complicating a pituitary macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febin Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition caused by either haemorrhage or infarction of the pituitary gland. In most cases, a pre-existing pituitary macroadenoma is present. Patients present with the clinical syndrome of headache, visual defects or ophthalmoplegia, altered state of consciousness and variable endocrine deficits.

  14. Modelling and Analysis of Biochemical Signalling Pathway Cross-talk

    CERN Document Server

    Donaldson, Robin; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.3

    2010-01-01

    Signalling pathways are abstractions that help life scientists structure the coordination of cellular activity. Cross-talk between pathways accounts for many of the complex behaviours exhibited by signalling pathways and is often critical in producing the correct signal-response relationship. Formal models of signalling pathways and cross-talk in particular can aid understanding and drive experimentation. We define an approach to modelling based on the concept that a pathway is the (synchronising) parallel composition of instances of generic modules (with internal and external labels). Pathways are then composed by (synchronising) parallel composition and renaming; different types of cross-talk result from different combinations of synchronisation and renaming. We define a number of generic modules in PRISM and five types of cross-talk: signal flow, substrate availability, receptor function, gene expression and intracellular communication. We show that Continuous Stochastic Logic properties can both detect an...

  15. [Familial pituitary tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, K; Saito, S

    1995-11-01

    Familial pituitary tumors are relatively rare. Most commonly, they occur as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). However, familial pituitary adenomas unrelated MEN 1 (familial pituitary adenomas) are extremely rare. In review of MEN 1 in Japan, 60% of the patients with MEN 1 had pituitary tumors. Only 45 cases of familial pituitary adenomas have been reported from 20 families. In our review of familial pituitary adenomas, 30 (67%) of 45 reported cases are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than 28% in MEN 1 patients with pituitary tumors. Allelic deletions at 11q13 were identified in MEN 1 associated pituitary adenomas and familial pituitary adenomas in two gigantism brothers. PMID:8538028

  16. Modeling crosstalk in silicon photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Gallego, L; Blanco, F; Arqueros, F

    2013-01-01

    Optical crosstalk seriously limits the photon-counting resolution of silicon photomultipliers. In this work, realistic analytical models to describe the crosstalk effects on the response of these photodetectors are presented and compared with experimental data. The proposed models are based on the hypothesis that each pixel of the array has a finite number of available neighboring pixels to excite via crosstalk. Dead-time effects and geometrical aspects of the propagation of crosstalk between neighbors are taken into account in the models for different neighborhood configurations. Simple expressions to account for crosstalk effects on the pulse-height spectrum as well as to evaluate the excess noise factor due to crosstalk are also given. Dedicated measurements were carried out under both dark-count conditions and pulsed illumination. Moreover, the influence of afterpulsing on the measured pulse-height spectrum was studied, and a measurement of the recovery time of pixels was reported. High-resolution pulse-h...

  17. Modelling and Analysis of Biochemical Signalling Pathway Cross-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Donaldson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Signalling pathways are abstractions that help life scientists structure the coordination of cellular activity. Cross-talk between pathways accounts for many of the complex behaviours exhibited by signalling pathways and is often critical in producing the correct signal-response relationship. Formal models of signalling pathways and cross-talk in particular can aid understanding and drive experimentation. We define an approach to modelling based on the concept that a pathway is the (synchronising parallel composition of instances of generic modules (with internal and external labels. Pathways are then composed by (synchronising parallel composition and renaming; different types of cross-talk result from different combinations of synchronisation and renaming. We define a number of generic modules in PRISM and five types of cross-talk: signal flow, substrate availability, receptor function, gene expression and intracellular communication. We show that Continuous Stochastic Logic properties can both detect and distinguish the types of cross-talk. The approach is illustrated with small examples and an analysis of the cross-talk between the TGF-b/BMP, WNT and MAPK pathways.

  18. Pituitary Disorders Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of drugs can help relieve pituitary problems. Prolactinomas, for example, respond well to a dopamine agonist ... is caused by the treatment you have for pituitary tumors. Surgery or radiation therapy, for example, can lead ...

  19. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N;

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  20. Performance of TPC crosstalk correction

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Krasnoperov, A; Nefedov, Y; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2004-01-01

    The performance of the CERN-Dubna-Milano (CDM) algorithm for TPC crosstalk correction is presented. The algorithm is designed to correct for uni-directional and bi-directional crosstalk, but not for self-crosstalk. It reduces at the 10% level the number of clusters, and the number of pads with a signal above threshold. Despite of dramatic effects in selected channels with complicated crosstalk patterns, the average longitudinal signal shape of a hit, and the average transverse signal shape of a cluster, are little affected by uni-directional and bi-directional crosstalk. The longitudinal signal shape of hits is understood in terms of preamplifier response, longitudinal diffusion, track inclination, and self-crosstalk. The transverse signal shape of clusters is understood in terms of the TPC's pad response function. The CDM crosstalk correction leads to an average charge decrease at the level of 15%, though with significant differences between TPC sectors. On the whole, crosstalk constitutes a relatively benig...

  1. Neu1 sialidase and matrix metalloproteinase-9 cross-talk regulates nucleic acid-induced endosomal TOLL-like receptor-7 and -9 activation, cellular signaling and pro-inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkhalek, Samar; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2013-11-01

    The precise mechanism(s) by which intracellular TOLL-like receptors (TLRs) become activated by their ligands remains unclear. Here, we report a molecular organizational G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling platform to potentiate a novel mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cross-talk in alliance with neuromedin B GPCR, all of which form a tripartite complex with TLR-7 and -9. siRNA silencing Neu1, MMP-9 and neuromedin-B GPCR in RAW-blue macrophage cells significantly reduced TLR7 imiquimod- and TLR9 ODN1826-induced NF-κB (NF-κB-pSer(536)) activity. Tamiflu, specific MMP-9 inhibitor, neuromedin B receptor specific antagonist BIM23127, and the selective inhibitor of whole heterotrimeric G-protein complex BIM-46174 significantly block nucleic acid-induced TLR-7 and -9 MyD88 recruitment, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory TNFα and MCP-1 cytokine responses. For the first time, Neu1 clearly plays a central role in mediating nucleic acid-induced intracellular TLR activation, and the interactions involving NMBR-MMP9-Neu1 cross-talk constitute a novel intracellular TLR signaling platform that is essential for NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:23827939

  2. Pregnancy and pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, Andrea; Jallad, Raquel S; Machado, Marcio C; Fragoso, Maria C; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2016-09-01

    Infertility is frequent in patients harboring pituitary adenomas. The mechanisms involved include hypogonadism secondary to hormonal hypersecretion (prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol), stalk disconnection and pituitary damage. With the improvement of clinical and surgical treatment, pregnancy in women harboring pituitary adenomas turned into a reality. Pituitary hormonal hyper- and hyposecretion influences pregnancy outcomes, as well as pregnancy can interfere on pituitary tumors, especially in prolactinomas. We review literature about specific follow-up and management in pregnant women harboring prolactinomas, acromegaly, or Cushings disease and the impact of clinical and surgical treatment on each condition. PMID:26977888

  3. Inflammatory Mechanisms of Organ Crosstalk during Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. White

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication during inpatient hospitalization, and clinical outcomes remain poor despite advancements in renal replacement therapy. AKI in the setting of multiple organ failure (MOF remains a formidable challenge to clinicians and incurs an unacceptably high mortality rate. Kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI incites a proinflammatory cascade and releases cellular and soluble mediators with systemic implications for remote organ injury. Evidence from preclinical models cites mechanisms of organ crosstalk during ischemic AKI including the expression of cellular adhesion molecules, lymphocyte trafficking, release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and modification of the host innate and adaptive immune response systems. In this paper, the influence of kidney IRI on systemic inflammation and distant organ injury will be examined. Recent experimental data and evolving concepts of organ crosstalk during ischemic AKI will also be discussed in detail.

  4. Neutron crosstalk between liquid scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeke, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method to quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between liquid scintillators. Using a spontaneous fission source, this method can be utilized to quickly characterize an array of liquid scintillators in terms of crosstalk. The point model theory due to Feynman is corrected to account for these multiple scatterings. Using spectral information measured by the liquid scintillators, fractions of multiple scattering can be estimated, and mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation can be improved. Monte Carlo simulations of mono-energetic neutron sources were performed to estimate neutron crosstalk. A californium source in an array of liquid scintillators was modeled to illustrate the improvement of the mass reconstruction.

  5. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N;

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained...... increased amounts of cholecystokinin, the concentrations being extremely high in two: 8281 and 13,453 pmol per gram as compared with less than 30 pmol per gram in normal pituitary glands. The cholecystokinin concentrations were moderately increased in adenomas from another 12 patients, of whom 5 had Cushing...

  6. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registries Review Brain & CNS Tumors Signs & Symptoms Anatomy Neurons & Glial Cells Brain Meninges Spinal Cord Cranial Nerves Pineal and Pituitary Glands Abstracting, Coding, & Staging Topographic Sites Histological Types Grading Staging Multiple Primaries Malignant Transformation Coding Sequence ...

  7. What Are Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too little makes you sluggish. If a pituitary tumor makes too much TSH, it can cause hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also known as corticotropin ) causes ...

  8. MR imaging of pituitary dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Inoue, Yusuke (Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Medical Center)

    1993-02-01

    Pituitary MR imaging was performed in 32 patients with clinically diagnosed pituitary dwarfism and 12 normal controls. The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of pituitary dwarfism based on endocrinological data. The two patients with severe dwarfism showed transection of the pituitary stalk, ectopic posterior lobe and atrophy of the anterior lobe on MR imaging, while the 27 patients with mild dwarfism showed no abnormal MR findings of the pituitary gland. The former group corresponds to typical pituitary dwarfism and the latter to partial GH deficiency, which was recently proposed as another type of pituitary dwarfism. In conclusion, pituitary MR imaging may differentiate partial GH deficiency from typical (stalk-transected) pituitary dwarfism. (author).

  9. Neuroendocrine disorders: pituitary imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faje, Alexander; Tritos, Nicholas A; Swearingen, Brooke; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Significant advances in pituitary imaging have taken place in the past several decades, including the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This imaging modality has vastly improved our ability to detect and characterize sellar masses and more accurately characterize the extent and spread of lesions in and around the sella. Intraoperative MRI may help improve the completeness of resection of sellar masses. Other imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography (CT), and CT angiography, have an important role in specific cases. Interventional methods, including bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling, may establish the pituitary origin of corticotropin (ACTH) excess in patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Pituitary imaging should be obtained in patients with pituitary hormone excess, hypopituitarism, or mass effect in the sella. Despite rapid advances in pituitary imaging, there are several diagnostic challenges remaining. Future research may help improve the radiographic detection of small sellar lesions, such as ACTH-secreting adenomas causing Cushing's disease, accurately characterize the type and extent of sellar pathologies, and provide prognostic information regarding their growth potential. PMID:27430447

  10. Information content and cross-talk in biological signal transduction: An information theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ashok; Lyons, Samanthe

    2014-03-01

    Biological cells respond to chemical cues provided by extra-cellular chemical signals, but many of these chemical signals and the pathways they activate interfere and overlap with one another. How well cells can distinguish between interfering extra-cellular signals is thus an important question in cellular signal transduction. Here we use information theory with stochastic simulations of networks to address the question of what happens to total information content when signals interfere. We find that both total information transmitted by the biological pathway, as well as its theoretical capacity to discriminate between overlapping signals, are relatively insensitive to cross-talk between the extracellular signals, until significantly high levels of cross-talk have been reached. This robustness of information content against cross-talk requires that the average amplitude of the signals are large. We predict that smaller systems, as exemplified by simple phosphorylation relays (two-component systems) in bacteria, should be significantly much less robust against cross-talk. Our results suggest that mammalian signal transduction can tolerate a high amount of cross-talk without degrading information content, while smaller bacterial systems cannot.

  11. Pituitary Adenoma Segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Kuhnt, Daniela; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% among all intracranial neoplasms. The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma. Manual segmentation is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by using adequate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm we developed recently in previous work where the novel segmentation scheme was successfully used for segmentation of glioblastoma multiforme and provided an average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 77%. This scheme is used for automatic adenoma segmentation. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons with strong experiences in the treatment of pituitary adenoma performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of 10 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. Afterwards, the segmentations were compared with the segmentation results of the proposed method via the DSC. The average DSC for all data sets was 77.49% +/- 4.52%. Compared with a manual segmentation that took, on the...

  12. Crosstalk-Aware Routing Resource Assignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Long Yao; Yi-Ci Cai; Qiang Zhou; Xian-Long Hong

    2005-01-01

    Crosstalk noise is one of the emerging issues in deep sub-micrometer technology which causes many undesired effects on the circuit performance. In this paper, a Crosstalk-Aware Routing Resource Assignment (CARRA) algorithm is proposed, which integrates the routing layers and tracks to address the crosstalk noise issue during the track/layer assignment stage. The CARRA problem is formulated as a weighted bipartite matching problem and solved using the linear assignment algorithm. The crosstalk risks between nets are represented by an undirected graph and the maximum number of the concurrent crosstalk risking nets is computed as the max clique of the graph. Then the nets in each max clique are assigned to disadjacent tracks. Thus the crosstalk noise can be avoided based on the clique concept. The algorithm is tested on IBM benchmarks and the experimental results show that it can improve the final routing layout a lot with little loss of the completion rate.

  13. Modeling crosstalk and afterpulsing in silicon photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, Jaime; Blanco, Francisco; Arqueros, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    An experimental method to characterize the crosstalk and afterpulsing in silicon photomultipliers has been developed and applied to two detectors fabricated by Hamamatsu. An analytical model of optical crosstalk that we presented in a previous publication has been compared with new measurements, confirming our results. Progresses on a statistical model to describe afterpulsing and delayed crosstalk are also shown and compared with preliminary experimental data.

  14. Modeling crosstalk and afterpulsing in silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, J., E-mail: jaime_ros@fis.ucm.es; Aranda, V.M.; Blanco, F.; Arqueros, F.

    2015-07-01

    An experimental method to characterize the crosstalk and afterpulsing in silicon photomultipliers has been developed and applied to two detectors fabricated by Hamamatsu. An analytical model of optical crosstalk that we presented in a previous publication has been compared with new measurements, confirming our results. Progresses on a statistical model to describe afterpulsing and delayed crosstalk are also shown and compared with preliminary experimental data.

  15. Modeling crosstalk and afterpulsing in silicon photomultipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado Vélez, Jaime; Aranda, V. M.(Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain); Blanco Ramos, Francisco; Arqueros Martínez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    An experimental method to characterize the crosstalk and afterpulsing in silicon photomultipliers has been developed and applied to two detectors fabricated by Hamamatsu. An analytical model of optical crosstalk that we presented in a previous publication has been compared with new measurements, confirming our results. Progresses on a statistical model to describe afterpulsing and delayed crosstalk are also shown and compared with preliminary experimental data. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All righ...

  16. Expression of Neuropeptide Y in Human Pituitary Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laizhao Chen; Jingjian Ma; Anchao Zheng; Honggang Zheng

    2006-01-01

    and its expression level was related to the types and biological characteristics of the pituitary adenomas. NPY may have a depressive effect on tumor cellular proliferation in pituitary adenomas. NPY possibly participates in modulating angiogenesis and hemodynamic changes in pituitary adenomas.

  17. Pituitary cells in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Shellenberger, K.; Grindeland, R.

    1994-01-01

    Cells of the mammalian pituitary gland synthesize and secrete several protein hormones which regulate a number of organ systems throughout the body. These include the musculoskeletal, immune, vascular and endocrine systems. Since changes occur in these tissues as a result of spaceflight, and since pituitary growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in the control of these systems on earth, we have focused attention over the last 10 years on GH and PRL cell function during and after spaceflight. The cumulative results of 4 spaceflight missions and several mimicked microgravity experiments establish 1) that production and release of biologically active GH and PRL is repeatedly and significantly attenuated (usually >50%) and 2) that changes in cell morphology also occur. In this paper we describe our results within the framework of methodologies and approaches frequently used to study pituitary cell function on earth. In so doing we hope to develop future flight experiments aimed at uncovering possible microgravity 'sensing systems' within the pituitary cell.

  18. Pituitary: Secretory Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by the excess secretion of growth hormone (GH). It can cause noticeable changes in your appearance, ... medication approved for acromegaly. Instead of suppressing excess GH production by the pituitary tumor, it works to stop the hormone from acting on the body, but does not ...

  19. Pituitary irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha particle pituitary irradiation program continues to be a major research project at Donner Pavilion. A study to determine the incidence of hyperprolactinemia in a large series of acromegalic subjects was undertaken. The relationships between plasma levels of growth hormone and prolactin, sellar volume, duration of acromegaly, and age at time of evaluation were investigated

  20. Pituitary adenoma: a radiotherapeutic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platta, Christopher S; Mackay, Christopher; Welsh, James S

    2010-08-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10% to 20% of all central nervous system neoplasms whereas autopsy series have suggested that the incidence of pituitary adenoma in the general population may approach 25%. Several treatment modalities are used in the treatment of pituitary adenomas, including observation, surgery, medical intervention, and radiotherapy. The treatment modality employed depends greatly on the type of pituitary adenoma and presenting symptoms. This review will discuss the biology of pituitary adenomas and the current management principles for the treatment of prolactinomas, Cushing disease, acromegaly, and nonsecretory adenomas, with an emphasis on the published radiotherapeutic literature.

  1. Notch-EGFR/HER2 Bidirectional Crosstalk in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Baker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Notch pathway is a well-established mediator of cell-cell communication that plays a critical role in stem cell survival, self-renewal, cell fate decisions, tumorigenesis, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance in a variety of cancers. An interesting form of crosstalk exists between the Notch receptor and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase family which consists of HER-1, -2, -3, and -4. Overexpression of HER and/or Notch occurs in several human cancers including brain, lung, breast, ovary, and skin making them potent oncogenes capable of advancing malignant disease. Continued assessment of interplay between these two critical signaling networks uncovers new insight into mechanisms used by HER-driven cancer cells to exploit Notch as a compensatory pathway. The compensatory Notch pathway maintains HER-induced downstream signals transmitted to pathways such as Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K, thereby allowing cancer cells to survive molecular targeted therapies, undergo EMT, and increase cellular invasion. Uncovering the critical crosstalk between the HER and Notch pathways can lead to improved screening for the expression of these oncogenes enabling patients to optimize their personal treatment options and predict potential treatment resistance. This review will focus on the current state of crosstalk between the HER and Notch receptors and the effectiveness of current therapies targeting HER-driven cancers.

  2. Interaction of PLS and PIN and hormonal crosstalk in Arabidopsis root developmentHormonal crosstalk in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli eLiu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how hormones and genes interact to coordinate plant growth is a major challenge in developmental biology. The activities of auxin, ethylene and cytokinin depend on cellular context and exhibit either synergistic or antagonistic interactions. Here we use experimentation and network construction to elucidate the role of the interaction of the POLARIS peptide (PLS and the auxin efflux carrier PIN proteins in the crosstalk of three hormones (auxin, ethylene and cytokinin in Arabidopsis root development. In ethylene hypersignalling mutants such as polaris (pls, we show experimentally that expression of both PIN1 and PIN2 significantly increases. This relationship is analysed in the context of the crosstalk between auxin, ethylene and cytokinin: in pls, endogenous auxin, ethylene and cytokinin concentration decreases, approximately remains unchanged and increases, respectively. Experimental data are integrated into a hormonal crosstalk network through combination with information in literature. Network construction reveals that the regulation of both PIN1 and PIN2 is predominantly via ethylene signalling. In addition, it is deduced that the relationship between cytokinin and PIN1 and PIN2 levels implies a regulatory role of cytokinin in addition to its regulation to auxin, ethylene and PLS levels. We discuss how the network of hormones and genes coordinates plant growth by simultaneously regulating the activities of auxin, ethylene and cytokinin signalling pathways.

  3. Experimental study of interband and intraband crosstalk in WDM networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The impacts of interband and intraband crosstalk are studied and compared experimentally. Results show that interband crosstalk can be removed with narrow-band filters and has no influence on signal. Intraband crosstalk will result in signal eye diagram close and BER increasing. When the polarization states of signal and crosstalk align, intraband crosstalk seriously decreases signal quality. But when they misalign, it has little influence. Coherent and incoherent crosstalk are studied experimentally. Results show that coherent crosstalk is less harmful to system performance than incoherent crosstalk.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Pituitary Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapochnik, Melanie; Nieto, Leandro Eduardo; Fuertes, Mariana; Arzt, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    During the last years, progress has been made on the identification of mechanisms involved in anterior pituitary cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Oncogene activation, tumor suppressor gene inactivation, epigenetic changes, and microRNAs deregulation contribute to the initiation of pituitary tumors. Despite the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas, they are mostly benign, indicating that intrinsic mechanisms may regulate pituitary cell expansion. Senescence is characterized by an irreversible cell cycle arrest and represents an important protective mechanism against malignancy. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is an oncogene involved in early stages of pituitary tumor development, and also triggers a senescence response by activating DNA-damage signaling pathway. Cytokines, as well as many other factors, play an important role in pituitary physiology, affecting not only cell proliferation but also hormone secretion. Special interest is focused on interleukin-6 (IL-6) because its dual function of stimulating pituitary tumor cell growth but inhibiting normal pituitary cells proliferation. It has been demonstrated that IL-6 has a key role in promoting and maintenance of the senescence program in tumors. Senescence, triggered by PTTG activation and mediated by IL-6, may be a mechanism for explaining the benign nature of pituitary tumors. PMID:26718581

  5. Non-pituitary origin sellar tumours mimicking pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abele, T.A., E-mail: travaus@gmail.com [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Yetkin, Z.F.; Raisanen, J.M.; Mickey, B.E.; Mendelsohn, D.B. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Although the large majority of sellar tumours are pituitary adenomas, several other pituitary and non-pituitary origin tumours arise in the sellar and parasellar regions. Given their location, non-adenomatous lesions frequently mimic pituitary macroadenomas and can pose a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. Distinguishing rare sellar lesions from the common macroadenoma helps to direct the correct surgical approach and reduce the risk of incomplete resection and/or complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leak with the potential for meningitis. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of non-pituitary-origin sellar tumours, focusing on characteristics that may distinguish them from pituitary macroadenomas. Lesions include meningioma, metastatic disease, epidermoid cyst, germinoma, chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumour, and giant aneurysm.

  6. PI3K signalling in GnRH actions on dispersed goldfish pituitary cells: relationship with PKC-mediated LH and GH release and regulation of long-term effects on secretion and total cellular hormone availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Joshua G; Orr, Michael E; Stafford, James L; Chang, John P

    2014-09-01

    Goldfish pituitary cells are exposed to two GnRHs, salmon (s)GnRH and chicken (c)GnRH-II. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) both participate in acute sGnRH- and cGnRH-II-stimulated LH and GH release. Using goldfish pituitary cells, we examined the relationship between PI3K and PKC in acute LH and GH secretion, and PI3K involvement in chronic hormone release and total LH and GH availability. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 did not affect PKC agonists-induced LH or GH release, and PKC agonists did not alter PI3K p85 phosphorylation, suggesting PKC activation is not upstream of PI3K in acute hormone release. In 2, 6, 12 and 24h treatments, LY294002 did not affect LH release but stimulated total LH availability at 6h. sGnRH stimulatory actions on LH release and total availability at 12 and 24h, and cGnRH-II effects on these parameters at 6h were inhibited by LY294002. LY294002 enhanced basal GH release at 2 and 6h, but reduced total GH at 12 and 24h. Increased GH release was seen following 6, 12 and 24h of sGnRH, and 2, 6 and 24h of cGnRH-II treatment but total GH availability was only elevated by 24h cGnRH-II treatment. Whereas LY294002 inhibited GH release responses to sGnRH at 12h and cGnRH-II at 6h, it attenuated cGnRH-II-elicited, but not sGnRH-induced, effects on total GH. These results indicate that PI3K differentially modulates long-term basal and GnRH-stimulated hormone release, and total hormone availability, in a time-, cell-type-, and GnRH isoform-selective manner. PMID:24681225

  7. Crosstalk between mitochondria and peroxisomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean; Demarquoy; Fran?oise; Le; Borgne

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria and peroxisomes are small ubiquitous organelles. They both play major roles in cell metabolism,especially in terms of fatty acid metabolism,reactive oxygen species(ROS) production,and ROS scavenging,and it is now clear that they metabolically interact with each other. These two organelles share some properties,such as great plasticity and high potency to adapt their form and number according to cell requirements. Their functions are connected,and any alteration in the function of mitochondria may induce changes inperoxisomal physiology. The objective of this paper was to highlight the interconnection and the crosstalk existing between mitochondria and peroxisomes. Special emphasis was placed on the best known connections between these organelles:origin,structure,and metabolic interconnections.

  8. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  9. MR findings in pituitary haemosiderosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosetto, P. [Institute of Neurology, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Zucchini, S.; Cicognani, A. [First Paediatric Clinic, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cacciari, E. [First Paediatric Clinic, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)]|[Clinica Pediatrica 1, Bologna (Italy)

    1998-05-01

    A girl with Diamond-Blackfan syndrome and hypopituitarism was suspected of having pituitary haemosiderosis because of the clinical picture and the long history of blood transfusions. On T1-weighted MR images the pituitary exhibited a markedly hypointense anterior lobe (mimicking the empty sella), suggesting iron deposition, while on T2W MRI the low signal of the pituitary was surrounded by the high signal of the CSF. MR may be considered the examination of choice for detecting iron overload in the pituitary. (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 refs.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions combined pituitary hormone deficiency combined pituitary hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Combined pituitary hormone deficiency is a condition that causes ...

  11. Infrared focal plane array crosstalk measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khoa V.; Kauffman, Christopher L.; Derzko, Zenon I.

    1992-07-01

    Crosstalk between two neighboring elements in a focal plane array (FPA) occurs when signal incident on one element in the array is seen on another. This undesired effect can occur due to both the electrical and optical properties of the FPA. An effort is underway at the U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electro-Optics Directorate to develop a capability to measure crosstalk on both mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared FPAs. A single detector in an array is illuminated using a laser source coupled with a beam expander, collimating lens, and focusing lens. The relative response of that detector to that of its neighboring detectors is measured to calculate crosstalk. The various components of the test station, the methodology for implementing the crosstalk measurement, and a model of the laser spot size are discussed.

  12. Acromegaloidism Associated with Pituitary Incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, B S; Dharmalingam, M; Kalra, P

    2015-06-01

    Acromegaloidism with pituitary microadenoma has not been previously reported. We present a case of a 28-year old male with typical features of acromegaly for 11 years.with a pituitary tumor. He had characteristic acromegaloid facial features, clubbing of hands and feet, enlargement of fingers and toes. The natural history of the disease is reviewed and the differential diagnosis is discussed. PMID:26710410

  13. Gallium-based avalanche photodiode optical crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Sopko, Bruno; Chren, Dominik

    2006-11-01

    Solid-state single photon detectors based on avalanche photodiode are getting more attention in various areas of applied physics: optical sensors, quantum key distribution, optical ranging and Lidar, time-resolved spectroscopy, X-ray laser diagnostics, and turbid media imaging. Avalanche photodiodes specifically designed for single photon counting semiconductor avalanche structures have been developed on the basis of various materials: Si, Ge, GaP, GaAsP, and InGaP/InGaAs at the Czech Technical University in Prague during the last 20 years. They have been tailored for numerous applications. Trends in demand are focused on detection array construction recently. Even extremely small arrays containing a few cells are of great importance for users. Electrical crosstalk between individual gating and quenching circuits and optical crosstalk between individual detecting cells are serious limitation for array design and performance. Optical crosstalk is caused by the parasitic light emission of the avalanche which accompanies the photon detection process. We have studied in detail the optical emission of the avalanche photon counting structure in the silicon- and gallium-based photodiodes. The timing properties and spectral distribution of the emitted light have been measured for different operating conditions to quantify optical crosstalk. We conclude that optical crosstalk is an inherent property of avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode. The only way to minimize optical crosstalk in avalanche photodiode array is to build active quenching circuit with minimum response time.

  14. The Pituitary in Gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Kovacs, Kalman T.; Stefaneanu, Lucia; Horvath, Eva; Kane, Laurie A.; Young, William F.; Lloyd, Ricardo V.; Randall, Raymond V.; Davis, Dudley H.

    1995-01-01

    To compare the pituitary pathology of gigantism to that of acromegaly, 19 surgically resected lesions were studied from 10 males and 9 females, ages 13-49 (mean, 19 yr) with excessive height (>/=95th percentile), onset of disease prior to puberty, elevated growth hormone (GH) levels despite glucose suppression, and a pathologically confirmed GH-producing pituitary mass. One patient had MEN-I. The lesions included 18 adenomas and 1 case of pure hyperplasia. The median, mean, and range of serum GH and prolactin (PRL) levels were 64, 235, 5-1000 ng/mL and 47, 146, 29-770 ng/mL, respectively. Of the 8 adenoma specimens accompanied by nontumoral pituitary (i.e., tissue wherein the presence of hyperplasia was assessable), 3 (37%) demonstrated both. Of the 18 tumors, 78% were macroadenomas and 22% were grossly invasive; their immunophenotypes included GH (5%), GH and PRL (19%), and GHPRL and a glycoprotein hormone, usually TSH and/or a-subunit (76%). Of the 10 adenoma-containing lesions subject to electron microscopy (EM), 2 consisted of GH cells alone; 2 of mammosomatotroph (MS) cells alone; 1 of GH and MS cells; 1 of GH and PRL cells; 2 of GH, PRL, and MS cells; 1 of GH, PRL, and glycoprotein cells; and 1 was a subtype 3 adenoma. Ultrastructurally, GH cells and/or MS cells predominated in these lesions. Immuno-EM of one CH and PRL cell and of one GH-PR-MS tumor showed GH and PRL to be present not only in single cells but within the same granules. Nine of 12 adenoma-associated lesions subject to combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunostaining showed double labeling for PRL (or GH) mRNA and for GH (or PRL), respectively, features indicating MS differentiation. In the 4 lesions exhibiting hyperplasia, either alone (1) or in association with adenoma (3), EM showed MS cells in 3, and immuno-EM as well as combined immunohistochemistry and ISH showed double labeling for GH and PRL in both of the 2 cases studied. In summary, although in terms of their tinctorial

  15. Cross-talk between signaling pathways can generate robust oscillations in calcium and cAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siso-Nadal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To control and manipulate cellular signaling, we need to understand cellular strategies for information transfer, integration, and decision-making. A key feature of signal transduction is the generation of only a few intracellular messengers by many extracellular stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we model molecular cross-talk between two classic second messengers, cyclic AMP (cAMP and calcium, and show that the dynamical complexity of the response of both messengers increases substantially through their interaction. In our model of a non-excitable cell, both cAMP and calcium concentrations can oscillate. If mutually inhibitory, cross-talk between the two second messengers can increase the range of agonist concentrations for which oscillations occur. If mutually activating, cross-talk decreases the oscillation range, but can generate 'bursting' oscillations of calcium and may enable better filtering of noise. CONCLUSION: We postulate that this increased dynamical complexity allows the cell to encode more information, particularly if both second messengers encode signals. In their native environments, it is unlikely that cells are exposed to one stimulus at a time, and cross-talk may help generate sufficiently complex responses to allow the cell to discriminate between different combinations and concentrations of extracellular agonists.

  16. Recent Advances in Dissecting Stress-Regulatory Crosstalk in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rita Sharma; David De Vleesschauwer; Manoj K.Sharma; Pamela C.Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses impose a serious limitation on crop productivity worldwide.Prior or simultaneous exposure to one type of stress often affects the plant response to other stresses,indicating extensive overlap and crosstalk between stress-response signaling pathways.Systems biology approaches that integrate large genomic and proteomic data sets have facilitated identification of candidate genes that govern this stress-regulatory crosstalk.Recently,we constructed a yeast two-hybrid map around three rice proteins that control the response to biotic and abiotic stresses,namely the immune receptor XA21,which confers resistance to the Gram-negative bacterium,Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae; NH1,the rice ortholog of NPR1,a key regulator of systemic acquired resistance; and the ethylene-responsive transcription factor,SUBlA,which confers tolerance to submergence stress.These studies coupled with transcriptional profiling and co-expression analyses identified a suite of proteins that are positioned at the interface of biotic and abiotic stress responses,including mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (OsMPK5),wall-associated kinase 25 (WAK25),sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase-1 (SnRK1),SUBIA binding protein 23 (SAB23),and several WRKY family transcription factors.Emerging evidence suggests that these genes orchestrate crosstalk between biotic and abiotic stresses through a variety of mechanisms,including regulation of cellular energy homeostasis and modification of synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions between the stress hormones salicylic acid,ethylene,jasmonic acid,and abscisic acid.

  17. Dural enhancement in pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, F. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Besancon (France); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz Hospital, Besancon (France); Bonneville, F.; Andrea, I.; Barrali, E.; Bonneville, J.F. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Besancon (France)

    2000-07-01

    We describe the normal dural enhancement patterns of the sellar region and determine whether the duramater is affected by pituitary macroadenomas. Dural enhancement appeared to be usually abnormal in 20 patients with pituitary macroadenoma compared with 20 control patients, mainly at the planum sphenoidale and carotid sulcus. However dural changes are subtle and their recognition requires knowledge of the normal enhancement patterns. Dural changes, reported in a variety of inflammatory and infectious dural diseases and after surgery, are not specific and may be also seen in pituitary macroadenomas. (orig.)

  18. Cross-talk between calcium and reactive oxygen species signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan YAN; Chao-liang WEI; Wan-rui ZHANG; He-ping CHENG; Jie LIU

    2006-01-01

    Calcium(Ca2+) and reactive oxygen species(ROS)constitute the most important intracellular signaling molecules participating in the regulation and integration of diverse cellular functions.Here we briefly review cross-talk between the two prominent signaling systems that finely tune the homeostasis and integrate functionality of Ca2+ and ROS in different types of cells.Ca2+ modulates ROS homeostasis by regulating ROS generation and annihilation mechanisms in both the mitochondria and the cytosol.Reciprocal redox regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis occurs in different physiological and pathological processes,by modulating components of the Ca2+ signaling toolkit and altering characteristics of local and global Ca2+ signals.Functionally,interactions between Ca2+ and ROS signaling systems can be both stimulatory and inhibitory,depending on the type of target proteins,the ROS species,the dose,duration of exposure,and the cell contexts.Such extensive and complex cross-talk might enhance signaling coordination and integration,whereas abnormalities in either system might propagate into the other system and undermine the stability of both systems.

  19. Alveologenesis: key cellular players and fibroblast growth factor 10 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Cho-Ming; Moiseenko, Alena; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Bellusci, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    Background Alveologenesis is the last stage in lung development and is essential for building the gas-exchanging units called alveoli. Despite intensive lung research, the intricate crosstalk between mesenchymal and epithelial cell lineages during alveologenesis is poorly understood. This crosstalk contributes to the formation of the secondary septae, which are key structures of healthy alveoli. Conclusions A better understanding of the cellular and molecular processes underlying the formatio...

  20. Signaling pathway networks mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Xianquan

    2010-04-01

    pituitary control related to gene expression and cellular development, and no canonical toxicity pathways were identified. Conclusions This pathway network analysis demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, cell-cycle dysregulation, and the MAPK-signaling abnormality are significantly associated with a pituitary adenoma. These pathway-network data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of human pituitary adenoma pathogenesis, and new clues for an in-depth investigation of pituitary adenoma and biomarker discovery.

  1. Forms, Crosstalks, and the Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis in Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process occurring during periods of stress to ensure a cell's survival by recycling cytosolic constituents and making products that can be used in energy generation and other essential processes. Three major forms of autophagy exist according to the specific mechanism through which cytoplasmic material is transported to a lysosome. Chaperone-mediated autophagy is a highly selective form of autophagy that delivers specific proteins for lysosomal degradation. Microautophagy is a less selective form of autophagy that occurs through lysosomal membrane invaginations, forming tubes and directly engulfing cytoplasm. Finally, macroautophagy involves formation of new membrane bilayers (autophagosomes that engulf cytosolic material and deliver it to lysosomes. This review provides new insights on the crosstalks between different forms of autophagy and the significance of bilayer-forming phospholipid synthesis in autophagosomal membrane formation.

  2. Muscle contraction and the elasticity-mediated crosstalk effect

    CERN Document Server

    Dharan, Nadiv

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative action of molecular motors is essential for many cellular processes. One possible regulator of motor coordination is the elasticity-mediated crosstalk (EMC) coupling between myosin II motors whose origin is the tensile stress that they collectively generate in actin filaments. Here, we use a statistical mechanical analysis to investigate the influence of the EMC effect on the sarcomere - the basic contractile unit of skeletal muscles. We demonstrate that the EMC effect leads to an increase in the attachment probability of motors located near the end of the sarcomere while, simultaneously, decreasing the attachment probability of the motors in the central part. Such a polarized attachment probability would impair the motors ability to cooperate efficiently. Interestingly, this undesired phenomenon becomes significant only when the system size exceeds that of the sarcomere in skeletal muscles, which provides an explanation for the remarkable lack of sarcomere variability in vertebrates. Another phen...

  3. New formulas for interferometric crosstalk penalty as a function of total crosstalk power, number of crosstalk contributions and signal extinction ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    destructive phenomena in optical networks owing to its accumulative nature and strong impact on the transmission quality. New formulas state the crosstalk penalty as a function of the total crosstalk power, the number of contributions carrying this power and the signal extinction ratio. We consider both PIN...... and optically preamplified receivers. The authors know of no other published formulas which include the number of crosstalk contributions. The crosstalk penalty formulas are empirical, and they are based on a numerical model. This model is described briefly along with its experimental verification...

  4. Identification of estradiol/ERα-regulated genes in the mouse pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Joon; Gieske, Mary C; Trudgen, Kourtney L; Hudgins-Spivey, Susan; Kim, Beob Gyun; Krust, Andree; Chambon, Pierre; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Blalock, Eric; Ko, CheMyong

    2011-09-01

    Estrogen acts to prime the pituitary prior to the GnRH-induced LH surge by undiscovered mechanisms. This study aimed to identify the key components that mediate estrogen action in priming the pituitary. RNA extracted from the pituitaries of metestrous (low estrogen) and proestrus (high estrogen) stage mice, as well as from ovariectomized wild-type and estrogen receptor α (ERα) knockout mice treated with 17β-estradiol (E(2)) or vehicle, was used for gene expression microarray. Microarray data were then aggregated, built into a functional electronic database, and used for further characterization of E(2)/ERα-regulated genes. These data were used to compile a list of genes representing diverse biological pathways that are regulated by E(2) via an ERα-mediated pathway in the pituitary. This approach substantiates ERα regulation of membrane potential regulators and intracellular vesicle transporters, among others, but not the basic components of secretory machinery. Subsequent characterization of six selected genes (Cacna1a, Cacna1g, Cited1, Abep1, Opn3, and Kcne2) confirmed not only ERα dependency for their pituitary expression but also the significance of their expression in regulating GnRH-induced LH secretion. In conclusion, findings from this study suggest that estrogen primes the pituitary via ERα by equipping pituitary cells with critical cellular components that potentiate LH release on subsequent GnRH stimulations.

  5. Genetically engineered mouse models of pituitary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    DavidACano; AlfonsoSoto-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, w...

  6. Imaging of giant pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present five proven giant pituitary adenomas studied by CT and MRI, and review the clinical and imaging findings. Our aim was to examine the radiologic appearances and to search for criteria useful in distinguishing these tumors from other sellar and suprasellar tumours, mainly craniopharyngioma. The main differences from small adenomas were high prevalence of macrocysts, a more invasive behaviour and a clinical picture dominated by mass effect rather than endocrine disturbance. Factors supporting the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma in a giant intra- and suprasellar mass include: infrasellar extension, absence of calcification and presence of low-signal cysts on T1-weighted images. (orig.) (orig.)

  7. PageRank-based identification of signaling crosstalk from transcriptomics data: the case of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omranian, Nooshin; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2012-04-01

    The levels of cellular organization, from gene transcription to translation to protein-protein interaction and metabolism, operate via tightly regulated mutual interactions, facilitating organismal adaptability and various stress responses. Characterizing the mutual interactions between genes, transcription factors, and proteins involved in signaling, termed crosstalk, is therefore crucial for understanding and controlling cells' functionality. We aim at using high-throughput transcriptomics data to discover previously unknown links between signaling networks. We propose and analyze a novel method for crosstalk identification which relies on transcriptomics data and overcomes the lack of complete information for signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our method first employs a network-based transformation of the results from the statistical analysis of differential gene expression in given groups of experiments under different signal-inducing conditions. The stationary distribution of a random walk (similar to the PageRank algorithm) on the constructed network is then used to determine the putative transcripts interrelating different signaling pathways. With the help of the proposed method, we analyze a transcriptomics data set including experiments from four different stresses/signals: nitrate, sulfur, iron, and hormones. We identified promising gene candidates, downstream of the transcription factors (TFs), associated to signaling crosstalk, which were validated through literature mining. In addition, we conduct a comparative analysis with the only other available method in this field which used a biclustering-based approach. Surprisingly, the biclustering-based approach fails to robustly identify any candidate genes involved in the crosstalk of the analyzed signals. We demonstrate that our proposed method is more robust in identifying gene candidates involved downstream of the signaling crosstalk for species for which large transcriptomics data sets

  8. PageRank-based identification of signaling crosstalk from transcriptomics data: the case of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omranian, Nooshin; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2012-04-01

    The levels of cellular organization, from gene transcription to translation to protein-protein interaction and metabolism, operate via tightly regulated mutual interactions, facilitating organismal adaptability and various stress responses. Characterizing the mutual interactions between genes, transcription factors, and proteins involved in signaling, termed crosstalk, is therefore crucial for understanding and controlling cells' functionality. We aim at using high-throughput transcriptomics data to discover previously unknown links between signaling networks. We propose and analyze a novel method for crosstalk identification which relies on transcriptomics data and overcomes the lack of complete information for signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our method first employs a network-based transformation of the results from the statistical analysis of differential gene expression in given groups of experiments under different signal-inducing conditions. The stationary distribution of a random walk (similar to the PageRank algorithm) on the constructed network is then used to determine the putative transcripts interrelating different signaling pathways. With the help of the proposed method, we analyze a transcriptomics data set including experiments from four different stresses/signals: nitrate, sulfur, iron, and hormones. We identified promising gene candidates, downstream of the transcription factors (TFs), associated to signaling crosstalk, which were validated through literature mining. In addition, we conduct a comparative analysis with the only other available method in this field which used a biclustering-based approach. Surprisingly, the biclustering-based approach fails to robustly identify any candidate genes involved in the crosstalk of the analyzed signals. We demonstrate that our proposed method is more robust in identifying gene candidates involved downstream of the signaling crosstalk for species for which large transcriptomics data sets

  9. The Spectrum of Pituitary Adenoma Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Hickstein, Dennis D.; Marshall, John C.; Chandler, William F.

    1986-01-01

    In 34 cases of pituitary adenoma hemorrhage at one institution, the clinical manifestations of adenoma hemorrhage depended upon the size of the adenoma, the presence of suprasellar extension, the amount of hemorrhage and the extent of pituitary glandular destruction. Recognition of the spectrum of acute, subacute and chronic pituitary adenoma hemorrhage should expedite diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the number of crosstalk signals on the penalty caused by incoherent optical crosstalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen; Liu, Fenghai; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud;

    1999-01-01

    Calculations based on the exact probability density function of the received power show that for a fixed total crosstalk power, the incoherent crosstalk penalty increases with the number of crosstalk signals. Performed experiments verify this.......Calculations based on the exact probability density function of the received power show that for a fixed total crosstalk power, the incoherent crosstalk penalty increases with the number of crosstalk signals. Performed experiments verify this....

  11. Crosstalk Reduction for Superconducting Microwave Resonator Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Noroozian, Omid; Eom, Byeong Ho; Leduc, Henry G; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; 10.1109/TMTT.2012.2187538

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale arrays of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are attractive candidates for use in imaging instruments for next generation submillimeter-wave telescopes such as CCAT. We have designed and fabricated tightly packed ~250-pixel MKID arrays using lumped-element resonators etched from a thin layer of superconducting TiNx deposited on a silicon substrate. The high pixel packing density in our initial design resulted in large microwave crosstalk due to electromagnetic coupling between the resonators. Our second design eliminates this problem by adding a grounding shield and using a double-wound geometry for the meander inductor to allow conductors with opposite polarity to be in close proximity. In addition, the resonator frequencies are distributed in a checkerboard pattern across the array. We present details for the two resonator and array designs and describe a circuit model for the full array that predicts the distribution of resonator frequencies and the crosstalk level. We also show res...

  12. Transcriptional Crosstalk between Nuclear Receptors and Cytokine Signal Transduction Pathways in Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua Wang; Xiaohu Zhang; William L. Farrar; Xiaoyi Yang

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear receptor superfamily and the transcriptional factors associated with cytokines are inherently different families of signaling molecules and activate gene transcription by binding to their respective responsive element. However, it has become increasingly clear from our works and others that nuclear receptors are important regulators of cytokine production and function through complex and varied interactions between these distinct transcriptional factors. This review provides a general overview of the mechanism of action of nuclear receptors and their transcriptional crosstalk with transcriptional factors associated with cytokine transduction pathways. One of the most important mechanistic aspects is protein to protein interaction through a direct or co-regulator-mediated indirect manner. Such crosstalk is crucially involved in physiological and therapeutic roles of nuclear receptors and their ligands in immunity,inflammation and cytokine-related tumors. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(6):416-424.

  13. Comparison of objective metrics for image sensor crosstalk characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Eliasson, Henrik; Dokoutchaev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Image sensor crosstalk can be divided into spectral crosstalk and pixel crosstalk. This paper focuses on the pixel crosstalk and its effect on signal to noise ratio (SNR). Pixel crosstalk occurs in the spatial domain and is due to the signal leakage between adjacent pixels either by imperfect optical isolation or diffusion of electrons. This will have a negative impact on image quality mainly in two ways: spatial blurring and decreased SNR due to more aggressive color correction required. A method for modeling the spectral broadening due to the pixel crosstalk is used where a matrix is calculated from crosstalk kernels representing the spatial leakage between neighboring pixels. In order to quantify the amount of crosstalk we present a method in which ratios of integrals of the same color channel but within different wavelength intervals are calculated. This provides a metric that is more robust with respect to color channel scaling. To study the impact on SNR due to pixel crosstalk, a number of SNR metrics are compared to results from a limited psychophysical study. The studied SNR metrics are the metric used for calculating the SNR10 value in mobile imaging, the ISO 12232 noise metric and a metric where the signal is transformed into orthogonal color opponent channels, thereby enabling the analysis of the luminance noise separate from the chrominance noises. The results indicate that the ISO total noise and SNR10 metric yield very similar results and that the green channel has the largest individual impact on the crosstalk.

  14. Computed tomography in pituitary abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, W.; Scharphuis, T.; Distelmaier, P.

    1986-06-01

    This is a report on a rare case of a recurring abscess in the pituitary gland. Diagnosis was extremely difficult to establish preoperatively. This is demonstrated via various radiological methods. Anamnesis and clinical disease pattern are important assisting factors in diagnosis.

  15. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release.

  16. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  17. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome. PMID:26585365

  18. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THE PITUITARY METASTASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连伟; 任祖渊; 苏长保

    2004-01-01

    Thee cases of pituitary metastases were reported. They all had operations and the pathological examination confirming the diagnosis. The clinical features of diabetes insipidus and extraocular nerve palsy were presented. In two cases, the original tumors were bronchioloalveolar carcinoma; in the other one, the original tumor was unknown. All three cases had poor outcome. These cases illustrate the fact that a pituitary metastasis can closely mimic a pituitary benign tumor, such as pituitary adenoma. Especially in the presence of suggestive symptoms such as diabetes insipidus and/or cranical nerve paralysis, the possibility of metastatic disease in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary mass should always be considered.

  19. MR imaging of hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pituitary apoplexy (stroke) may be ischemic or hemorrhagic. The authors studied three patients with hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy. MR imaging is an accurate and noninvasive method that easily identifies areas of pituitary hemorrhage more than 48 hours old. Surgical planning based on MR imaging findings has been less successful than diagnosis based on MR imaging. In two patients a subfrontal approach was chosen because MR imaging suggested suprasellar extension, although none was found at operation. They hypothesize that pituitary hemmorrhage may act as a mass, creating alterations in cerebrospinal fluid or blood flow in the pituitary stalk and hypothamlamus that may exaggerate the suprasellar extension

  20. [Two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, K; Suzuki, T; Masuda, Y; Masugi, Y; Teramoto, A; Ohama, E

    1988-05-01

    We studied two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma. Case-1. A 45 year old female was admitted on Oct. 4 1978, with a complaint of right homonymous hemianopsia. And diagnosis was pituitary adenoma. Partial removal of pituitary tumor was performed on Oct. 23 1978. She died on Dec. 5 1978 due to bleeding of gastrointestinal tract. Autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma invading the left hypothalamus, mamillary body, optic and V cranial nerves, and mid brain as well as sphenoid bone. No extracranial metastasis was noted. Case-2. A 44 year old female with a history of acromegaly for 6 years was admitted with a complaint of headache on May 8 1976. She was diagnosed as having pituitary adenoma. The subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed on May 21 1976 and followed by 4500 rad irradiation. At this time, pathological diagnosis was eosinophilic adenoma. Seven years later, she complained of progressive right hearing disturbance, dysarthria and ataxic gait 1983. The second subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed with a diagnosis of recurrence of pituitary adenoma on Oct. 7 1983. After the operation, she complicated sepsis and died on Jan. 14 1984. An autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma from residual pituitary gland, continuously extending to the subarachnoid space of the pons, and invading right cerebello-pontine angle and cerebellum. The histological examination revealed pituitary carcinoma with high pleomorphism and glioblastoma multiform-like feature were within the tumor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. CT evaluation of the normal pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct coronal computed tomography with 1.5mm contiguous scanning was done in total 95 cases, who had no clinical evidence of pituitary and hypothalamic disease. The evaluation of pituitary height, width, upper surface contour and density was done and the pituitary stalk was also evaluated. The results as follow : 1. Total 95 cases were 45 males and 50 females. 2. The average height of normal pituitary gland was 5.72 ± 1.44 mm in female and 5.37 ± 1.17 mm in male. There was no significant difference of pituitary height between male and female (ρ > 0.1). 3. The pituitary height was decreased according to the increased age both in male and female except prepubertal age. 4. The group between 15-30 year old age showed significantly increased pituitary height comparing to the remained age group both in male and female (ρ 0.1). 8. The focal low density of normal pituitary gland was noted in only 8.4% and its size was always below 3mm. 9. The pituitary stalk can be seen in 94.7% by direct coronal CT scanning and it was located at the midline. The width of pituitary stalk was always smaller than internal carotid artery and basilar artery. 10. There were no significant difference in pituitary height and width according to the menopause or the marriage

  2. Pituitary adenomas in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Suzanne; Diamond, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Scientific advances are revealing the complexity of pituitary development, which is controlled by multiple transcription factors and signaling molecules. Unregulated pituitary cell growth, resulting in pituitary adenoma, is usually sporadic and results from monoclonal expansion of a single mutated cell. However, some adenomas develop as part of a genetic syndrome. Prolactinoma is the most common hormonally active pituitary adenoma in children. The non-functioning (non-secreting) pituitary adenoma is the second most common and often stains positive for GH, PRL, and/or TSH. While Cushing disease, resulting from an ACTH-secreting adenoma, commonly manifests as weight gain with growth deceleration in children, GH excess causes gigantism with rapid, accelerated growth inappropriate for the height of the family. TSH secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, and biochemical analysis will show an elevated thyroxine level with a non-suppressed or high TSH. Though the natural history of pituitary incidentalomas in children is unknown, adult practice guidelines are established. PMID:23957196

  3. Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Tamar; Prizak, Roshan; Guet, Călin C; Barton, Nicholas H; Tkačik, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulation relies on the specificity of transcription factor (TF)-DNA interactions. Limited specificity may lead to crosstalk: a regulatory state in which a gene is either incorrectly activated due to noncognate TF-DNA interactions or remains erroneously inactive. As each TF can have numerous interactions with noncognate cis-regulatory elements, crosstalk is inherently a global problem, yet has previously not been studied as such. We construct a theoretical framework to analyse the effects of global crosstalk on gene regulation. We find that crosstalk presents a significant challenge for organisms with low-specificity TFs, such as metazoans. Crosstalk is not easily mitigated by known regulatory schemes acting at equilibrium, including variants of cooperativity and combinatorial regulation. Our results suggest that crosstalk imposes a previously unexplored global constraint on the functioning and evolution of regulatory networks, which is qualitatively distinct from the known constraints that act at the level of individual gene regulatory elements. PMID:27489144

  4. E2F1 Induces Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene (PTTG1) Expression in Human Pituitary Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Cuiqi; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Bannykh, Serguei; Gutman, Shiri; Melmed, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    Rb/E2F is dysregulated in murine and human pituitary tumors. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1), a securin protein, is required for pituitary tumorigenesis, and PTTG1 deletion attenuates pituitary tumor development in Rb+/− mice. E2F1 and PTTG1 were concordantly overexpressed in 29 of 46 Rb+/− murine pituitary tissues and also in 45 of 80 human pituitary tumors (P < 0.05). E2F1 specifically bound the hPTTG1 promoter as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and biotin-streptavidin p...

  5. Computed tomography of pituitary microadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung-Il; Katto, Keiichi; Tanaka, Teruhiko; Kosaka, Shiro; Kaimori, Mitsuhiro (Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-08-01

    Thirteen pituitary microadenomas detected by Delta Scan 2020 are presented, and their CT findings are analyzed in points of size, shape, limit, density and contrast enhancement. All are demonstrated as a round, well defined and homogeneous mass, and are enhanced by contrast medium. The average size is 6.2 by 7.6 mm in diameter. Two of them are prolactinoma, and are treated by Bromocriptine. The prolactinomas vanished on CT scan, 6 months after administration of Bromocriptine. Eleven of them are nonfunctioning. Five are operated and the others are followed by CT scan. In detection of pituitary microadenoma, overlapping scanning with thin-slice is necessary and coronal scanning is often helpful. The adenoma greater than 5 mm in diameter may be detectable.

  6. Management of nonfunctioning pituitary incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Françoise; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Cazabat, Laure; Boulin, Anne; Cotton, François; Bonneville, Jean-François; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Vidal-Trécan, Gwénaelle; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence of pituitary incidentaloma is variable: between 1.4% and 27% at autopsy, and between 3.7% and 37% on imaging. Pituitary microincidentalomas (serendipitously discovered adenoma 1cm in diameter) show increased size in 20-24% and 34-40% of cases at respectively 4 and 8years' follow-up. Radiologic differential diagnosis requires MRI centered on the pituitary gland. Initial assessment of nonfunctioning (NF) microincidentaloma is firstly clinical, the endocrinologist looking for signs of hypersecretion (signs of hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly or Cushing's syndrome), followed up by systematic prolactin and IGF-1 assay. Initial assessment of NF macroincidentaloma is clinical, the endocrinologist looking for signs of hormonal hypersecretion or hypopituitarism, followed up by hormonal assay to screen for hypersecretion or hormonal deficiency and by ophthalmologic assessment (visual acuity and visual field) if and only if the lesion is near the optic chiasm (OC). NF microincidentaloma of less than 5mm requires no surveillance; those of≥5mm are not operated on but rather monitored on MRI at 6months and then 2years. Macroincidentaloma remote from the OC is monitored on MRI at 1year, with hormonal exploration (for anterior pituitary deficiency), then every 2years. When macroincidentaloma located near the OC is managed by surveillance rather than surgery, MRI is recommended at 6months, with hormonal and visual exploration, then annual MRI and hormonal and visual assessment every 6months. Surgery is indicated in the following cases: evolutive NF microincidentaloma, NF macroincidentaloma associated with hypopituitarism or showing progression, incidentaloma compressing the OC, possible malignancy, non-compliant patient, pregnancy desired in the short-term, or context at risk of apoplexy.

  7. Rheumatic manifestations of pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, S; Kleinberg, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pituitary tumors may cause rheumatologic problems as a result of under production or overproduction of one pituitary hormone. Excessive growth hormone causes destruction of cartilage by a direct action. Facial and acral changes and arthralgias may be some of the first symptoms of acromegaly. The arthritis associated with acromegaly is often devastating. Carpal tunnel syndrome is very common in patients with acromegaly. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) has indirect effects via the action of glucocorticoid on bones, muscles, and the immune system. Proximal muscle weakness is a characteristic feature of Cushing's syndrome. Patients with Cushing's syndrome commonly have osteopenia and osteoporosis that lead to an increase in bone fractures. Avascular necrosis is associated with exogenous steroid administration. The effects of too much glucocorticoid or too rapid withdrawal can be severe. Gonadotropins act via the gonadal steroids and protect bone mass from loss. Prolactin is less involved in rheumatologic disease; the data for which are limited in humans. Pituitary tumors can have manifestations similar to rheumatologic disorders and should be included in the differential diagnosis of these diseases.

  8. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined by...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....... transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary...

  9. Gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježková, Jana; Marek, Josef

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary adenomas are frequently occurring intracranial neoplasms. The aim of the treatment of pituitary adenomas is to normalize hormonal hypersecretion, to preserve the normal pituitary function, to reserve or treat impaired pituitary function and to control tumor growth and its mechanical effects on the surrounding structures. Treatment modalities include surgical, medical and radiation therapy. Radiosurgery is mainly used as a secondary line treatment after surgery for residual or recurrent tumors. The antiproliferative effect is achieved by LKG irradiation in more than 90% of patients. Regarding the functioning pituitary adenomas, the manifestation of the treatment effect is slow and depends mainly on the type of adenoma. Gamma knife irradiation is safe when the maximal doses to pituitary and infundibulum are respected. PMID:26899535

  10. Crosstalk between platelets and PBMC: New evidence in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Niccolò; Feci, Luca; Napoliello, Luca; Giordano, Antonio; Lorenzini, Sauro; Galeazzi, Mauro; Rubegni, Pietro; Fimiani, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-derived products have proven useful in accelerating healing processes and tissue regeneration. However, despite their widespread use in clinical practice, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been completely clarified. Recent studies show that interaction between platelet gel (PG) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) can result in activation of PBMC and production of several cytokines involved in wound healing and tissue repair. The aim of our study was to analyze whether crosstalk between platelets and PBMC can influence wound healing by modulating release of VEGF, bFGF and IL-10 by PBMC. Cultures of PBMC alone and co-cultures with autologous PG of 24 healthy volunteers were incubated under normoxia for 24 h. VEGF, bFGF and IL-10 concentration and expression were then analyzed in supernatants by ELISA and by real-time RT-PCR. We observed a down-regulation of VEGF and bFGF release and an up-regulation of IL-10 release in co-cultures of PBMC and PG. Platelets are not only important in the early stages of the healing process (clot formation, direct release of growth factors), but also can influence the whole process of tissue regeneration by modulating synthesis and release of VEGF, bFGF and IL-10 by PBMC. These effects could give platelets a new key role in the control of healing processes and provide insights into the clinical success of platelet-derived products in many medical fields. PMID:26030799

  11. Cellular metabolism regulates contact sites between vacuoles and mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hönscher, Carina; Mari, Muriel; Auffarth, Kathrin; Bohnert, Maria; Griffith, Janice; Geerts, Willie; van der Laan, Martin; Cabrera, Margarita; Reggiori, Fulvio; Ungermann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that contact sites between different organelles form central hubs in the coordination of cellular physiology. Although recent work has emphasized the crucial role of the endoplasmic reticulum in interorganellar crosstalk, the cooperative behavior of other organelles is lar

  12. Analysis of Inverse Crosstalk Channel Estimation Using SNR Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiting, P.A.; Kramer, G.; Nuzman, C.J.; Ashikhmin, A.; Wijngaarden, van A.J.; Zivkovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Digital subscriber line (DSL) data rates for short loops are typically limited by crosstalk between adjacent lines rather than by background noise. Precoding can reduce crosstalk in the downstream from the access node to the customer premises equipment significantly if an accurate estimate of the in

  13. [Old phenotype and new genotypes. Pituitary adenomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, C; Jedidi, H; Petrossians, P; Krzesinski, F; Daly, A; Beckers, A

    2015-11-01

    Gigantism and acromegaly, usually caused by a pituitary adenoma linked inappropriate secretion of growth hormone (GH), are generally considered as very rare diseases, even if, according to some authors, their cumulative prevalence is about 1/5000. Starting from the historical case of a giant from Liège we shall describe the different types of GH pituitary adenomas and their pathophysiology. We shall particularly discuss rare forms of inherited GH secreting pituitary adenomas like the FIPA (familial inherited isolated pituitary adenomas) and the X-LAG (X linked acrogigantism), both described for the first time in Liège, in 2000 and 2014, respectively.

  14. [Old phenotype and new genotypes. Pituitary adenomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, C; Jedidi, H; Petrossians, P; Krzesinski, F; Daly, A; Beckers, A

    2015-11-01

    Gigantism and acromegaly, usually caused by a pituitary adenoma linked inappropriate secretion of growth hormone (GH), are generally considered as very rare diseases, even if, according to some authors, their cumulative prevalence is about 1/5000. Starting from the historical case of a giant from Liège we shall describe the different types of GH pituitary adenomas and their pathophysiology. We shall particularly discuss rare forms of inherited GH secreting pituitary adenomas like the FIPA (familial inherited isolated pituitary adenomas) and the X-LAG (X linked acrogigantism), both described for the first time in Liège, in 2000 and 2014, respectively. PMID:26738269

  15. Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, H D; Hansen, S; Hagen, C;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aggressive pituitary tumours may be difficult to treat. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating cytostaticum. In a small number of cases, TMZ therapy has been reported to reduce pituitary tumour size and hormone hypersecretion. DESIGN: We present three patients with pituitary tumours treated...

  16. The cellular decision between apoptosis and autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Jun Fan; Wei-Xing Zong

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis and autophagy are important molecular processes that maintain organismal and cellular homeostasis,respectively.While apoptosis fulfills its role through dismantling damaged or unwanted cells,autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis through recycling selective intracellular organelles and molecules.Yet in some conditions,autophagy can lead to cell death.Apoptosis and autophagy can be stimulated by the same stresses.Emerging evidence indicates an interplay between the core proteins in both pathways,which underlies the molecular mechanism of the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy.This review summarizes recent literature on molecules that regulate both the apoptotic and autophagic processes.

  17. Measurement of the intermodal crosstalk of a bent multimode waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhao, Changyun; Wei, Bing; Gencheng, Wang; Dai, Tingge; Wang, Yuehai; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Li, Yubo; Yang, Jianyi

    2016-09-20

    We quantitatively investigate the main source of the intermodal crosstalk of a silicon-based bent multimode waveguide by experiment. The measurement is performed through time-domain scanning low-coherence interferometry. From the measurement results, one can not only calculate the modal crosstalk, but can also locate the position where the crosstalk appears. The results indicate that the modal mismatch at the points where the curvature of the waveguide changes is the main origin of the modal crosstalk. For a two-mode waveguide with a bending radius of 5 μm at 1310 nm, the crosstalk is as high as -20 and -16  dB for the fundamental and first-order mode, respectively. This work gives us a deep insight into how the guided modes actually propagate through the bent waveguide.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Intraband Crosstalk in Optical Cross Connect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    All optical network based on wavelength division multiplexing transmission system with optical cross connect (OXC) is an essential approach for optical commumications.Crosstalk introduced by OXC (specially large scale one) is a key limiting factor for its capacity. Optical signal passing through a typical OXC is analyzed in this paper, followed by description of the generation and effect of intraband crosstalk.The power penalties induced by intraband crosstalk versus the number of multiplexed wavelengths M and the number of input fibers N have been given by numerical simulations. The results show that the coherent crosstalk is the most critical limitation on OXC and depends more closely on the number of multiplexed wavelengths M than the number of input fibers N. Crosstalk is suppressed by doubly filtering, fixing optimum decision-threshold and appropriately choosing the number of multiplexed wavelengths M.

  19. Tablets or scalpel: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Imran Siddiqi, MBBS, MRCP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. Pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary masses cannot be reliably differentiated on imaging alone, despite significant improvement in imaging quality in recent years.

  20. Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years.She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory.Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg,body mass index (BMI28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1 was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GHvalues of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH, follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH were normal.Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment.

  1. Pituitary gigantism causing diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, N S; Kirk, J M

    1999-01-01

    Although growth hormone excess (acromegaly) in association with glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus is well documented in adult medicine, it is much less common in the paediatric age group. We report the case of a 13 year-old boy who presented with tall stature secondary to a large growth hormone secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland. Random growth hormone was 630 mIU/l and did not suppress during an oral glucose tolerance test. Following debulking of the tumour, he developed diabetic ketoacidosis requiring insulin treatment, but after further surgery glucose handling returned to normal. He has been started on testosterone to arrest further increase in height. PMID:10614552

  2. Preliminary Study on the Relationship between cAMP Level and gsp Expression in Cultured Human Pituitary Somatotrophinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between abnormal intracellular signal transduction and tumorgenesis of human pituitary somatotrophinomas, the effects of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent growth hormone (GH) releasing hormone (GHRH) and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent GH-releasing peptide (GHRP-6) on cAMP production were observed by using cell culture and biochemical methods, and the expression of the gsp oncogene was detected by using PCR and direct sequence assay methods in 11 patients with human pituitary somatotrophinomas. It was found that GHRP-6 exerted significant stimulatory effect on cAMP production by 2 gsp-positive tumors and no effect on the gsp-negative tumors. GHRP-6 could enhance the stimulation of cAMP production induced by GHRH in tumor without gsp oncogenes. It was suggested that both GHRH and GHRP-6 exert identical effects on human pituitary soamtotrophinomas, which was contributed to the cross-talk between the two intracellular signal transduction pathways in pituitary cells.

  3. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umarevathi Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland’s role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis.

  4. Angioscan exploration of morphology of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabarin, A.; David, J.P.; Drouillard, J. and others

    1987-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the morphologic study of pituitary due to the availability of angioscan programs. An exceptional case is presented of a persistent intrasellar trigeminal artery associated with prolactinoma. Based on technological progress in CT scan imaging the place of angiographic explorations in the investigation of pituitary adenoma is reconsidered.

  5. MR differentiation of craniopharyngioma from pituitary macroadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Jee Young; Lee, Jeong Whee; Jeh, Soo Kyung; Park, Hae Kwan; Lee, Kyung Jin; Hahn, Seong Tae [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to determine the differential points between craniopharyngioma and pituitary macroadenoma on MRI. The MRI findings in twenty seven patients (age range: 14-67 years, mean age: 46 years, 17 males and 10 females) with pathologically proven craniopharyngioma and twenty four patients (age range: 23-64 years, mean age: 54 years, 8 males and 16 females) with pathologically proven pituitary macroadenoma were analyzed retrospectively by two radiologists. We analyzed the location, the contour of the mass, the presence of high signal intensity on the T1 weighted images, the thickness of the enhancing wall, separation between the mass and the pituitary gland, and the presence of attachment or compression to the midbrain. On MRI, craniopharyngiomas showed a suprasellar location, high signal intensity on the T1 weighted images and a larger suprasellar portion. After contrast enhancement, the separation of the mass from the pituitary gland is more distinct than that of the pituitary macroadenomas. The craniopharyngiomas showed the presence of attachment or compression to the midbrain. The pituitary macroadenomas had a larger intra-or infrasellar portion than that of the craniopharyngiomas, and they also showed a thicker enhancing wall after contrast enhancement. The location, contour of the mass, presence of high signal intensity on T1 weighted images, thickness of the enhancing wall, separation of the mass from the pituitary gland and the presence of attachment or compression to midbrain are useful differential points between craniophayngioma and pituitary macroadenoma on MRI.

  6. Shedding light on canine pituitary dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, A.M.W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dwarfism, associated with growth hormone deficiency, is an autosomal, recessively inherited disorder in shepherd dogs. Due to the serious nature of pituitary dwarfism and lack of efficient treatment, it is preferable to prevent dwarfs from being born by applying a correct breeding policy.

  7. Auxin-Oxylipin Crosstalk: Relationship of Antagonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maik Hoffmann; Mathias Hentrich; Stephan Pollmann

    2011-01-01

    Phytohormones regulate a wide array of developmental processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Herein, the various plant hormones may interact additively, synergistically, or antagonistically. By their cooperation they create a delicate regulatory network whose net output largely depends on the action of specific phytohormone combinations rather than on the independent activities of separate hormones. While most classical studies of plant hormonal control have focused mainly on the action of single hormones or on the synergistic interaction of hormones in regulating various developmental processes, recent work is beginning to shed light on the crosstalk of nominally antagonistic plant hormones, such as gibberellins and auxins with oxylipins or abscisic acid. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of how two of the first sight antagonistic plant hormones, i.e. auxins and oxylipins,interact in controlling plant responses and development.

  8. Cardio-adipose tissue cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    increases adiponectin secretion, indicating that NPs may improve adipose tissue function and in this way function as a cardio-protective agent in HF. Accordingly we investigated the interplay between plasma adiponectin, plasma proBNP, and development of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively followed......AIMS: There is increasing evidence of cross-talk between the heart, body metabolism, and adipose tissue, but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have recently emerged as the prime candidate for a mediator. In patients with heart failure (HF), infusion of NPs...... 5574 randomly selected men and women from the community without ischaemic heart disease or HF. Plasma adiponectin and proBNP were measured at study entry. Median follow-up time was 8.5 years (interquartile range 8.0-9.1 years). During follow-up 271 participants developed symptomatic HF. Plasma...

  9. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, Jean-Francois; Bonneville, Fabrice; Cattin, Francoise [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Besancon (France)

    2005-03-01

    Today, MR is the only method needed for the morphological investigation of endocrine-active pituitary adenomas. In acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome, the therapeutic attitude is directly dictated by MR data. We present the MR aspect of pituitary adenomas according to size, sex, age, endocrine activity and a few particular conditions such as hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas, pituitary adenomas during pregnancy, cavernous sinus invasion and postsurgical changes. When an intrasellar mass extending out of the sella turcica is detected, the goal of the MR examination is to indicate precisely the origin of the tumor, its extension in relation to the various surrounding structures, its structure and its enhancement in order to help in the differential diagnosis. Demonstration of very small pituitary adenomas remains a challenge. When SE T1- and Turbo SE T2-weighted sequences are non-diagnostic, enhanced imaging becomes mandatory; half-dose gadolinium injection, delayed sequence, dynamic imaging can be of some help. (orig.)

  11. Pituitary stem cells: candidates and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Farshad; Cusimano, Michael; Zuccato, Jeff A; Mohammed, Safraz; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Syro, Luis V; Kovacs, Kalman; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-09-01

    The pituitary is the master endocrine gland of the body. It undergoes many changes after birth, and these changes may be mediated by the differentiation of pituitary stem cells. Stem cells in any tissue source must display (1) pluripotent capacity, (2) capacity for indefinite self-renewal, and (3) a lack of specialization. Unlike neural stem cells identified in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, pituitary stem cells are not associated with one specific cell type. There are many major candidates that are thought to be potential pituitary stem cell sources. This article reviews the evidence for each of the major cell types and discuss the implications of identifying a definitive pituitary stem cell type. PMID:23423660

  12. Effects of Prenatal Dexamethasone on the Rat Pituitary Gland and Gonadotropic Cells in Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Nataša; Severs, Walter; Nestorović, Nataša; Jarić, Ivana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Trifunović, Svetlana; Pendovski, Lazo; Milosević, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have a strong influence on growth and maturation of fetal organ systems, but overexposure to exogenous glucocorticoids may retard fetal growth and alter developmental processes in sensitive tissues. The aim of this study was to specifically determine whether prenatal exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) altered normal development and function of pituitary gonadotropic cells in neonatal, infant and peripubertal female offspring. On day 16 of pregnancy, rat dams received 1.0 mg Dx/kg body weight (BW) s.c., followed by 0.5 mg Dx/kg BW on days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control gravid females received the same volume of saline. Female offspring were sacrificed on days 5, 16 and 38 after delivery. The volume of the pituitary gland estimated using Cavalieri's principle was significantly reduced (p programming of the female reproductive system at the pituitary cellular level, which may be associated with impaired reproductive function. PMID:26950885

  13. Terra MODIS Band 27 Electronic Crosstalk Effect and Its Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December, 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, covering a wavelength range from 0.4 micron to 14.4 micron. MODIS band 27 (6.72 micron) is a water vapor band, which is designed to be insensitive to Earth surface features. In recent Earth View (EV) images of Terra band 27, surface feature contamination is clearly seen and striping has become very pronounced. In this paper, it is shown that band 27 is impacted by electronic crosstalk from bands 28-30. An algorithm using a linear approximation is developed to correct the crosstalk effect. The crosstalk coefficients are derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations. They show that the crosstalk is strongly detector dependent and the crosstalk pattern has changed dramatically since launch. The crosstalk contributions are positive to the instrument response of band 27 early in the mission but became negative and much larger in magnitude at later stages of the mission for most detectors of the band. The algorithm is applied to both Black Body (BB) calibration and MODIS L1B products. With the crosstalk effect removed, the calibration coefficients of Terra MODIS band 27 derived from the BB show that the detector differences become smaller. With the algorithm applied to MODIS L1B products, the Earth surface features are significantly removed and the striping is substantially reduced in the images of the band. The approach developed in this report for removal of the electronic crosstalk effect can be applied to other MODIS bands if similar crosstalk behaviors occur.

  14. Crosstalk study of near infrared InGaAs detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Tang, Hengjing; Li, Tao; Fan, Cui; Shao, Xiumei; Li, Jianwei; Wei, Jun; Gong, Haimei

    2016-05-01

    Crosstalk characteristics of high density FPA detectors attract widespread attention in the application of electro-optical systems. Crosstalk characteristics of near-infrared (NIR) InGaAs photodiodes and focal plane arrays (FPAs) were studied in this paper. The mesa type detector was investigated by using laser beam induced current technique (LBIC) to measure the absorption outside the designed photosensitive area, and the results show that the excess absorption enlarges the crosstalk of the adjacent pixels. The structure optimization using the effective absorption layer between the pixels can effectively reduce the crosstalk to 2.5%. The major crosstalk components of the optimization photodiode come from the electronic signal caused by carrier lateral diffusion. For the planar type detectors, test structures were used to compare the crosstalk of different structures, and the guard ring structure shows good suppression of the crosstalk. Then the back-illuminated 32x32 InGaAs photodiodes with 30μm pitch were designed, and LBIC was used to measure its lateral diffusion of the effective carriers and fill factor of photosensitive area. The results indicate that the fill factor of detectors can reach up to 98% when the diffusion region is optimized, and the minimum response exists between two neighborhood pixels. Based on these crosstalk measurement results and optimizing structure designs, the linear InGaAs photodiodes were designed and thus the InGaAs FPA assembly was fabricated. The assembly shows higher electro-optical performance and good improvement on crosstalk. The assembly was applied in infrared imaging system and modulation transfer function (MTF) of FPA assembly was calculated to be above 0.50. The clear image based on FPA assembly was obtained.

  15. Normal MR appearances of the posterior pituitary in central diabetes insipidus associated with septo-optic dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Qunibi, M.A. [Depts. of Radiology and Child Health, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Smith, C.S. [Depts. of Radiology and Child Health, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary in children with central diabetes insipidus usually shows absence of the normal high signal within the posterior gland. The high signal of the normal posterior pituitary is thought to be due to the presence of intra- cellular storage granules of vasopressin. MR imaging has been advocated as a useful investigation to aid in the distinction between central diabetes insipidus and other causes of thirst and polydipsia. We report the case of an infant with central diabetes insipidus in association with septo-optic dysplasia in whom MR imaging showed normal appearances of the posterior pituitary. The mechanism of central diabetes insipidus in this case may be related to a failure of hypothalamic function affecting osmoreception, rather than to a deficiency of vasopressin. Normal MR appearances of the pituitary do not exclude central diabetes insipidus in infants with midline cerebral malformations. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  16. Normal MR appearances of the posterior pituitary in central diabetes insipidus associated with septo-optic dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary in children with central diabetes insipidus usually shows absence of the normal high signal within the posterior gland. The high signal of the normal posterior pituitary is thought to be due to the presence of intra- cellular storage granules of vasopressin. MR imaging has been advocated as a useful investigation to aid in the distinction between central diabetes insipidus and other causes of thirst and polydipsia. We report the case of an infant with central diabetes insipidus in association with septo-optic dysplasia in whom MR imaging showed normal appearances of the posterior pituitary. The mechanism of central diabetes insipidus in this case may be related to a failure of hypothalamic function affecting osmoreception, rather than to a deficiency of vasopressin. Normal MR appearances of the pituitary do not exclude central diabetes insipidus in infants with midline cerebral malformations. (orig.). With 1 fig

  17. Optimal Backlight Modulation With Crosstalk Control in Stereoscopic Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Liangbao; Shu, Xiao; Cheng, Yong;

    2014-01-01

    Crosstalk between the left-eye and right-eye images is one of the main artifacts affecting the visual quality of stereoscopic liquid crystal display (LCD) systems. In this paper, a novel technique, called Optimal Backlight Modulation (OBM), is proposed to reduce crosstalk by taking the advantage....... A simple closed-form approximation of the optimization problem can be easily employed and solved in real time on LCD control hardware. Simulation results show that the proposed OBM algorithm provides the same or higher luminance while reducing the crosstalk by 60% compared with the other tested methods....

  18. The CNS microvascular pericyte: pericyte-astrocyte crosstalk in the regulation of tissue survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonkowski Drew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The French scientist Charles Benjamin Rouget identified the pericyte nearly 140 years ago. Since that time the role of the pericyte in vascular function has been difficult to elucidate. It was not until the development of techniques to isolate and culture pericytes that scientists have begun to understand the true impact of this unique cell in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. In the brain the pericyte is an integral cellular component of the blood-brain barrier and, together with other cells of the neurovascular unit (endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons the pericyte makes fine-tuned regulatory adjustments and adaptations to promote tissue survival. These regulatory changes involve trans-cellular communication networks between cells. In this review we consider evidence for cell-to-cell crosstalk between pericytes and astrocytes during development and in adult brain.

  19. Cellular Signaling in the Bovine Antral Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Vásquez - Cano; Martha Olivera - A.

    2010-01-01

    Antral follicle development in the ovary of female cattle is the product of a complex of endocrine, paracrine and autocrine relationships. The interactions of the pituitary gonadotropins over granulosa and theca cells prepare the follicle to produce estradiol and for the final stages of maturation of the oocyte and its potencial ovulation or atresia inside subordinate follicles. It is a dynamic event where cellular signaling patterns changes sequentiallyand quickly at different stages of foll...

  20. ZBTB20 is required for anterior pituitary development and lactotrope specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongmei; Ma, Xianhua; Cai, Jiao; Luan, Jing; Liu, An-Jun; Yang, Rui; Cao, Yi; Zhu, Xiaotong; Zhang, Hai; Chen, Yu-Xia; Shi, Yuguang; Shi, Guang-Xia; Zou, Dajin; Cao, Xuetao; Grusby, Michael J; Xie, Zhifang; Zhang, Weiping J

    2016-01-01

    The anterior pituitary harbours five distinct hormone-producing cell types, and their cellular differentiation is a highly regulated and coordinated process. Here we show that ZBTB20 is essential for anterior pituitary development and lactotrope specification in mice. In anterior pituitary, ZBTB20 is highly expressed by all the mature endocrine cell types, and to some less extent by somatolactotropes, the precursors of prolactin (PRL)-producing lactotropes. Disruption of Zbtb20 leads to anterior pituitary hypoplasia, hypopituitary dwarfism and a complete loss of mature lactotropes. In ZBTB20-null mice, although lactotrope lineage commitment is normally initiated, somatolactotropes exhibit profound defects in lineage specification and expansion. Furthermore, endogenous ZBTB20 protein binds to Prl promoter, and its knockdown decreases PRL expression and secretion in a lactotrope cell line MMQ. In addition, ZBTB20 overexpression enhances the transcriptional activity of Prl promoter in vitro. In conclusion, our findings point to ZBTB20 as a critical regulator of anterior pituitary development and lactotrope specification. PMID:27079169

  1. Interferometric crosstalk suppression using polarization multiplexing technique and an SOA

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, FENGHAI; Xueyan, Zheng; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric crosstalk can be greatly suppressed at 10Gb/s and 20Gb/s by using a gain saturated SOA and a polarization multiplexing technique that eliminates impairments like waveform and extinction ratio degradation from the SOA.

  2. Research on Raman Crosstalk in Broadband Wavelength Division Multiplexed Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Fei; QIU Kun

    2004-01-01

    After a theoretical model is put forward on the base of accurate description of the Raman gain profile and the physical quantity,maximum Raman crosstalk(MRC),which quantificationally depicts the intensity of Raman crosstalk is defined.The influences of launch power,fiber effective core area,fiber nonlinear index,fiber length,channel number and channel interval on MRC are deduced.The result indicates that compared with low speed and narrowband optical fiber communication system,serious Raman crosstalk lies in high speed and broadband system,which impacts the performance of the system badly.The result is useful for forecasting Raman crosstalk in broadband and high speed optical fiber communication system.

  3. Detection of Crosstalk Faults in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N.; Roy, P.; Rahaman, H.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a Built-in-Self-Test (BIST) technique has been proposed to detect crosstalk faults in FPGA and run time congestion and to provide the crosstalk aware router for FPGA. The proposed BIST circuits require less overhead as compared to earlier techniques. The proposed detector can detect any logic hazard or delay due to crosstalk. A technique has also been proposed to avoid the crosstalk by routing the path in such a way that no interference occurs between the interconnects. The proposed router has achieved better utilization of routing resource to determine the net as compared to the earlier works. The proposed scheme is simulated in MATLAB and verified using Xilinx ISE tools and Modelsim 6.0. The router is implemented by using class provided by JBits for Xilinx, Vertex-II FPGA. It has been found that the results are quite encouraging.

  4. New Values of Cross-Talk Parameters for Twisted Pair Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Kozak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT and Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT of unshielded twisted pair (UTP cable are the main factors limiting the information capacity in data transmission. Crosstalk depends mostly on the frequency. Frequency dependent transfer functions and crosstalk attenuation may be obtained by measurement, but for the analytical description of the transmission channel's parameters is useful to define functions modelling the crosstalk. The paper describes the measuring facility, presents the measured waveforms and the values of model parameters.

  5. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  6. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriello, Michael C. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Sung Gu [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Newsome, Bradley J. [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  7. Management of incidental pituitary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas F. Marko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary incidentalomas are common lesions for which neurosurgical referrals may become progressively more frequent, given the increasing application of neuroimaging. The initial evaluation of a patient with radiographic evidence of an incidentaloma should focus on addressing two questions: (1 is the lesion causing neurological symptoms, and (2 is the lesion hormonally active? The answers to these two questions provide a framework for subsequent clinical management. The initial patient assessment should include a detailed history and physical examination, including the bedside assessment of visual fields. High-quality MRI imaging is essential, and formal visual field testing should be obtained in patients where the lesion abuts or compresses the optic apparatus. The initial biochemical workup is intended to assess potential pituitary hypo- or hyperfunction and should include measurement of serum levels of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor type-1, free thyroxine, testosterone, and an assessment of axis hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function. Additional testing may include serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels. Neurologically-asymptomatic patients without endocrine dysfunction can be managed with observation at regular intervals, including MRI imaging at 6 months and 1 year and then annually for a period of 3 years. Follow-up biochemical assessment is not necessary in the absence of clinical symptoms or radiographic enlargement of the lesion. After 3 years the follow-up interval may be prolonged, although closer follow-up may be indicated for patients with lesions C1 cm. Most patients who either present with or who subsequently develop neurologic or endocrinologic symptoms should be considered for surgery as the first-line therapy.

  8. Interferometric crosstalk suppression using polarization multiplexing technique and an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Xueyan, Zheng; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud;

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric crosstalk can be greatly suppressed at 10Gb/s and 20Gb/s by using a gain saturated SOA and a polarization multiplexing technique that eliminates impairments like waveform and extinction ratio degradation from the SOA.......Interferometric crosstalk can be greatly suppressed at 10Gb/s and 20Gb/s by using a gain saturated SOA and a polarization multiplexing technique that eliminates impairments like waveform and extinction ratio degradation from the SOA....

  9. Elimination of flux-transformer crosstalk in multichannel SQUID magnetometers

    OpenAIRE

    Brake, ter, O.; Fleuren, F.H.; Ulfman, J.A.; Flokstra, J.

    1986-01-01

    Multichannel SQUID magnetometers are being developed for signal-field mapping in biomagnetic experiments. A problem that becomes more serious as the number of channels is increased is the crosstalk caused by the mutual inductances between the individual sensing coils. A simple and effective method for eliminating this crosstalk is presented in this Paper. The method is based on a rearrangement of the feedback loops which causes the flux-transformer circuits to become currentless. The feasibil...

  10. Elimination of flux-transformer crosstalk in multichannel SQUID magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Brake, H. J. M.; Fleuren, F. H.; Ulfrnan, J. A.; Flokstra, J.

    Multichannel SQUID magnetometers are being developed for signal-field mapping in biomagnetic experiments. A problem that becomes more serious as the number of channels is increased is the crosstalk caused by the mutual inductances between the individual sensing coils. A simple and effective method for eliminating this crosstalk is presented in this Paper. The method is based on a rearrangement of the feedback loops which causes the flux-transformer circuits to become currentless. The feasibility of the method is verified experimentally.

  11. Experimental investigation of inter-core crosstalk tolerance of MIMO-OFDM/OQAM radio over multicore fiber system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiale; Li, Borui; Deng, Lei; Tang, Ming; Gan, Lin; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2016-06-13

    In this paper, the feasibility of space division multiplexing for optical wireless fronthaul systems is experimentally demonstrated by implementing high speed MIMO-OFDM/OQAM radio signals over 20km 7-core fiber and 0.4m wireless link. Moreover, the impact of optical inter-core crosstalk in multicore fibers on the proposed MIMO-OFDM/OQAM radio over fiber system is experimentally evaluated in both SISO and MIMO configurations for comparison. The experimental results show that the inter-core crosstalk tolerance of the proposed radio over fiber system can be relaxed to -10 dB by using the proposed MIMO-OFDM/OQAM processing. These results could guide high density multicore fiber design to support a large number of antenna modules and a higher density of radio-access points for potential applications in 5G cellular system. PMID:27410359

  12. Imaging of the pituitary: Recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary lesions, albeit relatively infrequent, can significantly alter the quality of life. This article highlights the role of advanced imaging modalities in evaluating pituitary-hypothalamic axis lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the examination of choice for evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary-related endocrine diseases. Advanced MR techniques discussed in this article include dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, 3T MRI, magnetization transfer (MT imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, proton MR spectroscopy, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, intraoperative MRI, and intraoperative real-time ultrasonography.

  13. Priority-Based Routing Resource Assignment Considering Crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ci Cai; Bin Liu; Yan Xiong; Qiang Zhou; Xian-Long Hong

    2006-01-01

    Crosstalk has become one of the most critical concerns in very deep sub-micron era. This paper deals with the problem of crosstalk mitigation at both methodological and algorithmic levels. Noting that intermediate operations between global routing and detailed routing are very effective in crosstalk estimation and reduction, the authors propose to incorporate several intermediate steps that are separated in traditional design flow into an integrated routing resource assignment stage,so that the operations could easily cooperate to fully exert their power on crosstalk reduction. An efficient priority-based heuristic algorithm is developed, which works slice by slice. Crosstalk avoidance, and many other aspects that are critical in routing practice including congestion, vias, layer preference, etc., are taken into account. A track reservation strategy is adopted in the algorithm framework to compensate the undesired effects caused by sequential routing. Experimental results on a series of ISPD98 and industrial benchmarks show that the proposed approach is able to reduce capacitive crosstalk by about 70% on average without compromising completion ratio compared with a previously reported graph based algorithm,demonstrating the advantages of the approach.

  14. Stroma-epithelium crosstalk in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Nong Niu; Shu-Jie Xia

    2009-01-01

    The critical role played by stroma-epithelium crosstalk in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer has been increasingly recognized.These interactions are mediated by a variety of paracrine factors secreted by cancer cells and/or stromal cells.In human prostate cancer,reactive stroma is characterized by an increase in myofibroblasts and a corresponding amplification of extracellular matrix production and angiogenesis.Permanent genetic mutations have been reported in stromal cells as well as in turnout cells.Transforming growth factor-β,vascular endothelial growth factor,platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor signalling pathways are involved in the process of angiogenesis,whereas hepatocyte growth factor,insulin-like growth factor-1,epidermal growth factor,CXC12 and Interleukin-6 play active roles in the progression,androgen-independent conversion and distal metastasis of prostate cancer.Some soluble factors have reciprocal interactions with androgens and the androgen receptor (AR),and can even activate AR in the absence of the androgen ligand.In this article,we review the complex interactions between cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment,and discuss the potential therapeutic targets in the stromal compartment of prostate cancer.

  15. Functional role of estrogen in pituitary tumor pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Anthony P.; Fernando, Manory; Melmed, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    Pituitary hyperplasia and lactotroph replication are induced by estrogen. The product of the pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) exhibits in vitro and in vivo transforming activity and induces basic bFGF secretion, thereby modulating pituitary angiogenesis and tumor formation. We demonstrated previously that pituitary pttg is induced by estrogen and bFGF, the latter being expressed in a concordant fashion with pttg in experimental and human pituitary adenomas. We now elucidate the role o...

  16. Dosimetric factors associated with pituitary function after Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) can be an adjunctive option to surgery in the case of pituitary adenomas. The effect of dosimetric variables on the incidence of new anterior pituitary deficits after GKS requires better definition. Materials and methods: This retrospective study considered 130 patients with a follow up after GKS >6 months. The diagnosis was nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) in 68 patients and secreting pituitary adenoma (SPA) in 62 patients. Median margin dose was 15/25 Gy for NFPA and SPA, respectively. The endocrinological median follow-up was 60 months. Hypopituitarism was defined as a new pituitary deficit in (at least) one of the three hormonal axes (hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and hypoadrenalism). The predictive value of clinical/dosimetric parameters was tested by univariate/multivariate analyses. Results: Sixteen patients (12.3%) showed a new pituitary deficit in one or more axes. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the mean dose to the stalk/pituitary and the amount of healthy tissue within the high dose region were strong independent predictors of pituitary dysfunction; their best cut-off values were around 15.7 Gy, 7.3 Gy and 1.4 cm3, respectively. Conclusions: Our data showed a dose-dependent incidence of new hormonal deficits after GKS for pituitary adenoma. During planning definition, the risk of hypopituitarism could be reduced using the outlined safe dose–volume values.

  17. Pituitary prolactin adenoma with Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晖; 李青; 程虹; 阎庆国; 黄高昇

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report two recent cases of pituitary adenoma associated with Toxoplasma gondii (T.Gondii) infection.Methods: Histological changes were observed in H & E and PAS staining sections microscopically.Immunohistochemistry was performed to classify the pituitary tumors and to confirm the diagnosis of T.gondii.Results: The cases were 43- and 19-year-old females, in which the latter one was a recurring case, and radiology examination showed that tumors existed in sellar region.Microscopically, the tumors consisted of small homogenous polygonal or round cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry revealed they were prolactin-producing adenomas.Interestingly, we found toxoplasma infection in the tumor tissues, being confirmed by T.gondii sepicific antibody immunohistochemistry.Conclusion: The association of pituitary adenoma with toxoplasma raises the possibility that T.gondii may be involved in the development of certain cases of pituitary adenoma.

  18. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagami, Alessandro S; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is found in human trigeminocervical complex and can trigger migraine. PACAP levels were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in cat elevated PACAP levels in cranial blood. Patients...

  19. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  20. Metastases from a pituitary adenoma: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few cases of pituitary adenoma with metastases have been reported. We report a case with histologically benign intracranial and cauda equina metastases. We compare it to the others in the literature. (orig.)

  1. Metastases from a pituitary adenoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucaud, L. de; Dousset, V.; Viaud, B.; Caille, J.M. [Service de Neuroradiologie, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Caillaud, P.; Guerin, J. [Service de Neurochirurgie, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    1999-10-01

    Few cases of pituitary adenoma with metastases have been reported. We report a case with histologically benign intracranial and cauda equina metastases. We compare it to the others in the literature. (orig.)

  2. Primary immune thrombocytopenia accompanied by pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takahiro; Mochinaga, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a severe headache and purpura. She had previously been diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) and achieved complete remission with steroid therapy. Steroid therapy had been completed one week prior to the current admission. The recurrence of severe thrombocytopenia (ITP and improvements in the pituitary hemorrhage. Intracranial hemorrhage, which is the most serious bleeding manifestation in ITP, is relatively uncommon. Pituitary apoplexy in ITP is extremely rare. PMID:27498733

  3. Pituitary Apoplexy Presented with Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Owji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 40-years-old woman presented with visual loss in the right eye since two days ago. The patient complained of headache with gradual onset in the right parietal area since 2 years ago. The headache pattern did not alter.The left eye was normal but the vision in the right eye was 50 cm finger counting. Marcus Gunn pupil could be observed during swinging-flashlight test in the right eye. According to these findings, the first diagnosis was optic neuritis which was corroborated with visual evoked potential (the latency of P100 was 122. According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, there was a big cystic tumor in sella turcica extended to the suprasellar region (Figure 1-A. It had a large liquid component. Optic chiasm was under pressure and was displaced (Figure 1-B. A faint enhancement was seen after the injection (Figure 1-C.The patient was operated with the transnasal-transsphenoidal approach. Blood and fibrin were among the small monomorphic round cells andfibro-connective tissue of the pituitary gland. Considering the bleeding inside the pituitary tumor, the final diagnosis was pituitary apoplexy. After recovery from the operation the symptoms were removed.Pituitary apoplexy presents with headache, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia, and mental alterations which is caused by infarction or sudden bleeding inside the pituitary tumor.1In our review of literature, 3 patients afflicted with pituitary apoplexy presented with optic neuritis were reported.In a study conducted by Petersen et al., all three patients referred to them suffered from unilateral visual loss and headache. They were examined with the early diagnosis of optic neuritis. After taking a Brain Computerized tomography (CT scan, pituitary adenoma together with the formation of cyst were detected in patients. After transsphenoidal adenomectomy, the patient regained full vision. Therefore, the correct diagnosis of these patients, who had been incorrectly diagnosed with

  4. Double pituitary adenomas: six surgical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, T; Horiguchi, H; Xu, B; Li, C; Hino, A; Sakaki, M; Kannuki, S; Yamada, S

    1999-05-01

    While double pituitary adenomas have been found in approximately 1% of autopsy pituitaries, those in surgically resected material have been only rarely reported. We report herein 6 cases of double pituitary adenomas, which consisted of two histologically and/or immunohistochemically different areas among approximately 450 surgical specimens. Five out of 6 patients were men and the age was ranged between 18 and 61 years old. All these 6 patients presented acromegaly or acrogigantism and hyperprolactinemia was noted in 3 patients. In 2 patients (cases 1 and 2) the two adenomas belonged to different adenoma groups (GH-PRL-TSH group and FSH/LH group), while in the remaining 4 patients (cases 3-6) the two adenomas belonged to the same group (GH-PRL-TSH group). Thus, in all patients at least one of the two adenomas was GH-producing adenoma. Reasons for a high incidence of GH-producing adenomas in surgically resected double pituitary adenomas may include the presence of a variety of histologic subtypes among GH-producing adenomas and the advantage of cytokeratin immunostaining to distinguish these subtypes. In regard to pathogenesis of double pituitary adenomas, adenomas in cases 1 and 2 may be of multicentric occurrence, while those in cases 3-6 may occur through different clonal proliferation within originally one adenoma, resulting in diverse phenotypic expressions. Since there were patients with familial MEN 1 (case 2) and familial pituitary adenoma unrelated MEN 1 (case 3), genetic background should be also considered. Double pituitary adenomas in surgically resected material may not be so infrequent. Further molecular analysis will provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas and their mechanisms of multidirectional phenotypic diffrentiation.

  5. Identification of metastases in the pituitary stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of metastasis in the pituitary stalk are presented. In both cases, presenting with diabetes insipidus, the demonstration of a small (under 1 cm) metastasis in the pituitary stalk was possible using a current generation scanner. Patients with known primary tumors presenting with a diabetes insipidus should be examined by CT before therapy with antidiuretic hormone is initiated. In cases of visible metastasis, a specific therapy together with the hormone-substitution should be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation and immune regulation in heat-stressed sheep after supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese, M; Ciliberti, M G; Annicchiarico, G; Albenzio, M; Muscio, A; Sevi, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids from different sources on immune regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation in heat-stressed sheep. The experiment was carried out during the summer 2012. Thirty-two Comisana ewes were divided into 4 groups (8 sheep/group): (1) supplemented with whole flaxseed (FS); (2) supplemented with Ascophyllum nodosum (AG); (3) supplemented with a combination of flaxseed and A. nodosum (FS+AG); and (4) control (C; no supplementation). On d 22 of the experiment, cortisol concentrations in sheep blood were measured after an injection of ACTH. Cellular immune response was evaluated by intradermic injection of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at 0, 15, and 30 d of the trial. Humoral response to ovalbumin (OVA) was measured at 0, 15, and 30 d. At 0, 15, and 30 d of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each ewe to determine production of T-helper (Th)1 cytokines (IL-12 and IFN-γ), and Th2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13), and concentrations of heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and 90. Ewes supplemented with flaxseed alone had greater cortisol concentrations and a longer-lasting cell-mediated immune response compared with ewes in the control and other groups. Anti-OVA IgG concentrations increased in all groups throughout the trial, even though ewes in the FS+AG group had the lowest anti-OVA IgG concentrations at 15 d. The level of IL-10 increased in all groups throughout the experiment; the FS+AG group had the lowest IL-13 concentration at 15 and 30 d. The concentration of HSP 70 increased in AG ewes at the end of the experiment and decreased in FS ewes, whereas that of HSP 90 increased in FS ewes compared with FS+AG ewes. Flaxseed supplementation was found to influence in vivo HPA activation in heat-stressed sheep, resulting in increased cortisol concentrations, probably to meet increased energy demand for thermoregulation. Flaxseed supplementation also

  7. Functional maturation of growth hormone cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Nogami, Haruo; Hisano, Setsuji

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have disclosed the molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotype determination of the anterior pituitary cell types. However, as far as growth hormone (GH) cells are concerned, particular extra-cellular cues are required for the initiation of GH and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-receptor gene production in addition to the expression of the cell type specific transcription factor, pit-1. The glucocorticoids play a principal role in the functional maturation of nascent GH cell...

  8. Metalloproteinases ADAM12 and MMP-14 are associated with cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junwen; Voellger, Benjamin; Benzel, Julia; Schlomann, Uwe; Nimsky, Christopher; Bartsch, Jörg W; Carl, Barbara

    2016-09-15

    Invasion of tumor cells critically depends on cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Enzymes capable of modulating these interactions belong to the proteinase families of ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) and MMP (matrix metalloprotease) proteins. Our objective is to examine their expression levels and evaluate the relationship between expression levels and cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas. Tissue samples from 35 patients with pituitary adenomas were analyzed. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was employed to assess mRNA expression levels for ADAM and MMP genes. Protein levels were examined using immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. Correlation analyses between expression levels and clinical parameters were performed. By silencing ADAM12 and MMP-14 with siRNA in a mouse pituitary adenoma cell line (TtT/GF), their cellular effects were investigated. In our study, nine women and 26 men were included, with a mean age of 53.1 years (range 15-84 years) at the time of surgery. There were 19 cases with cavernous sinus invasion. The proteins ADAM12 and MMP-14 were significantly up-regulated in invasive adenomas compared to noninvasive adenomas. Both human isoforms of ADAM12 (ADAM12L and ADAM12s) were involved in tumor invasion; moreover, ADAM12L was found to correlate positively with Ki-67 proliferation index in pituitary adenomas. In TtT/GF pituitary adenoma cells, silencing of ADAM12 and MMP-14 significantly inhibited cell invasion and migration, respectively, whereas only silencing of ADAM12 suppressed cell proliferation. We conclude that ADAM12 and MMP-14 are associated with cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas, which qualifies these proteins in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27144841

  9. Diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma : significance of T2-weighted MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the significance of T2-weighted MR imaging(T2WI) in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma. We retrospectively evaluated the MR imaging findings of 30 cases of pituitary microadenoma. Diagnosis was made on the basis of surgery, serum hormonal level, and the presence of mass lesion on MR (T1WI and T2WI), and conventional as well as dynamic contrast enhanced T1WI images were obtained. In each MR sequence, signal intensity and detectability of the tumor were evaluated. We also determined whether diagnosis was possible on both T1WI and T2WI. In eight cases, histopathologic findings (cellularity, fibrosis, and cystic change) were correlated with T2 signal intensity of the tumor. T2WI, T1WI, and dynamic and conventional enhanced T1WI detected the tumor in 21 cases (70%), 21 cases (70%), 28 cases (93.3%), and 22 cases (73.3%), respectively. On T2WI, pituitary microadenomas showed a high signal in 18 cases (60%), an iso-signal in nine (30%), and a low signal in three (10%) compared with normal pituitary gland. In 20 cases (66.7%), diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma was possible on both T1WI and T2WI, but in one case, the tumor was detected only on T2WI. Three cases with fibrosis, as seen on histopathologic examination showed an iso or low signal on T2WI. T2WI is useful in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma Decreased signal intensity on T2WI may suggest fibrosis

  10. Signaling cross-talk between TGF-β/BMP and other path-ways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Guo; Xiao-Fan Wang

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta(TGF-β)/bone morphogenic protein(BMP)signaling is involved in the vast majority of cellular processes and is fundamentally important during the entire life of alI metazoans.Deregulation of TGF-β/BMP activity almost invariably leads to developmental defects and/or diseases.including cancer.The proper functioning of the TGF-β/BMP pathway depends on its constitutive and extensive communication with other signaling pathways,leading to synergistic or antagonistic effects and eventually desirable biological outcomes.The nature of such signaling cross-talk iS overwhelmingly complex and highly context-dependent.Here we review the difierent modes of cross-talk between TGF-β/BMP and the signaling pathways of Mitogen-activated protein kinase,phosphatidyIinositoI-3 kinase/Akt,Wnt,Hedgehog,Notch,and the interleukin/interferon-gamma/tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytokines,with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  11. Stem cells in the canine pituitary gland and in pituitary adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sarah J; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Hanson, Jeanette M; Penning, Louis C; Meij, Björn P

    2013-01-01

    Cushing's disease (CD) or pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs, with an estimated prevalence of 1 or 2 in 1000 dogs per year. It is caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting adenoma in the pars distalis or pars intermedia of the pituitary gland. The pituit

  12. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göngrich, Christina; García-González, Diego; Le Magueresse, Corentin; Roth, Lena C.; Watanabe, Yasuhito; Burks, Deborah J.; Grinevich, Valery; Monyer, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36), the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP). We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus, conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction. PMID:27587994

  13. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Göngrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36, the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP. We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction.

  14. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göngrich, Christina; García-González, Diego; Le Magueresse, Corentin; Roth, Lena C; Watanabe, Yasuhito; Burks, Deborah J; Grinevich, Valery; Monyer, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36), the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP). We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus, conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction. PMID:27587994

  15. Cellular Telephone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨周

    1996-01-01

    Cellular phones, used in automobiles, airliners, and passenger trains, are basically low-power radiotelephones. Calls go through radio transmitters that are located within small geographical units called cells. Because each cell’s signals are too weak to interfere with those of other cells operating on the same fre-

  16. Contribution of crosstalk to the uncertainty of electrostatic actuator calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A; Soto, Hector L; Zuckerwar, Allan J

    2009-09-01

    Crosstalk in electrostatic actuator calibrations is defined as the ratio of the microphone response to the actuator excitation voltage at a given frequency with the actuator polarization voltage turned off to the response, at the excitation frequency, with the polarization voltage turned on. It consequently contributes to the uncertainty of electrostatic actuator calibrations. Two sources of crosstalk are analyzed: the first attributed to the stray capacitance between the actuator electrode and the microphone backplate, and the second to the ground resistance appearing as a common element in the actuator excitation and microphone input loops. Measurements conducted on 1/4, 1/2, and 1 in. air condenser microphones reveal that the crosstalk has no frequency dependence up to the membrane resonance frequency and that the level of crosstalk lies at about -60 dB for all three microphones-conclusions that are consistent with theory. The measurements support the stray capacitance model. The contribution of crosstalk to the measurement standard uncertainty of an electrostatic actuator calibration is therewith 0.01 dB. PMID:19739723

  17. Assessment of crosstalks between the Snf1 kinase complex and sphingolipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae via systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borklu Yucel, Esra; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2013-11-01

    Sphingolipids are essential building blocks of the plasma membranes and are highly bioactive in the regulation of diverse cellular functions and pathological processes, a fact which renders the sphingolipid metabolism an important research area. In this study, a computational framework was recruited for the reconstruction of a functional interaction network for sphingolipid metabolism in Baker's yeast, SSN. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations were integrated with functional interaction data of the BIOGRID database and the reconstructed protein interaction network was subjected to topological and descriptive analyses. SSN was of a scale-free nature, following a power law model with γ=1.41. Prominent processes of SSN revealed that the reconstructed network encapsulated the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in vital cellular processes such as energy homeostasis, cell growth and/or death and synthesis of building blocks. To investigate the potential of SSN for predicting signal transduction pathways regulating and/or being regulated by sphingolipid biosynthesis in yeast, a case study involving the S. cerevisiae counterpart of AMP-activated protein kinase, the Snf1 kinase complex, was conducted. The mutant strain lacking the catalytic α subunit, snf1Δ/snf1Δ, had elevated inositol phosphorylceramide and mannosyl-inositol phosphorylceramide levels, and decreased mannosyl-diinositol phosphorylceramide levels compared to the wild type strain, revealing that Snf1p has a regulatory role in the sphingolipid metabolism. Transcriptome data belonging to that strain available in the literature were mapped onto SSN and the correlated SSN was further investigated to evaluate the possible crosstalk machineries where sphingolipids and Snf1p function in coordination, in other words the crosstalk points between sphingolipid-mediated and Snf1 kinase signalling. The subsequent investigation of the discovered candidate crosstalk processes by performing sensitivity experiments imply a

  18. Crosstalk in glomerular injury and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimke, Henrik; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Quaggin, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The glomerulus is a unique structure required for filtration of blood, while retaining plasma proteins based on size and charge selectivity. Distinct cell types form the structural unit that creates the filtration barrier. Structurally, fenestrated endothelial cells line...... the capillary loops and lie in close contact with mesangial cells. Podocytes are connected by specialized intercellular junctions known as slit diaphragms and separated from the endothelial compartment by the glomerular basement membrane. In order for this highly specialized structure to function, cross...... cellular pathways of established signaling cascades have been identified that are important for maintaining glomerular barrier function in health and disease. SUMMARY: Here, we will review our current understanding of the processes of cross-communication between the unique cellular constituents forming...

  19. Theoretical analysis of crosstalk in near-infrared topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, E.; Okui, N.

    2006-09-01

    Crosstalk between changes in concentration of oxy-and deoxy-haemoglobin calculated by modified Lambert-Beer law in near-infrared topography is theoretically investigated. The change in intensity detected with source-detector pairs on the scalp caused by global or focal ahsorption change in the brain is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation. The topographic images of changes in oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin are obtained from the changes in intensity detected with source-detector pairs on the scalp. The crosstalk depends on the relative position of the focal absorption change to source-detector pairs. The crosstalk is minimised when the focal absorption change is located below a measurement point that is the midpoint between a source and a detector.

  20. Integrated SQUID sensors for low cross-talk multichannel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, C.; Vettoliere, A.; Luiso, M.; Russo, M.

    2006-06-01

    We present a fully integrated dc-SQUID magnetometer based on niobium technology including a new feedback coil design. In respect to a standard SQUID design, such a feedback-coil design was optimized in order to reduce the mutual inductance with the neighbours and to increase the coupling with the pick-up coil of the SQUID itself. In such a way, it is possible to reduce cross-talks due to both feedback coil and wires. Experimental results about the characterization of the device and the crosstalk measurements are reported. The measurements have been performed in liquid helium using a low noise readout electronics specifically designed for large multichannel SQUID based instrumentations. The experimental data have shown a substantial reduction of cross-talk between neighbouring sensors.

  1. Crosstalk Model and Estimation Formula for VLSI Interconnect Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We develop an interconnect crosstalk estimation model on the assumption of linearity for CMOS device. First, we analyze the terminal response of RC model on the worst condition from the S field to the time domain. The exact 3 order coefficients in S field are obtained due to the interconnect tree model. Based on this, a crosstalk peak estimation formula is presented. Unlike other crosstalk equations in the literature, this formula is only used coupled capacitance and grand capacitance as parameter. Experimental results show that, compared with the SPICE results, the estimation formulae are simple and accurate. So the model is expected to be used in such fields as layout-driven logic and high level synthesis, performance-driven floorplanning and interconnect planning.

  2. Effect of Crosstalk on Permutation in Optical Multistage Interconnection Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Er Sandeep; Aggarwal, Er Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Optical MINs hold great promise and have advantages over their electronic networks.they also hold their own challenges. More research has been done on Electronic Multistage Interconnection Networks, (EMINs) but these days optical communication is a good networking choice to meet the increasing demands of high-performance computing communication applications for high bandwidth applications. The electronic Multistage Interconnection Networks (EMINs) and the Optical Multistage Interconnection Networks (OMINs) have many similarities, but there are some fundamental differences between them such as the optical-loss during switching and the crosstalk problem in the optical switches. To reduce the negative effect of crosstalk, various approaches which apply the concept of dilation in either the space or time domain have been proposed. With the space domain approach, extra SEs are used to ensure that at most one input and one output of every SE will be used at any given time. For an Optical network without crosstalk, ...

  3. Integrated SQUID sensors for low cross-talk multichannel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a fully integrated dc-SQUID magnetometer based on niobium technology including a new feedback coil design. In respect to a standard SQUID design, such a feedback-coil design was optimized in order to reduce the mutual inductance with the neighbours and to increase the coupling with the pick-up coil of the SQUID itself. In such a way, it is possible to reduce cross-talks due to both feedback coil and wires. Experimental results about the characterization of the device and the crosstalk measurements are reported. The measurements have been performed in liquid helium using a low noise readout electronics specifically designed for large multichannel SQUID based instrumentations. The experimental data have shown a substantial reduction of cross-talk between neighbouring sensors

  4. Crosstalk Cancellation for a Simultaneous Phase Shifting Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of minimizing fringe print-through in a phase-shifting interferometer, includes the steps of: (a) determining multiple transfer functions of pixels in the phase-shifting interferometer; (b) computing a crosstalk term for each transfer function; and (c) displaying, to a user, a phase-difference map using the crosstalk terms computed in step (b). Determining a transfer function in step (a) includes measuring intensities of a reference beam and a test beam at the pixels, and measuring an optical path difference between the reference beam and the test beam at the pixels. Computing crosstalk terms in step (b) includes computing an N-dimensional vector, where N corresponds to the number of transfer functions, and the N-dimensional vector is obtained by minimizing a variance of a modulation function in phase shifted images.

  5. Mechanisms of mitochondria and autophagy crosstalk

    OpenAIRE

    Rambold, Angelika S.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular survival pathway that recycles intracellular components to compensate for nutrient depletion and ensures the appropriate degradation of organelles. Mitochondrial number and health are regulated by mitophagy, a process by which excessive or damaged mitochondria are subjected to autophagic degradation. Autophagy is thus a key determinant for mitochondrial health and proper cell function. Mitophagic malfunction has been recently proposed to contribute to progressive neuro...

  6. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the clinical, radiological and surgical findings in patients with both pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst. We retrospectively selected patients with both lesions from the 374 patients in whom a sellar/juxtasellar lesion was detected on MRI at 1.5 tesla. All patients received intravenous contrast medium. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst were found in eight patients (2.1 %). The frequency of the combination was 3.5 % of pituitary adenomas and 11 % of Rathke's cleft cysts. Symptoms were always due to the adenoma, secreting adrenocorticotrophin in two patients and growth hormone in six. The adenoma was larger in five patients, and the cyst in three. The cysts gave variable signal. The adenoma was adjacent to the cyst in seven patients, and enclosed it in the other patient. As a result of experience with MRI, concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst are now known not to be as rare as thought previously. When a nonenhancing cyst-like structure is demonstrated in a patient with pituitary adenoma, the possibility of a coexisting Rathke's cleft cyst should be considered. (orig.)

  7. Mortality in patients with pituitary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Pituitary disease is associated with increased mortality predominantly due to vascular disease. Control of cortisol secretion and GH hypersecretion (and cardiovascular risk factor reduction) is key in the reduction of mortality in patients with Cushing\\'s disease and acromegaly, retrospectively. For patients with acromegaly, the role of IGF-I is less clear-cut. Confounding pituitary hormone deficiencies such as gonadotropins and particularly ACTH deficiency (with higher doses of hydrocortisone replacement) may have a detrimental effect on outcome in patients with pituitary disease. Pituitary radiotherapy is a further factor that has been associated with increased mortality (particularly cerebrovascular). Although standardized mortality ratios in pituitary disease are falling due to improved treatment, mortality for many conditions are still elevated above that of the general population, and therefore further measures are needed. Craniopharyngioma patients have a particularly increased risk of mortality as a result of the tumor itself and treatment to control tumor growth; this is a key area for future research in order to optimize the outcome for these patients.

  8. Systematic Analysis of the Crosstalk between Mitosis and DNA Damage by a Live Cell siRNA Screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronni Sølvhøi

    Recent research has shown, that the biological processes of DNA replication, DNA damage, cell cycle and mitosis cannot be considered as isolated cellular functions but are mechanistically linked in many ways. For instance, when cells are exposed to replication stress and enter mitosis...... propose that this strong p53 response, which often occurs without detectable increase in DNA damage, is caused by the acute increase in chromosomal aneuploidy. Finally, our systematic approach to the DNA damage-mitosis crosstalk reveals widespread cell death in response to mitotic pertubations, showing...

  9. Oligodendrocyte, Astrocyte, and Microglia Crosstalk in Myelin Development, Damage, and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Helena S.; Portugal, Camila C.; Socodato, Renato; Relvas, João B.

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system. Myelination of axons allows rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses and contributes to axonal integrity. Devastating neurological deficits caused by demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, illustrate well the importance of the process. In this review, we focus on the positive and negative interactions between oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia during developmental myelination and remyelination. Even though many lines of evidence support a crucial role for glia crosstalk during these processes, the nature of such interactions is often neglected when designing therapeutics for repair of demyelinated lesions. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying glial cell communication and how they influence oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination is fundamental to uncover novel therapeutic strategies for myelin repair. PMID:27551677

  10. Managing complexity: Dealing with systemic crosstalk in bovine physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Barry J; Yuan, Kai; Ylioja, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Dairy producers rely heavily on advisors with deep expertise in nutrition, reproduction, and health. However, a shift is occurring, driven both by farm size and by advances in biology. Larger dairy businesses can investigate management options with a degree of precision never before possible; simultaneously, the lines between the metabolic, immune, and reproductive systems are becoming blurred. For example, new research has revealed a surprising role for immune cells in regulating metabolism and documented the nutrient requirements of the immune system. The gut epithelium has garnered new attention as a tissue that actively manages the commensal microbiome, entrains the responses of the neonatal immune system, and provides a barrier limiting movement of molecules from the gut lumen. New hormone discoveries have added adipose tissue, bone, and muscle to the list of endocrine organs. Finally, nutrients are now seen not only as substrates and cofactors, but also as signals that can alter cellular function. What does all of this mean for the dairy industry? Consultants are increasingly reaching across disciplinary boundaries to best support the physiology of the cow. However, research is needed to translate proof-of-principle findings into applications in cattle. Key unanswered questions include the degree to which roles of the hindgut in monogastrics translate to ruminants, and whether some host-microbe crosstalk also occurs in the rumen; whether hormone release by storage organs during a catabolic state affects reproductive function; and the degree to which immunostimulation by dietary signals enhances or disrupts health and productivity. It is critical to address these questions with multiple approaches. Mechanistic studies provide a nuanced understanding of signal interactions, but large-scale commercial studies are needed to evaluate effects on multiple production outcomes in the environment of interest, and meta-analyses best integrate findings into a cohesive

  11. Techniques for Characterizing Filters for Sensor Optical Cross-Talk

    OpenAIRE

    Murgai, Vijay; Cartland, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Interference filters assembled in ‘butcher-block’ arrays are used close to focal plane arrays for spectral definition in sensors such as VIIRS. Ideally only light incident on a particular filter above a detector element which is within the specified band will reach the detector. Optical cross-talk is in-band or out-of-band light incident on an adjacent filter or adjacent region of the same filter reaching the detector. Out-of-band optical cross-talk results in spectral and spatial ‘impurit...

  12. Study of Crosstalk propoerty in an Optical Packet Switching Node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春华; 李力; 等

    2002-01-01

    The effect of queuing delay of output buffer on the crosstalk property in optical packel switching nodes in investigated.The relationship between crosstalk and buffer length is obtained.From the calculation and simulation results,it is concluded that the corsstalk power penalty predominantly depends on the buffer length,the longer the buffer,the greater the penalty,as well as the random range of the penalty.While comparing with the effect of queuing delay,the effect of random routing path delay takes very little proportion in the total power penalty.

  13. A Dual Decomposition Approach to Partial Crosstalk Cancelation in a Multiuser DMT-xDSL Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verlinden Jan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern DSL systems, far-end crosstalk is a major source of performance degradation. Crosstalk cancelation schemes have been proposed to mitigate the effect of crosstalk. However, the complexity of crosstalk cancelation grows with the square of the number of lines in the binder. Fortunately, most of the crosstalk originates from a limited number of lines and, for DMT-based xDSL systems, on a limited number of tones. As a result, a fraction of the complexity of full crosstalk cancelation suffices to cancel most of the crosstalk. The challenge is then to determine which crosstalk to cancel on which tones, given a complexity constraint. This paper presents an algorithm based on a dual decomposition to optimally solve this problem. The proposed algorithm naturally incorporates rate constraints and the complexity of the algorithm compares favorably to a known resource allocation algorithm, where a multiuser extension is made to incorporate the rate constraints.

  14. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Beatty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s. Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation.

  15. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Norman; Medina-Garcia, Luis; Al Mohajer, Mayar; Zangeneh, Tirdad T

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation. PMID:27006841

  16. A pediatric case of pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy and cranial nerve involvement: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçetin, Mustafa; Karacı, Mehmet; Toroslu, Ertuğ; Edebali, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness. The problem leading to pituitary apoplexy may be decreased blood supply in the adenoma and hemorrhage following this decrease or hemorrhage alone. In this article, we present a patient who presented with fever, vomiting and sudden loss of vision and limited outward gaze in the left eye following trauma and who was found to have pituitary macroadenoma causing compression of the optic chiasma and optic nerve on the left side on cranial and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. MRI of pituitary adenomas in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marro, B. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Zouaoui, A. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sahel, M. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Crozat, N. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Gerber, S. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sourour, N. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sag, K. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Marsault, C. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France)

    1997-06-01

    Adenomas causing acromegaly represent at least a quarter of pituitary adenomas. We studied 12 patients presenting with active acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma with a 1.5 T superconductive MRI unit. All had T1-weighted sagittal and coronal sections before and after Gd-DTPA; six had coronal T2-weighted images. Surgical correlation was obtained in seven patients. Histologically, there were eight growth hormone (GH)-secreting and three mixed [GH and prolactin (PRL) secreting] adenomas, and one secreting GH, PRL and follicle-stimulating hormone. Macroadenomas (10) were more frequent than microadenomas (2). No correlation was found between serum GH and tumour size. There were nine adenomas in the lateral part of the pituitary gland; seven showed lateral or infrasellar invasion. Homogeneous, isointense signal on T1- and T2-weighted images was observed in six cases. Heterogeneous adenomas had cystic or necrotic components. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  19. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: an endocrinologist`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Halloran, D.J.; Shalet, S.M. [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    A brief review is given of the clinical management of patients with pituitary adenomas such as prolactinomas, adenomasin acromegoly and Leushin`s disease, and non-functioning pituitary adenomas. In particular the complications of radiotherapy are explored. (UK).

  20. Contemporary issues in the evaluation and management of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Popovic, V

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are common benign monoclonal neoplasms accounting for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. Data from postmortem studies and imaging studies suggest that 1 of 5 individuals in the general population may have pituitary adenoma. Some pituitary adenomas (mainly microadenomas which have a diameter of less than 1 cm) are exceedingly common and are incidentally diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for an unrelated reason (headache, vertigo, head trauma). Most microadenomas remain clinically occult and stable in size, without an increase in tumor cells and without local mass effects. However, some pituitary adenomas grow slowly, enlarge by expansion and become demarcated from normal pituitary (macroadenomas have a diameter greater than 1 cm). They may be clinically silent or secrete anterior pituitary hormones in excess such as prolactin, growth hormone (GH), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing diseases like prolactinoma, acromegaly, Cushing's disease or rarely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or gonadotropins (LH, FSH). The incidence of the various subtypes of pituitary adenoma varies but the most common is prolactinoma. Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), which do not secrete hormones often cause local mass symptoms and represent one-third of pituitary adenomas. Given the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas and their heterogeneity (different tumor subtypes), it is critical that clinicians have a thorough understanding of the potential abnormalities in pituitary function and prognostic factors for behavior of pituitary adenomas in order to timely implement specific treatment modalities. Regarding pathogenesis of these tumors genetics, epigenetics and signaling pathways are the focus of current research yet our understanding of pituitary tumorigenesis remains incomplete. Although several genes and signaling pathways have been identified as important factors in the development of pituitary tumors, current

  1. Pituitary tumors in patients with MEN1 syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Syro, Luis V.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Kalman Kovacs; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Francisco J. Londoño; Ortiz, Leon D.; Fabio Rotondo; Eva Horvath; Humberto Uribe

    2012-01-01

    We briefly review the characteristics of pituitary tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder most commonly characterized by tumors of the pituitary, parathyroid, endocrine-gastrointestinal tract, and pancreas. A MEDLINE search for all available publications regarding multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and pituitary adenomas was undertaken. The prevalence of pituitary tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia...

  2. Contemporary issues in the evaluation and management of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Popovic, V

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are common benign monoclonal neoplasms accounting for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. Data from postmortem studies and imaging studies suggest that 1 of 5 individuals in the general population may have pituitary adenoma. Some pituitary adenomas (mainly microadenomas which have a diameter of less than 1 cm) are exceedingly common and are incidentally diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for an unrelated reason (headache, vertigo, head trauma). Most microadenomas remain clinically occult and stable in size, without an increase in tumor cells and without local mass effects. However, some pituitary adenomas grow slowly, enlarge by expansion and become demarcated from normal pituitary (macroadenomas have a diameter greater than 1 cm). They may be clinically silent or secrete anterior pituitary hormones in excess such as prolactin, growth hormone (GH), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing diseases like prolactinoma, acromegaly, Cushing's disease or rarely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or gonadotropins (LH, FSH). The incidence of the various subtypes of pituitary adenoma varies but the most common is prolactinoma. Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), which do not secrete hormones often cause local mass symptoms and represent one-third of pituitary adenomas. Given the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas and their heterogeneity (different tumor subtypes), it is critical that clinicians have a thorough understanding of the potential abnormalities in pituitary function and prognostic factors for behavior of pituitary adenomas in order to timely implement specific treatment modalities. Regarding pathogenesis of these tumors genetics, epigenetics and signaling pathways are the focus of current research yet our understanding of pituitary tumorigenesis remains incomplete. Although several genes and signaling pathways have been identified as important factors in the development of pituitary tumors, current

  3. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, K.W. (Queensland Radium Inst., Herston (Australia))

    1981-11-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment.

  4. Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

  5. The pituitary - Aging and spaceflown rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Decrements in growth hormone (GH) release we observed in two spaceflight experiments and four tail-suspended rat studies mimic age-associated changes in the mammalian pituitary GH system seen by Meites and others. The spaceflight data suggest that formation of high molecular weight bioactive disulfide-linked aggregates of the 20 and 22K monomeric GH forms may be reduced in microgravity, thereby, reducing target tissue activity. Correlative studies to confirm spaceflight as a model for pituitary GH system aging should include: (1) investigation of mechanisms of intracellular hormone packaging, (2) consequences to biological activity of the hormone molecule, and (3) study of intracellular microtubule dynamics.

  6. MR of pituitary micro-adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the time, rationales to look for pituitary micro-adenomas are based on endocrinal disorder. MRI is often helpful to confirm diagnosis. It gives information about micro-adenomas size and localisation. If conventional sequence are inadequate, a dynamic sequence has then to be performed after Gadolinium injection. Any disorder observed from the pituitary gland must be correlated with the clinical observation and results from biochemistry analysis. False positive happens quite open because of gland morphological variation, incidentalomas and partial volumes. MRI offers the possibility to follow-up treated micro-adenomas evolution especially to detect recurrence. (author)

  7. DMPD: Innate immune responses: crosstalk of signaling and regulation of genetranscription. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16753195 Innate immune responses: crosstalk of signaling and regulation of genetran...l) (.csml) Show Innate immune responses: crosstalk of signaling and regulation of genetranscription. PubmedI...D 16753195 Title Innate immune responses: crosstalk of signaling and regulation o

  8. Crosstalk in 1.5-μm InGaAsP optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, H. E.; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1988-01-01

    and the detuning of the channels relative to the amplifier Fabry-Perot spectrum. Calculations of worst-case crosstalk levels are included. The model is verified experimentally for amplitude-modulated signals, and crosstalk levels up to -7 dB are reported. For frequency-modulated signals, estimated crosstalk...

  9. Diagnostic imaging of the pituitary gland in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt-Meijer, R.H. van der

    2006-01-01

    Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is a frequently encountered endocrinopathy in dogs. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is an effective treatment of PDH in dogs. However, for pituitary surgery to be successful information about the size of the pituitary gland and the exact location of the

  10. Pathobiology and oncogenesis of pituitary corticotroph adenomas in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) or Cushing's disease is a common endocrinopathy in the elderly dog caused by a pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) producing tumor (corticotroph adenoma) of unknown pathogenesis. Surgical removal of the pituitary tumor is applied as routine tr

  11. Recurrent oculomotor palsy due to haemorrhage in pituitary adenoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, S.

    1980-01-01

    Haemorrhage in pituitary adenoma is an unusual cause of recurrent oculomotor palsy. Three episodes of right oculomotor palsy are reported from a patient having haemorrhage in pituitary adenoma. Early operation and decompression of haemorrhagic pituitary adenoma should be performed so that vision may be preserved and recovery of oculomotor palsy be assured.

  12. Proteolytic crosstalk in multi-protease networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Curtis T.; Mather, William H.

    2016-04-01

    Processive proteases, such as ClpXP in E. coli, are conserved enzyme assemblies that can recognize and rapidly degrade proteins. These proteases are used for a number of purposes, including degrading mistranslated proteins and controlling cellular stress response. However, proteolytic machinery within the cell is limited in capacity and can lead to a bottleneck in protein degradation, whereby many proteins compete (‘queue’) for proteolytic resources. Previous work has demonstrated that such queueing can lead to pronounced statistical relationships between different protein counts when proteins compete for a single common protease. However, real cells contain many different proteases, e.g. ClpXP, ClpAP, and Lon in E. coli, and it is not clear how competition between proteins for multiple classes of protease would influence the dynamics of cellular networks. In the present work, we theoretically demonstrate that a multi-protease proteolytic bottleneck can substantially couple the dynamics for both simple and complex (oscillatory) networks, even between substrates with substantially different affinities for protease. For these networks, queueing often leads to strong positive correlations between protein counts, and these correlations are strongest near the queueing theoretic point of balance. Furthermore, we find that the qualitative behavior of these networks depends on the relative size of the absolute affinity of substrate to protease compared to the cross affinity of substrate to protease, leading in certain regimes to priority queue statistics.

  13. Crosstalk in production modules of the Electromagnetic Endcap Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hubaut, Fabrice; Dekhissi, Bouchra; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; El-Kharrim, Abderrahman; Maaroufi, Fatiha

    2003-01-01

    Various types of crosstalk, measured with ATLAS-like electronics on three electromagnetic endcap calorimeter production modules at liquid argon temperature are reviewed. A comparison is made between the three modules results and previous measurements. The effect on the physics data is discussed.

  14. A simple method for measuring crosstalk in stereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Michael A.; Woods, Andrew J.

    2011-03-01

    Crosstalk (also known as "ghosting", "leakage", or "extinction"), a vitally important concept in stereoscopic 3D displays, has not been clearly defined or measured in the stereoscopic literature (Woods). In this paper, a mathematical definition is proposed which uses a "physical" approach. This derivation leads to a clear definition of leftview or right-view crosstalk and shows that 1), when the display's black level is not zero, it must be subtracted out and 2), when the source intensities are equal, crosstalk can be measured using observed intensities totally within the respective view. Next, a simple method of measuring crosstalk is presented, one that relies on only viewing a test chart on the display. No electronic or optical instruments are needed. Results of the use of the chart are presented, as well as optical measurements, which did not agree well with chart results. The main reason for the discrepancy is the difficulty of measuring very low light levels. With wide distribution, this tool can lead to the collection of useful performance information about 3D displays and, therefore, to the production of the best stereoscopic displays.

  15. Minimizing Crosstalk in Self Oscillating Switch Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard

    2012-01-01

    The varying switching frequencies of self oscillating switch mode audio amplifiers have been known to cause interchannel intermodulation disturbances in multi channel configurations. This crosstalk phenomenon has a negative impact on the audio performance. The goal of this paper is to present...... by the implementation presented. Future work could include further refinement of the implementation of the concepts, electromagnetic interference investigations or PCB design....

  16. Low-crosstalk Si arrayed waveguide grating with parabolic tapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tong; Fu, Yunfei; Qiao, Lei; Chu, Tao

    2014-12-29

    A silicon arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with low channel crosstalk was demonstrated by using ultra-short parabolic tapers to connect the AWG's free propagation regions and single-mode waveguides. The tapers satisfied the requirements of low-loss mode conversion and lower channel crosstalk from the coupling of neighboring waveguides in the AWGs. In this work, three different tapers, including parabolic tapers, linear tapers, and exponential tapers, were theoretically analyzed and experimentally investigated for a comparison of their effects when implemented in AWGs. The experimental results showed that the AWG with parabolic tapers had a crosstalk improvement up to 7.1 dB compared with the others. Based on the advantages of parabolic tapers, a 400-GHz 8 × 8 cyclic AWG with 2.4 dB on-chip loss and -17.6~-25.1 dB crosstalk was fabricated using a simple one-step etching process. Its performance was comparable with that of existing AWGs with bi-level tapers, which require complicated two-step etching fabrication processes.

  17. Crosstalk in dynamic optical interconnects in photorefractive crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Petersen, Paul Michael; Buchhave, Preben

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the crosstalk between two neighboring gratings in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 optical interconnects. The gratings are induced by the interference between one reference beam and two object beams. By applying a suitable phase shift in one of the object beams, we can selectively...

  18. Scaling and Pixel Crosstalk Considerations for CMOS Image Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiang-liang; CHEN Jie(member,IEEE); QIU Yu-lin

    2003-01-01

    With the scaling development of the minimum lithographic size,the scaling trend of CMOS imager pixel size and fill factor has been computed according to the Moore rule.When the CMOS minimum lithographic feature scales down to 0.35 μm,the CCD image pixel size is not so easy to be reduced and but the CMOS image pixel size benefits from the scaling minimum lithographic feature. However, when the CMOS technology is downscaled to or under 0.35 μm,the fabrication of CMOS image sensors will be limited by the standard CMOS process in both ways of shallow trench isolation and source/drain junction,which results in pixel crosstalk.The impact of the crosstalk on the active pixel CMOS image sensor is analyzed based on the technology scaling.Some suppressed crosstalk methods have been reviewed.The best way is that combining the advantages of CMOS and SOI technology to fabricate the image sensors will reduce the pixel crosstalk.

  19. Cross-talk between bone morphogenetic proteins and inflammatory pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, P.M. van der; Davidson, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines and bone morphogenetic proteins are generally studied separately and considered to be elements of different worlds, immunology and developmental biology. Varas and colleagues report that these factors show cross-talk in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. They show that pro

  20. Gene expression profiling analysis of MENX-associated rat pituitary adenomas contributes to understand molecular mechanisms of human pituitary adenomas

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, HONGZHI; XU, CHUAN; SUN, NINGYANG; ZHOU, YINTING; Yu, Xiaofei; Yan, Xue; ZHANG, QIUJUAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to screen potential genes associated with pituitary adenomas to obtain further understanding with regard to the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas. The microarray GSE23207 dataset, containing 16 pituitary adenoma samples from multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome-associated rats and 5 normal pituitary tissue samples, was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The Linear Models for Microarray Data package was used to identify the differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) ...

  1. IL-1α mediates cellular cross-talk in the airway epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Alison R; Donaldson, Jessica E; Blume, Cornelia; Smithers, Natalie; Tezera, Liku; Tariq, Kamran; Dennison, Patrick; Rupani, Hitasha; Edwards, Matthew J; Howarth, Peter H; Grainge, Christopher; Davies, Donna E; Swindle, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    The bronchial epithelium and underlying fibroblasts form an epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU) which controls the airway microenvironment. We hypothesized that cell-cell communication within the EMTU propagates and amplifies the innate immune response to respiratory viral infections. EMTU co-culture models incorporating polarized (16HBE14o-) or differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and fibroblasts were challenged with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or rhinovirus. In the polarized EMTU model, dsRNA affected ionic but not macromolecular permeability or cell viability. Compared with epithelial monocultures, dsRNA-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediator release was synergistically enhanced in the basolateral compartment of the EMTU model, with the exception of IL-1α which was unaffected by the presence of fibroblasts. Blockade of IL-1 signaling with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) completely abrogated dsRNA-induced basolateral release of mediators except CXCL10. Fibroblasts were the main responders to epithelial-derived IL-1 since exogenous IL-1α induced pro-inflammatory mediator release from fibroblast but not epithelial monocultures. Our findings were confirmed in a differentiated EMTU model where rhinovirus infection of primary HBECs and fibroblasts resulted in synergistic induction of basolateral IL-6 that was significantly abrogated by IL-1Ra. This study provides the first direct evidence of integrated IL-1 signaling within the EMTU to propagate inflammatory responses to viral infection. PMID:27583193

  2. In Vivo and In Vitro Arsenic Exposition Induces Oxidative Stress in Anterior Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Bianchi, María S; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is at the top of toxic metalloids. Inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption is one of the greatest environmental health threats worldwide. Human iAs exposure has been associated with cancers of several organs, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems. Nevertheless, there are no reports describing how iAs affects the anterior pituitary gland. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in iAs-mediated anterior pituitary toxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We showed that iAs administration (from 5 to 100 ppm) to male rats through drinking water increased messenger RNA expression of several oxidative stress-responsive genes in the anterior pituitary gland. Serum prolactin levels diminished, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were only affected at the higher dose tested. In anterior pituitary cells in culture, 25 µmol/L iAs significantly decreased prolactin release in a time-dependent fashion, whereas LH levels remained unaltered. Cell viability was significantly reduced mainly by apoptosis evidenced by morphological and phosphatidylserine externalization studies. This process is characterized by early depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Expression of some key oxidative stress-responsive genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 and metallothionein-1, was also stimulated by iAs exposure. The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine prevented iAs-induced effects on the expression of oxidative stress markers, prolactin release, and apoptosis. In summary, the present work demonstrates for the first time that iAs reduces prolactin release both in vivo and in vitro and induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells, possibly resulting from imbalanced cellular redox status.

  3. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Beatty; Luis Medina-Garcia; Mayar Al Mohajer; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should...

  4. Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam

    2006-01-01

    Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli. Pit

  5. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the increa

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pituitary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently considered a major keystone of the diagnosis of diseases of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal region. However, the relatively small size of the pituitary gland, its location deep at the skull base and the numerous physiological variants present in this area impede the precise assessment of the anatomical structures and, particularly, of the pituitary gland itself. The diagnosis of the often tiny lesions of this region--such as pituitary microadenomas--is then difficult if the MRI technology is not optimized and if potential artifacts and traps are not recognized. Advanced MRI technology can not only depict small lesions with greater reliability, but also help in the differential diagnosis of large tumors. In these, defining the presence or absence of invasion is a particularly important task. This review describes and illustrates the radiological diagnosis of the different tumors of the sellar region, from the common prolactinomas, nonfunctioning adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts, to the less frequent and more difficult to detect corticotroph pituitary adenomas in Cushing's disease, and other neoplastic and nonneoplastic entities. Finally, some hints are given to facilitate the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions. PMID:27003878

  7. Patient reported outcome in posttraumatic pituitary deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Marianne; Stochholm, Kirstine; Janukonyté, Jurgita;

    2015-01-01

    with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in relation to deficiencies identified upon pituitary assessment. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were Danish patients with a head trauma diagnosis recorded in the Danish Board of Health diagnostic code registry; 439...

  8. HYPONATREMIA AFTER TRANSSPHENIODAL SURGERY OF PITUITARY ADENOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶蔚; 任祖渊; 苏长保; 王任直; 杨义; 马文斌

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To clarify the frequency, presentation, associated factors, treatment and outcome of hy-ponatremia after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary adenomas.Methods. Retrospectively reviewed the database of 183 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgeryof pituitary adenomas between January 1999 and June 2000 in our department.Result.s. 38.8% (71/183) had postoperative hyponatremia. Among them, 59.2% (42/71) appeared onthe 4th to 7th day postoperatively. 59.2% (42/71) presented with nausea, vomiting, headache, dizzi-ness, confusion and weakness. Hyponatremia was related to age, tumor size and adenoma type, but notrelated to sex and degree of resection. Treatment consisted of salt replacement and mild fluid restrictionin 4 patients and salt and fluid replacement in 67 patients. Hyponatremia resolved within 16 days in allthe patients.Conclusions. Hyponatremia often appeared about 7 days after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary ade-nomas, especially in elderly and patients with macroadenomas and huge pituitary adenomas. The principleof treatment was salt and fluid replacement.

  9. Health-related quality of life in pituitary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Iris; Valassi, Elena; Santos, Alicia; Webb, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    In the last 15 years, worse health-related quality of life (QoL) has been reported in patients with pituitary diseases compared with healthy individuals. Different QoL questionnaires have shown incomplete physical and psychological recovery after therapy. Residual impairments often affect QoL even long-term after successful treatment of pituitary adenomas. In this article, knowledge of factors that affect QoL in pituitary diseases is reviewed. The focus is on 5 pituitary diseases: Cushing syndrome, acromegaly, prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, and hypopituitarism.

  10. MRI evaluation of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the MRI manifestations of the pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism and to improve the differential diagnosis of secondary pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary tumors. Methods: The MRI findings of pituitary hyperplasia in 10 documented primary hypothyroidism patients (male 3, female 7; age range: 9-15 years) were reviewed. The pulse sequences using a 1.0T MR scanner included coronal and sagittal T1W, coronal T2W and coronal contrast-enhanced T1W in all patients. Results: The pituitary gland was markedly enlarged with mean height of 15.5 mm (11-23 mm). Central bulging of pituitary gland was seen in all 10 patients with mild displacement of the infundibulum in 3 and sellar enlargement in 5. All glands had homogeneous MR signal intensities and contrast enhancement. Conclusion: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism has characteristic MR features of central bulging with homogeneous signal intensities and contrast enhancement. (authors)

  11. Pituitary abscess: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos K A Karagiannis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare life-threating entity that is usually misdiagnosed as a pituitary tumor with a definite diagnosis only made postoperatively. Over the last several decades, advances in healthcare have led to a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality due to pituitary abscess. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who was admitted to our department for investigation of a pituitary mass and with symptoms of pituitary dysfunction, headaches and impaired vision. During her admission, she developed meningitis-like symptoms and was treated with antibiotics. She eventually underwent transsphenoidal surgery for excision of the pituitary mass. A significant amount of pus was evident intraoperatively; however, no pathogen was isolated. Six months later, the patient was well and had full recovery of the anterior pituitary function. Her menses returned, and she was only on treatment with desmopressin for diabetes insipidus that developed postoperatively.

  12. Cellular host responses to gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Najbauer

    together with pericytes give rise to tumor vasculature. Mapping the cellular composition of glioma microenvironment and deciphering the complex 'crosstalk' between tumor and host may ultimately aid the development of novel anti-glioma therapies.

  13. Melatonin modulation of crosstalk among malignant epithelial, endothelial and adipose cells in breast cancer (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cos, Samuel; Alvarez-García, Virginia; González, Alicia; Alonso-González, Carolina; Martínez-Campa, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Melatonin, the main secretory product of the pineal gland, is an oncostatic agent that reduces the growth and development of various types of tumors, particularly mammary tumors whose growth is dependent on estrogens. Previous in vivo and in vitro studies point to the hypothesis that melatonin interplays with estrogen signaling pathways at three different levels: i) an indirect mechanism, by interfering with the hypothalamic-pituitary-reproductive axis in such way that the level of plasma estrogens synthesized by the gonadal glands are downregulated; ii) a direct mechanism of the pineal gland at the cell cancer level, disrupting the activation of estradiol receptors, therefore behaving as a selective estrogen receptor modulator; and iii) by regulating the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of estrogens in other tissues, thus behaving as a selective estrogen enzyme modulator. The intratumoral metabolism and synthesis of estrogens, as a result of the interactions of various enzymes, is more important than blood uptake to maintain mammary gland estrogen levels in menopausal females. Additionally, estrogens are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of hormone-dependent breast carcinoma. Paracrine interactions among malignant epithelial cells and proximal adipose and endothelial cells, through cytokines and growth factors produced by breast tumor cells, modulate estrogen production at the mammary tumor level and, as a consequence, the genesis and development of mammary tumors. The aim of the present review is to summarize the recent findings describing the mechanisms by which melatonin is able to modulate the crosstalk among malignant epithelial, endothelial and adipose cells in breast cancer. PMID:25009641

  14. [A case of pituitary adenoma progressing to pituitary apoplexy on the occasion of cerebral angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, T; Kagawa, S; Goto, H; Yoshioka, K; Hosoya, T

    1996-05-01

    A case of pituitary adenoma which had progressed from subclinical pituitary apoplexy to subacute pituitary apoplexy on the occasion of cerebral angiography is reported. A 29-year-old man, complaining of bitemporal hemianopsia, was admitted to our department. Plain skull X-p revealed enlargement and double floor of the sella turcica. No abnormal calcification was revealed. CT demonstrated an isodensity mass with a diameter of 4 x 4 cm, and with ring enhancement in the suprasellar region. The mass extended from the intrasellar region to the suprasellar region and had a signal of high intensity on T1-weighted images. Endocrinological examination revealed hyperprolactinemia with a serum level of 422 ng/ml and normal reaction of anterior pituitary hormones. On 3rd March, digital subtraction angiography with 5F catheter was performed with the patient under sedation. The contrast medium was ioxaglic acid (Hexabrix 320). A volume of 6 ml with a speed of 4 ml per second was injected for the internal carotid angiogram. A total volume of 60 ml was used. Serum saline with 10 unit per ml of heparin sodium was also used for flushing. During angiography, the patient's blood pressure was 125/60-115/60mm Hg. DSA revealed upward displacement of the proximal portion of the anterior cerebral artery, pocket formation, and staining of the tumor capsule. Six hours later, he complained of retroorbital headache. Next morning, he noticed complete lack of left visual acuity. On 7th March, right visual acuity degenerated to blindness. CT revealed that the mass had increased its density. With bifrontal osteoplastic craniotomy, the tumor with marked intratumoral hemorrhage was resected. Its histology was chromophobe adenoma. The patient's right visual acuity improved rapidly. On the occasion of cerebral angiography, we could observe that subclinical pituitary apoplexy deteriorated to subacute pituitary apoplexy. Rosenbaum postulated that injection of contrast media increased intravascular

  15. Crosstalk and signalling switches in mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eFey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades control cell fate decisions, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis by integrating and processing intra- and extracellular cues. However, similar MAPK kinetic profiles can be associated with opposing cellular decisions depending on cell type, signal strength and dynamics. This implies that signalling by each individual MAPK cascade has to be considered in the context of the entire MAPK network. Here, we develop a dynamic model of feedback and crosstalk for the three major MAPK cascades; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and also include input from protein kinase B (AKT. Focusing on the bistable activation characteristics of the JNK pathway, this model explains how pathway crosstalk harmonises different MAPK responses resulting in pivotal cell fate decisions. We show that JNK can switch from a transient to sustained activity due to multiple positive feedback loops. Once activated, positive feedback locks JNK in a highly active state and promotes cell death. The switch is modulated by the ERK, p38 and AKT pathways. ERK activation enhances the dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP mediated dephosphorylation of JNK and shifts the threshold of the apoptotic switch to higher inputs. Activation of p38 restores the threshold by inhibiting ERK activity via the PP1 or PP2A phosphatases. Finally, AKT activation inhibits the JNK positive feedback, thus abrogating the apoptotic switch and allowing only proliferative signalling. Our model facilitates understanding of how cancerous deregulations disturb MAPK signal processing and provides explanations for certain drug resistances. We highlight a critical role of DUSP1 and DUSP2 expression patterns in facilitating the switching of JNK activity and show how oncogene induced ERK hyperactivity prevents the normal apoptotic switch explaining the failure ocertain drugs to

  16. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Crosstalks in Liver Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process in which many different molecular pathways have been implicated. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and the new targeted therapies are meeting with limited success. Interreceptor crosstalk and the positive feedback between different signaling systems are emerging as mechanisms of targeted therapy resistance. The identification of such interactions is therefore of particular relevance to improve therapeutic efficacy. Among the different signaling pathways activated in hepatocarcinogenesis the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system plays a prominent role, being recognized as a “signaling hub” where different extracellular growth and survival signals converge. EGFR can be transactivated in response to multiple heterologous ligands through the physical interaction with multiple receptors, the activity of intracellular kinases or the shedding of EGFR-ligands. In this article we review the crosstalk between the EGFR and other signaling pathways that could be relevant to liver cancer development and treatment

  17. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Crosstalks in Liver Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berasain, Carmen, E-mail: cberasain@unav.es; Latasa, María Ujue; Urtasun, Raquel; Goñi, Saioa; Elizalde, María; Garcia-Irigoyen, Oihane; Azcona, María [Division of Hepatology and Gene Therapy, CIMA, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008 (Spain); Prieto, Jesús [Division of Hepatology and Gene Therapy, CIMA, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008 (Spain); CIBERehd, University Clinic, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31080 (Spain); Ávila, Matías A. [Division of Hepatology and Gene Therapy, CIMA, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008 (Spain)

    2011-05-18

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process in which many different molecular pathways have been implicated. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and the new targeted therapies are meeting with limited success. Interreceptor crosstalk and the positive feedback between different signaling systems are emerging as mechanisms of targeted therapy resistance. The identification of such interactions is therefore of particular relevance to improve therapeutic efficacy. Among the different signaling pathways activated in hepatocarcinogenesis the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system plays a prominent role, being recognized as a “signaling hub” where different extracellular growth and survival signals converge. EGFR can be transactivated in response to multiple heterologous ligands through the physical interaction with multiple receptors, the activity of intracellular kinases or the shedding of EGFR-ligands. In this article we review the crosstalk between the EGFR and other signaling pathways that could be relevant to liver cancer development and treatment.

  18. Stochastic Proofreading Mechanism Alleviates Crosstalk in Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Humerez, Sarah A; Rieckh, Georg; Tkačik, Gašper

    2015-12-11

    Gene expression is controlled primarily by interactions between transcription factor proteins (TFs) and the regulatory DNA sequence, a process that can be captured well by thermodynamic models of regulation. These models, however, neglect regulatory crosstalk: the possibility that noncognate TFs could initiate transcription, with potentially disastrous effects for the cell. Here, we estimate the importance of crosstalk, suggest that its avoidance strongly constrains equilibrium models of TF binding, and propose an alternative nonequilibrium scheme that implements kinetic proofreading to suppress erroneous initiation. This proposal is consistent with the observed covalent modifications of the transcriptional apparatus and predicts increased noise in gene expression as a trade-off for improved specificity. Using information theory, we quantify this trade-off to find when optimal proofreading architectures are favored over their equilibrium counterparts. Such architectures exhibit significant super-Poisson noise at low expression in steady state. PMID:26705657

  19. Alien Crosstalk Cancellation for Multipair Digital Subscriber Line Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginis George

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of alien crosstalk cancellation for DSL systems with multiple pairs is here presented. It is shown that when a common crosstalk source affects the receivers of multiple pairs, the noise exhibits a certain correlation among the pairs. In a DMT system, the frequency-domain noise samples are most strongly correlated between pairs when they correspond to the same tone. Thus, noise decorrelation algorithms applied independently for each tone can provide significant performance enhancements. Three possible methods are described for noise decorrelation, one is suitable for two-sided coordination and two are suited for receiver coordination among the pairs. It is theoretically proven that the data-rate performance of these three methods is identical from the perspective of the sum rate over all pairs. Simulation results corresponding to an ADSL2+ two-pair system with a T1 disturber are presented to illustrate the noise correlation property and to indicate the potential performance benefits.

  20. Crosstalk between pathways enhances the controllability of signalling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingjie; Jin, Suoqin; Zou, Xiufen

    2016-02-01

    The control of complex networks is one of the most challenging problems in the fields of biology and engineering. In this study, the authors explored the controllability and control energy of several signalling networks, which consisted of many interconnected pathways, including networks with a bow-tie architecture. On the basis of the theory of structure controllability, they revealed that biological mechanisms, such as cross-pathway interactions, compartmentalisation and so on make the networks easier to fully control. Furthermore, using numerical simulations for two realistic examples, they demonstrated that the control energy of normal networks with crosstalk is lower than in networks without crosstalk. These results indicate that the biological networks are optimally designed to achieve their normal functions from the viewpoint of the control theory. The authors' work provides a comprehensive understanding of the impact of network structures and properties on controllability. PMID:26816393

  1. Shielding Area Optimization Under the Solution of Interconnect Crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ci Cai; Xin Zhao; Qiang Zhou; Xian-Long Hong

    2005-01-01

    As the technology advances into deep sub-micron era, crosstalk reduction is of paramount importance for signal integrity. Simultaneous shield insertion and net ordering (SINO) has been shown to be effective to reduce both capacitive and inductive couplings. As it introduces extra shields, area minimization is also critical for an efficient SINO algorithm.In this paper, three novel algorithms using fewer shields to solve crosstalk reduction problem with RLC noise constraint are proposed, namely, net coloring (NC), efficient middle shield insertion (EMSI) and NC+EMSI two-step algorithm. Compared with the corresponding algorithms in previous work, these algorithms can reduce shielding area up to 25.77%, 46.19%, and7.17%, respectively, with short runtime.

  2. Crosstalk compensation in analysis of energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Jon P; Morrison, John L; Morrison, William H; Motloch, Chester G; Rose, David M

    2014-06-24

    Estimating impedance of energy storage devices includes generating input signals at various frequencies with a frequency step factor therebetween. An excitation time record (ETR) is generated to include a summation of the input signals and a deviation matrix of coefficients is generated relative to the excitation time record to determine crosstalk between the input signals. An energy storage device is stimulated with the ETR and simultaneously a response time record (RTR) is captured that is indicative of a response of the energy storage device to the ETR. The deviation matrix is applied to the RTR to determine an in-phase component and a quadrature component of an impedance of the energy storage device at each of the different frequencies with the crosstalk between the input signals substantially removed. This approach enables rapid impedance spectra measurements that can be completed within one period of the lowest frequency or less.

  3. Cross-talk between bone morphogenetic proteins and inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kraan, Peter M; Davidson, Esmeralda N Blaney

    2015-11-23

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines and bone morphogenetic proteins are generally studied separately and considered to be elements of different worlds, immunology and developmental biology. Varas and colleagues report that these factors show cross-talk in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. They show that pro-inflammatory cytokines not only stimulate the production of bone morphogenetic proteins but that these endogenously produced bone morphogenetic proteins interfere with the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on synoviocytes.

  4. Theory of multisource crosstalk reduction by phase-encoded statics

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2011-03-01

    Formulas are derived that relate the strength of the crosstalk noise in supergather migration images to the variance of time, amplitude and polarity shifts in encoding functions. A supergather migration image is computed by migrating an encoded supergather, where the supergather is formed by stacking a large number of encoded shot gathers. Analysis reveals that for temporal source static shifts in each shot gather, the crosstalk noise is exponentially reduced with increasing variance of the static shift and the square of source frequency. This is not too surprising because larger time shifts lead to less correlation between traces in different shot gathers, and so should tend to reduce the crosstalk noise. Analysis also reveals that combining both polarity and time statics is a superior encoding strategy compared to using either polarity statics or time statics alone. Signal-to-noise (SNR) estimates show that for a standard migration image and for an image computed by migrating a phase-encoded supergather; here, G is the number of traces in a shot gather, I is the number of stacking iterations in the supergather and S is the number of encoded/blended shot gathers that comprise the supergather. If the supergather can be uniformly divided up into Q unique sub-supergathers, then the resulting SNR of the final image is, which means that we can enhance image quality but at the expense of Q times more cost. The importance of these formulas is that they provide a precise understanding between different phase encoding strategies and image quality. Finally, we show that iterative migration of phase-encoded supergathers is a special case of passive seismic interferometry. We suggest that the crosstalk noise formulas can be helpful in designing optimal strategies for passive seismic interferometry and efficient extraction of Green\\'s functions from simulated supergathers. © 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS.

  5. Microbial Hijacking of Complement–Toll-like Receptor Crosstalk*

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Min; Krauss, Jennifer L.; Domon, Hisanori; Hosur, Kavita B.; Liang, Shuang; Magotti, Paola; Triantafilou, Martha; Triantafilou, Kathy; Lambris, John D.; Hajishengallis, George

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that complement and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) crosstalk to coordinate innate immunity. We report a novel immune subversion mechanism involving microbial exploitation of the ability of complement and TLRs for communication. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major oral and systemic pathogen expressing complement C5 convertase-like activity, was shown to synergize with C5a for cAMP elevation resulting in macrophage immunosuppression and enhanced pathogen survival in vitro and...

  6. Preoperative volume determination for pituitary adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukic, Dženan; Egger, Jan; Bauer, Miriam H. A.; Kuhnt, Daniela; Carl, Barbara; Freisleben, Bernd; Kolb, Andreas; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma, and sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% of all intracranial neoplasms. Manual slice-by-slice segmentation takes quite some time that can be reduced by using the appropriate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm that we have applied recently to segmenting glioblastoma multiforme. A modification of this scheme is used for adenoma segmentation that is much harder to perform, due to lack of contrast-enhanced boundaries. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of ten magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. The segmentations were compared to the segmentation results of the proposed method using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). The average DSC for all datasets was 75.92%+/-7.24%. A manual segmentation took about four minutes and our algorithm required about one second.

  7. Progression of an Invasive ACTH Pituitary Macroadenoma with Cushing’s Disease to Pituitary Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Groberio Borba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary carcinomas are very rare tumors that in most cases produce prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH. It is a challenge to diagnosis of a pituitary carcinoma before disclosed symptomatic metastasis. We report the case of a female patient with Cushing’s disease who underwent three transsphenoidal surgeries, with pathological findings of common ACTH pituitary adenoma including Ki-67 expression <3%. She achieved hypocortisolism after the 3rd surgery although ACTH levels remained slightly elevated. The patient returned some time later with fast worsening of hypercortisolism. Magnetic resonance imaging showed clivus invasion, which led to a fourth surgery and radiation. This time, immunohistochemistry revealed strong Ki-67 (10% to 15% and p53 expression. Liver and lumbar spine metastases were found on workup. The patient died after few months due to lung infection. Pituitary carcinomas are rare, and the transformation of an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma into a carcinoma is exceptional. The difficulty of defining markers for the diagnosis of carcinoma, before metastasis diagnosis, in order to change the management of the disease, is a challenge.

  8. Electronic crosstalk characterization of Terra MODIS long wave infrared channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Chiang, Kwofu; Wu, Aisheng

    2015-09-01

    Terra (T) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a heritage Earth observing sensor has completed 15 years of operation as of December 18 2014. T-MODIS has 36 spectral channels designed to monitor the land, ocean, and atmosphere. The long term climate data record from T-MODIS is an important dataset for global change monitoring. Sixteen of the spectral channels fall in the Mid (M) (3.7-4.5μm) to Long (L) (6.7-14.1μm)Wave InfraRed (M/LWIR) wavelengths, which are also referred to as the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs). To date the TEBs have very satisfactory performance which is attributed to the scan-by-scan calibration using an on-board BlackBody whose temperature is traceable to the NIST temperature standards. However, with an aging instrument, it was observed from 2010 onwards that the Photo Voltaic LWIR channels (Bands 27-30) have suffered significantly from electronic crosstalk. This is mainly due to the deterioration of the electronic circuits of the relevant bands in the LWIR Focal Plane Array (FPA). In this paper, we report the characterization of the electronic crosstalk in the above-mentioned bands using the well characterized test site such as Dome Concordia (C). Such characterization can be used to reduce the effects of crosstalk when implemented in the future Level 1B reprocessing and thereby increasing the radiometric fidelity of the concerned bands.

  9. Adipose tissue and its role in organ crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romacho, T; Elsen, M; Röhrborn, D; Eckel, J

    2014-04-01

    The discovery of adipokines has revealed adipose tissue as a central node in the interorgan crosstalk network, which mediates the regulation of multiple organs and tissues. Adipose tissue is a true endocrine organ that produces and secretes a wide range of mediators regulating adipose tissue function in an auto-/paracrine manner and important distant targets, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, the pancreas and the cardiovascular system. In metabolic disorders such as obesity, enlargement of adipocytes leads to adipose tissue dysfunction and a shift in the secretory profile with an increased release of pro-inflammatory adipokines. Adipose tissue dysfunction has a central role in the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Besides the well-acknowledged role of adipokines in metabolic diseases, and the increasing number of adipokines being discovered in the last years, the mechanisms underlying the release of many adipokines from adipose tissue remain largely unknown. To combat metabolic diseases, it is crucial to better understand how adipokines can modulate adipose tissue growth and function. Therefore, we will focus on adipokines with a prominent role in auto-/paracrine crosstalk within the adipose tissue such as RBP4, HO-1, WISP2, SFRPs and chemerin. To depict the endocrine crosstalk between adipose tissue with skeletal muscle, the cardiovascular system and the pancreas, we will report the main findings regarding the direct effects of adiponectin, leptin, DPP4 and visfatin on skeletal muscle insulin resistance, cardiovascular function and β-cell growth and function.

  10. Pituitary apoplexy presenting as myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a male patient who presented with sudden onset severe headache and right sided ptosis that was diagnosed to be secondary to pituitary apoplexy on the background of diabetes mellitus. This was complicated by left ventricular failure and acute coronary syndrome. The case highlights the importance of considering hypocortisolism/hypopituitarism as an important and rare precipitant of an acute coronary event as occurred in the case.

  11. The result of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the prognostic factors for disease-free survival and long-term results of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The study involved a retrospective review of outcome in a series of 27 patients with pituitary adenoma, between 1984 and 1995 at Paik hospital. The study included 20 patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy and 7 with radiotherapy alone. The patients were followed for 12-146 months (median: 97 months). Seventeen were men and 10 were women. The numbers of functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenoma were 22 and 5 respectively and those of microadenoma and macroadenoma were 4 and 23 respectively. The radiation doses of 5040-5580cGy(median: 5040cGy) were delivered over 5-7 weeks, using 4MV LINAC. The prognostic factors were analyzed by log-rank test. For radiation therapy alone, the 5 YSR was 100% and progression free survival rate was 85.8%. The tumor was controlled in 6/7 (85.8%). For surgery and postoperative radiotherapy , the 5YSR, progression free survival rate and local control rate were 95%, 84.8%, and 89.5% respectively. The parameters of tumor size, hormone secretion, radiation dose, radiotherapy field size were evaluated in a uni- and multivariate analysis and all the factors were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Eleven of 12 (92%) with visual field defect experienced normalization or improvement, and 5 for 7 evaluable patients with hyperprolactinoma achieved normalization in 4 and decrement in 5 patients. Only 2 patients developed mild degree of panhypopituitarism. The radiotherapy appears to be effective in controlling clinical symptoms and signs resulting from pituitary adenoma. Local control rate with radiotherapy alone or with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy was comparable. There was a trend toward high recurrence rate in patients with nonfunctioning or prolactin secreting tumor and larger radiation field sizes. (author)

  12. Temozolomide in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon D. Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temozolomide is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of gliomas and, more recently, aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Temozolomide methylates DNA and, thereby, has antitumor effects. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a DNA repair enzyme, removes the alkylating adducts that are induced by temozolomide, thereby counteracting its effects. A Medline search for all of the available publications regarding the use of temozolomide for the treatment of pituitary tumors was performed. To date, 46 cases of adenohypophysial tumors that were treated with temozolomide, including 30 adenomas and 16 carcinomas, have been reported. Eighteen of the 30 (60% adenomas and 11 of the 16 (69% carcinomas responded favorably to treatment. One patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and an aggressive prolactin-producing adenoma was also treated and demonstrated a good response. No significant complications have been attributed to temozolomide therapy. Thus, temozolomide is an effective treatment for the majority of aggressive adenomas and carcinomas. Evidence indicates that there is an inverse correlation between levels of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression and therapeutic response. Alternatively, high-level O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression correlates with an unfavorable response. Here, we review the use of temozolomide for treating pituitary neoplasms.

  13. Advances in trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, D; Cavallo, L M; De Angelis, M; Villa, A; Somma, T; Esposito, F; Del Basso De Caro, M; Cappabianca, P

    2012-12-01

    Pituitary surgery is a continuous evolving speciality of the neurosurgeons' armamentarium, requiring precise anatomical knowledge, technical skills and integrated appreciation of the pituitary pathophysiology. Actually, it could be considered the result of a close cooperation between different specialists, i.e. the ophthalmologist, the neuroradiologist, the endocrinologist, the neurosurgeon, the pathologist, etc. In this teamwork environment each member plays his own role, offering his contribute to the final result; every effort is performed to provide patients with the best possible procedure, individually measured. The endoscopic pituitary surgery performed by means of a transsphenoidal approach perfectly fits this scenario, being though advocated as the result of an evolutionary process rather than a revolutionary one. The "pure" endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery - consisting of a whole procedure performed with the endoscope alone and without the use of any transsphenoidal retractor - offers some advantages due to the endoscope itself: a superior close-up view of the relevant anatomy, very important at the tumor/gland interface and an enlarged working angle are provided with an increased panoramic vision inside the surgical area. Results in terms of mass removal, relief of clinical symptoms, cure of the underlying disease and complication rate are similar to those reported in the major microsurgical series but patient compliance is by far better. PMID:23123578

  14. Advances in trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, D; Cavallo, L M; De Angelis, M; Villa, A; Somma, T; Esposito, F; Del Basso De Caro, M; Cappabianca, P

    2012-12-01

    Pituitary surgery is a continuous evolving speciality of the neurosurgeons' armamentarium, requiring precise anatomical knowledge, technical skills and integrated appreciation of the pituitary pathophysiology. Actually, it could be considered the result of a close cooperation between different specialists, i.e. the ophthalmologist, the neuroradiologist, the endocrinologist, the neurosurgeon, the pathologist, etc. In this teamwork environment each member plays his own role, offering his contribute to the final result; every effort is performed to provide patients with the best possible procedure, individually measured. The endoscopic pituitary surgery performed by means of a transsphenoidal approach perfectly fits this scenario, being though advocated as the result of an evolutionary process rather than a revolutionary one. The "pure" endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery - consisting of a whole procedure performed with the endoscope alone and without the use of any transsphenoidal retractor - offers some advantages due to the endoscope itself: a superior close-up view of the relevant anatomy, very important at the tumor/gland interface and an enlarged working angle are provided with an increased panoramic vision inside the surgical area. Results in terms of mass removal, relief of clinical symptoms, cure of the underlying disease and complication rate are similar to those reported in the major microsurgical series but patient compliance is by far better.

  15. Crosstalk Minimization for Coupled RLC Interconnects Using Bidirectional Buffer and Shield Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damanpreet Kaur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Crosstalk noise is often induced in long interconnects running parallel to each other. There is a need tominimize the effect of these crosstalk noise so as to maintain the signal integrity in interconnects. In thispaper crosstalk noise is minimized using various techniques such as repeater (bidirectional bufferinsertion along with shielding, skewing and shielding & skewing simultaneously. With the help of thesetechniques crosstalk noise is controlled to a great extent in long interconnects. Pre-layout and Post-layoutsimulations for crosstalk are carried out for these techniques at 180nm technology node using CadenceEDA tools. The influences of these techniques are analyzed and it is found that crosstalk is reduced up to32 % with repeater insertion, 47% with skewing, 58% with shielding and 81% with skewing & shieldingsimultaneously.

  16. Crosstalk Minimization for Coupled RLC Interconnects Using Bidirectional Buffer and Shield Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damanpreet Kaur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Crosstalk noise is often induced in long interconnects running parallel to each other. There is a need to minimize the effect of these crosstalk noise so as to maintain the signal integrity in interconnects. In this paper crosstalk noise is minimized using various techniques such as repeater (bidirectional buffer insertion along with shielding, skewing and shielding & skewing simultaneously. With the help of these techniques crosstalk noise is controlled to a great extent in long interconnects. Pre-layout and Post-layout simulations for crosstalk are carried out for these techniques at 180nm technology node using Cadence EDA tools. The influences of these techniques are analyzed and it is found that crosstalk is reduced up to 32 % with repeater insertion, 47% with skewing, 58% with shielding and 81% with skewing & shielding simultaneously.

  17. The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fangfang; Huang, Yinxing; Ding, Chenyu; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Shousen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPMAs) is not well known, and hyperprolactinemia caused by a NFPMA is currently associated with diagnostic uncertainty. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in NFPMAs. Methods: A meta-analysis of all existing articles in PubMed was conducted. The search string was designed as “(non-functioning pituitary tumor OR non-functioning pituitary tumor OR non-functio...

  18. Spatial Cross-Talk between Oxidative Stress and DNA Replication in Human Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Marko; Baqader, Noor O; Stoeber, Kai; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2016-06-01

    MS-based proteomics has been applied to a differential network analysis of the nuclear-cytoplasmic subcellular distribution of proteins between cell-cycle arrest: (a) at the origin activation checkpoint for DNA replication, or (b) in response to oxidative stress. Significant changes were identified for 401 proteins. Cellular response combines changes in trafficking and in total abundance to vary the local compartmental abundances that are the basis of cellular response. Appreciable changes for both perturbations were observed for 245 proteins, but cross-talk between oxidative stress and DNA replication is dominated by 49 proteins that show strong changes for both. Many nuclear processes are influenced by a spatial switch involving the proteins {KPNA2, KPNB1, PCNA, PTMA, SET} and heme/iron proteins HMOX1 and FTH1. Dynamic spatial distribution data are presented for proteins involved in caveolae, extracellular matrix remodelling, TGFβ signaling, IGF pathways, emerin complexes, mitochondrial protein import complexes, spliceosomes, proteasomes, and so on. The data indicate that for spatially heterogeneous cells cross-compartmental communication is integral to their system biology, that coordinated spatial redistribution for crucial protein networks underlies many functional changes, and that information on dynamic spatial redistribution of proteins is essential to obtain comprehensive pictures of cellular function. We describe how spatial data of the type presented here can provide priorities for further investigation of crucial features of high-level spatial coordination across cells. We suggest that the present data are related to increasing indications that much of subcellular protein transport is constitutive and that perturbation of these constitutive transport processes may be related to cancer and other diseases. A quantitative, spatially resolved nucleus-cytoplasm interaction network is provided for further investigations. PMID:27142241

  19. MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios Nikiforos [University of Ioannina, Department of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2005-11-01

    In childhood, the MR characteristics of the normal pituitary gland are well established. During the first 2 months of life the adenohypophysis demonstrates high signal. Pituitary gland height (PGH) decreases during the 1st year of life and then increases, reaching a plateau after puberty. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) increases in both sexes up to the age of 20 years. On dynamic contrast-enhanced studies, the posterior pituitary lobe enhances simultaneously with the straight sinus, and the adenohypophysis later, but within 30 s. In genetically determined dysfunctional states, the adenohypophysis may be normal, hypoplastic, or enlarged. Pituitary enlargement, observed in Prop 1 gene mutations, is characterized by a mass interposed between the anterior and posterior lobes. An ectopic posterior lobe (EPP), associated with a hypoplastic or absent pituitary stalk, may be observed in patients with hypopituitarism. Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis may be the origin of adenohypophyseal deficiencies. A small hypointense adenohypophysis is found in iron overload states and is often associated with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Absence of the posterior lobe bright signal, with or without a thick pituitary stalk or a mass at any site from the median eminence to the posterior pituitary lobe, may be found in diabetes insipidus. Hydrocephalus, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, hypothalamic hamartomas and craniopharyngiomas may result in central precocious puberty (CPP). Increased PGH in girls with idiopathic CPP is useful for its differential diagnosis from premature thelarche (PT). Pituitary adenomas, observed mainly in adolescents, present the same MR characteristics as those in adults. (orig.)

  20. Test Beam Measurement of the Crosstalk in the EM Barrel Module 0

    CERN Document Server

    Hubaut, F; Lacour, D; Orsini, F

    2000-01-01

    Test beam measurements of the crosstalk in the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter Module 0 tested at CERN in August 99' are reported. The main sources of crosstalk coming either from electronics or from physical effects on the electrodes have been identified and quantified. This has been done for the crosstalks between the different parts of the module, namely middle-middle, middle-back, middle-front, back-back, back-middle, back-front, front-front and front-middle.

  1. Investigation and Mitigation of the Crosstalk Effect in Terra MODIS Band 30

    OpenAIRE

    Junqiang Sun; Sriharsha Madhavan; Menghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    It has been previously reported that thermal emissive bands (TEB) 27–29 in the Terra (T-) MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been significantly affected by electronic crosstalk. Successful linear theory of the electronic crosstalk effect was formulated, and it successfully characterized the effect via the use of lunar observations as viable inputs. In this paper, we report the successful characterization and mitigation of the electronic crosstalk for T-MODIS band 30 us...

  2. Caveolin-1 sensitizes rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells to bromocriptine induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mu-Chiou

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactinoma is the most frequent pituitary tumor in humans. The dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine has been widely used clinically to treat human breast tumor and prolactinoma through inhibition of hyperprolactinemia and induction of tumor cell apoptosis, respectively, but the molecular mechanism of bromocriptine induction of pituitary tumor apoptosis remains unclear. Caveolin-1 is a membrane-anchored protein enriched on caveolae, inverted flask-shaped invaginations on plasma membranes where signal transduction molecules are concentrated. Currently, caveolin-1 is thought to be a negative regulator of cellular proliferation and an enhancer of apoptosis by blocking signal transduction between cell surface membrane receptors and intracellular signaling protein cascades. Rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells, which express endogenous caveolin-1, exhibit increased apoptosis and shrinkage after exposure to bromocriptine. Hence, the GH3 cell line is an ideal model for studying the molecular action of bromocriptine on prolactinoma. Results The expression of endogenous caveolin-1 in GH3 cells was elevated after bromocriptine treatment. Transiently expressed mouse recombinant caveolin-1 induced apoptosis in GH3 cells by enhancing the activity of caspase 8. Significantly, caveolin-1 induction of GH3 cell apoptosis was sensitized by the administration of bromocriptine. Phosphorylation of caveolin-1 at tyrosine 14 was enhanced after bromocriptine treatment, suggesting that bromocriptine-induced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 may contribute to sensitization of apoptosis in GH3 cells exposed to bromocriptine. Conclusion Our results reveal that caveolin-1 increases sensitivity for apoptosis induction in pituitary adenoma GH3 cells and may contribute to tumor shrinkage after clinical bromocriptine treatment.

  3. Distributed parameter model for characterizing magnetic crosstalk in a fiber optic current sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Song; Guo, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Yu, Wen-Bin; Shen, Yan

    2015-12-01

    The effects of magnetic crosstalk on a fiber optic current sensor are studied using the distributed parameter model. A new method to enhance the immunity to magnetic crosstalk is proposed. The experimental results show that magnetic crosstalk changes periodically with the azimuth angle and decreases as the distance between the conductors increases. When the sensing coil is placed at the optimal azimuth angle, the ratio error from magnetic crosstalk decreases from -0.32% to -0.02%, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26836653

  4. Crosstalk Enhancement in 32 nm FD SOI MOSFET using HR Substrate and Multilayer BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Tavanazadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the crosstalk in 32 nm UTB SOI MOSFET is examined by using a new structure, a high resistivity substrate, and a multilayer BOX (SiO2-Diamond. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the conventional SOI and a multilayer BOX SOI are compared, and it is concluded that parasitic capacitances and crosstalk are improved by incorporating multilayer BOX to a HR Substrate. In a conventional HR FD SOI, crosstalk is approximately -121dB, while by incorporating multilayer BOX substrate and increasing the thickness of the Diamond to 100nm, crosstalk can be reduced by 20%.

  5. Investigation of crosstalk in self oscillating switch mode audio power amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Haagen; Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Iversen, Niels Elkjær;

    2012-01-01

    channel self oscillating switch mode power amplier (class D). A step by step reduction of elements in an amplier built for this task, is used for methodically determining the actual presence and origins of crosstalk. The investigation shows that the crosstalk is caused by couplings in the self oscillating......Self oscillating switch mode power ampliers are known to be susceptible to interchannel disturbances also known as crosstalk. This phenomenon has a signicant impact on the performance of an amplier of this type. The goal of this paper is to investigate the presence and origins of crosstalk in a two...

  6. Quantitative evaluation of indium-111 (In-111) octreotide pituitary activity: Comparison in patient with and without pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, P.; Waxman, A.; Nguyen, K. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Indium 111 Octreotide is known to detect pituitary tumors. Variable low level pituitary activity has been reported in pts. with no demonstrable pituitary tumors. To our knowledge, there have been no studies which quantitatively categorize pituitary activity with respect to distinguishing normal subject from pts. with pituitary tumors. 13 pts. with proven, treated acromegaly were included, as well as 15 pts. with no history of pituitary disorder. Both groups underwent SPECT In-111 scintigraphy 24 hours post-injection Average count per pixel ratios were obtained for the pituitary/calvarium (P/C) and pituitary/brain (P/B) regions. 10 pts. with acromegaly underwent growth hormone (GH) measurements 2 hours post-glucose load. Statistical correlation between growth hormone levels using P/C and P/B ratios were obtained. P/C ratios, as well as P/B ratios demonstrated high correlation with serum GH levels correlation coefficient(r)= .717 for P/C p<0.05, and correlation coefficient(r) = 0.828 for P/B ratios p<0.005. P/C ratios and P/B ratios for controls correlated closely with the upper level of normal predicted by P/C or P/B ratios as a function of serum growth hormone found in patients with acromegaly. Somatostatin receptor SPECT scintigraphy of the pituitary and appropriate quantitation can predict patients with growth hormone secreting tumors.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Individual Stromal Cell Populations Identifies Stroma-Tumor Crosstalk in Mouse Lung Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejin Choi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging studies have begun to demonstrate that reprogrammed stromal cells play pivotal roles in tumor growth, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. However, the contribution of stromal cells to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC has remained underexplored. We used an orthotopic model of Kras-driven NSCLC to systematically dissect the contribution of specific hematopoietic stromal cells in lung cancer. RNA deep-sequencing analysis of individually sorted myeloid lineage and tumor epithelial cells revealed cell-type-specific differentially regulated genes, indicative of activated stroma. We developed a computational model for crosstalk signaling discovery based on ligand-receptor interactions and downstream signaling networks and identified known and novel tumor-stroma paracrine and tumor autocrine crosstalk-signaling pathways in NSCLC. We provide cellular and molecular insights into components of the lung cancer microenvironment that contribute to carcinogenesis. This study has the potential for development of therapeutic strategies that target tumor-stroma interactions and may complement conventional anti-cancer treatments.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of individual stromal cell populations identifies stroma-tumor crosstalk in mouse lung cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyejin; Sheng, Jianting; Gao, Dingcheng; Li, Fuhai; Durrans, Anna; Ryu, Seongho; Lee, Sharrell B; Narula, Navneet; Rafii, Shahin; Elemento, Olivier; Altorki, Nasser K; Wong, Stephen T C; Mittal, Vivek

    2015-02-24

    Emerging studies have begun to demonstrate that reprogrammed stromal cells play pivotal roles in tumor growth, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. However, the contribution of stromal cells to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has remained underexplored. We used an orthotopic model of Kras-driven NSCLC to systematically dissect the contribution of specific hematopoietic stromal cells in lung cancer. RNA deep-sequencing analysis of individually sorted myeloid lineage and tumor epithelial cells revealed cell-type-specific differentially regulated genes, indicative of activated stroma. We developed a computational model for crosstalk signaling discovery based on ligand-receptor interactions and downstream signaling networks and identified known and novel tumor-stroma paracrine and tumor autocrine crosstalk-signaling pathways in NSCLC. We provide cellular and molecular insights into components of the lung cancer microenvironment that contribute to carcinogenesis. This study has the potential for development of therapeutic strategies that target tumor-stroma interactions and may complement conventional anti-cancer treatments. PMID:25704820

  9. Pituitary Apoplexy Presenting as Isolated Third Cranial Nerve Palsy with Ptosis : Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Won-Jin; Joo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Tae-Sun; Seo, Bo-Ra

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome caused by an acute ischemic or hemorrhagic vascular accident involving a pituitary adenoma or an adjacent pituitary gland. Pituitary apoplexy may be associated with a variety of neurological and endocrinological signs and symptoms. However, isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis as the presenting sign of pituitary apoplexy is very rare. We describe two cases of pituitary apoplexy presenting as sudden-onset unilateral ptosis and diplopia. In on...

  10. MULTIPLE PITUITARY ADENOMAS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eBudan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection databases were systematically searched for studies reporting synchronous double or multiple pituitary adenomas (MPA, a rare clinical condition, with a vague pathogenesis. Multiple adenomas of the pituitary gland are referred to as morphologically and/or immunocytochemically distinct tumors that are frequently small-sized and hormonally non-functional, to account for the low detection rate. There is no general agreement on how to classify MPA, various criteria such as tumor contiguity, immunoreactivity and clonality analysis are being used. Among the component tumors, prolactin (PRL-immunopositive adenomas are highly prevalent, albeit mute in the majority of cases. The most frequent clinical presentation of MPA is Cushing’s syndrome, given the fact that in more than 50% of reported cases at least one lesion stains for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH. Plurihormonal hyperactivity may be diagnosed in a patient with MPA when more than one tumor is clinically active (e.g. ACTH and PRL or in cases with at least one composite tumor (e.g. GH and PRL, to complicate the clinical scenario. Specific challenges associated with MPA include high surgical failure rates, enforcing second-look surgery in certain cases, and difficult preoperative neuroradiological imaging evaluation, with an overall sensitivity of only 25% for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to detect distinct multiple tumors. Alternatively, minor pituitary imaging abnormalities may raise suspicion, as these are not uncommon. Postoperative immunohistochemistry is mandatory and in conjunction to electron microscopy scanning and testing for transcription factors (i.e. Pit-1, T-pit, and SF-1 accurately define and classify the distinct cytodifferentiation of MPA.

  11. Hemostatic Disorders in Hormonally Active Pituitary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkowska-Stodulska, R; Babińska, A; Mital, A; Stodulski, D; Sworczak, K

    2015-10-01

    Endocrinopathies encompass heterogeneous diseases that can lead to hemostasis disorders at various stages over their clinical course. Normal hemostasis requires an equilibrium between the processes of coagulation and fibrinolysis, which depend on multiple activators and inhibitors. To date, the influence of various hormonal disorders on the hemostatic system has been assessed many times. The aim of this review was to analyze hemostasis abnormalities that occur in patients with hormonally active pituitary tumors: corticotropinoma, somatotropinoma, prolactinoma, gonadotropinoma and thyrotropinoma. Authors discuss studies that examined coagulation and hemostasis parameters among patients with these tumors, as well as analyze antithrombotic prophylaxis approach for endogenous hypercortisolemia subjects in particular. PMID:26285071

  12. Hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma mimicking pituitary apoplexy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J.; Kalnin, A.J.; Holodny, A.I. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Schulder, M.; Grigorian, A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Sharer, L.R. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States)

    1998-11-01

    We describe a hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma involving the sella turcica with suprasellar extension. The CT and MRI appearances mimiked a hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma. Chondroid chordoma is a variant composed of elements of both chordoma and cartilaginous tissue. An uncommon bone neoplasm, located almost exclusively in the spheno-occipital region, it is usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of a tumor with acute hemorrhage in the sellar region. We discuss the clinical and radiological characteristics which may allow one to differentiate chondroid chordoma from other tumors of this area. (orig.) With 3 figs., 9 refs.

  13. Crosstalk properties of the CMS HCAL hybrid photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Cushman, P B; Pearson, N; Elias, J; Freeman, J; Green, D; Los, S; Ronzhin, A

    2003-01-01

    The requirements of large dynamic range, 40 MHz readout and 4T magnetic field of the CMS Hadronic calorimeter have led to the development of a custom Hybrid PhotoDiode (HPD). In the last 5 years many improvements have been made in cooperation with DEP B.V. Delft Electronische Producten, Roden, Netherlands. and Canberra Semiconductor N.V., Olen, Belgium. to the basic HPD concept to improve the performance. A 200-mum thick 19-channel PIN diode array with various surface treatments has been developed to ensure fast pulse behavior and low optical and capacitive crosstalk.

  14. Cross-talk between probiotic lactobacilli and host immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemgang, T S; Kapila, S; Shanmugam, V P; Kapila, R

    2014-08-01

    The mechanism by which probiotic lactobacilli affect the immune system is strain specific. As the immune system is a multicompartmental system, each strain has its way to interact with it and induce a visible and quantifiable effect. This review summarizes the interplay existing between the host immune system and probiotic lactobacilli, that is, with emphasis on lactobacilli as a prototype probiotic genus. Several aspects including the bacterial-host cross-talk with the mucosal and systemic immune system are presented, as well as short sections on the competing effect towards pathogenic bacteria and their uses as delivery vehicle for antigens.

  15. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. W. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  16. Dynamic computed tomography of the pituitary gland using a single slice scanner in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Magno, Sara; Grinwis, Guy C M; Voorhout, George; Meij, Björn P

    2016-08-01

    Selective removal of the pituitary adenoma has not been advocated in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism because the pituitary adenoma is usually not visualized on routine computed tomography (CT). Dynamic pituitary CT scanning is aimed at the detection of the pituitary flush and, indirectly, at the presence and position of the adenoma. The first aim of this retrospective study was to compare findings of a multiple slice dynamic scanning protocol with those of a single slice dynamic protocol using a single slice CT scanner. The second aim was to compare the CT findings with surgical findings, and surgical findings with histopathological findings. Computed tomography with single and multiple slice dynamic scanning protocols was performed in 86 dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism. Thirty dogs underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and pituitary specimens were collected as tumor, normal, mixed and neurohypophyseal samples and processed for histology. The pituitary flush was not detected more frequent in multiple slice dynamic scanning series than in single slice dynamic scanning series. However, in non-enlarged pituitaries, the flush was seen significantly more frequently than in enlarged pituitaries. Prediction of the nature of the tissue during hypophysectomy by the surgeon was inconclusive. In conclusion, when using a single slice CT scanner, both single or multiple slice dynamic scanning protocols can be used for localization of the neurohypophyseal flush, and, indirectly, the adenoma. However, based on this study, the aim of surgery in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism remains total adenohypophysectomy, and when the neurophypophysis is recognized, it may be left in situ. PMID:27473973

  17. Ptosis as the early manifestation of pituitary tumour.

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, M Y; Liu, J H; Jaw, S J

    1990-01-01

    Three patients who developed unilateral ptosis followed by partial third nerve palsy were found to have a pituitary tumour. The visual field defects were minimal and asymptomatic. Two patients had a chromophobe adenoma and one patient had a prolactinoma. The importance of recognising a pituitary tumour as the cause of acquired unilateral ptosis is emphasised.

  18. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies ...

  19. Cushing's Syndrome From Pituitary Microadenoma and Pulmonary Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tating, Dan Louie Renz P; Montevirgen, Natasha Denise S; Cajucom, Loyda

    2016-03-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a state of cortisol excess, possibly from a tumor in the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, or an ectopic nonpituitary ACTH-secreting source. The first form, pituitary in origin, was originally described by Harvey Cushing, MD, and was labeled as Cushing's disease. Long-term therapy with glucocorticoids also can lead to iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome.

  20. Cushing's Syndrome From Pituitary Microadenoma and Pulmonary Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tating, Dan Louie Renz P; Montevirgen, Natasha Denise S; Cajucom, Loyda

    2016-03-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a state of cortisol excess, possibly from a tumor in the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, or an ectopic nonpituitary ACTH-secreting source. The first form, pituitary in origin, was originally described by Harvey Cushing, MD, and was labeled as Cushing's disease. Long-term therapy with glucocorticoids also can lead to iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. PMID:26906124

  1. EFFECTS OF CAGING DENSITY ON PITUITARY AND TESTICLE RELATED RESPONSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of caging density on pituitary and testicle related responses A significant negative correlation between the incidence of testicular interstitial cell tumors (ICT) and of pituitary tumors (PT) in control male F344 rats is reported associated with the number of ani...

  2. Pituitary Volume Prospectively Predicts Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipursky, Amy R.; Whittle, Sarah; Yucel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wood, Stephen J.; Lubman, Dan I.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early adolescence is a critical time for the development of both internalizing and externalizing disorders. We aimed to investigate whether pituitary volume, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, represents a vulnerability factor for the emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence…

  3. Xanthomatosis, pituitary gland, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Sella turcica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seok Jin; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee Medical Center, Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong Jin [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyunghee Medical Center, Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Xanthomatous hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the pituitary gland of unknown prevalence that causes pituitary dysfunction and a mass-like lesion. The authors report a case of 40-year-old man with a visual disturbance and a confirmed diagnosis of xanthomatous hypophysitis.

  4. Hyperprolactinemia associated to calcification of the pituitary stalk: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA MIRIAM DA COSTA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the authors report the case of a female patient with 24 years of age with hyperprolactinemia, who presented a pituitary stalk calcification as seen by CT scan. Once other possible etiologies were excluded, we concluded that the calcification was probably related to hyperprolactinemia caused by interruption of the input of dopamine to the pituitary gland.

  5. Hyperprolactinemia associated to calcification of the pituitary stalk: case report

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA MIRIAM DA COSTA; CREMONESE RAFAEL; PIZARRO CRISTINA

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the authors report the case of a female patient with 24 years of age with hyperprolactinemia, who presented a pituitary stalk calcification as seen by CT scan. Once other possible etiologies were excluded, we concluded that the calcification was probably related to hyperprolactinemia caused by interruption of the input of dopamine to the pituitary gland.

  6. Diagnostic imaging of dopamine receptors in pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W; Reijs, Ambroos E M; Feelders, Richard A; van Aken, Maarten O; Krenning, Eric P; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2007-04-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor scintigraphy of pituitary adenomas is feasible by single-photon emission computed tomography using (123)I-S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxybenzamide ((123)I-IBZM) and (123)I-epidepride. (123)I-epidepride is generally superior to (123)I-IBZM for the visualization of D2 receptors on pituitary macroadenomas. However, (123)I-IBZM and (123)I-epidepride scintigraphy are generally not useful to predict the response to dopaminergic treatment in pituitary tumour patients. These techniques might allow discrimination of non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas from other non-tumour pathologies in the sellar region. Dopamine D2 receptors on pituitary tumours can also be studied using positron emission tomography with (11)C-N-raclopride and (11)C-N-methylspiperone. PMID:17413189

  7. Research Advances in Pituitary Adenoma and DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-Qing; Li, Yang; Li, Wei-Hua; Lou, Jia-Cheng; Zhang, Bo

    2016-08-01

    DNA methylation is closely related to the genesis and development of pituitary adenoma. Studies have shown that high methylation in the promoter region of potassium voltage-gated chanel,shaker related subfamily,beta member 2,O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase,echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 2 ,ras homolog family member D ,homeobox B1 ,NNAT, and P16 inhibits the expression of these genes and regulates of the proliferation of pituitary adenoma. DNA methylation is also closely related to invasive pituitary adenoma. Therefore,further study on molecular mechanism of DNA methylation of pituitary adenoma will offer a new strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenoma. PMID:27594164

  8. Tuning the material-cytoskeleton crosstalk via nanoconfinement of focal adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Carlo F; Ventre, Maurizio; Netti, Paolo A

    2014-03-01

    Material features proved to exert a potent influence on cell behaviour in terms of adhesion, migration and differentiation. In particular, biophysical and biochemical signals on material surfaces are able to affect focal adhesion distribution and cytoskeletal assemblies, which are known to regulate signalling pathways that ultimately influence cell fate and functions. However, a general, unifying model that correlates cytoskeletal-generated forces with genetic events has yet to be developed. Therefore, it is crucial to gain a better insight into the material-cytoskeleton crosstalk in order to design and fabricate biomaterials able to govern cell fate more accurately. In this work, we demonstrate that confining focal adhesion distribution and growth dramatically alters the cytoskeleton's structures and dynamics, which in turn dictate cellular and nuclear shape and polarization. MC3T3 preosteoblasts were cultivated on nanograted polydimethylsiloxane substrates and a thorough quantification - in static and dynamic modes - of the morphological and structural features of focal adhesions and cytoskeleton was performed. Nanoengineered surfaces provided well-defined zones for focal adhesions to form and grow. Unique cytoskeletal structures spontaneously assembled when focal adhesions were confined and, in fact, they proved to be very effective in deforming the nuclei. The results here presented provide elements to engineer surfaces apt to guide and control cell behaviour through the material-cytoskeleton-nucleus axis. PMID:24388800

  9. A Glutathione-Nrf2-Thioredoxin Cross-Talk Ensures Keratinocyte Survival and Efficient Wound Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telorack, Michèle; Meyer, Michael; Ingold, Irina; Conrad, Marcus; Bloch, Wilhelm; Werner, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is the most abundant cellular antioxidant with high medical relevance, and it is also required as a co-factor for various enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and toxic compounds. However, its cell-type specific functions and its interaction with other cytoprotective molecules are largely unknown. Using a combination of mouse genetics, functional cell biology and pharmacology, we unraveled the function of glutathione in keratinocytes and its cross-talk with other antioxidant defense systems. Mice with keratinocyte-specific deficiency in glutamate cysteine ligase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glutathione biosynthesis, showed a strong reduction in keratinocyte viability in vitro and in the skin in vivo. The cells died predominantly by apoptosis, but also showed features of ferroptosis and necroptosis. The increased cell death was associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which caused DNA and mitochondrial damage. However, epidermal architecture, and even healing of excisional skin wounds were only mildly affected in the mutant mice. The cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2 was strongly activated in glutathione-deficient keratinocytes, but additional loss of Nrf2 did not aggravate the phenotype, demonstrating that the cytoprotective effect of Nrf2 is glutathione dependent. However, we show that deficiency in glutathione biosynthesis is efficiently compensated in keratinocytes by the cysteine/cystine and thioredoxin systems. Therefore, our study highlights a remarkable antioxidant capacity of the epidermis that ensures skin integrity and efficient wound healing. PMID:26808544

  10. Cannabinoid-hypocretin cross-talk in the central nervous system: what we know so far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    África eFlores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging findings suggest the existence of a cross-talk between hypocretinergic and endocannabinoid systems. Although few studies have examined this relationship, the apparent overlap observed in the neuroanatomical distribution of both systems as well as their putative functions strongly point to the existence of such cross-modulation. In agreement, biochemical and functional studies have revealed the existence of heterodimers between CB1 cannabinoid receptor and hypocretin receptor-1, which modulates the cellular localization and downstream signalling of both receptors. Moreover, the activation of hypocretin receptor-1 stimulates the synthesis of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol culminating in the retrograde inhibition of neighbouring cells and suggesting that endocannabinoids could contribute to some hypocretin effects. Pharmacological data indicate that endocannabinoids and hypocretins might have common physiological functions in the regulation of appetite, reward and analgesia. In contrast, these neuromodulatory systems seem to play antagonistic roles in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle and anxiety-like responses. The present review attempts to piece together what is known about this interesting interaction and describe its potential therapeutic implications.

  11. Endoscopic transnasal approach for removing pituitary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Cabral Moreira de Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To describe a series of 129 consecutive patients submitted to the resection of pituitary tumors using the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach in a public medical center. Method: Retrospective analysis based on the records of patients submitted to the resection of a pituitary tumor through the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach between 2004 and 2009. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine records were analyzed. The tumor was non-secreting in 96 (74.42% and secreting in 33 patients (22.58%. Out of the secretory tumors, the most prevalent was the growth hormone producer (7.65%, followed by the prolactinoma, (6.98%. Eleven patients developed cerebral spinal fluid (CSF fistulas, and four of them developed meningitis. One patient died due to intracerebral hemorrhage in the postoperative period. Conclusion: The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to sellar tumors proved to be safe when the majority of the tumors were non-secreting. The most frequent complication was CSF. This technique can be done even in a public hospital with financial limits, since the health professionals are integrated.

  12. Proteomics of the bacterial cross-talk by quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Words such as language and behavior are frequently used to depict "quorum sensing" (QS) in the literature. Simplifying the concept, language and cross-talk between bacteria, and between bacteria and animal or plants hosts determine the behavior (e.g., beneficial or pathogenic effects). Genomics and transcriptomics were the principal approaches used to study the multiple mechanisms of QS. Nevertheless, sequencing of genomes paved the way for another approach which consists on comparative and functional proteomics. This review aims at describing how the proteomic dictionary translates: (i) the languages (N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, AHL; autoinducing peptide, AIP; autoinducer-2, AI-2) used by bacteria to communicate; (ii) signals of QS which induce various phenotypes (e.g., virulence, biofilm maturation); (iii) cross-talk between lactic acid bacteria within various food ecosystems (e.g. sourdough and fermented milk); (iv) probiotic messages at intra- and inter-species and interkingdom levels; and (v) words for quorum quenching (QQ). Proteomics is an indispensible discipline to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation of the multitude of language signals which diffuse through different microbial communities.

  13. Immune-epithelial crosstalk at the intestinal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkopf, Nadine; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    The intestinal tract is one of the most complex organs of the human body. It has to exercise various functions including food and water absorption, as well as barrier and immune regulation. These functions affect not only the gut itself, but influence the overall health of the organism. Diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer therefore severely affect the patient's quality of life and can become life-threatening. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) play an important role in intestinal inflammation, infection, and cancer development. IECs not only constitute the first barrier in the gut against the lumen, they also constantly signal information about the gut lumen to immune cells, thereby influencing their behaviour. In contrast, by producing various antimicrobial peptides, IECs shape the microbial community within the gut. IECs also respond to cytokines and other mediators of immune cells in the lamina propria. Interactions between epithelial cells and immune cells in the intestine are responsible for gut homeostasis, and modulations of this crosstalk have been reported in studies of gut diseases. This review discusses the wide field of immune-epithelial interactions and shows the importance of immune-epithelial crosstalk in the intestine to gut homeostasis and the overall health status. PMID:24469679

  14. Embryonic–maternal cross-talk via exosomes: potential implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadeldin IM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Islam M Saadeldin,1 Hyun Ju Oh,2 Byeong Chun Lee2,3 1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; 2Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine and the Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Institute of Green Bio Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeong Chang, Kangwon do, Republic of KoreaAbstract: A myriad of locally produced factors into the microenvironment of the reproductive tract is regulated, not one-way but rather, through embryonic–maternal cross-talk. In this minireview, we focused on the exosomes, which are cell-derived vesicles of 30–100 nm in diameter, as a communicating language facilitating this dialog. These nanovesicles are secreted from preimplantation embryos, oviduct epithelium, and endometrium as well as from the placenta, and contain proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA, microRNA, and DNA cargoes, and have pleiotropic effects on both embryonic and maternal environments. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating this cross-talk will lead to the development of new regulating agents, with novel diagnostic, biological, and therapeutic potential for either supporting or hindering the normal reproductive functions. Keywords: embryo, endometrium, placenta, mRNA, miRNA

  15. A new design of MRPC to reduce noise and crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiping, Z.; Yi, W.; Yuanjing, L.; Jianping, C.

    2014-07-01

    The CBM time of flight wall is proposed to be built with MRPC technology. In the past few years we have successfuly improved the rate capability of MRPCs to CBM level. However, in a relative high particle multiplicity situation (over 20 kHz/cm2), multi-hit capability is one of the most demanding requirement of the detector. In a free running mode too many noise not only affect the performance of MRPC but also enlarge the data file or even damage the FIFO. So it is needed to develop low crosstalk and low noise MRPC to meet CBM-TOF requirement. Three strip-readout MRPC with or without shielding grounds were designed to study how to reduce noise and crosstalk of MRPCs. In this paper we report on the performance of three different structures of MRPCs named G-0, G-2 and G-3. Tests with cosmic rays were performed at Tsinghua University. The results show that MRPC G-2 can perform better than other two structures, the average cluster size of G-2 is lower than 1.28 strips and the noise level is below 0.5 Hz/cm2. The detection efficiency is over 98% and the time resolution is around 65 ps.

  16. Bus Encoder for Crosstalk Avoidance in RLC Modeled Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.Verma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance factors such as propagation delay, power dissipation and cross talk in RC modelled interconnects are major design issues for the System on-chip (SoC designs in current Deep Sub micron (DSM era. The crosstalk effect is a consequence of coupling and switching activities that is encountered when there is a transition as compared to previous state of wire and or when there are transitions in adjacent wires. Therefore, minimization or elimination of switching and coupling activities is crucial in enhancing the performance of SoC designs. There are several methods for the reduction of power dissipation, crosstalk and delay. The encoding method is most effective and popular method for enhancing the behaviour of on-chip buses. This paper proposes encoding scheme to achieve overall reduction in transitions. The reduction in transition improves the performance in terms of reduced power dissipation, coupling activity and delay in on-chip buses. This encoding method is implemented using VHDL. The result evidently demonstrates reduction in transitions which consequently improves the overall performance of on-chip buses.

  17. The cross-talk between enterocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Serena; Picascia, Stefania; Gianfrani, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    The gut mucosa is continuously exposed to food and microbial antigens. Both enterocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes have a pivotal role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal mucosa, as these cells guarantee a first line of defense against pathogens and toxic molecules. Enterocytes maintain a physical barrier against microbes and directly contribute to the gut homeostasis by sampling the luminal agents through several pattern recognition receptors or presenting antigen to mucosa T cells. Similarly, due to a close physical contact with the intestinal epithelial cells, the intraepithelial lymphocytes represent an important part of the gut lymphoid tissue, contrasting the entry and spread of pathogens. An alteration of the cross-talk between intestinal epithelial cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes might actively contribute to the development of intestinal immune disorders, as occurring in patients with celiac disease. In genetically predisposed individuals, the gluten exposure results in a massive production of interleukin-15, activation of intraepithelial lymphocytes, and modification of small intestinal mucosa architecture and function. We will review the recent studies on the pathophysiology of cross-talk between enterocytes and intraepithelial T cells, and how this interaction is crucial for intestinal integrity and homeostasis. PMID:27251606

  18. Plant hormone cross-talk: the pivot of root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Elena; Polverari, Laura; Sabatini, Sabrina

    2015-02-01

    Root indeterminate growth and its outstanding ability to produce new tissues continuously make this organ a highly dynamic structure able to respond promptly to external environmental stimuli. Developmental processes therefore need to be finely tuned, and hormonal cross-talk plays a pivotal role in the regulation of root growth. In contrast to what happens in animals, plant development is a post-embryonic process. A pool of stem cells, placed in a niche at the apex of the meristem, is a source of self-renewing cells that provides cells for tissue formation. During the first days post-germination, the meristem reaches its final size as a result of a balance between cell division and cell differentiation. A complex network of interactions between hormonal pathways co-ordinates such developmental inputs. In recent years, by means of molecular and computational approaches, many efforts have been made aiming to define the molecular components of these networks. In this review, we focus our attention on the molecular mechanisms at the basis of hormone cross-talk during root meristem size determination.

  19. Expression of growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor gene in GH-producing pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, I; Inokuchi, K; Hasegawa, O; Sugihara, H; Minami, S

    1992-02-01

    Pituitary cells synthesize various neuropeptides that influence pituitary hormone secretion. GH-releasing factor (GRF) may also be produced by normal or pituitary tumor cells. We examined GRF gene expression in pituitary tumors. Standard techniques for the analysis of GRF gene expression did not appear to be suitable. Highly sensitive reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction was used. Specimens of pituitary adenoma were obtained by transsphenoidal adenomectomy from six patients with acromegaly and three patients with no clinical evidence of pituitary hormone overproduction; non-functioning adenoma. Pituitary glands were collected at autopsy from three patients who died from nonendocrine disorders. A specific GRF gene transcript was detected in five out of six GH-producing pituitary adenomas, whereas this was not found in three separate specimens of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma or anterior and posterior pituitary tissue. The data suggest that GRF is synthesized as an intrinsic product in human GH-producing pituitary adenoma.

  20. Pituitary adenoma: A case report with special emphasis on approach to diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaista M Vasenwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary tumors are common in sellar area. The prevalence of clinically apparent pituitary lesions is estimated to comprise approximately 10% of all intracranial lesions, while incidental pituitary tumors are detected in approximately 11% of individuals at autopsy. Pituitary tumors are mostly found to be benign adenomas, however pituitary carcinoma has been reported to comprise about 0.5% of pituitary tumors. Pituitary adenomas are associated with an immense diversity in their endocrine manifestations secondary to hypo or hyperfunction of pituitary gland and ophthalmological manifestations due to mass effect. Progress in the diagnostic examination of pituitary adenomas and advances in the treatment of these tumors offers excellent prospects for a successful therapeutic outcome. We hereby discuss a case of pituitary macro-adenoma in a young adult male and review the recent advances in the classification and diagnosis of pituitary adenoma.

  1. Elimination or minimisation of optoelectronic crosstalk between photodiodes and electronic devices in OEIC on Si

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, M.-J.; Holleman, J.; Wallinga, H.

    1994-01-01

    The optoelectronic crosstalk between photodiodes and electronic devices is observed and investigated in OEICs based on silicon. Results show that the phenomenon is closely related to the diffusion of minority carriers, generated by photon absorption. The crosstalk can be eliminated or minimised by e

  2. Review of the crosstalk in the module 0 of the Electromagnetic Endcap Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Pralavorio, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    This note presents a complete crosstalk map of the endcap calorimeter module 0. Results on test benches performed on mother boards (old and new), proven to be responsible of most of the crosstalk in Middle and Back samplings, are also shown.

  3. Crosstalk Study in a FBG-MOC-Based OXC Using Scattering Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangnong Wu; Chao Lu; Yixin. Wang; Z. Xiong; P. Shum; G. C. Lim

    2003-01-01

    Crosstalk in FBG-MOC-based OXCs is simulated using scattering parameters and compared with that in FBG-OC-based OXCs. The former is able to enhance the output power without significant degradation in signal-to-crosstalk ratio compared with the latter.

  4. Reduction of crosstalk on printed circuit board using genetic algorithm in switching power supply

    OpenAIRE

    Pong, MH; Wu, X; Lee, CM; Qian, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Crosstalk between printed circuit board (PCB) traces in switching power supplies may cause high electromagnetic interference emission. PCB layout plays an important part and a genetic algorithm (GA) is used to produce a layout with reduced crosstalk. A coupling index and a new way of representing a trace for the GA process is presented.

  5. Crosstalk and Wire Length Reduction in the Non-Manhattan Channel Routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel framework for non-Manhattan channel routing considering crosstalk and wire length reduction is proposed. To handle crosstalk and wire length reduction problem, an improved non-Manhattan router in the gridded routing model is developed, and a novel rerouting algorithm based on segment-rerouting technique and layer reassignment is presented. Simulation experiments demonstrate that our algorithm achieves very good results.

  6. Wavelength-Dependence of Inter-Core Crosstalk in Homogeneous Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Takenaga, Katsuhiro;

    2016-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core fibers (MCFs) is investigated, and the corresponding analytical expressions are derived. The derived analytical expressions can be used to determine the crosstalk at any wavelength necessary for designing future MCF...... wavelengthdivision multiplexing (MCF-WDM) networks and transmission systems....

  7. Pituitary hyperplasia: an uncommon presentation of a common disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massolt, E T; Peeters, R P; Neggers, S J; de Herder, W W

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 21-year-old woman presented with amenorrhea, bilateral galactorrhea and fatigue. Visual acuity and visual fields were normal. Laboratory examination demonstrated hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary showed a 19×17×12-mm sellar mass with supra- and parasellar extension, causing compression of the pituitary stalk and optic chiasm. Further examinations confirmed mild hyperprolactinemia, strongly elevated TSH (>500 mU/l), low free thyroxine (FT4), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Hydrocortisone and l-T4 replacement therapy was started. Three months later, the galactorrhea had disappeared, thyroid function was normalized and MRI revealed regression of the pituitary enlargement, confirming the diagnosis of pituitary hyperplasia (PH) due to primary hypothyroidism. Subsequently, the menstrual cycle returned and the hypocortisolism normalized. This case demonstrates that severe primary hypothyroidism may have an unusual presentation and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pituitary enlargement associated with moderate hyperprolactinemia. Learning points One should always try to find one etiology as the common cause of all the clinical findings in a pathologic process.Amenorrhea, galactorrhea and fatigue may be the only presenting clinical manifestations of primary hypothyroidism.Not every patient with galactorrhea, hyperprolactinemia and a pituitary mass has a prolactinoma.Primary hypothyroidism should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia associated with pituitary enlargement and pituitary hormone(s) deficiency(ies).When PH due to primary hypothyroidism is suspected, thyroid hormone replacement should be started and only regression of pituitary enlargement on MRI follow-up can confirm the diagnosis.Examination of thyroid function in patients with a pituitary mass may avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:26279852

  8. Unusual Complication of Pituitary Macroadenoma: A Case Report and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohamed Said; AlBerawi, Mohamad Najm; Bozom, Issam Al; Shaikh, Nissar F.; Salem, Khalid Yacout

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 48 Final Diagnosis: Pituitary apoplexy complicated by cerebral infarction Symptoms: Disturbed conscious level • loss of vision Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Pituitary macroadenoma is a common benign tumor that usually presents with visual field defects or hormonal abnormalities. Cerebral infarction can be a complication of a large pituitary adenoma. We report a rare case of bilateral anterior cerebral arteries infarcts by a large pituitary macroadenoma with apoplexy. Case Report: A 48-year-old male patient presented with altered conscious level and sudden loss of vision for one-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large seller and suprasellar hemorrhagic mass of pituitary origin, with associated bilateral areas of diffusion restriction in the frontal parasagittal regions, consistent with infarctions. Magnetic resonance angiography showed elevation and compression of A1 segment of both anterior cerebral arteries by the hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma. The patient underwent trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma, but unfortunately, ischemia was irreversible. Computed tomography (CT) done post-operatively showed hypodensity in the frontal and parietal parasagittal areas, which was also persistent in the follow up CT scans. The patient’s neurological function remained poor, with GCS of 8/15, in vegetative state. Conclusions: Vascular complications of the pituitary apoplexy, although uncommon, can be very severe and life threatening. Early detection of vascular compromise caused by hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma can prevent delay in intervention. Clinicians should also consider pituitary adenoma as a possible cause of stroke. PMID:27708253

  9. Cellular: Toward personal communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Stuart

    1991-09-01

    The cellular industry is one of the fastest growing segment of the telecommunications industry. With an estimated penetration rate of 20 percent in the near future, cellular is becoming an ubiquitous telecommunications service in the U.S. In this paper we will examine the major advancements in the cellular industry: customer equipment, cellular networks, engineering tools, customer support, and nationwide seamless service.

  10. Is technetium-99m-MIBI taken up by the normal pituitary gland? A comparison of normal pituitary glands and pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral uptake of a normal gland and a pituitary adenoma and to assess the ability to diagnose pituitary adenoma by means of technetium-99m-hexakis-2-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study included 15 patients with pituitary adenomas (mean age=44.0 years, range 19-63) and 15 control subjects (mean age=50.7 years, range 20-67). SPECT was performed 15 minutes after an intravenous injection of MIBI 600 MBq. The shape and location of MIBI uptake were evaluated on a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging/SPECT registration image. The shape patterns and location were classified as follows: Shape C (circular); LO (longitudinal oval); T/R (triangular or rectangular) and location P (pituitary gland or adenoma); D/C (dorsum sellae and/or clivus). Analysis of the uptake showed that 10 (67%) adenomas were C, and 5 (33%) were LO. Of the controls, 5 (33%) were C, and 10 (69%) were T/R. With regard to location, all patients with pituitary adenomas were classified as P, and all control subjects (93%) but one showed uptake in the dorsum sellae and clivus (D/C). MIBI was taken up in the dorsum sellae or clivus but not the normal pituitary gland and had a strong affinity for the pituitary adenoma. This result implies that MIBI SPECT may be a useful new auxiliary examination technique for the location diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. (author)

  11. Quantitative characterization of crosstalk effects for friction force microscopy with scan-by-probe SPMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunici, Pavel; Hess, Peter

    2008-06-01

    If the photodetector and cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) are not properly adjusted, crosstalk effects will appear. These effects disturb measurements of the absolute vertical and horizontal cantilever deflections, which are involved in friction force microscopy (FFM). A straightforward procedure is proposed to study quantitatively crosstalk effects observed in scan-by-probe SPMs. The advantage of this simple, fast, and accurate procedure is that no hardware change or upgrade is needed. The results indicate that crosstalk effects depend not only on the alignment of the detector but also on the cantilever properties, position, and detection conditions. The measurements may provide information on the origin of the crosstalk effect. After determination of its magnitude, simple correction formulas can be applied to correct the crosstalk effects and then the single-load wedge method, using a commercially available grating, can be employed for accurate calibration of the lateral force. PMID:18035500

  12. Characterization and modeling of crosstalk and afterpulsing in Hamamatsu silicon photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The crosstalk and afterpulsing in Hamamatsu silicon photomultipliers, called Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs), have been studied in depth. Several components of the correlated noise have been identified according to their different possible causes and their effects on the signal. In particular, we have distinguished between prompt and delayed crosstalk as well as between trap-assisted and hole-induced afterpulsing. The prompt crosstalk has been characterized through the pulse amplitude spectrum measured at dark conditions. The newest MPPC series, which incorporate isolating trenches between pixels, exhibit a very low prompt crosstalk, but a small component remains likely due to secondary photons reflected on the top surface of the device and photon-generated minority carriers diffusing in the silicon substrate. We present a meticulous procedure to characterize the afterpulsing and delayed crosstalk through the amplitude and delay time distributions of secondary pulses. Our results indicate that both noise ...

  13. Simple analytical expression for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa;

    2014-01-01

    An analytical expression for the mode coupling coe cient in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers is derived, which has a sim- ple relationship with the one in normal step-index structures. The amount of inter-core crosstalk reduction (in dB) with trench-assisted structures compared...... to the one with normal step-index structures can then be written by a simple expression. Comparison with numerical simulations confirms that the obtained analytical expression has very good accuracy for crosstalk estimation. The crosstalk properties in trench-assisted multi-core fibers, such as crosstalk...... dependence on core pitch and wavelength-dependent crosstalk, can be obtained by this simple analytical expression....

  14. An RLC interconnect analyzable crosstalk model considering self-heating effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; Liu Shu-Bin

    2012-01-01

    According to the thermal profile of actual multilevel interconnects,in this paper we propose a temperature distribution model of multilevel interconnects and derive an analytical crosstalk model for the distributed resistanceinductance-capacitance (RLC) interconnect considering effect of thermal profile.According to the 65-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process,we compare the proposed RLC analytical crosstalk model with the Hspice simulation results for different interconnect coupling conditions and the absolute error is within 6.5%.The computed results of the proposed analytical crosstalk model show that RCL crosstalk decreases with the increase of current density and increases with the increase of insulator thickness.This analytical crosstalk model can be applied to the electronic design automation (EDA) and the design optimization for nanometer CMOS integrated circuits.

  15. Investigation and Mitigation of the Crosstalk Effect in Terra MODIS Band 30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously reported that thermal emissive bands (TEB 27–29 in the Terra (T- MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS have been significantly affected by electronic crosstalk. Successful linear theory of the electronic crosstalk effect was formulated, and it successfully characterized the effect via the use of lunar observations as viable inputs. In this paper, we report the successful characterization and mitigation of the electronic crosstalk for T-MODIS band 30 using the same characterization methodology. Though the phenomena of the electronic crosstalk have been well documented in previous works, the novel for band 30 is the need to also apply electronic crosstalk correction to the non-linear term in the calibration coefficient. The lack of this necessity in early works thus demonstrates the distinct difference of band 30, and, yet, in the same instances, the overall correctness of the characterization formulation. For proper result, the crosstalk correction is applied to the band 30 calibration coefficients including the non-linear term, and also to the earth view radiance. We demonstrate that the crosstalk correction achieves a long-term radiometric correction of approximately 1.5 K for desert targets and 1.0 K for ocean scenes. Significant striping removal in the Baja Peninsula earth view imagery is also demonstrated due to the successful amelioration of detector differences caused by the crosstalk effect. Similarly significant improvement in detector difference is shown for the selected ocean and desert targets over the entire mission history. In particular, band 30 detector 8, which has been flagged as “out of family” is restored by the removal of the crosstalk contamination. With the correction achieved, the science applications based on band 30 can be significantly improved. The linear formulation, the characterization methodology, and the crosstalk effect correction coefficients derived using lunar

  16. Long-term drift induced by the electronic crosstalk in Terra MODIS Band 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Menghua

    2015-10-01

    Terra MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key sensors in the NASA's Earth Observing System, which has successfully completed 15 years of on-orbit operation. Terra MODIS continues to collect valuable information of the Earth's energy radiation from visible to thermal infrared wavelengths. The instrument has been well characterized over its lifetime using onboard calibrators whose calibration references are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology standards. In this paper, we focus on the electronic crosstalk effect of Terra MODIS band 29, a thermal emissive band (TEB) whose center wavelength is 8.55 µm. Previous works have established the mechanism to describe the effect of the electronic crosstalk in the TEB channels of Terra MODIS. This work utilizes the established methodology to apply to band 29. The electronic crosstalk is identified and characterized using the regularly scheduled lunar observations. The moon being a near-pulse-like source allowed easy detection of extraneous signals around the actual Moon surface. First, the crosstalk-transmitting bands are identified along with their amplitudes. The crosstalk effect then is characterized using a moving average mechanism that allows a high fidelity of the magnitude to be corrected. The lunar-based analysis unambiguously shows that the crosstalk contamination is becoming more severe in recent years and should be corrected in order to maintain calibration quality for the affected spectral bands. Finally, two radiometrically well-characterized sites, Pacific Ocean and Libya 1 desert, are used to assess the impact of crosstalk effect. It is shown that the crosstalk contamination induces a long-term upward drift of 1.5 K in band 29 brightness temperature of MODIS Collection 6 L1B, which could significantly impact the science products. The crosstalk effect also induces strong detector-to-detector differences, which result in severe stripping in the Earth view

  17. DMPD: Glucocorticoids and the innate immune system: crosstalk with the toll-likereceptor signaling network. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17576036 Glucocorticoids and the innate immune system: crosstalk with the toll-like...07 May 13. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Glucocorticoids and the innate immune system: crosstalk with t...nd the innate immune system: crosstalk with the toll-likereceptor signaling network. Authors Chinenov Y, Rog

  18. Pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy, acromegaly and secondary diabetes mellitus - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganga, Hudson Kamau; Lubanga, Reuben Paul

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are associated with significant morbidity. The usual symptoms on presentation are of endocrine dysfunction and mass effects. A 31-year-old African female presented with headache, irregular menses, blurring of vision in the right eye and complete loss of vision in the left eye for 1 year. She had coarse facial features, enlarged hands and feet. Her right eye had temporal hemianopia with decreased visual acuity and her left eye had no perception of light. Investigations revealed an elevated fasting blood sugar and an elevated prolactin and growth hormone level. A CT scan and MRI done showed a hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma. She was put on bromocriptine, ocreotide, analgesics and insulin. Thereafter, she underwent transphenoidal surgery, where near total resection of the tumor was achieved. Patient is doing well post-operatively. This case highlights the importance of the use of a high clinical index of suspicion and radiological findings in diagnosis. PMID:24062868

  19. Pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy, acromegaly and secondary diabetes mellitus - a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nganga, Hudson Kamau; Lubanga, Reuben Paul

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are associated with significant morbidity. The usual symptoms on presentation are of endocrine dysfunction and mass effects. A 31-year-old African female presented with headache, irregular menses, blurring of vision in the right eye and complete loss of vision in the left eye for 1 year. She had coarse facial features, enlarged hands and feet. Her right eye had temporal hemianopia with decreased visual acuity and her left eye had no perception of light. Investigations revea...

  20. Blood, pituitary, and brain renin-angiotensin systems and regulation of secretion of anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1993-07-01

    In addition to increasing blood pressure, stimulating aldosterone and vasopressin secretion, and increasing water intake, angiotensin II affects the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Some of these effects are direct. There are angiotensin II receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes in rats, and there may be receptors on thyrotropes and other secretory cells. Circulating angiotensin II reaches these receptors, but angiotensin II is almost certainly generated locally by the pituitary renin-angiotensin system as well. There are also indirect effects produced by the effects of brain angiotensin II on the secretion of hypophyseotropic hormones. In the anterior pituitary of the rat, the gonadotropes contain renin, angiotensin II, and some angiotensin-converting enzyme. There is debate about whether these cells also contain small amounts of angiotensinogen, but most of the angiotensinogen is produced by a separate population of cells and appears to pass in a paracrine fashion to the gonadotropes. An analogous situation exists in the brain. Neurons contain angiotensin II and probably renin, but most angiotensin-converting enzyme is located elsewhere and angiotensinogen is primarily if not solely produced by astrocytes. Angiotensin II causes secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) when added to pituitary cells in vitro. Paracrine regulation of prolactin secretion by angiotensin II from the gonadotropes may occur in vitro under certain circumstances, but the effects of peripheral angiotensin II on ACTH secretion appear to be mediated via the brain and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In the brain, there is good evidence that locally generated angiotensin II causes release of norepinephrine that in turn stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neurons, increasing circulating luteinizing hormone. In addition, there is evidence that angiotensin II acts in the arcuate nuclei to increase the secretion of dopamine into the portal

  1. The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangfang; Huang, Yinxing; Ding, Chenyu; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Shousen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPMAs) is not well known, and hyperprolactinemia caused by a NFPMA is currently associated with diagnostic uncertainty. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in NFPMAs. Methods: A meta-analysis of all existing articles in PubMed was conducted. The search string was designed as “(non-functioning pituitary tumor OR non-functioning pituitary tumor OR non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas OR non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas OR non-functioning pituitary adenomas OR non-functioning pituitary adenomas) and hyperprolactinemia”. References of the articles found were also reviewed. Study selection and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 software (StataCorp LP, USA). The fixed effects model was used to evaluate these studies. Results: The search identified 57 published studies, seven of which were accepted for the final meta-analysis. The authors found an overall estimated 40.2% prevalence of (95% CI, 36.6%-43.7%) hyperprolactinemia in NFPMAs. Conclusions: Given the high frequency of hyperprolactinemia in NFPMAs, a diagnosis of NFPMA or prolactinoma should be made more carefully. PMID:26770524

  2. Development and sexual dimorphism of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Keshavan, Matcheri; Mirza, Yousha; Carrey, Normand; Upadhyaya, Ameet R; El-Sheikh, Rhonda; Buhagiar, Christian J; Taormina, S Preeya; Boyd, Courtney; Lynch, Michelle; Rose, Michelle; Ivey, Jennifer; Moore, Gregory J; Rosenberg, David R

    2007-02-13

    The pituitary gland plays a central role in sexual development and brain function. Therefore, we examined the effect of age and gender on pituitary volume in a large sample of healthy children and adults. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted in one hundred and fifty four (77 males and 77 females) healthy participants. Males were between the ages of 7 to 35 years (16.91+/-5.89 years) and females were 7 to 35 years of age (16.75+/-5.75 years). Subjects were divided into subgroups of age (7 to 9, 10 to 13, 14 to 17, 18 to 21, 22 and older) and sex (male/female). Pituitary gland volume differed between sexes when comparing the age groups (F=3.55, df=2, 143, p=0.03). Females demonstrated larger pituitary glands than males in the age 14 to 17 year old groups (p=0.04). Young (19 years and under) and old (20 years and older) females demonstrated a correlation between pituitary volume and age. Males did not show this relationship. These findings provide additional evidence for gender differences in the normative anatomy of the pituitary and may have relevance for the study of various childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders in which pituitary dysfunction has been implicated. PMID:17174342

  3. Relationship Between Histopathology and Clinical Prognosis of Invasive Pituitary Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYong; SHUKai; DONGFangyong; WANFeng; LEITing; LILing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between histopathology and clinical prognosis of invasive pituitary adenoma subjected to transsphenoidal surgery. Methods: The enrolled were 82 patients with invasive pituitary adenomas undergoing transsphenoidal surgery during Jan. 2000 May 2003 in our department with full MR imaging findings, pathology data and follow-up information. The follow-up duration was 5-30 months. Results: MR imaging findings of invasive pituitary adenoma included: depression of the sellar floor, involvement of sphenoid sinus and cavernous sinus, breakthrough of diaphragma sellae,encasement of internal carotid artery, etc. Pathological examination revealed that the invasion rate of dura in sella turcica was the highest among the structures around tumor. Pituitary adenoma apoplexy was found in 20 cases (24.4%). The total removal rate for PRL-secreting adenomas was significantly lower than that for non-secreting adenomas (P<0.01), but non-, GH-, ACTH-secreting adenomas had no significant differences. The recurrence rate of PRL-secreting adenornas was higher than that of non- and GH-secreting adenomas (P<0.05). Conclusion: Among invasive pituitary adenomas, the therapeutic effects of nonand GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are better than that of PRL-secreting adenomas. Invasive biological behaviors of invasive pituitary adenomas result in radical operation failure and postoperative recurrence.

  4. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Ki Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Tae Young [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Iksan (Korea); See-Sung, Choi [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Iksan (Korea); Kim, Jong Duck [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Iksan (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  5. Follicle stimulating hormone secreting pituitary adenoma: a challenging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alap Mehendale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available FSH secreting pituitary adenomas are relatively uncommon brain tumours and usually non-functioning. But in rare cases they produce ovarian hyperstimulation. We report a case of a 32 year old female P2L2, with amenorrhoea of 1 year, pain in abdomen and galactorrhoea since 6 months. Initially thought to be a simple prolactinoma with multicystic ovaries, but after thorough investigations to our surprise diagnosed to be a rare case of gonadotropin secreting pituitary adenoma. Patient was successfully managed by excision of the pituitary adenoma. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 493-496

  6. Ectopic Neurohypophysis in Patient with Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Kılınç

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis is an anomaly of the Pituitary gland whichmay be associated with short stature due to Growth hormone deficiency.MRI is the modality of choice in diagnosing this condition. We present acase of pituitary dwarfism and ectopic neurohypophysis with clinical andradiological findings. 21 year-old male admitted with short stature. Allhormones, except prolactin, of anterior hypophysis were low. Bright spotwas ectopically located at level of median eminence on enhanced MRI ofhypophysis and stalk of hypophysis was not observed. Ectopicneurohypophysis may be present with pituitary dwarfism. Cranial MRI maybe useful to investigate related pathologies in such cases.

  7. Electrophoretic separation of kidney and pituitary cells on STS-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.; Nachtwey, D. S.; Barlow, G. H.; Cleveland, C.; Lanham, J. W.; Farrington, M. A.; Hatfield, J. M.; Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R.; Lewis, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Specific secretory cells were separated from suspensions of cultured primary human embryonic cells and rat pituitary cells in microgravity conditions, with an objective of isolating the subfractions of kidney cells that produce the largest amount of urakinase, and the subfractions of rat pituitary cells that secrete growth hormones (GH), prolactin (PRL), and other hormones. It is inferred from the experimental observations that the surface charge distributions of the GH-containing cells differ from those of the PRL-containing cells, which is explained by the presence of secretory products on the surface of pituitary cells. For kidney cells, the electrophoretic mobility distributions in flight experiments were spread more than the ground controls.

  8. Advances in the regulation and crosstalks of phytohormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG GuoSheng; LI JiaYang; WANG YongHong

    2009-01-01

    Various mutants defective in phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways have been identified and characterized recently.Functional analysis of corresponding genes has greatly enriched our knowledge of phytohormone biosynthesis,transport,and signal transduction.Moreover,identification of phytohormone receptors and dissection of cross-talks among phytohormones allow us to elucidate the molecular basis of actions of phytohormones.The recent comprehensive work on the regulation of the biosynthesis,transport and signaling of phytohormones will help us to understand phytohormone actions in plant growth and development and their potential application in crop improvement.In this review,we summarize the latest work about phytohormones actions and highlight some common issues in this field.

  9. Specificity, cross-talk and adaptation in Interferon signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilman, Anton

    Innate immune system is the first line of defense of higher organisms against pathogens. It coordinates the behavior of millions of cells of multiple types, achieved through numerous signaling molecules. This talk focuses on the signaling specificity of a major class of signaling molecules - Type I Interferons - which are also used therapeutically in the treatment of a number of diseases, such as Hepatitis C, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. Puzzlingly, different Interferons act through the same cell surface receptor but have different effects on the target cells. They also exhibit a strange pattern of temporal cross-talk resulting in a serious clinical problem - loss of response to Interferon therapy. We combined mathematical modeling with quantitative experiments to develop a quantitative model of specificity and adaptation in the Interferon signaling pathway. The model resolves several outstanding experimental puzzles and directly affects the clinical use of Type I Interferons in treatment of viral hepatitis and other diseases.

  10. Cross-talk between insulin and Wnt signaling in preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsgaard, Jane; Emanuelli, Brice; Winnay, Jonathon N;

    2012-01-01

    Disturbed Wnt signaling has been implicated in numerous diseases, including type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we have investigated cross-talk between insulin and Wnt signaling pathways using preadipocytes with and without knockdown of the Wnt co-receptors LRP5...... and LRP6 and with and without knock-out of insulin and IGF-1 receptors. We find that Wnt stimulation leads to phosphorylation of insulin signaling key mediators, including Akt, GSK3β, and ERK1/2, although with a lower fold stimulation and slower time course than observed for insulin. These Wnt effects...... are insulin/IGF-1 receptor-dependent and are lost in insulin/IGF-1 receptor double knock-out cells. Conversely, in LRP5 knockdown preadipocytes, insulin-induced phosphorylation of IRS1, Akt, GSK3β, and ERK1/2 is highly reduced. This effect is specific to insulin, as compared with IGF-1, stimulation...

  11. Thermal crosstalk simulation and measurement of linear terahertz detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weizhi; Huang, Zehua; Wang, Jun; Li, Mingyu; Gou, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2015-11-01

    Thermal simulation of differently structured linear terahertz detector arrays (TDAs) based on lithium tantalate was performed by finite element analysis (FEA). Simulation results revealed that a relatively simple TDA structure can have good thermal insulation, i.e., low thermal crosstalk effect (TCE), between adjacent pixels, which was thus selected for the real fabrication of TDA sample. Current responsivity (Ri) of the sample for a 2.52 THz source was measured to be 6.66 × 10-6 A/W and non-uniformity (NU) of Ri was 4.1%, showing good performance of the sample. TCE test result demonstrated that small TCE existed in the sample, which was in good agreement with the simulation results.

  12. Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk. PMID:25417646

  13. Cross-talk effect in electrostatic based capillary array nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrohydrodynamic printing is a promising technique for printed electronics application. Most researchers working in this field are using a single nozzle configuration. However, for large area printing a multi-nozzle setup will be required for time and cost effective process. In this paper the influence of electric field and flow-rate on jetting angle on multi-nozzle array has been investigated experimentally. A three nozzle setup has been used in a linear array by using glass capillary as a nozzle with independent voltage applied on each nozzle and independent ink supply. The experiments are performed by changing the nozzle to nozzle gap and the effect on the jetting angle has been investigated. It has been observed that by increasing the applied voltage the jetting angle also increases at fixed flow-rate. In case of increasing the flow-rate, the jetting angle first increases with increase in flow-rate, but as the flow-rate increases at certain level the jetting angle decreases; moreover, at a high flow-rate the cone-jet length starts increasing. Numerical simulation has been performed to have a better understanding of the electric-field with respect to jetting angles. The influence of one nozzle on another nozzle is also investigated by operating the nozzle independently by using different operating cases. The cross-talk effect is also minimized by reducing the nozzle diameter. At 250 μm nozzle diameter the cross-talk effect was negligible for 5 mm nozzle-to-nozzle gap. This study will help in better understanding of the interaction between different nozzles in multi-nozzle cases and better design of the multi-nozzle system by minimizing the effects of adjacent nozzles for multi-nozzle electrohydrodynamic printing system

  14. Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk.

  15. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by cellular labile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kyohei; Kawakami, Toru; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tomizawa, Miyu; Fujiwara, Tohru; Ishii, Tomonori; Harigae, Hideo; Ogasawara, Kouetsu

    2016-02-01

    Cellular labile iron, which contains chelatable redox-active Fe(2+), has been implicated in iron-mediated cellular toxicity leading to multiple organ dysfunction. Iron homeostasis is controlled by monocytes/macrophages through their iron recycling and storage capacities. Furthermore, iron sequestration by monocytes/macrophages is regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1, highlighting the importance of these cells in the crosstalk between inflammation and iron homeostasis. However, a role for cellular labile iron in monocyte/macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses has not been defined. Here we describe how cellular labile iron activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes. Stimulation of lipopolysaccharide-primed peripheral blood mononuclear cells with ferric ammonium citrate increases the level of cellular Fe(2+) levels in monocytes and induces production of interleukin-1β in a dose-dependent manner. This ferric ammonium citrate-induced interleukin-1β production is dependent on caspase-1 and is significantly inhibited by an Fe(2+)-specific chelator. Ferric ammonium citrate consistently induced interleukin-1β secretion in THP1 cells, but not in NLRP3-deficient THP1 cells, indicating a requirement for the NLRP3 inflammasome. Additionally, activation of the inflammasome is mediated by potassium efflux, reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Thus, these results suggest that monocytes/macrophages not only sequestrate iron during inflammation, but also mediate inflammation in response to cellular labile iron, which provides novel insights into the role of iron in chronic inflammation. PMID:26577567

  16. Assessment of on-orbit crosstalk impact for SNPP VIIRS VisNIR bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shihyan; Oudrari, Hassan; McIntire, Jeff; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-09-01

    Electronic and optical crosstalk is one of the major challenges facing space-based Earth observing sensors, the effects of which could pose serious risks to the successful retrieval of geophysical information. There was an extensive effort during the SNPP VIIRS design and testing phase to characterize the on-orbit VisNIR crosstalk and its impact on environmental products. This paper describes an approach to assess the level of optical and electronic crosstalk on the measured radiance, and thereafter the retrieved geophysical products. During SNPP VIIRS pre-launch testing, a set of electronic and optical cross-talk influence coefficients was derived from measurements, which represent the amount of signal contamination received by each detector when other detectors on the same focal plane were illuminated. These coefficients were used to assess the potential crosstalk and its uncertainty on typical SNPP VIIRS land, atmosphere and ocean scenes. The simulation results show SNPP VIIRS crosstalk contamination is very small, less than 0.3 % for the stressing scenes, except for bands M7 and I2 over the dark ocean regions. These results are encouraging and constitute further evidence that SNPP VIIRS produces high quality imagery. The simulation approach presented in this paper could also be used for early crosstalk impact assessments for future VIIRS instruments.

  17. Numerical simulation of crosstalk in reduced pitch HgCdTe photon-trapping structure pixel arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jonathan; Bellotti, Enrico

    2013-06-17

    We have investigated crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic pixel arrays employing a photon trapping (PT) structure realized with a periodic array of pillars intended to provide broadband operation. We have found that, compared to non-PT pixel arrays with similar geometry, the array employing the PT structure has a slightly higher optical crosstalk. However, when the total crosstalk is evaluated, the presence of the PT region drastically reduces the total crosstalk; making the use of the PT structure not only useful to obtain broadband operation, but also desirable for reducing crosstalk in small pitch detector arrays. PMID:23787659

  18. Electronic Crosstalk in Aqua MODIS Long-Wave Infrared Photovoltaic Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have discovered that Terra MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS long-wave infrared (LWIR photovoltaic (PV bands, bands 27–30, have strong crosstalk among themselves. The linear model developed to test the electronic crosstalk effect was instrumental in the first discovery of the effect in Terra MODIS band 27, and through subsequent investigations the model and the correction algorithm were tested further and established to be correct. It was shown that the correction algorithm successfully mitigated the anomalous features in the calibration coefficients as well as the severe striping and the long-term drift in the Earth view (EV retrievals for the affected Terra bands. Here, the examination into Aqua MODIS using the established methodology confirms the existence of significant crosstalk contamination in its four LWIR PV, although the finding shows the overall effect to be of lesser degree. The crosstalk effect is characterized and the crosstalk correction coefficients are derived for all four Aqua LWIR PV bands via analysis of signal contamination in the lunar imagery. Sudden changes in the crosstalk contamination are clearly seen, as also in the Terra counterparts in previous investigations. These sudden changes are consistent with the sudden jumps observed in the linear calibration coefficients for many years, thus this latest finding provides an explanation to the long-standing but unexplained anomalies in the calibration coefficients of the four Aqua LWIR bands. It is also shown that the crosstalk contamination for these bands are of similar level for the two MODIS instruments in the early mission that can lead to as much as 2 K increase in brightness temperature for the affected bands, thus demonstrating significant impact on the science results already started at the early going. As Aqua MODIS is a legacy sensor, the crosstalk correction to its LWIR PV bands will be important to remove the impact of

  19. Reversible pituitary hyperplasia at birth in a macrosomic full-term baby boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipoff, Jennifer; Wilson, Thomas A. [State University of New York, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Peyster, Robert [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Pituitary hyperplasia is generally associated with end-organ failure such as primary hypothyroidism, physiological changes such as puberty and pregnancy, or neoplasms secreting releasing factors. We present a full-term infant with an enlarged pituitary height of 8 mm at age 3 days despite a normal endocrinological evaluation. Repeat imaging at 5 months of age revealed a normal-size pituitary gland. To our knowledge, pituitary hyperplasia has not been described in a neonate with normal pituitary function. (orig.)

  20. Cellular Auxin Homeostasis:Gatekeeping Is Housekeeping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michel Ruiz Rosquete; Elke Barbez; Jürgen Kleine-Vehn

    2012-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is essential for plant development and contributes to nearly every aspect of the plant life cycle.The spatio-temporal distribution of auxin depends on a complex interplay between auxin metabolism and cell-to-cell auxin transport.Auxin metabolism and transport are both crucial for plant development;however,it largely remains to be seen how these processes are integrated to ensure defined cellular auxin levels or even gradients within tissues or organs.In this review,we provide a glance at very diverse topics of auxin biology,such as biosynthesis,conjugation,oxidation,and transport of auxin.This broad,but certainly superficial,overview highlights the mutual importance of auxin metabolism and transport.Moreover,it allows pinpointing how auxin metabolism and transport get integrated to jointly regulate cellular auxin homeostasis.Even though these processes have been so far only separately studied,we assume that the phytohormonal crosstalk integrates and coordinates auxin metabolism and transport.Besides the integrative power of the global hormone signaling,we additionally introduce the hypothetical concept considering auxin transport components as gatekeepers for auxin responses.

  1. Mid-wave infrared metasurface microlensed focal plane array for optical crosstalk suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Onur; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-10-19

    Spatial crosstalk is one of the fundamental drawbacks of diminishing pixel size in mid-wave infrared focal plane arrays (IR-FPAs). We proposed an IR-FPA using the concept of optical phase discontinuities for substantial optical crosstalk suppression. This IR-FPA consists of asymmetrically tailored V-shaped optical antennas. Full-wave simulations confirmed major improvements in narrowing the intensity distribution of incident light beam by over 30-folds and concentrating these distributions in the central pixel of IR-FPA by achieving optical crosstalks of <1%. PMID:26480363

  2. Crosstalk in x-ray framing cameras: Effect on voltage, gain, and timing (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, L R; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Brown, C G; Glenn, S M; Heeter, R; Holder, J P; Izumi, N; Khan, S F; Lacaille, G; Simanovskaia, N; Smalyuk, V A; Thomas, R

    2012-10-01

    We present evidence that electromagnetic crosstalk between independent strips in gated x-ray framing cameras can affect relative gains by up to an order of magnitude and gate arrival times up to tens of picoseconds when strip separation times are less then ∼1 ns. Crosstalk is observed by multiple methods, and it is confirmed by direct measurements of voltage on the active surface of the detector and also by indirect voltage monitors in routine operation. The voltage measurements confirm that crosstalk is produced not only in the active regions of the microchannel plate, but also along the entire input path of the voltage pulses. PMID:23126956

  3. A Joint-Coding Scheme With Crosstalk Avoidance in Network On Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliable transfer in Network on Chip can be guaranteed by crosstalk avoidance and error detection code. In this paper,we propose a joint coding scheme combined with crosstalk avoidance coding with error control coding. The Fibonacci numeral system is applied to satisfy the requirement of crosstalk avoidance coding, and the error detection is achieved by adding parity bits. We also implement the codec in register transfer level. Furthermore, the schemes of codec applying to fault-tolerant router are analyzed. The experimental result shows that "once encode, multiple decode" scheme outperforms other schemes in trade-o_ of delay, area and power.

  4. Fourier analysis of RGB fringe-projection profilometry and robust phase-demodulation methods against crosstalk distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we apply the frequency transfer function (FTF) formalism to analyze the red, green and blue (RGB) phase-shifting fringe-projection profilometry technique. The phase-shifted fringe patterns in RGB fringe projection are typically corrupted by crosstalk because the sensitivity curves of most projection-recording systems overlap. Crosstalk distortion needs to be compensated in order to obtain high quality measurements. We study phase-demodulation methods for null/mild, moderate, and severe levels of RGB crosstalk. For null/mild crosstalk, we can estimate the searched phase-map using Bruning's 3-step phase-shifting algorithm (PSA). For moderate crosstalk, the RGB recorded data is usually preprocessed before feeding it into Bruning's PSA; alternatively, in this paper we propose a computationally more efficient approach, which combines crosstalk compensation and phase-demodulation into a single process. For severe RGB crosstalk, we expect non-sinusoidal fringes' profiles (distorting harmonics) and sign...

  5. Coexisting intracranial tumors with pituitary adenomas: Genetic association or coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The co-occurrence of two or more brain tumors with different histological features is rare. The authors report three rare cases of intracranial tumors associated with pituitary adenomas. Two of the pituitary tumors were functioning adenomas: a prolactinoma and a thyrotropin secreting adenoma. Two of the associated intracranial neoplasms were gliomas and one was a meningioma. Radiological and clinical examination for syndromal association was negative in all cases. We briefly discuss the presentation and treatment options of these cases and review the 19 previous publications in the literature of pituitary tumors occurring in association with other neoplasms and explore the possible links underlying these co-occurring neoplasms. Our three cases represent 0.86% of all pituitary tumors operated at our institute over a 9-year period.

  6. Pregnancy and pituitary disorders: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir A Laway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with normal physiological changes in endocrine system that assists fetal survival as well as preparation of labor. The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs in which major changes in anatomy and physiology take place. Due to overlapping clinical and biochemical features of pregnancy, sometimes the diagnosis of pituitary disorders may be challenging. It is important to know what normal parameters of changes occur in endocrine system in order to diagnose and manage complex endocrine problems in pregnancy. In our present review, we will focus on pituitary disorders that occur exclusively during pregnancy like Sheehan′s syndrome and lymphocytic hypophysitis and pre-existing pituitary disorders (like prolactinoma, Cushing′s disease and acromegaly, which poses significant challenge to endocrinologists.

  7. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S; Lodish, Maya B; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J; Quezado, Martha M; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2014-03-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI.

  8. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke\\'s pouch. METHODS: We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt\\'s cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  9. Pareidolia in Neuroendocrinology: A Pituitary Macroadenoma Resembling "Big Bird".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-04-01

    The MRI picture of a pituitary macroadenoma with supra- and perisellar expansion resembled a famous character from a children's television series demonstrating that pareidolia is also observed in neuro-endocrinology and -radiology. PMID:26812692

  10. Immediate postoperative complications in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumul Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe.

  11. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    A multiphase study was conducted to examine the properties of growth hormone cells. Topics investigated included: (1) to determine if growth hormone (GH) cells contained within the rat pituitary gland can be separated from the other hormone producing cell types by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE); (2) to determine what role, if any, gravity plays in the electrophoretic separation of GH cells; (3) to compare in vitro GH release from rat pituitary cells previously exposed to microgravity conditions vs release from cells not exposed to microgravity; (4) to determine if the frequency of different hormone producing pituitary cell types contained in cell suspensions can be quantitated by flow cytometry; and (5) to determine if GH contained within the human post mortem pituitary gland can be purified by CFE. Specific experimental procedures and results are included.

  12. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S.; Lodish, Maya B.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Quezado, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI. PMID:24129100

  13. Diagnostic pitfalls of hyperprolactinemia: the importance of sequential pituitary imaging

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the serum prolactin cut-off value is definitive to distinguish prolactinoma and non-functioning pituitary adenoma with hyperprolactinemia. We retrospectively reviewed patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma, including gonadotroph cell adenoma, null cell adenoma and prolactinoma who were surgically treated at Kohnan hospital between June 2005 and March 2012. The patients without endocrinological/neurological symptom and with th...

  14. Acromegaly with sleep disturbances relieved by yttrium-90 pituitary implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Joplin, G.F.; Jung, R.T.; Mashiter, K. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). Postgraduate Medical School)

    1982-03-01

    A brief case history is presented of a patient, who, after yttrium-90 implantation, showed a complete clinical and hormonal remission of her acromegaly, maintaining normal pituitary function. The remarkable feature was the rapid disappearance of her attacks of somnolence within 96 hours of pituitary implantation, despite persistence of nocturnal snoring and well before any remodelling of soft tissues could have occurred. This response suggests that her daytime somnolence had a narcoleptic component.

  15. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-06-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  16. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: long-term outcome and complications

    OpenAIRE

    Rim, Chai Hong; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Jung Ae; Kim, Chul Yong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate long-term local control rate and toxicity in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for pituitary adenomas. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 60 patients treated with EBRT for pituitary adenoma at Korea University Medical Center from 1996 and 2006. Thirty-five patients had hormone secreting tumors, 25 patients had non-secreting tumors. Fifty-seven patients had received postoperative radiotherapy (RT), and 3 had receiv...

  17. Pregnancy and pituitary disorders: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir A. Laway; Shahnaz A Mir

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with normal physiological changes in endocrine system that assists fetal survival as well as preparation of labor. The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs in which major changes in anatomy and physiology take place. Due to overlapping clinical and biochemical features of pregnancy, sometimes the diagnosis of pituitary disorders may be challenging. It is important to know what normal parameters of changes occur in endocrine system in order to diagnose and...

  18. Thyroxine 5'-deiodinase in human anterior pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Y; Yoshida, K; Ikeda, H; Kaise, K; Kaise, N; Yamamoto, M; Sakurada, T; Yoshinaga, K

    1990-08-01

    The activity of T4 5'-monodeiodinase (5'D) in the pituitary was measured in 12 patients with pituitary adenoma (3 patients with acromegaly, 2 with prolactinoma, 1 with Cushing's disease, 1 with TSH-producing tumor, and 5 with nonfunctioning tumor) and, as a control, in a patient who died of parotid cancer. The pituitaries, obtained at operation or autopsy, were homogenized in 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, and centrifuged at 800 x g. Supernatants were incubated with [125I]T4 and 20 mmol/L dithiothreitol (DTT) at 37C for 90 min. T4 5'-D was measured by the release of 125I- with the ion exchange method. The activity of T4 5'-D in the pituitaries from patients with prolactinoma and parotid cancer was dependent on protein concentration, incubation time, incubation temperature, and T4 concentration, and was labile to prior heating at 70 C for 30 min. T4 5'-D was not inhibited by 1 mmol/L propylthiouracil, but was inhibited 95% by 0.1 mmol/L iopanoic acid. The apparent Km and maximum velocity for T4 5'-D in homogenates of prolactinoma at 20 mmol/L DTT were 11 nmol/L and 1.54 pmol/mg protein.h, respectively. This reaction followed sequential-type reaction kinetics when the DTT concentration was varied. All other homogenates of pituitary tumors, except two nonfunctioning tumors, also demonstrated T4 5'-D activity. These results indicate that 1) the human pituitary express a low Km and PTU-insensitive T4 5'-D activity which is very similar to the type II enzyme activity in the rat pituitary; and 2) various types of pituitary tumor cells contain T4 5'-D activity.

  19. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Masumi

    2013-12-30

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates). Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrates known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol) feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir) GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTHβ mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates.

  20. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-06-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings. PMID:25077093

  1. Dopamine receptor expression and function in corticotroph pituitary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Pivonello, Rosario; Lamberts, Steven; Ferone, Diego; De Herder, Wouter; Kros, Johan; Caro, M.L.; M. Arvigo; Annunziato, L; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Hofland, Leo

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe role of dopamine agonist treatment in corticotroph pituitary tumors is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate D(2) receptor expression in 20 corticotroph pituitary tumors and to correlate it to the in vitro effect of dopamine agonists on ACTH secretion and the in vivo effect of short-term cabergoline treatment on cortisol secretion. D(2) expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR. A 50% or more decrease in daily urinary ...

  2. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Endocrine System in the Hagfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi eNozaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates. Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrate known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates, the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTH mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates.

  3. Pituitary hyperplasia: an uncommon presentation of a common disease

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, C P; Massolt, E T; Peeters, R P; Neggers, S J; de Herder, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 21-year-old woman presented with amenorrhea, bilateral galactorrhea and fatigue. Visual acuity and visual fields were normal. Laboratory examination demonstrated hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary showed a 19×17×12-mm sellar mass with supra- and parasellar extension, causing compression of the pituitary stalk and optic chiasm. Further examinations confirmed mild hyperprolactinemia, strongly elevated TSH (>500 mU/l), low free thyroxine (FT4), hypogo...

  4. Long-Term Outcome and MGMT as a Predictive Marker in 24 Patients With Atypical Pituitary Adenomas and Pituitary Carcinomas Given Treatment With Temozolomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Daniel; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Andersen, Marianne;

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Locally aggressive pituitary tumors (LAPT) and pituitary carcinomas respond poorly to conventional therapy and cytotoxic drugs. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating drug with good tolerability, approved for treatment of malignant gliomas. The experience of its use in pituit......CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Locally aggressive pituitary tumors (LAPT) and pituitary carcinomas respond poorly to conventional therapy and cytotoxic drugs. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating drug with good tolerability, approved for treatment of malignant gliomas. The experience of its use...

  5. Outcome After Pituitary Radiosurgery for Thalamic Pain Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after pituitary radiosurgery in patients with post-stroke thalamic pain syndrome. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2006, 24 patients with thalamic pain syndrome underwent pituitary radiosurgery at Tokyo Women's Medical University and were followed at least 12 months thereafter. The radiosurgical target was defined as the pituitary gland and its connection with the pituitary stalk. The maximum dose varied from 140 to 180 Gy. Mean follow-up after treatment was 35 months (range, 12-48 months). Results: Initial pain reduction, usually within 48 h after radiosurgery, was marked in 17 patients (71%). However, in the majority of cases the pain recurred within 6 months after treatment, and at the time of the last follow-up examination durable pain control was marked in only 5 patients (21%). Ten patients (42%) had treatment-associated side effects. Anterior pituitary abnormalities were marked in 8 cases and required hormonal replacement therapy in 3; transient diabetes insipidus was observed in 2 cases, transient hyponatremia in 1, and clinical deterioration due to increase of the numbness severity despite significant reduction of pain was seen once. Conclusions: Pituitary radiosurgery for thalamic pain results in a high rate of initial efficacy and is accompanied by acceptable morbidity. It can be used as a primary minimally invasive management option for patients with post-stroke thalamic pain resistant to medical therapy. However, in the majority of cases pain recurrence occurs within 1 year after treatment

  6. Evaluation of pituitary adenomas by multidirectional multislice dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Multidetector-row CT is a new technology with a short scanning time. Multislice dynamic CT (MSDCT) in various directions can be obtained using the multidetector-row CT with multiplanar reformatting (MPR) technique. Material and Methods: We evaluated the initial results of sagittal and coronal MSDCT images reconstructed by MPR (MSDCT-MPR) in 3 pituitary adenoma patients with a pacemaker. Results: In a patient with microadenoma, the maximum contrast between the normal anterior pituitary gland and the adenoma occurred approximately 50 s after the start of the contrast medium injection. A microadenoma was depicted as a less enhanced area relative to normal pituitary tissue. The macroadenomas were depicted as a less enhanced mass with cavernous sinus invasion in 1 patient and as a non-uniformly enhanced mass in another patient. Bone destruction and incomplete opening of the sellar floor during previous surgery were clearly detected in 2 patients with macroadenomas. These pituitary adenomas were removed via the transnasal route based on information from the MSDCT-MPR images only. The findings were verified surgically. Conclusion: The MSDCT-MPR provided the information needed for surgery with good image quality in the 3 patients with pacemakers. MSDCT-MPR appears to be a useful technique for patients with a pituitary adenoma in whom MR imaging is not available. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of the MSDCT-MPR technique being used to demonstrate pituitary disorders

  7. In vitro impact of pegvisomant on growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Thomas; Zeiller, Caroline; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Défilles, Céline; Roche, Catherine; Blanchard, Marie-Pierre; Theodoropoulou, Marily; Graillon, Thomas; Pertuit, Morgane; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Enjalbert, Alain; Brue, Thierry; Barlier, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Pegvisomant (PEG), an antagonist of growth hormone (GH)-receptor (GHR), normalizes insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) oversecretion in most acromegalic patients unresponsive to somatostatin analogs (SSAs) and/or uncontrolled by transsphenoidal surgery. The residual GH-secreting tumor is therefore exposed to the action of circulating PEG. However, the biological effect of PEG at the pituitary level remains unknown. To assess the impact of PEG in vitro on the hormonal secretion (GH and prolactin (PRL)), proliferation and cellular viability of eight human GH-secreting tumors in primary cultures and of the rat somatolactotroph cell line GH4C1. We found that the mRNA expression levels of GHR were characterized in 31 human GH-secreting adenomas (0.086 copy/copy β-Gus) and the GHR was identified by immunocytochemistry staining. In 5/8 adenomas, a dose-dependent inhibition of GH secretion was observed under PEG with a maximum of 38.2±17% at 1μg/mL (Phuman primary tumors or GH4C1 cell line was observed. We conclude that PEG inhibits the secretion of GH and PRL in primary cultures of human GH(/PRL)-secreting pituitary adenomas without effect on cell viability or cell proliferation. PMID:27267119

  8. Experimental Modification of Rat Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function During and After Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Nye, P.; Grossman, E. J.; Lane, P. K.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Space-flown rats show a number of flight-induced changes in the structure and function of pituitary Growth Hormone (GH) cells after in vitro postflight testing. To evaluate the possible effects of microgravity on GH cells themselves, freshly dispersed rat anterior pituitary gland cells were seeded into vials containing serum +/- 1 micron HydroCortisone (HC) before flight. Five different cell preparations were used: the entire mixed-cell population of various hormone-producing cell types, cells of density less than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 1), cells of density greater than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 2), and cells prepared from either the dorsal or ventral part of the gland. Relative to ground control samples, bioactive GH released from dense cells during flight was reduced in HC-free medium but was increased in HC-containing medium. Band I and mixed cells usually showed opposite HC-dependent responses. Release of bioactive GH from ventral flight cells was lower; postflight responses to GH-releasing hormone challenge were reduced, and the cytoplasmic area occupied by GH in the dense cells was greater. Collectively, the data show that the chemistry and cellular makeup of the culture system modifies the response of GH cells to microgravity. As such, these cells offer a system to identify gravisensing mechanisms in secretory cells in future microgravity research.

  9. Effects of Estrogen and/or Progesterone on Morphology of Pituitary Luteinizing Hormone Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周寿康; 任惠民; 王健; 赵伟; 顾敦瑜; 谢衷明

    2001-01-01

    Objective To identify the morphological characteristics of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) cells after exogenous gonadal hormone treatment Methods Effects of various doses of estrogen, progesterone and their combination on morphological parameters, including the size and shape of pituitary LH cells, the size of endocellular vacuoles, were observed and measured by immuno-histochemistry and computer image analysis.Results Different kinds of gonadal hormones could recover the magnified LH cells to the normal level in ovariectomized rats. However, their final effects on the gonadotrophin levels and the cellular morphological characters of the LH cells were different. The low dose of estrogen elicited abundant hormone stored in the LH cells to an easy released status with a lot of different size of vacuoles. On the contrary, the high dose of estrogen inhibited the storage of LH, and the LH cells were filled with secretory granules and few vacuoles. The progesterone could promote the storage of LH in an uneasy released status. The administration of estrogen-progesterone combina tion not only inhibited the storage of LH, but also the release of LH. In this group,the LH cells containing a large amount of secretory granules and a few vacuoles showed a better uniform shape compared with those administrated with high dose of estrogen.Conclusion: Different kinds of gonadal hormones could reverse the excessive secretion of LH and recover the morphological change of LH cells to the normally physiological condition.

  10. Cross-talk between ciliary epithelium and trabecular meshwork cells in-vitro: a new insight into glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Lerner

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It is assumed that the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium plays a role in regulating intraocular pressure via its neuroendocrine activities. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect on a human trabecular meshwork (TM cell line (NTM of co-culture with a human non-pigmented ciliary epithelium cell line (ODM-2. METHODS: The cellular cross-talk between ODM-2 and NTM cells was studied in a co-culture system in which the two cell types were co-cultured for 5 to 60 min or 2, 4 and 8h and then removed from the co-culture and analyzed. Analyses of the ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways and of the activity of TM phosphatases and matrix metalloproteins (MMPs were performed. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activity was determined by the DiFMUP (6, 8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate assay. MMP levels were determined by gelatin zymography. RESULTS: Exposure of NTM cells to ODM-2 cells led to the activation of the MAPK signal transduction pathways in NTM cells within 5 min of co-culture. Phosphorylation of ERK1/ERK2 and p38 peaked at 10 and 15 min and then decreased over time. Interaction between ODM-2 and NTM cells promoted the expression of MMP-9 in the NTM cells after 4h of co-culture. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that crosstalk does indeed take place between ODM-2 and NTM cells. Future studies should be designed to determine the relationship between the MMP system, MAPK kinases and phosphatases. Manipulation of these signaling molecules and the related NTM signal transduction pathways may provide targets for developing improved treatments for glaucoma.

  11. Cross-talk between macrophages and smooth muscle cells impairs collagen and metalloprotease synthesis and promotes angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butoi, E; Gan, A M; Tucureanu, M M; Stan, D; Macarie, R D; Constantinescu, C; Calin, M; Simionescu, M; Manduteanu, I

    2016-07-01

    Coronary atherosclerosis complicated by plaque disruption and thrombosis is a critical event in myocardial infarction and stroke, the major causes of cardiovascular death. In atherogenesis, macrophages (MAC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) are key actors; they synthesize matrix components and numerous factors involved in the process. Here, we design experiments to investigate whether SMC-MAC communication induces changes in ECM protein composition and/or neo-angiogenesis. Cell to cell communication was achieved using trans-well chambers, where SMCs were grown in the upper chamber and differentiated MAC in the bottom chamber for 24 or 72h. We found that cross-talk between MAC and SMC during co-culture: (i) significantly decreased the expression of ECM proteins (collagen I, III, elastin) in SMC; (ii) increased the expression and activity of metalloprotease MMP-9 and expression of collagenase MMP-1, in both MAC and SMC; (iii) augmented the secretion of soluble VEGF in the conditioned media of cell co-culture and VEGF gene expression in both cell types, compared with control cells. Moreover, the conditioned media collected from MAC-SMC co-culture promoted endothelial cell tube formation in Matrigel, signifying an increased angiogenic effect. In addition, the MAC-SMC communication led to an increase in inflammatory IL-1β and TLR-2, which could be responsible for cellular signaling. In conclusion, MAC-SMC communication affects factors and molecules that could alter ECM composition and neo-angiogenesis, features that could directly dictate the progression of atheroma towards the vulnerable plaque. Targeting the MAC-SMC cross-talk may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to slow-down or retard the plaque progression. PMID:27060293

  12. Influence of fibre design and curvature on crosstalk in multi-core fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, O. N.; Astapovich, M. S.; Melnikov, L. A.; Salganskii, M. Yu; Mishkin, S. N.; Nishchev, K. N.; Semjonov, S. L.; Dianov, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the influence of cross-sectional structure and bends on optical cross-talk in a multicore fibre. A reduced refractive index layer produced between the cores of such fibre with a small centre-to-centre spacing between neighbouring cores (27 μm) reduces optical cross-talk by 20 dB. The cross-talk level achieved, 30 dB per kilometre of the length of the multicore fibre, is acceptable for a number of applications where relatively small lengths of fibre are needed. Moreover, a significant decrease in optical cross-talk has been ensured by reducing the winding diameter of multicore fibres with identical cores.

  13. Crosstalk reduction in free space optical interconnects systems using microlenses with Gaussian transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ababneh, Nedal

    2014-05-01

    A novel method to reduce the diffraction crosstalk for micro-lens based free space optical interconnects is presented. Instead of using microlenses with uniform transmittance apertures, the use of microlenses with non-uniform transmittance apertures is proposed. It is shown that the diffraction crosstalk which exists in the free space interconnects systems that use microlenses with uniform transmittance apertures can be substantially reduced by using microlenses with Gaussian transmittance. The optical field at the detectors array using both the uniform and Gaussian apertures have been derived and used to calculate the crosstalk. Numerical results have been introduced to show the improvement of the signal-to-crosstalk ratio when using the Gaussian transmittance for the microlens.

  14. Optical crosstalk in single photon avalanche diode arrays: a new complete model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Ivan; Ingargiola, Antonino; Spinelli, Roberto; Labanca, Ivan; Marangoni, Stefano; Ghioni, Massimo; Cova, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    One of the main issues of Single Photon Avalanche Diode arrays is optical crosstalk. Since its intensity increases with reducing the distance between devices, this phenomenon limits the density of integration within arrays. In the past optical crosstalk was ascribed essentially to the light propagating from one detector to another through direct optical paths. Accordingly, reflecting trenches between devices were proposed to prevent it, but they proved to be not completely effective. In this paper we will present experimental evidence that a significant contribution to optical crosstalk comes from light reflected internally off the bottom of the chip, thus being impossible to eliminate it completely by means of trenches. We will also propose an optical model to predict the dependence of crosstalk on the distance between devices. PMID:18545552

  15. Crosstalk in the measurement of focal brain activation by near-infrared topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, N.; Okada, E.

    2005-08-01

    Crosstalk between oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin observed in near-infrared topography is investigated. The light propagation in an adult head model is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the change in intensity detected with source-detector pairs on the scalp caused by a focal absorption change in the brain. The topographic images of changes in oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin are obtained from the changes in intensity detected with source-detector pairs on the scalp. The crosstalk depends on the relative position of the focal absorption change to source-detector pairs. The crosstalk is minimised when the focal absorption change is located below a measurement point that is the midpoint between a source and a detector. Appropriate selection of wavelength pair is effective to reduce the crosstalk in the topographic image.

  16. Crosstalk Suppression in Header Recognition Unit Using Time-Space Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideaki Furukawa; Tsuyoshi Konishi; Yoshinori Oshita; Wanji Yu; Kazuyoshi Itoh; Yoshiki Ichioka

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a suppression effect of a crosstalk among a target and similar header signals using the header recognition filter designed by a design technique of the multiple-object discriminant filter.

  17. Cortisol, depression and reduced cortico-cortical cross-talk in Cushing's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, E.J. van; Haan, E.H.F. de; Huffelen, A.C. van; Koppeschaar, H.P.F.

    2004-01-01

    In the present report assumed relationships between hypercortisolism, depression and cortico-cortical cross-talk in Cushing's syndrome were investigated. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings and depression ratings from three patients diagnosed with mild, moderate and severe hypercortisolism were

  18. Gamma knife radiosurgery for secreting pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, G. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Rhode Island Hospital; Jackson, I.M.D.; Chougule, P.; Zheng, Z.; Epstein, M.H.

    1998-09-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery usually represents first line treatment for pituitary adenomas with the aim of removing the tumor, decompressing the optic apparatus and, in secreting tumors, eliminating the hypersecretion. Gamma Knife radiosurgery is indicated for tumor remnants or recurrences in or above the sella including those invading the cavernous sinus and also as initial treatment in patients who are unable to tolerate an open surgical procedure and where medication has failed. In this study, the target definition was retrospectively studied and when necessary corrected in 10 acromegalic patients, 8 with Cushing`s disease, and 12 with prolactinomas undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The dose plan was analyzed and the volume of the target covered by a minimum of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 Gy was estimated. A dose/volume profile for each treatment was created and correlated to the endocrinological and clinical outcome. Cure, according to strict endocrinological criteria, was seen in 6 of the acromegalic patients, in 2 of the patients with ACTH hypersecretion, and in 2 of the patients with prolactinomas. Analysis of these profiles, also for the patients with partial effect, show that a minimum radiation dose of 20 Gy may be adequate to eliminate the hypersecretion in acromegalic patients whereas a dose of at least 25 Gy may be required in patients with Cushing`s disease and prolactinoma. (author)

  19. Diagnosis of pituitary adenoma with dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen patients with pituitary adenomas topographically diagnosed by dynamic MRI between 1990 and 1995 are analyzed in this study. All patients were treated surgically and diagnosed pathologically. In all eight cases of macroadenomas, not only the normal glands, but also the adenomas were enhanced by Gd-DTPA (gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid). In three of eight cases, the normal glands could not be delineated, even by dynamic MRI. In five cases, the normal gland was recognized as an early enhancing area. In four of nine cases of microadenomas, the tumor was identified as a well-defined round area that enhanced later than normal tissue. In four other cases, a delayed enhancing area was vaguely dectable and proved to be the adenoma by histopathology. One of these cases was an ACTH producing adenoma. In the remaining case, three dynamic MRI study was performed, but no tumor was recognized preoperatively. This tumor was also an ACTH producing adenoma. These results suggest that, even by the dynamic MRI, sometimes the normal gland is not distinguishable from macroadenomas and furthermore, ACTH producing adenomas are still difficulty to diagnose preoperatively. (author)

  20. Electrical cross-talk in two-port resonators the resonant silicon beam force sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Mullem, van, F.; Tilmans, H. A. C.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1992-01-01

    An important design consideration in the development of two-port resonant sensors is the electrical cross-talk between the input port and the output port. The overall transfer function (j) of the two-port sensor is equal to the vectorial sum of a transfer function representing the mechanical behavior and a transfer function representing the electrical cross-talk. The resonant silicon beam force sensor with a piezoelectric driver and a piezoelectric detector is analyzed. Two solutions to reduc...

  1. Ultra-low crosstalk, CMOS compatible waveguide crossings for densely integrated photonic interconnection networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam M; DeRose, Christopher T; Lentine, Anthony L; Trotter, Douglas C; Starbuck, Andrew L; Norwood, Robert A

    2013-05-20

    We explore the design space for optimizing CMOS compatible waveguide crossings on a silicon photonics platform. This paper presents simulated and experimental excess loss and crosstalk suppression data for vertically integrated silicon nitride over silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings. Experimental results show crosstalk suppression exceeding -49/-44 dB with simulation results as low as -65/-60 dB for the TE/TM mode in a waveguide crossing with a 410 nm vertical gap.

  2. Modeling, Prediction, and Reduction of 3D Crosstalk in Circular Polarized Stereoscopic LCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Menglin; Robinson, Alan E; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2015-12-01

    Crosstalk, which is the incomplete separation between the left and right views in 3D displays, induces ghosting and causes difficulty of the eyes to fuse the stereo image for depth perception. Circularly polarized (CP) liquid crystal display (LCD) is one of the main-stream consumer 3D displays with the prospering of 3D movies and gamings. The polarizing system including the patterned retarder is one of the major causes of crosstalk in CP LCD. The contributions of this paper are the modeling of the polarizing system of CP LCD, and a crosstalk reduction method that efficiently cancels crosstalk and preserves image contrast. For the modeling, the practical orientation of the polarized glasses (PG) is considered. In addition, this paper calculates the rotation of the light-propagation coordinate for the Stokes vector as light propagates from LCD to PG, and this calculation is missing in the previous works when applying Mueller calculus. The proposed crosstalk reduction method is formulated as a linear programming problem, which can be easily solved. In addition, we propose excluding the highly textured areas in the input images to further preserve image contrast in crosstalk reduction. PMID:26259220

  3. Expression pattern of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavropoulou, Maria P; Maladaki, Anna; Topouridou, Konstantina; Kotoula, Vasiliki; Poulios, Chris; Daskalaki, Emily; Foroglou, Nikolaos; Karkavelas, George; Yovos, John G

    2016-01-12

    Several studies have demonstrated the role of Wnt and Notch signaling in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas, but data are scarce regarding the role of Hedgehog signaling. In this study we investigated the differential expression of gene targets of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from adult patients who underwent transphenoidal resection and normal human pituitary tissues that were obtained from autopsies were used. Clinical information and data from pre-operative MRI scan (extracellular tumor extension, tumor size, displacement of the optic chiasm) were retrieved from the Hospital's database. We used a customized RT(2) Profiler PCR Array, to investigate the expression of genes related to Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways (PTCH1, PTCH2, GLI1, GLI3, NOTCH3, JAG1, HES1, and HIP). A total of 52 pituitary adenomas (32 non-functioning adenomas, 15 somatotropinomas and 5 prolactinomas) were used in the final analysis. In non-functioning pituitary adenomas there was a significant decrease (approximately 75%) in expression of all Hedgehog related genes that were tested, while Notch3 and Jagged-1 expression was found significantly increased, compared with normal pituitary tissue controls. In contrast, somatotropinomas demonstrated a significant increase in expression of all Hedgehog related genes and a decrease in the expression of Notch3 and Jagged-1. There was no significant difference in the expression of Hedgehog and Notch related genes between prolactinomas and healthy pituitary tissues. Hedgehog signalling appears to be activated in somatotropinomas but not in non-functioning pituitary adenomas in contrast to the expression pattern of Notch signalling pathway. PMID:26620835

  4. Phase-amplitude crosstalk in intensity modulated near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, K.; Wickramasinghe, Y.

    2000-05-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments that rely on phase sensitive detection suffer from what is called "phase-amplitude crosstalk," i.e., the phase measured is dependent on the average light intensity entering the detector. Changes in detector rise time with input light intensity is the accepted explanation of this phenomenon. It is concluded here that an additional simple mechanism can cause phase-amplitude errors, particularly if the ratio of the ac component of the detected signal to the dc component is low. It is shown that the form of the phase distortion encountered during the development of a new phase sensitive NIR instrument can be modeled by assuming the presence of a synchronous interfering signal, due to rf coupling, at the detector output. This modeling allows a required margin between the detected signal of interest, i.e., the signal from the tissue and the interfering signal to be set in order to achieve a measured phase accuracy necessary to derive sufficiently accurate clinical parameters.

  5. Crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity inhepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. HBV is not directly cytotoxic toinfected hepatocytes; the clinical outcome of infectionresults from complicated interactions between the virusand the host immune system. In acute HBV infection,initiation of a broad, vigorous immune response is responsiblefor viral clearance and self-limited inflammatoryliver disease. Effective and coordinated innate andadaptive immune responses are critical for viral clearanceand the development of long-lasting immunity. Chronichepatitis B patients fail to mount efficient innate andadaptive immune responses to the virus. In particular,HBV-specific cytotoxic T cells, which are crucial for HBVclearance, are hyporesponsiveness to HBV infection.Accumulating experimental evidence obtained fromthe development of animal and cell line models hashighlighted the importance of innate immunity in theearly control of HBV spread. The virus has evolvedimmune escape strategies, with higher HBV loads andHBV protein concentrations associated with increasingimpairment of immune function. Therefore, treatmentof HBV infection requires inhibition of HBV replicationand protein expression to restore the suppressedhost immunity. Complicated interactions exist notonly between innate and adaptive responses, but alsoamong innate immune cells and different components ofadaptive responses. Improved insight into these complexinteractions are important in designing new therapeuticstrategies for the treatment HBV infection. In thisreview, we summarize the current knowledge regardingthe cross-talk between the innate and adaptive immuneresponses and among different immunocytes in HBVinfection.

  6. Dyslipidaemia--hepatic and intestinal cross-talk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tomkin, Gerald H

    2010-06-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated with the majority of de novo cholesterol synthesis occurring in the liver and intestine. 3 Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, a major enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, is raised in both liver and intestine in diabetic animals. Niemann PickC1-like1 protein regulates cholesterol absorption in the intestine and facilitates cholesterol transport through the liver. There is evidence to suggest that the effect of inhibition of Niemann PickC1-like1 lowers cholesterol through its effect not only in the intestine but also in the liver. ATP binding cassette proteins G5\\/G8 regulate cholesterol re-excretion in the intestine and in the liver, cholesterol excretion into the bile. Diabetes is associated with reduced ATP binding cassette protein G5\\/G8 expression in both the liver and intestine in animal models. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is central to the formation of the chylomicron in the intestine and VLDL in the liver. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA is increased in diabetes in both the intestine and liver. Cross-talk between the intestine and liver is poorly documented in humans due to the difficulty in obtaining liver biopsies but animal studies are fairly consistent in showing relationships that explain in part mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis.

  7. Crosstalk between adiponectin and IGF-IR in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana eMauro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic and multifactorial disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. It is characterized by an enlarged mass of adipose tissue caused by a combination of size increase of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy and de novo adipocyte differentiation (hyperplasia. Obesity is related to many metabolic disorders like hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and it is associated with an increased risk of cancer development in different tissues including breast. Adipose tissue is now regarded as not just a storage reservoir for excess energy, but rather as an endocrine organ, secreting a large number of bioactive molecules called adipokines. Among these, adiponectin represents the most abundant adipose tissue-excreted protein, which exhibits insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The serum concentrations of adiponectin are inversely correlated with body mass index. Recently, low levels of plasma adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk for obesity-related cancers and development of more aggressive phenotype, concomitantly with alterations in the bioavailability of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I and IGF-I Receptor (IGF-IR signaling pathways. In this review we discuss the cross-talk between adiponectin/AdipoR1 and IGF-I/IGF-IR in breast cancer.

  8. Flavonoids Affect Host-Microbiota Crosstalk through TLR Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between host cells and microbes is known as crosstalk. Among other mechanisms, this takes place when certain molecules of the micro-organisms are recognized by the toll-like receptors (TLRs in the body cells, mainly in the intestinal epithelial cells and in the immune cells. TLRs belong to the pattern-recognition receptors and represent the first line of defense against pathogens, playing a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immunity. Dysregulation in the activity of such receptors can lead to the development of chronic and severe inflammation as well as immunological disorders. Among components present in the diet, flavonoids have been suggested as antioxidant dietary factors able to modulate TLR-mediated signaling pathways. This review focuses on the molecular targets involved in the modulatory action of flavonoids on TLR-mediated signaling pathways, providing an overview of the mechanisms involved in such action. Particular flavonoids have been able to modify the composition of the microbiota, to modulate TLR gene and protein expression, and to regulate the downstream signaling molecules involved in the TLR pathway. These synergistic mechanisms suggest the role of some flavonoids in the preventive effect on certain chronic diseases.

  9. A crosstalk of auxin and GA during tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2012-10-01

    Several hormones have been studied for their effect on tuber initiation and development. Until recently, the hormone with the most prominent role in tuber initiation was attributed to GA. Genes involved in GA degradation do exhibit an upregulated profile during early stages of tuber development, leading to a rapid decrease of active GA content, thereby facilitating stolon-tip swelling. While GA is known to be involved in shoot and stolon elongation, the development of the new tuberorgan requires changes in meristem identity and the reorientation ofthe plane of cell division. In other developmental processes, such as embryo patterning, flower development and lateral root initiation auxin plays a key role. Recent evidence on the involvement of auxin in tuber formation was providedby the measurement of auxin content in swelling stolons. Auxin content in the stolon tips increased several fold prior to tuber swelling. In vitro tuberisation experiments with auxin applications support the role of auxin during tuber initiation. Taken together, it is becoming clear that the initiation and induction of tubers in potato is a developmental process that appears to be regulated by a crosstalk between GA and auxin. PMID:22902700

  10. Flavonoids Affect Host-Microbiota Crosstalk through TLR Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Rodríguez-Lagunas, Maria J.; Castell, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between host cells and microbes is known as crosstalk. Among other mechanisms, this takes place when certain molecules of the micro-organisms are recognized by the toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the body cells, mainly in the intestinal epithelial cells and in the immune cells. TLRs belong to the pattern-recognition receptors and represent the first line of defense against pathogens, playing a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immunity. Dysregulation in the activity of such receptors can lead to the development of chronic and severe inflammation as well as immunological disorders. Among components present in the diet, flavonoids have been suggested as antioxidant dietary factors able to modulate TLR-mediated signaling pathways. This review focuses on the molecular targets involved in the modulatory action of flavonoids on TLR-mediated signaling pathways, providing an overview of the mechanisms involved in such action. Particular flavonoids have been able to modify the composition of the microbiota, to modulate TLR gene and protein expression, and to regulate the downstream signaling molecules involved in the TLR pathway. These synergistic mechanisms suggest the role of some flavonoids in the preventive effect on certain chronic diseases. PMID:26785232

  11. MR imaging of pituitary hyperplasia in a child with growth arrest and primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary hyperplasia has been rarely described in children with primary hypothyroidism. We report a case of pituitary hyperplasia in a child presented with significant growth arrest and laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed symmetrical pituitary enlargement simulating macroadenoma. After thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the child's height increased and pituitary enlargement regressed to normal. Awareness of MRI appearance of pituitary hyperplasia in children with laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism might avoid misdiagnosis for pituitary tumor, which may also manifest as growth disorder, obviating unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  12. MRI of the liver and the pituitary gland in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: Does hepatic siderosis predict pituitary iron deposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Efremidis, Stavros C. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to study, in thalassemic patients, if hepatic siderosis evaluated by MRI could predict the pituitary iron overload. In 36 thalassemic patients (age range 6-44 years, mean age 21.7 years) the liver/fat ratio (L/F), the pituitary/fat ratio (P/F), the liver and pituitary T2 relaxation times were evaluated, by using a multiecho spin-echo sequence. Serum ferritin levels were measured and an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed. The L/F, the P/F and pituitary T2 showed a good correlation with serum ferritin (r=-0.55, r=-0.55 and r=-0.53, respectively; p<0.01). Liver T2 did not show significant correlation with serum ferritin. The variability of L/F explained only the 10.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F. When ferritin was added to the model it predicted only the 26.85% and the 30.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F, respectively. The P/F and pituitary T2 were lower in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (group 1) compared with those without pituitary dysfunction (group 2). No significant differences of L/F were found between the two groups. Hepatic iron overload evaluated by MR is a poor predictor of pituitary siderosis. The MR studies of the pituitary gland might be necessary to evaluate the pituitary iron overload. (orig.)

  13. Decreased expression of APAF-1 and increased expression of cathepsin B in invasive pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Tanase,1 Radu Albulescu,1,2 Elena Codrici,1 Bogdan Calenic,1,3 Ionela Daniela Popescu,1 Simona Mihai,1 Laura Necula,1,4 Maria Linda Cruceru,5 Mihail Eugen Hinescu1,5 1“Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology, Biochemistry-Proteomics Department, 2National Institute for Chemical Pharmaceutical R&D, 3“Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Biochemistry, 4Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology, Cellular and Molecular Pathology, 5“Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Department, Bucharest, Romania Purpose: Apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (APAF-1 and cathepsin B are important functional proteins in apoptosis; the former is involved in the intrinsic (mitochondrial pathway, while the latter is associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Changes in the expression of apoptosome-related proteins could be useful indicators of tumor development since a priori defects in the mitochondrial pathway might facilitate the inception and progression of human neoplasms. Our aim was to evaluate the profiles of APAF-1 and cathepsin B in relation with other molecules involved in apoptosis/proliferation and to correlate them with the aggressive behavior of invasive pituitary adenomas. Materials and methods: APAF-1 and cathepsin B were assessed in tissue samples from 30 patients with pituitary adenomas, of which 16 were functional adenomas and 22 were invasive adenomas. Results: A positive relationship between high proliferation and invasiveness was observed in invasive pituitary adenomas when compared to their noninvasive counterparts (Ki-67 labeling index – 4.72% versus 1.75%. Decreased expression of APAF-1 was recorded in most of the invasive adenomas with a high proliferation index, while the cathepsin B level was elevated in this group. We have noticed a negative correlation between the low level of APAF-1 and invasiveness (63.63%; P<0.01; at the

  14. The clinical pathologic research of invasive pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the pathological morphologic characteristics of invasive pituitary tumor and the affect of vascularization to the tumor's invasion. Methods: One hundred and thirty cases of pituitary adenoma patients were divided into two groups, including invasive pituitary adenomas and non-invasive pituitary adenomas, and the clinical data of two groups were analysed and compared. Results : The difference was statistically significant between the invasive group and the non-invasive group in the incidence rate of pathological morphologic characteristics such as high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, cell pleomorphism, nuclear atypia and nucleoli appearance (P<0.05); there were nuclear atypia and nucleolus margination in the invasive group through electron microscopy. And there was statistical significant difference in rate of MVD expression which was higher in the invasive group than that of noninvasive group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The pathological morphologic characteristics of pituitary tumor and the high expression of MVD are significantly reference valuable in tumor aggression diagnosis, which provides valuable indicators for early clinical diagnosis of tumor invasion. (authors)

  15. MJA Practice Essentials--Endocrinology. 9: Pituitary disease in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, David M; Ho, Ken K Y

    2004-04-19

    Pituitary adenomas are found in 10%-25% of unselected autopsy series and are evident in about 10% of asymptomatic individuals by magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis of pituitary disorders is often delayed by lack of awareness and the subtlety of symptoms and signs. Hypopituitarism is suspected when peripheral hormone concentrations are low without an elevation in the corresponding pituitary tropic hormone(s). Severe adult-onset growth-hormone deficiency results in reduced muscle mass, increased fat mass and diminished quality of life, which are reversed by growth hormone replacement therapy. While trans-sphenoidal surgery remains first-line treatment for acromegaly, drug treatment has an important role in controlling residual growth-hormone excess and, in some circumstances, as first-line treatment. Dopamine-agonist therapy (cabergoline or bromocriptine) is the treatment of choice for micro- and macroprolactinomas. In patients with suggestive clinical features, elevated 24-hour urine free cortisol level is usually sufficient to diagnose endogenous Cushing's syndrome; careful additional investigation is needed to determine whether the cause is Cushing's disease (pituitary adenoma secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH]), ectopic ACTH secretion or adrenal disease. Heightened awareness is needed to detect the sometimes subtle symptoms and signs of pituitary disease

  16. Outcomes following Purely Endoscopic Endonasal Resection of Pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of endoscope for the management of pituitary adenoma is not new. The better magnification and illumination provided by the endoscope gives better outcome than microscopic pituitary surgery. Objective: To find out the benefits of endoscope in relation to microscopic surgery. Materials and Methods: We performed 45 cases of pituitary adenoma surgery by endoscopic endonasal approach from July 2008 to July 2010. Results: Forty five cases underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Gross total removal was done in 35 cases and subtotal removal was done in 10 cases. Residual tumours were seen in 10 cases (22% in postoperative follow-up MRI scan. Visual improvement was satisfactory, and hormonal improvement of functional adenoma was nice. Postoperative visual acuity and visual field were improved in 75% cases. There were 37% cases of temporary diabetes insipidus and about 4.5% cases of permanent diabetes insipidus. The average duration of follow-up was 20 months. One patient required reexploration to correct visual deterioration in the immediate postoperative period. There were 4.5% cases of CSF leak and 6.6% mortality. Mortality was due to electrolyte imbalance and improper management of infection and hydrocephalus. Conclusion: Endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery now has become a gold standard surgery for most of the pituitary adenomas because of its better advantages in relation to microscopic surgery and less complications and less hospital stay.

  17. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, C.; Theodorou, M.; Poullos, N.; Astner, S.T.; Geinitz, H.; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Stalla, G.K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen (Germany). Klinische Neuroendokrinologie; Meyer, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Grosu, A.L [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate tumor control and side effects associated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in the management of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. Patients and methods: We report on 37 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas treated with FSRT at our department. All patients had previously undergone surgery. Twenty-nine patients had nonfunctioning, 8 had hormone-producing adenoma. The mean total dose delivered by a linear accelerator was 49.4 Gy (range 45-52.2 Gy), 5 x 1.8 Gy weekly. The mean PTV was 22.8 ccm (range 2.0-78.3 ccm). Evaluation included serial imaging tests, endocrinologic and ophthalmologic examination. Results: Tumor control was 91.9 % for a median follow-up time of 57 months (range 2-111 months). Before FSRT partial hypopituitarism was present in 41 % of patients, while 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. After FSRT pituitary function remained normal in 22 %, 43 % had partial pituitary dysfunction, and 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. Visual acuity was stable in 76 % of patients, improved in 19 %, and deteriorated in 5 %. Visual fields remained stable in 35 patients (95 %), improved in one and worsened in 1 patient (2.7 %). Conclusion: FSRT is an effective and safe treatment for recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma. Good local tumor control and preservation of adjacent structures can be reached, even for large tumors. (orig.)

  18. Technetium-99m pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid imaging for pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors performed scintigraphy using 99mTc(V)-DMSA (Technetium-99m pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid) on patients with pituitary adenomas. Three non-functioning (100%), 2 GH-secreting (67%), 4 PRL-secreting (80%), and zero ACTH-secreting (0%) adenomas concentrated the 99mTc(V)-DMSA, but all 5 of the non-adenomatous lesions and 1 normal pituitary gland did not. There was no significant relationship between tumor-to-background ratios and tumor sizes, or the serum hormone level. The 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy showed an overall sensitivity of 69% (9/13) in detecting pituitary adenomas, which increased to 82% for non-functioning, GH-secreting and PRL-secreting adenomas. In conclusions, 99mTc(V)-DMSA was found to be a suitable radiotracer for detecting pituitary adenomas. But further studies are necessary to define the processes that concentrate 99mTc(V)-DMSA and their role in pituitary adenomas. (author)

  19. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate tumor control and side effects associated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in the management of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. Patients and methods: We report on 37 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas treated with FSRT at our department. All patients had previously undergone surgery. Twenty-nine patients had nonfunctioning, 8 had hormone-producing adenoma. The mean total dose delivered by a linear accelerator was 49.4 Gy (range 45-52.2 Gy), 5 x 1.8 Gy weekly. The mean PTV was 22.8 ccm (range 2.0-78.3 ccm). Evaluation included serial imaging tests, endocrinologic and ophthalmologic examination. Results: Tumor control was 91.9 % for a median follow-up time of 57 months (range 2-111 months). Before FSRT partial hypopituitarism was present in 41 % of patients, while 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. After FSRT pituitary function remained normal in 22 %, 43 % had partial pituitary dysfunction, and 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. Visual acuity was stable in 76 % of patients, improved in 19 %, and deteriorated in 5 %. Visual fields remained stable in 35 patients (95 %), improved in one and worsened in 1 patient (2.7 %). Conclusion: FSRT is an effective and safe treatment for recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma. Good local tumor control and preservation of adjacent structures can be reached, even for large tumors. (orig.)

  20. Reformatted CT diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas in hyperprolactinemic women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kowada, Masayoshi; Hariu, Mineko; Miyauchi, Koji (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1983-06-01

    The CT diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas was made in 13 among 20 female sterile patients with hyperprolactinemia, utilizing sagittal- and coronal-sectioned reformation on the basis of 1.5 mm-sliced high-resolution axial CT scanning. The pituitary stalk was found to have been shifted in 10 patients, and in all of them adenomas were verified. This was in contrast to the findings that, among another 10 patients with no definite evidence of the stalk shifting, only 3 patients had adenomas. Pituitary adenomas were present in 11 of the 12 patients demonstrating the pituitary surface in a ''convex'' fashion. In contrast, 2 among 6 patients with a ''flat'' surface demonstrated the presence of pituitary adenomas. Enhancement patterns in the sella could be classified as of four types: homogeneous, diffuse-low, punched-out, and nodular types. The adenomas tended to occur in either the nodular or diffuse-low type; they were less frequently seen in the punched-out or homogeneous type. With regard to the correlation between the patterns of contrast enhancement and the serum concentrations of prolactin, it may be of note that the nodular type corresponded well to the higher prolactin serum level, and the homogeneous type to the lower level.

  1. Reformatted CT diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas in hyperprolactinemic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas was made in 13 among 20 female sterile patients with hyperprolactinemia, utilizing sagittal- and coronal-sectioned reformation on the basis of 1.5 mm-sliced high-resolution axial CT scanning. The pituitary stalk was found to have been shifted in 10 patients, and in all of them adenomas were verified. This was in contrast to the findings that, among another 10 patients with no definite evidence of the stalk shifting, only 3 patients had adenomas. Pituitary adenomas were present in 11 of the 12 patients demonstrating the pituitary suface in a ''convex'' fashion. In contrast, 2 among 6 patients with a ''flat'' surface demonstrated the presence of pituitary adenomas. Enhancement patterns in the sella could be classified as of four types: homogeneous, diffuse-low, punched-out, and nodular types. The adenomas tended to occur in either the nodular or diffuse-low type; they were less frequently seen in the punched-out or homogeneous type. With regard to the correlation between the patterns of contrast enhancement and the serum concentrations of prolactin, it may be of note that the nodular type corresponded well to the higher prolactin serum level, and the homogeneous type to the lower level. (author)

  2. Analysis and modeling of optical crosstalk in InP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Quan; Jiang, Xudong; Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Piccione, Brian; Owens, Mark; Slomkowski, Krystyna

    2015-05-01

    Optical crosstalk is a major factor limiting the performance of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GmAPD) focal plane arrays (FPAs). This is especially true for arrays with increased pixel density and broader spectral operation. We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical investigations on the crosstalk effects in InP-based GmAPD FPAs for both 1.06-μm and 1.55-μm applications. Mechanisms responsible for intrinsic dark counts are Poisson processes, and their inter-arrival time distribution is an exponential function. In FPAs, intrinsic dark counts and cross talk events coexist, and the inter-arrival time distribution deviates from purely exponential behavior. From both experimental data and computer simulations, we show the dependence of this deviation on the crosstalk probability. The spatial characteristics of crosstalk are also demonstrated. From the temporal and spatial distribution of crosstalk, an efficient algorithm to identify and quantify crosstalk is introduced.

  3. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  4. Oestrogen-androgen crosstalk in the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BSrilatha; PGAdaikan

    2003-01-01

    Ageing in man is associated with a decline in testosterone following changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis. This may offset the physiologic equilibrium between oestrogen and androgen and at some point when the ratio of free testosterone to oestradiol reaches a critical level, the oestrogenic gonadotropin suppressive effect predominates with decreased release of FSH and LH. Adding to this endocrinal complexity is the continued peripheral conversion to oestradiol through aromatisation. Although the androgen deficiency is not the sole cause for impotence in the elderly, there is a gradual decrease in nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) and spontaneous morning erections with ageing. Despite the age related increase in oestrogen levels, the information on the pathophysiological role of the "female hormone" in erectile dysfunction has been scanty. Together with our identification of oestrogen receptors within the penile cavernosum, we have delineated dysfunctional changes on male erection mediated by oestradiol.These findings parallel the recent concerns over environmental oestrogens on fertility declines in young men. Oestrogenic activity is also present in plants and thereby in human diet. These phytoestrogens are structurally and functionally similar to oestradiol and more potent than the environmental oestrogenic chemicals such as organochlorine and phenolic compounds. Thus in the light of growing concerns of possible compromising effects on sexuality by endogenous and environmental oestrogens, we are faced with the scientific need to delineate their role on the mechanism of male erectile pathway in health and disease for clinical correlates and prognostics.

  5. Reversible quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, B

    2004-01-01

    We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...

  6. Reevaluation of conventional pituitary irradiation in the therapy of acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, C A

    1999-06-01

    External beam pituitary irradiation has been frequently used in the treatment of growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary adenomas. Many studies have demonstrated that serum GH declines rapidly and reliably following treatment and early "cure" rates, based on a basal serum GH below 10 micrograms/L were as high as 80%. The definition of "cure" has become more stringent over time and retrospective studies have indicated that GH must be below 2.5 micrograms/L for acromegalics to achieve mortality rates comparable to a normal population. Only 20% of irradiated patients will achieve this goal by 10 yr. Even fewer will achieve a normal serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. Although pituitary irradiation still has a role in the control of tumor size, its importance as a treatment for normalizing serum GH is being reevaluated. PMID:11081173

  7. Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma with admixed gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Alistair; Allan, Rodney; Rawson, Robert; Buckland, Michael E

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary adenomas are the most common tumours found in the sellar region and, when both functioning and non-functioning adenomas are combined, account for 7-15% of primary brain tumours in adults. Rarely, admixed or discrete groups of cells comprising two or more tumour subtypes are seen; the so-called 'collision tumour'. We present a case of a 54-year-old-woman with a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma admixed with both ganglioglioma and gangliocytoma. The possible mechanisms by which this may occur include a pre-existing gangliocytoma promoting the development of pituitary adenoma by hypersecretion of releasing hormones or aberrant migration of hypothalamic neurons in early embryogenesis. PMID:27068013

  8. Local inflammation induces complement crosstalk which amplifies the antimicrobial response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By eliciting inflammatory responses, the human immunosurveillance system notably combats invading pathogens, during which acute phase proteins (CRP and cytokines are elevated markedly. However, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a persistent opportunistic pathogen prevalent at the site of local inflammation, and its acquisition of multiple antibiotic-resistance factors poses grave challenges to patient healthcare management. Using blood samples from infected patients, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa is effectively killed in the plasma under defined local infection-inflammation condition, where slight acidosis and reduced calcium levels (pH 6.5, 2 mM calcium typically prevail. We showed that this powerful antimicrobial activity is provoked by crosstalk between two plasma proteins; CRPratioL-ficolin interaction led to communication between the complement classical and lectin pathways from which two amplification events emerged. Assays for C4 deposition, phagocytosis, and protein competition consistently proved the functional significance of the amplification pathways in boosting complement-mediated antimicrobial activity. The infection-inflammation condition induced a 100-fold increase in CRPratioL-ficolin interaction in a pH- and calcium-sensitive manner. We conclude that the infection-induced local inflammatory conditions trigger a strong interaction between CRPratioL-ficolin, eliciting complement-amplification pathways which are autonomous and which co-exist with and reinforce the classical and lectin pathways. Our findings provide new insights into the host immune response to P. aeruginosa infection under pathological conditions and the potential development of new therapeutic strategies against bacterial infection.

  9. Crosstalk between Wnt Signaling and RNA Processing in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bordonaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA processing involves a variety of processes affecting gene expression, including the removal of introns through RNA splicing, as well as 3' end processing (cleavage and polyadenylation. Alternative RNA processing is fundamentally important for gene regulation, and aberrant processing is associated with the initiation and progression of cancer. Deregulated Wnt signaling, which is the initiating event in the development of most cases of human colorectal cancer (CRC, has been linked to modified RNA processing, which may contribute to Wnt-mediated colonic carcinogenesis. Crosstalk between Wnt signaling and alternative RNA splicing with relevance to CRC includes effects on the expression of Rac1b, an alternatively spliced gene associated with tumorigenesis, which exhibits alternative RNA splicing that is influenced by Wnt activity. In addition, Tcf4, a crucial component of Wnt signaling, also exhibits alternative splicing, which is likely involved in colonic tumorigenesis. Modulation of 3' end formation, including of the Wnt target gene COX-2, also can influence the neoplastic process, with implications for CRC. While many human genes are dependent on introns and splicing for normal levels of gene expression, naturally intronless genes exist with a unique metabolism that allows for intron-independent gene expression. Effects of Wnt activity on the RNA metabolism of the intronless Wnt-target gene c-jun is a likely contributor to cancer development. Further, butyrate, a breakdown product of dietary fiber and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, upregulates Wnt activity in CRC cells, and also modulates RNA processing; therefore, the interplay between Wnt activity, the modulation of this activity by butyrate, and differential RNA metabolism in colonic cells can significantly influence tumorigenesis. Determining the role played by altered RNA processing in Wnt-mediated neoplasia may lead to novel interventions aimed at restoring normal RNA metabolism for

  10. Pituitary apoplexy complicated with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by incidentaloma following a head injury:case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Yi-jun; LI Xin-guo; JING Zhi-tao; OU Shao-wu; WU An-hua; WANG Yun-jie

    2007-01-01

    @@ Pituitary apoplexy is a rare clinical syndrome caused by acute enlargement of pituitary adenomas,which may be secreting or nonfunctioning,and symptomatic or asymptomatic,resulted from hemorrhage or infarction.1

  11. The Experimental Analysis of Cross-talk Effect for Mixed-mode IC's Based on SOI Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGGuoyan; HUANGRu; ZHANGXing; WANGYangyuan

    2004-01-01

    The experimental study of cross-talk behavior is presented for mixed-mode integrated circuits based on SOI (Silicon-on-insulator) structure. Different strategies to reduce cross-talk are investigated. The influence of bulk contact, separation distance, the guard ring isolation and mesa isolation on the cross-talk has been compared. At the same time, the effect of load impedance on the cross-talk is also included. The results can serve as a guideline for designing low-noise coupling SOI mixed-mode IC's.

  12. A New and Simple Method for Crosstalk Estimation in Homogeneous Trench-Assisted Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa;

    2014-01-01

    A new and simple method for inter-core crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers is presented. The crosstalk calculated by this method agrees well with experimental measurement data for two kinds of fabricated 12-core fibers.......A new and simple method for inter-core crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers is presented. The crosstalk calculated by this method agrees well with experimental measurement data for two kinds of fabricated 12-core fibers....

  13. Development of high-density single-mode polymer waveguides with low crosstalk for chip-to-chip optical interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Akio; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Nishizawa, Motoyuki; Muranaka, Hidenobu; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2013-10-01

    High-density single-mode polymer waveguides were fabricated for chip-to-chip optical interconnection. The waveguides were designed as minimized mode field diameters for the lowest inter-channel crosstalk caused by mode coupling. The optimum relative index difference chosen was 1.2% to ensure compatibility with low crosstalk and wide fabrication tolerances. The 60-mm-length linear waveguides demonstrated a low propagation loss of 0.6 dB/cm and -45 dB crosstalk at 1310 nm. Also, a new crosstalk mechanism for a curved waveguide was revealed.

  14. Dissociated hypopituitarism after spontaneous pituitary apoplexy in acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Ahmad Mir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon event and usually occurs in non-functioning pituitary tumors. Among the functioning tumors, prolactinomas are the ones most likely to apoplexy. Apoplexy in growth hormone (GH producing adenomas is a very rare event with less than thirty cases reported worldwide. Objective: To describe a case of spontaneous pituitary apoplexy in acromegaly. Case Report: A 55 year old smoker male presented to the our outpatient clinic in 2004 with complaints of gradual onset increase in the size of hands and feet, bilateral knee pain, increased sweating and blurring of vision. Investigations uncovered diabetes mellitus by a casual blood glucose of 243 mg/dl and HbA1c of 8.5%. Growth hormone suppression test using 75 gram oral glucose showed a 60 minute growth hormone of 105 ng/ml. Magnetic resonance imaging of the sellar region showed a 12.0 mm × 10.0 mm pituitary adenoma. The patient was planned for transsphenoidal tumor decompression. However, the patient was lost to follow up. Eight-years later, he presented in the emergency department of our institute with sudden onset headache, vomiting and decreased level of consciousness of one day duration. CT scan of the head with focus on the sella was suggestive of apoplexy which was later confirmed by the MRI of the sellar region. Conclusion: Although acromegaly can remit following apoplexy of the responsible pituitary adenoma, long term follow up is needed for early detection of the development of deficiency of pituitary hormones which may occur over years following the event as well as to detect tumor regrowth which again may occur several years later.

  15. Pituitary hyperplasia: a complication of the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary-Anne Doyle, Heather A Lochnan Division of Endocrinology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: “The pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine” has been used to describe patients with hypothyroidism who fail to comply with their treatment. We describe a unique case of a 32-year-old with hypothyroidism who developed pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia secondary to the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine. Investigations and treatment: After baseline thyroid-function tests were performed, the patient was administered levothyroxine 0.5 mg under the supervision of a registered nurse. Thyroid function testing was repeated at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Arrangements were made for further daily supervised loading of levothyroxine 0.1 mg. Results: With the administration of 0.5 mg levothyroxine, free thyroxine levels increased by 120 minutes, and with daily supervised dosing of 0.1 mg there was normalization of the thyroid hormone levels and a reduction of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Maintenance of thyroid-stimulating hormone < 15 mU/L for 2 weeks led to a reduction in prolactin levels and regression in the size of the pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion: If left untreated, these patients face significant morbidity and are at risk of developing pituitary hyperplasia, complications from an increase in pituitary size, hyperprolactinemia, and potentially myxedema coma. Recognizing pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia as a complication from the pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine may prevent the potential of a misdiagnosis of a prolactinoma leading to unnecessary investigations and inappropriate treatment. Patient awareness of this serious complication and the rapid, demonstrable resolution with adequate thyroid hormone replacement may provide motivation to comply with supervised dosing of levothyroxine. It has also been suggested that supervised treatment enables the individual to maintain their patient

  16. Is IGSF1 involved in human pituitary tumor formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucz, Fabio R; Horvath, Anelia D; Azevedo, Monalisa F; Levy, Isaac; Bak, Beata; Wang, Ying; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Gourgari, Evgenia; Manning, Allison D; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Lodish, Maya; Hofman, Paul; Anderson, Yvonne C; Holdaway, Ian; Oldfield, Edward; Chittiboina, Prashant; Nesterova, Maria; Biermasz, Nienke R; Wit, Jan M; Bernard, Daniel J; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-02-01

    IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary. Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene (on Xq26.2) are associated with X-linked central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement in males. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IGSF1 is involved in the development of pituitary tumors, especially those that produce growth hormone (GH). IGSF1 was sequenced in 21 patients with gigantism or acromegaly and 92 healthy individuals. Expression studies with a candidate pathogenic IGSF1 variant were carried out in transfected cells and immunohistochemistry for IGSF1 was performed in the sections of GH-producing adenomas, familial somatomammotroph hyperplasia, and in normal pituitary. We identified the sequence variant p.N604T, which in silico analysis suggested could affect IGSF1 function, in two male patients and one female with somatomammotroph hyperplasia from the same family. Of 60 female controls, two carried the same variant and seven were heterozygous for other variants. Immunohistochemistry showed increased IGSF1 staining in the GH-producing tumor from the patient with the IGSF1 p.N604T variant compared with a GH-producing adenoma from a patient negative for any IGSF1 variants and with normal control pituitary tissue. The IGSF1 gene appears polymorphic in the general population. A potentially pathogenic variant identified in the germline of three patients with gigantism from the same family (segregating with the disease) was also detected in two healthy female controls. Variations in IGSF1 expression in pituitary tissue in patients with or without IGSF1 germline mutations point to the need for further studies of IGSF1 action in pituitary adenoma formation.

  17. Is IGSF1 involved in human pituitary tumor formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucz, Fabio R; Horvath, Anelia D; Azevedo, Monalisa F; Levy, Isaac; Bak, Beata; Wang, Ying; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Gourgari, Evgenia; Manning, Allison D; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Lodish, Maya; Hofman, Paul; Anderson, Yvonne C; Holdaway, Ian; Oldfield, Edward; Chittiboina, Prashant; Nesterova, Maria; Biermasz, Nienke R; Wit, Jan M; Bernard, Daniel J; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-02-01

    IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary. Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene (on Xq26.2) are associated with X-linked central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement in males. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IGSF1 is involved in the development of pituitary tumors, especially those that produce growth hormone (GH). IGSF1 was sequenced in 21 patients with gigantism or acromegaly and 92 healthy individuals. Expression studies with a candidate pathogenic IGSF1 variant were carried out in transfected cells and immunohistochemistry for IGSF1 was performed in the sections of GH-producing adenomas, familial somatomammotroph hyperplasia, and in normal pituitary. We identified the sequence variant p.N604T, which in silico analysis suggested could affect IGSF1 function, in two male patients and one female with somatomammotroph hyperplasia from the same family. Of 60 female controls, two carried the same variant and seven were heterozygous for other variants. Immunohistochemistry showed increased IGSF1 staining in the GH-producing tumor from the patient with the IGSF1 p.N604T variant compared with a GH-producing adenoma from a patient negative for any IGSF1 variants and with normal control pituitary tissue. The IGSF1 gene appears polymorphic in the general population. A potentially pathogenic variant identified in the germline of three patients with gigantism from the same family (segregating with the disease) was also detected in two healthy female controls. Variations in IGSF1 expression in pituitary tissue in patients with or without IGSF1 germline mutations point to the need for further studies of IGSF1 action in pituitary adenoma formation. PMID:25527509

  18. Is IGSF1 involved in human pituitary tumor formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucz, Fabio R.; Horvath, Anelia D.; Azevedo, Monalisa F.; Levy, Isaac; Bak, Beata; Wang, Ying; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Gourgari, Evgenia; Manning, Allison D.; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Lodish, Maya; Hofman, Paul; Anderson, Yvonne C; Holdaway, Ian; Oldfield, Edward; Chittiboina, Prashant; Nesterova, Maria; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Wit, Jan M.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary. Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene (on Xq26.2) are associated with X-linked central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement in males. In this study we tested the hypothesis that IGSF1 is involved in the development of pituitary tumors, especially those that produce growth hormone (GH). IGSF1 was sequenced in 21 patients with gigantism or acromegaly and 92 healthy individuals. Expression studies with a candidate pathogenic IGSF1 variant were carried out in transfected cells and immunohistochemistry for IGSF1 was performed in sections from GH-producing adenomas, familial somatomammotroph hyperplasia and in normal pituitary. In two male patients, and in one female, with somatomammotroph hyperplasia from the same family, we identified the sequence variant p.N604T, which in silico analysis suggested could affect IGSF1 function. Of 60 female controls, two carried the same variant, and seven were heterozygous for other variants. Immunohistochemistry showed increase IGSF1 staining in the GH-producing tumor from the patient with the IGSF1 p.N604T variant compared to a GH-producing adenoma from a patient negative for any IGSF1 variants and to normal control pituitary tissue. The IGSF1 gene appears polymorphic in the general population. A potentially pathogenic variant identified in the germline of three patients with gigantism from the same family (segregating with the disease) was also detected in two healthy female controls. Variations in IGSF1 expression in pituitary tissue in patients with or without IGSF1 germline mutations point to the need for further studies of IGSF1 action in pituitary adenoma formation. PMID:25527509

  19. Cellular automata modelling of biomolecular networks dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchev, D; Thomas, S; Apte, A; Kier, L B

    2010-01-01

    The modelling of biological systems dynamics is traditionally performed by ordinary differential equations (ODEs). When dealing with intracellular networks of genes, proteins and metabolites, however, this approach is hindered by network complexity and the lack of experimental kinetic parameters. This opened the field for other modelling techniques, such as cellular automata (CA) and agent-based modelling (ABM). This article reviews this emerging field of studies on network dynamics in molecular biology. The basics of the CA technique are discussed along with an extensive list of related software and websites. The application of CA to networks of biochemical reactions is exemplified in detail by the case studies of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, the FAS-ligand (FASL)-induced and Bcl-2-related apoptosis. The potential of the CA method to model basic pathways patterns, to identify ways to control pathway dynamics and to help in generating strategies to fight with cancer is demonstrated. The different line of CA applications presented includes the search for the best-performing network motifs, an analysis of importance for effective intracellular signalling and pathway cross-talk. PMID:20373215

  20. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Pyczek; Rolf Buslei; David Schult; Annett Hölsken; Michael Buchfelder; Ina Heß; Heidi Hahn; Anja Uhmann

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2+ and Sox...

  1. Familial acromegaly with pituitary adenoma. Report of three affected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassioun, K; Fatourehchi, V; Amirjamshidi, A; Meibodi, N A

    1986-03-01

    The authors report the cases of three brothers with pituitary adenomas who had classical findings of acromegaly and gigantism. Two had irreducibly elevated growth hormone (GH) values and underwent transsphenoidal microsurgical extirpation of their tumors. The third acromegalic brother had a normal GH value and evidence of panhypopituitarism; he had a small intrasellar tumor and a partially empty sella. The pattern of inheritance was probably autosomal recessive. A review of literature indicated that familial incidence of isolated acromegaly with pituitary adenomas is rare. PMID:3950729

  2. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Efforts were directed towards maintenance of actively secreting human pituitary growth hormone cells (somatotrophs) in vitro. The production of human growth hormone (hGH) by this means would be of benefit for the treatment of certain human hypopituitary diseases such as dwarfism. One of the primary approaches was the testing of agents which may logically be expected to increase hGH release. The progress towards this goal is summarized. Results from preliminary experiments dealing with electrophoresis of pituitary cell for the purpose of somatotroph separation are described.

  3. Water and Salt Metabolism Disorders Following Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Cakir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is frequently complicated with mild to severe water and electrolyte disturbances in the postoperative period. These disorders are: transient diabetes insipidus, early or delayed hyponatremia, diabetes insipidus followed by hyponatremia (biphasic pattern, diabetes insipidus-hyponatremia-diabetes insipidus (triphasic pattern, permanent diabetes insipidus, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. Close monitoring of water intake, urine output, thirst, volume status and serum electrolytes is imperative, and a dynamic treatment plan according to the changing status of the patient is mandatory. This review will focus on the types, course and treatment of water and electrolyte disturbances observed after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 28-32

  4. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... identified such as small population samples, different subtypes of depression and insufficient matching of patients and controls. Due to large heterogeneity of study designs and data, it was futile to make a meta-analysis. It is concluded that it remains unclear whether hyperactivity of the HPA axis results...

  5. Measurements and analysis of optical crosstalk in a microwave kinetic inductance detector array

    CERN Document Server

    Bisigello, L; Ferrari, L; Baselmans, J J A; Baryshev, A M

    2016-01-01

    The main advantage of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector arrays (MKID) is their multiplexing capability, which allows for building cameras with a large number of pixels and good sensitivity, particularly suitable to perform large blank galaxy surveys. However, to have as many pixels as possible it is necessary to arrange detectors close in readout frequency. Consequently KIDs overlap in frequency and are coupled to each other producing crosstalk. Because crosstalk can be only minimised by improving the array design, in this work we aim to correct for this effect a posteriori. We analysed a MKID array consisting of 880 KIDs with readout frequencies at 4-8 GHz. We measured the beam patterns for every detector in the array and described the response of each detector by using a two-dimensional Gaussian fit. Then, we identified detectors affected by crosstalk above -30 dB level from the maximum and removed the signal of the crosstalking detectors. Moreover, we modelled the crosstalk level for each KID as a func...

  6. Crosstalk elimination in the detection of dual-beam optical tweezers by spatial filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Dino; Oddershede, Lene B., E-mail: oddershede@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr Institute (NBI), University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Reihani, S. Nader S. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, 11369-9161 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In dual-beam optical tweezers, the accuracy of position and force measurements is often compromised by crosstalk between the two detected signals, this crosstalk leading to systematic and significant errors on the measured forces and distances. This is true both for dual-beam optical traps where the splitting of the two traps is done by polarization optics and for dual optical traps constructed by other methods, e.g., holographic tweezers. If the two traps are orthogonally polarized, most often crosstalk is minimized by inserting polarization optics in front of the detector; however, this method is not perfect because of the de-polarization of the trapping beam introduced by the required high numerical aperture optics. Here we present a simple and easy-to-implement method to efficiently eliminate crosstalk. The method is based on spatial filtering by simply inserting a pinhole at the correct position and is highly compatible with standard back focal plane photodiode based detection of position and force. Our spatial filtering method reduces crosstalk up to five times better than polarization filtering alone. The effectiveness is dependent on pinhole size and distance between the traps and is here quantified experimentally and reproduced by theoretical modeling. The method here proposed will improve the accuracy of force-distance measurements, e.g., of single molecules, performed by dual-beam optical traps and hence give much more scientific value for the experimental efforts.

  7. Crosstalk elimination in the detection of dual-beam optical tweezers by spatial filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dino; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Oddershede, Lene B.

    2014-05-01

    In dual-beam optical tweezers, the accuracy of position and force measurements is often compromised by crosstalk between the two detected signals, this crosstalk leading to systematic and significant errors on the measured forces and distances. This is true both for dual-beam optical traps where the splitting of the two traps is done by polarization optics and for dual optical traps constructed by other methods, e.g., holographic tweezers. If the two traps are orthogonally polarized, most often crosstalk is minimized by inserting polarization optics in front of the detector; however, this method is not perfect because of the de-polarization of the trapping beam introduced by the required high numerical aperture optics. Here we present a simple and easy-to-implement method to efficiently eliminate crosstalk. The method is based on spatial filtering by simply inserting a pinhole at the correct position and is highly compatible with standard back focal plane photodiode based detection of position and force. Our spatial filtering method reduces crosstalk up to five times better than polarization filtering alone. The effectiveness is dependent on pinhole size and distance between the traps and is here quantified experimentally and reproduced by theoretical modeling. The method here proposed will improve the accuracy of force-distance measurements, e.g., of single molecules, performed by dual-beam optical traps and hence give much more scientific value for the experimental efforts.

  8. Comparative Study of Crosstalk Reduction Techniques in RF Printed Circuit Board Using FDTD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Packianathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturization of the feature size in modern electronic circuits results from placing interconnections in close proximity with a high packing density. As a result, coupling between the adjacent lines has increased significantly, causing crosstalk to become an important concern in high-performance circuit design. In certain applications, microstriplines may be used in printed circuit boards for propagating high-speed signals, rather than striplines. Here, the electromagnetic coupling effects are analyzed for various microstrip transmission line structures, namely, microstriplines with a guard trace, double stub microstriplines, and parallel serpentine microstriplines using the finite-difference time-domain method. The numerical results are compared with simulation results, where the variants are simulated using an Ansoft high-frequency structure simulator. The analysis and simulation results are experimentally validated by fabricating a prototype and establishing a good correspondence between them. Numerical results are compared with simulation and experimental results, showing that double stub microstriplines reduce the far end crosstalk by 7 dB and increase the near end crosstalk by about 2 dB compared with the parallel microstriplines. Parallel serpentine microstriplines reduce the far end crosstalk by more than 10 dB and also reduce more than 15 mV of peak far end crosstalk voltage, compared with parallel microstriplines.

  9. Spatial optical crosstalk in CMOS image sensors integrated with plasmonic color filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Chen, Qin; Wen, Long; Hu, Xin; Zhang, Hui-Fang

    2015-08-24

    Imaging resolution of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor (CIS) keeps increasing to approximately 7k × 4k. As a result, the pixel size shrinks down to sub-2μm, which greatly increases the spatial optical crosstalk. Recently, plasmonic color filter was proposed as an alternative to conventional colorant pigmented ones. However, there is little work on its size effect and the spatial optical crosstalk in a model of CIS. By numerical simulation, we investigate the size effect of nanocross array plasmonic color filters and analyze the spatial optical crosstalk of each pixel in a Bayer array of a CIS with a pixel size of 1μm. It is found that the small pixel size deteriorates the filtering performance of nanocross color filters and induces substantial spatial color crosstalk. By integrating the plasmonic filters in the low Metal layer in standard CMOS process, the crosstalk reduces significantly, which is compatible to pigmented filters in a state-of-the-art backside illumination CIS. PMID:26368174

  10. Transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenoma: surgical technique of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-Ning; WANG Ren-zhi; LI Gui-lin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Although presented over one hundred years ago, the transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenoma is still the most suitable and safe route to pituitary adenoma, with a series of significant evolutional steps. The transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenoma is still a non-universal approach used in different centers of different areas in our country.

  11. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  12. Readout cross-talk for alpha-particle measurements in a pixelated sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations in Medici are performed to quantify crosstalk and charge sharing in a hybrid pixelated silicon detector. Crosstalk and charge sharing degrades the spatial and spectral resolution of single photon processing X-ray imaging systems. For typical medical X-ray imaging applications, the process is dominated by charge sharing between the pixels in the sensor. For heavier particles each impact generates a large amount of charge and the simulation seems to over predict the charge collection efficiency. This indicates that some type of non modelled degradation of the charge transport efficiency exists, like the plasma effect where the plasma might shield the generated charges from the electric field and hence distorts the charge transport process. Based on the simulations it can be reasoned that saturation of the amplifiers in the Timepix system might generate crosstalk that increases the charge spread measured from ion impact on the sensor

  13. A CMOS-compatible silicon substrate optimization technique and its application in radio frequency crosstalk isolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chen; Liao Huai-Lin; Huang Ru; Wang Yang-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible silicon substrate optimization technique is proposed to achieve effective isolation. The selective growth of porous silicon is used to effectively suppress the substrate crosstalk. The isolation structures are fabricated in standard CMOS process and then this post-CMOS substrate optimization technique is carried out to greatly improve the performances of crosstalk isolation. Three-dimensional electro-magnetic simulation is implemented to verify the obvious effect of our substrate optimization technique. The morphologies and growth condition of porous silicon fabricated have been investigated in detail. Furthermore, a thick selectively grown porous silicon (SGPS) trench for crosstalk isolation has been formed and about 20dB improvement in substrate isolation is achieved. These results demonstrate that our post-CMOS SGPS technique is very promising for RF IC applications.

  14. Crosstalk, cathode structure and electrical parameters of the MWPCs for the LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, W

    2000-01-01

    This note discusses the electrical characteristics of the Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) for the LHCb muon system that were originally developed at PNPI. Optimized layouts for cathode structure and readout traces together with the expected crosstalk numbers are presented. We conclude that cathode pad dimensions should not be smaller than 3 cm in order to limit the cluster size to smaller than 1.2. We also conclude that a front-end electronics input resistance of less than 50 Ohm is preferred in order to limit the capacitive crosstalk. In some regions a resistance of 100 Ohm might be acceptable. In order to limit the crosstalk for chambers with a 'chessboard' cathode structure it is essential that we run the signal traces parallel to the wires.

  15. Directional gamma sensing from covariance processing of inter-detector Compton crosstalk energy asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainham, R., E-mail: trainhcp@nv.doe.gov; Tinsley, J. [Special Technologies Laboratory of National Security Technologies, LLC, 5520 Ekwill Street, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Energy asymmetry of inter-detector crosstalk from Compton scattering can be exploited to infer the direction to a gamma source. A covariance approach extracts the correlated crosstalk from data streams to estimate matched signals from Compton gammas split over two detectors. On a covariance map the signal appears as an asymmetric cross diagonal band with axes intercepts at the full photo-peak energy of the original gamma. The asymmetry of the crosstalk band can be processed to determine the direction to the radiation source. The technique does not require detector shadowing, masking, or coded apertures, thus sensitivity is not sacrificed to obtain the directional information. An angular precision of better than 1° of arc is possible, and processing of data streams can be done in real time with very modest computing hardware.

  16. Directional gamma sensing from covariance processing of inter-detector Compton crosstalk energy asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainham, R.; Tinsley, J.

    2014-06-01

    Energy asymmetry of inter-detector crosstalk from Compton scattering can be exploited to infer the direction to a gamma source. A covariance approach extracts the correlated crosstalk from data streams to estimate matched signals from Compton gammas split over two detectors. On a covariance map the signal appears as an asymmetric cross diagonal band with axes intercepts at the full photo-peak energy of the original gamma. The asymmetry of the crosstalk band can be processed to determine the direction to the radiation source. The technique does not require detector shadowing, masking, or coded apertures, thus sensitivity is not sacrificed to obtain the directional information. An angular precision of better than 1° of arc is possible, and processing of data streams can be done in real time with very modest computing hardware.

  17. Amplitude-phase cross-talk cancellation in frequency domain instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stephen P.; Yong, Kai Y.

    2001-06-01

    Changes in phase that occurs with changes in amplitude impose severe limitations on the accuracy of frequency domain near infrared spectrometers. Phase is related to the photon pathlength in tissue and phase errors introduced by the instrument can be interpreted as changes in tissue oxygenation. The instrument described employs a reference RF modulated laser diode to eliminate the effects of amplitude- phase crosstalk and requires no feedback. Light from the reference and medium channels follow a common path through the detector and so the same phase error is imposed on both. Summing the reference and medium phase eliminates the crosstalk and enables the resultant to be attributed only to photon pathlength within the medium. It is also demonstrated that elimination of amplitude-phase crosstalk is a natural consequence of a phased array configuration.

  18. Elimination of amplitude-phase crosstalk in frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S. P.; Yong, K. Y.

    2001-04-01

    Changes in phase that occur with changes in amplitude impose severe limitations on the accuracy of frequency domain near-infrared spectrometers. Phase is related to the photon pathlength in tissue and phase errors introduced by the instrument can be interpreted as changes in tissue oxygenation. The instrument described in this article employs a reference radio frequency modulated laser diode to eliminate the effects of amplitude-phase crosstalk and requires no feedback. Light from the reference laser diode does not pass through the medium under investigation but passes directly onto the detector. The reference and medium signals follow a common path through the detector and so the same phase error is imposed on both. Summing the reference and medium phase eliminates the crosstalk and enables the resultant to be attributed only to the photon pathlength within the medium. It is also demonstrated that elimination of amplitude-phase crosstalk is a natural consequence of a phased array configuration.

  19. Correcting for color crosstalk and chromatic aberration in multicolor particle shadow velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Color crosstalk and chromatic aberration can bias estimates of fluid velocity measured by color particle shadow velocimetry (CPSV), using multicolor illumination and a color camera. This article describes corrections to remove these bias errors, and their evaluation. Color crosstalk removal is demonstrated with linear unmixing. It is also shown that chromatic aberrations may be removed using either scale calibration, or by processing an image illuminated by all colors simultaneously. CPSV measurements of a fully developed turbulent pipe flow of glycerin were conducted. Corrected velocity statistics from these measurements were compared to both single-color PSV and LDV measurements and showed excellent agreement to fourth-order, to well into the viscous sublayer. Recommendations for practical assessment and correction of color aberration and color crosstalk are discussed. (paper)

  20. Readout cross-talk for alpha-particle measurements in a pixelated sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlin, B.; Reza, S.; Krapohl, D.; Fröjdh, E.; Thungström, G.

    2015-05-01

    Simulations in Medici are performed to quantify crosstalk and charge sharing in a hybrid pixelated silicon detector. Crosstalk and charge sharing degrades the spatial and spectral resolution of single photon processing X-ray imaging systems. For typical medical X-ray imaging applications, the process is dominated by charge sharing between the pixels in the sensor. For heavier particles each impact generates a large amount of charge and the simulation seems to over predict the charge collection efficiency. This indicates that some type of non modelled degradation of the charge transport efficiency exists, like the plasma effect where the plasma might shield the generated charges from the electric field and hence distorts the charge transport process. Based on the simulations it can be reasoned that saturation of the amplifiers in the Timepix system might generate crosstalk that increases the charge spread measured from ion impact on the sensor.

  1. Buffer and Wiresizing Optimization under the Distributed RLC Model with Crosstalk Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Chang; WANG Gaofeng; SHI Xinzhi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interconnect buffer and wiresizing optimization problem under a distributed RLC model to optimize not just area and delay, but also crosstalk for RLC circuit with non-monotone signal response. We present a new multiobjective genetic algorithm(MOGA) which uses a single objective sorting(SOS) method for constructing the non-dominated set to solve this multi-objective interconnect optimization problem. The MOGA/SOS optimal algorithm provides a smooth trade-off among signal delay, wave form, and routing area. Furthermore, we use a new method to calculate the lower bound of crosstalk. Extensive experimental results show that our algorithm is scalable with problem size. Furthermore, compared to the solution based on an Elmore delay model, our solution reduces the total routing area by up to 30%, the delay to the critical sinks by up to 25%, while further improving crosstalk up to 25.73% on average.

  2. Nanostructured cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, P; Taylor, M D R; Brust, M

    2002-12-01

    Au nanocrystals spin-coated onto silicon from toluene form cellular networks. A quantitative statistical crystallography analysis shows that intercellular correlations drive the networks far from statistical equilibrium. Spin-coating from hexane does not produce cellular structure, yet a strong correlation is retained in the positions of nanocrystal aggregates. Mechanisms based on Marangoni convection alone cannot account for the variety of patterns observed, and we argue that spinodal decomposition plays an important role in foam formation.

  3. Cellular Cardiomyoplasty: Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Chachques, J. (J.); Acar, C; J. Herreros; Trainini, J. (Jorge); Prosper, F.; D’Attellis, N. (N.); Fabiani, J. N.; Carpentier, A

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial regeneration can be induced with the implantation of a variety of myogenic and angiogenic cell types. More than 150 patients have been treated with cellular cardiomyoplasty worldwide, 18 patients have been treated by our group. Cellular cardiomyoplasty seems to reduce the size and fibrosis of infarct scars, limit postischemic remodelling, and restore regional myocardial contractility. Techniques for skeletal myoblasts culture and ex vivo expansion using auto...

  4. Hypopituitarism in the elderly: a narrative review on clinical management of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtò, L; Trimarchi, F

    2016-10-01

    Hypopituitarism is an uncommon and under-investigated endocrine disorder in old age since signs and symptoms are unspecific and, at least in part, can be attributed to the physiological effects of aging and related co-morbidities. Clinical presentation is often insidious being characterized by non-specific manifestations, such as weight gain, fatigue, low muscle strength, bradipsychism, hypotension or intolerance to cold. In these circumstances, hypopituitarism is a rarely life-threatening condition, but evolution may be more dramatic as a result of pituitary apoplexy, or when a serious condition of adrenal insufficiency suddenly occurs. Clinical presentation depends on the effects that each pituitary deficit can cause, and on their mutual relationship, but also, inevitably, it depends on the severity and duration of the deficit itself, as well as on the general condition of the patient. Indeed, indications and methods of hormone replacement therapy must include the need to normalize the endocrine profile without contributing to the worsening of intercurrent diseases, such as those of glucose and bone metabolism, and the cardiovascular system, or to the increasing cancer risk. Hormonal requirements of elderly patients are reduced compared to young adults, but a prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of pituitary deficiencies are strongly recommended, also in this age range. PMID:27209187

  5. The chronic syndromes after previous treatment of pituitary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romijn, Johannes A

    2016-09-01

    Ultimately, almost all patients who are appropriately treated for pituitary tumours enter a chronic phase with control or cure of hormonal excess, adequate treatment of pituitary insufficiency and relief of mass effects. This phase is associated with improvement of initial signs and symptoms, but also with the persistent consequences of the initial disease and associated treatments. Pituitary insufficiency is a common denominator in many of these patients, and is associated with a reduction in quality of life, despite adequate endocrine substitution. Hypothalamic dysfunction can be present in patients previously treated for visual impairments caused by large suprasellar adenomas, or craniopharyngiomas. In addition to hypopituitarism, these patients can have multisystem morbidities caused by altered hypothalamic function, including weight gain and disturbed regulation of sleep-wake cycles. Mortality can also be affected. Patients cured of Cushing disease or acromegaly have chronic multisystem morbidities (in the case of Cushing disease, also affecting mortality) caused by irreversible effects of the previous excesses of cortisol in Cushing disease and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 in acromegaly. In addition to early diagnosis and treatment of pituitary tumours, research should focus on the amenability of these chronic post-treatment syndromes to therapeutic intervention, to improve quality of life and clinical outcomes. PMID:27259177

  6. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, C.J.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    IntroductionThe main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which coordinates multipl

  7. Treatment and Prognosis of Pituitary Adenomas in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the treatments and prognosis of pituitary adenomas in children, the experience in the treatment of 15 children with pituitary adenomas was summed up. The clinical data of 15 children with pituitary adenomas in Tongji Hospital were retrospectively analyzed from Jan.1997 to Aug. 2004, including 9 males and 6 females with the age ranging from 9-15 years old (mean 12.8). The disease duration was 3 months to 5 years (mean 2 years). Fourteen cases were subjected to the microsurgical operation through oral tanssphenoidal approach and one case to medical treatment. All cases were followed up from 1 to 5 years by imaging studies and endocrine investigation. The results showed that 13 cases obtained total removal of the tumor and one subtotal removal of tumor. No severe complications and operation death occurred. It was concluded that the tanssphenoidal approach was the optimal treatment for children with pituitary adenomas. Regular and long-term follow-up is of great importance.

  8. Gamma-knife surgery for secreting pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report our preliminary results concerning 25 patients with secreting pituitary adenomas treated with stereotactic radiosurgery after partial transsphenoidal surgery and followed over a 6-36 month-period. Among the 15 acromegalic patients, a decrease of 65% in mean GH levels was achieved after 6 months and of 77% at 12 months after radiosurgery. Presently, only 3 patients (20%) are considered as in remission (mean GH and IGF1 level into the normal range). A decrease of 46% and 64% was observed at 6 and 12 months after radiosurgery in 4 patients with prolactinomas although no normalization of PRL levels occurred. Presently, 3/4 patients have individual PRL levels slightly above the normal range. A normalization of Urinary Free Cortisol (UFC) was noticed in 4/6 (66%) patients with Cushing's disease within 6-12 months. No pituitary deficiency was noticed in this series with the exception of 4/25 patients (16%) who received subtotal or total pituitary irradiation for post-operative remnants of secreting adenomas poorly defined on MRI. One woman, who had undergone previously a conventional irradiation and presenting with a cavernous sinus adenoma reaching the optic nerve, developed an optic neuropathy. A second woman, with a cavernous sinus remnant, presented a cranial nerve palsy (VI) after the irradiation. We can conclude that radiosurgery using the Cobalt-60 Gamma-unit is, at least, as effective as conventional radiotherapy in the control of pituitary hormone hypersecretion from postoperative adenomas remnants with less adverse effects. (author)

  9. Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yu-xin; QU Qiu-yi; WANG Zhen-lin; ZHANG Qiu-hang

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgery of pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus has always been thought as a challenge due to the complex anatomical structures and high risk of complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate endoscopic trarssphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus.Methods The clinical data of 22 patients who admitted to Xuanwu Hospital with pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. To expose the surgical field sufficiently, the opening of sellar floor was exceeded the bone overlying the invaded cavernous sinus, and synthetic dura was used to repair and strengthen the sella floor for preventing the leak of cerebrospinal fluid.Results Among 22 patients, total resection was achieved in 14, subtotal resection in 5, and partial resection in 3; no patient underwent insufficient resection. Visual symptoms improved in 7 of 9 patients. In one patient diplopia disappeared.Headache was relieved to various extents in all patients. No serious complications were found. Patient's hospital stay ranged from 7 to 20 days.Conclusion These data suggest that the endoscopic transsphenoid approach is a safe, minimally invasive, and efficient surgical technique, which might be an important therapeutic strategy for the pituitary adenoms invading cavernous sinus.

  10. Functional Characteristics of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Pituitary Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megnis, Kaspars; Mandrika, Ilona; Petrovska, Ramona; Stukens, Janis; Rovite, Vita; Balcere, Inga; Jansone, Laima Sabine; Peculis, Raitis; Pirags, Valdis; Klovins, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most common endocrine and intracranial neoplasms. Although they are theoretically monoclonal in origin, several studies have shown that they contain different multipotent cell types that are thought to play an important role in tumor initiation, maintenance, and recurrence after therapy. In the present study, we isolated and characterized cell populations from seven pituitary somatotroph, nonhormonal, and lactotroph adenomas. The obtained cells showed characteristics of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as observed by cell morphology, cell surface marker CD90, CD105, CD44, and vimentin expression, as well as differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. They are capable of growth and passaging under standard laboratory cell culture conditions and do not manifest any hormonal cell characteristics. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are present in pituitary adenomas regardless of their clinical manifestation and show no considerable expression of somatostatin 1-5 and dopamine 2 receptors. Most likely obtained cells are a part of tissue-supportive cells in pituitary adenoma microenvironment. PMID:27340409

  11. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapurin, Nikita; Wang, Cynthia; Steinberg, David M; Jang, David W

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient's pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression. PMID:26998375

  12. Early effects of cranial irradiation on hypothalamic-pituitary function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, K.S.; Tse, V.K.; Wang, C.; Yeung, R.T.; Ma, J.T.; Ho, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary function was studied in 31 patients before and after cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The estimated radiotherapy (RT) doses to the hypothalamus and pituitary were 3979 +/- 78 (+/- SD) and 6167 +/- 122 centiGrays, respectively. All patients had normal pituitary function before RT. One year after RT, there was a significant decrease in the integrated serum GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In the male patients, basal serum FSH significantly increased, while basal serum LH and testosterone did not change. Moreover, in response to LHRH, the integrated FSH response was increased while that of LH was decreased. Such discordant changes in FSH and LH may be explained by a defect in LHRH pulsatile release involving predominantly a decrease in pulse frequency. The peak serum TSH response to TRH became delayed in 28 patients, suggesting a defect in TRH release. Twenty-one patients were reassessed 2 yr after RT. Their mean basal serum T4 and plasma cortisol levels had significantly decreased. Hyperprolactinemia associated with oligomenorrhoea was found in 3 women. Further impairment in the secretion of GH, FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH had occurred, and 4 patients had hypopituitarism. Thus, progressive impairment in hypothalamic-pituitary function occurs after cranial irradiation and can be demonstrated as early as 1 yr after RT.

  13. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Chapurin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient’s pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression.

  14. Early effects of cranial irradiation on hypothalamic-pituitary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothalamic-pituitary function was studied in 31 patients before and after cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The estimated radiotherapy (RT) doses to the hypothalamus and pituitary were 3979 +/- 78 (+/- SD) and 6167 +/- 122 centiGrays, respectively. All patients had normal pituitary function before RT. One year after RT, there was a significant decrease in the integrated serum GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In the male patients, basal serum FSH significantly increased, while basal serum LH and testosterone did not change. Moreover, in response to LHRH, the integrated FSH response was increased while that of LH was decreased. Such discordant changes in FSH and LH may be explained by a defect in LHRH pulsatile release involving predominantly a decrease in pulse frequency. The peak serum TSH response to TRH became delayed in 28 patients, suggesting a defect in TRH release. Twenty-one patients were reassessed 2 yr after RT. Their mean basal serum T4 and plasma cortisol levels had significantly decreased. Hyperprolactinemia associated with oligomenorrhoea was found in 3 women. Further impairment in the secretion of GH, FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH had occurred, and 4 patients had hypopituitarism. Thus, progressive impairment in hypothalamic-pituitary function occurs after cranial irradiation and can be demonstrated as early as 1 yr after RT

  15. Effect of guanfacine on pituitary hormones in man

    OpenAIRE

    Lancranjan, Ioana

    1980-01-01

    1 Animal studies have shown that adrenaline and noradrenaline are involved in the control of pituitary function. As very few data on this topic were available in man, some studies were carried out mainly in young normal volunteers using guanfacine, a new drug with central α-adrenoceptor properties.

  16. Cross-talk induces bifurcations in nonlinear models of synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Terry

    2012-02-01

    Linear models of synaptic plasticity provide a useful starting-point for examining the dynamics of neuronal development and learning, but their inherent problems are well known. Models of synaptic plasticity that embrace the demands of biological realism are therefore typically nonlinear. Viewed from a more abstract perspective, nonlinear models of synaptic plasticity are a subset of nonlinear dynamical systems. As such, they may therefore exhibit bifurcations under the variation of control parameters, including noise and errors in synaptic updates. One source of noise or error is the cross-talk that occurs during otherwise Hebbian plasticity. Under cross-talk, stimulation of a set of synapses can induce or modify plasticity in adjacent, unstimulated synapses. Here, we analyze two nonlinear models of developmental synaptic plasticity and a model of independent component analysis in the presence of a simple model of cross-talk. We show that cross-talk does indeed induce bifurcations in these models, entirely destroying their ability to acquire either developmentally or learning-related patterns of fixed points. Importantly, the critical level of cross-talk required to induce bifurcations in these models is very sensitive to the statistics of the afferents' activities and the number of afferents synapsing on a postsynaptic cell. In particular, the critical level can be made arbitrarily small. Because bifurcations are inevitable in nonlinear models, our results likely apply to many nonlinear models of synaptic plasticity, although the precise details vary by model. Hence, many nonlinear models of synaptic plasticity are potentially fatally compromised by the toxic influence of cross-talk and other sources of noise and errors more generally. We conclude by arguing that biologically realistic models of synaptic plasticity must be robust against noise-induced bifurcations and that biological systems may have evolved strategies to circumvent their possible dangers.

  17. Optical crosstalk in CT detectors and its effects on CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hanbean; Kam, Soohwa; Han, Jong Chul; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2014-03-01

    Detectors for computed tomography (CT) typically consist of scintillator and photodiode arrays which are coupled using optical glue. Therefore, the leakage of optical photons generated in a scintillator block to neighboring pixel photodiodes through the optical glue layer is inevitable. Passivation layers to protect the silicon photodiode as well as the silicon layer itself, which is inactive to the optical photons, are another causes for the leakage. This optical crosstalk reduces image sharpness, and eventually will blur CT images. We have quantitatively investigated the optical crosstalk in CT detectors using the Monte Carlo technique. We performed the optical Monte Carlo simulations for various thicknesses of optical components in a 129 × 129 CT detector array. We obtained the coordinates of optical photons hitting the user-defined detection plane. From the coordinate information, we calculated the collection efficiency at the detection plane and the collection efficiency at the single pixel located just below the scintillator in which the optical photons were generated. Difference between the two quantities provided the optical crosstalk. In addition, using the coordinate information, we calculated point-spread functions as well as modulation-transfer functions from which we estimated the effective aperture due to the optical photon spreading. The optical crosstalk was most severely affected by the thickness of photodiode passivation layer. The effective aperture due to the optical crosstalk was about 110% of the detector pixel aperture for a 0.1 mm-thick passivation layer, and this signal blur was appeared as a relative error of about 3-4% in mismatches between CT images with and without the optical crosstalk. The detailed simulation results are shown and will be very useful for the design of CT detectors.

  18. Cross-talk and information transfer in mammalian and bacterial signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanthe M Lyons

    Full Text Available In mammalian and bacterial cells simple phosphorylation circuits play an important role in signaling. Bacteria have hundreds of two-component signaling systems that involve phosphotransfer between a receptor and a response regulator. In mammalian cells a similar pathway is the TGF-beta pathway, where extracellular TGF-beta ligands activate cell surface receptors that phosphorylate Smad proteins, which in turn activate many genes. In TGF-beta signaling the multiplicity of ligands begs the question as to whether cells can distinguish signals coming from different ligands, but transduced through a small set of Smads. Here we use information theory with stochastic simulations of networks to address this question. We find that when signals are transduced through only one Smad, the cell cannot distinguish between different levels of the external ligands. Increasing the number of Smads from one to two significantly improves information transmission as well as the ability to discriminate between ligands. Surprisingly, both total information transmitted and the capacity to discriminate between ligands are quite insensitive to high levels of cross-talk between the two Smads. Robustness against cross-talk requires that the average amplitude of the signals are large. We find that smaller systems, as exemplified by some two-component systems in bacteria, are significantly much less robust against cross-talk. For such system sizes phosphotransfer is also less robust against cross-talk than phosphorylation. This suggests that mammalian signal transduction can tolerate a high amount of cross-talk without degrading information content. This may have played a role in the evolution of new functionalities from small mutations in signaling pathways, allowed for the development of cross-regulation and led to increased overall robustness due to redundancy in signaling pathways. On the other hand the lack of cross-regulation observed in many bacterial two

  19. Enhancing crop resilience to combined abiotic and biotic stress through the dissection of physiological and molecular crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissoudis, Christos; van de Wiel, Clemens; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Plants growing in their natural habitats are often challenged simultaneously by multiple stress factors, both abiotic and biotic. Research has so far been limited to responses to individual stresses, and understanding of adaptation to combinatorial stress is limited, but indicative of non-additive interactions. Omics data analysis and functional characterization of individual genes has revealed a convergence of signaling pathways for abiotic and biotic stress adaptation. Taking into account that most data originate from imposition of individual stress factors, this review summarizes these findings in a physiological context, following the pathogenesis timeline and highlighting potential differential interactions occurring between abiotic and biotic stress signaling across the different cellular compartments and at the whole plant level. Potential effects of abiotic stress on resistance components such as extracellular receptor proteins, R-genes and systemic acquired resistance will be elaborated, as well as crosstalk at the levels of hormone, reactive oxygen species, and redox signaling. Breeding targets and strategies are proposed focusing on either manipulation and deployment of individual common regulators such as transcription factors or pyramiding of non- (negatively) interacting components such as R-genes with abiotic stress resistance genes. We propose that dissection of broad spectrum stress tolerance conferred by priming chemicals may provide an insight on stress cross regulation and additional candidate genes for improving crop performance under combined stress. Validation of the proposed strategies in lab and field experiments is a first step toward the goal of achieving tolerance to combinatorial stress in crops.

  20. Astemizole-Histamine induces Beclin-1-independent autophagy by targeting p53-dependent crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhar, Rekha; Paul, Souren; Bhardwaj, Monika; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis and autophagy are genetically regulated, evolutionarily conserved processes that can jointly seal cancer cell fates, and numerous death stimuli are capable of activating either pathway. Although crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is quite complex and sometimes contradictory, it remains a key factor determining the outcomes of death-related pathologies such as cancer. In the present study, exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to HIS and the H1 receptor antagonist AST both alone and together with HIS (AST-HIS) led to generation of intracellular ROS, which induced massive cellular vacuolization through dilation of the ER and mitochondria. Consequently, apoptosis by Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation were triggered. In addition, AST-HIS caused ER stress-induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by an increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, with surprisingly no changes in Beclin-1 expression. Non-canonical autophagy was induced via p53 phosphorylation, which increased p53-p62 interactions to enhance Beclin-1-independent autophagy as evidenced by immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation. In the absence of Beclin-1, enhanced autophagy further activated apoptosis through caspase induction. In conclusion, these findings indicate that AST-HIS-induced apoptosis and autophagy can be regulated by ROS-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:26739061

  1. Enhancing crop resilience to combined abiotic and biotic stress through the dissection of physiological and molecular crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissoudis, Christos; van de Wiel, Clemens; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Plants growing in their natural habitats are often challenged simultaneously by multiple stress factors, both abiotic and biotic. Research has so far been limited to responses to individual stresses, and understanding of adaptation to combinatorial stress is limited, but indicative of non-additive interactions. Omics data analysis and functional characterization of individual genes has revealed a convergence of signaling pathways for abiotic and biotic stress adaptation. Taking into account that most data originate from imposition of individual stress factors, this review summarizes these findings in a physiological context, following the pathogenesis timeline and highlighting potential differential interactions occurring between abiotic and biotic stress signaling across the different cellular compartments and at the whole plant level. Potential effects of abiotic stress on resistance components such as extracellular receptor proteins, R-genes and systemic acquired resistance will be elaborated, as well as crosstalk at the levels of hormone, reactive oxygen species, and redox signaling. Breeding targets and strategies are proposed focusing on either manipulation and deployment of individual common regulators such as transcription factors or pyramiding of non- (negatively) interacting components such as R-genes with abiotic stress resistance genes. We propose that dissection of broad spectrum stress tolerance conferred by priming chemicals may provide an insight on stress cross regulation and additional candidate genes for improving crop performance under combined stress. Validation of the proposed strategies in lab and field experiments is a first step toward the goal of achieving tolerance to combinatorial stress in crops. PMID:24904607

  2. Enhancing crop resilience to combined abiotic and biotic stress through the dissection of physiological and molecular crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos eKissoudis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing in their natural habitats are often challenged simultaneously by multiple stress factors, both abiotic and biotic. Research has so far been limited to responses to individual stresses, and understanding of adaptation to combinatorial stress is limited, but indicative of non-additive interactions. Omics data analysis and functional characterization of individual genes has revealed a convergence of signalling pathways for abiotic and biotic stress adaptation. Taking into account that most data originate from imposition of individual stress factors, this review summarizes these findings in a physiological context, following the pathogenesis timeline and highlighting potential differential interactions occurring between abiotic and biotic stress signalling across the different cellular compartments and at the whole plant level. Potential effects of abiotic stress on resistance components such as extracellular receptor proteins, R-genes and systemic acquired resistance will be elaborated, as well as crosstalk at the levels of hormone, ROS and redox signalling. Breeding targets and strategies are proposed focusing on either manipulation and deployment of individual common regulators such as transcription factors or pyramiding of non- (negatively interacting components such as R-genes with abiotic stress resistance genes. We propose that dissection of broad spectrum stress tolerance conferred by priming chemicals may provide an insight on stress cross regulation and additional candidate genes for improving crop performance under combined stress. Validation of the proposed strategies in lab and field experiments is a first step towards the goal of achieving tolerance to combinatorial stress in crops.

  3. Effect of treatment modality on the hypothalamic-pituitary function of patients treated with radiation therapy for pituitary adenomas: Hypothalamic dose and endocrine outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew eElson; Joseph eBovi; Kawaljeet eKaur; Diana eMaas; Grant eSinson; Chris eSchultz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Both fractionated external beam radiotherapy and single fraction radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas are associated with the risk of hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis dysfunction.Objective: To analyze the effect of treatment modality (Linac, TomoTherapy, or Gamma Knife) on hypothalamic dose and correlate these with HP-Axis deficits after radiotherapy.Methods:Radiation plans of patients treated postoperatively for pituitary adenomas using Linac-based 3D Conformal Radiotherapy (CRT) ...

  4. Effect of Treatment Modality on the Hypothalamic–Pituitary Function of Patients Treated with Radiation Therapy for Pituitary Adenomas: Hypothalamic Dose and Endocrine Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Elson, Andrew; Bovi, Joseph; Kaur, Kawaljeet; Maas, Diana; Sinson, Grant; Schultz, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background: Both fractionated external beam radiotherapy and single fraction radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas are associated with the risk of hypothalamic–pituitary (HP) axis dysfunction. Objective: To analyze the effect of treatment modality (Linac, TomoTherapy, or gamma knife) on hypothalamic dose and correlate these with HP-axis deficits after radiotherapy. Methods: Radiation plans of patients treated post-operatively for pituitary adenomas using Linac-based 3D-conformal radiother...

  5. Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70–75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100 pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell. -- Highlights: • MAT2A knockdown depletes putrescine and leads to apoptosis. • Putrescine attenuates MAT2A knockdown-induced apoptosis and growth

  6. Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Ryoo, Minjung; Skay, Anna; Tomasi, Ivan; Giordano, Pasquale; Mato, José M; Lu, Shelly C

    2013-07-15

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70-75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell.

  7. Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda [Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); The Southern California Research Center for Alcoholic and Pancreatic Diseases and Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Ryoo, Minjung; Skay, Anna [Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Tomasi, Ivan; Giordano, Pasquale [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Whipps Cross University Hospital, London E11 1NR (United Kingdom); Mato, José M. [CIC bioGUNE, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd), Technology Park of Bizkaia, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia (Spain); Lu, Shelly C., E-mail: shellylu@usc.edu [Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); The Southern California Research Center for Alcoholic and Pancreatic Diseases and Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70–75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100 pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell. -- Highlights: • MAT2A knockdown depletes putrescine and leads to apoptosis. • Putrescine attenuates MAT2A knockdown-induced apoptosis and growth

  8. Clean Beam Patterns with Low Crosstalk Using 850 GHz Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S. J. C.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Baryshev, A. M.; Doyle, S.; Endo, A.; Ferrari, L.; Hochgürtel, S.; Klein, B.

    2014-09-01

    We present modeling of distributed /4 microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) showing how electromagnetic cross coupling between the MKID resonators can occur at frequencies corresponding to the microwave readout signal (4-8 GHz). We then show system beam pattern measurements in the reimaged focal plane of a 72 detector array of lens-antenna coupled MKIDs at 850 GHz, which enables a direct measure of any residual optical crosstalk. With use of transmission line bridges we see no residual cross coupling between MKIDs and hence low crosstalk down to the 30 dB level, with near Gaussian shape (limited by reimaging optics) to 10 dB level.

  9. Modeling Inter-Pixel Crosstalk in Teledyne Imaging Sensors H4RG Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dudik, R P; Dorland, B N; Veillette, D; Waczynski, A; Lane, B; Loose, M; Kan, E; Waterman, J; Pravdo, S

    2012-01-01

    CMOS-hybrid arrays have recently surfaced as competitive optical detectors for use in ground- and space-based astronomy. One source of error in these detectors that does not appear in more traditional CCD arrays is the inter-pixel capacitance component of crosstalk. In this paper we use a single pixel reset method to model inter-pixel capacitance (IPC). We combine this IPC model with a model for charge diffusion to estimate the total crosstalk on H4RG arrays. Finally, we compare our model results to Fe55 data obtained using an astrometric camera built to test the H4RG-B0 generation detectors.

  10. Characteristics of crosstalk in the reproduced output of a newly developed multi-channel MR head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared the multi-channel magnetoresistive head with a simple structural design and it has the advantages of high-density recording and ultra-high transfer rate. Characteristics of crosstalk in the reproduced output of our head have been estimated by a micromagnetic calculation using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, while the specimen head was fabricated and evaluated. As a result, by applying a magnetic field of 40 Oe only between adjacent channels, the crosstalk was much decreased without reducing the reproduced output

  11. Zero-crossing detector with sub-microsecond jitter and crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. John; Kuhnle, Paul F.; Sydnor, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    A zero-crossing detector (ZCD) was built and tested with a new circuit design which gives reduced time jitter compared to previous designs. With the new design, time jitter is reduced for the first time to a value which approaches that due to noise in the input amplifying stage. Additionally, with fiber-optic transmission of the output signal, crosstalk between units has been eliminated. The measured values are in good agreement with circuit noise calculations and approximately ten times lower than that for ZCD's presently installed in the JPL test facility. Crosstalk between adjacent units was reduced even more than the jitter.

  12. Fourier analysis of RGB fringe-projection profilometry and robust phase-demodulation methods against crosstalk distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Moises; Servin, Manuel; Garnica, Guillermo

    2016-07-11

    In this paper, we apply the frequency transfer function formalism to analyze the red, green and blue (RGB) phase-shifting fringe-projection profilometry technique. The phase-shifted patterns in RGB fringe projection are typically corrupted by crosstalk because the sensitivity curves of most projection-recording systems overlap. This crosstalk distortion needs to be compensated in order to obtain high quality measurements. We study phase-demodulation methods for null/mild, moderate, and severe levels of RGB crosstalk. For null/mild crosstalk distortion, we can estimate the searched phase-map using Bruning's 3-step phase-shifting algorithm (PSA). For moderate crosstalk, the recorded data is usually preprocessed before feeding it into the PSA; alternatively, in this paper we propose a computationally more efficient approach, which combines linear crosstalk compensation with the phase-demodulation algorithm. For severe RGB crosstalk, we expect non-sinusoidal fringes' profiles (distorting harmonics) and a significant uncertainty on the linear crosstalk calibration (which produces pseudo-detuning error). Analyzing these distorting phenomena, we conclude that squeezing interferometry is the most robust demodulation method for RGB fringe-projection techniques. Finally, we support our conclusions with numerical simulations and experimental results. PMID:27410817

  13. RAC1 in keratinocytes regulates crosstalk to immune cells by Arp2/3-dependent control of STAT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esben Ditlev Kølle; Wang, Zhipeng; Stanley, Alanna;

    2012-01-01

    Crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells is crucial for the immunological barrier function of the skin, and aberrant crosstalk contributes to inflammatory skin diseases. Using mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the RAC1 gene we found that RAC1 in keratinocytes plays an import...

  14. Anticancer effect of genistein on BG-1 ovarian cancer growth induced by 17 β-estradiol or bisphenol A via the suppression of the crosstalk between estrogen receptor alpha and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Min-Ah; Kang, Nam-Hee; Yi, Bo-Rim; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul, E-mail: kchoi@cbu.ac.kr

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between estrogen receptor (ER) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of and resistance to endocrine therapy to estrogen dependent cancers. Estrogen (E2) upregulates the expression of components of IGF-1 system and induces the downstream of mitogenic signaling cascades via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). In the present study, we evaluated the xenoestrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA) and antiproliferative activity of genistein (GEN) in accordance with the influence on this crosstalk. BPA was determined to affect this crosstalk by upregulating mRNA expressions of ERα and IGF-1R and inducing phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt in protein level in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells as E2 did. In the mouse model xenografted with BG-1 cells, BPA significantly increased a tumor burden of mice and expressions of ERα, pIRS-1, and cyclin D1 in tumor mass compared to vehicle, indicating that BPA induces ovarian cancer growth by promoting the crosstalk between ER and IGF-1R signals. On the other hand, GEN effectively reversed estrogenicity of BPA by reversing mRNA and protein expressions of ERα, IGF-1R, pIRS-1, and pAkt induced by BPA in cellular model and also significantly decreased tumor growth and in vivo expressions of ERα, pIRS-1, and pAkt in xenografted mouse model. Also, GEN was confirmed to have an antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptotic signaling cascades. Taken together, these results suggest that GEN effectively reversed the increased proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer by suppressing the crosstalk between ERα and IGF-1R signaling pathways upregulated by BPA or E2.

  15. Fathead minnow steroidogenesis: in silico analyses reveals tradeoffs between nominal target efficacy and robustness to cross-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villeneuve Daniel L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpreting proteomic and genomic data is a major challenge in predictive ecotoxicology that can be addressed by a systems biology approach. Mathematical modeling provides an organizational platform to consolidate protein dynamics with possible genomic regulation. Here, a model of ovarian steroidogenesis in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, (FHM is developed to evaluate possible transcriptional regulation of steroid production observed in microarray studies. Results The model was developed from literature sources, integrating key signaling components (G-protein and PKA activation with their ensuing effect on steroid production. The model properly predicted trajectory behavior of estradiol and testosterone when fish were exposed to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, but failed to predict the steroid hormone behavior occurring one week post-exposure as well as the increase in steroid levels when the stressor was removed. In vivo microarray data implicated three modes of regulation which may account for over-production of steroids during a depuration phase (when the stressor is removed: P450 enzyme up-regulation, inhibin down-regulation, and luteinizing hormone receptor up-regulation. Simulation studies and sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate each case as possible source of compensation to endocrine stress. Conclusions Simulation studies of the testosterone and estradiol response to regulation observed in microarray data supported the hypothesis that the FHM steroidogenesis network compensated for endocrine stress by modulating the sensitivity of the ovarian network to global cues coming from the hypothalamus and pituitary. Model predictions of luteinizing hormone receptor regulation were consistent with depuration and in vitro data. These results challenge the traditional approach to network elucidation in systems biology. Generally, the most sensitive interactions in a network are targeted for further

  16. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

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    Takahiro Teshima

    Full Text Available Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD, which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1, which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2, which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX, an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog's pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing's disease.

  17. Expression of Neuropeptide Y and Its Relationship with Molecular and Morphological Changes in Human Pituitary Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ruichao; Li, Mu; Chang, Binge; Chen, Laichao; Ma, Jingjian

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on molecular and histological changes in human pituitary adenomas. The localization of NPY and its expression at the protein, messenger RNA (mRNA), and receptor levels were investigated here in different subcategories of pituitary adenomas. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in all cases to assess expression of NPY. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to study the mRNA expression of NPY. NPY subcellular localization was observed using immunoelectron microscopy in cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and cell matrix in four of the six cases of pituitary adenoma. NPY protein expression was observed in 59.6% of 57 cases of pituitary adenoma and in 2 cases of pituitary hyperplasia. mRNA expression of NPY was observed in all 57 cases of pituitary adenoma and in 2 cases of pituitary hyperplasia. Significantly different levels of expression were observed across different subcategories of pituitary adenoma. mRNA expression of Y1R and Y2R was observed across all subcategories of pituitary adenomas, and a positive correlation was observed between NPY and Y2R. In conclusion, evidence is provided here for the expression of NPY and its receptors, Y1R and Y2R, in human pituitary adenoma, and the levels of expression were found to differ across different subcategories. Differences in expression of Y2R in human pituitary adenomas were found to have remarkable statistical significance.

  18. Pituitary-gonadal function in adolescent males born appropriate or small for gestational age with or without intrauterine growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Vielwerth, Signe; Larsen, Torben Kjeldgaard;

    2007-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is suggested to influence female pituitary-gonadal axis, but only a few studies have focused on male pituitary-gonadal function.......Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is suggested to influence female pituitary-gonadal axis, but only a few studies have focused on male pituitary-gonadal function....

  19. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

    1987-08-31

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p < 0.001). Competition for (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-(..beta..-..gamma..-imino)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables.

  20. The chicken pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of pituitary hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van P.; Janssens, K.; Pals, K.; Groef, De B.; Onagbesan, O.M.; Bruggeman, V.; Darras, V.M.; Denef, C.; Decuypere, E.

    2006-01-01

    Pit-1 is a pituitary-specific POU-domain DNA binding factor, which binds to and trans-activates promoters of growth hormone- (GH), prolactin- (PRL) and thyroid stimulating hormone-beta- (TSHbeta) encoding genes. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is located in the hypothalamus and stimulates TSH, G

  1. Cross-talk between non-genomic and genomic signalling pathways - Distinct effect profiles of environmental estrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional cross-talk after activation by 17β-estradiol (E2) has been studied in considerable detail, but comparatively little is known about the ways in which synthetic estrogen-like chemicals, so-called xenoestrogens, interfere with these signalling pathways. E2 can stimulate rapid, non-genomic signalling events, such as activation of the Src/Ras/Erk signalling pathway. We investigated how activation of this pathway by E2, the estrogenic environmental contaminants o,p'-DDT, β-HCH and p,p'-DDE, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) influences the expression of ER target genes, such as TFF1, ER, PR, BRCA1 and CCND1, and the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Despite commonalities in their estrogenicity as judged by cell proliferation assays, the environmental contaminants exhibited striking differences in their non-genomic and genomic signalling. The gene expression profiles of o,p'-DDT and β-HCH resembled the effects observed with E2. In the case of β-HCH this is surprising, considering its reported lack of affinity to the 'classical' ER. The expression profiles seen with p,p'-DDE showed some similarities with E2, but overall, p,p'-DDE was a fairly weak transcriptional inducer of TFF1, ER, PR, BRCA1 and CCND1. We observed distinct differences in the non-genomic signalling of the tested compounds. p,p'-DDE was unable to stimulate Src and Erk1/Erk2 activations. The effects of E2 on Src and Erk1/Erk2 phosphorylation were transient and weak when compared to EGF, but β-HCH induced strong and sustained activation of all tested kinases. Transcription of TFF1, ER, PR and BRCA1 by E2, o,p'-DDT and β-HCH could be suppressed partially by inhibiting the Src/Ras/Erk pathway with PD 98059. However, this was not seen with p,p'-DDE. Our investigations show that the cellular activities of estrogens and xenoestrogens are the result of a combination of extranuclear (non-genomic) and nuclear (genomic) events and highlight the need to take non

  2. Coordination of plant mitochondrial biogenesis: keeping pace with cellular requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina eWelchen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant mitochondria are complex organelles that carry out numerous metabolic processes related with the generation of energy for cellular functions and the synthesis and degradation of several compounds. Mitochondria are semiautonomous and dynamic organelles changing in shape, number and composition depending on tissue or developmental stage. The biogenesis of functional mitochondria requires the coordination of genes present both in the nucleus and the organelle. In addition, due to their central role, all processes held inside mitochondria must be finely coordinated with those in other organelles according to cellular demands. Coordination is achieved by transcriptional control of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins by specific transcription factors that recognize conserved elements in their promoter regions. In turn, the expression of most of these transcription factors is linked to developmental and environmental cues, according to the availability of nutrients, light-dark cycles and warning signals generated in response to stress conditions. Among the signals impacting in the expression of nuclear genes, retrograde signals that originate inside mitochondria help to adjust mitochondrial biogenesis to organelle demands. Adding more complexity, several nuclear encoded proteins are dual localized to mitochondria and either chloroplasts or the nucleus. Dual targeting might establish a crosstalk between the nucleus and cell organelles to ensure a fine coordination of cellular activities. In this article, we discuss how the different levels of coordination of mitochondrial biogenesis interconnect to optimize the function of the organelle according to both internal and external demands.

  3. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375

  4. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  5. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  6. Transcriptome dynamics and molecular cross-talk between bovine oocyte and its companion cumulus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looft C

    2011-01-01

    are involved in carbohydrate metabolism (ACO1, 2, molecular transport (GAPDH, GFPT1 and nucleic acid metabolism (CBS, NOS2, those over expressed in CCs + OO are involved in cellular growth and proliferation (FOS, GADD45A, cell cycle (HAS2, VEGFA, cellular development (AMD1, AURKA, DPP4 and gene expression (FOSB, TGFB2. Conclusion In conclusion, this study has generated large scale gene expression data from different oocyte and CCs samples that would provide insights into gene functions and interactions within and across different pathways that are involved in the maturation of bovine oocytes. Moreover, the presence or absence of oocyte and CC factors during bovine oocyte maturation can have a profound effect on transcript abundance of each cell types, thereby showing the prevailing molecular cross-talk between oocytes and their corresponding CCs.

  7. Characterization of thermal cross-talk in a MEMS-based thermopile detector array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Grabarnik, S.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    The spectral resolution of a MEMS-based IR microspectrometer critically depends on the thermal cross-talk between adjacent TE elements in the detector array. Thermal isolation between elements is realized by using bulk micromachining directly following CMOS processing. This paper reports on the char

  8. OPtimal backlight scanning for 3D crosstalk reduction in LCD TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Shu, Xiao; Jiao, Liangbao;

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a method to determine the optimal backlight scanning signals to minimize crosstalk for time-sequential stereoscopic 3D on LCD TV with active shutter glasses. The solution is obtained through optimization of the variables defined by a model of backlight scanning that considers...

  9. SiPM optical crosstalk amplification due to scintillator crystal: effects on timing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Alberto; Ferri, Alessandro; Tarolli, Alessandro; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    For a given photon detection efficiency (PDE), the primary, Poisson distributed, dark count rate of the detector (DCR0) is one of the most limiting factors affecting the timing resolution of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) in the scintillation light readout. If the effects of DCR0 are removed through a suitable baseline compensation algorithm or by cooling, it is possible to clearly observe another phenomenon that limits the PDE, and thus the timing resolution of the detector. It is caused by the optical crosstalk of the SiPM, which is significantly increased by the presence of the scintillator. In this paper, we describe this phenomenon, which is also easily observed from the reverse I-V curve of the device, and we relate it to the measured coincidence resolving time in 511 keV γ-ray measurements. We discuss its consequences on the SiPM design and, in particular, we observe that there is an optimal cell size, dependent on both SiPM and crystal parameters, that maximizes the PDE in presence of optical crosstalk. Finally, we report on a crosstalk simulator developed to study the phenomenon and we compare the simulation results obtained for different SiPM technologies, featuring different approaches to the reduction of the crosstalk.

  10. Effect of parallax distribution and crosstalk on visual comfort in parallax barrier autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2015-05-01

    Although autostereoscopic display is considered to be mainstream in the three-dimensional (3-D) display market for the near future, practical quality problems still exist due to various challenges such as the accommodation-vergence conflict and crosstalk. A number of studies have shown that these problems reduce the visual comfort and reliability of the perceived workload. We present two experiments for investigating the effect of parallax distribution, which affects the behavior of the accommodation and vergence responses and crosstalk on visual comfort in autostereoscopic display. We measured the subjective visual scores and perceived depth position for watching under various conditions that include foreground parallax, background parallax, and crosstalk levels. The results show that the viewers' comfort is significantly influenced by parallax distribution that induces a suitable conflict between the accommodation and vergence responses of the human visual system. Moreover, we confirm that crosstalk changes significantly affect visual comfort in parallax barrier autostereoscopic display. Consequently, the results can be used as guidelines to produce or adjust the 3-D image in accordance with the characteristics of parallax barrier autostereoscopic display.

  11. Acoustical cross-talk in row–column addressed 2-D transducer arrays for ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-01-01

    The acoustical cross-talk in row–column addressed 2-D transducer arrays for volumetric ultrasound imaging is investigated. Experimental results from a 2.7 MHz, λ/2-pitch capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array with 62 rows and 62 columns are presented and analyzed in the...

  12. Hormonal crosstalk for root development: a combined experimental and modelling perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith eLindsey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms and therefore they must adapt their growth and architecture to a changing environment. Understanding how hormones and genes interact to coordinate plant growth in a changing environment is a major challenge in developmental biology. Although a localized auxin concentration maximum in the root tip is important for root development, auxin concentration cannot change independently of multiple interacting hormones and genes. In this review, we discuss the experimental evidence showing that the POLARIS peptide of Arabidopsis plays an important role in hormonal crosstalk and root growth, and review the crosstalk between auxin and other hormones for root growth with and without osmotic stress. Moreover, we discuss that experimental evidence showing that, in root development, hormones and the associated regulatory and target genes form a network, in which relevant genes regulate hormone activities and hormones regulate gene expression. We further discuss how it is increasingly evident that mathematical modelling is a valuable tool for studying hormonal crosstalk. Therefore, a combined experimental and modelling study on hormonal crosstalk is important for elucidating the complexity of root development.

  13. Superconducting Quantum Interference Magnetometer for Large Multichannel Systems with Low Crosstalk Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoliere, A.; Granata, C.; Ruggiero, B.; Russo, M.

    Magnetometers based on Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) are widely employed in high sensitivity magnetometry. In particular, new multichannel systems for biomagnetic applications require many sensors which are very close to each other giving the crosstalk disturbance between the neighboring channel. Here, we present experimental results about a fully integrated dc-SQUID magnetometer, based on niobium technology, having a suitable design which allows to reduce crosstalk due to both the feedback coil and wires. The crosstalk level measurements relative to a particular arrangement of sensors are reported. In such configuration, four magnetometers are placed over a square board 30 mm in side with a distance between their sensor centers of 14 mm. The measurements have been performed in a 4He cryostat at T = 4.2 K in a flux-locked loop configuration using a readout electronics with a direct coupled scheme. The experimental data have shown a substantial reduction of crosstalk among neighboring sensors with respect to a traditional feedback coil. Furthermore, the field noise measurements have ensured that the new pickup and feedback coils design does not introduce any noise level degradation.

  14. Cross-Talk: The Role of Homophily and Elite Bias in Civic Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weare, Christopher; Musso, Juliet; Jun, Kyu-Nahm

    2009-01-01

    We examine the manner in which voluntary associations expose individuals to differing perspectives, or "cross-talk." Specifically we develop hypotheses based on the interactive roles of elite bias and homophily in structuring networks of democratic participation and test them on social network data of Los Angeles neighborhood councils. We find…

  15. Hybrid crosstalk aware Q-Factor analysis for selection of optical virtual private network connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.; Samantray, A. K.; Patra, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of physical layer impairments (PLIs) in high-speed optical virtual private network (OVPN) over wavelength-division multiplexing/ dense-wavelength division multiplexing network degrades the connection quality (CQ). The quality can be numerically expressed as the quality factor (Q-Factor) of the connection. The CQ can be further affected by the increasing demand of connections and data speed. It is important to have an efficient OVPN control manager (OVPNCM) to maintain the CQ. OVPNCM can ensure better quality of transmission to the OVPN clients. Traditional routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithms have less regards to the PLIs and cannot provide guaranteed OVPN connection (OVPNC) quality. In order to achieve a guaranteed CQ, we proposed a wavelength assignment (WA) scheme and a hybrid crosstalk model based on linear in-band and nonlinear four-wave mixing crosstalk. The performance of the proposed WA scheme with the hybrid crosstalk model is demonstrated. The results show that the proposed hybrid crosstalk model with WA scheme not only provides a guaranteed OVPNC, but also improves the OVPN performance in terms of blocking probability.

  16. A novel crosstalk between Alk7 and cGMP signaling differentially regulates brown adipocyte function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Balkow

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: We found a so far unknown crosstalk between cGMP and Alk7 signaling pathways. Tight regulation of Alk7 is required for efficient differentiation of brown adipocytes. Alk7 has differential effects on adipogenic differentiation and the development of the thermogenic program in brown adipocytes.

  17. Illuminating the Gap: Neuronal Cross-Talk within Sensory Ganglia and Persistent Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Rebecca P

    2016-09-01

    How primary sensory neurons contribute to persistent pain remains unclear. A novel imaging technique introduced here by Kim et al. (2016) in this issue of Neuron to view the activities of large numbers of ganglion neurons simultaneously analyzes the importance of neuronal cross-talk in pain transmission. PMID:27608756

  18. Another Armament in Gut Immunity: Lymphotoxin-Mediated Crosstalk between Innate Lymphoid and Dendritic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Spits

    2011-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are novel players in innate immunity. Tumanov et al. (Tumanov et al., 2011) demonstrate that crosstalk between ILCs and dendritic cells involving membrane-bound lymphotoxin in ILCs and its receptor is critical for protection against colitogenic bacteria

  19. Pituitary tumors in childhood: update of diagnosis, treatment and molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Margaret F; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2008-04-01

    Pituitary tumors are rare in childhood and adolescence, with a reported prevalence of up to one per 1 million children. Only 2-6% of surgically treated pituitary tumors occur in children. Although pituitary tumors in children are almost never malignant and hormonal secretion is rare, these tumors may result in significant morbidity. Tumors within the pituitary fossa are mainly of two types: craniopharyngiomas and adenomas. Craniopharyngiomas cause symptoms by compressing normal pituitary, causing hormonal deficiencies and producing mass effects on surrounding tissues and the brain; adenomas produce a variety of hormonal conditions such as hyperprolactinemia, Cushing disease and acromegaly or gigantism. Little is known about the genetic causes of sporadic lesions, which comprise the majority of pituitary tumors, but in children, more frequently than in adults, pituitary tumors may be a manifestation of genetic conditions such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, familial isolated pituitary adenoma and McCune-Albright syndrome. The study of pituitary tumorigenesis in the context of these genetic syndromes has advanced our knowledge of the molecular basis of pituitary tumors and may lead to new therapeutic developments. PMID:18416659

  20. The forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is necessary for pituitary luteinizing hormone expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbel, Jason H; Patterson, Elizabeth M; Owusu, Sarah A; Kabat, Brock E; Jung, Deborah O; Simmons, Jasmine; Hopkins, Torin; Ellsworth, Buffy S

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e)14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 null mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 null mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation. PMID:23284914

  1. Human pituitary tissue secretes a potent growth factor for chondrocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, S; Friesen, H G

    1986-01-01

    We report the secretion from human pituitary tumor fragments in organ culture of a potent mitogen for chondrocyte proliferation. Primary human pituitary cell and organ cultures were established from pituitary fragments obtained from patients with acromegaly, prolactinomas, and nonfunctional adenomas. The conditioned culture medium contained a mitogenic factor(s) that stimulated rabbit fetal chondrocyte proliferation, causing up to an 8-fold increase in cell number when added to Ham's F-10 medium in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Blood leaking into the surgical field after the adenomectomy is known to contain very high concentrations of pituitary hormones. Serum samples, obtained from this venous "ooze" collected at the site of pituitary surgery, also were found to contain chondrocyte growth-promoting activity. Some venous serum samples stimulated chondrocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner down to a 1:10 dilution of 1 microliter serum, indicating that the material being secreted was very potent indeed. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and analytical gel isoelectric focusing of culture media or serum samples from the pituitary fossa demonstrated that the growth factor secreted from the pituitary tumor fragments as well as from the venous serum is similar, if not identical, to chondrocyte growth factor (mol wt, 43,000; pI 7.6-7.9) purified from human pituitaries collected at autopsy. These results suggest that the chondrocyte growth-promoting factor(s) may not only be secreted by pituitary tumor fragments but by normal human pituitary tissue as well.

  2. Pituitary apoplexy presenting as isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis : two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Jin; Joo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Tae-Sun; Seo, Bo-Ra

    2009-02-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome caused by an acute ischemic or hemorrhagic vascular accident involving a pituitary adenoma or an adjacent pituitary gland. Pituitary apoplexy may be associated with a variety of neurological and endocrinological signs and symptoms. However, isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis as the presenting sign of pituitary apoplexy is very rare. We describe two cases of pituitary apoplexy presenting as sudden-onset unilateral ptosis and diplopia. In one case, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass in the pituitary fossa with signs of hemorrhage, upward displacement of the optic chiasm, erosion of the sellar floor and invasion of the right cavernous sinus. In the other case, MRI showed a large area of insufficient enhancement in the anterior pituitary consistent with pituitary infarction or Sheehan's syndrome. We performed neurosurgical decompression via a transsphenoidal approach. Both patients showed an uneventful recovery. Both cases of isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis completely resolved during the early postoperative period. We suggest that pituitary apoplexy should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis and that prompt neurosurgical decompression should be considered for the preservation of third cranial nerve function. PMID:19274125

  3. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Pituitary Adenomas by Integrating Analysis of Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas, monoclonal in origin, are the most common intracranial neoplasms. Altered gene expression as well as somatic mutations is detected frequently in pituitary adenomas. The purpose of this study was to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs and biological processes during tumor formation of pituitary adenomas. We performed an integrated analysis of publicly available GEO datasets of pituitary adenomas to identify DEGs between pituitary adenomas and normal control (NC tissues. Gene function analysis including Gene Ontology (GO, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and protein-protein interaction (PPI networks analysis was conducted to interpret the biological role of those DEGs. In this study we detected 3994 DEGs (2043 upregulated and 1951 downregulated in pituitary adenoma through an integrated analysis of 5 different microarray datasets. Gene function analysis revealed that the functions of those DEGs were highly correlated with the development of pituitary adenoma. This integrated analysis of microarray data identified some genes and pathways associated with pituitary adenoma, which may help to understand the pathology underlying pituitary adenoma and contribute to the successful identification of therapeutic targets for pituitary adenoma.

  4. Pituitary dysfunction in adult patients after cranial irradiation for head and nasopharyngeal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Pituitary insufficiency after radiotherapy in the hypothalamic pituitary region is a well-known complication. However, endocrine assessments are not incorporated in the follow-up after cranial irradiation for head and neck tumours. Aim of the study: To evaluate pituitary function in patients cranially irradiated for non-pituitary tumours. Patients and methods: Evaluation of pituitary function in all available patients treated at our centre with cranial radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. Results: We included 80 patients. Forty patients were treated for cerebral tumours, 15 for nasopharyngeal tumours, and 25 for different tumours like meningioma or cerebral metastasis. Mean age was 47.5 (18.6–89.7) years. Mean radiation dose delivered at the pituitary region was 56.27 Gy (40.0–70.0). Pituitary insufficiency was present in 16 patients within 2 years after irradiation 23/49 patients (47%) after 5 years and 27/45 (60%) after 10 years and 31/35 patients (89%) after 15 years. Conclusion: Pituitary insufficiency is highly prevalent in adult patients treated with cranial radiotherapy for head and nasopharyngeal tumours. These prevalence rates are comparable to those observed after radiotherapy for pituitary tumours. Because hormone replacement of endocrine deficits improves quality of life and prevents potential severe complications, such as Addisonian crises, periodical evaluation of pituitary function is advocated

  5. Effects of trilostane treatment on the pituitary-adrenocortical and renin-aldosterone axis in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galac, S.; Buijtels, J.J.C.W.M.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Vet J. 2010 Jan;183(1):75-80. Epub 2008 Nov 29. Effects of trilostane on the pituitary-adrenocortical and renin-aldosterone axis in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism. Galac S, Buijtels JJ, Mol JA, Kooistra HS. Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary M

  6. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  7. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  8. Admissible Crosstalk Limits in a Two Colour Interferometers for Plasma Density Diagnostics. A Reduction Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M.; Esteban, L.; Kornejew, P.; Hirsch, M.

    2008-03-01

    Mid Infrared (10,6 μm CO2 laser lines) interferometers as a plasma density diagnostic must use two-colour systems with superposed interferometers beams at different wavelengths in order to cope with mechanical vibrations and drifts. They require a highly precise phase difference measurement where all sources of error must be reduced. One of these is the cross-talk between the signals which creates nonlinear spurious periodic mixing products. The reason may be either optical or electrical crosstalk both resulting in similar perturbations of the measurement. In the TJII interferometer a post-processing algorithm is used to reduce the crosstalk in the data. This post-processing procedure is not appropriate for very long pulses, as it is the case for in new tokamak (ITER) or stellarator (W7-X) projects. In both cases an on-line reduction process is required or—even better—the unwanted signal components must be reduced in the system itself CO2 laser interferometers which as the second wavelength use the CO laser line (5,3 μm), may apply a single common detector sensitive to both wavelengths and separate the corresponding IF signals by appropriate bandpass filters. This reduces complexity of the optical arrangement and avoids a possible source of vibration induced phase noise as both signals share the same beam path. To avoid cross talk in this arrangement filtering must be appropriate. In this paper we present calculations to define the limits of crosstalk for a desired plasma density precision. A crosstalk reduction algorithm has been developed and is applied to experimental results from TJ-II pulses. Results from a single detector arrangement as under investigation for the CO2/CO laser interferometer developed for W7-X are presented.

  9. Progress in the diagnosis and classification of pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis V Syro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are common neoplasms. Their classification is based upon size, invasion of adjacent structures, sporadic or familial cases, biochemical activity, clinical manifestations, morphological characteristics, response to treatment and recurrence. Although they are considered benign tumors, some of them are difficult to treat due to their tendency to recur, despite standardized treatment. Functional tumors present other challenges for normalizing their biochemical activity. Novel approaches for early diagnosis as well as different perspectives on classification may help to identify subgroups of patients with similar characteristics, creating opportunities to match each patient with the best personalized treatment option. In this paper we present the progress in the diagnosis and classification of different subgroups of patients with pituitary tumors that may be managed with specific considerations according to their tumor subtype.

  10. Sustained remission of Cushing's disease with mitotane and pituitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low doses of mitotane were given orally to 36 patients with Cushing's disease, concurrently with or after pituitary cobalt irradiation. Clinical and biochemical remission occurred in 29. The response to treatment occurred early in 17 patients and late in 12. The different pattern of response to mitotane was not related to the dose given or to its serum level. Early biochemical indicators of adrenal suppression with mitotane were a sharp decrease in adrenal response to the infusion of ACTH and in plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Although mitotane was given together with pituitary irradiation, initial remission was due mainly to the adrenal effect of mitotane. Plasma ACTH levels were still elevated when cortisol had returned to normal. In seventeen of the 29 patients who responded to treatment drug therapy has been discontinued, and they remain in remission of Cushing's syndrome. Side-effects have been dose dependent, with anorexia, nausea, decreased memory, and gynecomastia in men being the commonest

  11. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar; Banerjee, Swati; Kelly, Daniel F; Lee, Phillip D K

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism, a condition of endogenous growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion prior to epiphyseal closure, is a rare condition. In the adult condition of GH excess, acromegaly, the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) have been reported, with resolution following normalization of GH levels. We report the case of a 16-year-old male with pituitary gigantism due to a large invasive suprasellar adenoma who presented with T2DM and DKA. Despite surgical de-bulking, radiotherapy and medical treatment with cabergoline and pegvisomant, GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels remained elevated. However, the T2DM and recurrent DKA were successfully managed with metformin and low-dose glargine insulin, respectively. We review the pathophysiology of T2DM and DKA in growth hormone excess and available treatment options. PMID:17629784

  12. Gonadal steroid hormones and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J; Weiser, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, prior to generating an appropriate response is the animal's reproductive status. Thus, PVN neurons express androgen and estrogen receptors and receive input from sites that also express these receptors. Consequently, changes in reproduction and gonadal steroid levels modulate the stress response and this underlies sex differences in HPA axis function. This review examines the make up of the HPA axis and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the interactions between the two that should be considered when exploring normal and pathological responses to environmental stressors. PMID:24246855

  13. Heterogeneity of secretory granules of silent pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1988-01-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas were compared with hormonally active tumors taking into account the size, number, and ultrastructural characteristics of secretory granules (SG). The study group (a total of 79 primary pituitary adenomas) comprised 27 silent, 21 growth hormone (GH)-producing-, 16 prolactin...... (PRL)-producing-, 5 GH-PRL-producing- and 10 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenomas. The SG of silent adenomas were significantly smaller than SG in endocrine active adenomas. All hormonally inactive tumors also contained small (mean, 94 nm) specific cytoplasmic granules, designated...... "silent adenoma granules" (SIG). The fine structural features of the SIG included: a flocculent, granular material occupying an eccentric position in a larger vesicle limited by a double membrane. In the silent adenomas this particular granule was present in up to 90% of the adenoma cells and constituted...

  14. Electrophoretic analyses of proteins transported to the rat posterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [35S] cysteine, [3H] methionine, or [3H] fucose were injected into the supraoptic nuclei (SON) of rats, and the labelled proteins that were transported to and accumulated in the posterior pituitary 24 h post-injection were analyzed electrophoretically. The transported, labelled proteins which were soluble in 0.1 M-HCl were primarily of low molecular weight (about 12,000 on SDS gels). However, the selectivity of labelling of these proteins by the three different labelled precursors could be revealed by isoelectric focusing. The 0.1 M-HCl insoluble labelled proteins, presumably reflecting membrane proteins transported from the SON to the pituitary, were more diverse and generally of higher molecular weight (> 43,000 on SDS gels). (author)

  15. The incidentaloma of the pituitary gland: Is neurosurgery required

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reincke, M.; Allolio, B.; Saeger, W.; Menzel, J.; Winkelmann, W. (Univ. of Cologne (West Germany))

    1990-05-23

    The authors describe a series of 18 patients with an intrasellar mass incidentally discovered by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The average size of the mass was 13 mm, with a range from 5 to 25 mm. Initial ophthalmologic examination revealed bitemporal hemianopia in 2 patients. Results of routine endocrine testing showed partial hypopituitarism in 5 patients and growth hormone hypersecretion without signs and symptoms of acromegaly in 1 patient. Four patients underwent neurosurgery. Histologically, one chondroid chordoma and three pituitary adenomas were found. In the remaining 14 patients treated conservatively, repeated computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no significant change in tumor size at the time of follow-up. The results suggest that the incidentaloma of the pituitary gland is a benign condition that does not necessarily require neurosurgical intervention.

  16. Radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas; Radiocirurgia nos adenomas hipofisarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Douglas Guedes de; Salvajoli, Joao Victor; Canteras, Miguel Montes; Cecilio, Soraya A. Jorge [Instituto de Radiocirurgia Neurologica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dougguedes@uol.com.br

    2006-12-15

    Pituitary adenomas represent nearly 15% of all intracranial tumors. Multimodal treatment includes microsurgery, medical management and radiotherapy. Microsurgery is the primary recommendation for nonfunctioning and most of functioning adenomas, except for prolactinomas that are usually managed with dopamine agonist drugs. However, about 30% of patients require additional treatment after microsurgery for recurrent or residual tumors. In these cases, fractionated radiation therapy has been the traditional treatment. More recently, radiosurgery has been established as a treatment option. Radiosurgery allows the delivery of prescribed dose with high precision strictly to the target and spares the surrounding tissues. Therefore, the risks of hypopituitarism, visual damage and vasculopathy are significantly lower. Furthermore, the latency of the radiation response after radiosurgery is substantially shorter than that of fractionated radiotherapy. The goal of this review is to define the efficacy, safety and role of radiosurgery for treatment of pituitary adenomas and to present the preliminary results of our institution. (author)

  17. Growth hormone receptor expression and function in pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lene R; Kristiansen, Mikkel T; Rasmussen, Lars M;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Hypopituitarism, in particular GH deficiency, is prevalent in patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) both before and after surgery. The factors regulating the growth of pituitary adenomas in general and residual tumour tissue in particular are not...... transcription 5) phosphorylation was measured by Western blot analysis as an index of GHR signalling; cell proliferation was evaluated by [H3]-thymidine incorporation and glycoprotein hormone production analysed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: All adenomas investigated expressed the GHR, but there was no...... detection of STAT5 phosphorylation. Overall, GH and IGF-I administration did not significantly stimulate cell proliferation in vitro, although some individual adenomas exhibited a proliferative response to various extents. GH also did not significantly influence glycoprotein hormone secretion in vitro...

  18. Recurrence of chromophobe pituitary adenomas after operation and postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of recurrence is reported in a prospective study of 56 patients (28 men, 28 women) with large chromophobe pituitary adenoma (with or without hyperprolactinemia). The surgical approach was transfrontal in 44 and transseptospehnoidal in 12 patients. Cryoapplication was combined with the transsphenoidal operation. All but one patient received postopertive pituitary irradiation. Altogether, 11 (20 %) clinical relapses (10 men) occurred between 0.5 and 6 years after the transfrontal operation. Patients that relapsed had had larger tumors than those remaining in remission. Occurence of the tumors appeared with a deterioration of the visual field defect in 9 patients. There were no differences in the degrees of hypopituitarism in patients who relapsed as compared to patients remaining in remission. (author)

  19. Recurrence of chromophobe pituitary adenomas after operation and postoperative radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, J.; Pelkonen, R. (Third Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland); Grahne, B. (Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University oF Helsinki, finland); Valtonen, S. (Department of Neurosurgery, University of Helsinki, Finland)

    1982-01-01

    The rate of recurrence is reported in a prospective study of 56 patients (28 men, 28 women) with large chromophobe pituitary adenoma (with or without hyperprolactinemia). The surgical approach was transfrontal in 44 and transseptospehnoidal in 12 patients. Cryoapplication was combined with the transsphenoidal operation. All but one patient received postopertive pituitary irradiation. Altogether, 11 (20 %) clinical relapses (10 men) occurred between 0.5 and 6 years after the transfrontal operation. Patients that relapsed had had larger tumors than those remaining in remission. Occurence of the tumors appeared with a deterioration of the visual field defect in 9 patients. There were no differences in the degrees of hypopituitarism in patients who relapsed as compared to patients remaining in remission.

  20. ELEVATED SOLUBLE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR LEVEL IN PITUITARY ADENOMA AND CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-guo Kong; Zu-yuan Ren; Chang-bao Su; Ren-zhi Wang; Wen-bing Ma; Wei Lian

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of the soluble epidermal growth factor receptor (sEGFR/sErbB1) level in the peripheral blood in development, invasiveness, apoplexy of each type of pituitary tumor.Methods The sEGFR level was determined in peripheral serum from 190 patients with pituitary diseases by enzyme linked immunosobent assay. The sEGFR levels were measured in 10 pituitary Rathke's pouch, 18 pituitary hyperplasia, 161pituitary adenomas including 30 microadenomas, 83 large adenomas, 48 giant adenomas, 1 pituitary carcinoma, and 28 healthy controls.Results In the patients with pituitary hyperplasia, microadenoma, large adenoma, giant adenoma, and pituitary carcinoma, the sEGFR level was 188.92 + 32.62, 209.83 + 19.01,333.20 + 69.33, 405.85 + 37.38, and 617.45 fmol/mL independently. They were all significantly higher than patients with pituitary Rathke's pouch (156.78 + 18.24 fmol/mL, P < 0.001)and healthy control group (159.11 +40.50 fmol/mL, P < 0.05). The sEGFR level in pituitary carcinoma was higher than pituitary adenoma. In patients with pituitary adenoma, the sEGFR level was positive correlated to the size of pituitary adenomas (r = 0.998), the significant difference was observed for the sEGFR level in each group of the patients with pituitary adenomas (P < 0.001). Furthermore, in patients with pituitary ACTH-secrefing microadenomas, the serum sEGFR levels in invasiveness (295.00+77.80 fmol/mL) was higher than that in non-invasiveness (210.60+ 16.4 fmol/mL, P < 0.05). In patients with pituitary ACTH-secreting, PRL-secreting, GH-secreting, and non-functioning large adenomas, the serum sEGFR levels in invasiveness (407.86 + 28.50, 399.25 + 30.10, 386.00 + 13.08, and 369.25 + 36.70 fmol/mL) was higher than that in non-invasiveness (335.25 +63.49, 300.64+47.57, 297.00+61.93, and 269.30+25.68 fmol/mL) respectively (P < 0.05). In patients with invasive pituitary PRL-secreting, GH-secreting, and non-functioning giant adenomas, the serum sEGFR levels not