WorldWideScience

Sample records for cellular level euclidean

  1. Geostatistical analysis of groundwater level using Euclidean and non-Euclidean distance metrics and variable variogram fitting criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Panagiota G.; Karatzas, George P.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Corzo Perez, Gerald A.

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater level is an important information in hydrological modelling. Geostatistical methods are often employed to map the free surface of an aquifer. In geostatistical analysis using Kriging techniques the selection of the optimal variogram model is very important for the optimal method performance. This work compares three different criteria, the least squares sum method, the Akaike Information Criterion and the Cressie's Indicator, to assess the theoretical variogram that fits to the experimental one and investigates the impact on the prediction results. Moreover, five different distance functions (Euclidean, Minkowski, Manhattan, Canberra, and Bray-Curtis) are applied to calculate the distance between observations that affects both the variogram calculation and the Kriging estimator. Cross validation analysis in terms of Ordinary Kriging is applied by using sequentially a different distance metric and the above three variogram fitting criteria. The spatial dependence of the observations in the tested dataset is studied by fitting classical variogram models and the Matérn model. The proposed comparison analysis performed for a data set of two hundred fifty hydraulic head measurements distributed over an alluvial aquifer that covers an area of 210 km2. The study area is located in the Prefecture of Drama, which belongs to the Water District of East Macedonia (Greece). This area was selected in terms of hydro-geological data availability and geological homogeneity. The analysis showed that a combination of the Akaike information Criterion for the variogram fitting assessment and the Brays-Curtis distance metric provided the most accurate cross-validation results. The Power-law variogram model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The aforementioned approach for the specific dataset in terms of the Ordinary Kriging method improves the prediction efficiency in comparison to the classical Euclidean distance metric. Therefore, maps of the spatial

  2. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in rat...... pancreatic alpha-cells and somatotrophs. We found a pharmacological dissociation between the actions on KATP channels and exocytosis and suggest that compounds that, unlike repaglinide, have direct stimulatory effects on exocytosis in somatotrophs and alpha- and beta-cells, such as sulphonylureas...

  3. Optical clearing at cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Bykov, Alexander V.; Tuorila, Juho; Haapalainen, Tomi; Karmenyan, Artashes V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-07-01

    Strong light scattering in tissues and blood reduces the usability of many optical techniques. By reducing scattering, optical clearing enables deeper light penetration and improves resolution in several optical imaging applications. We demonstrate the usage of optical tweezers and elastic light scattering to study optical clearing [one of the major mechanisms-matching of refractive indices (RIs)] at the single particle and cell level. We used polystyrene spheres and human red blood cells (RBCs) as samples and glycerol or glucose water solutions as clearing agents. Optical tweezers kept single microspheres and RBCs in place during the measurement of light scattering patterns. The results show that optical clearing reduces the scattering cross section and increases g. Glucose also decreased light scattering from a RBC. Optical clearing affected the anisotropy factor g of 23.25-μm polystyrene spheres, increasing it by 0.5% for an RI change of 2.2% (20% glycerol) and 0.3% for an RI change of 1.1% (13% glucose).

  4. Cellular-based sea level gauge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.

    , and cellular modem are mounted on the top portion of this structure. The pressure sensor and the logger are continuously powered on, and their electrical current consumption is 30 and 15 mA respectively. The cellular modem consumes 15 mA and 250 mA during... standby and data transmission modes, respectively. The pressure sensor located below the low-tide level measures the hydrostatic pressure of the overlying water layer. An indigenously designed and developed microprocessor-based data logger interrogates...

  5. Euclidean position in Euclidean 2-orbifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Parejo, María del Carmen; Márquez Pérez, Alberto; Valenzuela Muñoz, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    Intuitively, a set of sites on a surface is in Euclidean position if points are so close to each other that planar algorithms can be easily adapted in order to solve most of the classical problems in Computational Geometry. In this work we formalize a definition of the term “Euclidean position” for a relevant class of metric spaces, the Euclidean 2-orbifolds, and present methods to compute whether a set of sites has this property. We also show the relation between the convex hull of a point s...

  6. Prodrug Approach for Increasing Cellular Glutathione Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cacciatore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced glutathione (GSH is the most abundant non-protein thiol in mammalian cells and the preferred substrate for several enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant defense. It plays an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. GSH deficiency has been observed in aging and in a wide range of pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders and cystic fibrosis (CF, as well as in several viral infections. Use of GSH as a therapeutic agent is limited because of its unfavorable biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Several reports have provided evidence for the use of GSH prodrugs able to replenish intracellular GSH levels. This review discusses different strategies for increasing GSH levels by supplying reversible bioconjugates able to cross the cellular membrane more easily than GSH and to provide a source of thiols for GSH synthesis.

  7. Euclidean geometry and transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dodge, Clayton W

    1972-01-01

    This introduction to Euclidean geometry emphasizes transformations, particularly isometries and similarities. Suitable for undergraduate courses, it includes numerous examples, many with detailed answers. 1972 edition.

  8. Spacetime and Euclidean Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, D R; Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the "spacetime Pythagoras theorem".

  9. Spacetime and Euclidean geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2006-04-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.

  10. Determining the Threshold Levels of Economic Security of the Region’s Territorial Systems on the Basis of Models of Discriminant Analysis and Euclidean Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilko Andriy D.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to highlight the results of the analysis of existing approaches to statement and solution of problems of evaluating the economic security level of the region in the context of its territorial systems, and develop the author’s own scientific and methodical approach to evaluating the economic security level of the region’s territorial systems and modeling its threshold values on the basis of discriminant analysis and Euclidean distance. In view of the available statistical information, taking into account the results of our own previous studies of the problematic of economic security management, there calculated the integral index of economic security for territorial systems of the region, as well as the index of social tension in the territorial systems of the region, which became the basis for the development of discriminant models of determining security threshold levels. The analysis of the results obtained after using the discriminant models as well as models developed on the basis of the analysis of the weighted Euclidean distance has shown that they are comparable and complementary in their nature. In other words, the proposed methodologies can be successfully used in the practice of formulating strategies and target programs of regional development.

  11. Methods for euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Byer, Owen; Smeltzer, Deirdre L

    2010-01-01

    Euclidean plane geometry is one of the oldest and most beautiful topics in mathematics. Instead of carefully building geometries from axiom sets, this book uses a wealth of methods to solve problems in Euclidean geometry. Many of these methods arose where existing techniques proved inadequate. In several cases, the new ideas used in solving specific problems later developed into independent areas of mathematics. This book is primarily a geometry textbook, but studying geometry in this way will also develop students' appreciation of the subject and of mathematics as a whole. For instance, despite the fact that the analytic method has been part of mathematics for four centuries, it is rarely a tool a student considers using when faced with a geometry problem. Methods for Euclidean Geometry explores the application of a broad range of mathematical topics to the solution of Euclidean problems.

  12. Cellular-level surgery using nano robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Xi, Ning; Patterson, Kevin Charles; Qu, Chengeng; Lai, King Wai Chiu

    2012-12-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a popular instrument for studying the nano world. AFM is naturally suitable for imaging living samples and measuring mechanical properties. In this article, we propose a new concept of an AFM-based nano robot that can be applied for cellular-level surgery on living samples. The nano robot has multiple functions of imaging, manipulation, characterizing mechanical properties, and tracking. In addition, the technique of tip functionalization allows the nano robot the ability for precisely delivering a drug locally. Therefore, the nano robot can be used for conducting complicated nano surgery on living samples, such as cells and bacteria. Moreover, to provide a user-friendly interface, the software in this nano robot provides a "videolized" visual feedback for monitoring the dynamic changes on the sample surface. Both the operation of nano surgery and observation of the surgery results can be simultaneously achieved. This nano robot can be easily integrated with extra modules that have the potential applications of characterizing other properties of samples such as local conductance and capacitance.

  13. Non-Local Euclidean Medians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Singer, Amit

    2012-11-01

    In this letter, we note that the denoising performance of Non-Local Means (NLM) can be improved at large noise levels by replacing the mean by the Euclidean median. We call this new denoising algorithm the Non-Local Euclidean Medians (NLEM). At the heart of NLEM is the observation that the median is more robust to outliers than the mean. In particular, we provide a simple geometric insight that explains why NLEM performs better than NLM in the vicinity of edges, particularly at large noise levels. NLEM can be efficiently implemented using iteratively reweighted least squares, and its computational complexity is comparable to that of NLM. We provide some preliminary results to study the proposed algorithm and to compare it with NLM.

  14. The non-Euclidean revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    1986-01-01

    How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America. "Trudeau meets the challenge of reaching a broad audience in clever ways...(The book) is a good addition to our literature o...

  15. Non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bonola, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This is an excellent historical and mathematical view by a renowned Italian geometer of the geometries that have risen from a rejection of Euclid's parallel postulate. Students, teachers and mathematicians will find here a ready reference source and guide to a field that has now become overwhelmingly important.Non-Euclidean Geometry first examines the various attempts to prove Euclid's parallel postulate-by the Greeks, Arabs, and mathematicians of the Renaissance. Then, ranging through the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, it considers the forerunners and founders of non-Euclidean geometry, such

  16. Introductory non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Henry Parker

    1963-01-01

    This fine and versatile introduction begins with the theorems common to Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry, and then it addresses the specific differences that constitute elliptic and hyperbolic geometry. 1901 edition.

  17. Non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kulczycki, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This accessible approach features two varieties of proofs: stereometric and planimetric, as well as elementary proofs that employ only the simplest properties of the plane. A short history of geometry precedes a systematic exposition of the principles of non-Euclidean geometry.Starting with fundamental assumptions, the author examines the theorems of Hjelmslev, mapping a plane into a circle, the angle of parallelism and area of a polygon, regular polygons, straight lines and planes in space, and the horosphere. Further development of the theory covers hyperbolic functions, the geometry of suff

  18. Euclidean shortest paths

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Fajie

    2011-01-01

    This unique text/reference reviews algorithms for the exact or approximate solution of shortest-path problems, with a specific focus on a class of algorithms called rubberband algorithms. Discussing each concept and algorithm in depth, the book includes mathematical proofs for many of the given statements. Topics and features: provides theoretical and programming exercises at the end of each chapter; presents a thorough introduction to shortest paths in Euclidean geometry, and the class of algorithms called rubberband algorithms; discusses algorithms for calculating exact or approximate ESPs i

  19. Analysis in Euclidean space

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Developed for an introductory course in mathematical analysis at MIT, this text focuses on concepts, principles, and methods. Its introductions to real and complex analysis are closely formulated, and they constitute a natural introduction to complex function theory.Starting with an overview of the real number system, the text presents results for subsets and functions related to Euclidean space of n dimensions. It offers a rigorous review of the fundamentals of calculus, emphasizing power series expansions and introducing the theory of complex-analytic functions. Subsequent chapters cover seq

  20. Three-level description of the domino cellular automaton

    CERN Document Server

    Czechowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the approach of kinetic theory of gases, a three-level description (microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic) of cellular automaton is presented. To provide an analytical treatment a simple domino cellular automaton with avalanches was constructed. Formulas concerning exact relations for density, clusters, avalanches and other parameters in an equilibrium state were derived. It appears that some relations are approximately valid for deviations from the equilibrium, so the adequate Ito equation could be constructed. The equation provides the time evolution description of some variable on the macroscopic level. The results also suggest a motive for applying of the procedure of construction of the Ito equation (from time series data) to natural time series.

  1. Ideas of Space - Euclidean, Non-Euclidean, and Relativistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeremy

    1989-09-01

    Now in a revised and expanded new edition, this volume chronologically traces the evolution of Euclidean, non-Euclidean, and relativistic theories regarding the shape of the universe. A unique, highly readable, and entertaining account, the book assumes no special mathematical knowledge. It reviews the failed classical attempts to prove the parallel postulate and provides coverage of the role of Gauss, Lobachevskii, and Bolyai in setting the foundations of modern differential geometry, which laid the groundwork for Einstein's theories of special and general relativity. This updated account includes a new chapter on Islamic contributions to this area, as well as additional information on gravitation, the nature of space and black holes.

  2. Euclidean Epstein-Glaser renormalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Kai J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2009-03-15

    In the framework of perturbative Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (pAQFT) I give a general construction of so-called 'Euclidean time-ordered products', i.e. algebraic versions of the Schwinger functions, for scalar quantum eld theories on spaces of Euclidean signature. This is done by generalizing the recursive construction of time-ordered products by Epstein and Glaser, originally formulated for quantum field theories on Minkowski space (MQFT). An essential input of Epstein-Glaser renormalization is the causal structure of Minkowski space. The absence of this causal structure in the Euclidean framework makes it necessary to modify the original construction of Epstein and Glaser at two points. First, the whole construction has to be performed with an only partially defined product on (interaction-) functionals. This is due to the fact that the fundamental solutions of the Helmholtz operator (-{delta}+m{sup 2}) of EQFT have a unique singularity structure, i.e. they are unique up to a smooth part. Second, one needs to (re-)introduce a (rather natural) 'Euclidean causality' condition for the recursion of Epstein and Glaser to be applicable. (orig.)

  3. Electrochemical Biochip for Drug Screening At Cellular Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yu [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Cui Huiang [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Ye Jianshan [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chong Serchoong [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Lim Titmeng [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Sheu Fwushan [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Hui Wingcheong [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

    2006-04-01

    Drug screening at cellular level has becomes an attractive field of research. Different researchers have tried to record cellular response to drugs by electrical or optical approach using both invasive and non-invasive methods. Silicon-based microelectrode integrated microchips are useful tools for in situ temporal recording of neurotransmitter releasing from neural cells. A microfabricated electrochemical biochip is presented in this paper. Using dopaminergic cells grown on the chip, the dopamine excytosis can be electrochemical amperomatric detected non-invasively from drug incubated dopaminegic cells by the microelectrode integrated on chip. This silicon-based electrochemical chip has been designed with an electrode array located on the cell culture chamber bottom. Each electrode is individually electrical controlled. MN9D and PC12 dopaminergic cell lines have been demonstrated on this chip for drug effects study. This silicon-based electrochemical microchip provides a non-invasive, in situ, temporal detection of dopamine exocytosis from dopaminegic cells, and holds the potential for applications in studying the mechanisms of dopamine exocytosis and drug screening. It is also extendable for other cell culture and drug effects study.

  4. Cellular chromophores and signaling in low level light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.

    2007-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light (LLLT) for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In recent years major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms that operate at the cellular and tissue levels during LLLT. Mitochondria are thought to be the main site for the initial effects of light and specifically cytochrome c oxidase that has absorption peaks in the red and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum matches the action spectra of LLLT effects. The discovery that cells employ nitric oxide (NO) synthesized in the mitochondria by neuronal nitric oxide synthase, to regulate respiration by competitive binding to the oxygen binding of cytochrome c oxidase, now suggests how LLLT can affect cell metabolism. If LLLT photodissociates inhibitory NO from cytochrome c oxidase, this would explain increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction and prevention of apoptosis, stimulation of angiogenesis, increase of blood flow and induction of transcription factors. In

  5. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo; Broek, van den Egon; Kittler, J.; Petrou, M.; Nixon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation is introduced, starting from the inverse of the distance transformation. The prohibitive computational cost of a naive implementation of traditional Euclidean Distance Transformation, is tackled by three operations: restriction of both the number o

  6. On Embeddings of Tori in Euclidean Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matija CENCELJ; Du(s)an REPOV(S)

    2005-01-01

    Using the relation between the set of embeddings of tori into Euclidean spaces modulo ambient isotopies and the homotopy groups of Stiefel manifolds, we prove new results on embeddings of tori into Euclidean spaces.

  7. On Euclidean designs and the potential energy

    CERN Document Server

    Miezaki, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    We study Euclidean designs from the viewpoint of the potential energy. For a finite set in Euclidean space, We formulate a linear programming bound for the potential energy by applying harmonic analysis on a sphere. We also introduce the concept of strong Euclidean designs from the viewpoint of the linear programming bound, and we give a Fisher type inequality for strong Euclidean designs. A finite set on Euclidean space is called a Euclidean a-code if any distinct two points in the set are separated at least by a. As a corollary of the linear programming bound, we give a method to determine an upper bound on the cardinalities of Euclidean a-codes on concentric spheres of given radii. Similarly we also give a method to determine a lower bound on the cardinalities of Euclidean t-designs as an analogue of the linear programming bound.

  8. Euclidean Circles and Their Modular Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1990-01-01

    Shows a series of Euclidean equations using the Euclidean algorithm to get the greatest common divisor of two integers. Describes the use of the equations to generate a series of circles. Discusses computer generation of Euclidean circles and provides a BASIC program. (YP)

  9. An application of Pappus' Involution Theorem in euclidean and non-euclidean geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Vigara, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    Pappus' Involution Theorem is a powerful tool for proving theorems about non-euclidean triangles and generalized triangles in Cayley-Klein models. Its power is illustrated by proving with it some theorems about euclidean and non-euclidean polygons of different types. A $n$-dimensional euclidean version of these theorems is stated too.

  10. Introduction to non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Harold E

    2012-01-01

    One of the first college-level texts for elementary courses in non-Euclidean geometry, this concise, readable volume is geared toward students familiar with calculus. A full treatment of the historical background explores the centuries-long efforts to prove Euclid's parallel postulate and their triumphant conclusion. Numerous original exercises form an integral part of the book.Topics include hyperbolic plane geometry and hyperbolic plane trigonometry, applications of calculus to the solutions of some problems in hyperbolic geometry, elliptic plane geometry and trigonometry, and the consistenc

  11. Purification, Cellular Levels, and Functional Domains of LMF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babilonia-Rosa, Melissa; Neher, Saskia B.

    2014-01-01

    Over a third of the US adult population has hypertriglyceridemia, resulting in an increased risk of atherosclerosis, pancreatitis, and metabolic syndrome. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)1, a dimeric enzyme, is the main lipase responsible for TG clearance from the blood after food intake. LPL requires an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident, transmembrane protein known as lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) for secretion and enzymatic activity. LMF1 is believed to act as a client specific chaperone for dimeric lipases, but the precise mechanism by which LMF1 functions is not understood. Here, we examine which domains of LMF1 contribute to dimeric lipase maturation by assessing the function of truncation variants. N-terminal truncations of LMF1 show that all the domains are necessary for LPL maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and protease protection assays confirmed that these variants were properly oriented in the ER. We measured cellular levels of LMF1 and found that it is expressed at low levels and each molecule of LMF1 promotes the maturation of 50 or more molecules of LPL. Thus we provide evidence for the critical role of the N-terminus of LMF1 for the maturation of LPL and relevant ratio of chaperone to substrate. PMID:24909692

  12. Euclidean geometry and its subgeometries

    CERN Document Server

    Specht, Edward John; Calkins, Keith G; Rhoads, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors present a modern development of Euclidean geometry from independent axioms, using up-to-date language and providing detailed proofs. The axioms for incidence, betweenness, and plane separation are close to those of Hilbert. This is the only axiomatic treatment of Euclidean geometry that uses axioms not involving metric notions and that explores congruence and isometries by means of reflection mappings. The authors present thirteen axioms in sequence, proving as many theorems as possible at each stage and, in the process, building up subgeometries, most notably the Pasch and neutral geometries. Standard topics such as the congruence theorems for triangles, embedding the real numbers in a line, and coordinatization of the plane are included, as well as theorems of Pythagoras, Desargues, Pappas, Menelaus, and Ceva. The final chapter covers consistency and independence of axioms, as well as independence of definition properties. There are over 300 exercises; solutions to many of the...

  13. Hausdorff operators on Euclidean spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie-cheng; FAN Da-shan; WANG Si-lei

    2013-01-01

    Hausdorff operator is an important operator raised from the dilation on Euclidean space and rooted in the classical summability of number series and Fourier series. It is also connected to many well known operators in real and complex analysis. This article is a survey of some recent developments and extensions on the Hausdorff operator. Particularly, various boundedness properties of the Hausdorff operators, studied recently by our research group, are addressed.

  14. Hardware Euclidean Distance Transform Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ying-hua; ZENG Pei-feng; TANG Li-ping

    2004-01-01

    Based on an efficient algorithm of Euclidean distance transform for binary images, a circuit of O(N2) size is proposed. With in-place calculation, both the intermediate data storing and the result output use the same memory with the input data. This reduces the amount of memory largely. By replacing multipliers with counters, comparators, and adders, the circuit size is further reduced and its calculation speed is improved also.

  15. Euclidean formulation of diffractive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Meggiolaro, E

    2005-01-01

    After a brief review (in the first part) of some relevant properties of the high-energy parton-parton scattering amplitudes, in the second part we shall discuss the infrared finiteness and some analyticity properties of the loop-loop scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, when going from Minkowskian to Euclidean theory, and we shall see how they can be related to the still unsolved problem of the s-dependence of the hadron-hadron total cross-sections.

  16. Piracy on the molecular level: human herpesviruses manipulate cellular chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaby, Caleb; Tanner, Anne; Stutz, Eric W; Poole, Brian D; Berges, Bradford K

    2016-03-01

    Cellular chemotaxis is important to tissue homeostasis and proper development. Human herpesvirus species influence cellular chemotaxis by regulating cellular chemokines and chemokine receptors. Herpesviruses also express various viral chemokines and chemokine receptors during infection. These changes to chemokine concentrations and receptor availability assist in the pathogenesis of herpesviruses and contribute to a variety of diseases and malignancies. By interfering with the positioning of host cells during herpesvirus infection, viral spread is assisted, latency can be established and the immune system is prevented from eradicating viral infection.

  17. Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A

    2017-01-01

    It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.

  18. Cellular identity at the single-cell level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Eser, Umut; Islam, Saiful

    2016-10-20

    A single cell creates surprising heterogeneity in a multicellular organism. While every organismal cell shares almost an identical genome, molecular interactions in cells alter the use of DNA sequences to modulate the gene of interest for specialization of cellular functions. Each cell gains a unique identity through molecular coding across the DNA, RNA, and protein conversions. On the other hand, loss of cellular identity leads to critical diseases such as cancer. Most cell identity dissection studies are based on bulk molecular assays that mask differences in individual cells. To probe cell-to-cell variability in a population, we discuss single cell approaches to decode the genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional, and translational mechanisms for cell identity formation. In combination with molecular instructions, the physical principles behind cell identity determination are examined. Deciphering and reprogramming cellular types impact biology and medicine.

  19. Einstein Constraints on Asymptotically Euclidean Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y; York, J W; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; Isenberg, James; York, James W.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the Einstein constraints on asymptotically euclidean manifolds $M$ of dimension $n \\geq 3$ with sources of both scaled and unscaled types. We extend to asymptotically euclidean manifolds the constructive method of proof of existence. We also treat discontinuous scaled sources. In the last section we obtain new results in the case of non-constant mean curvature.

  20. Human more complex than mouse at cellular level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Vinogradov

    Full Text Available The family of transcription factors with the C2H2 zinc finger domain is expanding in the evolution of vertebrates, reaching its highest numbers in the mammals. The question arises: whether an increased amount of these transcription factors is related to embryogenesis, nervous system, pathology or more of them are expressed in individual cells? Among mammals, the primates have a more complex anatomical structure than the rodents (e.g., brain. In this work, I show that a greater number of C2H2-ZF genes are expressed in the human cells than in the mouse cells. The effect is especially pronounced for C2H2-ZF genes accompanied with the KRAB domain. The relative difference between the numbers of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB genes in the human and mouse cellular transcriptomes even exceeds their difference in the genomes (i.e. a greater subset of existing in the genome genes is expressed in the human cellular transcriptomes compared to the mouse transcriptomes. The evolutionary turnover of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB genes acts in the direction of the revealed phenomenon, i.e. gene duplication and loss enhances the difference in the relative number of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB genes between human and mouse cellular transcriptomes. A higher amount of these genes is expressed in the brain and embryonic cells (compared with other tissues, whereas a lower amount--in the cancer cells. It is specifically the C2H2-ZF transcription factors whose repertoire is poorer in the cancer and richer in the brain (other transcription factors taken together do not show this trend. These facts suggest that increase of anatomical complexity is accompanied by a more complex intracellular regulation involving these transcription factors. Malignization is associated with simplification of this regulation. These results agree with the known fact that human cells are more resistant to oncogenic transformation than mouse cells. The list of C2H2-ZF genes whose suppression might be involved in malignization is provided.

  1. Euclidean bridge to the relativistic constituent quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T. J.; Alberg, Mary; Miller, Gerald A.

    2017-03-01

    Background: Knowledge of nucleon structure is today ever more of a precision science, with heightened theoretical and experimental activity expected in coming years. At the same time, a persistent gap lingers between theoretical approaches grounded in Euclidean methods (e.g., lattice QCD, Dyson-Schwinger equations [DSEs]) as opposed to traditional Minkowski field theories (such as light-front constituent quark models). Purpose: Seeking to bridge these complementary world views, we explore the potential of a Euclidean constituent quark model (ECQM). This formalism enables us to study the gluonic dressing of the quark-level axial-vector vertex, which we undertake as a test of the framework. Method: To access its indispensable elements with a minimum of inessential detail, we develop our ECQM using the simplified quark + scalar diquark picture of the nucleon. We construct a hyperspherical formalism involving polynomial expansions of diquark propagators to marry our ECQM with the results of Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) analyses, and constrain model parameters by fitting electromagnetic form factor data. Results: From this formalism, we define and compute a new quantity—the Euclidean density function (EDF)—an object that characterizes the nucleon's various charge distributions as functions of the quark's Euclidean momentum. Applying this technology and incorporating information from BSE analyses, we find the quenched dressing effect on the proton's axial-singlet charge to be small in magnitude and consistent with zero, while use of recent determinations of unquenched BSEs results in a large suppression. Conclusions: The quark + scalar diquark ECQM is a step toward a realistic quark model in Euclidean space, and needs additional refinements. The substantial effect we obtain for the impact on the axial-singlet charge of the unquenched dressed vertex compared to the quenched demands further investigation.

  2. Using a Virtual Tissue Culture System to Assist Students in Understanding Life at the Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauglin, Jacqueline S.; Seaquist, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    In every biology course ever taught in the nation's classrooms, and in every biology book ever published, students are taught about the "cell." The cell is as fundamental to biology as the atom is to chemistry. Truly, everything an organism does occurs fundamentally at the cellular level. Beyond memorizing the cellular definition, students are not…

  3. Zero energy scattering calculation in Euclidean space

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2016-01-01

    We show that the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the scattering amplitude in the limit of zero incident energy can be transformed into a purely Euclidean form, as it is the case for the bound states. The decoupling between Euclidean and Minkowski amplitudes is only possible for zero energy scattering observables and allows determining the scattering length from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude. Such a possibility strongly simplifies the numerical solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation and suggests an alternative way to compute the scattering length in Lattice Euclidean calculations without using the Luscher formalism. The derivations contained in this work were performed for scalar particles and one-boson exchange kernel. They can be generalized to the fermion case and more involved interactions.

  4. Zero energy scattering calculation in Euclidean space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carbonell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that the Bethe–Salpeter equation for the scattering amplitude in the limit of zero incident energy can be transformed into a purely Euclidean form, as it is the case for the bound states. The decoupling between Euclidean and Minkowski amplitudes is only possible for zero energy scattering observables and allows determining the scattering length from the Euclidean Bethe–Salpeter amplitude. Such a possibility strongly simplifies the numerical solution of the Bethe–Salpeter equation and suggests an alternative way to compute the scattering length in Lattice Euclidean calculations without using the Luscher formalism. The derivations contained in this work were performed for scalar particles and one-boson exchange kernel. They can be generalized to the fermion case and more involved interactions.

  5. Zero energy scattering calculation in Euclidean space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Karmanov, V.A., E-mail: karmanov@sci.lebedev.ru [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-10

    We show that the Bethe–Salpeter equation for the scattering amplitude in the limit of zero incident energy can be transformed into a purely Euclidean form, as it is the case for the bound states. The decoupling between Euclidean and Minkowski amplitudes is only possible for zero energy scattering observables and allows determining the scattering length from the Euclidean Bethe–Salpeter amplitude. Such a possibility strongly simplifies the numerical solution of the Bethe–Salpeter equation and suggests an alternative way to compute the scattering length in Lattice Euclidean calculations without using the Luscher formalism. The derivations contained in this work were performed for scalar particles and one-boson exchange kernel. They can be generalized to the fermion case and more involved interactions.

  6. Zero energy scattering calculation in Euclidean space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, J.; Karmanov, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    We show that the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the scattering amplitude in the limit of zero incident energy can be transformed into a purely Euclidean form, as it is the case for the bound states. The decoupling between Euclidean and Minkowski amplitudes is only possible for zero energy scattering observables and allows determining the scattering length from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude. Such a possibility strongly simplifies the numerical solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation and suggests an alternative way to compute the scattering length in Lattice Euclidean calculations without using the Luscher formalism. The derivations contained in this work were performed for scalar particles and one-boson exchange kernel. They can be generalized to the fermion case and more involved interactions.

  7. Networking with noise at the molecular, cellular, and population level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Jose

    2002-03-01

    The intrinsic stochastic nature of biochemical reactions affects enzymatic and transcriptional networks at different levels. Yet, cells are able to function effectively and consistently amidst such random fluctuations. I will discuss some molecular mechanisms that are able to reduce the intrinsic noise of chemical reactions, how suitable designs can make networks resistant to noise, and what strategies can be used by populations to achieve precise functions.

  8. Herbrand's theorem and non-Euclidean geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Beeson, Michael; Boutry, Pierre; Narboux, Julien

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We use Herbrand's theorem to give a new proof that Eu- clid's parallel axiom is not derivable from the other axioms of first-order Euclidean geometry. Previous proofs involve constructing models of non- Euclidean geometry. This proof uses a very old and basic theorem of logic together with some simple properties of ruler-and-compass constructions to give a short, simple, and intuitively appealing proof.

  9. A Euclidean algorithm for integer matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Niels; Thomsen, Jesper Funch

    2015-01-01

    We present a Euclidean algorithm for computing a greatest common right divisor of two integer matrices. The algorithm is derived from elementary properties of finitely generated modules over the ring of integers.......We present a Euclidean algorithm for computing a greatest common right divisor of two integer matrices. The algorithm is derived from elementary properties of finitely generated modules over the ring of integers....

  10. Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W

    2014-01-01

    Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p

  11. A Euclidean bridge to the relativistic constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, T J; Miller, Gerald A

    2016-01-01

    ${\\bf Background}$ Knowledge of nucleon structure is today ever more of a precision science, with heightened theoretical and experimental activity expected in coming years. At the same time, a persistent gap lingers between theoretical approaches grounded in Euclidean methods (e.g., lattice QCD, Dyson-Schwinger Equations [DSEs]) as opposed to traditional Minkowski field theories (such as light-front constituent quark models). ${\\bf Purpose}$ Seeking to bridge these complementary worldviews, we explore the potential of a Euclidean constituent quark model (ECQM). This formalism enables us to study the gluonic dressing of the quark-level axial-vector vertex, which we undertake as a test of the framework. ${\\bf Method}$ To access its indispensable elements with a minimum of inessential detail, we develop our ECQM using the simplified quark $+$ scalar diquark picture of the nucleon. We construct a hyperspherical formalism involving polynomial expansions of diquark propagators to marry our ECQM with the results of ...

  12. On the Homogeneous Model Of Euclidean Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gunn, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We attach the degenerate signature (n,0,1) to the projectivized dual Grassmann algebra over R(n+1). We explore the use of the resulting Clifford algebra as a model for euclidean geometry. We avoid problems with the degenerate metric by constructing an algebra isomorphism between this Grassmann algebra and its dual, that yields non-metric meet and join operators. We review the Cayley-Klein construction of the projective (homogeneous) model for euclidean geometry leading to the choice of the signature (n,0,1). We focus on the cases of n=2 and n=3 in detail, enumerating the geometric products between simple k- and m-vectors. We establish that versor (sandwich) operators provide all euclidean isometries, both direct and indirect. We locate the spin group, a double cover of the direct euclidean group, inside the even subalgebra of the Clifford algebra, and provide a simple algorithm for calculating the logarithm of such elements. We conclude with an elementary account of euclidean rigid body motion within this fra...

  13. Fuzzy Euclidean wormholes in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Pisin; Yeom, Dong-han

    2016-01-01

    We investigate Euclidean wormholes in Einstein gravity with a massless scalar field in de Sitter space. Euclidean wormholes are possible due to the analytic continuation of the time as well as complexification of fields, where we need to impose the classicality after the Wick-rotation to the Lorentzian signatures. For some parameters, wormholes are preferred than Hawking-Moss instantons, and hence wormholes can be more fundamental than Hawking-Moss type instantons. Euclidean wormholes can be interpreted in three ways: (1) classical big bounce, (2) either tunneling from a small to a large universe or a creation of a collapsing and an expanding universe from nothing, and (3) either a quantum big bounce from a contracting to a bouncing phase or a creation of two expanding universes from nothing. These various interpretations shed some lights to the resolution of the singularity and tensions between various kinds of quantum gravity theories.

  14. The Euclidean distortion of the lamplighter group

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, Tim; Valette, Alain

    2007-01-01

    We show that the cyclic lamplighter group $C_2 \\bwr C_n$ embeds into Hilbert space with distortion ${\\rm O}(\\sqrt{\\log n})$. This matches the lower bound proved by Lee, Naor and Peres in \\cite{LeeNaoPer}, answering a question posed in that paper. Thus the Euclidean distortion of $C_2 \\bwr C_n$ is $\\Theta(\\sqrt{\\log n})$. Our embedding is constructed explicitly in terms of the irreducible representations of the group. Since the optimal Euclidean embedding of a finite group can always be chosen to be equivariant, as shown by Aharoni, Maurey and Mityagin \\cite{AhaMauMit} and by Gromov (see \\cite{deCTesVal}), such representation-theoretic considerations suggest a general tool for obtaining upper and lower bounds on Euclidean embeddings of finite groups.

  15. Topological Logics with Connectedness over Euclidean Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kontchakov, Roman; Pratt-Hartmann, Ian; Zakharyaschev, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We consider the quantifier-free languages, Bc and Bc0, obtained by augmenting the signature of Boolean algebras with a unary predicate representing, respectively, the property of being connected, and the property of having a connected interior. These languages are interpreted over the regular closed sets of n-dimensional Euclidean space (n greater than 1) and, additionally, over the regular closed polyhedral sets of n-dimensional Euclidean space. The resulting logics are examples of formalisms that have recently been proposed in the Artificial Intelligence literature under the rubric "Qualitative Spatial Reasoning." We prove that the satisfiability problem for Bc is undecidable over the regular closed polyhedra in all dimensions greater than 1, and that the satisfiability problem for both languages is undecidable over both the regular closed sets and the regular closed polyhedra in the Euclidean plane. However, we also prove that the satisfiability problem for Bc0 is NP-complete over the regular closed sets i...

  16. Non-Hermitian Euclidean random matrix theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetschy, A; Skipetrov, S E

    2011-07-01

    We develop a theory for the eigenvalue density of arbitrary non-Hermitian Euclidean matrices. Closed equations for the resolvent and the eigenvector correlator are derived. The theory is applied to the random Green's matrix relevant to wave propagation in an ensemble of pointlike scattering centers. This opens a new perspective in the study of wave diffusion, Anderson localization, and random lasing.

  17. ON SPACELIKE AUSTERE SUBMANIFOLDS IN PSEUDO-EUCLIDEAN SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yuxin; Han Yingbo

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we construct some spacelike austere submanifolds in pseduo- Euclidean spaces. We also get some indefinite special Lagrangian submanifolds by con- structing twisted normal bundle of spacelike austere submanifolds in pseduo-Euclidean spaces.

  18. A `Clicked' Tetrameric Hydroxamic Acid Glycopeptidomimetic Antagonizes Sugar-Lectin Interactions On The Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zang, Yi; Xie, Juan; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; He, Xiao-Peng; Tian, He

    2014-07-01

    A tetrameric N-acetyl galactosaminyl (GalNAc) peptidomimetic was constructed by N-acetylation of repeating proline-based hydroxamic acid units, followed by a convergent `click chemistry' coupling. This novel glycopeptidomimetic was determined to effectively antagonize the interaction between a transmembrane hepatic lectin and GalNAc on the cellular level.

  19. Uncertainties of Euclidean Time Extrapolation in Lattice Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lähde, Timo A; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rupak, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Extrapolations in Euclidean time form a central part of Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory (NLEFT) calculations using the Projection Monte Carlo method, as the sign problem in many cases prevents simulations at large Euclidean time. We review the next-to-next-to-leading order NLEFT results for the alpha nuclei up to $^{28}$Si, with emphasis on the Euclidean time extrapolations, their expected accuracy and potential pitfalls. We also discuss possible avenues for improving the reliability of Euclidean time extrapolations in NLEFT.

  20. A linear-time algorithm for Euclidean feature transform sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    2007-01-01

    The Euclidean distance transform of a binary image is the function that assigns to every pixel the Euclidean distance to the background. The Euclidean feature transform is the function that assigns to every pixel the set of background pixels with this distance. We present an algorithm to compute the

  1. Quantum Biology at the Cellular Level - elements of the research program

    OpenAIRE

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (Quantum Biology at Cellular Level), a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. Key words. decoherence, macroscopic superpositions, basis-dependence, formal superposition, non-classical correlations,...

  2. ELF (extremely-low-frequency) field interactions at the animal, tissue and cellular levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    A description is given of the fundamental physical properties of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, and the mechanisms through which these fields interact with the human body at a macroscopic level. Biological responses to ELF fields at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels are summarized, including new evidence that ELF field exposure produces alterations in gene expression and the cytoplasmic concentrations of specific proteins.

  3. Cellular burdens and biological effects on tissue level caused by inhaled radon progenies

    CERN Document Server

    Madas, Balázs G; Farkas, Árpád; Szőke, István

    2014-01-01

    In the case of radon exposure, the spatial distribution of deposited radioactive particles is highly inhomogeneous in the central airways. The objective of this research is to investigate the consequences of this heterogeneity regarding cellular burdens in the bronchial epithelium and to study the possible biological effects on tissue level. Applying a computational fluid dynamics program, the deposition distribution of inhaled radon daughters has been determined in a bronchial airway model for 23 minutes of work in the New Mexico uranium mine corresponding to 0.0129 WLM exposure. A numerical epithelium model based on experimental data has been utilized in order to quantify cellular hits and doses. Finally, a carcinogenesis model considering cell death induced cell cycle shortening has been applied to assess the biological responses. Computations present, that cellular dose may reach 1.5 Gy, which is several orders of magnitude higher than tissue dose. The results are in agreement with the histological findin...

  4. Physiological enzymology: The next frontier in understanding protein structure and function at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Irene; Berdis, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the study of proteins has relied heavily on characterizing the activity of a single purified protein isolated from other cellular components. This classic approach allowed scientists to unambiguously define the intrinsic kinetic and chemical properties of that protein. The ultimate hope was to extrapolate this information toward understanding how the enzyme or receptor behaves within its native cellular context. These types of detailed in vitro analyses were necessary to reduce the innate complexities of measuring the singular activity and biochemical properties of a specific enzyme without interference from other enzymes and potential competing substrates. However, recent developments in fields encompassing cell biology, molecular imaging, and chemical biology now provide the unique chemical tools and instrumentation to study protein structure, function, and regulation in their native cellular environment. These advancements provide the foundation for a new field, coined physiological enzymology, which quantifies the function and regulation of enzymes and proteins at the cellular level. In this Special Edition, we explore the area of Physiological Enzymology and Protein Function through a series of review articles that focus on the tools and techniques used to measure the cellular activity of proteins inside living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions.

  5. The Fourier Transform on Quantum Euclidean Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Coulembier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We study Fourier theory on quantum Euclidean space. A modified version of the general definition of the Fourier transform on a quantum space is used and its inverse is constructed. The Fourier transforms can be defined by their Bochner's relations and a new type of q-Hankel transforms using the first and second q-Bessel functions. The behavior of the Fourier transforms with respect to partial derivatives and multiplication with variables is studied. The Fourier transform acts between the two representation spaces for the harmonic oscillator on quantum Euclidean space. By using this property it is possible to define a Fourier transform on the entire Hilbert space of the harmonic oscillator, which is its own inverse and satisfies the Parseval theorem.

  6. Calculus and analysis in Euclidean space

    CERN Document Server

    Shurman, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    The graceful role of analysis in underpinning calculus is often lost to their separation in the curriculum. This book entwines the two subjects, providing a conceptual approach to multivariable calculus closely supported by the structure and reasoning of analysis. The setting is Euclidean space, with the material on differentiation culminating in the inverse and implicit function theorems, and the material on integration culminating in the general fundamental theorem of integral calculus. More in-depth than most calculus books but less technical than a typical analysis introduction, Calculus and Analysis in Euclidean Space offers a rich blend of content to students outside the traditional mathematics major, while also providing transitional preparation for those who will continue on in the subject. The writing in this book aims to convey the intent of ideas early in discussion. The narrative proceeds through figures, formulas, and text, guiding the reader to do mathematics resourcefully by marshaling the skil...

  7. Non-Euclidean cloaking for light waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, Tomas; Chan, Che Ting; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Non-Euclidean geometry combined with transformation optics has recently led to the proposal of an invisibility cloak that avoids optical singularities and therefore can work, in principle, in a broad band of the spectrum [U. Leonhardt and T. Tyc, Science 323, 110 (2009)]. Such a cloak is perfect in the limit of geometrical optics, but not in wave optics. Here we analyze, both analytically and numerically, full wave propagation in non-Euclidean cloaking. We show that the cloaking device performs remarkably well even in a regime beyond geometrical optics where the device is comparable in size with the wavelength. In particular, the cloak is nearly perfect for a spectrum of frequencies that are related to spherical harmonics. We also show that for increasing wavenumber the device works increasingly better, approaching perfect behavior in the limit of geometrical optics.

  8. Unit distances and diameters in Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Swanepoel, Konrad J

    2007-01-01

    We show that the maximum number of unit distances or of diameters in a set of n points in d-dimensional Euclidean space is attained only by specific types of Lenz constructions, for all d >= 4 and n sufficiently large, depending on d. As a corollary we determine the exact maximum number of unit distances for all even d >= 6, and the exact maximum number of diameters for all d >= 4, for all $n$ sufficiently large, depending on d.

  9. Simple Euclidean arrangements with one (>=5)-gon

    CERN Document Server

    Leaños, Jesus; Rivera-Martinez, Luis Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Let L be a simple Euclidean arrangement of n pseudolines. It is shown that if L has exactly one (>=5)=gon P, and k is the number of edges of P that are adjacent to an unbounded cell of the subarrangement of L induced by the pseudolines in P, then L has exactly n-k triangles and k+n(n-5)/2 quadrilaterals. We also prove that if each pseudoline of L is adjacent to P then L is stretchable.

  10. On the sensitivity of a Euclidean projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, A. F.; Kurennoy, A. S.

    2014-03-01

    The structure and behavior of Euclidean projections of a point onto a set defined by parametric constraints is studied. Under the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, it is shown that the projection is locally unique and continuous and, if the feasible set is constant, locally Lipschitz continuous as well. Quantitative results are obtained characterizing the asymptotic behavior of projections under perturbations in a given direction.

  11. Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight in a Somaclonal Rice Mutant HX-3 at Cellular Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Dong-ying; ZHOU Yi-hong; HUANG Xue-qing; SUN Li-hua; LIU Ai-min

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between rice host and its pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) at cellular level was studied by using a resistant somaclonal mutant HX-3 and its susceptable donor Minghui 63. After inoculation with Xoo strain Zhe 173 (Chinese pathotype Ⅳ), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the callus of Minghui 63 was increased dramatically, and the active oxygen(O2 - .) was produced at a higher rate; Meanwhile, the callus grew slowly with the reduction of protein content. Compared to the activity of SOD and POD, the production rate of O2-. and the fresh weight in HX-3 callus varied little after the inoculation. It could be proposed that there were great differences between the resistance of HX-3 and Mighui 63 at cellular level. There was no difference detected concerning resistance to bacterial leaf blight in HX-3 between the plant and the callus.

  12. Fractal and Euclidean geometric diagnostic methodology of uterine cervix cells = Metodología diagnóstica geométrica fractal y euclidiana de células del cuello uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Velásquez, Javier Oswaldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathological interpretation of cellular form in cervical cytology is very important for preven- tion of cervical cancer. The methods most frequently used for assessment of this test have reproducibility and inter-observer variability problems. Objective: To make fractal and Euclidean measure- ments to mathematically diagnose normal and pre- malignant cells of cervical squamous epithelium. Methodology: 21 cells with normal, ASCUS or LSIL diagnosis according to the Bethesda system were assessed. Fractal and Euclidean geometric measures of three mathematical objects were calculated: cyto- plasm, nucleus and whole cell. Mathematical propor- tions between these measurements were calculated in order to compare them with conventional classification methods. Results: It was found that the nuclear border measures calculated with the 2-pixel grill and the surface measures could mathematically and objectively differentiate normal cells from the pre-malignant ones (ASCUS and LSIL. Conclusions: An objective and reproducible diagnos- tic method was developed; it allows to identify the evolution towards malignant cellular states based on simultaneous fractal and Euclidean measures, estab- lishing the severity level of ASCUS and LSIL cells.

  13. Real-time reporting and internet-accessible cellular based coastal sea level gauge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Mehra, P.; Dabholkar, N.; Parab, A.; Gouveia, A.D.; Tengali, S.

    -level data communication systems for the benefit the coastal communities and the local administrators (Joseph and Prabhudesai, 2005). Further, real-time sea-level data would form an important input to storm-surge predictive models and warning systems. Given... as on the receiving- side. This adds to the hardware cost as well as software overheads on the receiving- side to check the data integrity for transmission errors. The main benefit of cellular connectivity with GPRS technology is that it utilizes radio resources only...

  14. Foundation of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries according to F. Klein

    CERN Document Server

    Redei, L; Stark, M

    1968-01-01

    Foundation of Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometries according to F. Klein aims to remedy the deficiency in geometry so that the ideas of F. Klein obtain the place they merit in the literature of mathematics.This book discusses the axioms of betweenness, lattice of linear subspaces, generalization of the notion of space, and coplanar Desargues configurations. The central collineations of the plane, fundamental theorem of projective geometry, and lines perpendicular to a proper plane are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the axioms of motion, basic projective configurations, properties

  15. Exploring Concepts of Geometry not Euclidean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ambrozi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With this article we intend to propose different situations of teaching and learning, how they can be applied in schools, mediated by the use of concrete materials and Geogebra software, emphasizing the use of technology in the classroom, that this proposal has the role of assisting in the conceptualization and identification of elements of non-Euclidean geometry. In addition, this short course is designed to be a time of current and continuing education for teachers, with activities to be developed with dynamic geometry and based on the theory of Conceptual Fields of Vergnaud.

  16. Harmonic and Monogenic Potentials in Euclidean Halfspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackx, F.; De Bie, H.; De Schepper, H.

    2011-09-01

    In the framework of Clifford analysis a chain of harmonic and monogenic potentials is constructed in the upper half of Euclidean space Rm+1. Their distributional limits at the boundary are computed, obtaining in this way well-known distributions in Rm such as the Dirac distribution, the Hilbert kernel, the square root of the negative Laplace operator, and the like. It is shown how each of those potentials may be recovered from an adjacent kernel in the chain by an appropriate convolution with such a distributional limit.

  17. Non-Euclidean Geometry and Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroulakis N.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of misunderstandings and mathematical errors are involved in the currently accepted theory of the gravitational field generated by an isotropic spherical mass. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a short account of the rigorous mathematical theory and exhibit a new formulation of the problem. The solution of the corresponding equations of gravitation points out several new and unusual features of the stationary gravitational field which are related to the non-Euclidean structure of the space. Moreover it precludes the black hole from being a mathematical and physical notion.

  18. Euclidean Quantum Mechanics and Universal Nonlinear Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhashyam Balaji

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in applied science is the continuous nonlinear filtering problem, i.e., the estimation of a Langevin state that is observed indirectly. In this paper, it is shown that Euclidean quantum mechanics is closely related to the continuous nonlinear filtering problem. The key is the configuration space Feynman path integral representation of the fundamental solution of a Fokker-Planck type of equation termed the Yau Equation of continuous-continuous filtering. A corollary is the equivalence between nonlinear filtering problem and a time-varying Schr¨odinger equation.

  19. Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomás

    2009-01-02

    Invisibility and negative refraction are both applications of transformation optics where the material of a device performs a coordinate transformation for electromagnetic fields. The device creates the illusion that light propagates through empty flat space, whereas in physical space, light is bent around a hidden interior or seems to run backward in space or time. All of the previous proposals for invisibility require materials with extreme properties. Here we show that transformation optics of a curved, non-Euclidean space (such as the surface of a virtual sphere) relax these requirements and can lead to invisibility in a broad band of the spectrum.

  20. Bochner-Riesz means on Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Shanzhen

    2013-01-01

    This book mainly deals with the Bochner-Riesz means of multiple Fourier integral and series on Euclidean spaces. It aims to give a systematical introduction to the fundamental theories of the Bochner-Riesz means and important achievements attained in the last 50 years. For the Bochner-Riesz means of multiple Fourier integral, it includes the Fefferman theorem which negates the Disc multiplier conjecture, the famous Carleson-Sjölin theorem, and Carbery-Rubio de Francia-Vega's work on almost everywhere convergence of the Bochner-Riesz means below the critical index. For the Bochner-Riesz means o

  1. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B.; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J.

    2015-09-01

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  2. Comparison of cellular responses induced by low level light in different cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Wu, Qiuhe; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    Discoveries are rapidly being made in multiple laboratories that shed "light" on the fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the use of low level light therapy (LLLT) in vitro, in animal models and in clinical practice. Increases in cellular levels of respiration, in cytochrome c oxidase activity, in ATP levels and in cyclic AMP have been found. Increased expression of reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide have also been shown. In order for these molecular changes to have a major effect on cell behavior, it is likely that various transcription factors will be activated, possibly via different signal transduction pathways. In this report we compare and contrast the effects of LLLT in vitro on murine embryonic fibroblasts, primary cortical neurons, cardiomyocytes and bone-marrow derived dendritic cells. We also examined two human cell lines, HeLa cancer cells and HaCaT keratinocytes. The effects of 810-nm near-infra-red light delivered at low and high fluences were addressed. Reactive oxygen species generation, transcription factor activation and ATP increases are reported. The data has led to the hypothesis that cells with a high level of mitochondrial activity (mitochondrial membrane potential) have a higher response to light than cells with low mitochondrial activity.

  3. X-ray micro-tomography for investigations of brain tissues on cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Bikis, Christos; Hipp, Alexander; Hieber, Simone E.; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    X-ray imaging in absorption contrast mode is well established for hard tissue visualization. However, performance for lower density materials is limited due to a reduced contrast. Our aim is three-dimensional (3D) characterization of micro-morphology of human brain tissues down to (sub-)cellular resolution within a laboratory environment. Using the laboratory-based microtomography (μCT) system nanotom m (GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH, Wunstorf, Germany) and synchrotron radiation at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK), we have acquired 3D data with a resolution down to 0.45 μm for visualization of a human cerebellum specimen down to cellular level. We have shown that all selected modalities, namely laboratory-based absorption contrast micro-tomography (LBμCT), synchrotron radiation based in-line single distance phase contrast tomography (SDPR) and synchrotron radiation based single-grating interferometry (GI), can reach cellular resolution for tissue samples with a size in the mm-range. The results are discussed qualitatively in comparison to optical microscopy of haematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained sections. As phase contrast yields to a better data quality for soft tissues and in order to overcome restrictions of limited beamline access for phase contrast measurements, we have equipped the μCT system nanotom m with a double-grating phase contrast set-up. Preliminary experimental results of a knee sample consisting of a bony part and a cartilage demonstrate that phase contrast data exhibits better quality compared to absorption contrast. Currently, the set-up is under adjustment. It is expected that cellular resolution would also be achieved. The questions arise (1) what would be the quality gain of laboratory-based phase contrast in comparison to laboratory-based absorption contrast tomography and (2) could laboratory-based phase contrast data provide comparable results to synchrotron radiation based

  4. Uniform Page Migration Problem in Euclidean Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanj Khorramian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The page migration problem in Euclidean space is revisited. In this problem, online requests occur at any location to access a single page located at a server. Every request must be served, and the server has the choice to migrate from its current location to a new location in space. Each service costs the Euclidean distance between the server and request. A migration costs the distance between the former and the new server location, multiplied by the page size. We study the problem in the uniform model, in which the page has size D = 1 . All request locations are not known in advance; however, they are sequentially presented in an online fashion. We design a 2.75 -competitive online algorithm that improves the current best upper bound for the problem with the unit page size. We also provide a lower bound of 2.732 for our algorithm. It was already known that 2.5 is a lower bound for this problem.

  5. Pseudo-Riemannian Universe from Euclidean bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilić, Milovan

    2015-01-01

    I develop the idea that our world is a brane-like object embedded in Euclidean bulk. In its ground state, the brane constituent matter is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic, and of negligible influence on the bulk geometry. No action functional is initially specified. Instead, the brane dynamics is derived from the universally valid stress-energy conservation equations. The present work studies the cosmology of a $3$-sphere in the $5$-dimensional Euclidean bulk. It is shown that the conventional equation of state $p=\\alpha\\rho$ is universal in the sector of small energy densities, and so is the resulting brane dynamics. The inequality $\\alpha<0$ is found to be a necessary condition for the existence of a stable ground state of the Universe. It is demonstrated that the generic braneworld physics rules out the Big Bang cosmology, and in that matter, any cosmology of finite lifetime. I also demonstrate that stable brane vibrations satisfy Klein-Gordon-like equation with an effective metric of Minkowski s...

  6. Quantum Computing in Non Euclidean Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Resconi, Germano

    2009-01-01

    The recent debate on hyper-computation has raised new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of geometry of effective physical process as the essentially physical notion of computation. In Quantum mechanics we cannot use the traditional Euclidean geometry but we introduce more sophisticate non Euclidean geometry which include a new kind of information diffuse in the entire universe and that we can represent as Fisher information or active information. We remark that from the Fisher information we can obtain the Bohm and Hiley quantum potential and the classical Schrodinger equation. We can see the quantum phenomena do not affect a limited region of the space but is reflected in a change of the geometry of all the universe. In conclusion any local physical change or physical process is reflected in all the universe by the change of its geometry, This is the deepest meaning of the entanglement in Quantum mechanics a...

  7. Quantum biology at the cellular level--elements of the research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-04-01

    Quantum biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (quantum biology at cellular level) - a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. We propose a new general way to address the issue of environmentally induced decoherence and macroscopic superpositions in biological systems, emphasizing the 'basis-dependent' nature of these concepts. We introduce the notion of 'formal superposition' and distinguish it from that of Schroedinger's cat (i.e., a superposition of macroscopically distinct states). Whereas the latter notion presents a genuine foundational problem, the former one contradicts neither common sense nor observation, and may be used to describe cellular 'decision-making' and adaptation. We stress that the interpretation of the notion of 'formal superposition' should involve non-classical correlations between molecular events in a cell. Further, we describe how better understanding of the physics of Life can shed new light on the mechanism driving evolutionary adaptation (viz., 'Basis-Dependent Selection', BDS). Experimental tests of BDS and the potential role of synthetic biology in closing the 'evolvability mechanism' loophole are also discussed.

  8. Chronobiology at the cellular and molecular levels: models and mechanisms for circadian timekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, L N

    1983-12-01

    This review considers cellular chronobiology and examines, at least in a superficial way, several classes of models and mechanisms that have been proposed for circadian rhythmicity and some of the experimental approaches that have appeared to be most productive. After a brief discussion of temporal organization and the metabolic, epigenetic, and circadian time domains, the general properties of circadian rhythms are enumerated. A survey of independent oscillations in isolated organs, tissues, and cells is followed by a review of selected circadian rhythms in eukaryotic microorganisms, with particular emphasis placed on the rhythm of cell division in the algal flagellate Euglena as a model system illustrating temporal differentiation. In the ensuing section, experimental approaches to circadian clock mechanisms are considered. The dissection of the clock by the use of chemical inhibitors is illustrated for the rhythm of bioluminescence in the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax and for the rhythm of photosynthetic capacity in the unicellular green alga Acetabularia. Alternatively, genetic analysis of circadian oscillators is considered in the green alga Chlamydomonas and in the bread mold Neurospora, both of which have yielded clock mutants and mutants having biochemical lesions that exhibit altered clock properties. On the basis of the evidence generated by these experimental approaches, several classes of biochemical and molecular models for circadian clocks have been proposed. These include strictly molecular models, feedback loop (network) models, transcriptional (tape-reading) models, and membrane models; some of their key elements and predictions are discussed. Finally, a number of general unsolved problems at the cellular level are briefly mentioned: cell cycle interfaces, the evolution of circadian rhythmicity, the possibility of multiple cellular oscillators, chronopharmacology and chronotherapy, and cell-cycle clocks in development and aging.

  9. Euclidean supergravity and multi-centered solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, W. A.

    2017-04-01

    In ungauged supergravity theories, the no-force condition for BPS states implies the existence of stable static multi-centered solutions. The first solutions to Einstein-Maxwell theory with a positive cosmological constant describing an arbitrary number of charged black holes were found by Kastor and Traschen. Generalisations to five and higher dimensional theories were obtained by London. Multi-centered solutions in gauged supergravity, even with time-dependence allowed, have yet to be constructed. In this letter we construct supersymmetry-preserving multi-centered solutions for the case of D = 5, N = 2 Euclidean gauged supergravity coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets. Higher dimensional Einstein-Maxwell multi-centered solutions are also presented.

  10. Euclidean supergravity and multi-centered solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Sabra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In ungauged supergravity theories, the no-force condition for BPS states implies the existence of stable static multi-centered solutions. The first solutions to Einstein–Maxwell theory with a positive cosmological constant describing an arbitrary number of charged black holes were found by Kastor and Traschen. Generalisations to five and higher dimensional theories were obtained by London. Multi-centered solutions in gauged supergravity, even with time-dependence allowed, have yet to be constructed. In this letter we construct supersymmetry-preserving multi-centered solutions for the case of D=5, N=2 Euclidean gauged supergravity coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets. Higher dimensional Einstein–Maxwell multi-centered solutions are also presented.

  11. Fat Euclidean Gravity with Small Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Sundrum, Raman

    2003-01-01

    The cosmological constant problem is usually considered an inevitable feature of any effective theory capturing well-tested gravitational and matter physics, without regard to the details of short-distance gravitational couplings. In this paper, a subtle effective description avoiding the problem is presented in a first quantized language, consistent with experiments and the Equivalence Principle. First quantization allows a minimal domain of validity to be carved out by cutting on the proper length of particle worldlines. This is facilitated by working in (locally) Euclidean spacetime, although considerations of unitarity are still addressed by analytic continuation from Lorentzian spacetime. The new effective description demonstrates that the cosmological constant problem {\\it is} sensitive to short-distance details of gravity, which can be probed experimentally. ``Fat Gravity'' toy models are presented, illustrating how gravity might shut off at short but testable distances, in a generally covariant manner...

  12. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo, E-mail: cklee2005@korea.ac.kr

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  13. Smoothed analysis of partitioning algorithms for Euclidean functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra; Dehne, F.; Iacono, J.; Sack, J.-R.

    2011-01-01

    Euclidean optimization problems such as TSP and minimum-length matching admit fast partitioning algorithms that compute near-optimal solutions on typical instances. We develop a general framework for the application of smoothed analysis to partitioning algorithms for Euclidean optimization problems.

  14. Semi-Euclidean quasi-elliptic planar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekar, Murat; Yayli, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the algebra of split semi-quaternions with their basic properties. Also, the results of the Euclidean planar motion given by Blaschke and Grünwald is generalized to semi-Euclidean planar motion by using the algebra of split semi-quaternions.

  15. Eigentensors of the Lichnerowicz operator in Euclidean Schwarzschild metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Morales, J.L. [Instituto de Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 273, Admon. de correos 3, C. P. 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-09-01

    Properties of the eigentensors of the Lichnerowicz Laplacian for the Euclidean Schwarzschild metric are discussed together with possible applications to the linear stability of higher-dimensional instantons. The main statement of the article is that any eigentensor of the Lichnerowicz operator in a Euclidean (possibly higher-dimensional) Schwarzschild metric is essentially singular at infinity. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. The relation between Euclidean and Lorentzian 2D quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambjørn, J.; Correia, J.; Kristjansen, C.; Loll, R.

    2006-01-01

    Starting from 2D Euclidean quantum gravity, we show that one recovers 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity by removing all baby universes. Using a peeling procedure to decompose the discrete, triangulated geometries along a one-dimensional path, we explicitly associate with each Euclidean space-time a (gen

  17. Face Recognition using Segmental Euclidean Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Sayeed

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to detect the face using the combination of integral image along with the cascade structured classifier which is built using Adaboost learning algorithm. The detected faces are then passed through a filtering process for discarding the non face regions. They are individually split up into five segments consisting of forehead, eyes, nose, mouth and chin. Each segment is considered as a separate image and Eigenface also called principal component analysis (PCA features of each segment is computed. The faces having a slight pose are also aligned for proper segmentation. The test image is also segmented similarly and its PCA features are found. The segmental Euclidean distance classifier is used for matching the test image with the stored one. The success rate comes out to be 88 per cent on the CG(full database created from the databases of California Institute and Georgia Institute. However the performance of this approach on ORL(full database with the same features is only 70 per cent. For the sake of comparison, DCT(full and fuzzy features are tried on CG and ORL databases but using a well known classifier, support vector machine (SVM. Results of recognition rate with DCT features on SVM classifier are increased by 3 per cent over those due to PCA features and Euclidean distance classifier on the CG database. The results of recognition are improved to 96 per cent with fuzzy features on ORL database with SVM.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(5, pp.431-442, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.1178

  18. Wolbachia-mediated resistance to dengue virus infection and death at the cellular level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca D Frentiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is currently the most important arthropod-borne viral disease of humans. Recent work has shown dengue virus displays limited replication in its primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, when the insect harbors the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia-mediated inhibition of virus replication may lead to novel methods of arboviral control, yet the functional and cellular mechanisms that underpin it are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using paired Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Aedes-derived cell lines and dengue virus, we confirm the phenomenon of viral inhibition at the cellular level. Although Wolbachia imposes a fitness cost to cells via reduced proliferation, it also provides a significant degree of protection from virus-induced mortality. The extent of viral inhibition is related to the density of Wolbachia per cell, with highly infected cell lines showing almost complete protection from dengue infection and dramatically reduced virus titers compared to lines not infected with the bacteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that cells infected with Wolbachia display inhibition of dengue virus replication, that the extent of inhibition is related to bacterial density and that Wolbachia infection, although costly, will provide a fitness benefit in some circumstances. Our results parallel findings in mosquitoes and flies, indicating that cell line models will provide useful and experimentally tractable models to study the mechanisms underlying Wolbachia-mediated protection from viruses.

  19. Cellular level nanomanipulation using atomic force microscope aided with superresolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Jenu Varghese; Harke, Benjamin; Canale, Claudio; Diaspro, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide topographical and mechanical information of the sample with very good axial resolution, but are limited in terms of chemical specificity and operation time-scale. An optical microscope coupled to an AFM can recognize and target an area of interest using specific identification markers like fluorescence tags. A high resolution fluorescence microscope can visualize fluorescence structures or molecules below the classical optical diffraction limit and reach nanometer scale resolution. A stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy superresolution (SR) microscope coupled to an AFM is an example in which the AFM tip gains nanoscale manipulation capabilities. The SR targeting and visualization ability help in fast and specific identification of subdiffraction-sized cellular structures and manoeuvring the AFM tip onto the target. We demonstrate how to build a STED AFM and use it for biological nanomanipulation aided with fast visualization. The STED AFM based bionanomanipulation is presented for the first time in this article. This study points to future nanosurgeries performable at single-cell level and a physical targeted manipulation of cellular features as it is currently used in research domains like nanomedicine and nanorobotics.

  20. Modeling of trophospheric ozone concentrations using genetically trained multi-level cellular neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, H. Kurtulus; Bilgili, Erdem; Sahin, Ulku; Ucan, O. Nuri; Bayat, Cuma

    2007-09-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations, which are an important air pollutant, are modeled by the use of an artificial intelligence structure. Data obtained from air pollution measurement stations in the city of Istanbul are utilized in constituting the model. A supervised algorithm for the evaluation of ozone concentration using a genetically trained multi-level cellular neural network (ML-CNN) is introduced, developed, and applied to real data. A genetic algorithm is used in the optimization of CNN templates. The model results and the actual measurement results are compared and statistically evaluated. It is observed that seasonal changes in ozone concentrations are reflected effectively by the concentrations estimated by the multilevel-CNN model structure, with a correlation value of 0.57 ascertained between actual and model results. It is shown that the multilevel-CNN modeling technique is as satisfactory as other modeling techniques in associating the data in a complex medium in air pollution applications.

  1. Modeling of Trophospheric Ozone Concentrations Using Genetically Trained Multi-Level Cellular Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Kurtulus OZCAN; Erdem BILGILI; Ulku SAHIN; O. Nuri UCAN; Cuma BAYAT

    2007-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations, which are an important air pollutant, are modeled by the use of an artificial intelligence structure. Data obtained from air pollution measurement stations in the city of Istanbul are utilized in constituting the model. A supervised algorithm for the evaluation of ozone concentration using a genetically trained multi-level cellular neural network (ML-CNN) is introduced, developed, and applied to real data. A genetic algorithm is used in the optimization of CNN templates. The model results and the actual measurement results are compared and statistically evaluated. It is observed that seasonal changes in ozone concentrations are reflected effectively by the concentrations estimated by the multilevel-CNN model structure, with a correlation value of 0.57 ascertained between actual and model results. It is shown that the multilevel-CNN modeling technique is as satisfactory as other modeling techniques in associating the data in a complex medium in air pollution applications.

  2. MECHANISMS OF DAMAGING EFFECT OF MANGENESE IN TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS ON CELLULAR AND SUBCELLULAR LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko A. V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Influence of subtoxic concentration of manganese chloride in dose equal to LD 50 on condition of plasmatic membranes (model: erythrocytes and functional activity of cell power (model: the isolated liver mitochondrion of rats was studied. It was established that manganese chloride in fixed concentration caused authentic augmentation of sorption capacity of erythrocytes towards alcian blue, influenced increasing of their spontaneous haemolysis and activation of peroxide oxidation of lipids. In experiment on the isolated mitochondrion it was proved that manganese chloride caused dissociation of an oxidizing phosphorusling and complete inhibition of respiration in concentrations of 3 and 4,5mM. These dependences testify that subtoxic concentration of manganese can damage the cell energy. Thus, this pilot research indicated damaging effect of manganese on cellular (erythrocytes and subcellular (mitochondrion levels which are realized through external functioning of membrane structures and deprived them from restoration.

  3. Minimal Paths in the City Block: Human Performance on Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, Amy L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment is reported comparing human performance on two kinds of visually presented traveling salesperson problems (TSPs), those reliant on Euclidean geometry and those reliant on city block geometry. Across multiple array sizes, human performance was near-optimal in both geometries, but was slightly better in the Euclidean format. Even so,…

  4. Axial level-dependent molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the genesis of the embryonic neural plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Hisato; Takada, Shinji; Takemoto, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    The transcription factor gene Sox2, centrally involved in neural primordial regulation, is activated by many enhancers. During the early stages of embryonic development, Sox2 is regulated by the enhancers N2 and N1 in the anterior neural plate (ANP) and posterior neural plate (PNP), respectively. This differential use of the enhancers reflects distinct regulatory mechanisms underlying the genesis of ANP and PNP. The ANP develops directly from the epiblast, triggered by nodal signal inhibition, and via the combined action of TFs SOX2, OTX2, POU3F1, and ZIC2, which promotes the the ANP development and inhibits other cell lineages. In contrast, the PNP is derived from neuromesodermal bipotential axial stem cells that develop into the neural plate when Sox2 is activated by the N1 enhancer, whereas they develop into the paraxial mesoderm when the N1 enhancer is repressed by the action of TBX6. The axial stem cells are maintained by the activity of WNT3a and T (Brachyury). However, at axial levels more anterior to the 8th somites (cervical levels), the development of both the neural plate and somite proceeds in the absence of WNT3a, T, or TBX6. These observations indicate that distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms determine neural plate genesis based on the axial level, and contradict the classical concept of the term "neural induction," which assumes a pan-neural plate mechanism.

  5. Energy-Efficient Crowdsensing of Human Mobility and Signal Levels in Cellular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foremski, Paweł; Gorawski, Michał; Grochla, Krzysztof; Polys, Konrad

    2015-09-02

    The paper presents a practical application of the crowdsensing idea to measure human mobility and signal coverage in cellular networks. Currently, virtually everyone is carrying a mobile phone, which may be used as a sensor to gather research data by measuring, e.g., human mobility and radio signal levels. However, many users are unwilling to participate in crowdsensing experiments. This work begins with the analysis of the barriers for engaging people in crowdsensing. A survey showed that people who agree to participate in crowdsensing expect a minimum impact on their battery lifetime and phone usage habits. To address these requirements, this paper proposes an application for measuring the location and signal strength data based on energy-efficient GPS tracking, which allows one to perform the measurements of human mobility and radio signal levels with minimum energy utilization and without any engagement of the user. The method described combines measurements from the accelerometer with effective management of the GPS to monitor the user mobility with the decrease in battery lifetime by approximately 20%. To show the applicability of the proposed platform, the sample results of signal level distribution and coverage maps gathered for an LTE network and representing human mobility are shown.

  6. In situ sensing and modeling of molecular events at the cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiguo

    We developed the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based nanorobot in combination with other nanomechanical sensors for the investigation of cell signaling pathways. The AFM nanorobotics hinge on the superior spatial resolution of AFM in imaging and extends it into the measurement of biological processes and manipulation of biological matters. A multiple input single output control system was designed and implemented to solve the issues of nanomanipulation of biological materials, feedback, response frequency and nonlinearity. The AFM nanorobotic system therefore provide the human-directed position, velocity and force control with high frequency feedback, and more importantly it can feed the operator with the real-time imaging of manipulation result from the fast-imaging based local scanning. The use of the system has taken the study of cellular process at the molecular scale into a new level. The cellular response to the physiological conditions can be significantly manifested in cellular mechanics. Dynamic mechanical property has been regarded as biomarkers, sometimes even regulators of the signaling and physiological processes, thus the name mechanobiology. We sought to characterize the relationship between the structural dynamics and the molecular dynamics and the role of them in the regulation of cell behavior. We used the AFM nanorobotics to investigate the mechanical properties in real-time of cells that are stimulated by different chemical species. These reagents could result in similar ion channel responses but distinctive mechanical behaviors. We applied these measurement results to establish a model that describes the cellular stimulation and the mechanical property change, a "two-hit" model that comprises the loss of cell adhesion and the initiation of cell apoptosis. The first hit was verified by functional experiments: depletion of Calcium and nanosurgery to disrupt the cellular adhesion. The second hit was tested by a labeling of apoptotic markers that

  7. Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide inhibit cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Bing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cherr, Gary N

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are considered to be environmentally safe. In this study, we analyzed the potential effects of graphene and GO at relatively low concentrations on cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters. The results showed that graphene (graphene and GO at the nontoxic concentrations could increase calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter) activity) accumulation, indicating inhibition of ABC transporters' efflux capabilities. This inhibition was observed even at 0.005 μg/mL graphene and 0.05 μg/mL GO, which are 100 times and 400 times lower than their lowest toxic concentration from cytotoxicity experiments, respectively. The inhibition of ABC transporters significantly increased the toxicity of paraquat and arsenic, known substrates of ABC transporters. The inhibition of ABC transporters was found to be based on graphene and GO damaging the plasma membrane structure and fluidity, thus altering functions of transmembrane ABC transporters. This study demonstrates that low levels of graphene and GO are not environmentally safe since they can significantly make cell more susceptible to other xenobiotics, and this chemosensitizing activity should be considered in the risk assessment of graphene and GO.

  8. Cellular zinc levels are modulated by TRPML1-TMEM163 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuajungco, Math P; Basilio, Luigi C; Silva, Joshua; Hart, Thomas; Tringali, Jonathan; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Biel, Martin; Grimm, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is caused by loss of function mutations in the TRPML1 ion channel. We previously reported that tissue zinc levels in MLIV were abnormally elevated; however, the mechanism behind this pathologic accumulation remains unknown. Here, we identify transmembrane (TMEM)-163 protein, a putative zinc transporter, as a novel interacting partner for TRPML1. Evidence from yeast two-hybrid, tissue expression pattern, co-immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and confocal microscopy studies confirmed the physical association of TMEM163 with TRPML1. This interaction is disrupted when a part of TMEM163's N-terminus was deleted. Further studies to define the relevance of their interaction revealed that the plasma membrane (PM) levels of TMEM163 significantly decrease when TRPML1 is co-expressed in HEK-293 cells, while it mostly localizes within the PM when co-expressed with a mutant TRPML1 that distributes mostly in the PM. Meanwhile, co-expression of TMEM163 does not alter TRPML1 channel activity, but its expression levels in MLIV patient fibroblasts are reduced, which correlate with marked accumulation of zinc in lysosomes when these cells are acutely exposed to exogenous zinc (100 μM). When TMEM163 is knocked down or when TMEM163 and TRPML1 are co-knocked down in HEK-293 cells treated overnight with 100 nm zinc, the cells have significantly higher intracellular zinc levels than untreated control. Overall, these findings suggest that TMEM163 and TRPML1 proteins play a critical role in cellular zinc homeostasis, and thus possibly explain a novel mechanism for the pathological overload of zinc in MLIV disease.

  9. Characterizations of Sobolev spaces in Euclidean spaces and Heisenberg groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiao-yue; LAM Nguyen; LU Guo-zhen

    2013-01-01

    Recently, many new features of Sobolev spaces W k,p ?RN ? were studied in [4-6, 32]. This paper is devoted to giving a brief review of some known characterizations of Sobolev spaces in Euclidean spaces and describing our recent study of new characterizations of Sobolev spaces on both Heisenberg groups and Euclidean spaces obtained in [12] and [13] and outlining their proofs. Our results extend those characterizations of first order Sobolev spaces in [32] to the Heisenberg group setting. Moreover, our theorems also provide diff erent characterizations for the second order Sobolev spaces in Euclidean spaces from those in [4, 5].

  10. The Euclidean resonance and quantum tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, B I

    2002-01-01

    The extremely small probability of tunneling through an almost classical potential barrier may become not small under the action of the specially adapted non-stationary signal which selects the certain particle energy E_R. For particle energies close to this value, the tunneling rate is not small during a finite interval of time and has a very sharp peak at the energy E_R. After entering inside the barrier, the particle emits electromagnetic quanta and exits the barrier with a lower energy. The signal amplitude can be much less compared to the field of the static barrier. This phenomenon can be called the Euclidean resonance since the under-barrier motion occurs in imaginary time. The resonance may stimulate chemical and biochemical reactions in a selective way by adapting the signal to a certain particular chemical bond. The resonance may be used in search of the soft alpha-decay for which a conventional observation is impossible due to an extremely small decay rate.

  11. Random parking, Euclidean functionals, and rubber elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gloria, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    We study subadditive functions of the random parking model previously analyzed by the second author. In particular, we consider local functions $S$ of subsets of $\\mathbb{R}^d$ and of point sets that are (almost) subadditive in their first variable. Denoting by $\\xi$ the random parking measure in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, and by $\\xi^R$ the random parking measure in the cube $Q_R=(-R,R)^d$, we show, under some natural assumptions on $S$, that there exists a constant $\\bar{S}\\in \\mathbb{R}$ such that % $$ \\lim_{R\\to +\\infty} \\frac{S(Q_R,\\xi)}{|Q_R|}\\,=\\,\\lim_{R\\to +\\infty}\\frac{S(Q_R,\\xi^R)}{|Q_R|}\\,=\\,\\bar{S} $$ % almost surely. If $\\zeta \\mapsto S(Q_R,\\zeta)$ is the counting measure of $\\zeta$ in $Q_R$, then we retrieve the result by the second author on the existence of the jamming limit. The present work generalizes this result to a wide class of (almost) subadditive functions. In particular, classical Euclidean optimization problems as well as the discrete model for rubber previously studied by Alicandro, Cicalese,...

  12. An Efficient Representation of Euclidean Gravity I

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jungjai; Yang, Hyun Seok

    2011-01-01

    We explore how the topology of spacetime fabric is encoded into the local structure of Riemannian metrics using the gauge theory formulation of Euclidean gravity. In part I, we provide a rigorous mathematical foundation to prove that a general Einstein manifold arises as the sum of SU(2)_L Yang-Mills instantons and SU(2)_R anti-instantons where SU(2)_L and SU(2)_R are normal subgroups of the four-dimensional Lorentz group Spin(4) = SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R. Our proof relies only on the general properties in four dimensions: The Lorentz group Spin(4) is isomorphic to SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R and the six-dimensional vector space of two-forms splits canonically into the sum of three-dimensional vector spaces of self-dual and anti-self-dual two-forms. Consolidating these two, it turns out that the splitting of Spin(4) is deeply correlated with the decomposition of two-forms on four-manifold which occupies a central position in the theory of four-manifolds.

  13. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irundika H K Dias

    Full Text Available The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. - by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidised glutathione (GSSG ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC, and modifier (GCLM subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. - production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  14. Postnatal odorant exposure induces peripheral olfactory plasticity at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiou, Hervé; Aoudé, Imad; Tazir, Bassim; Molinas, Adrien; Fenech, Claire; Meunier, Nicolas; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2014-04-01

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) form the primary elements of the olfactory system. Inserted in the olfactory mucosa lining of the nasal cavity, they are exposed to the environment and their lifespan is brief. Several reports say that OSNs are regularly regenerated during the entire life and that odorant environment affects the olfactory epithelium. However, little is known about the impact of the odorant environment on OSNs at the cellular level and more precisely in the context of early postnatal olfactory exposure. Here we exposed MOR23-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and M71-GFP mice to lyral or acetophenone, ligands for MOR23 or M71, respectively. Daily postnatal exposure to lyral induces plasticity in the population of OSNs expressing MOR23. Their density decreases after odorant exposure, whereas the amount of MOR23 mRNA and protein remain stable in the whole epithelium. Meanwhile, quantitative PCR indicates that each MOR23 neuron has higher levels of olfactory receptor transcripts and also expresses more CNGA2 and phosphodiesterase 1C, fundamental olfactory transduction pathway proteins. Transcript levels return to baseline after 4 weeks recovery. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that exposed MOR23 neurons respond to lyral with higher sensitivity and broader dynamic range while the responses' kinetics were faster. These effects are specific to the odorant-receptor pair lyral-MOR23: there was no effect of acetophenone on MOR23 neurons and no effect of acetophenone and lyral on the M71 population. Together, our results clearly demonstrate that OSNs undergo specific anatomical, molecular, and functional adaptation when chronically exposed to odorants in the early stage of life.

  15. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Irundika H K; Chapple, Ian L C; Milward, Mike; Grant, Melissa M; Hill, Eric; Brown, James; Griffiths, Helen R

    2013-01-01

    The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN) to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. -) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC), and modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. -) production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  16. Mechanism of Laser/light beam interaction at cellular and tissue level and study of the influential factors for the application of low level laser therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    After the discovery of laser therapy it was realized it has useful application of wound healing and reduce pain, but due to the poor understanding of the mechanism and dose response this technique remained to be controversial for therapeutic applications. In order to understand the working and effectiveness different experiments were performed to determine the laser beam effect at the cellular and tissue level. This article discusses the mechanism of beam interaction at tissues and cellular l...

  17. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambavi Kugananthan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM (p < 0.0001, n = 287. No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content (p = 0.17, n = 287, supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89. These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  18. A High-Precision Micropipette Sensor for Cellular-Level Real-Time Thermal Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonseok Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report herein development of a novel glass micropipette thermal sensor fabricated in a cost-effective manner, which is capable of measuring steady thermal fluctuation at spatial resolution of ~2 µm with an accuracy of ±0.01 °C. We produced and tested various micrometer-sized sensors, ranging from 2 µm to 30 µm. The sensor comprises unleaded low-melting-point solder alloy (Sn-based as a core metal inside a pulled borosilicate glass pipette and a thin film of nickel coating outside, creating a thermocouple junction at the tip. The sensor was calibrated using a thermally insulated calibration chamber, the temperature of which can be controlled with an accuracy of ±0.01 °C, and the thermoelectric power (Seebeck coefficient of the sensor was recorded from 8.46 to 8.86 µV/°C. We have demonstrated the capability of measuring temperatures at a cellular level by inserting our temperature sensor into the membrane of a live retinal pigment epithelium cell subjected to a laser beam with a focal spot of 6 μm. We measured transient temperature profiles and the maximum temperatures were in the range of 38–55 ± 0.5 °C.

  19. Morphine Produces Immunosuppressive Effects in Nonhuman Primates at the Proteomic and Cellular Levels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph N.; Ortiz, Gabriel M.; Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Gritsenko, Marina; Chan, Eric Y.; Purdy, David E.; Murnane, Robert D.; Larsen, Kay; Palermo, Robert E.; Shukla, Anil K.; Clauss, Theresa R.; Katze, Michael G.; McCune, Joseph M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Morphine has long been known to have immunosuppressive properties in vivo, but the molecular and immunologic changes induced by it are incompletely understood. To explore how these changes interact with lentiviral infections in vivo, animals from two nonhuman primate species (African green monkeys and pigtailed macaques) were provided morphine and studied using a systems biology approach. Biological specimens were obtained from multiple sources (e.g. lymph node, colon, cerebrospinal fluid, and peripheral blood) before and after the administration of morphine (titrated up to a maximum dose of 5 mg/kg over a period of 20 days). Cellular immune, plasma cytokine, and proteome changes were measured and morphine-induced changes in these parameters were assessed on an interorgan, interindividual, and interspecies basis. In both species, morphine was associated with decreased levels of Ki-67+ T-cell activation but with only minimal changes in overall T-cell counts, neutrophil counts, and NK cell counts. Although changes in T-cell maturation were observed, these varied across the various tissue/fluid compartments studied. Proteomic analysis revealed a morphine-induced suppressive effect in lymph nodes, with decreased abundance of protein mediators involved in the functional categories of energy metabolism, signaling, and maintenance of cell structure. These findings have direct relevance for understanding the impact of heroin addiction and the opioids used to treat addiction as well as on the potential interplay between opioid abuse and the immunological response to an infective agent. PMID:22580588

  20. Morphine produces immunosuppressive effects in nonhuman primates at the proteomic and cellular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph N; Ortiz, Gabriel M; Angel, Thomas E; Jacobs, Jon M; Gritsenko, Marina; Chan, Eric Y; Purdy, David E; Murnane, Robert D; Larsen, Kay; Palermo, Robert E; Shukla, Anil K; Clauss, Theresa R; Katze, Michael G; McCune, Joseph M; Smith, Richard D

    2012-09-01

    Morphine has long been known to have immunosuppressive properties in vivo, but the molecular and immunologic changes induced by it are incompletely understood. To explore how these changes interact with lentiviral infections in vivo, animals from two nonhuman primate species (African green monkeys and pigtailed macaques) were provided morphine and studied using a systems biology approach. Biological specimens were obtained from multiple sources (e.g. lymph node, colon, cerebrospinal fluid, and peripheral blood) before and after the administration of morphine (titrated up to a maximum dose of 5 mg/kg over a period of 20 days). Cellular immune, plasma cytokine, and proteome changes were measured and morphine-induced changes in these parameters were assessed on an interorgan, interindividual, and interspecies basis. In both species, morphine was associated with decreased levels of Ki-67(+) T-cell activation but with only minimal changes in overall T-cell counts, neutrophil counts, and NK cell counts. Although changes in T-cell maturation were observed, these varied across the various tissue/fluid compartments studied. Proteomic analysis revealed a morphine-induced suppressive effect in lymph nodes, with decreased abundance of protein mediators involved in the functional categories of energy metabolism, signaling, and maintenance of cell structure. These findings have direct relevance for understanding the impact of heroin addiction and the opioids used to treat addiction as well as on the potential interplay between opioid abuse and the immunological response to an infective agent.

  1. Mechanism of Laser/light beam interaction at cellular and tissue level and study of the influential factors for the application of low level laser therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khalid, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    After the discovery of laser therapy it was realized it has useful application of wound healing and reduce pain, but due to the poor understanding of the mechanism and dose response this technique remained to be controversial for therapeutic applications. In order to understand the working and effectiveness different experiments were performed to determine the laser beam effect at the cellular and tissue level. This article discusses the mechanism of beam interaction at tissues and cellular level with different light sources and dosimetry principles for clinical application of low level laser therapy. Different application techniques and methods currently in use for clinical treatment has also been reviewed.

  2. On Clustering Time Series Using Euclidean Distance and Pearson Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Berthold, Michael R.; Höppner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    For time series comparisons, it has often been observed that z-score normalized Euclidean distances far outperform the unnormalized variant. In this paper we show that a z-score normalized, squared Euclidean Distance is, in fact, equal to a distance based on Pearson Correlation. This has profound impact on many distance-based classification or clustering methods. In addition to this theoretically sound result we also show that the often used k-Means algorithm formally needs a mod ification to...

  3. SINGLE-CELL LEVEL INVESTIGATION OF CYTOSKELETAL/CELLULAR RESPONSE TO EXTERNAL STIMULI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiddessen, A L

    2007-02-26

    A detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which chemical signals control cell behavior is needed if the complex biological processes of embryogenesis, development, health and disease are to be completely understood. Yet, if we are to fully understand the molecular mechanisms controlling cell behavior, measurements at the single cell level are needed to supplement information gained from population level studies. One of the major challenges to accomplishing studies at the single cell level has been a lack of physical tools to complement the powerful molecular biological assays which have provided much of what we currently know about cell behavior. The goal of this exploratory project is the development of an experimental platform that facilitates integrated observation, tracking and analysis of the responses of many individual cells to controlled environmental factors (e.g. extracellular signals). Toward this goal, we developed chemically-patterned microarrays of both adherent and suspension mammalian cell types. A novel chemical patterning methodology, based on photocatalytic lithography, was developed to construct biomolecule and cell arrays that facilitate analysis of biological function. Our patterning techniques rely on inexpensive stamp materials and visible light, and do not necessitate mass transport or specified substrates. Patterned silicon and glass substrates are modified such that there is a non-biofouling polymer matrix surrounding the adhesive regions that target biomolecules and cells. Fluorescence and reflectance microscopy reveal successful patterning of proteins and single to small clusters of mammalian cells. In vitro assays conducted upon cells on the patterned arrays demonstrate the viability of cells interfacing with this synthetic system. Hence, we have successfully established a versatile cell measurement platform which can be used to characterize the molecular regulators of cellular behavior in a variety of important

  4. Regulation of biofilm formation and cellular buoyancy through modulating intracellular cyclic di-GMP levels in engineered cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Marco; Waters, Christopher M; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2016-02-01

    The second messenger cyclic dimeric (3'→5') GMP (cyclic di-GMP or c-di-GMP) has been implicated in the transition between motile and sessile lifestyles in bacteria. In this study, we demonstrate that biofilm formation, cellular aggregation or flocculation, and cellular buoyancy are under the control of c-di-GMP in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) and Fremyella diplosiphon. Synechocystis is a unicellular cyanobacterium and displays lower levels of c-di-GMP; F. diplosiphon is filamentous and displays higher intracellular c-di-GMP levels. We transformed Synechocystis and F. diplosiphon with a plasmid for constitutive expression of genes encoding diguanylate cylase (DGC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) proteins from Vibrio cholerae or Escherichia coli, respectively. These engineered strains allowed us to modulate intracellular c-di-GMP levels. Biofilm formation and cellular deposition were induced in the DGC-expressing Synechocystis strain which exhibited high intracellular levels of c-di-GMP; whereas strains expressing PDE in Synechocystis and F. diplosiphon to drive low intracellular levels of c-di-GMP exhibited enhanced cellular buoyancy. In addition, the PDE-expressing F. diplosiphon strain showed elevated chlorophyll levels. These results imply roles for coordinating c-di-GMP homeostasis in regulating native cyanobacterial phenotypes. Engineering exogenous DGC or PDE proteins to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP levels represents an effective tool for uncovering cryptic phenotypes or modulating phenotypes in cyanobacteria for practical applications in biotechnology applicable in photobioreactors and in green biotechnologies, such as energy-efficient harvesting of cellular biomass or the treatment of metal-containing wastewaters.

  5. A mathematical model of cortical bone remodeling at cellular level under mechanical stimulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Hua Qin; Ya-Nan Wang

    2012-01-01

    A bone cell population dynamics model for cortical bone remodeling under mechanical stimulus is developed in this paper.The external experiments extracted from the literature which have not been used in the creation of the model are used to test the validity of the model.Not only can the model compare reasonably well with these experimental results such as the increase percentage of final values of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone fracture energy (BFE) among different loading schemes (which proves the validity of the model),but also predict the realtime development pattern of BMC and BFE,as well as the dynamics of osteoblasts (OBA),osteoclasts (OCA),nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for each loading scheme,which can hardly be monitored through experiment.In conclusion,the model is the first of its kind that is able to provide an insight into the quantitative mechanism of bone remodeling at cellular level by which bone cells are activated by mechanical stimulus in order to start resorption/formation of bone mass.More importantly,this model has laid a solid foundation based on which future work such as systemic control theory analysis of bone remodeling under mechanical stimulus can be investigated.The to-be identified control mechanism will help to develop effective drugs and combined nonpharmacological therapies to combat bone loss pathologies.Also this deeper understanding of how mechanical forces quantitatively interact with skeletal tissue is essential for the generation of bone tissue for tissue replacement purposes in tissue engineering.

  6. Morphine Produces Immunosuppressive Effects in Non-human Primates at the Proteomic and Cellular Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Joseph N.; Ortiz, Gabriel M.; Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Chan, Eric Y.; Purdy, David E.; Murnane, Robert D.; Larsen, Kay; Palermo, Robert E.; Shukla, Anil K.; Clauss, Therese RW; Katze, Michael G.; McCune, Joseph M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-05-11

    Morphine has long been known to have immunosuppressive properties in vivo, but the molecular and immunologic changes induced by it are incompletely understood. As a prelude to understanding how these changes might interact with lentiviral infection in vivo, animals from two non-human primate (NHP) species [African green monkey (AGMs) and pigtailed macaque (PTs)] were provided morphine and studied using a systems biology approach. Biological specimens were obtained from multiple sources (e.g., lymph node, colon, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and peripheral blood) before and after the administration of morphine (titrated up to a maximum dose of 5 mg/kg over a period of 20 days). Cellular immune, plasma cytokine, and proteome changes were measured and morphine-induced changes in these parameters were assessed on an inter-organ, inter-individual, and inter-species basis. In both species, morphine was associated with decreased levels of (Ki-67+) T cell activation but with only minimal changes in overall T cell counts, neutrophil counts, and NK cells counts. While changes in T cell maturation were observed, these varied across the various tissue/fluid compartments studied. Proteomic analysis revealed a morphine-induced suppressive effect in the lymph node, with decreased abundance of protein mediators involved in the functional categories of energy metabolism, signaling, and maintenance of cell structure. These findings have relevance for understanding the impact of heroin addiction and the opioids used to treat addiction as well as on the interplay between opioid abuse and the response to infection with agents such as the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV).

  7. Cellular Levels of Signaling Factors Are Sensed by β-actin Alleles to Modulate Transcriptional Pulse Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Kalo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptional response of β-actin to extra-cellular stimuli is a paradigm for transcription factor complex assembly and regulation. Serum induction leads to a precisely timed pulse of β-actin transcription in the cell population. Actin protein is proposed to be involved in this response, but it is not known whether cellular actin levels affect nuclear β-actin transcription. We perturbed the levels of key signaling factors and examined the effect on the induced transcriptional pulse by following endogenous β-actin alleles in single living cells. Lowering serum response factor (SRF protein levels leads to loss of pulse integrity, whereas reducing actin protein levels reveals positive feedback regulation, resulting in elevated gene activation and a prolonged transcriptional response. Thus, transcriptional pulse fidelity requires regulated amounts of signaling proteins, and perturbations in factor levels eliminate the physiological response, resulting in either tuning down or exaggeration of the transcriptional pulse.

  8. Euclidean distance harmonic method for establishing theoretical MAPK/Erk signaling pathway in treated breast cancer line MCF-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-xin; LU Ying-hua; ZHANG Jin-ling

    2007-01-01

    Hierarchical clustering algorithms, such as Pearson's correlation, Euclidean distance, Euclidean distance harmonic,Spearman rank correlation, Kendall's tau, and City-block distance, were used to find the best way to establish theoretical MAPK/Erk signaling pathway on the basis of breast cancer line MCF-7 gene expressions. The algorithm consttucts a hierarchy from top to bottom on the basis of a self-organizing tree. It dynamically finds the number of clusters at each level. It was found that only Euclidean distance harmonic is fit for the analysis of the cascade composed from a RAF1 (c-Raf), a MKNK1, a MAPKK (MEK1/2) to MAPK (Erk) in breast cancer line MCF-7. The result is consistent with the biological experimental MAP/Erk signaling pathway, and the theoretical MAPK/Erk signaling pathway on breast cancer line MCF-7 is set up.

  9. The non-Euclidean revolution with an introduction by H.S.M. Coxeter

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    2001-01-01

    How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America.

  10. A Euclidean bridge to the relativistic constituent quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Timothy; Alberg, Mary; Miller, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    We explore the potential of a Euclidean constituent quark model (ECQM) to bridge the lingering gap between Euclidean and Minkowski field theories in studies of nucleon structure. Specifically, we develop our ECQM using a simplified quark-scalar diquark picture of the nucleon as a first calculation. Our treatment in Euclidean space necessitates a hyperspherical formalism involving polynomial expansions of diquark propagators in order to marry our ECQM with results from Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE) analyses. From this framework, we define and compute a new quantity - a Euclidean density function (EDF) - an object that characterizes the nucleon's various charge distributions as functions of the quark's Euclidean momentum. Applying this technology and incorporating information from BSE analyses, we find the quenched dressing effect on the proton's axial-singlet charge to be small in magnitude and consistent with zero, while use of recent determinations of unquenched BSEs results in a large suppression. The substantial effect we obtain for the impact on the axial-singlet charge of the unquenched dressed vertex compared to the quenched demands further investigation. Work supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER-41014 and NSF Grant No. 1516105.

  11. Complex I Disorders: Causes, Mechanisms, and Development of Treatment Strategies at the Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Federica; Koopman, Werner J. H.; Manjeri, Ganesh R.; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Smeitink, Jan A. M.; Willems, Peter H. G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) represents the final step in the conversion of nutrients into cellular energy. Genetic defects in the OXPHOS system have an incidence between 1:5,000 and 1:10,000 live births. Inherited isolated deficiency of the first complex (CI) of this system, a multisubunit assembly of 45 different proteins,…

  12. Euclidean Maxwell theory in the presence of boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, G

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent progress in the analysis of relativistic gauge conditions for Euclidean Maxwell theory in the presence of boundaries. The corresponding quantum amplitudes are studied by using Faddeev-Popov formalism and zeta-function regularization, after expanding the electromagnetic potential in harmonics on the boundary 3-geometry. This leads to a semiclassical analysis of quantum amplitudes, involving transverse modes, ghost modes, coupled normal and longitudinal modes, and the decoupled normal mode of Maxwell theory. On imposing magnetic or electric boundary conditions, flat Euclidean space bounded by two concentric 3-spheres is found to give rise to gauge-invariant one-loop amplitudes, at least in the cases considered so far. However, when flat Euclidean 4-space is bounded by only one 3-sphere, one-loop amplitudes are gauge-dependent, and the agreement with the covariant formalism is only achieved on studying the Lorentz gauge. Moreover, the effects of gauge modes and ghost modes do not canc...

  13. One-loop diagrams in the random Euclidean matching problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucibello, Carlo; Parisi, Giorgio; Sicuro, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    The matching problem is a notorious combinatorial optimization problem that has attracted for many years the attention of the statistical physics community. Here we analyze the Euclidean version of the problem, i.e., the optimal matching problem between points randomly distributed on a d -dimensional Euclidean space, where the cost to minimize depends on the points' pairwise distances. Using Mayer's cluster expansion we write a formal expression for the replicated action that is suitable for a saddle point computation. We give the diagrammatic rules for each term of the expansion, and we analyze in detail the one-loop diagrams. A characteristic feature of the theory, when diagrams are perturbatively computed around the mean field part of the action, is the vanishing of the mass at zero momentum. In the non-Euclidean case of uncorrelated costs instead, we predict and numerically verify an anomalous scaling for the sub-sub-leading correction to the asymptotic average cost.

  14. Hierarchical Approach in Clustering to Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajar, Abdulah; Herman, Nanna Suryana; Abu, Nur Azman; Shahib, Sahrin

    There has been growing interest in studying combinatorial optimization problems by clustering strategy, with a special emphasis on the traveling salesman problem (TSP). TSP naturally arises as a sub problem in much transportation, manufacturing and logistics application, this problem has caught much attention of mathematicians and computer scientists. A clustering approach will decompose TSP into sub graph and form cluster, so it may reduce problem size into smaller problem. Impact of hierarchical approach will be investigated to produce a better clustering strategy that fit into Euclidean TSP. Clustering strategy to Euclidean TSP consist of two main step, there are; clustering and tour construction. The significant of this research is clustering approach solution result has error less than 10% compare to best known solution (TSPLIB) and there is improvement to a hierarchical clustering algorithm in order to fit in such Euclidean TSP solution method.

  15. Robot sensor calibration: Solving AX = XB on the Euclidean group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, F.C.; Martin, B.J. (Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    The equation AX = XB on the Euclidean group arises in the problem of calibrating wrist-mounted robotic sensors. In this article the authors derive, using methods of Lie theory, a closed-form exact solution that can be visualized geometrically, and a closed-form least squares solution when A and B are measured in the presence of noise. The principal advantage of this approach, aside from its geometric appeal, is that there exists a set of canonical coordinates for the Euclidean group that leads to a particularly simple characterization of the solutions to AX = XB. The solution can be expressed explicitly and also admits a simple geometric visualization.

  16. An empirical and theoretical critique of the Euclidean index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    The recently proposed Euclidean index offers a novel approach to measure the citation impact of academic authors, in particular as an alternative to the h-index. We test if the index provides new, robust information, not covered by existing bibliometric indicators, discuss the measurement scale...... and the degree of distinction between analytical units the index offers. We find that the Euclidean index does not outperform existing indicators on these topics and that the main application of the index would be solely for ranking, which is not seen as a recommended practice....

  17. Norm-Euclidean Galois fields and the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    McGown, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH), we show that the norm-Euclidean Galois cubic fields are exactly those with discriminant $\\Delta=7^2,9^2,13^2,19^2,61^2,67^2,103^2,109^2,127^2,157^2$. A large part of the proof is in establishing the following more general result: Let $K$ be a Galois number field of odd prime degree $\\ell$ and conductor $f$. Assume the GRH for $\\zeta_K(s)$. If $38(\\ell-1)^2(\\log f)^6\\log\\log fEuclidean.

  18. Classification of flat slant surfaces in complex Euclidean plane

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bang-Yen

    2002-01-01

    It is well-known that the classification of flat surfaces in Euclidean 3space is one of the most basic results in differential geometry. For surfaces in the complex Euclidean plane $C^{2}$ endowed with almost complex structure $J$ , flat surfaces are the simplest ones from intrinsic point of views. On the other hand, from $J$ -action point of views, the most natural surfaces in $C^{2}$ are slant surfaces, i.e., surfaces with constant Wintinger angle. In this paper the author completely classi...

  19. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  20. Timed Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (tFEED) maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco; Broek, van den Egon L.; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Laplante, Philip A.

    2005-01-01

    In image and video analysis, distance maps are frequently used. They provide the (Euclidean) distance (ED) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. In a naive implementation, each object pixel feeds its (exact) ED to each background pixel; then the minimum of these values denotes the ED to

  1. Smoothed analysis of partitioning algorithms for Euclidean functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra

    2013-01-01

    Euclidean optimization problems such as TSP and minimum-length matching admit fast partitioning algorithms that compute near-optimal solutions on typical instances. In order to explain this performance, we develop a general framework for the application of smoothed analysis to partitioning algorithm

  2. The toroidal Hausdorff dimension of 2d Euclidean quantum gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Budd, Timothy George

    2013-01-01

    The lengths of shortest non-contractible loops are studied numerically in 2d Euclidean quantum gravity on a torus coupled to conformal field theories with central charge less than one. We find that the distribution of these geodesic lengths displays a scaling in agreement with a Hausdorff dimension...

  3. Weierstrass representations for harmonic morphisms on Euclidean spaces and spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Baird, P

    1995-01-01

    We construct large families of harmonic morphisms which are holomorphic with respect to Hermitian structures by finding heierarchies of Weierstrass-type representations. This enables us to find new examples of complex-valued harmonic morphisms from Euclidean spaces and spheres.

  4. From geometry to algebra: the Euclidean way with technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarello, Daniela; Flavia Mammana, Maria; Pennisi, Mario

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an experimental classroom activity, history-based with a phylogenetic approach, to achieve algebra properties through geometry. In particular, we used Euclidean propositions, processed them by a dynamic geometry system and translate them into algebraic special products.

  5. A Note on Minimal Surfaces in Euclidean 3-Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Huan YU; Qing Zhong LI

    2007-01-01

    In this note, a construction of minimal surfaces in Euclidean 3-space is given. By using the product of Weierstrass data of two known minimal surfaces, one gets a new Weierstrass data and a corresponding minimal surface from the Weierstrass representation.

  6. Euclidean Quantum Field Theory on Commutative and Noncommutative Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulkenhaar, R.

    I give an introduction to Euclidean quantum field theory from the point of view of statistical physics, with emphasis both on Feynman graphs and on the Wilson-Polchinski approach to renormalisation. In the second part I discuss attempts to renormalise quantum field theories on noncommutative spaces.

  7. Convex bodies in Euclidean and Weil-Petersson geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    On a convex body in a Euclidean space, we introduce a new variational formulation for its Funk metric, a Finsler metric compatible with the tautological Finsler structure of the convex body. We generalize the metric on Teichmuller spaces with the Weil-Petersson distance function. A set of similarities the resulting metric structure shares with Thurston's asymmetric metric is noted.

  8. Serum cortisol level in cerebral infarction patients with infection and its correlation with nerve function, humoral immunity and cellular immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-Min Zhai; Hui-Qi Li; Jian-Bo He; Hai-Guo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the serum cortisol level in cerebral infarction patients with infection and its correlation with nerve function, humoral immunity and cellular immunity.Methods:A total of 86 patients with cerebral infarction were divided into observation group (cerebral infarction combined with infection) (n=40) and control group (cerebral infarction alone) (n=46) according to the combination of infection. Serum content of cortisol, nerve function-related indexes and humoral immunity indexes as well as peripheral blood levels of cellular immunity indexes of two groups of patients were determined on admission, and the correlation between serum cortisol level and the above illness-related indexes in cerebral infarction patients with infection was further analyzed.Results: Serum cortisol content of observation group was significantly higher than that of control group; serum nerve function indexes S100β, GFAP, Hcy and HO1 content were significantly higher than those of control group while IGF-1 content was significantly lower than that of control group; humoral immunity indexes IgA, IgM, IgG, C3 and C4 content in serum were significantly lower than those of control group; cellular immunity indexes CD3+, CD4+ and CD54+T lymphocyte content in peripheral blood were significantly lower than those of control group while CD19+T lymphocyte content and CD4+/CD8+ level were significantly higher than those of control group; hemodynamic indexes rCBF and rCBV levels were significantly lower than those of control group while MTT, TTP and DLY levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Serum cortisol level in cerebral infarction patients with infection was directly correlated with the levels of nerve function, humoral immunity, cellular immunity and other illness-related indexes. Conclusions:The high cortisol state in cerebral infarction patients with infection is the visual sign of severe nerve function damage and suppressed immune function, and it can be a

  9. Stress testing at the cellular and molecular level to unravel cellular dysfunction and growth factor signal transduction defects: what Molecular Cell Biology can learn from Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Johannes

    2007-11-01

    Clinical medicine has been revolutionized by the impact of cellular and molecular biology in the past 30 years. This article focuses on a novel approach, whereby the clinically proven and important concept of patient or organ stress testing is being applied to cellular models, thereby developing and validating novel quantitative molecular and cellular stress tests. One example is monocyte chemotaxis analysis, whereby circulating monocytes freshly isolated from peripheral blood are being tested for their migratory responsiveness towards relevant biological stimuli such as growth factors or chemokines. These stimuli are relevant for recruiting monocytes to sites of local inflammation such as during wound healing or arteriogenesis, i.e. growth of collateral arteries. Initial clinical studies to validate "ligand-induced monocyte chemotaxis" indicate that this parameter is impaired in the presence of various cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia or smoking. In addition, there is proof of concept that impaired monocyte chemotaxis is reversible as shown for anti-oxidants in smokers. Moreover, the parameter "ligand-induced monocyte chemotaxis" is of great relevance for basic science (including Molecular Cell Biology) as unravelling the underlying molecular mechanisms of cellular dysfunction will certainly stimulate our understanding of the molecular basis of cellular function. This article highlights the concept of stress testing in modern medicine. Cellular stress testing is introduced as a novel and intriguing approach, which was developed as bedside-to-bench. Future prospective clinical trials will have to validate the predictive value of cellular stress testing.

  10. Euclidean quantum field theory: Curved spacetimes and gauge fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William Gordon

    This thesis presents a new formulation of quantum field theory (QFT) on curved spacetimes, with definite advantages over previous formulations, and an introduction to the millennium prize problem on four-dimensional gauge theory. Our constructions are completely rigorous, making QFT on curved spacetimes into a subfield of mathematics, and we achieve the first analytic control over nonperturbative aspects of interacting theories on curved spacetimes. The success of Euclidean path integrals to capture nonperturbative aspects of QFT has been striking. The Euclidean path integral is the most accurate method of calculating strong-coupling effects in gauge theory (such as glueball masses). Euclidean methods are also useful in the study of black holes, as evidenced by the Hartle-Hawking calculation of black-hole radiance. From a mathematical point of view, on flat spacetimes the Euclidean functional integral provides the most elegant method of constructing examples of interacting relativistic field theories. Yet until now, the incredibly-useful Euclidean path integral had never been given a definitive mathematical treatment on curved backgrounds. It is our aim to rectify this situation. Along the way, we discover that the Dirac operator on an arbitrary Clifford bundle has a resolvent kernel which is the Laplace transform of a positive measure. In studying spacetime symmetries, we discover a new way of constructing unitary representations of noncompact Lie groups. We also define and explore an interesting notion of convergence for Laplacians. The same mathematical framework applies to scalar fields, fermions, and gauge fields. The later chapters are devoted to gauge theory. We present a rigorous, self-contained introduction to the subject, aimed at mathematicians and using the language of modern mathematics, with a view towards nonperturbative renormalization in four dimensions. The latter ideas are unfinished. A completion of the final chapter would imply the construction

  11. Hierarchical random cellular neural networks for system-level brain-like signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert; Puljic, Marko

    2013-09-01

    Sensory information processing and cognition in brains are modeled using dynamic systems theory. The brain's dynamic state is described by a trajectory evolving in a high-dimensional state space. We introduce a hierarchy of random cellular automata as the mathematical tools to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of the cortex. The corresponding brain model is called neuropercolation which has distinct advantages compared to traditional models using differential equations, especially in describing spatio-temporal discontinuities in the form of phase transitions. Phase transitions demarcate singularities in brain operations at critical conditions, which are viewed as hallmarks of higher cognition and awareness experience. The introduced Monte-Carlo simulations obtained by parallel computing point to the importance of computer implementations using very large-scale integration (VLSI) and analog platforms.

  12. Resveratrol inhibits KSHV reactivation by lowering the levels of cellular EGR-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossie F Dyson

    Full Text Available In the field of herpesvirus research, the exact molecular mechanism by which such viruses reactivate from latency remains elusive. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV primarily exists in a latent state, while only 1-3% of cells support lytic infection at any specific time. KSHV reactivation from latency is an exceedingly intricate process mediated by the integration of viral and cellular factors. Previously, our lab has described early growth response-1 (Egr-1 as an essential component for the KSHV reactivation process via its ability to mediate transcription of KSHV ORF50, the gene encoding for replication and transcription activator (RTA, a viral component known to control the switch from latent to lytic infection. In here, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiments revealed that Egr-1 binds KSHV ORF50 promoter (ORF50P in at least two different GC-rich binding domains. Expression profiles of cellular egr-1 and KSHV-encoded ORF50 follow a similar pattern during de novo KSHV infection. Over-expressing Egr-1, a signaling component downstream of Raf>MEK>ERK1/2, in KSHV-infected cells activates KSHV lytic replication. Through performing more physiologically relevant experiments, we analyzed the effect of a dietary supplement containing resveratrol on KSHV-infected cells. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate resveratrol to act in lowering ERK1/2 activity and expression of Egr-1 in KSHV-infected cells, resulting in the suppression of virus reactivation from latency. Taken together, these findings will undoubtedly contribute to future studies on not only combating KSHV related disease conditions, but also on other herpesviruses-induced pathogenesis.

  13. CBFA1 and topoisomerase I mRNA levels decline during cellular aging of human trabecular osteoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M; Kveiborg, Marie; Kassem, M

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand the reasons for age-related impairment of the function of bone forming osteoblasts, we have examined the steady-state mRNA levels of the transcription factor CBFA1 and topoisomerase I during cellular aging of normal human trabecular osteoblasts, by the use of semiquantitative...... reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). There is a progressive and significant reduction of the CBFA1 steady-state mRNA level down to 50% during cellular aging of human osteoblasts. In comparison to the normal cells, human osteosarcoma cell lines SaOS-2 and KHOS/NP, and the SV40......-transformed human lung fibroblast cell line MRC5V2 have 20 to 40% higher levels of CBFA1 mRNA. Similar levels of CBFA1 mRNA are detectable in normal human skin fibroblasts, and these cells also exhibit an age-related decline to the same extent. In addition, the expression of topoisomerase I is reduced by 40...

  14. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  15. Antioxidant factors, nitric oxide levels, and cellular damage in leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taysa Ribeiro Schalcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The immune response caused by Mycobacterium leprae is a risk factor for the development of oxidative stress (OS in leprosy patients. This study aimed to assess OS in leprosy patients before the use of a multidrug therapy. Methods We evaluated the nitric oxide (NO concentration; antioxidant capacity; levels of malondialdehyde, methemoglobin and reduced glutathione; and the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD in leprosy patients. Results We observed lower SOD activity in these leprosy patients; however, the NO levels and antioxidant capacity were increased. Conclusions The infectious process in response to M. leprae could primarily be responsible for the OS observed in these patients.

  16. Riemannian means on special euclidean group and unipotent matrices group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaomin; Sun, Huafei; Peng, Linyu

    2013-01-01

    Among the noncompact matrix Lie groups, the special Euclidean group and the unipotent matrix group play important roles in both theoretic and applied studies. The Riemannian means of a finite set of the given points on the two matrix groups are investigated, respectively. Based on the left invariant metric on the matrix Lie groups, the geodesic between any two points is gotten. And the sum of the geodesic distances is taken as the cost function, whose minimizer is the Riemannian mean. Moreover, a Riemannian gradient algorithm for computing the Riemannian mean on the special Euclidean group and an iterative formula for that on the unipotent matrix group are proposed, respectively. Finally, several numerical simulations in the 3-dimensional case are given to illustrate our results.

  17. The efficient algorithms for achieving Euclidean distance transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Frank Y; Wu, Yi-Ta

    2004-08-01

    Euclidean distance transformation (EDT) is used to convert a digital binary image consisting of object (foreground) and nonobject (background) pixels into another image where each pixel has a value of the minimum Euclidean distance from nonobject pixels. In this paper, the improved iterative erosion algorithm is proposed to avoid the redundant calculations in the iterative erosion algorithm. Furthermore, to avoid the iterative operations, the two-scan-based algorithm by a deriving approach is developed for achieving EDT correctly and efficiently in a constant time. Besides, we discover when obstacles appear in the image, many algorithms cannot achieve the correct EDT except our two-scan-based algorithm. Moreover, the two-scan-based algorithm does not require the additional cost of preprocessing or relative-coordinates recording.

  18. Lorentz connection from a conformal gauge theory of Euclidean space

    CERN Document Server

    Hazboun, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    The quotient of the conformal group of Euclidean 4-space by its Weyl subgroup results in a geometry possessing many of the properties of relativistic phase space, including both a natural symplectic form and non-degenerate Killing metric. When we complete the identification with phase space by requiring the existence of orthogonal, canonically conjugate, metric submanifolds, we find that the induced metric and the spin connection are Lorentzian on the submanifolds, despite the Euclidean starting pont. By examining the structure equations of the biconformal space in an orthonormal frame adapted to its phase space properties, we also find that two new tensor fields emerge from this geometry. The first is a combination of the scale factor on the metric with the Weyl vector. The second comes from the components of the spin connection, symmetric with respect to the new metric. Though this field comes from the spin connection it transforms homogeneously.

  19. Embedding spacetime via a geodesically equivalent metric of Euclidean signature

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Rickard

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the equations of motion in a 1 + 1 static, diagonal, Lorentzian spacetime, such as the Schwarzschild radial line element, I find another metric, but with Euclidean signature, which produces the same geodesics x(t). This geodesically equivalent, or dual, metric can be embedded in ordinary Euclidean space. On the embedded surface freely falling particles move on the shortest path. Thus one can visualize how acceleration in a gravitational field is explained by particles moving freely in a curved spacetime. Freedom in the dual metric allows us to display, with substantial curvature, even the weak gravity of our Earth. This may provide a nice pedagogical tool for elementary lectures on general relativity. I also study extensions of the dual metric scheme to higher dimensions. In an addendum I extend the analysis concerning the shape of an embedding of the dual spacetime of a line through a planet of constant proper density.

  20. Euclidean 4d exact solitons in a Skyrme type model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, L.A. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, IFSC/USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, CEP 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil) and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT/UNESP, Universidade Estadula Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, 01405-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: laf@if.sc.usp.br

    2005-01-27

    We introduce a Skyrme type, four-dimensional Euclidean field theory made of a triplet of scalar fields n->, taking values on the sphere S{sup 2}, and an additional real scalar field {phi}, which is dynamical only on a three-dimensional surface embedded in R{sup 4}. Using a special ansatz we reduce the 4d non-linear equations of motion into linear ordinary differential equations, which lead to the construction of an infinite number of exact soliton solutions with vanishing Euclidean action. The theory possesses a mass scale which fixes the size of the solitons in way which differs from Derrick's scaling arguments. The model may be relevant to the study of the low energy limit of pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.

  1. Active biopolymer networks generate scale-free but euclidean clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, M; Alvarado, J; Koenderink, G H; MacKintosh, F C

    2014-01-01

    We report analytical and numerical modelling of active elastic networks, motivated by experiments on crosslinked actin networks contracted by myosin motors. Within a broad range of parameters, the motor-driven collapse of active elastic networks leads to a critical state. We show that this state is qualitatively different from that of the random percolation model. Intriguingly, it possesses both euclidean and scale-free structure with Fisher exponent smaller than $2$. Remarkably, an indistinguishable Fisher exponent and the same euclidean structure is obtained at the critical point of the random percolation model after absorbing all enclaves into their surrounding clusters. We propose that in the experiment the enclaves are absorbed due to steric interactions of network elements. We model the network collapse, taking into account the steric interactions. The model shows how the system robustly drives itself towards the critical point of the random percolation model with absorbed enclaves, in agreement with th...

  2. Learning to Detect Spam: Naive-Euclidean Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Y.T. Chan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed for learning to classify spam and nonspamemails. It combines the strategy of the Best Stepwise Feature Selection with a classifier of Euclidean nearest-neighbor. Each text email is first transformed into a vector of D-dimensional Euclidean space. Emails were divided into training and test sets in the manner of 10-fold crossvalidation. Three experiments were performed, and their elapsed CPU times and accuracies reported. The proposed spam detection learner was found to be extremely fast in recognition and with good error rates. It could be used as a baseline learning agent, in terms of CPU time and accuracy, against which other learning agents can be measured.

  3. Change of Measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymann Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cosmological distances is approached using a method based on the propagation of light in an expanding Universe. From the chan ge of measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances, a formula is deri ved to compute distances as a function of redshift. This formula is identical to Matti g’s formula (with q 0 = 1 / 2 which is based on Friedmann’s equations of general relativi ty.

  4. Special geometry of Euclidean supersymmetry I: Vector multiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, V.; Mayer, C.; Saueressig, F.; Mohaupt, T. E-mail: mohaupt@tpi.uni-jena.de

    2004-02-01

    We construct the general action for Abelian vector multiplets in rigid 4-dimensional Euclidean (instead of Minkowskian) N=2 supersymmetry, i.e., over space-times with a positive definite instead of a Lorentzian metric. The target manifolds for the scalar fields turn out to be para-complex manifolds endowed with a particular kind of special geometry, which we call affine special para-Kahler geometry. We give the precise definition and develop the mathematical theory of such manifolds. The relation to the affine special Kahler manifolds appearing in Minkowskian N=2 supersymmetry is discussed. Starting from the general five-dimensional vector multiplet action we consider dimensional reduction over time and space in parallel, providing a dictionary between the resulting Euclidean and Minkowskian theories. Then we reanalyze supersymmetry in four dimensions and find that any (para-)holomorphic prepotential defines a supersymmetric Lagrangian, provided that we add a specific four-fermion term, which cannot be obtained by dimensional reduction. We show that the Euclidean action and supersymmetry transformations, when written in terms of para-holomorphic coordinates, take exactly the same form as their Minkowskina counterparts. The appearance of a para-complex and complex structure in the Euclidean and Minkowskian theory, respectively, is traced back to properties of the underlying R-symmetry groups. Finally, we indicate how our work will be extended to other types of multiplets and to supergravity in the future and explain the relevance of this project for the study of instantons, solitons and cosmological solutions in supergravity and M-theory. (author)

  5. Bilipschitz embeddings of metric spaces into Euclidean spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Semmes, S.

    1999-01-01

    When does a metric space admit a bilipschitz embedding into some finite-dimensional Euclidean space? There does not seem to be a simple answer to this question. Results of Assouad [A1], [A2], [A3] do provide a simple answer if one permits some small («snowflake») deformations of the metric, but unfortunately these deformations immediately disrupt some basic aspects of geometry and analysis, like rectifiability, differentiability, and curves of finite length. Here we discuss a (somewhat techni...

  6. Notes on W-direction curves in Euclidean 3-space

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, İlkay Arslan; Nurkan, Semra Kaya; Tor, İpek Ağaoğlu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the spherical indicatrices of W-direction curves in three dimensional Euclidean space which were defined by using the unit Darboux vector field W of a Frenet curve, in [11]. We obtain the Frenet apparatus of these spherical indicatrix curves and the characterizations of being general helix and slant helix. Moreover we give some properties between the spherical indicatrix curves and their associated curves. Then we investigate two special ruled surface that are normal a...

  7. Non-Euclidean Fourier inversion on super-hyperbolic space

    OpenAIRE

    Alldridge, Alexander; Palzer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    For the super-hyperbolic space in any dimension, we introduce the non-Euclidean Helgason--Fourier transform. We prove an inversion formula exhibiting residue contributions at the poles of the Harish-Chandra c-function, signalling discrete parts in the spectrum. The proof is based on a detailed study of the spherical superfunctions, using recursion relations and localization techniques to normalize them precisely, careful estimates of their derivatives, and a rigorous analysis of the boundary ...

  8. Algorithms for degree-constrained Euclidean Steiner minimal tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jin; Ma Liang; Zhang Liantang

    2008-01-01

    A new problem of degree-constrained Euclidean Steiner minimal tree is discussed,which is quite useful in several fields.Although it is slightly different from the traditional degree-constrained minimal spanning tree,it is aho NP-hard.Two intelligent algorithms are proposed in an attempt to solve this difficult problem.Series of numerical examples are tested,which demonstrate that the algorithms also work well in practice.

  9. Mitigation of radiation-induced hematopoietic injury via regulation of cellular MAPK/phosphatase levels and increasing hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, R S; Sharma, Deepak; Checker, Rahul; Sandur, Santosh K

    2014-03-01

    Here we describe a novel strategy for mitigation of ionizing radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome by suppressing the activity of MKP3, resulting in ERK activation and enhanced abundance of hematopoietic stem cells, using the antioxidant flavonoid baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone). It offered complete protection to mouse splenic lymphocytes against radiation-induced cell death. Inhibitors of ERK and Nrf-2 could significantly abrogate baicalein-mediated radioprotection in lymphocytes. Baicalein inhibited phosphatase MKP3 and thereby enhanced phosphorylation of ERK and its downstream proteins such as Elk and Nrf-2. It also increased the nuclear levels of Nrf-2 and the mRNA levels of its dependent genes. Importantly, baicalein administration to mice before radiation exposure led to significant recovery of loss of bone marrow cellularity and also inhibited cell death. Administration of baicalein increased the hematopoietic stem cell frequency as measured by side-population assay and also by antibody staining. Further, baicalein offered significant protection against whole-body irradiation (WBI; 7.5Gy)-induced mortality in mice. Interestingly, we found that baicalein works by activating the same target molecules ERK and Nrf-2 both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, administration of all-trans-retinoic acid (inhibitor of Nrf-2) significantly abrogated baicalein-mediated protection against WBI-induced mortality in mice. Thus, in contrast to the generalized conception of antioxidants acting as radioprotectors, we provide a rationale that antioxidants exhibit pleiotropic effects through the activation of multiple cellular signaling pathways.

  10. Statistical assessment of trophic conditions: squared Euclidean distance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Ratanachai

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The classification of trophic conditions of water bodies may often face contradictory cases where a given lake is classified into a trophic category from a trophic variable, whereas it is classified into another trophic category from other trophic variables. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new methodology based on the concepts of squared Euclidean distance and the boundary values recommended by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This methodology requires that a trophic variable data set of a water body under consideration and such boundary values be compared by a measure of similarity computed by using basic statistical techniques to determine the trophic condition of a given water body. The methodology has been tested by applying it to two sample data sets: the Pattani Dam Reservoir and the North Adriatic Sea data sets, which were taken from Kietpawpan (2002 and Zurlini (1996, respectively. The squared Euclidean distance analysis were then applied to the above data sets in order to classifytrophic conditions, based on four trophic variables comprising total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophylla, and Secchi depth. Our results show that the squared Euclidean distance analysis is a useful methodology for preliminarily classifying trophic conditions and solving contradictory classifications, which often arise when applying the present OECD methodology alone.

  11. Efficient Uplink Modeling for Dynamic System-Level Simulations of Cellular and Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobinger Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel theoretical framework for uplink simulations is proposed. It allows investigations which have to cover a very long (real- time and which at the same time require a certain level of accuracy in terms of radio resource management, quality of service, and mobility. This is of particular importance for simulations of self-organizing networks. For this purpose, conventional system level simulators are not suitable due to slow simulation speeds far beyond real-time. Simpler, snapshot-based tools are lacking the aforementioned accuracy. The runtime improvements are achieved by deriving abstract theoretical models for the MAC layer behavior. The focus in this work is long term evolution, and the most important uplink effects such as fluctuating interference, power control, power limitation, adaptive transmission bandwidth, and control channel limitations are considered. Limitations of the abstract models will be discussed as well. Exemplary results are given at the end to demonstrate the capability of the derived framework.

  12. Cellular Zinc Levels are Modulated by Trpml1-Tmem163 Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is caused by loss of function mutations in the TRPML1 ion channel. We previously reported that tissue zinc levels in MLIV were abnormally elevated; however, the mechanism behind this pathologic accumulation remains unknown. Here, we identify transmembrane (TMEM)-163 protein, a putative zinc transporter, as a novel interacting partner for TRPML1. Evidence from yeast two-hybrid, tissue expression pattern, co-immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and...

  13. Changes in the level and distribution of Ku proteins during cellular senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seluanov, Andrei; Danek, Jacquelynn; Hause, Nola; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-01-01

    Aging is associated with accumulation of genomic rearrangements consistent with aberrant repair of DNA breaks. We have shown previously that DNA repair by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) becomes less efficient and more error-prone in senescent cells. Here we show that the levels of Ku70 and Ku80 drop approximately two fold in replicatively senescent cells. Intracellular distribution of Ku also changes. In the young cells roughly half of Ku is located in the nucleus and half in the cytoplasm. In senescent cells the nuclear levels of Ku do not change, while the cytoplasmic Ku fraction disappears. Upon treatment with gamma-irradiation, in the young cells cytoplasmic Ku moved into the nuclear and membrane fractions, while no change in the Ku distribution occurred in senescent cells. Upon treatment with UVC Ku moved out of the nucleus in the young cells, while most Ku remained nuclear in senescent cells. This suggests that the nuclear Ku in senescent cells is unable to respond to DNA damage. We hypothesize that overall decline in Ku levels, changes in Ku intracellular distribution, and the loss of appropriate response of Ku to DNA damage in senescent cells contribute to the decline of NHEJ and to age-related genomic instability. PMID:17686666

  14. Folding of non-Euclidean curved shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bende, Nakul; Evans, Arthur; Innes-Gold, Sarah; Marin, Luis; Cohen, Itai; Santangelo, Christian; Hayward, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Origami-based folding of 2D sheets has been of recent interest for a variety of applications ranging from deployable structures to self-folding robots. Though folding of planar sheets follows well-established principles, folding of curved shells involves an added level of complexity due to the inherent influence of curvature on mechanics. In this study, we use principles from differential geometry and thin shell mechanics to establish fundamental rules that govern folding of prototypical creased shells. In particular, we show how the normal curvature of a crease line controls whether the deformation is smooth or discontinuous, and investigate the influence of shell thickness and boundary conditions. We show that snap-folding of shells provides a route to rapid actuation on time-scales dictated by the speed of sound. The simple geometric design principles developed can be applied at any length-scale, offering potential for bio-inspired soft actuators for tunable optics, microfluidics, and robotics. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation through EFRI ODISSEI-1240441 with additional support to S.I.-G. through the UMass MRSEC DMR-0820506 REU program.

  15. Relation cellular- molecular between serum IL10 levels and hyperalgesia variation in adjuvant- induced arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenab Akhtari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding to the important anti-inflammatory role of IL10 during inflammation process and hyperalgesia and edema variation during CFA-induced arthritis and also the increase of Spinal mu opioid receptor (mOR expression, in this study researchers investigate the role of serum IL10 level on mOR expression and edema and hyperalgesia variation during different stages of Complete Freund`s Adjuvant (CFA - induced arthritis in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Mono-arthritis was induced by CFA and inflammatory symptoms (hyperalgesia and edema were assessed on 0, 3, 7, 14th and 21st days of study. Anti-IL10 was administered during the 21 days of study in different experimental groups. mOR expression were detected by western blotting on 0, 3,7, 14th and 21st days of study. Data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 19 with using one way ANOVA (post hoc Tokey's. Results: Our results showed that anti-IL10 administration in AA group (Adjuvant Arthritis caused an increase in the paw volume and hyperalgesia until 21st of study. Our study stated that there were no significant differences in spinal mOR expression between AA and AA+anti-IL10rats. Conclusion: Our study confirmed that anti-IL10administration caused to hyperalgesia and edema during AA inflammation. Also these findings suggested that mOR expression increased in chronic phase of AA inflammation, however an increase in the level of spinal mu opioid receptor (mOR expression during AA inflammation is not mediated directly via the effect of serum IL-10.

  16. c-Myc and AMPK Control Cellular Energy Levels by Cooperatively Regulating Mitochondrial Structure and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia R Edmunds

    Full Text Available The c-Myc (Myc oncoprotein and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK regulate glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (Oxphos although often for different purposes. Because Myc over-expression depletes ATP with the resultant activation of AMPK, we explored the potential co-dependency of and cross-talk between these proteins by comparing the consequences of acute Myc induction in ampk+/+ (WT and ampk-/- (KO murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs. KO MEFs showed a higher basal rate of glycolysis than WT MEFs and an appropriate increase in response to activation of a Myc-estrogen receptor (MycER fusion protein. However, KO MEFs had a diminished ability to increase Oxphos, mitochondrial mass and reactive oxygen species in response to MycER activation. Other differences between WT and KO MEFs, either in the basal state or following MycER induction, included abnormalities in electron transport chain function, levels of TCA cycle-related oxidoreductases and cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox states. Transcriptional profiling of pathways pertinent to glycolysis, Oxphos and mitochondrial structure and function also uncovered significant differences between WT and KO MEFs and their response to MycER activation. Finally, an unbiased mass-spectrometry (MS-based survey capable of quantifying ~40% of all mitochondrial proteins, showed about 15% of them to be AMPK- and/or Myc-dependent in their steady state. Significant differences in the activities of the rate-limiting enzymes pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, which dictate pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A abundance, were also differentially responsive to Myc and AMPK and could account for some of the differences in basal metabolite levels that were also detected by MS. Thus, Myc and AMPK are highly co-dependent and appear to engage in significant cross-talk across numerous pathways which support metabolic and ATP-generating functions.

  17. Tinnitus: pathology of synaptic plasticity at the cellular and system levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu J Guitton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite being more and more common, and having a high impact on the quality of life of sufferers, tinnitus does not yet have a cure. This has been mostly the result of limited knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying this adverse pathology. However, the last decade has witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. Animal models have demonstrated that tinnitus is a pathology of neural plasticity, and has two main components: a molecular, peripheral component related to the initiation phase of tinnitus; and a system-level, central component related to the long-term maintenance of tinnitus. Using the most recent experimental data and the molecular/system dichotomy as a framework, we describe here the biological basis of tinnitus. We then discuss these mechanisms from an evolutionary perspective, highlighting similarities with memory. Finally, we consider how these discoveries can translate into therapies, and we suggest operative strategies to design new and effective combined therapeutic solutions using both pharmacological (local and systemic and behavioral tools (e.g., using tele-medicine and virtual reality settings.

  18. Sperm quality evaluation in Solea senegalensis during the reproductive season at cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, J; Soares, F; Herráez, M P; Dinis, M T; Cabrita, E

    2009-12-01

    Sperm quality seems to be one of the reasons for the reproduction constraints faced by Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) aquaculturists. Previous studies in this species indicated that the sperm quality of individuals kept in culture varies throughout the year and that different sperm subpopulations can be identified in ejaculates according to the motility pattern of spermatozoa. Aiming to better understand factors affecting sole sperm quality in captivity, sperm of 11 males was assessed during the reproductive season using different parameters: motility characteristics using CASA analysis; cell plasma membrane resistance to seawater hyperosmolarity; DNA fragmentation with single-cell gel electrophoresis; and early apoptosis, labeled with Annexin-V FITC. Computer-assisted sperm analyses motility data were treated using multivariate analysis to identify the presence of different spermatozoa subpopulations according to their motility pattern. Four distinct sperm subpopulations were obtained: Subpop1, which includes fast linear spermatozoa; Subpop2, made up of fast nonlinear spermatozoa; Subpop3, which includes slow linear spermatozoa; and Subpop4, which contains slow nonlinear spermatozoa. The sperm subpopulation structure varied with time after activation and with male. Low cell resistance to the seawater hyperosmotic conditions was noticed. The Annexin-V assay allowed the identification of an apoptotic population ranging from 6% to 20%. A high percentage of cells (64.1%) showed a DNA fragmentation level below 30%, but these values varied significantly between males. DNA fragmentation appears to be related to cell membrane resistance to hyperosmotic conditions faced by the cells when in contact with seawater. This condition seems to modulate the composition of the motile sperm population and performance after activation. This phenomenon could be related to the spermatozoa maturation process.

  19. Finiteness due to cellular structure of R[sup N] I. Quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, A.A. (Inst. of Theoretical Physics, Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands)); Zoupanos, G. (Dept. of Physics, National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece))

    1994-04-01

    We construct a cellular space which has as a continuous limit the Euclidean space R[sup N]. We consider quantum mechanics on this cellular space and we examine in particular an harmonic oscillator and a free particle on the cellular R[sup 1], R[sup 2] respectively. In both cases we find that the energy spectrum is bounded from above. (orig.)

  20. Cellular immune responses of filaria (Litomosoides sigmodontis) infected BALB/c mice detected on the level of cytokine transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, A; Zahner, H

    2001-08-01

    Cellular immune responses of BALB/c mice infected with 80 or 160 L3 of Litomosoides sigmodontis were studied over a period of 200 days postinfection (p.i.) by stimulating spleen cells with specific microfilariae and adult antigens and Concanavalin A (Con A). Effects were determined as the level of transcription of cytokine genes [interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13] employing a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique. Con A stimulation resulted in generally enhanced transcription levels in infected animals. Exposure to filarial antigens stimulated T cells of infected animals dependent on time p.i. There was a general strong response in the early prepatency (24 days p.i.), a temporary almost complete downregulation of cytokine gene transcription except IL-10 towards the end of prepatency (45 days p.i.), and subsequently strong reactions particularly concerning IFN-gamma and IL-13 during patency and postpatency. The dose of infection as well as the mode of antigenic stimulation had generally only small effects on the cytokine gene transcription: following the same type of kinetics, infection with 160 L3 as well as the use of microfilarial antigen generally induced lower levels of cytokine gene transcription compared with infection with 80 L3 and stimulation with female antigen, respectively.

  1. Some Properties of Fractals Generated by Linear Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪天佳

    2003-01-01

    Fractals and cellular automata are both significant areas of research in nonlinear analysis. This paper studies a class of fractals generated by cellular automata. The patterns produced by cellular automata give a special sequence of sets in Euclidean space. The corresponding limit set is shown to be a fractal and the dimension is independent of the choice of the finite initial seed. As opposed to previous works, the fractals here do not depend on the time parameter.

  2. Phase shift extraction algorithm based on Euclidean matrix norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Wang, Hankun; Zhang, Desi; Zhong, Liyun; Fan, Jinping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, the character of Euclidean matrix norm (EMN) of the intensity difference between phase-shifting interferograms, which changes in sinusoidal form with the phase shifts, is presented. Based on this character, an EMN phase shift extraction algorithm is proposed. Both the simulation calculation and experimental research show that the phase shifts with high precision can be determined with the proposed EMN algorithm easily. Importantly, the proposed EMN algorithm will supply a powerful tool for the rapid calibration of the phase shifts.

  3. Linear Weingarten surfaces in Euclidean and hyperbolic space

    CERN Document Server

    López, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review some author's results about Weingarten surfaces in Euclidean space $\\r^3$ and hyperbolic space $\\h^3$. We stress here in the search of examples of linear Weingarten surfaces that satisfy a certain geometric property. First, we consider Weingarten surfaces in $\\r^3$ that are foliated by circles, proving that the surface is rotational, a Riemann example or a generalized cone. Next we classify rotational surfaces in $\\r^3$ of hyperbolic type showing that there exist surfaces that are complete. Finally, we study linear Weingarten surfaces in $\\h^3$ that are invariant by a group of parabolic isometries, obtaining its classification.

  4. On cohomogeneity one biharmonic hypersurfaces into the Euclidean space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, S.; Oniciuc, C.; Ratto, A.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove that there exists no cohomogeneity one G-invariant proper biharmonic hypersurface into the Euclidean space Rn, where G denotes a transformation group which acts on Rn by isometries, with codimension two principal orbits. This result may be considered in the context of the Chen conjecture, since this family of hypersurfaces includes examples with up to seven distinct principal curvatures. The paper uses the methods of equivariant differential geometry. In particular, the technique of proof provides a unified treatment for all these G-actions.

  5. A Class of Weingarten Surfaces in Euclidean 3-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The class of biconservative surfaces in Euclidean 3-space 3 are defined in (Caddeo et al., 2012 by the equation A(grad H=-H grad H for the mean curvature function H and the Weingarten operator A. In this paper, we consider the more general case that surfaces in 3 satisfying A(grad H=kH grad H for some constant k are called generalized bi-conservative surfaces. We show that this class of surfaces are linear Weingarten surfaces. We also give a complete classification of generalized bi-conservative surfaces in 3.

  6. Engineered mutations in fibrillin-1 leading to Marfan syndrome act at the protein, cellular and organismal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Karina A; Reinhardt, Dieter P

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillins are the major components of microfibrils in the extracellular matrix of elastic and non-elastic tissues. They are multi-domain proteins, containing primarily calcium binding epidermal growth factor-like (cbEGF) domains and 8-cysteine/transforming growth factor-beta binding protein-like (TB) domains. Mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene give rise to Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder with clinical complications in the cardiovascular, skeletal, ocular and other organ systems. Here, we review the consequences of engineered Marfan syndrome mutations in fibrillin-1 at the protein, cellular and organismal levels. Representative point mutations associated with Marfan syndrome in affected individuals have been introduced and analyzed in recombinant fibrillin-1 fragments. Those mutations affect fibrillin-1 on a structural and functional level. Mutations which impair folding of cbEGF domains can affect protein trafficking. Protein folding disrupted by some mutations can lead to defective secretion in mutant fibrillin-1 fragments, whereas fragments with other Marfan mutations are secreted normally. Many Marfan mutations render fibrillin-1 more susceptible to proteolysis. There is also evidence that some mutations affect heparin binding. Few mutations have been further analyzed in mouse models. An extensively studied mouse model of Marfan syndrome expresses mouse fibrillin-1 with a missense mutation (p.C1039G). The mice display similar characteristics to human patients with Marfan syndrome. Overall, the analyses of engineered mutations leading to Marfan syndrome provide important insights into the pathogenic molecular mechanisms exerted by mutated fibrillin-1.

  7. Electromagnetic energy as a bridge between atomic and cellular levels in the genetics approach to cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofani, Santi

    2015-01-01

    Literature on magnetic fields (MF) and gene expression, as well as on DNA damage, supports the hypothesis that electromagnetic energy may act at atomic level influencing genetic stability. According to quantum physics, MF act on the interconversion of singlet and triplet spin states, and therefore on genetic instability, activating oxidative processes connected to biological free radicals formation, particularly ROS. In the above frame, the results of in vitro and in vivo laboratory trials have been analyzed. The use of a static MF amplitude modulated by 50 Hz MF, with a time average total intensity of 5.5 mT, has been shown to influence tumor cell functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, p53 expression, inhibition of tumor growth and prolongation of survival in animals, evidence that MF can be more effective than chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide) in inhibiting metastatic spread and growth, having synergistic activity with chemotherapy (Cis-platin), and no observable side effects or toxicity in animals or in humans. The beneficial biological/clinical effects observed, without any adverse effects, have been confirmed by various authors and augur well for the potentiality of this new approach to treat genetically based diseases like cancer. Further studies are needed to develop a quantum physics approach to biology, allowing a stable bridge to be built between atomic and cellular levels, therefore developing quantum biology.

  8. Euclidean resonance and a new type of nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, B I

    2003-01-01

    The extremely small probability of quantum tunneling through an almost classical potential barrier may become not small under the action of the specially adapted nonstationary field. The tunneling rate has a sharp peak as a function of the particle energy when it is close to the certain resonant value defined by the nonstationary field (Euclidean resonance). Alpha decay of nuclei has a small probability since the alpha particle should tunnel through a very nontransparent Coulomb barrier. The incident proton, due to the Coulomb interaction with the tunneling alpha particle, plays the role of a nonstationary field which may result in Euclidean resonance in tunneling of the alpha particle. At the resonant proton energy, which is of the order of 0.2 Mev, the alpha particle escapes the nucleus and goes to infinity with no influence of the nuclear Coulomb barrier. The process is inelastic since the alpha particle releases energy and the proton gains it. This stimulation of alpha decay by a proton constitutes a new ...

  9. Subvoxel accurate graph search using non-Euclidean graph space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Abràmoff

    Full Text Available Graph search is attractive for the quantitative analysis of volumetric medical images, and especially for layered tissues, because it allows globally optimal solutions in low-order polynomial time. However, because nodes of graphs typically encode evenly distributed voxels of the volume with arcs connecting orthogonally sampled voxels in Euclidean space, segmentation cannot achieve greater precision than a single unit, i.e. the distance between two adjoining nodes, and partial volume effects are ignored. We generalize the graph to non-Euclidean space by allowing non-equidistant spacing between nodes, so that subvoxel accurate segmentation is achievable. Because the number of nodes and edges in the graph remains the same, running time and memory use are similar, while all the advantages of graph search, including global optimality and computational efficiency, are retained. A deformation field calculated from the volume data adaptively changes regional node density so that node density varies with the inverse of the expected cost. We validated our approach using optical coherence tomography (OCT images of the retina and 3-D MR of the arterial wall, and achieved statistically significant increased accuracy. Our approach allows improved accuracy in volume data acquired with the same hardware, and also, preserved accuracy with lower resolution, more cost-effective, image acquisition equipment. The method is not limited to any specific imaging modality and readily extensible to higher dimensions.

  10. Thermodynamics, Euclidean Gravity and Kaluza-Klein Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fursaev, D V

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to find out a correspondence between one-loop effective action $W_E$ defined by means of path integral in Euclidean gravity and the free energy $F$ obtained by summation over the modes. The analysis is given for quantum fields on stationary space-times of a general form. For such problems a convenient procedure of a "Wick rotation" from Euclidean to Lorentzian theory becomes quite non-trivial implying transition from one real section of a complexified space-time manifold to another. We formulate conditions under which $F$ and $W_E$ can be connected and establish an explicit relation of these functionals. Our results are based on the Kaluza-Klein method which enables one to reduce the problem on a stationary space-time to equivalent problem on a static space-time in the presence of a gauge connection. As a by-product, we discover relation between the asymptotic heat-kernel coefficients of elliptic operators on a $D$ dimensional stationary space-times and the heat-kernel coefficients of...

  11. Increasing cellular level of phosphatidic acid enhances FGF-1 production in long term-cultured rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayasu, Yuko; Morita, Shin-Ya; Hayashi, Hideki; Miura, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kazuki; Michikawa, Makoto; Ito, Jin-Ichi

    2014-05-14

    We found in a previous study that both mRNA expression and release of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) are greater in rat astrocytes that are long term-cultured for one month (W/M cells) than in the cells cultured for one week (W/W cells). However, FGF-1 does not enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK in W/M cells, while it does in W/W cells. In this work we studied the mechanism to cause these differences between W/W and W/M cells in culture. As it is known that long term culture generates oxidative stress, we characterized the stresses which W/M cells undergo in comparison with W/W cells. The levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and mitochondrial Bax were higher in W/M cells than in W/W cells. W/M cells recovered their ability to respond to FGF-1 to enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK in the presence of antioxidants. Oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) had no effect on mRNA expression of FGF-1 in W/W cells, although H2O2 enhances release of FGF-1 from W/W cells without inducing apoptosis. The influence of cell density was studied on mRNA expression of FGF-1 and cellular response to FGF-1, as an increasing cell density is observed in W/M cells. The increasing cell density enhanced mRNA expression of FGF-1 in W/W cells without suppression of responses to FGF-1. The decrease in cell density lowered the FGF-1 mRNA expression in W/M cells without recovery of the response to FGF-1 to enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK. These findings suggest that oxidative stress attenuate sensitivity to FGF-1 and higher cell density may enhance FGF-1 expression in W/M cells. In addition, we found that the cellular level of phosphatidic acid (PA) increased in H2O2-treated W/W and W/M cells and decreased by the treatment with antioxidants, and that PA enhances the mRNA expression of FGF-1 in the W/W cells. These findings suggest that the increasing PA production may enhance FGF-1 expression to protect astrocytes against oxidative stress

  12. Increased Cellular NAD+ Level through NQO1 Enzymatic Action Has Protective Effects on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gi-Su; Lee, Su-Bin; Karna, Anjani; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Shen, AiHua; Pandit, Arpana; Lee, SeungHoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a common interstitial lung disease; it is a chronic, progressive, and fatal lung disease of unknown etiology. Over the last two decades, knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis has improved markedly and facilitated the identification of potential targets for novel therapies. However, despite the large number of antifibrotic drugs being described in experimental pre-clinical studies, the translation of these findings into clinical practices has not been accomplished yet. NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by various quinones and thereby elevates the intracellular NAD+ levels. In this study, we examined the effect of increase in cellular NAD+ levels on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were treated with intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. The mice were orally administered with β-lapachone from 3 days before exposure to bleomycin to 1-3 weeks after exposure to bleomycin. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for analyzing the infiltration of immune cells. In vitro, A549 cells were treated with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and β-lapachone to analyze the extracellular matrix (ECM) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Results β-Lapachone strongly attenuated bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, characterized by histological staining, infiltrated immune cells in BALF, inflammatory cytokines, fibrotic score, and TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin accumulation. In addition, β-lapachone showed a protective role in TGF-β1–induced ECM expression and EMT in A549 cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that β-lapachone can protect against bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice and TGF-β1–induced EMT in vitro, by elevating the NAD+/NADH ratio through NQO1 activation.

  13. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases the Levels of Catabolic Molecules and Cellular Dedifferentiation in the Meniscus of a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Shon, Oog-Jin; Park, Se-Il; Kim, Han-Jun; Kim, Sukyoung; Ahn, Myun-Whan; Do, Sun Hee

    2016-01-16

    Despite the susceptibility to frequent intrinsic and extrinsic injuries, especially in the inner zone, the meniscus does not heal spontaneously owing to its poor vascularity. In this study, the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), containing various growth factors, on meniscal mechanisms was examined under normal and post-traumatic inflammatory conditions. Isolated primary meniscal cells of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were incubated for 3, 10, 14 and 21 days with PRP(-), 10% PRP (PRP(+)), IL(+) or IL(+)PRP(+). The meniscal cells were collected and examined using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Culture media were examined by immunoblot analyses for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) catabolic molecules. PRP containing growth factors improved the cellular viability of meniscal cells in a concentration-dependent manner at Days 1, 4 and 7. However, based on RT-PCR, meniscal cells demonstrated dedifferentiation, along with an increase in type I collagen in the PRP(+) and in IL(+)PRP(+). In PRP(+), the aggrecan expression levels were lower than in the PRP(-) until Day 21. The protein levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 were higher in each PRP group, i.e., PRP(+) and IL(+)PRP(+), at each culture time. A reproducible 2-mm circular defect on the meniscus of NZW rabbit was used to implant fibrin glue (control) or PRP in vivo. After eight weeks, the lesions in the control and PRP groups were occupied with fibrous tissue, but not with meniscal cells. This study shows that PRP treatment of the meniscus results in an increase of catabolic molecules, especially those related to IL-1α-induced inflammation, and that PRP treatment for an in vivo meniscus injury accelerates fibrosis, instead of meniscal cartilage.

  14. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases the Levels of Catabolic Molecules and Cellular Dedifferentiation in the Meniscus of a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rim Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the susceptibility to frequent intrinsic and extrinsic injuries, especially in the inner zone, the meniscus does not heal spontaneously owing to its poor vascularity. In this study, the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP, containing various growth factors, on meniscal mechanisms was examined under normal and post-traumatic inflammatory conditions. Isolated primary meniscal cells of New Zealand white (NZW rabbits were incubated for 3, 10, 14 and 21 days with PRP(−, 10% PRP (PRP(+, IL(+ or IL(+PRP(+. The meniscal cells were collected and examined using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Culture media were examined by immunoblot analyses for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP catabolic molecules. PRP containing growth factors improved the cellular viability of meniscal cells in a concentration-dependent manner at Days 1, 4 and 7. However, based on RT-PCR, meniscal cells demonstrated dedifferentiation, along with an increase in type I collagen in the PRP(+ and in IL(+PRP(+. In PRP(+, the aggrecan expression levels were lower than in the PRP(− until Day 21. The protein levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 were higher in each PRP group, i.e., PRP(+ and IL(+PRP(+, at each culture time. A reproducible 2-mm circular defect on the meniscus of NZW rabbit was used to implant fibrin glue (control or PRP in vivo. After eight weeks, the lesions in the control and PRP groups were occupied with fibrous tissue, but not with meniscal cells. This study shows that PRP treatment of the meniscus results in an increase of catabolic molecules, especially those related to IL-1α-induced inflammation, and that PRP treatment for an in vivo meniscus injury accelerates fibrosis, instead of meniscal cartilage.

  15. Sensor Network Localization by Eigenvector Synchronization Over the Euclidean Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucuringu, Mihai; Lipman, Yaron; Singer, Amit

    2012-07-01

    We present a new approach to localization of sensors from noisy measurements of a subset of their Euclidean distances. Our algorithm starts by finding, embedding, and aligning uniquely realizable subsets of neighboring sensors called patches. In the noise-free case, each patch agrees with its global positioning up to an unknown rigid motion of translation, rotation, and possibly reflection. The reflections and rotations are estimated using the recently developed eigenvector synchronization algorithm, while the translations are estimated by solving an overdetermined linear system. The algorithm is scalable as the number of nodes increases and can be implemented in a distributed fashion. Extensive numerical experiments show that it compares favorably to other existing algorithms in terms of robustness to noise, sparse connectivity, and running time. While our approach is applicable to higher dimensions, in the current article, we focus on the two-dimensional case.

  16. Causal structures in the four dimensional Euclidean space

    CERN Document Server

    Pestov, I B; Pestov, Ivanhoe B.; Saha, Bijan

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that in the 4d Euclidean space there are two causal structures defined by the temporal field. One of them is well-known Minkowski spacetime. In this case the gravitational potential (the positive definite Riemann metric) and temporal field satisfy the Einstein equations with trivial energy-momentum tensor. However, in the case of the second causal structure the gravitational potential and temporal field should be connected with some nontrivial energy-momentum tensor. We consider the simplest case with energy-momentum tensor of the real scalar field and derive exact solution of the field equations. It can be viewed as the ground to consider the second causal structure on the equal footing with the Minkowski spacetime, i.e., as an object interesting from the physical point of view, especially in the framework of the field theory.

  17. Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model on Euclidean network

    CERN Document Server

    Khaleque, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    We consider the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model on a Euclidean network in one dimension in which nodes at a distance $l$ are connected with probability $P(l) \\propto l^{-\\delta}$ in addition to nearest neighbors. The topology of the network changes as $\\delta$ is varied and its effect on the SIR model is studied. $R(t)$, the recovered fraction of population up to time $t$, and $\\tau$, the total duration of the epidemic are calculated for different values of the infection probability $q$ and $\\delta$. A threshold behavior is observed for all $\\delta$ up to $\\delta \\approx 2.0$; above the threshold value $q = q_c$, the saturation value $R_{sat}$ attains a finite value. Both $R_{sat}$ and $\\tau $ show scaling behavior in a finite system of size $N$; $R_{sat} \\sim N^{-\\beta/{\\tilde{\

  18. On the rate of quantum ergodicity in Euclidean billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Bäcker, A; Stifter, P

    1998-01-01

    For a large class of quantized ergodic flows the quantum ergodicity theorem due to Shnirelman, Zelditch, Colin de Verdière and others states that almost all eigenfunctions become equidistributed in the semiclassical limit. In this work we first give a short introduction to the formulation of the quantum ergodicity theorem for general observables in terms of pseudodifferential operators and show that it is equivalent to the semiclassical eigenfunction hypothesis for the Wigner function in the case of ergodic systems. Of great importance is the rate by which the quantum mechanical expectation values of an observable tend to their mean value. This is studied numerically for three Euclidean billiards (stadium, cosine and cardioid billiard) using up to 6000 eigenfunctions. We find that in configuration space the rate of quantum ergodicity is strongly influenced by localized eigenfunctions like bouncing ball modes or scarred eigenfunctions. We give a detailed discussion and explanation of these effects using a sim...

  19. Solving the Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Euclidean Space

    CERN Document Server

    Dorkin, S M; Atti, C Ciofi degli; Kämpfer, B

    2010-01-01

    Different approaches to solve the spinor-spinor Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation in Euclidean space are considered. It is argued that the complete set of Dirac matrices is the most appropriate basis to define the partial amplitudes and to solve numerically the resulting system of equations with realistic interaction kernels. Other representations can be obtained by performing proper unitary transformations. A generalization of the iteration method for finding the energy spectrum of the BS equation is discussed and examples of concrete calculations are presented. Comparison of relativistic calculations with available experimental data and with corresponding non relativistic results together with an analysis of the role of Lorentz boost effects and relativistic corrections are presented. A novel method related to the use of hyperspherical harmonics is considered for a representation of the vertex functions suitable for numerical calculations.

  20. Solving the Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Euclidean Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkin, S. M.; Kaptari, L. P.; Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Kämpfer, B.

    2011-03-01

    Different approaches to solve the spinor-spinor Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation in Euclidean space are considered. It is argued that the complete set of Dirac matrices is the most appropriate basis to define the partial amplitudes and to solve numerically the resulting system of equations with realistic interaction kernels. Other representations can be obtained by performing proper unitary transformations. A generalization of the iteration method for finding the energy spectrum of the BS equation is discussed and examples of concrete calculations are presented. Comparison of relativistic calculations with available experimental data and with corresponding non relativistic results together with an analysis of the role of Lorentz boost effects and relativistic corrections are presented. A novel method related to the use of hyperspherical harmonics is considered for a representation of the vertex functions suitable for numerical calculations.

  1. The Toric Geometry of Triangulated Polygons in Euclidean Space

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Benjamin; Millson, John

    2008-01-01

    Speyer and Sturmfels [SpSt] associated Gr\\"obner toric degenerations $\\mathrm{Gr}_2(\\C^n)^{\\tree}$ of $\\mathrm{Gr}_2(\\C^n)$ to each trivalent tree $\\tree$ with $n$ leaves. These degenerations induce toric degenerations $M_{\\br}^{\\tree}$ of $M_{\\br}$, the space of $n$ ordered, weighted (by $\\br$) points on the projective line. Our goal in this paper is to give a geometric (Euclidean polygon) description of the toric fibers as stratified symplectic spaces and describe the action of the compact part of the torus as "bendings of polygons." We prove the conjecture of Foth and Hu [FH] that the toric fibers are homeomorphic to the spaces defined by Kamiyama and Yoshida [KY].

  2. Entangling gates in even Euclidean lattices such as Leech lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Planat, Michel

    2010-01-01

    We point out a organic relationship between real entangling n-qubit gates of quantum computation and the group of automorphisms of even Euclidean lattices of the corresponding dimension 2n. The type of entanglement that is found in the gates/generators of Aut() depends on the lattice. In particular, we investigate Zn lattices, Barnes-Wall lattices D4, E8, 16 (associated to n = 2, 3 and 4 qubits), and the Leech lattices h24 and 24 (associated to a 3-qubit/qutrit system). Balanced tripartite entanglement is found to be a basic feature of Aut(), a nding that bears out our recent work related to the Weyl group of E8 [1, 2].

  3. BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2015-12-01

    We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelike Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d = 4 N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, d = 3 N = 2 super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and d = 3 N = 6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  4. BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Hao, E-mail: ouyangh@ihep.ac.cn; Wu, Jun-Bao, E-mail: wujb@ihep.ac.cn; Zhang, Jia-ju, E-mail: jjzhang@ihep.ac.cn [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Rd, 100049, Beijing (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Rd, 100049, Beijing (China)

    2015-12-21

    We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelike Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d=4N=4 super Yang–Mills theory, d=3N=2 super Chern–Simons-matter theory, and d=3N=6 Aharony–Bergman–Jafferis–Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  5. BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)

    2015-12-15

    We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelikeWilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d = 4 N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, d = 3 N = 2 super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and d = 3 N = 6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis- Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence. (orig.)

  6. Aspects of the Supersymmetry Algebra in Four Dimensional Euclidean Space

    CERN Document Server

    McKeon, D G C

    1998-01-01

    The simplest supersymmetry (SUSY) algebra in four dimensional Euclidean space ($4dE$) has been shown to closely resemble the $N = 2$ SUSY algebra in four dimensional Minkowski space ($4dM$). The structure of the former algebra is examined in greater detail in this paper. We first present its Clifford algebra structure. This algebra shows that the momentum Casimir invariant of physical states has an upper bound which is fixed by the central charges. Secondly, we use reduction of the $N = 1$ SUSY algebra in six dimensional Minkowski space ($6dM$) to $4dE$; this reproduces our SUSY algebra in $4dE$. Moreover, this same reduction of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SSYM) in $6dM$ reproduces Zumino's SSYM in $4dE$. We demonstrate how this dimensional reduction can be used to introduce additional generators into the SUSY algebra in $4dE$.

  7. Application of Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis for gene identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Antara; Barman, Soma

    2016-06-01

    Gene systems are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and noisy in nature. Many statistical tools which are used to extract relevant feature from genes provide fuzzy and ambiguous information. High-dimensional gene expression database available in public domain usually contains thousands of genes. Efficient prediction method is demanding nowadays for accurate identification of such database. Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis methods are applied on such databases to identify the genes. In both methods, prediction algorithm is based on homology search approach. Digital Signal Processing technique along with statistical method is used for analysis of genes in both cases. A two-level decision logic is used for gene classification as healthy or cancerous. This binary logic minimizes the prediction error and improves prediction accuracy. Superiority of the method is judged by receiver operating characteristic curve.

  8. Model Based Ceramic tile inspection using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Euclidean Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Elmougy, Samir; El-Azab, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of industrial products is used to determine the control quality for these products. This paper deals with the problem of visual inspection of ceramic tiles industry using Wavelet Transform. The third level the coefficients of two dimensions Haar Discrete Wavelet Transform (HDWT) is used in this paper to process the images and feature extraction. The proposed algorithm consists of two main phases. The first phase is to compute the wavelet transform for an image free of defects which known as reference image, and the image to be inspected which known as test image. The second phase is used to decide whether the tested image is defected or not using the Euclidean distance similarity measure. The experimentation results of the proposed algorithm give 97% for correct detection of ceramic defects.

  9. Three Dimensional Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (3D-FEED) Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2006-01-01

    In image and video analysis, distance maps are frequently used. They provide the (Euclidean) distance (ED) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. Recently, the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation was launched. In this paper, we present the three dimensional (3D) version of

  10. Tutorial: Structure-preserving representation of Euclidean motions through conformal geometric algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, L.; Bayro-Corrochano, E.; Scheuermann, G.

    2010-01-01

    A new and useful set of homogeneous coordinates has been discovered for the treatment of Euclidean geometry. They render Euclidean motions not merely linear (as the classical homogeneous coordinates do), but even turn them into orthogonal transformations, through a clever choice of metric in two (no

  11. Effects of 900-MHz electromagnetic field emitted from cellular phone on brain oxidative stress and some vitamin levels of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral, Ismail; Mert, Handan; Mert, Nihat; Deger, Yeter; Yoruk, Ibrahim; Yetkin, Ayşen; Keskin, Siddik

    2007-09-12

    This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted from cellular phone on brain tissue and also blood malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), retinol (vitamin A), vitamin D(3) and tocopherol (vitamin E) levels, and catalase (CAT) enzyme activity of guinea pigs. Fourteen male guinea pigs, weighing 500-800 g were randomly divided into one of two experimental groups: control and treatment (EMF-exposed), each containing seven animals. Animals in treatment group were exposed to 890- to 915-MHz EMF (217-Hz pulse rate, 2-W maximum peak power, SAR 0.95 w/kg) of a cellular phone for 12 h/day (11-h 45-min stand-by and 15-min spiking mode) for 30 days. Control guinea pigs were housed in a separate room without exposing EMF of a cellular phone. Blood samples were collected through a cardiac puncture and brains were removed after decapitation for the biochemical analysis at the end of the 30 days of experimental period. It was found that the MDA level increased (P0.05) in the brain tissues of EMF-exposed guinea pigs. In addition, MDA, vitamins A, D(3) and E levels, and CAT enzyme activity increased (Pelectromagnetic field emitted from cellular phone might produce oxidative stress in brain tissue of guinea pigs. However, more studies are needed to demonstrate whether these effects are harmful or/and affect the neural functions.

  12. Prospective Elementary Science Teachers' Understanding of Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration in the Context of Multiple Biological Levels as Nested Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Turkish prospective elementary science teachers' understanding of photosynthesis and cellular respiration has been analysed within the contexts of ecosystem knowledge, organism knowledge and interconnection knowledge (IK). In the analysis, concept maps developed by 74 prospective teachers were used. The study was carried out with…

  13. The q-DEFORMED SCHRÖDINGER Equation of the Harmonic Oscillator on the Quantum Euclidean Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carow-Watamura, Ursula; Watamura, Satoshi

    We consider the q-deformed Schrödinger equation of the harmonic oscillator on the N-dimensional quantum Euclidean space. The creation and annihilation operators are found, which systematically produce all energy levels and eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger equation. In order to get the q series representation of the eigenfunction, we also give an alternative way to solve the Schrödinger equation which is based on the q analysis. We represent the Schrödinger equation by the q difference equation and solve it by using q polynomials and q exponential functions.

  14. Generating triangulated macromolecular surfaces by Euclidean Distance Transform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xu

    Full Text Available Macromolecular surfaces are fundamental representations of their three-dimensional geometric shape. Accurate calculation of protein surfaces is of critical importance in the protein structural and functional studies including ligand-protein docking and virtual screening. In contrast to analytical or parametric representation of macromolecular surfaces, triangulated mesh surfaces have been proved to be easy to describe, visualize and manipulate by computer programs. Here, we develop a new algorithm of EDTSurf for generating three major macromolecular surfaces of van der Waals surface, solvent-accessible surface and molecular surface, using the technique of fast Euclidean Distance Transform (EDT. The triangulated surfaces are constructed directly from volumetric solids by a Vertex-Connected Marching Cube algorithm that forms triangles from grid points. Compared to the analytical result, the relative error of the surface calculations by EDTSurf is <2-4% depending on the grid resolution, which is 1.5-4 times lower than the methods in the literature; and yet, the algorithm is faster and costs less computer memory than the comparative methods. The improvements in both accuracy and speed of the macromolecular surface determination should make EDTSurf a useful tool for the detailed study of protein docking and structure predictions. Both source code and the executable program of EDTSurf are freely available at http://zhang.bioinformatics.ku.edu/EDTSurf.

  15. Numerical evaluation of tensor Feynman integrals in Euclidean kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluza, J.; Kajda [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, T.; Yundin, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    For the investigation of higher order Feynman integrals, potentially with tensor structure, it is highly desirable to have numerical methods and automated tools for dedicated, but sufficiently 'simple' numerical approaches. We elaborate two algorithms for this purpose which may be applied in the Euclidean kinematical region and in d=4-2{epsilon} dimensions. One method uses Mellin-Barnes representations for the Feynman parameter representation of multi-loop Feynman integrals with arbitrary tensor rank. Our Mathematica package AMBRE has been extended for that purpose, and together with the packages MB (M. Czakon) or MBresolve (A. V. Smirnov and V. A. Smirnov) one may perform automatically a numerical evaluation of planar tensor Feynman integrals. Alternatively, one may apply sector decomposition to planar and non-planar multi-loop {epsilon}-expanded Feynman integrals with arbitrary tensor rank. We automatized the preparations of Feynman integrals for an immediate application of the package sectordecomposition (C. Bogner and S. Weinzierl) so that one has to give only a proper definition of propagators and numerators. The efficiency of the two implementations, based on Mellin-Barnes representations and sector decompositions, is compared. The computational packages are publicly available. (orig.)

  16. The Traveling Salesman Problem Under Squared Euclidean Distances

    CERN Document Server

    de Berg, Mark; Sitters, René; Woeginger, Gerhard J; Wolff, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Let $P$ be a set of points in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, and let $\\alpha \\ge 1$ be a real number. We define the distance between two points $p,q\\in P$ as $|pq|^{\\alpha}$, where $|pq|$ denotes the standard Euclidean distance between $p$ and $q$. We denote the traveling salesman problem under this distance function by TSP($d,\\alpha$). We design a 5-approximation algorithm for TSP(2,2) and generalize this result to obtain an approximation factor of $3^{\\alpha-1}+\\sqrt{6}^{\\alpha}/3$ for $d=2$ and all $\\alpha\\ge2$. We also study the variant Rev-TSP of the problem where the traveling salesman is allowed to revisit points. We present a polynomial-time approximation scheme for Rev-TSP$(2,\\alpha)$ with $\\alpha\\ge2$, and we show that Rev-TSP$(d, \\alpha)$ is APX-hard if $d\\ge3$ and $\\alpha>1$. The APX-hardness proof carries over to TSP$(d, \\alpha)$ for the same parameter ranges.

  17. Phg1/TM9 proteins control intracellular killing of bacteria by determining cellular levels of the Kil1 sulfotransferase in Dictyostelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Le Coadic

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum has largely been used to study phagocytosis and intracellular killing of bacteria. Previous studies have shown that Phg1A, Kil1 and Kil2 proteins are necessary for efficient intracellular killing of Klebsiella bacteria. Here we show that in phg1a KO cells, cellular levels of lysosomal glycosidases and lysozyme are decreased, and lysosomal pH is increased. Surprisingly, overexpression of Kil1 restores efficient killing in phg1a KO cells without correcting these lysosomal anomalies. Conversely, kil1 KO cells are defective for killing, but their enzymatic content and lysosomal pH are indistinguishable from WT cells. The killing defect of phg1a KO cells can be accounted for by the observation that in these cells the stability and the cellular amount of Kil1 are markedly reduced. Since Kil1 is the only sulfotransferase characterized in Dictyostelium, an (unidentified sulfated factor, defective in both phg1a and kil1 KO cells, may play a key role in intracellular killing of Klebsiella bacteria. In addition, Phg1B plays a redundant role with Phg1A in controlling cellular amounts of Kil1 and intracellular killing. Finally, cellular levels of Kil1 are unaffected in kil2 KO cells, and Kil1 overexpression does not correct the killing defect of kil2 KO cells, suggesting that Kil2 plays a distinct role in intracellular killing.

  18. Scattering solutions of Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski and Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2016-01-01

    We shortly review different methods to obtain the scattering solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space. We emphasize the possibility to obtain the zero energy observables in terms of the Euclidean scattering amplitude.

  19. Euclidean and fractal geometry of microvascular networks in normal and neoplastic pituitary tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Grizzi, Fabio; Gaetani, Paolo; Goglia, Umberto; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Mortini, Pietro; Rodriguez y Baena, Riccardo

    2008-07-01

    In geometrical terms, tumour vascularity is an exemplary anatomical system that irregularly fills a three-dimensional Euclidean space. This physical characteristic and the highly variable shapes of the vessels lead to considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the delivery of oxygen, nutrients and drugs, and the removal of metabolites. Although these biological characteristics are well known, quantitative analyses of newly formed vessels in two-dimensional histological sections still fail to view their architecture as a non-Euclidean geometrical entity, thus leading to errors in visual interpretation and discordant results from different laboratories concerning the same tumour. We here review the literature concerning microvessel density estimates (a Euclidean-based approach quantifying vascularity in normal and neoplastic pituitary tissues) and compare the results. We also discuss the limitations of Euclidean quantitative analyses of vascularity and the helpfulness of a fractal geometry-based approach as a better means of quantifying normal and neoplastic pituitary microvasculature.

  20. Large parallel volumes of finite and compact sets in d-dimensional Euclidean space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen; Kiderlen, Markus

    The r-parallel volume V (Cr) of a compact subset C in d-dimensional Euclidean space is the volume of the set Cr of all points of Euclidean distance at most r > 0 from C. According to Steiner’s formula, V (Cr) is a polynomial in r when C is convex. For finite sets C satisfying a certain geometric ......, it is shown that the difference of large r-parallel volumes of C and of its convex hull behaves like crd−3, where c is an intrinsic power volume of C.......The r-parallel volume V (Cr) of a compact subset C in d-dimensional Euclidean space is the volume of the set Cr of all points of Euclidean distance at most r > 0 from C. According to Steiner’s formula, V (Cr) is a polynomial in r when C is convex. For finite sets C satisfying a certain geometric...

  1. Singularities of lightlike hypersurface in semi-Euclidean 4-space with index 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Anti de Sitter space is a maximally symmetric, vacuum solution of Einstein’s field equation with an attractive cosmological constant, and is the hyperquadric of semi-Euclidean space with index 2. So it is meaningful to study the submanifold in semi-Euclidean 4-space with index 2. However, the research on the submanifold in semi-Euclidean 4-space with index 2 has not been found from theory of singularity until now. In this paper, as a generalization of the study on lightlike hypersurface in Minkowski space and a preparation for the further study on anti de Sitter space, the singularities of lightlike hypersurface and Lorentzian surface in semi- Euclidean 4-space with index 2 will be studied. To do this, we reveal the relationships between the singularity of distance-squared function and that of lightlike hypersurface. In addition some geometric properties of lightlike hypersurface and Lorentzian surface are studied from geometrical point of view.

  2. Cosmological Einstein-Maxwell instantons and Euclidean supersymmetry: anti-self-dual solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunajski, Maciej [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Gutowski, Jan [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Sabra, Wafic [Centre for Advanced Mathematical Sciences and Physics Department, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Tod, Paul, E-mail: m.dunajski@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jan.gutowski@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: ws00@aub.edu.lb, E-mail: paul.tod@sjc.ox.ac.uk [The Mathematical Institute, Oxford University, 24-29 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LB (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-21

    We classify super-symmetric solutions of the minimal N = 2 gauged Euclidean supergravity in four dimensions. The solutions with an anti-self-dual Maxwell field give rise to anti-self-dual Einstein metrics given in terms of solutions to the SU({infinity}) Toda equation and more general three-dimensional Einstein-Weyl structures. Euclidean Kastor-Traschen metrics are also characterized by the existence of a certain supercovariantly constant spinor.

  3. Electromagnetic form factor via Minkowski and Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A; Mangin-Brinet, M

    2007-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors calculated through Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and through the light-front wave function are compared with the one found using the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in Minkowski space. The form factor expressed through the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude (both within and without static approximation) considerably differs from the Minkowski one, whereas form factor found in the light-front approach is almost indistinguishable from it.

  4. Euclidean Geometry Codes, minimum weight words and decodable error-patterns using bit-flipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn; Jonsson, Bergtor

    2005-01-01

    We determine the number of minimum wigth words in a class of Euclidean Geometry codes and link the performance of the bit-flipping decoding algorithm to the geometry of the error patterns.......We determine the number of minimum wigth words in a class of Euclidean Geometry codes and link the performance of the bit-flipping decoding algorithm to the geometry of the error patterns....

  5. Spherical Curves in Euclidean 3-Space%三维欧氏空间中的球面曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑长波; 李晓毅

    2012-01-01

    依据经典微分几何空间曲线的基本理论与特征,采用一种新的活动标架——三维欧氏空间中的球面Frenet标架,并利用三维曲线的Frenet标架场,对三维欧式空间中的球面曲线进行研究,得到了在三维空间E3下的贝特朗、曼海姆及从切等特殊曲线,给出了一个由曲线的曲率与挠率的一阶常微分方程描述的三维欧氏空间中的球面曲线,得出了比对应微分方程阶数更低的条件,且大大简化了计算过程.%Based on the basic theory and characteristics of space curves in classical differential geometry,a new kind of moving construction the spherical Frenet construction of this kind were finany obtainedin 3-D Euclidean space,as well as the 3-D curves Frenet construction field were introduced to inspect the spherical curves in 3-D Euclidean space. Bertrand, Mannheim, rectifying curves, and special curves of this kind were finally obtained in the 3-D .E3 space,giving spherical curves in 3-D Euclidean space which can be described by first-order ordinary differential equations with respect to curve's curvature and torsion,and producing a low-level curve representation for the corresponding differential equation. The new characteristics of spherical curves were verified and the calculation process was simplified.

  6. The Na+/Glucose Cotransporter Inhibitor Canagliflozin Activates AMPK by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Function and Increasing Cellular AMP Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Simon A; Ford, Rebecca J; Smith, Brennan K; Gowans, Graeme J; Mancini, Sarah J; Pitt, Ryan D; Day, Emily A; Salt, Ian P; Steinberg, Gregory R; Hardie, D Grahame

    2016-09-01

    Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin, all recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes, were derived from the natural product phlorizin. They reduce hyperglycemia by inhibiting glucose reuptake by sodium/glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the kidney, without affecting intestinal glucose uptake by SGLT1. We now report that canagliflozin also activates AMPK, an effect also seen with phloretin (the aglycone breakdown product of phlorizin), but not to any significant extent with dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, or phlorizin. AMPK activation occurred at canagliflozin concentrations measured in human plasma in clinical trials and was caused by inhibition of Complex I of the respiratory chain, leading to increases in cellular AMP or ADP. Although canagliflozin also inhibited cellular glucose uptake independently of SGLT2, this did not account for AMPK activation. Canagliflozin also inhibited lipid synthesis, an effect that was absent in AMPK knockout cells and that required phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 and/or ACC2 at the AMPK sites. Oral administration of canagliflozin activated AMPK in mouse liver, although not in muscle, adipose tissue, or spleen. Because phosphorylation of ACC by AMPK is known to lower liver lipid content, these data suggest a potential additional benefit of canagliflozin therapy compared with other SGLT2 inhibitors.

  7. Association of Serum MiR-142-3p and MiR-101-3p Levels with Acute Cellular Rejection after Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukma Dewi, Ihdina; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Lam, Karen K.; McManus, Janet-Wilson; Tebbutt, Scott J.; Ng, Raymond T.; Keown, Paul A.; McMaster, Robert W.; McManus, Bruce M.; Gidlöf, Olof; Öhman, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Background Identifying non-invasive and reliable blood-derived biomarkers for early detection of acute cellular rejection in heart transplant recipients is of great importance in clinical practice. MicroRNAs are small molecules found to be stable in serum and their expression patterns reflect both physiological and underlying pathological conditions in human. Methods We compared a group of heart transplant recipients with histologically-verified acute cellular rejection (ACR, n = 26) with a control group of heart transplant recipients without allograft rejection (NR, n = 37) by assessing the levels of a select set of microRNAs in serum specimens. Results The levels of seven microRNAs, miR-142-3p, miR-101-3p, miR-424-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-144-3p, miR-339-3p and miR-326 were significantly higher in ACR group compared to the control group and could discriminate between patients with and without allograft rejection. MiR-142-3p and miR-101-3p had the best diagnostic test performance among the microRNAs tested. Serum levels of miR-142-3p and miR-101-3p were independent of calcineurin inhibitor levels, as measured by tacrolimus and cyclosporin; kidney function, as measured by creatinine level, and general inflammation state, as measured by CRP level. Conclusion This study demonstrated two microRNAs, miR-142-3p and miR-101-3p, that could be relevant as non-invasive diagnostic tools for identifying heart transplant patients with acute cellular rejection. PMID:28125729

  8. Multi-resolutional shape features via non-Euclidean wavelets: Applications to statistical analysis of cortical thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Singh, Vikas; Chung, Moo K.; Hinrichs, Chris; Pachauri, Deepti; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis on arbitrary surface meshes such as the cortical surface is an important approach to understanding brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Surface analysis may be able to identify specific cortical patterns that relate to certain disease characteristics or exhibit differences between groups. Our goal in this paper is to make group analysis of signals on surfaces more sensitive. To do this, we derive multi-scale shape descriptors that characterize the signal around each mesh vertex, i.e., its local context, at varying levels of resolution. In order to define such a shape descriptor, we make use of recent results from harmonic analysis that extend traditional continuous wavelet theory from the Euclidean to a non-Euclidean setting (i.e., a graph, mesh or network). Using this descriptor, we conduct experiments on two different datasets, the Alzheimer’s Disease NeuroImaging Initiative (ADNI) data and images acquired at the Wisconsin Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (W-ADRC), focusing on individuals labeled as having Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. In particular, we contrast traditional univariate methods with our multi-resolution approach which show increased sensitivity and improved statistical power to detect a group-level effects. We also provide an open source implementation. PMID:24614060

  9. Projectivity, affine, similarity and euclidean coordinates transformation parameters from ITRF to EUREF in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Kutubuddin; Corumluoglu, Ozsen; Yetkin, Mevlut

    2017-03-01

    Today, in geodesy most practical applications is to use a datum to get three dimensional position of a particular point. The geodetic techniques generally provide time dependent coordinates in global datum. The difference between the global datum like international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF) to local datum like Europe fixed reference frame (EUREF) can be up to several centimeters due to different velocity rate of tectonic plates. To get high-precision measurements, there is an increasing need of time dependent transformations from the global level to local level. The present paper treats, this theoretical problem of geodesy by using mathematical dependency between two spatial coordinate systems whose common points are given in both systems. The paper describes four different (projective, affine, similarity and euclidean) modified methodologies for the transformation between global (ITRF) to local (EUREF) by using the Turkish permanent GPS network (TPGN) as an example. The time series from TPGN stations are used to review these transformations from ITRF 2008 to EUREF 2008. The transformation parameters in all cases shows that mostly transform coordinates depends on its counterparts (X to x and Y to y) and others coordinates have very less effect. Finally to show the validity of our model a comparative analysis with standard Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas models has been presented. The test shows that our model error is equivalent to standard models, in this view the presented models are acceptable and can improve our understanding in coordinate transformation.

  10. A chemical biology approach to interrogate quorum-sensing regulated behaviors at the molecular and cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Colin A; Matamouros, Susana; Niessen, Sherry; Zhu, Jie; Scolnick, Jonathan; Lively, Jenny M; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Miller, Samuel I; Kaufmann, Gunnar F; Janda, Kim D

    2013-07-25

    Small molecule probes have been used extensively to explore biologic systems and elucidate cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we use an inhibitor of bacterial communication to monitor changes in the proteome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with the aim of discovering unrecognized processes regulated by AI-2-based quorum-sensing (QS), a mechanism of bacterial intercellular communication that allows for the coordination of gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner. In S. typhimurium, this system regulates the uptake and catabolism of intercellular signals and has been implicated in pathogenesis, including the invasion of host epithelial cells. We demonstrate that our QS antagonist is capable of selectively inhibiting the expression of known QS-regulated proteins in S. typhimurium, thus attesting that QS inhibitors may be used to confirm proposed and elucidate previously unidentified QS pathways without relying on genetic manipulation.

  11. The Random Link Approximation for the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, N. J.; Boutet de Monvel, J.; Bohigas, O.; Martin, O. C.; Percus, A. G.

    1997-01-01

    The traveling salesman problem (TSP) consists of finding the length of the shortest closed tour visiting N “cities”. We consider the Euclidean TSP where the cities are distributed randomly and independently in a d-dimensional unit hypercube. Working with periodic boundary conditions and inspired by a remarkable universality in the kth nearest neighbor distribution, we find for the average optimum tour length voyageur de commerce (TSP) consiste à trouver le chemin fermé le plus court qui relie N “villes”. Nous étudions le TSP euclidien où les villes sont distribuées au hasard de manière décorrélée dans l'hypercube de côté 1, en dimension d. En imposant des conditions aux bords périodiques et guidés par une universalité remarquable de la distribution des kièmes voisins, nous trouvons la longueur moyenne du chemin optimal <~ngle L_Erangle = β_E(d)N^{1-1/d}[1+O(1/N)] , avec β_E= 0,7120 ± 0,0002 et β_E(3)= 0,6979 ± 0,0002. Nous établissons ensuite des prédictions analytiques sur ces quantités à l'aide de l'approximation de liens aléatoires, où les longueurs entre les villes sont des variables aléatoires indépendantes. Grâce aux équations “cavité” développées par Krauth, Mézard et Parisi, nous obtenons dans le cas de liens aléatoires les valeurs, β_RL(d), analogues à β_E(d). Pour d= 1, 2, 3, les résultats numériques confirment que l'approximation de liens aléatoires est bonne, conduisant à un écart inférieur à 2,1% entre β_E(d) et β_RL(d). Pour d grand, nous donnons des arguments montrant que cette approximation est exacte jusqu'à l'ordre 1/d^2 et nous proposons une conjecture pour β_E(d), exprimée en fonction d'une série en 1/d, dont on donne les deux premiers ordres.

  12. Assessment of the Log-Euclidean Metric Performance in Diffusion Tensor Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Charmi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Appropriate definition of the distance measure between diffusion tensors has a deep impact on Diffusion Tensor Image (DTI segmentation results. The geodesic metric is the best distance measure since it yields high-quality segmentation results. However, the important problem with the geodesic metric is a high computational cost of the algorithms based on it. The main goal of this paper is to assess the possible substitution of the geodesic metric with the Log-Euclidean one to reduce the computational cost of a statistical surface evolution algorithm. Materials and Methods: We incorporated the Log-Euclidean metric in the statistical surface evolution algorithm framework. To achieve this goal, the statistics and gradients of diffusion tensor images were defined using the Log-Euclidean metric. Numerical implementation of the segmentation algorithm was performed in the MATLAB software using the finite difference techniques. Results: In the statistical surface evolution framework, the Log-Euclidean metric was able to discriminate the torus and helix patterns in synthesis datasets and rat spinal cords in biological phantom datasets from the background better than the Euclidean and J-divergence metrics. In addition, similar results were obtained with the geodesic metric. However, the main advantage of the Log-Euclidean metric over the geodesic metric was the dramatic reduction of computational cost of the segmentation algorithm, at least by 70 times. Discussion and Conclusion: The qualitative and quantitative results have shown that the Log-Euclidean metric is a good substitute for the geodesic metric when using a statistical surface evolution algorithm in DTIs segmentation.

  13. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and cadmium on cellular and population-level endpoints of the micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, C. [Stockholm University (Sweden); Abdul Meseh, D.; Alasawi, H.; Qiang, M.; Nascimento, F. [Dept of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    A major challenge in evaluating the risks of radiation to organisms is that radioactive substances often co-occur with other contaminants in the environment. The combined effects of multiple contaminants is poorly understood, particularly where radiation is involved, but mixture toxicity can give rise to synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects. The challenge of understanding mixture toxicity in a radiation context is the focus of one of the work packages of the STAR EU Network of Excellence in Radioecology, of which this study is a part. This paper presents results from an experiment where the green micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was exposed to both acute external gamma irradiation and the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) (over 72 hours); the experiment had a fully factorial design with 4 gamma doses and 4 Cd concentrations. The endpoints measured were chosen to reflect subcellular, cellular and population-level effects: antioxidant enzyme expression; membrane damage; protein, vitamin and pigment content of the cells; individual cell biomass and growth; population growth (biomass per ml and cells per ml). Preliminary results suggest effects of both Cd and gamma on some of the cellular and subcellular endpoints such as thiamine (vitamin B1) and chlorophyll concentrations in the cells, and individual cell biomass. In some cases interactive effects of the combined Cd and gamma treatments were seen, and these appeared to be dose level dependent. This lack of a consistent pattern of interactive mixture toxicity effects across the endpoints measured means that such effects would be very hard to predict in a risk assessment context. The lack of measurable effects at the population level was probably due to the short experimental duration (72 hours). Other experiments in our research group on the same micro-alga species that have looked at longer term effects (weeks) have shown that effects may not manifest themselves until at least a week after an acute gamma

  14. Web-enabled and real-time reporting: Cellular based instrumentation for coastal sea level and surge monitoring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.

    to the sea-level web site is made available to television channels, then real-time visualization of the coastal sea level (e.g., during anomalous and disastrous state of the coastal seas) and its trend from the previous day to the present instant can...

  15. Modelling molecular mechanisms: a framework of scientific reasoning to construct molecular-level explanations for cellular behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mil, M.H.W.; Boerwinkel, D.J.; Waarlo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Although molecular-level details are part of the upper-secondary biology curriculum in most countries, many studies report that students fail to connect molecular knowledge to phenomena at the level of cells, organs and organisms. Recent studies suggest that students lack a framework to reason about

  16. Discrimination of liver cancer in cellular level based on backscatter micro-spectrum with PCA algorithm and BP neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Gan; Dong, Xiaona

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of the primary liver cancer are very high and its postoperative metastasis and recurrence have become important factors to the prognosis of patients. Circulating tumor cells (CTC), as a new tumor marker, play important roles in the early diagnosis and individualized treatment. This paper presents an effective method to distinguish liver cancer based on the cellular scattering spectrum, which is a non-fluorescence technique based on the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. Combining the principal component analysis (PCA) with back propagation (BP) neural network were utilized to establish an automatic recognition model for backscatter spectrum of the liver cancer cells from blood cell. PCA was applied to reduce the dimension of the scattering spectral data which obtained by the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. After dimensionality reduction by PCA, a neural network pattern recognition model with 2 input layer nodes, 11 hidden layer nodes, 3 output nodes was established. We trained the network with 66 samples and also tested it. Results showed that the recognition rate of the three types of cells is more than 90%, the relative standard deviation is only 2.36%. The experimental results showed that the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer combining with the algorithm of PCA and BP neural network can automatically identify the liver cancer cell from the blood cells. This will provide a better tool for investigating the metastasis of liver cancers in vivo, the biology metabolic characteristics of liver cancers and drug transportation. Additionally, it is obviously referential in practical application.

  17. Cellular and molecular research to reduce uncertainties in estimates of health effects from low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkind, M.M.; Bedford, J.; Benjamin, S.A.; Waldren, C.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Gotchy, R.L. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    A study was undertaken by five radiation scientists to examine the feasibility of reducing the uncertainties in the estimation of risk due to protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. In addressing the question of feasibility, a review was made by the study group: of the cellular, molecular, and mammalian radiation data that are available; of the way in which altered oncogene properties could be involved in the loss of growth control that culminates in tumorigenesis; and of the progress that had been made in the genetic characterizations of several human and animal neoplasms. On the basis of this analysis, the study group concluded that, at the present time, it is feasible to mount a program of radiation research directed at the mechanism(s) of radiation-induced cancer with special reference to risk of neoplasia due to protracted, low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation. To implement a program of research, a review was made of the methods, techniques, and instruments that would be needed. This review was followed by a survey of the laboratories and institutions where scientific personnel and facilities are known to be available. A research agenda of the principal and broad objectives of the program is also discussed. 489 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Decreased PARP and procaspase-2 protein levels are associated with cellular drug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Amy; den Boer, Monique L; Kazemier, Karin M; Beverloo, H Berna; von Bergh, Anne R M; Janka-Schaub, Gritta E; Pieters, Rob

    2005-09-01

    Drug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with impaired ability to induce apoptosis. To elucidate causes of apoptotic defects, we studied the protein expression of Apaf-1, procaspases-2, -3, -6, -7, -8, -10, and poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in cells from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 43) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 10). PARP expression was present in all B-lineage samples, but absent in 4 of 15 T-lineage ALL samples and 3 of 10 AML cases, which was not caused by genomic deletions. PARP expression was a median 7-fold lower in T-lineage ALL (P < .001) and 10-fold lower in AML (P < .001) compared with B-lineage ALL. PARP expression was 4-fold lower in prednisolone, vincristine and L-asparaginase (PVA)-resistant compared with PVA-sensitive ALL patients (P < .001). Procaspase-2 expression was 3-fold lower in T-lineage ALL (P = .022) and AML (P = .014) compared with B-lineage ALL. In addition, procaspase-2 expression was 2-fold lower in PVA-resistant compared to PVA-sensitive ALL patients (P = .042). No relation between apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), procaspases-3, -6, -7, -8, -10, and drug resistance was found. In conclusion, low baseline expression of PARP and procaspase-2 is related to cellular drug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  19. Confidence analysis of standard deviational ellipse and its extension into higher dimensional euclidean space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shi, Wenzhong; Miao, Zelang

    2015-01-01

    Standard deviational ellipse (SDE) has long served as a versatile GIS tool for delineating the geographic distribution of concerned features. This paper firstly summarizes two existing models of calculating SDE, and then proposes a novel approach to constructing the same SDE based on spectral decomposition of the sample covariance, by which the SDE concept is naturally generalized into higher dimensional Euclidean space, named standard deviational hyper-ellipsoid (SDHE). Then, rigorous recursion formulas are derived for calculating the confidence levels of scaled SDHE with arbitrary magnification ratios in any dimensional space. Besides, an inexact-newton method based iterative algorithm is also proposed for solving the corresponding magnification ratio of a scaled SDHE when the confidence probability and space dimensionality are pre-specified. These results provide an efficient manner to supersede the traditional table lookup of tabulated chi-square distribution. Finally, synthetic data is employed to generate the 1-3 multiple SDEs and SDHEs. And exploratory analysis by means of SDEs and SDHEs are also conducted for measuring the spread concentrations of Hong Kong's H1N1 in 2009.

  20. Confidence analysis of standard deviational ellipse and its extension into higher dimensional euclidean space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available Standard deviational ellipse (SDE has long served as a versatile GIS tool for delineating the geographic distribution of concerned features. This paper firstly summarizes two existing models of calculating SDE, and then proposes a novel approach to constructing the same SDE based on spectral decomposition of the sample covariance, by which the SDE concept is naturally generalized into higher dimensional Euclidean space, named standard deviational hyper-ellipsoid (SDHE. Then, rigorous recursion formulas are derived for calculating the confidence levels of scaled SDHE with arbitrary magnification ratios in any dimensional space. Besides, an inexact-newton method based iterative algorithm is also proposed for solving the corresponding magnification ratio of a scaled SDHE when the confidence probability and space dimensionality are pre-specified. These results provide an efficient manner to supersede the traditional table lookup of tabulated chi-square distribution. Finally, synthetic data is employed to generate the 1-3 multiple SDEs and SDHEs. And exploratory analysis by means of SDEs and SDHEs are also conducted for measuring the spread concentrations of Hong Kong's H1N1 in 2009.

  1. Optimization of the Multi-Spectral Euclidean Distance Calculation for FPGA-based Spaceborne Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristo, Alejandro; Fisher, Kevin; Perez, Rosa M.; Martinez, Pablo; Gualtieri, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the high quantity of operations that spaceborne processing systems must carry out in space, new methodologies and techniques are being presented as good alternatives in order to free the main processor from work and improve the overall performance. These include the development of ancillary dedicated hardware circuits that carry out the more redundant and computationally expensive operations in a faster way, leaving the main processor free to carry out other tasks while waiting for the result. One of these devices is SpaceCube, a FPGA-based system designed by NASA. The opportunity to use FPGA reconfigurable architectures in space allows not only the optimization of the mission operations with hardware-level solutions, but also the ability to create new and improved versions of the circuits, including error corrections, once the satellite is already in orbit. In this work, we propose the optimization of a common operation in remote sensing: the Multi-Spectral Euclidean Distance calculation. For that, two different hardware architectures have been designed and implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, the same model of FPGAs used by SpaceCube. Previous results have shown that the communications between the embedded processor and the circuit create a bottleneck that affects the overall performance in a negative way. In order to avoid this, advanced methods including memory sharing, Native Port Interface (NPI) connections and Data Burst Transfers have been used.

  2. Elevated level of spindle checkprotein MAD2 correlates with cellular mitotic arrest, but not with aneuploidy and clinicopathological characteristics in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chew-Wun Wu; Chin-Wen Chi; Tze-Sing Huang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the relevance of spindle assembly checkprotein MAD2 to cellular mitotic status, aneuploidy and other clinicopathological characteristics in gastric cancer.METHODS: Western blot analyses were performed to analyze the protein levels of MAD2 and cyclin B1 in the tumorous and adjacent nontumorous tissues of 34 gastric cancer patients. Cell cycle distribution and DNA ploidy of cancer tissues were also determined by flow cytometry.Conventional statistical methods were adopted to determine the relevance of abnormal MAD2 level to mitotic status,aneuploidy and clinicopathological parameters.RESULTS: Out of 34 gastric cancer patients 25 (74%)exhibited elevated MAD2 levels in their tumorous tissues compared with the corresponding nontumorous tissues.Elevation of MAD2 levels significantly correlated with the increased levels of cydin B1 expression and G2/M-phase distribution (P = 0.038 and P = 0.033, respectively), but was not relevant to aneuploidy. The gastric cancer patients with elevated MAD2 levels showed a tendency toward better disease-free and overall survival (P>0.05). However, no association was found between elevated MAD2 levels and patients' clinicopathological characteristics.CONCLUSION: Elevation of MAD2 level is present in 74%of gastric cancer patients, and correlates with increased mitotic checkpoint activity. However, elevation of MAD2level is not associated with patients' aneuploidy and any of the clinicopathological characteristics.

  3. Calibrating floor field cellular automaton models for pedestrian dynamics by using likelihood function optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Ronchi, Enrico; Nilsson, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The formulation of pedestrian floor field cellular automaton models is generally based on hypothetical assumptions to represent reality. This paper proposes a novel methodology to calibrate these models using experimental trajectories. The methodology is based on likelihood function optimization and allows verifying whether the parameters defining a model statistically affect pedestrian navigation. Moreover, it allows comparing different model specifications or the parameters of the same model estimated using different data collection techniques, e.g. virtual reality experiment, real data, etc. The methodology is here implemented using navigation data collected in a Virtual Reality tunnel evacuation experiment including 96 participants. A trajectory dataset in the proximity of an emergency exit is used to test and compare different metrics, i.e. Euclidean and modified Euclidean distance, for the static floor field. In the present case study, modified Euclidean metrics provide better fitting with the data. A new formulation using random parameters for pedestrian cellular automaton models is also defined and tested.

  4. Log-Euclidean metrics for fast and simple calculus on diffusion tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsigny, Vincent; Fillard, Pierre; Pennec, Xavier; Ayache, Nicholas

    2006-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DT-MRI or DTI) is an emerging imaging modality whose importance has been growing considerably. However, the processing of this type of data (i.e., symmetric positive-definite matrices), called "tensors" here, has proved difficult in recent years. Usual Euclidean operations on matrices suffer from many defects on tensors, which have led to the use of many ad hoc methods. Recently, affine-invariant Riemannian metrics have been proposed as a rigorous and general framework in which these defects are corrected. These metrics have excellent theoretical properties and provide powerful processing tools, but also lead in practice to complex and slow algorithms. To remedy this limitation, a new family of Riemannian metrics called Log-Euclidean is proposed in this article. They also have excellent theoretical properties and yield similar results in practice, but with much simpler and faster computations. This new approach is based on a novel vector space structure for tensors. In this framework, Riemannian computations can be converted into Euclidean ones once tensors have been transformed into their matrix logarithms. Theoretical aspects are presented and the Euclidean, affine-invariant, and Log-Euclidean frameworks are compared experimentally. The comparison is carried out on interpolation and regularization tasks on synthetic and clinical 3D DTI data.

  5. Epileptic Seizure Detection with Log-Euclidean Gaussian Kernel-Based Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shasha; Zhou, Weidong; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-01

    Epileptic seizure detection plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy and reducing the massive workload of reviewing electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. In this work, a novel algorithm is developed to detect seizures employing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based sparse representation (SR) in long-term EEG recordings. Unlike the traditional SR for vector data in Euclidean space, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR framework is proposed for seizure detection in the space of the symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices, which form a Riemannian manifold. Since the Riemannian manifold is nonlinear, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel function is applied to embed it into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) for performing SR. The EEG signals of all channels are divided into epochs and the SPD matrices representing EEG epochs are generated by covariance descriptors. Then, the testing samples are sparsely coded over the dictionary composed by training samples utilizing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR. The classification of testing samples is achieved by computing the minimal reconstructed residuals. The proposed method is evaluated on the Freiburg EEG dataset of 21 patients and shows its notable performance on both epoch-based and event-based assessments. Moreover, this method handles multiple channels of EEG recordings synchronously which is more speedy and efficient than traditional seizure detection methods.

  6. Investigation of microgravity effects on basic imune functions on the cellular level - The TRIPLELUX-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Eckehardt; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich

    Hemocytes are the primary defence of the Blue Mussel against invading microorganisms and foreign particles. The hemocytes of mussels as part of the immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The choice of the phagocytes from invertebrates is justified by the claim to study the universal validity of innate immune responses. The hemocytes of mussels have a lot in common with macrophages of higher organisms. They are able to detect the presence of microorganisms and kill these microorganisms by phagocytosis. The phagocy-tosis related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonised zymosan. The hemocytes will be stored frozen and reconstituted in-flight for the experiment. The signals of the im-muno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The primary aim of Triplelux B is to investigate under space flight conditions the effect of microgravity on the ability of isolated Blue Mussel hemocytes to perform phagocytosis. As a secondery objectiv, the results expected will allow to conclude whether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation (change in permeability, endpoints in genotoxicity: DNA unwinding). The TRIPLELUX-B Experiment contributes to risk assessment concerning immunotoxicity under space flight conditions. The components of the fully automated AEC (Advanced Experimental Containment) will be demonstrated. The AEC of the TRIPLELUX-B experiment will contribute to a real time operational monitoring for immunotoxicity testing for earth. Blue mussels have been used repeatedly for monitoring imunotoxicity and genotoxicity in coastal waters. Based on the AEC an automatet measuring device will allow "real time monitoring" providing observations of immunotoxicity in coastal and inland waters.

  7. Euclidean Complex Relativistic Mechanics: A New Special Relativity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias

    2015-09-01

    Relativity Theory (RT) was fundamental for the development of Quantum Mechanics (QMs). Special Relativity (SR), as is applied until now, cancels the transitive attribute in parallelism, when three observers are related, because Lorentz Boost (LB) is not closed transformation. In this presentation, considering Linear Spacetime Transformation (LSTT), we demand the maintenance of Minkowski Spacetime Interval (S2). In addition, we demand this LSTT to be closed, so there is no need for axes rotation. The solution is the Vossos Matrix (ΛB) containing real and imaginary numbers. As a result, space becomes complex, but time remains real. Thus, the transitive attribute in parallelism, which is equivalent to the Euclidean Request (ER), is also valid for moving observers. Choosing real spacetime for the unmoved observer (O), all the natural sizes are real, too. Using Vossos Transformation (VT) for moving observers, the four-vectors’ zeroth component (such as energy) is real, in contrast with spatial components that are complex, but their norm is real. It is proved that moving (relative to O) human O' meter length, according to Lorentz Boost (LB). In addition, we find Rotation Matrix Vossos-Lorentz (RBL) that turns natural sizes’ complex components to real. We also prove that Speed of Light in Vacuum (c) is invariant, when complex components are used and VT is closed for three sequential observers. After, we find out the connection between two moving (relative to O) observers: X"= ΛLO"(o) ΛLO(O') X', using Lorentz Matrix (ΛL). We applied this theory, finding relations between natural sizes, that are the same as these extracted by Classic Relativity (CR), when two observers are related (i.e. relativistic Doppler shift is the same). But, the results are different, when more than two observers are related. VT of Electromagnetic Tensor (Fμv), leads to Complex Electromagnetic Fields (CEMFs) for a moving observer. When the unmoved observer O and a moving observer O' are

  8. The Sec1/Munc18 protein Vps45 regulates cellular levels of its SNARE binding partners Tlg2 and Snc2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G Shanks

    Full Text Available Intracellular membrane trafficking pathways must be tightly regulated to ensure proper functioning of all eukaryotic cells. Central to membrane trafficking is the formation of specific SNARE (soluble N-ethylmeleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complexes between proteins on opposing lipid bilayers. The Sec1/Munc18 (SM family of proteins play an essential role in SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, and like the SNAREs are conserved through evolution from yeast to humans. The SM protein Vps45 is required for the formation of yeast endosomal SNARE complexes and is thus essential for traffic through the endosomal system. Here we report that, in addition to its role in regulating SNARE complex assembly, Vps45 regulates cellular levels of its SNARE binding partners: the syntaxin Tlg2 and the v-SNARE Snc2: Cells lacking Vps45 have reduced cellular levels of Tlg2 and Snc2; and elevation of Vps45 levels results in concomitant increases in the levels of both Tlg2 and Snc2. As well as regulating traffic through the endosomal system, the Snc v-SNAREs are also required for exocytosis. Unlike most vps mutants, cells lacking Vps45 display multiple growth phenotypes. Here we report that these can be reversed by selectively restoring Snc2 levels in vps45 mutant cells. Our data indicate that as well as functioning as part of the machinery that controls SNARE complex assembly, Vps45 also plays a key role in determining the levels of its cognate SNARE proteins; another key factor in regulation of membrane traffic.

  9. Asymptotic Behavior of Excitable Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, R; Durrett, Richard; Griffeath, David

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: We study two families of excitable cellular automata known as the Greenberg-Hastings Model (GHM) and the Cyclic Cellular Automaton (CCA). Each family consists of local deterministic oscillating lattice dynamics, with parallel discrete-time updating, parametrized by the range of interaction, the "shape" of its neighbor set, threshold value for contact updating, and number of possible states per site. GHM and CCA are mathematically tractable prototypes for the spatially distributed periodic wave activity of so-called excitable media observed in diverse disciplines of experimental science. Earlier work by Fisch, Gravner, and Griffeath studied the ergodic behavior of these excitable cellular automata on Z^2, and identified two distinct (but closely-related) elaborate phase portraits as the parameters vary. In particular, they noted the emergence of asymptotic phase diagrams (and Euclidean dynamics) in a well-defined threshold-range scaling limit. In this study we present several rigorous results and som...

  10. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  11. Molecular Mechanistic Reasoning: Toward Bridging the Gap between the Molecular and Cellular Levels in Life Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mil, Marc H. W.; Postma, Paulien A.; Boerwinkel, Dirk Jan; Klaassen, Kees; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2016-01-01

    Although learning about DNA, RNA, and proteins is part of the upper secondary biology curriculum in most countries, many studies report that students fail to connect molecular knowledge to phenomena at the higher level of cells, organs, and organisms. As a result, many students use memorization and rote learning as a coping strategy when presented…

  12. Geometry and Astronomy: Pre-Einstein Speculations of Non-Euclidean Space

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2012-01-01

    The recognition that physical space (or space-time) is curved is a product of the general theory of relativity, such as dramatically shown by the 1919 solar eclipse measurements. However, the mathematical possibility of non-Euclidean geometries was recognized by Gauss more than a century earlier, and during the nineteenth century mathematicians developed the pioneering ideas of Gauss, Lobachevsky, Bolyai and Riemann into an elaborate branch of generalized geometry. Did the unimaginative physicists and astronomers ignore the new geometries? Were they considered to be of mathematical interest only until Einstein entered the scene? This paper examines in detail the attempts in the period from about 1830 to 1910 to establish links between non-Euclidean geometry and the physical and astronomical sciences, including attempts to find observational evidence for curved space. Although there were but few contributors to "non-Euclidean astronomy," there were more than usually supposed. The paper looks in particular on a...

  13. Special geometry of euclidean supersymmetry II. Hypermultiplets and the c-map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Vicente [Institut de Mathematiques Elie Cartan, Universite Henri Poincare - Nancy I, B.P. 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Mayer, Christoph [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Mohaupt, Thomas [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Saueressig, Frank [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-06-01

    We construct two new versions of the c-map which allow us to obtain the target manifolds of hypermultiplets in euclidean theories with rigid N = 2 supersymmetry. While the minkowskian para-c-map is obtained by dimensional reduction of the minkowskian vector multiplet lagrangian over time, the euclidean para-c-map corresponds to the dimensional reduction of the euclidean vector multiplet lagrangian. In both cases the resulting hypermultiplet target spaces are para-hyper-Kaehler manifolds. We review and prove the relevant results of para-complex and para-hypercomplex geometry. In particular, we give a second, purely geometrical construction of both c-maps, by proving that the cotangent bundle N = T*M of any affine special (para-)Kaehler manifold M is para-hyper-Kaehler.

  14. Approximability of the d-dimensional Euclidean capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachay, Michael; Dubinin, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) is the well known intractable combinatorial optimization problem, which remains NP-hard even in the Euclidean plane. Since the introduction of this problem in the middle of the 20th century, many researchers were involved into the study of its approximability. Most of the results obtained in this field are based on the well known Iterated Tour Partition heuristic proposed by M. Haimovich and A. Rinnoy Kan in their celebrated paper, where they construct the first Polynomial Time Approximation Scheme (PTAS) for the single depot CVRP in ℝ2. For decades, this result was extended by many authors to numerous useful modifications of the problem taking into account multiple depots, pick up and delivery options, time window restrictions, etc. But, to the best of our knowledge, almost none of these results go beyond the Euclidean plane. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap and propose a EPTAS for the Euclidean CVRP for any fixed dimension.

  15. Linear time constant factor approximation algorithm for the Euclidean ``Freeze-Tag`` robot awakening problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Namazifar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Freeze-Tag Problem (FTP arises in the study of swarm robotics. The FTP is a combinatorial optimization problem that starts by locating a set of robots in a Euclidean plane. Here, we are given a swarm of n asleep (frozen or inactive robots and a single awake (active robot. In order to activate an inactive robot in FTP, the active robot should either be in the physical proximity to the inactive robot or ``touch`` it. The new activated robot starts moving and can wake up other inactive robots. The goal is to find an optimal activating schedule with the minimum time required for activating all robots. In general, FTP is an NP-Hard problem and in the Euclidean space is an open problem. In this paper, we present a recursive approximation algorithm with a constant approximation factor and a linear running time for the Euclidean Freeze-Tag Problem.

  16. Approximating the Euclidean circle in the square grid using neighbourhood sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Janos; Nagy, Benedek

    2010-01-01

    Distance measuring is a very important task in digital geometry and digital image processing. Due to our natural approach to geometry we think of the set of points that are equally far from a given point as a Euclidean circle. Using the classical neighbourhood relations on digital grids, we get circles that greatly differ from the Euclidean circle. In this paper we examine different methods of approximating the Euclidean circle in the square grid, considering the possible motivations as well. We compare the perimeter-, area-, curve- and noncompactness-based approximations and examine their realization using neighbourhood sequences. We also provide a table which summarizes our results, and can be used when developing applications that support neighbourhood sequences.

  17. Realization of the N(odd)-Dimensional Quantum Euclidean Space by Differential Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun; JING Si-Cong

    2004-01-01

    The quantum Euclidean space RNq is a kind of noncommutative space that is obtained from ordinary Euclidean space RN by deformation with parameter q. When N is odd, the structure of this space is similar to R3q.Motivated by realization ofR3q by differential operators in R3, we give such realization for R5q and R7q cases and generalize our results to RNq (N odd) in this paper, that is, we show that the algebra of RNq can be realized by differential operators acting on C∞ functions on undeformed space RN.

  18. Solutions manual to accompany Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W

    2014-01-01

    Solutions Manual to accompany Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective Written by well-known mathematical problem solvers, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective features up-to-date and applicable coverage of the wide spectrum of geometry and aids readers in learning the art of logical reasoning, modeling, and proof. With its reader-friendly approach, this undergraduate text features self-contained topical coverage and provides a large selection of solved exercises to aid in reader comprehension. Material in this text can be tailored for a one-, two-, or three-semester sequence.

  19. On the Equivalence between Euclidean and In-In Formalisms in de Sitter QFT

    OpenAIRE

    HIGUCHI, Atsushi; Marolf, Donald; Morrison, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the relation between two sets of correlators in interacting quantum field theory on de Sitter space. The first are correlators computed using in-in perturbation theory in the expanding cosmological patch of de Sitter space (also known as the conformal patch, or the Poincar\\'e patch), and for which the free propagators are taken to be those of the free Euclidean vacuum. The second are correlators obtained by analytic continuation from Euclidean de Sitter; i.e., they are correlators in...

  20. Clifford algebra and the projective model of Minkowski (pseudo-Euclidean) spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    I apply the algebraic framework introduced in arXiv:1101.4542v3[math.MG] to Minkowski (pseudo-Euclidean) spaces in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The exposition follows the template established in arXiv:1307.2917[math.MG] for Euclidean spaces. The emphasis is on geometric structures, but some contact with special relativity is made by considering relativistic addition of velocities and Lorentz transformations, both of which can be seen as rotation applied to points and to lines. The language used in...

  1. Statistical 2D and 3D shape analysis using Non-Euclidean Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Wrobel, Mark Christoph

    2002-01-01

    We address the problem of extracting meaningful, uncorrelated biological modes of variation from tangent space shape coordinates in 2D and 3D using non-Euclidean metrics. We adapt the maximum autocorrelation factor analysis and the minimum noise fraction transform to shape decomposition. Furtherm......We address the problem of extracting meaningful, uncorrelated biological modes of variation from tangent space shape coordinates in 2D and 3D using non-Euclidean metrics. We adapt the maximum autocorrelation factor analysis and the minimum noise fraction transform to shape decomposition...

  2. Analyzing the Expression Level and Cellular Location of the Tip-1 Protein in Oral Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mansoursamaei

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the sixth most common cancer in the world and accounts for approximately 4% of all cancers and 2% of all cancer death.The single most important factor in the prevention of the disease is early detection although, due to increased risk of secondary malignancy, survival remains poor with only a 25% 5 years survival. Both hereditary and environmental factors have been shown to have a productive role in this disease. For example, although chronic exposure of oral epithelium to tobacco smoke and alcohol are amongst the most important aetiological factors, it is now becoming realized that infection with high risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV are also involved as causative agent in a subset of this disease. All of these OSCC associated factors are known to promote genetic instability in the target oral epithelial cells. Work in our laboratories has indicated that the Tax interacting protein 1 (Tip-1 is also a target for the HPV 16 E6 protein may play an important role in controlling genetic instability during the oncogenic process (Hampson L., et al unpublished. So far 14 oral cancer cell lines have been grown in cell culture and RNA extracted from these. Tip-1 transcript levels were analyzed in this material by Northern blotting and competitive template quantitative PCR, which showed that Tip-1 levels were higher in some, cell lines than others (4 high, 6 moderate, 4 low level. Cell ploidy was determined by FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells, which showed that out of all the OSCC cell lines tested the cell line (BICR 68 had the greatest numbers of polyploid cells and also had the highest expression of Tip-1 RNA.

  3. Elevated glutathione levels confer cellular sensitization to cisplatin toxicity by up-regulation of copper transporter hCtr1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Helen H W; Song, Im-Sook; Hossain, Anwar; Choi, Min-Koo; Yamane, Yoshiaki; Liang, Zheng D; Lu, Jia; Wu, Lily Y-H; Siddik, Zahid H; Klomp, Leo W J; Savaraj, Niramol; Kuo, Macus Tien

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that treating cultured cells with cisplatin (CDDP) up-regulated the expression of glutathione (GSH) and its de novo rate-limiting enzyme glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. It has also been shown that many CDDP-resistant cell lines exhibit high levels of GCLC/GCLM and GSH. Because the GSH system is the major intracellular regulator of redox conditions that serve as an important detoxification cytoprotector, these results have been taken into consideration that elevated levels of GCL/GSH are responsible for the CDDP resistance. In contrast to this context, we demonstrated here that overexpression of GSH by transfection with an expression plasmid containing the GCLC cDNA conferred sensitization to CDDP through up-regulation of human copper transporter (hCtr) 1, which is also a transporter for CDDP. Depleting GSH levels in these transfected cells reversed CDDP sensitivity with concomitant reduction of hCtr1 expression. Although rates of copper transport were also up-regulated in the transfected cells, these cells exhibited biochemical signature of copper deficiency, suggesting that GSH functions as an intracellular copper-chelator and that overexpression of GSH can alter copper metabolism. More importantly, our results reveal a new role of GSH in the regulation of CDDP sensitivity. Overproduction of GSH depletes the bioavailable copper pool, leading to up-regulation of hCtr1 and sensitization of CDDP transport and cell killing. These findings also have important implications in that modulation of the intracellular copper pool may be a novel strategy for improving chemotherapeutic efficacy of platinum-based antitumor agents.

  4. Ethacrynic acid inhibition of histamine release from rat mast cells: effect on cellular ATP levels and thiol groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1983-01-01

    The experiments concerned the effect of ethacrynic acid (0.5 mM) on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of rat mast cells and the effect on histamine release induced by the ionophore A23187 (10 microM). Ethacrynic acid decreased the ATP level of the cells in presence of antimycin A and glucose...... as well as in presence of 2-deoxyglucose. A23187-induced histamine release was inhibited by ethacrynic acid, and this inhibition was completely reversed by dithiothreitol. These observations may indicate that ethacrynic acid inhibits glycolytic and respiratory energy production in rat mast cells...

  5. Pokeweed antiviral protein restores levels of cellular APOBEC3G during HIV-1 infection by depurinating Vif mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivdova, Gabriela; Hudak, Katalin A

    2015-10-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is an RNA glycosidase that inhibits production of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) when expressed in human culture cells. Previously, we showed that the expression of PAP reduced the levels of several viral proteins, including virion infectivity factor (Vif). However, the mechanism causing Vif reduction and the consequences of the inhibition were not determined. Here we show that the Vif mRNA is directly depurinated by PAP. Because of depurination at two specific sites within the Vif ORF, Vif levels decrease during infections and the progeny viruses that are generated are ∼ 10-fold less infectious and compromised for proviral integration. These results are consistent with PAP activity inhibiting translation of Vif, which in turn reduces the effect of Vif to inactivate the host restriction factor APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like editing complex 3G). Our findings identify Vif mRNA as a new substrate for PAP and demonstrate that derepression of innate immunity against HIV-1 contributes to its antiviral activity.

  6. Cellular HIV-1 DNA levels in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy strongly correlate with therapy initiation timing but not with therapy duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Yasuharu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral reservoir size refers to cellular human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 DNA levels in CD4+ T lymphocytes of peripheral blood obtained from patients with plasma HIV-1-RNA levels (viral load, VL maintained below the detection limit by antiretroviral therapy (ART. We measured HIV-1 DNA levels in CD4+ lymphocytes in such patients to investigate their clinical significance. Methods CD4+ T lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of 61 patients with a VL maintained at less than 50 copies/ml for at least 4 months by ART and total DNA was purified. HIV-1 DNA was quantified by nested PCR to calculate the copy number per 1 million CD4+ lymphocytes (relative amount and the copy number in 1 ml of blood (absolute amount. For statistical analysis, the Spearman rank or Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used, with a significance level of 5%. Results CD4 cell counts at the time of sampling negatively correlated with the relative amount of HIV-1 DNA (median = 33 copies/million CD4+ lymphocytes; interquartile range [IQR] = 7-123 copies/million CD4+ lymphocytes, but were not correlated with the absolute amounts (median = 17 copies/ml; IQR = 5-67 copies/ml. Both absolute and relative amounts of HIV-1 DNA were significantly lower in six patients in whom ART was initiated before positive seroconversion than in 55 patients in whom ART was initiated in the chronic phase, as shown by Western blotting. CD4 cell counts before ART introduction were also negatively correlated with both the relative and absolute amounts of HIV-1 DNA. Only the relative amounts of HIV-1 DNA negatively correlated with the duration of VL maintenance below the detection limit, while the absolute amounts were not significantly correlated with this period. Conclusions The amounts of cellular HIV-1 DNA in patients with VLs maintained below the detection limit by the introduction of ART correlated with the timing of ART initiation but not with the duration of ART. In

  7. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang

    2011-09-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  8. mRNA expression levels in failing human hearts predict cellular electrophysiological remodeling: a population-based simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walmsley

    Full Text Available Differences in mRNA expression levels have been observed in failing versus non-failing human hearts for several membrane channel proteins and accessory subunits. These differences may play a causal role in electrophysiological changes observed in human heart failure and atrial fibrillation, such as action potential (AP prolongation, increased AP triangulation, decreased intracellular calcium transient (CaT magnitude and decreased CaT triangulation. Our goal is to investigate whether the information contained in mRNA measurements can be used to predict cardiac electrophysiological remodeling in heart failure using computational modeling. Using mRNA data recently obtained from failing and non-failing human hearts, we construct failing and non-failing cell populations incorporating natural variability and up/down regulation of channel conductivities. Six biomarkers are calculated for each cell in each population, at cycle lengths between 1500 ms and 300 ms. Regression analysis is performed to determine which ion channels drive biomarker variability in failing versus non-failing cardiomyocytes. Our models suggest that reported mRNA expression changes are consistent with AP prolongation, increased AP triangulation, increased CaT duration, decreased CaT triangulation and amplitude, and increased delay between AP and CaT upstrokes in the failing population. Regression analysis reveals that changes in AP biomarkers are driven primarily by reduction in I[Formula: see text], and changes in CaT biomarkers are driven predominantly by reduction in I(Kr and SERCA. In particular, the role of I(CaL is pacing rate dependent. Additionally, alternans developed at fast pacing rates for both failing and non-failing cardiomyocytes, but the underlying mechanisms are different in control and heart failure.

  9. On the Equivalence of the Berlekamp-Massey and the Euclidean Algorithm for Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydtmann, Agnes Eileen; Jensen, Jørn Møller

    1999-01-01

    The Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Euclidean algorithm for decoding have been considered as two different algorithms for solving the same problem, namely the one given by the key equation. In this article we argue that they are essentially identical by showing how one can be adapted to perform...

  10. Euclidean skeletons of 3D data sets in linear time by the integer medial axis transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Visser, Menno; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Ronse, C; Najman, L; Decenciere, E

    2005-01-01

    A general algorithm for computing Euclidean skeletons of 3D data sets in linear time is presented. These skeletons are defined in terms of a new concept, called the integer medial axis (IMA) transform. The algorithm is based upon the computation of 3D feature transforms, using a modification of an a

  11. Thinking Outside the Euclidean Box: Riemannian Geometry and Inter-Temporal Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Himanshu; Mishra, Arul

    2016-01-01

    Inter-temporal decisions involves assigning values to various payoffs occurring at different temporal distances. Past research has used different approaches to study these decisions made by humans and animals. For instance, considering that people discount future payoffs at a constant rate (e.g., exponential discounting) or at variable rate (e.g., hyperbolic discounting). In this research, we question the widely assumed, but seldom questioned, notion across many of the existing approaches that the decision space, where the decision-maker perceives time and monetary payoffs, is a Euclidean space. By relaxing the rigid assumption of Euclidean space, we propose that the decision space is a more flexible Riemannian space of Constant Negative Curvature. We test our proposal by deriving a discount function, which uses the distance in the Negative Curvature space instead of Euclidean temporal distance. The distance function includes both perceived values of time as well as money, unlike past work which has considered just time. By doing so we are able to explain many of the empirical findings in inter-temporal decision-making literature. We provide converging evidence for our proposal by estimating the curvature of the decision space utilizing manifold learning algorithm and showing that the characteristics (i.e., metric properties) of the decision space resembles those of the Negative Curvature space rather than the Euclidean space. We conclude by presenting new theoretical predictions derived from our proposal and implications for how non-normative behavior is defined.

  12. Ab-initio reconstruction of complex Euclidean networks in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarathi, S R; Farrow, C L; Glosser, C; Granlund, L; Duxbury, P M

    2014-05-01

    Reconstruction of complex structures is an inverse problem arising in virtually all areas of science and technology, from protein structure determination to bulk heterostructure solar cells and the structure of nanoparticles. We cast this problem as a complex network problem where the edges in a network have weights equal to the Euclidean distance between their endpoints. We present a method for reconstruction of the locations of the nodes of the network given only the edge weights of the Euclidean network. The theoretical foundations of the method are based on rigidity theory, which enables derivation of a polynomial bound on its efficiency. An efficient implementation of the method is discussed and timing results indicate that the run time of the algorithm is polynomial in the number of nodes in the network. We have reconstructed Euclidean networks of about 1000 nodes in approximately 24 h on a desktop computer using this implementation. We also reconstruct Euclidean networks corresponding to polymer chains in two dimensions and planar graphene nanoparticles. We have also modified our base algorithm so that it can successfully solve random point sets when the input data are less precise.

  13. A Quasi-Nonmetric Method for Multidimensional Scaling via an Extended Euclidean Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsberg, Suzanne; Carroll, J. Douglas

    1989-01-01

    An Extended Two-Way Euclidean Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) model that assumes both common and specific dimensions is described and contrasted with the "standard" (Two-Way) MDS model. Illustrations with both artificial and real data on the judged similarity of nations are provided. (TJH)

  14. On the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ related to extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Khairun Nisak; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza

    2016-06-01

    The extended Euclidean Algorithm is a practical technique used in many cryptographic applications, where it computes the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ that always satisfy ri = si a+ tib. The integer ri is the remainder in the ith sequences. The sequences si and ti arising from the extended Euclidean algorithm are equal, up to sign, to the convergents of the continued fraction expansion of a/b. The values of (ri, si, ti) satisfy various properties which are used to solve the shortest vector problem in representing point multiplications in elliptic curves cryptography, namely the GLV (Gallant, Lambert & Vanstone) integer decomposition method and the ISD (integer sub decomposition) method. This paper is to extend the proof for each of the existing properties on (ri, si, ti). We also generate new properties which are relevant to the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ. The concepts of Euclidean algorithm, extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions are intertwined and the properties related to these concepts are proved. These properties together with the existing properties of the sequence (ri, si, ti) are regarded as part and parcel of the building blocks of a new generation of an efficient cryptographic protocol.

  15. Faster exact algorithms for computing Steiner trees in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Brazil, Marcus; Winter, Pawel;

    2016-01-01

    The Euclidean Steiner tree problem asks for a network of minimum total length interconnecting a finite set of points in d-dimensional space. For d ≥ 3, only one practical algorithmic approach exists for this problem --- proposed by Smith in 1992. A number of refinements of Smith's algorithm have ...

  16. Bethe-Salpeter equation with cross-ladder kernel in Minkowski and Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A; Mangin-Brinet, M

    2007-01-01

    Some results obtained by a new method for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation are presented. The method is valid for any kernel given by irreducible Feynman graphs. The Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, both in Minkowski and in Euclidean spaces, and the binding energy for ladder + cross-ladder kernel are found. We calculate also the corresponding electromagnetic form factor.

  17. A Euclidean Geometric Invariant of Framed (UnKnots in Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Dubois

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an invariant of a three-dimensional manifold with a framed knot in it based on the Reidemeister torsion of an acyclic complex of Euclidean geometric origin. To show its nontriviality, we calculate the invariant for some framed (unknots in lens spaces. Our invariant is related to a finite-dimensional fermionic topological quantum field theory.

  18. Usability Evaluation of an Augmented Reality System for Teaching Euclidean Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gonzalez, Anabel; Chi-Poot, Angel; Uc-Cetina, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the emerging technologies that has demonstrated to be an efficient technological tool to enhance learning techniques. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of an AR system for teaching Euclidean vectors in physics and mathematics. The goal of this pedagogical tool is to facilitate user's…

  19. Ab-initio reconstruction of complex Euclidean networks in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarathi, S. R.; Farrow, C. L.; Glosser, C.; Granlund, L.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2014-05-01

    Reconstruction of complex structures is an inverse problem arising in virtually all areas of science and technology, from protein structure determination to bulk heterostructure solar cells and the structure of nanoparticles. We cast this problem as a complex network problem where the edges in a network have weights equal to the Euclidean distance between their endpoints. We present a method for reconstruction of the locations of the nodes of the network given only the edge weights of the Euclidean network. The theoretical foundations of the method are based on rigidity theory, which enables derivation of a polynomial bound on its efficiency. An efficient implementation of the method is discussed and timing results indicate that the run time of the algorithm is polynomial in the number of nodes in the network. We have reconstructed Euclidean networks of about 1000 nodes in approximately 24 h on a desktop computer using this implementation. We also reconstruct Euclidean networks corresponding to polymer chains in two dimensions and planar graphene nanoparticles. We have also modified our base algorithm so that it can successfully solve random point sets when the input data are less precise.

  20. Thinking Outside the Euclidean Box: Riemannian Geometry and Inter-Temporal Decision-Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Mishra

    Full Text Available Inter-temporal decisions involves assigning values to various payoffs occurring at different temporal distances. Past research has used different approaches to study these decisions made by humans and animals. For instance, considering that people discount future payoffs at a constant rate (e.g., exponential discounting or at variable rate (e.g., hyperbolic discounting. In this research, we question the widely assumed, but seldom questioned, notion across many of the existing approaches that the decision space, where the decision-maker perceives time and monetary payoffs, is a Euclidean space. By relaxing the rigid assumption of Euclidean space, we propose that the decision space is a more flexible Riemannian space of Constant Negative Curvature. We test our proposal by deriving a discount function, which uses the distance in the Negative Curvature space instead of Euclidean temporal distance. The distance function includes both perceived values of time as well as money, unlike past work which has considered just time. By doing so we are able to explain many of the empirical findings in inter-temporal decision-making literature. We provide converging evidence for our proposal by estimating the curvature of the decision space utilizing manifold learning algorithm and showing that the characteristics (i.e., metric properties of the decision space resembles those of the Negative Curvature space rather than the Euclidean space. We conclude by presenting new theoretical predictions derived from our proposal and implications for how non-normative behavior is defined.

  1. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) : A new class of adaptable distance transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    2014-01-01

    A new unique class of foldable distance transforms of digital images (DT) is introduced, baptized: Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transforms. FEED class algorithms calculate the DT startingdirectly from the definition or rather its inverse. The principle of FEED class algorithms is introduced,

  2. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED): A new class of adaptable distance transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2014-01-01

    A new unique class of foldable distance transforms of digital images (DT) is introduced, baptized: Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transforms. FEED class algorithms calculate the DT starting directly from the definition or rather its inverse. The principle of FEED class algorithms is introduced

  3. System of Schwinger-Dyson equations and asymptotic behavior in the Euclidean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochev, V. E., E-mail: vladimir.rochev@ihep.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Institute for High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    A system of Schwinger-Dyson equations for the model of scalar-field interaction is studied in a deep Euclidean region. It is shown that there exists a critical coupling constant that separates the weak-coupling region characterized by the asymptotically free behavior and the strong-coupling region, where the asymptotic behavior of field propagators becomes ultralocal.

  4. Using Nano-mechanics and Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) for Disease Monitoring and Diagnostics at a Cellular Level in Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanantha, Ninnuja; Ma, Charles; Collins, David J.; Sesen, Muhsincan; Brenker, Jason; Coppel, Ross L.; Neild, Adrian; Alan, Tuncay

    A popular approach to monitoring diseases and their diagnosis is through biological, pathological or immunological characterization. However, at a cellular level progression of certain diseases manifests itself through mechanical effects as well. Here, we present a method which exploits localised flow; surface acoustic wave (SAW) induced acoustic streaming in a 9 μL droplet to characterize the adhesive properties of red blood cells (healthy, gluteraldehyde treated and malaria infected) in approximately 50 seconds. Our results show a 79% difference in cell mobilization between healthy malaria infected RBCs (and a 39% difference between healthy and treated ones), indicating that the method can serve as a platform for rapid clinical diagnosis; where separation of two or more different cell populations in a mixed solution is desirable. It can also act as a key biomarker for monitoring some diseases offering quantitative measures of disease progression and response to therapy.

  5. Searching for lower female genital tract soluble and cellular biomarkers: defining levels and predictors in a cohort of healthy Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan K Kyongo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been previously observed in the genital fluids of women enrolled in microbicide trials and may explain observed increased HIV transmission in some of these trials. Although the longitudinal nature of these studies allows within-subject comparisons of post-product levels to baseline levels, the fact that the physiologic variations of these cytokines and other markers of immune activation are not fully defined in different populations, makes it difficult to assess changes that can be directly attributed to microbicide use as opposed to other biological and behavioural factors. METHODS: Cervicovaginal lavage samples were collected from 30 healthy Caucasian and assayed for concentrations of ten cytokines/chemokines, total protein content and two antimicrobial proteins using a multiplex immunoassay and ELISA. Cellular markers were characterized by flow cytometry on mononuclear cells collected from the endocervix using flocked swabs. Bacterial quantification was performed using quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Ectopy, menstrual cycle phase, prostate-specific antigen and presence of leucocytes in endocervical cells' supernatant were associated with the concentrations of cyto-/chemokines in cervicovaginal secretions. Approximately 3% of endocervical cells collected were monocytes of which a median of 52% (SD  = 17 expressed both CD4 and CCR5 markers. Approximately 1% of the total cells were T-cells with a median of 61% (SD  = 10 CD4 and CCR5 expression. Around 5% of the monocytes and 16% of the T-cells expressed the immune activation marker HLA-DR. Higher percentages of T-cells were associated with greater quantities of IL-1RA, GM-CSF and elafin. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the presence of selected soluble and cellular immune activation markers and identify their predictors in the female genital tract of healthy women. Future clinical trials should consider ectopy, sexual activity

  6. Distinct genetic loci control plasma HIV-RNA and cellular HIV-DNA levels in HIV-1 infection: the ANRS Genome Wide Association 01 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Dalmasso

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the HIV-1 disease have shown that HLA and Chemokine receptor genetic variants influence disease progression and early viral load. We performed a Genome Wide Association study in a cohort of 605 HIV-1-infected seroconverters for detection of novel genetic factors that influence plasma HIV-RNA and cellular HIV-DNA levels. Most of the SNPs strongly associated with HIV-RNA levels were localised in the 6p21 major histocompatibility complex (MHC region and were in the vicinity of class I and III genes. Moreover, protective alleles for four disease-associated SNPs in the MHC locus (rs2395029, rs13199524, rs12198173 and rs3093662 were strikingly over-represented among forty-five Long Term HIV controllers. Furthermore, we show that the HIV-DNA levels (reflecting the HIV reservoir are associated with the same four SNPs, but also with two additional SNPs on chromosome 17 (rs6503919; intergenic region flanked by the DDX40 and YPEL2 genes and chromosome 8 (rs2575735; within the Syndecan 2 gene. Our data provide evidence that the MHC controls both HIV replication and HIV reservoir. They also indicate that two additional genomic loci may influence the HIV reservoir.

  7. 电磁辐射的细胞生物学效应研究进展%Progress in biological effects on the cellular level of electromagnetic radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁真; 李劲涛; 吴水才; 曾毅

    2015-01-01

    随着工业、信息行业的飞速发展,各种电子产品在给人类日常生活带来巨大便利的同时,产生的电磁污染也引起了人们的广泛关注。已有大量研究表明电磁辐射能从神经系统、免疫系统、生殖系统以及心脑血管系统等各个方面对人体产生不良影响,但具体微观作用机制还不能确定。本文综述了电磁辐射对细胞增殖、凋亡、细胞膜、受体分子、跨膜信号转导以及基因表达等方面的影响,详细介绍了细胞水平上电磁辐射的生物学效应,以期进一步对电磁辐射生物效应机制进行详细深入的研究。%With the rapid development of communication industry, the man⁃made electromagnetic pollution which was mainly caused by convenient electronic appliances has been a worldwide concern� Studies indicated that electromagnetic radiation ( EMR) could be harmful to human health, by affecting the nervous system, immune system, genital system and cardiocerebral vascular system� However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms were still unclear� The EMR impacts on cell viability, apoptosis, cell membrane function, cell receptor, cell signal transduction and genetic expression were illustrated and discussed here� The biological effects on the cellular level caused by EMR were summarized to provide evidences for further study on biological mechanism of EMR.

  8. Soybean extracts increase cell surface ZIP4 abundance and cellular zinc levels: a potential novel strategy to enhance zinc absorption by ZIP4 targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Ohkura, Katsuma; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kizu, Kumiko; Narita, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Irie, Kazuhiro; Ohigashi, Hajime; Andrews, Glen K; Kambe, Taiho

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans.

  9. Cellular Telephone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨周

    1996-01-01

    Cellular phones, used in automobiles, airliners, and passenger trains, are basically low-power radiotelephones. Calls go through radio transmitters that are located within small geographical units called cells. Because each cell’s signals are too weak to interfere with those of other cells operating on the same fre-

  10. System-level insights into the cellular interactome of a non-model organism: inferring, modelling and analysing functional gene network of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yungang; Guo, Maozu; Zou, Quan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Cellular interactome, in which genes and/or their products interact on several levels, forming transcriptional regulatory-, protein interaction-, metabolic-, signal transduction networks, etc., has attracted decades of research focuses. However, such a specific type of network alone can hardly explain the various interactive activities among genes. These networks characterize different interaction relationships, implying their unique intrinsic properties and defects, and covering different slices of biological information. Functional gene network (FGN), a consolidated interaction network that models fuzzy and more generalized notion of gene-gene relations, have been proposed to combine heterogeneous networks with the goal of identifying functional modules supported by multiple interaction types. There are yet no successful precedents of FGNs on sparsely studied non-model organisms, such as soybean (Glycine max), due to the absence of sufficient heterogeneous interaction data. We present an alternative solution for inferring the FGNs of soybean (SoyFGNs), in a pioneering study on the soybean interactome, which is also applicable to other organisms. SoyFGNs exhibit the typical characteristics of biological networks: scale-free, small-world architecture and modularization. Verified by co-expression and KEGG pathways, SoyFGNs are more extensive and accurate than an orthology network derived from Arabidopsis. As a case study, network-guided disease-resistance gene discovery indicates that SoyFGNs can provide system-level studies on gene functions and interactions. This work suggests that inferring and modelling the interactome of a non-model plant are feasible. It will speed up the discovery and definition of the functions and interactions of other genes that control important functions, such as nitrogen fixation and protein or lipid synthesis. The efforts of the study are the basis of our further comprehensive studies on the soybean functional interactome at the genome

  11. Efficient tracker based on sparse coding with Euclidean local structure-based constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongyuan; ZHANG Ji; CHEN Fuhua

    2016-01-01

    Sparse coding ( SC) based visual tracking ( l1⁃tracker) is gaining increasing attention, and many related algorithms are developed. In these algorithms, each candidate region is sparsely represented as a set of target tem⁃plates. However, the structure connecting these candidate regions is usually ignored. Lu proposed an NLSSC⁃tracker with non⁃local self⁃similarity sparse coding to address this issue, which has a high computational cost. In this study, we propose an Euclidean local⁃structure constraint based sparse coding tracker with a smoothed Euclidean local structure. With this tracker, the optimization procedure is transformed to a small⁃scale l1⁃optimization problem, sig⁃nificantly reducing the computational cost. Extensive experimental results on visual tracking demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Spatially adaptive log-euclidean polyaffine registration based on sparse matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Maxime; Macq, Benoît; Warfield, Simon K

    2011-01-01

    Log-euclidean polyaffine transforms have recently been introduced to characterize the local affine behavior of the deformation in principal anatomical structures. The elegant mathematical framework makes them a powerful tool for image registration. However, their application is limited to large structures since they require the pre-definition of affine regions. This paper extends the polyaffine registration to adaptively fit a log-euclidean polyaffine transform that captures deformations at smaller scales. The approach is based on the sparse selection of matching points in the images and the formulation of the problem as an expectation maximization iterative closest point problem. The efficiency of the algorithm is shown through experiments on inter-subject registration of brain MRI between a healthy subject and patients with multiple sclerosis.

  13. Two-dimensional maximum local variation based on image euclidean distance for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Quanxue; Gao, Feifei; Zhang, Hailin; Hao, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Xiaogang

    2013-10-01

    Manifold learning concerns the local manifold structure of high dimensional data, and many related algorithms are developed to improve image classification performance. None of them, however, consider both the relationships among pixels in images and the geometrical properties of various images during learning the reduced space. In this paper, we propose a linear approach, called two-dimensional maximum local variation (2DMLV), for face recognition. In 2DMLV, we encode the relationships among pixels in images using the image Euclidean distance instead of conventional Euclidean distance in estimating the variation of values of images, and then incorporate the local variation, which characterizes the diversity of images and discriminating information, into the objective function of dimensionality reduction. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  14. Recovering Euclidean structure from principal-axes paralleled conics: applications to camera calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Weng, Ying

    2014-06-01

    We focus on recovering the 2D Euclidean structure further for camera calibration from the projections of N parallel similar conics in this paper. This work demonstrates that the conic dual to the absolute points (CDAP) is the general form of the conic dual to the circular points, so it encodes the 2D Euclidean structure. However, the geometric size of the conic should be known if we utilize the CDAP. Under some special conditions (concentric conics), we proposed the rank-1 and rank-2 constraints. Our work relaxes the problem conditions and gives a more general framework than before. Experiments with simulated and real data are carried out to show the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Generalized Thomson problem in arbitrary dimensions and non-euclidean geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Batle, J

    2013-01-01

    Systems of identical particles with equal charge are studied under a special type of con?nement. These classical particles are free to move inside some convex region S and on the boundary of it $\\Omega$ (the $S^{d-1}-$ sphere, in our case). We shall show how particles arrange themselves under the sole action of the Coulomb repulsion in many dimensions in the usual Euclidean space, therefore generalizing the so called Thomson problem to many dimensions. Also, we explore how the problem varies when non-Euclidean geometries are considered. We shall see that optimal con?gurations in all cases possess a high degree of symmetry, regardless of the concomitant dimension or geometry.

  16. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathy, M; Saravanan, R

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures.

  17. Vector Nonlocal Euclidean Median: Principal Bundle Captures The Nature of Patch Space

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chen-Yun; Qi, Xin Jessica; Wu, Hau-Tieng

    2016-01-01

    We extensively study the rotational group structure inside the patch space by introducing the fiber bundle structure. The rotational group structure leads to a new image denoising algorithm called the \\textit{vector non-local Euclidean median} (VNLEM). The theoretical aspect of VNLEM is studied, which explains why the VNLEM and traditional non-local mean/non-local Euclidean median (NLEM) algorithm work. The numerical issue of the VNLEM is improved by taking the orientation feature in the commonly applied scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), and a theoretical analysis of the robustness of the orientation feature in the SIFT is provided. The VNLEM is applied to an image database of 1,361 images and compared with the NLEM. Different image quality assessments based on the error-sensitivity or the human visual system are applied to evaluate the performance. The results confirmed the potential of the VNLEM algorithm.

  18. Modelling non-Euclidean movement and landscape connectivity in highly structured ecological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Christopher; Fuller, Angela K.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Movement is influenced by landscape structure, configuration and geometry, but measuring distance as perceived by animals poses technical and logistical challenges. Instead, movement is typically measured using Euclidean distance, irrespective of location or landscape structure, or is based on arbitrary cost surfaces. A recently proposed extension of spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models resolves this issue using spatial encounter histories of individuals to calculate least-cost paths (ecological distance: Ecology, 94, 2013, 287) thereby relaxing the Euclidean assumption. We evaluate the consequences of not accounting for movement heterogeneity when estimating abundance in highly structured landscapes, and demonstrate the value of this approach for estimating biologically realistic space-use patterns and landscape connectivity.

  19. A Tale of Two Spaces: BPS Wilson Loops in Minkowski Spacetime and Euclidean Space

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Hao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2015-01-01

    We discuss BPS Wilson loops of $d=4$ $\\mathcal N=4$ super Yang-Mills theory, $d=3$ $\\mathcal N=2$ super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and $d=3$ $\\mathcal N=6$ Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory, in both Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space. We find that there are timelike and null BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime, but spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist. We attribute this to the conflicts of reality conditions of spinors. However, in Euclidean space spacelike Wilson loops do exist. There are both Wilson lines of infinite straight lines and Wilson loops of circles. This is because the reality conditions of spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of AdS/CFT correspondence.

  20. Maximal Abelian subgroups of the isometry and conformal groups of Euclidean and Minkowski spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomova, Z.; Winternitz, P.

    1998-02-01

    The maximal Abelian subalgebras (MASAs) of the Euclidean 0305-4470/31/7/016/img1 and pseudo-euclidean 0305-4470/31/7/016/img2 Lie algebras are classified into conjugacy classes under the action of the corresponding Lie groups 0305-4470/31/7/016/img3 and 0305-4470/31/7/016/img4, and also under the conformal groups 0305-4470/31/7/016/img5 and 0305-4470/31/7/016/img6, respectively. The results are presented in terms of decomposition theorems. For 0305-4470/31/7/016/img1 orthogonally indecomposable MASAs exist only for p = 1 and p = 2. For 0305-4470/31/7/016/img2, on the other hand, orthogonally indecomposable MASAs exist for all values of p. The results are used to construct new coordinate systems in which wave equations and Hamilton-Jacobi equations allow the separation of variables.

  1. Point Pattern Matching Algorithm for Planar Point Sets under Euclidean Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Point pattern matching is an important topic of computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, we propose a point pattern matching algorithm for two planar point sets under Euclidean transform. We view a point set as a complete graph, establish the relation between the point set and the complete graph, and solve the point pattern matching problem by finding congruent complete graphs. Experiments are conducted to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. A functional technique based on the Euclidean algorithm with applications to 2-D acoustic diffractal diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Vega, Luis

    2015-09-01

    We built, based on the Euclidean algorithm, a functional technique, which allows to discover a direct proof of Chinese Remainder Theorem. Afterwards, by using this functional approach, we present some applications to 2-D acoustic diffractal diffusers. The novelty of the method is their functional algorithmic character, which improves ideas, as well as, other results of the author and his collaborators in a previous work.

  3. DESIGN OF QUASI-CYCLIC LDPC CODES BASED ON EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yuanhua; Niu Xinliang; Wang Xinmei; Fan Jiulun

    2010-01-01

    A new method for constructing Quasi-Cyclic (QC) Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes based on Euclidean Geometry (EG) is presented. The proposed method results in a class of QC-LDPC codes with girth of at least 6 and the designed codes perform very close to the Shannon limit with iterative decoding. Simulations show that the designed QC-LDPC codes have almost the same performance with the existing EG-LDPC codes.

  4. Parameterized runtime analyses of evolutionary algorithms for the planar euclidean traveling salesperson problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Andrew M; Neumann, Frank; Nallaperuma, Samadhi

    2014-01-01

    Parameterized runtime analysis seeks to understand the influence of problem structure on algorithmic runtime. In this paper, we contribute to the theoretical understanding of evolutionary algorithms and carry out a parameterized analysis of evolutionary algorithms for the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem (Euclidean TSP). We investigate the structural properties in TSP instances that influence the optimization process of evolutionary algorithms and use this information to bound their runtime. We analyze the runtime in dependence of the number of inner points k. In the first part of the paper, we study a [Formula: see text] EA in a strictly black box setting and show that it can solve the Euclidean TSP in expected time [Formula: see text] where A is a function of the minimum angle [Formula: see text] between any three points. Based on insights provided by the analysis, we improve this upper bound by introducing a mixed mutation strategy that incorporates both 2-opt moves and permutation jumps. This strategy improves the upper bound to [Formula: see text]. In the second part of the paper, we use the information gained in the analysis to incorporate domain knowledge to design two fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) evolutionary algorithms for the planar Euclidean TSP. We first develop a [Formula: see text] EA based on an analysis by M. Theile, 2009, "Exact solutions to the traveling salesperson problem by a population-based evolutionary algorithm," Lecture notes in computer science, Vol. 5482 (pp. 145-155), that solves the TSP with k inner points in [Formula: see text] generations with probability [Formula: see text]. We then design a [Formula: see text] EA that incorporates a dynamic programming step into the fitness evaluation. We prove that a variant of this evolutionary algorithm using 2-opt mutation solves the problem after [Formula: see text] steps in expectation with a cost of [Formula: see text] for each fitness evaluation.

  5. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED): A New Class of Adaptable Distance Transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Theo E; van den Broek, Egon L

    2014-11-01

    A new unique class of foldable distance transforms of digital images (DT) is introduced, baptized: Fast exact euclidean distance (FEED) transforms. FEED class algorithms calculate the DT starting-directly from the definition or rather its inverse. The principle of FEED class algorithms is introduced, followed by strategies for their efficient implementation. It is shown that FEED class algorithms unite properties of ordered propagation, raster scanning, and independent scanning DT. Moreover, FEED class algorithms shown to have a unique property: they can be tailored to the images under investigation. Benchmarks are conducted on both the Fabbri et al. data set and on a newly developed data set. Three baseline, three approximate, and three state-of-the-art DT algorithms were included, in addition to two implementations of FEED class algorithms. It illustrates that FEED class algorithms i) provide truly exact Euclidean DT; ii) do no suffer from disconnected Voronoi tiles, which is a unique feature for non-parallel but fast DT; iii) outperform any other approximate and exact Euclidean DT with its time complexity O(N), even after their optimization; and iv) are unequaled in that they can be adapted to the characteristics of the image class at hand.

  6. ETEA: a Euclidean minimum spanning tree-based evolutionary algorithm for multi-objective optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miqing; Yang, Shengxiang; Zheng, Jinhua; Liu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    The Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST), widely used in a variety of domains, is a minimum spanning tree of a set of points in space where the edge weight between each pair of points is their Euclidean distance. Since the generation of an EMST is entirely determined by the Euclidean distance between solutions (points), the properties of EMSTs have a close relation with the distribution and position information of solutions. This paper explores the properties of EMSTs and proposes an EMST-based evolutionary algorithm (ETEA) to solve multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). Unlike most EMO algorithms that focus on the Pareto dominance relation, the proposed algorithm mainly considers distance-based measures to evaluate and compare individuals during the evolutionary search. Specifically, in ETEA, four strategies are introduced: (1) An EMST-based crowding distance (ETCD) is presented to estimate the density of individuals in the population; (2) A distance comparison approach incorporating ETCD is used to assign the fitness value for individuals; (3) A fitness adjustment technique is designed to avoid the partial overcrowding in environmental selection; (4) Three diversity indicators-the minimum edge, degree, and ETCD-with regard to EMSTs are applied to determine the survival of individuals in archive truncation. From a series of extensive experiments on 32 test instances with different characteristics, ETEA is found to be competitive against five state-of-the-art algorithms and its predecessor in providing a good balance among convergence, uniformity, and spread.

  7. Euclidean Wilson loops and Minimal Area Surfaces in Minkowski AdS3

    CERN Document Server

    Irrgang, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence relates Wilson loops in N=4 SYM theory to minimal area surfaces in AdS5xS5 space. If the Wilson loop is Euclidean and confined to a plane (t,x) then the dual surface is Euclidean and lives in Minkowski AdS3. In this paper we study such minimal area surfaces generalizing previous results obtained in the Euclidean case. Since the surfaces we consider have the topology of a disk, the holonomy of the flat current vanishes which is equivalent to the condition that a certain boundary Schroedinger equation has all its solutions anti-periodic. If the potential for that Schroedinger equation is found then reconstructing the surface and finding the area become simpler. In particular we write a formula for the Area in terms of the Schwarzian derivative of the contour. Finally an infinite parameter family of analytical solutions using Riemann Theta functions is described. In this case, both the area and the shape of the surface are given analytically and used to check the previous results.

  8. The Master Equations in the Euclidean Schwarzschild-Tangherlini Metric of a Small Static Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Morales, José L.

    The master equations in the Euclidean Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time of a small static perturbation are studied. For each harmonic mode on the sphere there are two solutions that behave differently at infinity. One solution goes like the power 2-l-n of the radial variable, the other solution goes like the power l. These solutions occur in power series. The second main statement of the paper is that any eigentensor of the Lichnerowicz operator in a Euclidean Schwarzschild space-time with an eigenvalue different from zero is essentially singular at infinity. Possible applications of the stability of instantons are discussed. We present the analysis of a small static perturbation of the Euclidean Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metric tensor. The higher order perturbations will appear later. We determine independently the static perturbations of the Schwarzschild quantum black hole in dimension 1+n≥4, where the system of equations is reduced to master equations — ordinary differential equations. The solutions are hypergeometric functions which in some cases can be reduced to polynomials. In the same Schwarzschild background, we analyze static perturbations of the scalar mode and show that there does not exist any static perturbation that is regular everywhere outside the event horizon and is well-behaved at the spatial infinity. This confirms the uniqueness of the spherically symmetric static empty quantum black hole, within the perturbation framework. Our strategy for treating the stability problem is also applicable to other symmetric quantum black holes with a nonzero cosmological constant.

  9. Changes in serum cellular adhesion molecule and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in patients with cerebral infarction following hyperbaric oxygen therapy A case and intergroup control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renliang Zhao; Chunxia Wang; Yongjun Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies have confirmed that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can reduce matrix metalloproteinase activity and blood brain barrier permeability, thereby exhibiting neuroprotective effects. However, at present, consensus does not exist in terms of its clinical efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To validate the significance of changes in serum cellular adhesion molecule and MMP-9 levels in patients with cerebral infarction following HBO therapy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This randomized, controlled, neurobiochemical study was performed at the Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College between December 2002 and March 2006. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 112 patients with acute cerebral infarction of internal carotid artery, comprising 64 males and 48 females, averaging (67 ± 11) years, were recruited and randomized to a HBO group (n = 50) and a routine treatment group (n = 62). An additional 30 gender- and age-matched normal subjects, consisting of 17 males and 13 females, averaging (63 ± 9) years, were enrolled as control subjects. METHODS: The routine treatment group received routine drug treatment and rehabilitation exercise. HBO treatment was additionally performed in the HBO group, once a day, for a total of 10 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, soluble E-selectin, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Upon admission, serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, soluble E-selectin, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were significantly increased in patients with cerebral infarction, compared with control subjects (P < 0.01). Following HBO and routine treatments, serum levels of the above-mentioned indices were significantly reduced in the HBO and routine treatment groups (P < 0.01). Moreover, greater efficacy was observed in the HBO

  10. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to obtain high-resolution imaging in mass and space. Sections of the rhizome were imaged with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the positive ion mode, and a large number of secondary metabolites were localized and identified based on their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Major tissue-specific metabolites, including free flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides and saponins, were successfully detected and visualized in images, showing their distributions at the cellular level. The analytical power of the technique was tested in the imaging of two isobaric licorice saponins with a mass difference of only 0.02 Da. With a mass resolving power of 140 000 and a bin width of 5 ppm in the image processing, the two compounds were well resolved in full-scan mode, and appeared with different distributions in the tissue sections. The identities of the compounds and their distributions were validated in a subsequent MS/MS imaging experiment, thereby confirming their identities and excluding possible analyte interference. The use of high spatial resolution, high mass resolution and tandem mass spectrometry in imaging experiments provides significant information about the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues.

  11. System-level insights into the cellular interactome of a non-model organism: inferring, modelling and analysing functional gene network of soybean (Glycine max.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungang Xu

    Full Text Available Cellular interactome, in which genes and/or their products interact on several levels, forming transcriptional regulatory-, protein interaction-, metabolic-, signal transduction networks, etc., has attracted decades of research focuses. However, such a specific type of network alone can hardly explain the various interactive activities among genes. These networks characterize different interaction relationships, implying their unique intrinsic properties and defects, and covering different slices of biological information. Functional gene network (FGN, a consolidated interaction network that models fuzzy and more generalized notion of gene-gene relations, have been proposed to combine heterogeneous networks with the goal of identifying functional modules supported by multiple interaction types. There are yet no successful precedents of FGNs on sparsely studied non-model organisms, such as soybean (Glycine max, due to the absence of sufficient heterogeneous interaction data. We present an alternative solution for inferring the FGNs of soybean (SoyFGNs, in a pioneering study on the soybean interactome, which is also applicable to other organisms. SoyFGNs exhibit the typical characteristics of biological networks: scale-free, small-world architecture and modularization. Verified by co-expression and KEGG pathways, SoyFGNs are more extensive and accurate than an orthology network derived from Arabidopsis. As a case study, network-guided disease-resistance gene discovery indicates that SoyFGNs can provide system-level studies on gene functions and interactions. This work suggests that inferring and modelling the interactome of a non-model plant are feasible. It will speed up the discovery and definition of the functions and interactions of other genes that control important functions, such as nitrogen fixation and protein or lipid synthesis. The efforts of the study are the basis of our further comprehensive studies on the soybean functional

  12. The co-adaptive neural network approach to the Euclidean Travelling Salesman Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, E M; Beasley, J E

    2003-12-01

    In this paper we consider the Euclidean Travelling Salesman Problem (ETSP). This is the problem of finding the shortest tour around a number of cities where the cities correspond to points in the Euclidean plane and the distances between cities are given by the usual Euclidean distance metric. We present a review of the literature with respect to neural network (NN) approaches for the ETSP, and the computational results that have been reported. Based upon this review we highlight two areas that are, in our judgement, currently neglected/lacking in the literature. These are: failure to make significant use of publicly available ETSP test problems in computational work, failure to address co-operation between neurons. Drawing upon our literature survey this paper presents a new Self-Organising NN approach, called the Co-Adaptive Net, which involves not just unsupervised learning to train neurons, but also allows neurons to co-operate and compete amongst themselves depending on their situation. Our Co-Adaptive Net algorithm also includes a number of algorithmic mechanisms that, based upon our literature review, we consider to have contributed to the computational success of previous algorithms. Results for 91 publicly available standard ETSP's are presented in this paper. The largest of these problems involves 85,900 cities. This paper presents: the most extensive computational evaluation of any NN approach on publicly available ETSP test problems that has been made to date in the literature, a NN approach that performs better, with respect to solution quality and/or computation time, than other NN approaches given previously in the literature. Drawing upon computational results produced as a result of the DIMACS TSP Challenge, we highlight the fact that none of the current NN approaches for the ETSP can compete with state of the art Operations Research heuristics. We discuss why we consider continuing to study and develop NN approaches for the ETSP to be of value.

  13. A SKELETONIZATION ALGORITHM BASED ON EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE MAPS AND MORPHOLOGICAL OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Lihong; Yu Yinglin; Zhang Yu

    2001-01-01

    In this letter a new skeletonization algorithm is proposed. It combines techniques of fast construction of Euclidean Distance Maps(EDMs), ridge extraction, Hit-or-Miss Transformation(HMT) of structuring elements and the set operators. It first produces the EDM image with no more than 4 passes through an image of any kinds, and then the ridge image is extracted by applying a turn-on scheme and performing a rain-fall elimination to accelerate the processing. The one-pixel wide skeleton is finally acquired by carrying out the HMTs of two structure elements and the SUBTRACT and OR operations. Experimental results obtained by practical applications are also presented.

  14. A quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme for Euclidean capacitated vehicle routing

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Aparna

    2008-01-01

    In the capacitated vehicle routing problem, introduced by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, we are given the locations of n customers and a depot, along with a vehicle of capacity k, and wish to find a minimum length collection of tours, each starting from the depot and visiting at most k customers, whose union covers all the customers. We give a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme for the setting where the customers and the depot are on the plane, and distances are given by the Euclidean metric.

  15. Spontaneous PT-Symmetry Breaking for Systems of Noncommutative Euclidean Lie Algebraic Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanjib; Fring, Andreas; Mathanaranjan, Thilagarajah

    2015-11-01

    We propose a noncommutative version of the Euclidean Lie algebra E 2. Several types of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems expressed in terms of generic combinations of the generators of this algebra are investigated. Using the breakdown of the explicitly constructed Dyson maps as a criterium, we identify the domains in the parameter space in which the Hamiltonians have real energy spectra and determine the exceptional points signifying the crossover into the different types of spontaneously broken PT-symmetric regions with pairs of complex conjugate eigenvalues. We find exceptional points which remain invariant under the deformation as well as exceptional points becoming dependent on the deformation parameter of the algebra.

  16. Recognition of Facial Expression Using Eigenvector Based Distributed Features and Euclidean Distance Based Decision Making Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeemoni Kalita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Eigenvector based system has been presented to recognize facial expressions from digital facial images. In the approach, firstly the images were acquired and cropping of five significant portions from the image was performed to extract and store the Eigenvectors specific to the expressions. The Eigenvectors for the test images were also computed, and finally the input facial image was recognized when similarity was obtained by calculating the minimum Euclidean distance between the test image and the different expressions.

  17. Representation of distributions by harmonic and monogenic potentials in Euclidean space

    OpenAIRE

    Brackx, Fred; De Bie, Hendrik; De Schepper, Hennie

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of Clifford analysis, a chain of harmonic and monogenic potentials in the upper half of Euclidean space $R^{m+1}_+$ was recently constructed, including a higher dimensional analogue of the logarithmic function in the complex plane, and their distributional boundary values were computed. In this paper we determine these potentials in lower half-space $R^{m+1}_-$ and investigate whether they can be extended through the boundary $R^m$. This is a stepping stone to the representat...

  18. Wilson Loops in 2D Noncommutative Euclidean Gauge Theory: 1. Perturbative Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Ambjørn, Jan; Makeenko, Y

    2004-01-01

    We calculate quantum averages of Wilson loops (holonomies) in gauge theories on the Euclidean noncommutative plane, using a path-integral representation of the star-product. We show how the perturbative expansion emerges from a concise general formula and demonstrate its anomalous behavior at large parameter of noncommutativity for the simplest nonplanar diagram of genus 1. We discuss various UV/IR regularizations of the two-dimensional noncommutative gauge theory in the axial gauge and, using the noncommutative loop equation, construct a consistent regularization.

  19. Relation between Darboux and type-2 Bishop frames in Euclidean space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Amine; Özyilmaz, Emin

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we investigate relationships between Darboux and type-2 Bishop frames in Euclidean space. Then, we obtain the geodesic curvature of the spherical image curve of the Darboux vector of the type-2 Bishop frame. Also, we give transition matrix between the Darboux and type-2 Bishop frames of the type-2 Bishop frames of the spherical images of the edges N→1,N→2 and b→. Finally, we express some interesting relations and illustrate of the examples by the aid Maple programe.

  20. Steiner tree heuristic in the Euclidean d-space using bottleneck distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Stephan Sloth; Winter, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most efficient heuristics for the Euclidean Steiner minimal tree problem in the d-dimensional space, d ≥2, use Delaunay tessellations and minimum spanning trees to determine small subsets of geometrically close terminals. Their low-cost Steiner trees are determined and concatenated...... in a greedy fashion to obtain a low cost tree spanning all terminals. The weakness of this approach is that obtained solutions are topologically related to minimum spanning trees. To avoid this and to obtain even better solutions, bottleneck distances are utilized to determine good subsets of terminals...... without being constrained by the topologies of minimum spanning trees. Computational experiments show a significant solution quality improvement....

  1. Extending breath analysis to the cellular level: current thoughts on the human microbiome and the expression of organic compounds in the human exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human biomarkers are comprised of compounds from cellular metabolism, oxidative stress, and the microbiome of bacteria in the gut, genitourinary, and pulmonary tracts. When we examine patterns in human biomarkers to discern human health state or diagnose specific diseases, it is...

  2. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  3. Bi-Lipshitz Embedding of Ultrametric Cantor Sets into Euclidean Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bellissard, Jean V

    2012-01-01

    Let $(C,d)$ be an ultrametric Cantor set. Then it admits an isometric embedding into an infinite dimensional Euclidean space \\cite{PB08}. Associated with it is a weighted rooted tree, the reduced Michon graph $\\mathscr T$ \\cite{Mi85}. It will be called $f$-embeddable if there is a bi-Lipshitz map from $(C,d)$ into a finite dimensional Euclidean space. The main result establishes that $(C,d)$ is $f$-embeddable if and only if it can be represented by a weighted Michon tree such that (i) the number of children per vertex is uniformly bounded, (ii) if $\\kappa$ denotes the weight, there are constants $c>0$ and $0<\\delta<1$ such that $\\kappa(v)/\\kappa(u)\\leq c\\,\\delta^{d(u,v)}$ where $v$ is a descendant of $u$ and where $d(u,v)$ denotes the graph distance between the vertices $u,v$. Several examples are provided: (a) the tiling space of a linear repetitive sequence is $f$-embeddable, (b) the tiling space of a Sturmian sequence is $f$-embeddable if and only if the irrational number characterizing it has bounde...

  4. Equivalence between Euclidean and in-in formalisms in de Sitter QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Marolf, Donald; Morrison, Ian A.

    2011-04-01

    We study the relation between two sets of correlators in interacting quantum field theory on de Sitter space. The first are correlators computed using in-in perturbation theory in the expanding cosmological patch of de Sitter space (also known as the conformal patch, or the Poincaré patch), and for which the free propagators are taken to be those of the free Euclidean vacuum. The second are correlators obtained by analytic continuation from Euclidean de Sitter; i.e., they are correlators in the fully interacting Hartle-Hawking state. We give an analytic argument that these correlators coincide for interacting massive scalar fields with any m2>0. We also verify this result via direct calculation in simple examples. The correspondence holds diagram by diagram, and at any finite value of an appropriate Pauli-Villars regulator mass M. Along the way, we note interesting connections between various prescriptions for perturbation theory in general static spacetimes with bifurcate Killing horizons.

  5. Simple Motion Pursuit and Evasion Differential Games with Many Pursuers on Manifolds with Euclidean Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamurat Kuchkarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider pursuit and evasion differential games of a group of m pursuers and one evader on manifolds with Euclidean metric. The motions of all players are simple, and maximal speeds of all players are equal. If the state of a pursuer coincides with that of the evader at some time, we say that pursuit is completed. We establish that each of the differential games (pursuit or evasion is equivalent to a differential game of m groups of countably many pursuers and one group of countably many evaders in Euclidean space. All the players in any of these groups are controlled by one controlled parameter. We find a condition under which pursuit can be completed, and if this condition is not satisfied, then evasion is possible. We construct strategies for the pursuers in pursuit game which ensure completion the game for a finite time and give a formula for this time. In the case of evasion game, we construct a strategy for the evader.

  6. Power- and Bandwidth-Efficient Euclidean Code with Sparse Generator Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a coded modulation scheme which is defined by a sparse real-valued generator matrix. As forward error correction (FEC codes directly constructed in the Euclidean space, this kind of Euclidean codes (EC named G-LDGM (Generalized Low-Density Generator Matrix codes can naturally match the continuous communication channels. A shaping method based on hypercube lattice is introduced to prevent the power of signals from being too large. A linear-time parametric belief propagation (BP decoding algorithm is formulated. To reduce the complexity of the decoding algorithm, passing messages are approximated as Gaussian distributions. A simplified analysis is given to show that under certain condition exponential convergence of decoding can be realized. A Monte Carlo density evolution method is provided to optimize the generator matrix. Simulation results suggest that the proposed 10,000 dimension G-LDGM code with no redundancy introduced into information data has a superior performance over non-binary LDPC (NB-LDPC codes with both linear-time encoding and decoding.

  7. Phase retrieval by Euclidean distance in self-calibrating generalized phase-shifting interferometry of three steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Fabian, Cruz; Lara-Cortes, Francisco Alejandro

    2015-05-18

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for phase extraction based on the computation of the Euclidean distance from a point to an ellipse. The idea consists in extracting the intensities from a data row or column in three interferograms to form points of intensity and then fitting them to an ellipse by the method of least squares. The Euclidean distance for each intensity point is computed to find a parametric phase whose value is associated to the object phase. The main advantage of the present method is to avoid the use of tangent function, reducing the error in the desired phase computation.

  8. A Novel Algorithm for Extracting the Parton Distribution Amplitude from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter Wave Function

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Yu-xin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new numerical method to compute parton distribution amplitude(PDA) from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter wave function. The essential step is to extract the weight function in the Nakanishi representation of the Bethe-Salpeter wave function in Euclidean space, which is an ill-posed inversion problem, via the maximum entropy method(MEM). The Nakanishi weight function as well as the corresponding light-front PDA can be well determined. We confirm the previous works on PDA computation therein the different method has been performed.

  9. Three-frame generalized phase-shifting interferometry by a Euclidean matrix norm algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yawei; Ji, Ying; Han, Hao; Jin, Weifeng

    2016-09-01

    Generalized phase-shifting interferometry (GPSI) is one of the most effective techniques in imaging of a phase object, in which phase retrieval is an essential and important procedure. In this paper, a simple and rapid algorithm for retrieval of the unknown phase shifts in three-frame GPSI is proposed. Using this algorithm, the value of phase shift can be calculated by a determinate formula consisting of three different Euclidean matrix norms of the intensity difference between two phase shifted interferograms, and then the phase can be retrieved easily. The algorithm has the advantages of freeing from the background elimination and less computation, since it only needs three phase-shifted interferograms without no extra measurements, the iterative procedure or the integral transformation. The reliability and accuracy of this algorithm were demonstrated by simulation and experimental results.

  10. New efficient algorithm for the isometric embedding of 2-surface metrics in three dimensional Euclidean space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Wolfgang; McDonald, Jonathan R.; Miller, Warner A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for the isometric embedding of 2-geometries specified by their 2-metrics in three-dimensional Euclidean space. Our approach is to directly solve the fundamental embedding equation supplemented by six conditions that fix translations and rotations of the embedded surface. This set of equations is discretized by means of a pseudospectral collocation point method. The resulting nonlinear system of equations are then solved by a Newton-Raphson scheme. We explain our numerical algorithm in detail. By studying several examples we show that our method converges provided we start the Newton-Raphson scheme from a suitable initial guess. Our novel method is very efficient for smooth 2-metrics.

  11. New efficient algorithm for the isometric embedding of 2-surface metrics in 3 dimensional Euclidean space

    CERN Document Server

    Tichy, Wolfgang; Miller, Warner A

    2014-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for the isometric embedding of 2-geometries specified by their 2-metrics in three dimensional Euclidean space. Our approach is to directly solve the fundamental embedding equation supplemented by six conditions that fix translations and rotations of the embedded surface. This set of equations is discretized by means of a pseudospectral collocation point method. The resulting nonlinear system of equations are then solved by a Newton-Raphson scheme. We explain our numerical algorithm in detail. By studying several examples we show that our method converges provided we start the Newton-Raphson scheme from a suitable initial guess. Our novel method is very efficient for smooth 2-metrics.

  12. Non-Abelian Ball-Chiu vertex for arbitrary Euclidean momenta

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, A C; Ferreira, M N; Papavassiliou, J

    2016-01-01

    We determine the non-Abelian version of the four longitudinal form factors of the quark-gluon vertex, using exact expressions derived from the Slavnov-Taylor identity that this vertex satisfies. In addition to the quark and ghost propagators, a key ingredient of the present approach is the quark-ghost scattering kernel, which is computed within the one-loop dressed approximation. The vertex form factors obtained from this procedure are evaluated for arbitrary Euclidean momenta, and display features not captured by the well-known Ball-Chiu vertex, deduced from the Abelian (ghost-free) Ward identity. The potential phenomenological impact of these results is evaluated through the study of special renormalization-point-independent combinations, which quantify the strength of the interaction kernels appearing in the standard quark gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations.

  13. Fixed points and chaotic dynamics for expansive-contractive maps in Euclidean spaces, with some applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pireddu, Marina

    2009-01-01

    In this work we introduce a topological method for the search of fixed points and periodic points for continuous maps defined on generalized rectangles in finite dimensional Euclidean spaces. We name our technique "Stretching Along the Paths" method, since we deal with maps that expand the arcs along one direction. Our technique is also significant from a dynamical point of view, as it allows to detect complex dynamics. In particular, we are able to prove semi-conjugacy to the Bernoulli shift and thus positivity of the topological entropy, the presence of topological transitivity and sensitivity with respect to initial conditions, density of periodic points. Moreover, our approach, although mathematically rigorous, avoids the use of sophisticated topological theories and it is relatively easy to apply to specific models arising in the applications. For example we have here employed the Stretching along the paths method to study discrete and continuous-time models arising from economics and biology.

  14. Clear Evidence of a Continuum Theory of 4D Euclidean Simplicial Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Egawa, H S; Yukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) simplicial quantum gravity coupled to both scalar fields (N_X) and gauge fields (N_A) has been studied using Monte-Carlo simulations. The matter dependence of the string susceptibility exponent gamma^{(4)} is estimated. Furthermore, we compare our numerical results with Background-Metric-Independent (BMI) formulation conjectured to describe the quantum field theory of gravity in 4D. The numerical results suggest that the 4D simplicial quantum gravity is related to the conformal gravity in 4D. Therefore, we propose a phase structure in detail with adding both scalar and gauge fields and discuss the possibility and the property of a continuum theory of 4D Euclidean simplicial quantum gravity.

  15. Distributed stochastic multi-vehicle routing in the Euclidean plane with no communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrabissa, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for the multi-vehicle routing problem with no communications among the vehicles. The scenario consists in a convex Euclidean mission space, where targets are generated according to a Poisson distribution in time and to a generic continuous spatial distribution. The targets must be visited by the vehicles, which, therefore, must act in coordination. Even if no communications are required, the proposed routing strategy succeeds in effectively partitioning the mission space among the vehicles: at low target generation rates, the algorithm leads to the well-known centroidal Voronoi tessellation, whereas at high target generation rates, simulation results show that it has better performances with respect to a reference algorithm with no communications among vehicles.

  16. Existence and Blowup Results for Asymptotically Euclidean Initial Data Sets Generated by the Conformal Method

    CERN Document Server

    Dilts, James

    2016-01-01

    For each set of (freely chosen) seed data, the conformal method reduces the Einstein constraint equations to a system of elliptic equations, the conformal constraint equations. We prove an admissibility criterion, based on a (conformal) prescribed scalar curvature problem, which provides a necessary condition on the seed data for the conformal constraint equations to (possibly) admit a solution. We then consider sets of asymptotically Euclidean (AE) seed data for which solutions of the conformal constraint equations exist, and examine the blowup properties of these solutions as the seed data sets approach sets for which no solutions exist. We also prove that there are AE seed data sets which include a Yamabe nonpositive metric and lead to solutions of the conformal constraints. These data sets allow the mean curvature function to have zeroes.

  17. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals.

  18. Clifford algebra-valued orthogonal polynomials in the open unit ball of Euclidean space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Brackx

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for constructing Clifford algebra-valued orthogonal polynomials in the open unit ball of Euclidean space is presented. In earlier research, we only dealt with scalar-valued weight functions. Now the class of weight functions involved is enlarged to encompass Clifford algebra-valued functions. The method consists in transforming the orthogonality relation on the open unit ball into an orthogonality relation on the real axis by means of the so-called Clifford-Heaviside functions. Consequently, appropriate orthogonal polynomials on the real axis give rise to Clifford algebra-valued orthogonal polynomials in the unit ball. Three specific examples of such orthogonal polynomials in the unit ball are discussed, namely, the generalized Clifford-Jacobi polynomials, the generalized Clifford-Gegenbauer polynomials, and the shifted Clifford-Jacobi polynomials.

  19. Non-perturbative BRST quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in Curci-Ferrari gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.D. [UFF, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Potsdam (Germany); UERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sobreiro, R.F. [UFF, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Sorella, S.P. [UERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper we address the issue of the non-perturbative quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. In particular, we construct a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for this gauge, which takes into account the presence of gauge copies as well as the dynamical formation of dimension-two condensates. This action enjoys a non-perturbative BRST symmetry recently proposed in Capri et al. (Phys. Rev. D 92(4), 045039. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.92.045039. arXiv:1506.06995 [hepth], 2015). Finally, we pay attention to the gluon propagator in different space-time dimensions. (orig.)

  20. Faster exact algorithms for computing Steiner trees in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Brazil, Marcus; Winter, Pawel;

    The Euclidean Steiner tree problem asks for a network of minimum total length interconnecting a finite set of points in d-dimensional space. For d ≥ 3, only one practical algorithmic approach exists for this problem --- proposed by Smith in 1992. A number of refinements of Smith's algorithm have...... increased the range of solvable problems a little, but it is still infeasible to solve problem instances with more than around 17 terminals. In this paper we firstly propose some additional improvements to Smith's algorithm. Secondly, we propose a new algorithmic paradigm called branch enumeration. Our...... experiments show that branch enumeration has similar performance as an optimized version of Smith's algorithm; furthermore, we argue that branch enumeration has the potential to push the boundary of solvable problems further....

  1. Approximation Algorithm for Bottleneck Steiner Tree Problem in the Euclidean Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Mao Li; Da-Ming Zhu; Shao-Han Ma

    2004-01-01

    A special case of the bottleneck Steiner tree problem in the Euclidean plane was considered in this paper. The problem has applications in the design of wireless communication networks, multifacility location, VLSI routing and network routing. For the special case which requires that there should be no edge connecting any two Steiner points in the optimal solution, a 3-restricted Steiner tree can be found indicating the existence of the performance ratio √2. In this paper, the special case of the problem is proved to be NP-hard and cannot be approximated within ratio √2. First a simple polynomial time approximation algorithm with performance ratio √3 is presented. Then based on this algorithm and the existence of the 3-restricted Steiner tree, a polynomial time approximation algorithm with performance ratio-√2 + ε is proposed, for any ε>0.

  2. Artificial immune system via Euclidean Distance Minimization for anomaly detection in bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montechiesi, L.; Cocconcelli, M.; Rubini, R.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years new diagnostics methodologies have emerged, with particular interest into machinery operating in non-stationary conditions. In fact continuous speed changes and variable loads make non-trivial the spectrum analysis. A variable speed means a variable characteristic fault frequency related to the damage that is no more recognizable in the spectrum. To overcome this problem the scientific community proposed different approaches listed in two main categories: model-based approaches and expert systems. In this context the paper aims to present a simple expert system derived from the mechanisms of the immune system called Euclidean Distance Minimization, and its application in a real case of bearing faults recognition. The proposed method is a simplification of the original process, adapted by the class of Artificial Immune Systems, which proved to be useful and promising in different application fields. Comparative results are provided, with a complete explanation of the algorithm and its functioning aspects.

  3. Reducing residual stresses and deformations in selective laser melting through multi-level multi-scale optimization of cellular scanning strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2016-04-01

    Residual stresses and deformations continue to remain one of the primary challenges towards expanding the scope of selective laser melting as an industrial scale manufacturing process. While process monitoring and feedback-based process control of the process has shown significant potential, there is still dearth of techniques to tackle the issue. Numerical modelling of selective laser melting process has thus been an active area of research in the last few years. However, large computational resource requirements have slowed the usage of these models for optimizing the process. In this paper, a calibrated, fast, multiscale thermal model coupled with a 3D finite element mechanical model is used to simulate residual stress formation and deformations during selective laser melting. The resulting reduction in thermal model computation time allows evolutionary algorithm-based optimization of the process. A multilevel optimization strategy is adopted using a customized genetic algorithm developed for optimizing cellular scanning strategy for selective laser melting, with an objective of reducing residual stresses and deformations. The resulting thermo-mechanically optimized cellular scanning strategies are compared with standard scanning strategies and have been used to manufacture standard samples.

  4. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  5. Euclidean Skeletons of Digital Image and Volume Data in Linear Time by the Integer Medial Axis Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    A general algorithm for computing euclidean skeletons of 2D and 3D data sets in linear time is presented. These skeletons are defined in terms of a new concept, called the integer medial axis (IMA) transform. We prove a number of fundamental properties of the IMA skeleton and compare these with prop

  6. Parallel tempering Monte Carlo combined with clustering Euclidean metric analysis to study the thermodynamic stability of Lennard-Jones nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar, Henrique M.; Rondina, Gustavo G.; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.

    2017-02-01

    A basic requirement for an atom-level understanding of nanoclusters is the knowledge of their atomic structure. This understanding is incomplete if it does not take into account temperature effects, which play a crucial role in phase transitions and changes in the overall stability of the particles. Finite size particles present intricate potential energy surfaces, and rigorous descriptions of temperature effects are best achieved by exploiting extended ensemble algorithms, such as the Parallel Tempering Monte Carlo (PTMC). In this study, we employed the PTMC algorithm, implemented from scratch, to sample configurations of LJn (n =38 , 55, 98, 147) particles at a wide range of temperatures. The heat capacities and phase transitions obtained with our PTMC implementation are consistent with all the expected features for the LJ nanoclusters, e.g., solid to solid and solid to liquid. To identify the known phase transitions and assess the prevalence of various structural motifs available at different temperatures, we propose a combination of a Leader-like clustering algorithm based on a Euclidean metric with the PTMC sampling. This combined approach is further compared with the more computationally demanding bond order analysis, typically employed for this kind of problem. We show that the clustering technique yields the same results in most cases, with the advantage that it requires no previous knowledge of the parameters defining each geometry. Being simple to implement, we believe that this straightforward clustering approach is a valuable data analysis tool that can provide insights into the physics of finite size particles with few to thousand atoms at a relatively low cost.

  7. Antioxidant action of SMe1EC2, the low-basicity derivative of the pyridoindole stobadine, in cell free chemical models and at cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerczyk, Aneta; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Drzewinska, Joanna; Piotrowski, Łukasz; Pulaski, Łukasz; Stefek, Milan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant action of SMe1EC2, the structural analogue of the hexahydropyridoindole antioxidant stobadine. The antiradical activity of SMe1EC2 was found to be higher when compared to stobadine, as determined both in cell-free model systems of AAPH-induced oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and 2',7'-dichloro-dihydrofluorescein diacetate, and in the cellular system of stimulated macrophages RAW264.7. Analysis of proliferation of HUVEC and HUVEC-ST cells revealed absence of cytotoxic effect of SMe1EC2 at concentrations below 100 µM. The antioxidant activity of SMe1EC2, superior to the parent drug stobadine, is accounted for by both the higher intrinsic free radical scavenging action and by the better bioavailability of the low-basicity SMe1EC2 relative to the high-basicity stobadine.

  8. Cellular Barcoding Links B-1a B Cell Potential to a Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cell State at the Single-Cell Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Trine A; Jaensson Gyllenbäck, Elin; Zriwil, Alya

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a functional switch in neonatal mice hallmarked by a decrease in self-renewing divisions and entry into quiescence. Here, we investigated whether the developmental attenuation of B-1a cell output is a consequence of a shift in stem cell state during ontogeny....... Using cellular barcoding for in vivo single-cell fate analyses, we found that fetal liver definitive HSCs gave rise to both B-1a and B-2 cells. Whereas B-1a potential diminished in all HSCs with time, B-2 output was maintained. B-1a and B-2 plasticity could be reinitiated in a subset of adult HSCs...... by ectopic expression of the RNA binding protein LIN28B, a key regulator of fetal hematopoiesis, and this coincided with the clonal reversal to fetal-like elevated self-renewal and repopulation potential. These results anchor the attenuation of B-1a cell output to fetal HSC behavior and demonstrate...

  9. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  10. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  11. The vacuolar-ATPase complex and assembly factors, TMEM199 and CCDC115, control HIF1α prolyl hydroxylation by regulating cellular iron levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Anna L; Burr, Stephen P; Grice, Guinevere L; Nathan, James A

    2017-03-15

    Hypoxia Inducible transcription Factors (HIFs) are principally regulated by the 2-oxoglutarate and Iron(II) prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes, which hydroxylate the HIFα subunit, facilitating its proteasome-mediated degradation. Observations that HIFα hydroxylation can be impaired even when oxygen is sufficient emphasise the importance of understanding the complex nature of PHD regulation. Here, we use an unbiased genome-wide genetic screen in near-haploid human cells to uncover cellular processes that regulate HIF1α. We identify that genetic disruption of the Vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase), the key proton pump for endo-lysosomal acidification, and two previously uncharacterised V-ATPase assembly factors, TMEM199 and CCDC115, stabilise HIF1α in aerobic conditions. Rather than preventing the lysosomal degradation of HIF1α, disrupting the V-ATPase results in intracellular iron depletion, thereby impairing PHD activity and leading to HIF activation. Iron supplementation directly restores PHD catalytic activity following V-ATPase inhibition, revealing important links between the V-ATPase, iron metabolism and HIFs.

  12. Effect of the sequential therapy of lamivudine and α-interferon on cellular immune function as well as serum PD-1 and Tin-3 levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jin; Ting Qiu; Yi-Fei Lyu; Chun-Ying Yan; Xue Wang; Tian-Jiao Duan; Rong Zhang; Gui-Sheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of the sequential therapy of lamivudine and α-interferon on cellular immune function as well as serum PD-1 and Tin-3 levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: A total of 92 cases of patients with chronic hepatitis B who were treated in our hospital from May 2012 to May 2015 were selected as the research subjects and divided into observation group and control group (n=46) according to the random number table. Control group received lamivudine treatment alone, observation group received the sequential therapy of lamivudine and α-interferon, and then differences in ultrasound-related indexes, cellular immune function as well as PD-1 and Tin-3 levels were compared between two groups. Results:After observation group received the sequential therapy of lamivudine andα-interferon, ultrasonic major diameter of left hepatic lobe and PVM values were greater than those of control group, and internal diameter of portal vein was lower than that of control group; CD4+T and CD4+T/ CD8+T values of observation group were higher than those of control group, and CD8+T value was lower than that of control group;circulating blood CD8+T cell PD-1 and Tim-3 expression levels of observation group were lower than those of control group. Conclusion:Sequential therapy of lamivudine andα-interferon can optimize the cellular immune function of patients with chronic hepatitis B and inhibit the negative regulation process of immune function, and it helps to inhibit hepatitis B virus activity and disease control.

  13. On the dose calculation at the cellular level and its implications for the RBE of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, R., E-mail: robert.freudenberg@uniklinikum-dresden.de; Runge, R.; Maucksch, U.; Berger, V.; Kotzerke, J. [University Hospital/Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden, Saxony 01307 (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Based on the authors’ previous findings concerning the radiotoxicity of{sup 99m}Tc, the authors compared the cellular survival under the influence of this nuclide with that following exposure to the Auger electron emitter {sup 123}I. To evaluate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of both radionuclides, knowledge of the absorbed dose is essential. Thus, the authors present the dose calculations and discuss the results based on different models of the radionuclide distribution. Both different target volumes and the influence of the uptake kinetics were considered. Methods: Rat thyroid PC Cl3 cells in culture were incubated with either{sup 99m}Tc or {sup 123}I or were irradiated using 200 kV x-rays in the presence or absence of perchlorate. The clonogenic cell survival was measured via colony formation. In addition, the intracellular radionuclide uptake was quantified. Single-cell dose calculations were based on Monte Carlo simulations performed using Geant4. Results: Compared with external radiation using x-rays (D{sub 37} = 2.6 Gy), the radionuclides {sup 99m}Tc (D{sub 37} = 3.5 Gy), and {sup 123}I (D{sub 37} = 3.8 Gy) were less toxic in the presence of perchlorate. In the absence of perchlorate, the amount of activity a{sub 37} that was necessary to reduce the surviving fraction (SF) to 0.37 was 22.8 times lower for {sup 99m}Tc and 12.4 times lower for {sup 123}I because of the dose increase caused by intracellular radionuclide accumulation. When the cell nucleus was considered as the target for the dose calculation, the authors found a RBE of 2.18 for {sup 99m}Tc and RBE = 3.43 for {sup 123}I. Meanwhile, regarding the dose to the entire cell, RBE = 0.75 for {sup 99m}Tc and RBE = 1.87 for {sup 123}I. The dose to the entire cell was chosen as the dose criterion because of the intracellular radionuclide accumulation, which was found to occur solely in the cytoplasm. The calculated number of intracellular decays per cell was (975 ± 109) decays

  14. Euclidean geodesic loops on high-genus surfaces applied to the morphometry of vestibular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shi-Qing; He, Ying; Fu, Chi-Wing; Wang, Defeng; Lin, Shi; Chu, Winnie C W; Cheng, Jack C Y; Gu, Xianfeng; Lui, Lok Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm to extract feature landmarks on the vestibular system (VS), for the analysis of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) disease. AIS is a 3-D spinal deformity commonly occurred in adolescent girls with unclear etiology. One popular hypothesis was suggested to be the structural changes in the VS that induce the disturbed balance perception, and further cause the spinal deformity. The morphometry of VS to study the geometric differences between the healthy and AIS groups is of utmost importance. However, the VS is a genus-3 structure situated in the inner ear. The high-genus topology of the surface poses great challenge for shape analysis. In this work, we present a new method to compute exact geodesic loops on the VS. The resultant geodesic loops are in Euclidean metric, thus characterizing the intrinsic geometric properties of the VS based on the real background geometry. This leads to more accurate results than existing methods, such as the hyperbolic Ricci flow method. Furthermore, our method is fully automatic and highly efficient, e.g., one order of magnitude faster than. We applied our algorithm to the VS of normal and AIS subjects. The promising experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our method and reveal more statistically significant shape difference in the VS between right-thoracic AIS and normal subjects.

  15. Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation revisited: is the phase transition really 1st order? (extended version)

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The transition between the two phases of 4D Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation [1] was long believed to be of second order until in 1996 first order behavior was found for sufficiently large systems [5,9]. However, one may wonder if this finding was affected by the numerical methods used: to control volume fluctuations, in both studies [5,9] an artificial harmonic potential was added to the action; in [9] measurements were taken after a fixed number of accepted instead of attempted moves which introduces an additional error. Finally the simulations suffer from strong critical slowing down which may have been underestimated. In the present work, we address the above weaknesses: we allow the volume to fluctuate freely within a fixed interval; we take measurements after a fixed number of attempted moves; and we overcome critical slowing down by using an optimized parallel tempering algorithm [12]. With these improved methods, on systems of size up to 64k 4-simplices, we confirm that the phase transition is first ...

  16. Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation revisited: is the phase transition really first order?

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The transition between the two phases of 4D Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation [1] was long believed to be of second order until in 1996 first order behavior was found for sufficiently large systems [3,4]. However, one may wonder if this finding was affected by the numerical methods used: to control volume fluctuations, in both studies [3,4] an artificial harmonic potential was added to the action; in [4] measurements were taken after a fixed number of accepted instead of attempted moves which introduces an additional error. Finally the simulations suffer from strong critical slowing down which may have been underestimated. In the present work, we address the above weaknesses: we allow the volume to fluctuate freely within a fixed interval; we take measurements after a fixed number of attempted moves; and we overcome critical slowing down by using an optimized parallel tempering algorithm [6]. With these improved methods, on systems of size up to 64k 4-simplices, we confirm that the phase transition is first o...

  17. A PTAS For The k-Consensus Structures Problem Under Squared Euclidean Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louxin Zhang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a basic clustering problem that has uses in bioinformatics. A structural fragment is a sequence of l points in a 3D space, where l is a fixed natural number. Two structural fragments f1 and f2 are equivalent if and only if f1 = f2 x R + τ under some rotation R and translation τ . We consider the distance between two structural fragments to be the sum of the squared Euclidean distance between all corresponding points of the structural fragments. Given a set of n structural fragments, we consider the problem of finding k (or fewer structural fragments g1, g2, ... , gk, so as to minimize the sum of the distances between each of f1, f2, ... , fn to its nearest structural fragment in g1, ... , gk. In this paper we show a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS for the problem through a simple sampling strategy.

  18. Multi-resolutional brain network filtering and analysis via wavelets on non-Euclidean space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Adluru, Nagesh; Chung, Moo K; Charchut, Sylvia; GadElkarim, Johnson J; Altshuler, Lori; Moody, Teena; Kumar, Anand; Singh, Vikas; Leow, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Advances in resting state fMRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) have led to much interest in studies that evaluate hypotheses focused on how brain connectivity networks show variations across clinically disparate groups. However, various sources of error (e.g., tractography errors, magnetic field distortion, and motion artifacts) leak into the data, and make downstream statistical analysis problematic. In small sample size studies, such noise have an unfortunate effect that the differential signal may not be identifiable and so the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Traditionally, smoothing is often used to filter out noise. But the construction of convolving with a Gaussian kernel is not well understood on arbitrarily connected graphs. Furthermore, there are no direct analogues of scale-space theory for graphs--ones which allow to view the signal at multiple resolutions. We provide rigorous frameworks for performing 'multi-resolutional' analysis on brain connectivity graphs. These are based on the recent theory of non-Euclidean wavelets. We provide strong evidence, on brain connectivity data from a network analysis study (structural connectivity differences in adult euthymic bipolar subjects), that the proposed algorithm allows identifying statistically significant network variations, which are clinically meaningful, where classical statistical tests, if applied directly, fail.

  19. Robust Automatic Pectoral Muscle Segmentation from Mammograms Using Texture Gradient and Euclidean Distance Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Vibha Bafna; Kothari, Ashwin G; Keskar, Avinash G

    2016-02-01

    In computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of mediolateral oblique (MLO) view of mammogram, the accuracy of tissue segmentation highly depends on the exclusion of pectoral muscle. Robust methods for such exclusions are essential as the normal presence of pectoral muscle can bias the decision of CAD. In this paper, a novel texture gradient-based approach for automatic segmentation of pectoral muscle is proposed. The pectoral edge is initially approximated to a straight line by applying Hough transform on Probable Texture Gradient (PTG) map of the mammogram followed by block averaging with the aid of approximated line. Furthermore, a smooth pectoral muscle curve is achieved with proposed Euclidean Distance Regression (EDR) technique and polynomial modeling. The algorithm is robust to texture and overlapping fibro glandular tissues. The method is validated with 340 MLO views from three databases-including 200 randomly selected scanned film images from miniMIAS, 100 computed radiography images and 40 full-field digital mammogram images. Qualitatively, 96.75 % of the pectoral muscles are segmented with an acceptable pectoral score index. The proposed method not only outperforms state-of-the-art approaches but also accurately quantifies the pectoral edge. Thus, its high accuracy and relatively quick processing time clearly justify its suitability for CAD.

  20. A NOVEL CONSTRUCTION OF QUANTUM LDPC CODES BASED ON CYCLIC CLASSES OF LINES IN EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Dong; Song Yaoliang; Zhao Shengmei

    2012-01-01

    The dual-containing (or self-orthogonal) formalism of Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes provides a universal connection between a classical linear code and a Quantum Error-Correcting Code (QECC).We propose a novel class of quantum Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes constructed from cyclic classes of lines in Euclidean Geometry (EG).The corresponding constructed parity check matrix has quasi-cyclic structure that can be encoded flexibility,and satisfies the requirement of dual-containing quantum code.Taking the advantage of quasi-cyclic structure,we use a structured approach to construct Generalized Parity Check Matrix (GPCM).This new class of quantum codes has higher code rate,more sparse check matrix,and exactly one four-cycle in each pair of two rows.Experimental results show that the proposed quantum codes,such as EG(2,q)Ⅱ-QECC,EG(3,q)Ⅱ-QECC,have better performance than that of other methods based on EG,over the depolarizing channel and decoded with iterative decoding based on the sum-product decoding algorithm.

  1. Transaction security in RFID Credit Card by Polynomial Arithmetic along with Euclidean Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID innovation is becoming quickly crosswise over a wide range of commercial enterprises. Engineers apply the innovation not just in conventional applications, for example, resource or stock following, additionally in security administrations, electronic travel papers and RFID-inserted card. Be that as it may, RFID innovation additionally raises various concerns in regards to protection, security and law requirement. In the same way as other advances, ease Radio Frequency Identification (RFID frameworks will get to be pervasive in our everyday lives when fastened to regular shopper things as "keen marks". While yielding extraordinary efficiency picks up, RFID frameworks may make new dangers to the security and protection of people or associations. For securing RFID exchange, the utilization of cryptographic calculation is on top. Be that as it may, these calculations are fragmented without the utilization of math. In this paper I will demonstrate how polynomial number-crunching and Euclidean parameters came to assume a important part for exchange security. Planning secure and proficient multivariate key cryptosystem keeps on being a testing territory of examination as of late. In this paper we introduce another technique for outlining effective multivariate key cryptosystem by defeating all the known assaults.

  2. Correlations and clustering in a scale-free network in Euclidean space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Nandi; G Mukherjee; S S Manna

    2008-08-01

    Empirical study shows that many real networks in nature and society share two generic properties: they are scale-free and they display a high degree of clustering. Quite often they are modular in nature also, implying occurrences of several small tightly linked groups which are connected in a hierarchical manner among themselves. Recently, we have introduced a model of spatial scale-free network where nodes pop-up at randomly located positions in the Euclidean space and are connected to one end of the nearest link of the existing network. It has been already argued that the large scale behaviour of this network is like the Barabási–Albert model. In the present paper we briefly review these results as well as present additional results on the study of non-trivial correlations present in this model which are found to have similar behaviours as in the real-world networks. Moreover, this model naturally possesses the hierarchical characteristics lacked by most of the models of the scale-free networks.

  3. Failure mode and effects analysis using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Liu, Long; Li, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has shown its effectiveness in examining potential failures in products, process, designs or services and has been extensively used for safety and reliability analysis in a wide range of industries. However, its approach to prioritise failure modes through a crisp risk priority number (RPN) has been criticised as having several shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to develop an efficient and comprehensive risk assessment methodology using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance (IFHWED) operator to overcome the limitations and improve the effectiveness of the traditional FMEA. The diversified and uncertain assessments given by FMEA team members are treated as linguistic terms expressed in intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs). Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA) operator is used to aggregate the FMEA team members' individual assessments into a group assessment. IFHWED operator is applied thereafter to the prioritisation and selection of failure modes. Particularly, both subjective and objective weights of risk factors are considered during the risk evaluation process. A numerical example for risk assessment is given to illustrate the proposed method finally.

  4. A new wide range Euclidean distance circuit for neural network hardware implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, A; Titus, A H

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an analog very large-scale integration (VLSI) implementation of a wide range Euclidean distance computation circuit - the key element of many synapse circuits. This circuit is essentially a wide-range absolute value circuit that is designed to be as small as possible (80 /spl times/ 76 /spl mu/m) in order to achieve maximum synapse density while maintaining a wide range of operation (0.5 to 4.5 V) and low power consumption (less than 200 /spl mu/W). The circuit has been fabricated in 1.5-/spl mu/m technology through MOSIS. We present simulated and experimental results of the circuit, and compare these results. Ultimately, this circuit is intended for use as part of a high-density hardware implementation of a self-organizing map (SOM). We describe how this circuit can be used as part of the SOM and how the SOM is going to be used as part of a larger bio-inspired vision system based on the octopus visual system.

  5. Face Detection and Recognition Using Viola-Jones with PCA-LDA and Square Euclidean Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaf Hazim Barnouti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic face recognition system is proposed based on appearance-based features that focus on the entire face image rather than local facial features. The first step in face recognition system is face detection. Viola-Jones face detection method that capable of processing images extremely while achieving high detection rates is used. This method has the most impact in the 2000’s and known as the first object detection framework to provide relevant object detection that can run in real time. Feature extraction and dimension reduction method will be applied after face detection. Principal Component Analysis (PCA method is widely used in pattern recognition. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA method that used to overcome drawback the PCA has been successfully applied to face recognition. It is achieved by projecting the image onto the Eigenface space by PCA after that implementing pure LDA over it. Square Euclidean Distance (SED is used. The distance between two images is a major concern in pattern recognition. The distance between the vectors of two images leads to image similarity. The proposed method is tested on three databases (MUCT, Face94, and Grimace. Different number of training and testing images are used to evaluate the system performance and it show that increasing the number of training images will increase the recognition rate.

  6. a Euclidean Formulation of Interior Orientation Costraints Imposed by the Fundamental Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisperakis, I.; Karras, G.; Petsa, E.

    2016-06-01

    Epipolar geometry of a stereopair can be expressed either in 3D, as the relative orientation (i.e. translation and rotation) of two bundles of optical rays in case of calibrated cameras or, in case of unclalibrated cameras, in 2D as the position of the epipoles on the image planes and a projective transformation that maps points in one image to corresponding epipolar lines on the other. The typical coplanarity equation describes the first case; the Fundamental matrix describes the second. It has also been proven in the Computer Vision literature that 2D epipolar geometry imposes two independent constraints on the parameters of camera interior orientation. In this contribution these constraints are expressed directly in 3D Euclidean space by imposing the equality of the dihedral angle of epipolar planes defined by the optical axes of the two cameras or by suitably chosen corresponding epipolar lines. By means of these constraints, new closed form algorithms are proposed for the estimation of a variable or common camera constant value given the fundamental matrix and the principal point position of a stereopair.

  7. Color Image Quantization Based on Euclidean Distance Using Bacteria Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The RGB color model is an additive color model that yields a broad array of colors in which three primary colors red, green and blue are added together in various ways.RGB is device dependent color model used in input devices like color TV and video cameras, image scanners etc. and output devices like mobile phone displays, LCD etc. Bacteria Foraging Optimization is a nature-inspired optimization has drawn the attention of researchers because of its efficiency in solving real-world optimization problems arising in several application domains. Color image quantization is an important process of representing true color image using a small number of colors. The objective of this research work are to; 1 implement and compare its performance with other quantization techniques. To test the performance of proposed algorithm different quantative parameters like Quantized Distance, LMSE, Euclidean distance are used. 2 The results indicate that the proposed algorithm yields a significant improvement in image quality as compared to other approaches.

  8. $O(N)$ model in Euclidean de Sitter space: beyond the leading infrared approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Nacir, Diana López; Trombetta, Leonardo G

    2016-01-01

    We consider an $O(N)$ scalar field model with quartic interaction in $d$-dimensional Euclidean de Sitter space. In order to avoid the problems of the standard perturbative calculations for light and massless fields, we generalize to the $O(N)$ theory a systematic method introduced previously for a single field, which treats the zero modes exactly and the nonzero modes perturbatively. We compute the two-point functions taking into account not only the leading infrared contribution, coming from the self-interaction of the zero modes, but also corrections due to the interaction of the ultraviolet modes. For the model defined in the corresponding Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime, we obtain the two-point functions by analytical continuation. We point out that a partial resummation of the leading secular terms (which necessarily involves nonzero modes) is required to obtain a decay at large distances for massless fields. We implement this resummation along with a systematic double expansion in an effective coupling c...

  9. The Exact Euclidean Distance Transform: A New Algorithm for Universal Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Elizondo-Leal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Path‐Planning problem is a basic issue in mobile robotics, in order to allow the robots to solve more complex tasks, for example, an exploration assignment in which the distance given by the planner is taken as a utility measure. Among the different proposed approaches, algorithms based on an exact cell decomposition of the environment are very popular. In this paper, we present a new algorithm for universal path planning in cell decomposition, using a raster scan method for computing the Exact Euclidean Distance Transform (EEDT for each cell in the map. Our algorithm computes, for every cell in the map, the point sequence to the goal. For each sequence, the sub‐goals are selected near to the vertices of the obstacles, reducing the total distance to the goal without post processing. At the end, we obtain a smooth path up to the goal without the need for post‐processing. The paths are computed by visibility verification among the cells, exploiting the processing performed in the neighbouring cells.

  10. Euclidean commute time distance embedding and its application to spectral anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, James A.; Messinger, David W.

    2012-06-01

    Spectral image analysis problems often begin by performing a preprocessing step composed of applying a transformation that generates an alternative representation of the spectral data. In this paper, a transformation based on a Markov-chain model of a random walk on a graph is introduced. More precisely, we quantify the random walk using a quantity known as the average commute time distance and find a nonlinear transformation that embeds the nodes of a graph in a Euclidean space where the separation between them is equal to the square root of this quantity. This has been referred to as the Commute Time Distance (CTD) transformation and it has the important characteristic of increasing when the number of paths between two nodes decreases and/or the lengths of those paths increase. Remarkably, a closed form solution exists for computing the average commute time distance that avoids running an iterative process and is found by simply performing an eigendecomposition on the graph Laplacian matrix. Contained in this paper is a discussion of the particular graph constructed on the spectral data for which the commute time distance is then calculated from, an introduction of some important properties of the graph Laplacian matrix, and a subspace projection that approximately preserves the maximal variance of the square root commute time distance. Finally, RX anomaly detection and Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD) algorithms will be applied to the CTD subspace followed by a discussion of their results.

  11. Limit theorems for minimum-weight triangulations, other euclidean functionals, and probabilistic recurrence relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golin, M.J. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    1996-12-31

    Let MWT(n) be the weight of a minimum-weight triangulation of n points chosen independently from the uniform distribution over [0, 1]{sup 2}. Previous work has shown that E(MWT(n)) = {Theta} ({radical}n). In this paper we develop techniques for proving that MWT(n)/{radical}n actually converges to a constant in both expectation and in probability. An immediate consequence is the development of an O(n{sup 2}) time algorithm that finds a triangulation whose competive ratio with the MWT is, in a probabilistic sense, exactly one. The techniques developed to prove the above results are quite general and can also prove the convergence of certain types of probabilistic recurrence equations and other Euclidean Functionals. This is illustrated by using them to prove the convergence of the weight of MWTs of random points in higher dimensions and a sketch of how to use them to prove the convergence of the degree probabilities for Delaunay triangulations in {Re}{sup 2}.

  12. Identification and prioritization of candidate genes for symptom variability in breast cancer survivors based on disease characteristics at the cellular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleck TA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theresa A Koleck,1 Yvette P Conley2 1School of Nursing, 2Department of Human Genetics, School of Nursing and Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Research is beginning to suggest that the presence and/or severity of symptoms reported by breast cancer survivors may be associated with disease-related factors of cancer. In this article, we present a novel approach to the identification and prioritization of biologically plausible candidate genes to investigate relationships between genomic variation and symptom variability in breast cancer survivors. Cognitive dysfunction is utilized as a representative breast cancer survivor symptom to elucidate the conceptualization of and justification for our cellular, disease-based approach to address symptom variability in cancer survivors. Initial candidate gene identification was based on genes evaluated as part of multigene expression profiles for breast cancer, which are commonly used in the clinical setting to characterize the biology of cancer cells for the purpose of describing overall tumor aggressiveness, prognostication, and individualization of therapy. A list of genes evaluated within five multigene expression profiles for breast cancer was compiled. In order to prioritize candidate genes for investigation, genes used in each profile were compared for duplication. Twenty-one genes (BAG1, BCL2, BIRC5, CCNB1, CENPA, CMC2, DIAPH3, ERBB2, ESR1, GRB7, MELK, MKI67, MMP11, MYBL2, NDC80, ORC6, PGR, RACGAP1, RFC4, RRM2, and SCUBE2 are utilized in two or more profiles, including five genes (CCNB1, CENPA, MELK, MYBL2, and ORC6 used in three profiles. To ensure that the parsimonious 21 gene set is representative of the more global biological hallmarks of cancer, an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was conducted. Evaluation of genes known to impact pathways involved with cancer development and progression provide a means to evaluate the overlap between the

  13. Effect of electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz on the levels of cellular stress proteins HSP-90 and 70 in the rat thyroid; Efecto de los campos electromagneticos a 2,45 GHz sobre los niveles de proteinas de estres celular HSP-90 y 70 en el toroides de rata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misa Agustino, M. J.; Alvarez-Folgueras, M.; Jorge-Mora, M. T.; Jorge Barreiro, F. J.; Ares Pena, F. J.; Lleiro, J.; Lopez Martin, M. E.

    2011-07-01

    In this study we analyzed the cellular stress levels achieved by heat shock proteins (HSP) 90 and 70 in rat thyroid tissue after exposure to radio waves in TWG experimental system. Parallel measurements of body stress in animals by rectal temperature probes allow us to determine whether there is any interaction between temperature increases and cellular stress.

  14. Scaling laws for non-Euclidean plates and the $W^{2,2}$ isometric immersions of Riemannian metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewicka, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the elastic structures which exhibit non-zero strain at free equilibria. Many growing tissues (leaves, flowers or marine invertebrates) attain complicated configurations during their free growth. Our study departs from the 3d incompatible elasticity theory, conjectured to explain the mechanism for the spontaneous formation of non-Euclidean metrics. Recall that a smooth Riemannian metric on a simply connected domain can be realized as the pull-back metric of an orientation preserving deformation if and only if the associated Riemann curvature tensor vanishes identically. When this condition fails, one seeks a deformation yielding the closest metric realization. We set up a variational formulation of this problem by introducing the non-Euclidean version of the nonlinear elasticity functional, and establish its $\\Gamma$-convergence under the proper scaling. As a corollary, we obtain new necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of a $W^{2,2}$ isometric immersion of a given 2d metric i...

  15. Non-CMC Solutions to the Einstein Constraint Equations on Asymptotically Euclidean Manifolds with Apparent Horizon Boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Holst, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this article we further develop the solution theory for the Einstein constraint equations on an n-dimensional, asymptotically Euclidean manifold M with interior boundary S. Building on recent results for both the asymptotically Euclidean and compact with boundary settings, we show existence of far-from-CMC and near-CMC solutions to the conformal formulation of the Einstein constraints when nonlinear Robin boundary conditions are imposed on S, similar to those analyzed previously by Dain (2004), by Maxwell (2004, 2005), and by Holst and Tsogtgerel (2013) as a model of black holes in various CMC settings, and by Holst, Meier, and Tsogtgerel (2013) in the setting of far-from-CMC solutions on compact manifolds with boundary. These "marginally trapped surface" Robin conditions ensure that the expansion scalars along null geodesics perpendicular to the boundary region S are non-positive, which is considered the correct mathematical model for black holes in the context of the Einstein constraint equations. Assumi...

  16. Euclidean distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses of multi-day auditory event-related potentials: a longitudinal stability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durato, M. V.; Albano, A. M.; Rapp, P. E.; Nawang, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.

  17. Cordyceps militaris (L. Link Fruiting Body Reduces the Growth of a Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line by Increasing Cellular Levels of p53 and p21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bizarro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris (L. Link, an edible entomopathogenic fungus widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, has numerous potential medicinal properties including antitumor activity. The methanolic extract of C. militaris fruiting body was recently shown to have tumor cell growth inhibitory activity in several human tumor cell lines. Nonetheless, the mechanism of action involved is still not known. This work aimed at further studying the effect of the methanolic extract of C. militaris regarding its antitumor mechanism of action, using the non-small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460 as a model. Results showed that treatment with the extract decreased cellular proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and increased apoptosis. In addition, the extract increased the levels of p53 and p21. Moreover, an increase in p-H2A.X and 53BP1 levels, together with an increase in the number of 53BP1 foci/cell (all indicative of DNA damage, were also observed after treatment with the extract. This work suggests that this extract affected NCI-H460 cellular viability through a mechanism involving DNA damage and p53 activation. This further supports the potential of this extract as a source of bioactive compounds, which may be used in anticancer strategies.

  18. Evidence that levels of the dimeric cellular transcription factor CP2 play little role in the activation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat in vivo or following superinfection with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, F; Swendeman, S L; Popik, W; Pitha, P M; Sheffery, M

    1994-08-19

    The dimeric transcription factor CP2 binds a sequence element found near the transcription start site of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) long terminal repeat. Several groups have suggested that cellular factors binding this element might play a role in modulating HIV-1 promoter activity in vivo. For example, induction of latent HIV-1 gene expression in response to superinfection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or cytomegalovirus is thought to be mediated, in part, by factors binding the CP2 site. In this report we began to examine directly the relationship between CP2 and expression of the HIV-1 promoter. First, we tested what effect HSV-1 infection of T cells had on the cellular levels of CP2. The results showed that HSV-1 infection led to a significant reduction in the level of CP2 DNA binding activity and protein within 20 h. Next, we tested the effect of overexpressing either the wild-type factor or a dominant negative variant of CP2 on HIV-1 promoter activity in vivo. The results showed that CP2 had little effect or slightly repressed HIV-1 promoter activity in vivo. In addition, these expression constructs had little effect on the induction of HIV-1 promoter activity elicited by HSV-1 infection.

  19. DISCRETE ROTATIONS AND CELLULAR AUTOMATA

    OpenAIRE

    Nouvel, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    In a discrete space, such as the set of integer-coordinate points, the modelization of isotropy may lead to noticeable theoretical difficulties. At this time, we do not know any gerometric theory on $\\ZZ^n$ that would be suitable to describe the isotropy the same way it is perceived by Euclidean geometry. With respect to this problematic, our aim is to describe some algorithms that would give to the discrete rotations some properties that would be similar to the properties of the Euclidean ro...

  20. Understanding the sub-cellular dynamics of silicon transportation and synthesis in diatoms using population-level data and computational optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Narjes; Dries, Roland; Kaandorp, Jaap

    2014-06-01

    Controlled synthesis of silicon is a major challenge in nanotechnology and material science. Diatoms, the unicellular algae, are an inspiring example of silica biosynthesis, producing complex and delicate nano-structures. This happens in several cell compartments, including cytoplasm and silica deposition vesicle (SDV). Considering the low concentration of silicic acid in oceans, cells have developed silicon transporter proteins (SIT). Moreover, cells change the level of active SITs during one cell cycle, likely as a response to the level of external nutrients and internal deposition rates. Despite this topic being of fundamental interest, the intracellular dynamics of nutrients and cell regulation strategies remain poorly understood. One reason is the difficulties in measurements and manipulation of these mechanisms at such small scales, and even when possible, data often contain large errors. Therefore, using computational techniques seems inevitable. We have constructed a mathematical model for silicon dynamics in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in four compartments: external environment, cytoplasm, SDV and deposited silica. The model builds on mass conservation and Michaelis-Menten kinetics as mass transport equations. In order to find the free parameters of the model from sparse, noisy experimental data, an optimization technique (global and local search), together with enzyme related penalty terms, has been applied. We have connected population-level data to individual-cell-level quantities including the effect of early division of non-synchronized cells. Our model is robust, proven by sensitivity and perturbation analysis, and predicts dynamics of intracellular nutrients and enzymes in different compartments. The model produces different uptake regimes, previously recognized as surge, externally-controlled and internally-controlled uptakes. Finally, we imposed a flux of SITs to the model and compared it with previous classical kinetics. The model

  1. Gradient-like observer design on the Special Euclidean group SE(3) with system outputs on the real projective space

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Minh-Duc; Hamel, Tarek; Mahony, Robert; Trumpf, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear observer on the Special Euclidean group $\\mathrm{SE(3)}$ for full pose estimation, that takes the system outputs on the real projective space directly as inputs, is proposed. The observer derivation is based on a recent advanced theory on nonlinear observer design. A key advantage with respect to existing pose observers on $\\mathrm{SE(3)}$ is that we can now incorporate in a unique observer different types of measurements such as vectorial measurements of known inertial vectors an...

  2. Effect of Plectranthus amboinicus Extract on BUN and Creatinine Levels and Cellular Response Proinflammatory Factors TNF-α and IL-1β on Gout Arthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailatul Muniroh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop anti-cytokine-based treatment using extract of Plectranthus amboinicus applied to gout arthritis (GA patients. The research was quasi experimental, with a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. The samples were GA patientsin the Outpatient Installation of Internal Medicine in General Hospital Haji,Surabaya. The sample was comprised of 30 respondents. The respondents were divided into a treatment group and a control group. The treatment group was asked to take medicine from the hospital, coupled with Plectranthus amboinicus extract capsules, for 7 days, during which time patients’ joint inflammation was observed. The control group was provided with only medication from the hospital, and their joint inflammation was likewise observed. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment, to measure the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine, as well as the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β. There was a decrease in BUN and creatinine levels in the control group, but it was not significant, decreasing by 3% and 8%, respectively. The treatment group also showed elevated levels of BUN and creatinine, which also was not significant at 3% and 7%, respectively. There was a decrease in the concentration of TNF-α in the control group by 9% and 22%. The concentration of IL-1β in the control group increased by 18%, whereas,in the treatment group,it decreased by3%; however,the decreases in bothgroups were not significant.

  3. Soft learning vector quantization and clustering algorithms based on non-Euclidean norms: single-norm algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayiannis, Nicolaos B; Randolph-Gips, Mary M

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the development of soft clustering and learning vector quantization (LVQ) algorithms that rely on a weighted norm to measure the distance between the feature vectors and their prototypes. The development of LVQ and clustering algorithms is based on the minimization of a reformulation function under the constraint that the generalized mean of the norm weights be constant. According to the proposed formulation, the norm weights can be computed from the data in an iterative fashion together with the prototypes. An error analysis provides some guidelines for selecting the parameter involved in the definition of the generalized mean in terms of the feature variances. The algorithms produced from this formulation are easy to implement and they are almost as fast as clustering algorithms relying on the Euclidean norm. An experimental evaluation on four data sets indicates that the proposed algorithms outperform consistently clustering algorithms relying on the Euclidean norm and they are strong competitors to non-Euclidean algorithms which are computationally more demanding.

  4. Discrete coherent states for higher Landau levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, L. D.; Balazs, P.; de Gosson, M.; Mouayn, Z.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the quantum dynamics of a charged particle evolving under the action of a constant homogeneous magnetic field, with emphasis on the discrete subgroups of the Heisenberg group (in the Euclidean case) and of the SL(2 , R) group (in the Hyperbolic case). We investigate completeness properties of discrete coherent states associated with higher order Euclidean and hyperbolic Landau levels, partially extending classic results of Perelomov and of Bargmann, Butera, Girardello and Klauder. In the Euclidean case, our results follow from identifying the completeness problem with known results from the theory of Gabor frames. The results for the hyperbolic setting follow by using a combination of methods from coherent states, time-scale analysis and the theory of Fuchsian groups and their associated automorphic forms.

  5. Energy Landscape of Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2008-03-01

    Cellular Networks are in general quite robust and perform their biological functions against the environmental perturbations. Progresses have been made from experimental global screenings, topological and engineering studies. However, there are so far few studies of why the network should be robust and perform biological functions from global physical perspectives. In this work, we will explore the global properties of the network from physical perspectives. The aim of this work is to develop a conceptual framework and quantitative physical methods to study the global nature of the cellular network. The main conclusion of this presentation is that we uncovered the underlying energy landscape for several small cellular networks such as MAPK signal transduction network and gene regulatory networks, from the experimentally measured or inferred inherent chemical reaction rates. The underlying dynamics of these networks can show bi-stable as well as oscillatory behavior. The global shapes of the energy landscapes of the underlying cellular networks we have studied are robust against perturbations of the kinetic rates and environmental disturbances through noise. We derived a quantitative criterion for robustness of the network function from the underlying landscape. It provides a natural explanation of the robustness and stability of the network for performing biological functions. We believe the robust landscape is a global universal property for cellular networks. We believe the robust landscape is a quantitative realization of Darwinian principle of natural selection at the cellular network level. It may provide a novel algorithm for optimizing the network connections, which is crucial for the cellular network design and synthetic biology. Our approach is general and can be applied to other cellular networks.

  6. Comparative assessment of the recognition of domain-specific CD163 monoclonal antibodies in human monocytes explains wide discrepancy in reported levels of cellular surface CD163 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Etzerodt, Anders; Moestrup, Søren Kragh;

    2011-01-01

    continue to exhibit great discrepancy in the measured percentage of CD163-expressing blood monocytes in healthy individuals. In this study we sought to clarify this inconsistency in reported levels of CD163 surface expression by a detailed analysis of a panel of CD163 antibodies used in previous studies...... 1 (MAC2-158), domain 4 (R-20), domain 7 (GHI/61), and domain 9 (RM3/1). The CD163 monoclonal antibodies were characterized in binding and endocytosis experiments in human macrophages and CD163-transfected Flp-In CHO cells. Calcium-dependent ligand binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance......-terminal part of CD163, remote from the membrane surface. Moreover, the proportion of CD163 positive monocytes observed was highly dependent on free calcium. GHI/61 did not exhibit CD163 binding in the presence of calcium as measured by surface plasmon resonance, which was in agreement with the concordant loss...

  7. Early Response Roles for Prolactin Cortisol and Circulating and Cellular Levels of Heat Shock Proteins 72 and 90α in Severe Sepsis and SIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vardas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS compared to healthy subjects (H. Methods. Patients with early (first 48 hrs SS (n=29 or SIRS (n=29 admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72 and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Results. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P<0.003. ACTH and eHSP72 were significantly higher in SS and SIRS compared to H (P<0.005. SS monocytes expressed lower iHSP72 MFI levels compared to H (P=0.03. Prolactin was related with SAPS III and APACHE II scores and cortisol with eHSP90α, IL-6, and lactate (P<0.05. In SS and SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases.

  8. Two thoughts causing the birth of Non-Euclidean geometry%非欧几何诞生的两种思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟金保

    2011-01-01

    目的 系统分析和探讨非欧几何诞生的两种思想.方法 运用文献考证和历史分析的方法对非欧几何诞生的两种思想进行研究.结果 非欧几何诞生的两种重要思想分别是欧氏第五公设研究和运用微分几何研究;前者利用无模型观点直观揭示了非欧实质,后者以模型为依据不但利于人们理解和接受,而且产生了更一般的非欧几何.结论 两种思想研究的结合,使非欧几何真正诞生和快速发展,实现了非欧几何与欧氏几何的统一,为空间概念的扩展创造了必要条件.%Aim To analyze and discuss systematically two thoughts causing the birth of Non-Euclidean geometry. Methods Literature reviewed and historic analysis. Results The two important thoughts causing the birth of Non-Euclidean geometry were the fifth axiom research of Euclidean and the application of Differential geometry research; the former,from free-model point of view reveals the essence of Non-Euclidean geometry, the latter, based on models , not only promotes people to understand and accept it but also generates a more general Non-Euclidean geometry. Conclusion The combination of two thoughts makes the Non-Euclidean geometry emerge and develop rapidly, achieves the unity of Non-Euclidean geometry and Euclidean geometry and creates necessary conditions for the extension of space concept.

  9. Multipartite entanglement arising from dense Euclidean lattices in dimensions 4-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planat, Michel

    2012-02-01

    The group of automorphisms of Euclidean (embedded in {R}^n ) dense lattices such as the root lattices D4 and E8, the Barnes-Wall lattice BW16, the unimodular lattice D12+ and the Leech lattice Λ24 may be generated by entangled quantum gates of the corresponding dimension. These (real) gates/lattices are useful for quantum error correction: for instance, the two- and four-qubit real Clifford groups are the automorphism groups of the lattices D4 and BW16, respectively, and the three-qubit real Clifford group is maximal in the Weyl group W(E8). Technically, the automorphism group Aut(Λ) of the lattice Λ is the set of orthogonal matrices B such that, following the conjugation action by the generating matrix of the lattice, the output matrix is unimodular (of determinant ±1, with integer entries). When the degree n is equal to the number of basis elements of Λ, Aut(Λ) also acts on basis vectors and is generated with matrices B such that the sum of squared entries in a row is 1, i.e. B may be seen as a quantum gate. For the dense lattices listed above, maximal multipartite entanglement arises. In particular, one finds a balanced tripartite entanglement in E8 (the two- and three-tangles have the same magnitude 1/4) and a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type entanglement in BW16. In this paper, we also investigate the entangled gates from D12+ and Λ24, by seeing them as systems coupling a qutrit to two- and three-qubits, respectively. In addition to quantum computing, the work may be related to particle physics in the spirit of Planat et al (2011 Rep. Math. Phys. 66 39-51).

  10. Flat Cellular (UMTS) Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Samuel, L.G.; Mullender, S.J.; Polakos, P.; Rittenhouse, G.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, cellular systems have been built in a hierarchical manner: many specialized cellular access network elements that collectively form a hierarchical cellular system. When 2G and later 3G systems were designed there was a good reason to make system hierarchical: from a cost-perspective i

  11. Research Advances of Epilepsy on Cellular Level%癫痫病的细胞水平研究及进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘远琳; 何小华; 彭碧文

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is an incurable disorder of nervous system, and most treatments can only control the symptoms. The mechanism of epilepsy is still unknown. Many researchers try to learn the mechanism of epilepsy in different levels and by different methods, including molecular biology, cell and in vivo models. Technically, patch clamp, a functional method for electrophysiology, is an effective way to learn the characteristics and property of epilepsy. This review introduces the characteristics and application of cell preparation of patch clamp of epilepsy.%癫痫病是一种难治性神经系统疾病,目前医疗水平还不能将该病完全治愈,大多以控制为主.癫痫病的成因仍然未能阐明,很多学者针对其不同的成因,采用不同的方法来研究癫痫病的发作机制,研究层面也各不相同.技术手段上,膜片钳技术可以更加直接的从功能方面来阐述癫痫病电生理方面的特征与性质.此文主要探讨用于膜片钳技术的细胞材料的特点,以及其应用.

  12. [Correlation on a cellular level of gene transcriptional silencing and heterochromatin compartment dragging in case of PEV-producing eu-heterochromatin rearrangement in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, S A; Shatskikh, A S; Kibanov, M V; Gvozdev, V A

    2013-01-01

    Eu-heterochromatic rearrangements transfer genes into the heterochromatin and cause their variegated inactivation (PEV). Genes affected by PEV often demonstrate association with heterochromatic nuclear compartment (a distinct area composed of heterochromatin sequences like satellite DNA and enriched in specific chromatin proteins e.g. HP1). Here, we investigate the nuclear localization and the expression levels of the genes subjected to PEV caused by chromosome inversion, In(2)A4. We demonstrate that the degree of PEV-caused gene inactivation depends on a developmental stage, and the maximum of repression corresponds to the gene expression activation period. In the case of In(2)A4 rearrangement we detect the dragging of affected euchromatic region into heterochromatic nuclear compartment and the increase in HP1 occupancy in this region. We developed a protocol of simultaneous RNA-DNA-protein staining to demonstrate firstly in a single cell a strong correlation between transcriptional activity of affected gene and its distance from chromosome 2 satellite DNA.

  13. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gour Gopal Satpati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g. The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching, ketone (C-C stretching, carboxylic acid (O-H bending, phosphine (P-H stretching, aromatic (C-H stretching and bending, and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production.

  14. Engineering Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-10

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds, and pharmaceuticals. However, making cells into efficient factories is challenging because cells have evolved robust metabolic networks with hard-wired, tightly regulated lines of communication between molecular pathways that resist efforts to divert resources. Here, we will review the current status and challenges of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.

  15. Changes in rRNA levels during stress invalidates results from mRNA blotting: Fluorescence in situ rRNA hybridization permits renormalization for estimation of cellular mRNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.C.; Nielsen, A.K.; Molin, Søren;

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression can be analyzed by a number of different techniques. Some techniques monitor the level of specific mRNA directly, and others monitor indirectly by determining the level of enzymes encoded by the mRNA. Each method has its own inherent way of normalization. When result...

  16. Altered cellular infiltration and cytokine levels during early Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigC mutant infection are associated with late-stage disease attenuation and milder immunopathology in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMurray David N

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse virulence assessments of certain Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants have revealed an immunopathology defect in which high tissue CFU counts are observed but the tissue pathology and lethality are reduced. M. tuberculosis mutants which grow and persist in the mouse lungs, but have attenuated disease progression, have the immunopathology (imp phenotype. The antigenic properties of these strains may alter the progression of disease due to a reduction in host immune cell recruitment to the lungs resulting in disease attenuation and prolonged host survival. Results In this study we focused on the mouse immune response to one such mutant; the M. tuberculosis ΔsigC mutant. Aerosol infection of DBA/2 and SCID mice with the M. tuberculosis ΔsigC mutant, complemented mutant and wild type strain showed proliferation of mutant bacilli in mouse lungs, but with decreased inflammation and mortality in DBA/2 mice. SCID mice shared the same phenotype as the DBA/2 mice in response to the ΔsigC mutant, however, they succumbed to the infection faster. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid analysis revealed elevated numbers of infiltrating neutrophils in the lungs of mice infected with wild type and complemented ΔsigC mutant strains but not in mice infected with the ΔsigC mutant. In addition, DBA/2 mice infected with the ΔsigC mutant had reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ in the lungs. Similarly, there was a reduction in proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs of SCID mice. In contrast to the mouse model, the ΔsigC mutant had reduced initial growth in guinea pig lungs. A possible mechanism of attenuation in the ΔsigC mutant may be a reduction in neutrophilic-influx in the alveolar spaces of the lungs, and decreased proinflammatory cytokine secretion. In contrast to mouse data, the M. tuberculosis ΔsigC mutant proliferates slowly in guinea pig lungs, a setting characterized by caseating necrosis. Conclusion Our

  17. 中药细胞级粉碎技术在中药巴布剂中的应用分析%Application of Cellular Level Pulverizing Technology Used in Chinese Medicine Cataplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宇光

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the value of cellular level pulverizing technology used in cataplasm.Methods:Common fine and ultra-fine powder poultice were prepared,and the different sizes of cataplasma puhuang psorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidin transdermal absorp-tion were comparatively analyzed.Results:The permeation rate of isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidin in ultrafine powder cataplasma was significantly higher than that in ordinary poultice (P<0.05 ).Conclusion:Cellular level pulverizing technology used in Chinese medi-cine preparations can help to improve the quality and bioavailability of drugs,optimize the production processes of Chinese medicine preparations and reduce drugs profligacy,and hence it deserves further application.%目的:研究中药细胞级粉碎技术应用于中药巴布剂的价值。方法:制备普通细粉巴布剂和超细粉巴布剂,比较分析不同粒径巴布剂中蒲黄异鼠李素-3-O-新橙皮苷透皮吸收性。结果:超细粉巴布剂中异鼠李素-3-O-新橙皮苷的渗透速率显著高于普通巴布剂(P<0.05)。结论:中药细胞级粉碎技术应用于中药药剂的制备,有利于提高药物的质量以及生物利用度,优化中药药剂生产流程,降低药物浪费,值得进一步推广应用。

  18. Discovering New Drugs on the Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    With the Vision for Space Exploration calling for a sustained human presence in space, astronauts will need to grow plants, while in orbit, for nourishment that they will not receive from only consuming dehydrated foods. As a potential source of food for long-duration missions, space-grown plants could also give astronauts an important psychological boost, as fresh vegetables could serve as a welcomed change from monotonous meals consisting of reconstituted foods in plastic bags. Even more, these plants could likely aid in the recycling of air and wastewater on spacecraft. With a helping hand from a company by the name of Biolog, Inc., NASA is studying the impacts of decreased gravity and spaceborne bacteria on the plants being grown for food in space. With a helping hand from NASA, this very same company is creating powerful new cell- and bacteria-analysis tools for use in discovering and developing new drugs on Earth.

  19. Coulomb frames in the normal bundle of surfaces in Euclidean spaces topics from differential geometry and geometric analysis of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    This book is intended for advanced students and young researchers interested in the analysis of partial differential equations and differential geometry. It discusses elementary concepts of surface geometry in higher-dimensional Euclidean spaces, in particular the differential equations of Gauss-Weingarten together with various integrability conditions and corresponding surface curvatures. It includes a chapter on curvature estimates for such surfaces, and, using results from potential theory and harmonic analysis, it addresses geometric and analytic methods to establish the existence and regularity of Coulomb frames in their normal bundles, which arise as critical points for a functional of total torsion.

  20. Polynomial degree reduction in the discrete L2-norm equals best Euclidean approximation of h-Bézier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-06-04

    We show that the best degree reduction of a given polynomial P from degree n to m with respect to the discrete (Formula presented.)-norm is equivalent to the best Euclidean distance of the vector of h-Bézier coefficients of P from the vector of degree raised h-Bézier coefficients of polynomials of degree m. Moreover, we demonstrate the adequacy of h-Bézier curves for approaching the problem of weighted discrete least squares approximation. Applications to discrete orthogonal polynomials are also presented. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  1. KDTREE 2: Fortran 95 and C++ software to efficiently search for near neighbors in a multi-dimensional Euclidean space

    OpenAIRE

    Kennel, Matthew B.

    2004-01-01

    Many data-based statistical algorithms require that one find \\textit{near or nearest neighbors} to a given vector among a set of points in that vector space, usually with Euclidean topology. The k-d data structure and search algorithms are the generalization of classical binary search trees to higher dimensional spaces, so that one may locate near neighbors to an example vector in $O(\\log N)$ time instead of the brute-force O(N) time, with $N$ being the size of the data base. KDTREE2 is a For...

  2. Massive bowel resection upregulates the intestinal mRNA expression levels of cellular retinol-binding protein II and apolipoprotein A-IV and alters the intestinal vitamin A status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebiguchi, Taku; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Morii, Mayako; Watanabe, Ryo; Yoshikawa, Kiwamu; Miura, Mitsutaka; Imai, Katsuyuki; Senoo, Haruki; Yoshino, Hiroaki

    2015-03-01

    Short bowel (SB) syndrome causes the malabsorption of various nutrients. Among these, vitamin A is important for a number of physiological activities. Vitamin A is absorbed by epithelial cells of the small intestine and is discharged into the lymphatic vessels as a component of chylomicrons and is delivered to the liver. In the present study, we used a rat model of SB syndrome in order to assess its effects on the expression of genes associated with the absorption, transport and metabolism of vitamin A. In the rats with SB, the intestinal mRNA expression levels of cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II, gene symbol Rbp2) and apolipoprotein A-IV (gene symbol Apoa4) were higher than those in the sham-operated rats, as shown by RT-qPCR. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that absorptive epithelial cells stained positive for both CRBP II and lecithin retinol acyltransferase, which are both required for the effective esterification of vitamin A. In the rats with SB, the retinol content in the ileum and the retinyl ester content in the jejunum were lower than those in the sham-operated rats, as shown by quantitative analysis of retinol and retinyl esters by high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that the elevated mRNA expression levels of Rbp2 and Apoa4 in the rats with SB contribute to the effective esterification and transport of vitamin A.

  3. A Fuzzy Neural Network Based on Non-Euclidean Distance Clustering for Quality Index Model in Slashing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality index model in slashing process is difficult to build by reason of the outliers and noise data from original data. To the above problem, a fuzzy neural network based on non-Euclidean distance clustering is proposed in which the input space is partitioned into many local regions by the fuzzy clustering based on non-Euclidean distance so that the computation complexity is decreased, and fuzzy rule number is determined by validity function based on both the separation and the compactness among clusterings. Then, the premise parameters and consequent parameters are trained by hybrid learning algorithm. The parameters identification is realized; meanwhile the convergence condition of consequent parameters is obtained by Lyapunov function. Finally, the proposed method is applied to build the quality index model in slashing process in which the experimental data come from the actual slashing process. The experiment results show that the proposed fuzzy neural network for quality index model has lower computation complexity and faster convergence time, comparing with GP-FNN, BPNN, and RBFNN.

  4. Reversible quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, B

    2004-01-01

    We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...

  5. Cellular bioluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David K; Noguchi, Takako

    2012-08-01

    Bioluminescence imaging of live cells has recently been recognized as an important alternative to fluorescence imaging. Fluorescent probes are much brighter than bioluminescent probes (luciferase enzymes) and, therefore, provide much better spatial and temporal resolution and much better contrast for delineating cell structure. However, with bioluminescence imaging there is virtually no background or toxicity. As a result, bioluminescence can be superior to fluorescence for detecting and quantifying molecules and their interactions in living cells, particularly in long-term studies. Structurally diverse luciferases from beetle and marine species have been used for a wide variety of applications, including tracking cells in vivo, detecting protein-protein interactions, measuring levels of calcium and other signaling molecules, detecting protease activity, and reporting circadian clock gene expression. Such applications can be optimized by the use of brighter and variously colored luciferases, brighter microscope optics, and ultrasensitive, low-noise cameras. This article presents a review of how bioluminescence differs from fluorescence, its applications to cellular imaging, and available probes, optics, and detectors. It also gives practical suggestions for optimal bioluminescence imaging of single cells.

  6. Wavelet-based 3D reconstruction of microcalcification clusters from two mammographic views: new evidence that fractal tumors are malignant and Euclidean tumors are benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, Kendra A; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Albert, Seth; Guimond, Lyne; Kestener, Pierre; Arneodo, Alain; Khalil, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) method was used to detect microcalcifications (MC) in human breast tissue seen in mammograms and to characterize the fractal geometry of benign and malignant MC clusters. This was done in the context of a preliminary analysis of a small dataset, via a novel way to partition the wavelet-transform space-scale skeleton. For the first time, the estimated 3D fractal structure of a breast lesion was inferred by pairing the information from two separate 2D projected mammographic views of the same breast, i.e. the cranial-caudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views. As a novelty, we define the "CC-MLO fractal dimension plot", where a "fractal zone" and "Euclidean zones" (non-fractal) are defined. 118 images (59 cases, 25 malignant and 34 benign) obtained from a digital databank of mammograms with known radiologist diagnostics were analyzed to determine which cases would be plotted in the fractal zone and which cases would fall in the Euclidean zones. 92% of malignant breast lesions studied (23 out of 25 cases) were in the fractal zone while 88% of the benign lesions were in the Euclidean zones (30 out of 34 cases). Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical analysis shows that, with 95% credibility, the probability that fractal breast lesions are malignant is between 74% and 98%. Alternatively, with 95% credibility, the probability that Euclidean breast lesions are benign is between 76% and 96%. These results support the notion that the fractal structure of malignant tumors is more likely to be associated with an invasive behavior into the surrounding tissue compared to the less invasive, Euclidean structure of benign tumors. Finally, based on indirect 3D reconstructions from the 2D views, we conjecture that all breast tumors considered in this study, benign and malignant, fractal or Euclidean, restrict their growth to 2-dimensional manifolds within the breast tissue.

  7. Wavelet-based 3D reconstruction of microcalcification clusters from two mammographic views: new evidence that fractal tumors are malignant and Euclidean tumors are benign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra A Batchelder

    Full Text Available The 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM method was used to detect microcalcifications (MC in human breast tissue seen in mammograms and to characterize the fractal geometry of benign and malignant MC clusters. This was done in the context of a preliminary analysis of a small dataset, via a novel way to partition the wavelet-transform space-scale skeleton. For the first time, the estimated 3D fractal structure of a breast lesion was inferred by pairing the information from two separate 2D projected mammographic views of the same breast, i.e. the cranial-caudal (CC and mediolateral-oblique (MLO views. As a novelty, we define the "CC-MLO fractal dimension plot", where a "fractal zone" and "Euclidean zones" (non-fractal are defined. 118 images (59 cases, 25 malignant and 34 benign obtained from a digital databank of mammograms with known radiologist diagnostics were analyzed to determine which cases would be plotted in the fractal zone and which cases would fall in the Euclidean zones. 92% of malignant breast lesions studied (23 out of 25 cases were in the fractal zone while 88% of the benign lesions were in the Euclidean zones (30 out of 34 cases. Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical analysis shows that, with 95% credibility, the probability that fractal breast lesions are malignant is between 74% and 98%. Alternatively, with 95% credibility, the probability that Euclidean breast lesions are benign is between 76% and 96%. These results support the notion that the fractal structure of malignant tumors is more likely to be associated with an invasive behavior into the surrounding tissue compared to the less invasive, Euclidean structure of benign tumors. Finally, based on indirect 3D reconstructions from the 2D views, we conjecture that all breast tumors considered in this study, benign and malignant, fractal or Euclidean, restrict their growth to 2-dimensional manifolds within the breast tissue.

  8. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  9. Cell- and nuclear-penetrating anti-dsDNA autoantibodies have multiple arginines in CDR3 of VH and increase cellular level of pERK and Bcl-2 in mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sae-Ran; Im, Sun-Woo; Chung, Hee-Yong; Pravinsagar, Pavithra; Jang, Young-Ju

    2015-10-01

    Investigation of characteristics of cell- and nuclear-penetrating anti-double stranded (ds)DNA autoantibodies (autoAbs) is important to understand pathogenesis of lupus nephritis, but has not been clearly explored. The present study reports that three anti-dsDNA monoclonal autoAbs, which contain more than two arginine residues in their CDR3s of variable heavy domain (VH), penetrated into living murine mesangial cells and the cell nuclei. However, an anti-dsDNA monoclonal Ab (mAb) having only one arginine in the CDR3-VH did not penetrate cells. To assess the contribution of antigen-binding sites, especially the VH, in cell- and nuclear-penetration, we evaluated the characteristics of recombinant single chain Fv(scFv), VH, and variable light domain (VL) of a penetrating mAb. The scFv and VH domain, containing arginine in CDR3-VH maintained the ability to penetrate cells and the cell nuclei, whereas the VL domain, having no arginine in CDR3, did not penetrate cells. The penetratingm Abs, scFv, and VH activated ERK and increased cellular protein levels of Bcl-2, whereas the non-penetrating Ab and VL did not. The cell survival was decreased by the penetrating mAbs, scFv and VH, not by the non-penetrating mAb and VL. The data indicate that an antigen-binding site is required for cell-penetration and that positively-charged arginine residues in CDR3-VH contribute to the cell- and nuclear-penetrating ability of a subset of anti-dsDNA autoAbs. Furthermore,the nuclear-penetrating anti-dsDNA autoAbs could possibly function as a pathogenic factor for lupus nephritis by up-regulating ERK activation and Bcl-2 production in mesangial cells. The cell- and nuclear-penetrating VH domain may be exploited as a vehicle for the intra cellular delivery of various useful molecules.

  10. Nanostructured cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, P; Taylor, M D R; Brust, M

    2002-12-01

    Au nanocrystals spin-coated onto silicon from toluene form cellular networks. A quantitative statistical crystallography analysis shows that intercellular correlations drive the networks far from statistical equilibrium. Spin-coating from hexane does not produce cellular structure, yet a strong correlation is retained in the positions of nanocrystal aggregates. Mechanisms based on Marangoni convection alone cannot account for the variety of patterns observed, and we argue that spinodal decomposition plays an important role in foam formation.

  11. Geometrical and P.D.E. Methods in the Treatment of the Theory of Shells: Comparing Euclidean and Affine Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Gigena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of differential equations methods in the approach, treatment, and solution of problems in diverse areas of geometry, particularly in affine differential geometry is well known and prolific, where they have proven to be quite fruitful when it comes to the obtainment of definite results. It is perhaps lesser known that the same kind of those very same methods has been and is currently being used to treat developments in some specific areas of applied sciences, such as the theory of shells where, similarly, they can be proven to be quite effective as well. In this paper we precisely show that such is the case in two particular, related instances: the historic approach of the classical, Euclidean part of the theory pursued by Fritz John, in the past century, and the more recent expositions that we ourselves have dedicated to the affine counterpart of the theory.

  12. Euclidean color-difference formula for small-medium color differences in log-compressed OSA-UCS space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleari, Claudio; Melgosa, Manuel; Huertas, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This work continues previous research by the same authors [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23, 2077 (2006)], where empirical small-medium color differences were represented by an ellipsoidal equation DeltaEGP in the Uniform Color System of the Optical Society of America. Now logarithmic compressions on chroma and lightness are introduced to produce a new space with Euclidean color-difference formulas DeltaEE. The CIEDE2000, DeltaEGP, and DeltaEE formulas are found statistically equivalent in the prediction of many available empirical datasets. However, DeltaEE is the simplest formula providing relationships with visual processing. These analyses hold true for CIE 1964 Supplementary Standard Observer and D65 illuminant.

  13. 三维欧氏距离变换的一种新方法%A New Method of Three-Dimensional Euclidean Distance Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛婴; 田捷; 王蔚洪

    2001-01-01

    常见的三维距离变换算法大都是对城市街区、棋盘等二维近似欧氏距离变换算法的三维扩展,得到的依然是近似欧氏距离.提出一种新的三维欧氏距离变换算法,可以得到完全欧氏距离,时间复杂度为O(n3logn).将该算法应用于三维医学CT图像内部软组织的显示,取得了较好的效果.%Most existing algorithms of three-dimensional distance transformare extensions of two-dimensional approximate Euclidean distance transform algorithms such as the city block/chessboard. Such algorithms can only get the approximate Euclidean distance. A new method of three-dimensional true Euclidean distance transform is presented in this paper. The proposed method can get the true Euclidean distance with time complexity O(n3*log n). Moreover, this method is used to render the soft tissue in three-dimensional medical CT images, and good result has been obtained.

  14. Quantum cellular automata and free quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    In a series of recent papers [1-4] it has been shown how free quantum field theory can be derived without using mechanical primitives (including space-time, special relativity, quantization rules, etc.), but only considering the easiest quantum algorithm encompassing a countable set of quantum systems whose network of interactions satisfies the simple principles of unitarity, homogeneity, locality, and isotropy. This has opened the route to extending the axiomatic information-theoretic derivation of the quantum theory of abstract systems [5, 6] to include quantum field theory. The inherent discrete nature of the informational axiomatization leads to an extension of quantum field theory to a quantum cellular automata theory, where the usual field theory is recovered in a regime where the discrete structure of the automata cannot be probed. A simple heuristic argument sets the scale of discreteness to the Planck scale, and the customary physical regime where discreteness is not visible is the relativistic one of small wavevectors. In this paper we provide a thorough derivation from principles that in the most general case the graph of the quantum cellular automaton is the Cayley graph of a finitely presented group, and showing how for the case corresponding to Euclidean emergent space (where the group resorts to an Abelian one) the automata leads to Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell field dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some perspectives towards the more general scenario of non-linear automata for interacting quantum field theory.

  15. Sponging of Cellular Proteins by Viral RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Charley, Phillida A.; Wilusz, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNAs accumulate to high levels during infection and interact with a variety of cellular factors including miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins. Although many of these interactions exist to directly modulate replication, translation and decay of viral transcripts, evidence is emerging that abundant viral RNAs may in certain cases serve as a sponge to sequester host non coding RNAs and proteins. By effectively reducing the ability of cellular RNA binding proteins to regulate host cell gene exp...

  16. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375

  17. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  18. Cellular blue naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old man had asymptomatic, stationary, 1.5X2 cm, shiny, smooth, dark blue nodule on dorsum of right hand since 12-14 years. In addition he had developed extensive eruption of yellow to orange papulonodular lesions on extensors of limbs and buttocks since one and half months. Investigations confirmed that yellow papules were xanthomatosis and he had associated diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. Biopsy of blue nodule confirmed the clinical diagnosis of cellular blue naevus. Cellular blue naevus is rare and its association with xanthomatosis and diabetes mellitus were interesting features of above patients which is being reported for its rarity.

  19. Improved Algorithm of Complete Three-dimensional Euclidean Distance Transform%三维完全欧氏距离变换的改进算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董箭; 彭认灿; 郑义东

    2013-01-01

    三维欧氏距离变换是对由黑白像素构成的三维二值图像中所有像素找出其到最近黑色像素的欧氏距离.在对现有三维欧氏距离变换算法进行深入研究的基础上,充分利用二维欧氏距离变换的结果,进一步减少参与距离计算和比较的黑点个数,进而提出了三维完全欧氏距离变换的改进算法.整个算法的时间复杂度为O((n3log n)/ψ (n)).并将该改进算法应用于海底污染源的扩散分析,取得了较好的效果.%The three-dimensional euclidean distance transform converts a three-dimensional image into one where each pixel has a value equal to its euclidean distance to the nearest foreground pixel. After having lucubrated the existent algorithm of three-dimensional euclidean distance transform, the paper makes full use of the result of binary euclidean distance transform to reduce the number of pixels in distance calculation and comparison, and the improved algorithm of complete three-dimensional euclidean distance transform with time complexity 0((n log n)/(p(n))has been put forward. Moreover, the improved algorithm is used to analyse pollution diffusion, and good result has been obtained.

  20. Generalized Noise Clustering Based on Non-Euclidean Distance%基于非欧氏距离的广义噪声聚类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光普; 李敏; 武斌; 武小红

    2008-01-01

    Based on a new distance,Dave's generalized noise clustering (GNC) algorithm is extended to non-Euclidean generalized noise clustering (NGNC) model.Different from fuzzy c-means (FCM) model and GNC model which are based on Euclidean distance,the presented model is based on non-Euclidean distance.Based on robust statistical point of view and influence function,the non-Euclidean distance is more robust than the Euclidean distance.So the NGNC algorithm is more robust than the GNC algorithm.Moreover,with the new distance NGNC can deal with noises or outliers better than GNC and fuzzy c-means (FCM).The experimental results show the better performance of NGNC algorithm.%利用一种新的距离测度将Dave的广义噪声聚类(GNC)扩展成非欧氏距离的广义噪声聚类(NGNC).模糊C-均值聚类(FCM)和广义噪声聚类都是基于欧氏距离的模型,与它们不同之处在于NGNC是基于非欧氏距离的模型,建立在鲁棒统计观点和势函数基础上,这种非欧氏距离比欧氏距离更加鲁棒,因此NGNC算法比GNC算法更加鲁棒.并且,建立在新的距离测度上的NGNC在处理噪声和野值方面比GNC和FCM更好.实验结果表明了NGNC的良好特性.

  1. Cellular rehabilitation of photobiomodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Yuan, Jian-Qin; Wang, Yan-Fang; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Liu, Song-Hao

    2007-05-01

    Homeostasis is a term that refers to constancy in a system. A cell in homeostasis normally functions. There are two kinds of processes in the internal environment and external environment of a cell, the pathogenic processes (PP) which disrupts the old homeostasis (OH), and the sanogenetic processes (SP) which restores OH or establishes a new homeostasis (NH). Photobiomodualtion (PBM), the cell-specific effects of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems, is a kind of modulation on PP or SP so that there is no PBM on a cell in homeostasis. There are two kinds of pathways mediating PBM, the membrane endogenetic chromophores mediating pathways which often act through reactive oxygen species, and membrane proteins mediating pathways which often enhance cellular SP so that it might be called cellular rehabilitation. The cellular rehabilitation of PBM will be discussed in this paper. It is concluded that PBM might modulate the disruption of cellular homeostasis induced by pathogenic factors such as toxin until OH has been restored or NH has been established, but can not change homeostatic processes from one to another one.

  2. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  3. Calculus of spatial distribution of absorbed dose to cellular level by Monte Carlo simulation for a radio-labelled peptide with {sup 188}Re and with nuclear internalization : preliminary results; Calculo de la distribucion espacial de dosis absorbida a nivel celular por simulacion Monte Carlo para un peptido radiomarcado con {sup 188}Re y con internalizacion nuclear : resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santos C, C. L. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan y Jesus Carranza, Toluca 50120, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: leticia.rojas@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    The {sup 188}Re is a radionuclide of radiation gamma emitter, useful in obtaining of gamma-graphic images, but it is also emitter of beta radiations and Auger electrons. A bio-molecule directed to a specific receptor of a cancer cell labeled with a emitter radionuclide of beta particles and Auger electrons, as the {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin, it has the potential to be used in radiotherapy of molecular targets for its capacity to penetrate to cellular nucleus. In this system, the radiation dose is distributed in way located at microscopic levels in sub cellular specific places, where Auger emissions contributes of significant way in absorbed dose. The cellular dosimetry is realized in most of cases, using analytic or semi analytical methods, for example the cellular MIRD methodology. However, it is required to complement these calculations simulating the electrons transport and considering experimental bio kinetics data. Therefore, in this work preliminary results are presented of dosimetric calculation to sub cellular level for {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin by Monte Carlo simulation, using the 2008 version of PENELOPE: PENEASY code. The spatial distribution of absorbed dose in membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, was calculated with geometry of a cell of 10 {mu}m of diameter, a nucleus of 2 {mu}m of ratio and membrane of 0.2 {mu}m of thickness, considering elementary constitution for each cellular compartment proposal in literature. The total number of disintegrations at sub cellular level was evaluated integrating the activity in function of time starting from experimental bio kinetics data in mamma cancer cells MDA-MB231. The preliminary results show that 46.4% of total disintegrations for unit of captured activity by cell occurs in nucleus, 38.4% in membrane and 15.2% in cytoplasm. The due absorbed dose to Auger electrons for 1 Bq of {sup 188}Re located in cellular membrane were respectively of 1.32E-1 and 1.43E-1 Gy in cytoplasm and nucleus. (Author)

  4. A possible cosmological application of some thermodynamic properties of the black body radiation in $n-$dimensional Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Ayala, Julian; Cordero, Rubén; Angulo-Brown, F

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the generalization of some thermodynamic properties of the black body radiation (BBR) towards an $n-$dimensional Euclidean space. For this case the Planck function and the Stefan-Boltzmann law have already been given by Landsberg and de Vos and some adjustments by Menon and Agrawal. However, since then no much more has been done on this subject and we believe there are some relevant aspects yet to explore. In addition to the results previously found we calculate the thermodynamic potentials, the efficiency of the Carnot engine, the law for adiabatic processes and the heat capacity at constant volume. There is a region at which an interesting behavior of the thermodynamic potentials arise, maxima and minima appear for the $n-d$ BBR system at very high temperatures and low dimensionality, suggesting a possible application to cosmology. Finally we propose that an optimality criterion in a thermodynamic framework could have to do with the $3-d$ nature of the universe.

  5. Multi-resolution Shape Analysis via Non-Euclidean Wavelets: Applications to Mesh Segmentation and Surface Alignment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Chung, Moo K; Singh, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of 3-D shape meshes is a fundamental problem in computer vision, graphics, and medical imaging. Frequently, the needs of the application require that our analysis take a multi-resolution view of the shape's local and global topology, and that the solution is consistent across multiple scales. Unfortunately, the preferred mathematical construct which offers this behavior in classical image/signal processing, Wavelets, is no longer applicable in this general setting (data with non-uniform topology). In particular, the traditional definition does not allow writing out an expansion for graphs that do not correspond to the uniformly sampled lattice (e.g., images). In this paper, we adapt recent results in harmonic analysis, to derive Non-Euclidean Wavelets based algorithms for a range of shape analysis problems in vision and medical imaging. We show how descriptors derived from the dual domain representation offer native multi-resolution behavior for characterizing local/global topology around vertices. With only minor modifications, the framework yields a method for extracting interest/key points from shapes, a surprisingly simple algorithm for 3-D shape segmentation (competitive with state of the art), and a method for surface alignment (without landmarks). We give an extensive set of comparison results on a large shape segmentation benchmark and derive a uniqueness theorem for the surface alignment problem.

  6. Phenotyping of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by a quantitative antibiogram [MIC] typing scheme using Euclidean distances [QATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldsmith Colin E

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteropathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are presently the most common cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. An understanding of sources and means of transmission of Campylobacter is an essential factor in order to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter-related gastroenteritis in man. Consequently a reproducible, sensitive and well-standardised typing scheme is critical in the successful discrimination of strains and in the subsequent investigations of outbreaks. For this purpose, a phenotypic typing scheme based on quantitative antibiogram determination based on Euclidean distance (QATED, was developed. Results and Conclusion The results obtained with this typing scheme demonstrated that individual livers of colonized pigs could be infected with multiple strains of Campylobacter spp. and subspecies types. In conclusion, phenotyping of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli by QATED is a simple, inexpensive and discriminatory sub-species characterisation scheme, which may be useful in primary diagnostic clinical laboratories, where no specialist Campylobacter phenotyping or molecular genotyping schemes exist. It is especially suitable for food-bome outbreak investigations in the community, where a rapid and local response is required to aid with public health epidemiological investigations.

  7. A Possible Cosmological Application of Some Thermodynamic Properties of the Black Body Radiation in n-Dimensional Euclidean Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Gonzalez-Ayala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the generalization of some thermodynamic properties of the black body radiation (BBR towards an n-dimensional Euclidean space. For this case, the Planck function and the Stefan–Boltzmann law have already been given by Landsberg and de Vos and some adjustments by Menon and Agrawal. However, since then, not much more has been done on this subject, and we believe there are some relevant aspects yet to explore. In addition to the results previously found, we calculate the thermodynamic potentials, the efficiency of the Carnot engine, the law for adiabatic processes and the heat capacity at constant volume. There is a region at which an interesting behavior of the thermodynamic potentials arises: maxima and minima appear for the n—dimensional BBR system at very high temperatures and low dimensionality, suggesting a possible application to cosmology. Finally, we propose that an optimality criterion in a thermodynamic framework could be related to the 3—dimensional nature of the universe.

  8. Shaping of arm configuration space by prescription of non-Euclidean metrics with applications to human motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The study of the kinematic and dynamic features of human arm movements provides insights into the computational strategies underlying human motor control. In this paper a differential geometric approach to movement control is taken by endowing arm configuration space with different non-Euclidean metric structures to study the predictions of the generalized minimum-jerk (MJ) model in the resulting Riemannian manifold for different types of human arm movements. For each metric space the solution of the generalized MJ model is given by reparametrized geodesic paths. This geodesic model is applied to a variety of motor tasks ranging from three-dimensional unconstrained movements of a four degree of freedom arm between pointlike targets to constrained movements where the hand location is confined to a surface (e.g., a sphere) or a curve (e.g., an ellipse). For the latter speed-curvature relations are derived depending on the boundary conditions imposed (periodic or nonperiodic) and the compatibility with the empirical one-third power law is shown. Based on these theoretical studies and recent experimental findings, I argue that geodesics may be an emergent property of the motor system and that the sensorimotor system may shape arm configuration space by learning metric structures through sensorimotor feedback.

  9. A note on Padé approximant in extended euclidean algorithm%浅析Padé逼近的扩展欧几里德方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 陈佘喜

    2012-01-01

    介绍Padé逼近的一般理论,通过引入扩展欧几里德算法给出对任何形式幂级数(n,m)阶Padé逼近的一种计算方法;还给出该方法求Padé逼近的一个应用实例.%The general theory about Pade approximants was introduced, and a new way of computations was provided, that with extended Euclidean algorithm of an (m,n)-Pade approximant to a formal power series. In addiotions, an application example was given by applying Extended Euclidean Algorithm to obtain Pade approximation.

  10. 欧氏空间中n维Pedoe不等式的推广及应用%Generlization of n-Dimsensional Pedoe Inequalities in Euclidean Space and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世国; 王文

    2011-01-01

    The theory and method of distance geometry were used to study the problems of geometric inequalities for the edge-length and volume of two n-dimensional simplexes in the Euclidean space En. Two forms of the improved n-dimensional Peng-Chang inequalities were established. From these we obtained the generalization of n-dimensional Pedoe inequalities in the Euclidean space En.%利用距离几何的理论与方法,研究欧氏空间En中两个n维单形的棱长与体积的几何不等式,建立了n维单形两种加强形式的彭-常不等式,从而推广了En中n维Pedoe不等式.

  11. 在细胞水平上对高温珊瑚白化的初步研究%Preliminary study of coral bleaching at cellular level under thermal stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑; 余克服; 陈天然; 施祺

    2011-01-01

    Global warming and abnormal high temperature cause coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis collapse and significant loss of zooxanthellae (coral bleaching), and further lead to degradation of coral reef ecosystems. In this study, the authors collected six species of corals from the Luhuitou fringing reef in Sanya, and designed a mesocosm experiment that those corals were cultured under a high temperature stress, for investigating the diversity of tolerance among different coral symbiosis at cellular level. The results are as follows. The diversity of tolerance among different coral species under acute thermal stresses was related to their morphologies: branching corals showed the lowest tolerance in thermal stress, while the foliose and massive corals showed stronger tolerance, which was similar to the result in the field monitoring. Different coral species showed different ways of zooxanthellae loss under thermal stresses: zooxanthellae discharging continuously, like Pocillopora damicornis; zooxanthellae discharging partly and followed by coral tissues containing zooxanthellae separating from skeletons,like Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora brueggemanni; the residual zooxauthellae in coral tissues using mitotic proliferation to replenish their numbers quickly, like Pavona decussate; cell necrosis of zooxanthellae in coral tissues, like Porites lutea. This study confirmed that the role of coral host and zooxanthellae should be considered simultaneously in further studies of coral responses to global warming.%全球变暖背景下的异常高温能够导致珊瑚及其虫黄藻组成的共生体系崩溃,虫黄藻大量损失,出现珊瑚白化,并可能进一步导致珊瑚礁生态系统退化.文章通过对6种造礁石珊瑚的急性高温胁迫实验,分析不同种属的石珊瑚虫黄藻共生体系对高温的耐受性差异,为全球变暖背景下珊瑚群落演替趋势提供理论依据.结果显示:1)在急性高温胁迫下,石珊瑚耐受的差异性与其

  12. Cellular functions of the microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Sara; Cordiner, Ross A; Cáceres, Javier F

    2013-08-01

    The microprocessor is a complex comprising the RNase III enzyme Drosha and the double-stranded RNA-binding protein DGCR8 (DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 gene) that catalyses the nuclear step of miRNA (microRNA) biogenesis. DGCR8 recognizes the RNA substrate, whereas Drosha functions as an endonuclease. Recent global analyses of microprocessor and Dicer proteins have suggested novel functions for these components independent of their role in miRNA biogenesis. A HITS-CLIP (high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation) experiment designed to identify novel substrates of the microprocessor revealed that this complex binds and regulates a large variety of cellular RNAs. The microprocessor-mediated cleavage of several classes of RNAs not only regulates transcript levels, but also modulates alternative splicing events, independently of miRNA function. Importantly, DGCR8 can also associate with other nucleases, suggesting the existence of alternative DGCR8 complexes that may regulate the fate of a subset of cellular RNAs. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of the diverse functional roles of the microprocessor.

  13. Cellular communication through light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fels

    Full Text Available Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  14. 欧氏空间En中Pedoe不等式推广%Generalizations of n-dimensional Pedoe inequality in euclidean space En

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文; 杨世国

    2012-01-01

    Using the theory and method of distance geometry, some geometric inequalities for n-dimensional simplexes were proved in Euclidean space En, from which the n-dimensional Pedoe inequality and Peng-Chang's inequality involving the edge-lengths of two simplexes were generalized. In addition, the k-n type Pedoe inequality and Peng-Chang's inequality in Euclidean space were generalized. Finally, a new inequality for an n-dimensional simplex in Euclidean space was obtained.%应用距离几何的理论与方法,先证明了欧氏空间中n维单形的几个几何不等式,然后建立了加强形式的涉及两个单形棱长的n维Pedoe不等式和彭-常不等式以及k-n型Pedoe不等式和彭-常不等式.另外还建立了一个重要不等式.

  15. Cellular automata: structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ollinger, Nicolas

    2002-01-01

    Jury : François Blanchard (Rapporteur), Marianne Delorme (Directeur), Jarkko Kari (Président), Jacques Mazoyer (Directeur), Dominique Perrin, Géraud Sénizergues (Rapporteur); Cellular automata provide a uniform framework to study an important problem of "complex systems" theory: how and why do system with a easily understandable -- local -- microscopic behavior can generate a more complicated -- global -- macroscopic behavior? Since its introduction in the 40s, a lot of work has been done to ...

  16. Failover in cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2010-01-01

    A cellular automata (CA) configuration is constructed that exhibits emergent failover. The configuration is based on standard Game of Life rules. Gliders and glider-guns form the core messaging structure in the configuration. The blinker is represented as the basic computational unit, and it is shown how it can be recreated in case of a failure. Stateless failover using primary-backup mechanism is demonstrated. The details of the CA components used in the configuration and its working are described, and a simulation of the complete configuration is also presented.

  17. Power Control in Multi-Layer Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Davaslioglu, Kemal

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possible performance gains of power control in multi-layer cellular systems where microcells and picocells are distributed within macrocells. Although multilayers in cellular networks help increase system capacity and coverage, and can reduce total energy consumption; they cause interference, reducing the performance of the network. Therefore, downlink transmit power levels of multi-layer hierarchical cellular networks need to be controlled in order to fully exploit their benefits. In this work, we present an analytical derivation to determine optimum power levels for two-layer cellular networks and generalize our solution to multi-layer cellular networks. We also simulate our results in a typical multi-layer network setup and observe significant power savings compared to single-layer cellular networks.

  18. The number of regulatory T cells in transbronchial lung allograft biopsies is related to FoxP3 mRNA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and to the degree of acute cellular rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Dorrit; Madsen, Caroline B; Iversen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor Forkhead Box P3 (FoxP3) is a marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs) - a subset of T cells known to suppress a wide range of immune responses. These cells are considered to be pivotal for the induction of tolerance to donor antigens in human allografts. We aimed to correlate...... the number of lymphocytes expressing FoxP3 in transbronchial biopsies from lung allografts with the FoxP3 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In addition, we aimed to correlate the number of FoxP3+ cells in transbronchial biopsies with the degree of acute cellular rejection in lung allografts....

  19. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  20. Multiuser Cellular Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Modern radio communication is faced with a problem about how to distribute restricted frequency to users in a certain space. Since our task is to minimize the number of repeaters, a natural idea is enlarging coverage area. However, coverage has restrictions. First, service area has to be divided economically as repeater's coverage is limited. In this paper, our fundamental method is to adopt seamless cellular network division. Second, underlying physics content in frequency distribution problem is interference between two close frequencies. Consequently, we choose a proper frequency width of 0.1MHz and a relevantly reliable setting to apply one frequency several times. We make a few general assumptions to simplify real situation. For instance, immobile users yield to homogenous distribution; repeaters can receive and transmit information in any given frequency in duplex operation; coverage is mainly decided by antenna height. Two models are built up to solve 1000 users and 10000 users situations respectively....

  1. Euclidean Geometry via Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability and compares it to…

  2. Euclidean gravity attracts

    CERN Document Server

    De Bakker, B V; Bakker, Bas de; Smit, Jan

    1994-01-01

    We look at gravitational attraction in simplicial gravity using the dynamical triangulation method. On the dynamical triangulation configurations we measure quenched propagators of a free massive scalar field. The masses measured from these propagators show that gravitational attraction is present.

  3. Intensity Thresholds on Raw Acceleration Data: Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) and Mean Amplitude Deviation (MAD) Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrania, Kishan; Yates, Thomas; Rowlands, Alex V.; Esliger, Dale W.; Bunnewell, Sarah; Sanders, James; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh; Edwardson, Charlotte L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To develop and internally-validate Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) and Mean Amplitude Deviation (MAD) thresholds for separating sedentary behaviours from common light-intensity physical activities using raw acceleration data collected from both hip- and wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometers; and (2) to compare and evaluate the performances between the ENMO and MAD metrics. Methods Thirty-three adults [mean age (standard deviation (SD)) = 27.4 (5.9) years; mean BMI (SD) = 23.9 (3.7) kg/m2; 20 females (60.6%)] wore four accelerometers; an ActiGraph GT3X+ and a GENEActiv on the right hip; and an ActiGraph GT3X+ and a GENEActiv on the non-dominant wrist. Under laboratory-conditions, participants performed 16 different activities (11 sedentary behaviours and 5 light-intensity physical activities) for 5 minutes each. ENMO and MAD were computed from the raw acceleration data, and logistic regression and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses were implemented to derive thresholds for activity discrimination. Areas under ROC curves (AUROC) were calculated to summarise performances and thresholds were assessed via executing leave-one-out-cross-validations. Results For both hip and wrist monitor placements, in comparison to the ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors, the ENMO and MAD values derived from the GENEActiv devices were observed to be slightly higher, particularly for the lower-intensity activities. Monitor-specific hip and wrist ENMO and MAD thresholds showed excellent ability for separating sedentary behaviours from motion-based light-intensity physical activities (in general, AUROCs >0.95), with validation indicating robustness. However, poor classification was experienced when attempting to isolate standing still from sedentary behaviours (in general, AUROCs <0.65). The ENMO and MAD metrics tended to perform similarly across activities and accelerometer brands. Conclusions Researchers can utilise these robust monitor-specific hip and wrist ENMO and MAD

  4. Correspondence Principle Between Spherical and Euclidean Wavelets, and Fast Directional Correlation on the Sphere With Steerable Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiaux, Y.; Jacques, L.; Vandergheynst, P.

    2005-12-01

    Wavelets on the sphere are reintroduced and further developed on both the theoretical and the algorithmic grounds. A specific application to cosmology is also discussed. First, a new practical approach to the wavelet filtering of signals on the sphere is developed. Translations and rotations of the filters are naturally implemented through three-dimensional rotations of the group SO(3), and a unitary, radial, and conformal dilation operator is required. The resulting formalism is unique. A correspondence principle is also established, stating that the inverse stereographic projection of a wavelet on the plane (i.e., Euclidean wavelet) also uniquely leads to a wavelet on the sphere (i.e., spherical wavelet). It simplifies the construction of wavelets on the sphere and allows the transfer onto the sphere of properties of wavelets on the plane, such as directionality and steerability. Second, an exact fast algorithm is developed for the directional correlation on the sphere of band-limited signals of band limit L and steerable (wavelet) filters, on 2L×2L equi-angular grids in the coordinates (θ,φ). On the one hand, the algorithm is based on a technique of separation of variables in the Wigner D-functions, basis functions for the harmonic analysis on the rotation group SO(3). The asymptotic complexity of the algorithm is correspondingly reduced from O(L5) to O(L4). On the other hand, the filter steerability and the use of the Driscoll and Healy fast scalar spherical harmonics transform further reduce the algorithm complexity to a simple O(L2log22L). Finally, we consider the perspective of the wavelet analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies on the sphere of the sky. The notions of directionality and steerability are important tools for the identification of local directional features in the wavelet coefficients of the signal, and for their interpretation in cosmology. In this context, computation times for the exact

  5. Cellular neurothekeoma with melanocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-Chin; Hsieh, Yi-Yueh; Chang, Yi-Chin; Kuo, Tseng-Tong

    2008-02-01

    Cellular neurothekeoma (CNT) is a benign dermal tumor mainly affecting the head and neck and the upper extremities. It is characterized histologically by interconnecting fascicles of plump spindle or epithelioid cells with ample cytoplasm infiltrating in the reticular dermis. The histogenesis of CNT has been controversial, although it is generally regarded as an immature counterpart of classic/myxoid neurothekeoma, a tumor with nerve sheath differentiation. Two rare cases of CNT containing melanin-laden cells were described. Immunohistochemical study with NKI/C3, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle antigen, CD34, factor XIIIa, collagen type IV, S100 protein and HMB-45 was performed. Both cases showed typical growth pattern of CNT with interconnecting fascicles of epithelioid cells infiltrating in collagenous stroma. One of the nodules contained areas exhibiting atypical cytological features. Melanin-laden epithelioid or dendritic cells were diffusely scattered throughout one nodule, and focally present in the peripheral portion of the other nodule. Both nodules were strongly immunoreactive to NKI/C3 and vimentin, but negative to all the other markers employed. CNT harboring melanin-laden cells may pose diagnostic problems because of their close resemblance to nevomelanocytic lesions and other dermal mesenchymal tumors. These peculiar cases may also provide further clues to the histogenesis of CNT.

  6. Free fall and cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arrighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three reasonable hypotheses lead to the thesis that physical phenomena can be described and simulated with cellular automata. In this work, we attempt to describe the motion of a particle upon which a constant force is applied, with a cellular automaton, in Newtonian physics, in Special Relativity, and in General Relativity. The results are very different for these three theories.

  7. About Strongly Universal Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Margenstern

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a strongly universal cellular automaton on the line with 11 states and the standard neighbourhood. We embed this construction into several tilings of the hyperbolic plane and of the hyperbolic 3D space giving rise to strongly universal cellular automata with 10 states.

  8. Reactive Programming of Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Boussinot, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    Implementation of cellular automata using reactive programming gives a way to code cell behaviors in an abstract and modular way. Multiprocessing also becomes possible. The paper describes the implementation of cellular automata with the reactive programming language LOFT, a thread-based extension of C. Self replicating loops considered in artificial life are coded to show the interest of the approach.

  9. Quantitative proteomics reveals cellular targets of celastrol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Hansen

    Full Text Available Celastrol, a natural substance isolated from plant extracts used in traditional Chinese medicine, has been extensively investigated as a possible drug for treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and protein misfolding disorders. Although studies focusing on celastrol's effects in specific cellular pathways have revealed a considerable number of targets in a diverse array of in vitro models there is an essential need for investigations that can provide a global view of its effects. To assess cellular effects of celastrol and to identify target proteins as biomarkers for monitoring treatment regimes, we performed large-scale quantitative proteomics in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells, a cell type that can be readily prepared from human blood samples. Celastrol substantially modified the proteome composition and 158 of the close to 1800 proteins with robust quantitation showed at least a 1.5 fold change in protein levels. Up-regulated proteins play key roles in cytoprotection with a prominent group involved in quality control and processing of proteins traversing the endoplasmic reticulum. Increased levels of proteins essential for the cellular protection against oxidative stress including heme oxygenase 1, several peroxiredoxins and thioredoxins as well as proteins involved in the control of iron homeostasis were also observed. Specific analysis of the mitochondrial proteome strongly indicated that the mitochondrial association of certain antioxidant defense and apoptosis-regulating proteins increased in cells exposed to celastrol. Analysis of selected mRNA transcripts showed that celastrol activated several different stress response pathways and dose response studies furthermore showed that continuous exposure to sub-micromolar concentrations of celastrol is associated with reduced cellular viability and proliferation. The extensive catalog of regulated proteins presented here identifies numerous cellular effects of celastrol and constitutes

  10. Mapping of cellular iron using hyperspectral fluorescence imaging in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eung Seok; Heo, Chaejeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Min

    2013-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss in the substantianigra (SN) and elevated iron levels demonstrated by autopsy and with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Direct visualization of iron with live imaging techniques has not yet been successful. The aim of this study is to visualize and quantify the distribution of cellular iron using an intrinsic iron hyperspectral fluorescence signal. The 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cellular model of PD was established in SHSY5Y cells. The cells were exposed to iron by treatment with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, 100 μM) for up to 6 hours. The hyperspectral fluorescence imaging signal of iron was examined usinga high- resolution dark-field optical microscope system with signal absorption for the visible/ near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. The 6-hour group showed heavy cellular iron deposition compared with the small amount of iron accumulation in the 1-hour group. The cellular iron was dispersed in a small, particulate form, whereas extracellular iron was detected in an aggregated form. In addition, iron particles were found to be concentrated on the cell membrane/edge of shrunken cells. The cellular iron accumulation readily occurred in MPP+-induced cells, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating elevated iron levels in the SN in PD. This direct iron imaging methodology could be applied to analyze the physiological role of iron in PD, and its application might be expanded to various neurological disorders involving other metals, such as copper, manganese or zinc.

  11. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  12. Influence of income on tertiary students acquisition of cellular products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A.P Drotsky

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to determine whether there are any differences between high and low-income group students in their selection of a cellular phone brand or network operator. Design/Methodology/Approach: Four hypotheses are set to determine if there are any significant differences between the two income groups in current decision-making. It is established that there exist no significant difference between high and low-income students in their selection of cellular phones and network operators. The levels of agreement or disagreement on various statements do, however, give an indication of the importance that students place on aspects that they view as important when acquiring a cellular phone or network operator.Findings: In the article, it is established that no significant differences exist between the two income groups. The levels of agreement or disagreement indicate the importance that subscription method, social value, service quality and branding has on student decision-making. Implications: The article provides a better understanding of the influence that income plays in student's decision-making in acquiring cellular products and services. Possible future research in student cellular usage can be guided through the information obtained in this article. Originality/Value: The article provides information to cellular network operators, service providers and cellular phone manufactures regarding the influence of income on students' acquisition of cellular products and services. Information from the article can assist in the establishment of marketing plans for the student market by these role players.

  13. Weighted Improved Euclidean Localization Algorithm Based on ZigBee%基于ZigBee的加权改进Euclidean定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金纯; 何山; 胡建农; 周亮; 徐洪刚

    2011-01-01

    RSSI-based triangle and centroid location sometimes can not work, in order to solve this problem, weighted improved Euclidean localization algorithm is proposed based on ZigBee. The algorithm uses the least square method to derive the parameters of the environment, and then the weighted improved Euclidean localization algorithm is used to locate the unknown nodes. The result of the simulation and experiment proves that it can be applied to some applications.%针对基于RSSI的三角形质心定位算法会出现不能工作的情况,提出了基于ZigBee的加权改进Euclidean定位算法.此算法利用最小二乘法得到环境参数,然后利用加权改进Euclidean定位算法对未知节点进行定位.仿真和实验表明,该算法具有一定的实用价值.

  14. 基于优化欧氏距离的协同过滤推荐%Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Based on Optimization Euclidean Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小辉; 高燕

    2015-01-01

    由于推荐系统中用户对项目的评价数据具有多样性和稀疏性的特点,传统的相似性度量算法不能有效查找相似邻居,本文提出一种基于优化欧氏距离的邻居相似度计算方法,在欧氏距离计算的基础上引入归一化处理和杰卡德相似系数,并最终作出评价预测和推荐。在典型数据集上的实验结果显示该算法能够有效提高协同过滤推荐系统的推荐性能。%User evaluation data of items often are of the biodiversity and sparse characteristic in collaborative filtering recommen-dation system, the traditional similarity measurement algorithm cannot effectively find similar neighbors, this paper proposed a neighbor similarity computing algorithm based on optimized Euclidean distance. The algorithm introduced normalization and Jac-card similarity coefficient based on Euclidean distance calculation, and finally made the evaluation prediction and recommenda-tion. The experiments result on typical dataset show that the algorithm can effectively improve the performance of collaborative fil-tering recommendation system.

  15. A Weighted Inner Product Estimator in the Geometric Algebra of Euclidean 3-Space for Source Localization Using an EM Vector-sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jingfei; ZHANG Jianqiu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the source localization by utilizing the measurements of a single electromagnetic (EM) vector-sensor is investigated in the framework of the geometric algebra of Euclidean 3-space.In order to describe the orthogonality among the electric and magnetic measurements,two multivectors of the geometric algebra of Euclidean 3-space (G3) are used to model the outputs of a spatially collocated EM vector-sensor.Two estimators for the wave propagation vector estimation are then formulated by the inner product between a vector and a bivector in the G3.Since the information used by the two estimators is different,a weighted inner product estimator is then proposed to fuse the two estimators together in the sense of the minimum mean square error (MMSE).Analytical results show that the statistical performances of the weighted inner product estimator are always better than its traditional cross product counterpart.The efficacy of the weighted inner product estimator and the correctness of the analytical predictions are demonstrated by simulation results.

  16. Validation of origins of tea samples using partial least squares analysis and Euclidean distance method with near-infrared spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Zhou, Jian; Cheng, Hao; Wang, Liyuan; Wei, Kang; Wang, Weifeng; Li, Xinghui

    2012-02-01

    In today's global food markets, the ability to trace the origins of agricultural products is becoming increasingly important. We developed an efficient procedure for validating the authenticity and origin of tea samples where Partial Least Squares and Euclidean Distance methods, based on near-infrared spectroscopy data, were combined to classify tea samples from different tea producing areas. Four models for identification of authenticity of tea samples were constructed and utilized in our two-step procedure. High accuracy rates of 98.60%, 97.90%, 97.55%, and 99.83% for the calibration set, and 97.19%, 97.54%, 97.83%, 100% for test set, were achieved. After the first identification step, employing the four origin authenticity models, followed by the second step using the Euclidean Distance method, accuracy rates for specific origin identification were 98.43% in the calibration set and 96.84% in the test set. This method, employing two-step analysis of multi-origin model, accurately identified the origin of tea samples collected in four different areas. This study provided a potential reference method for the detection of "geographical indication" of agricultural products' and is available for use in traceability of origin studies.

  17. Cellular systems biology profiling applied to cellular models of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Kenneth A; Premkumar, Daniel R; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Patricia; Taylor, Lansing

    2009-11-01

    Building cellular models of disease based on the approach of Cellular Systems Biology (CSB) has the potential to improve the process of creating drugs as part of the continuum from early drug discovery through drug development and clinical trials and diagnostics. This paper focuses on the application of CSB to early drug discovery. We discuss the integration of protein-protein interaction biosensors with other multiplexed, functional biomarkers as an example in using CSB to optimize the identification of quality lead series compounds.

  18. Cytokines as cellular communicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Debets

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines and their receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases. Here we present a detailed review on cytokines, receptors and signalling routes, and show that one important lesson from cytokine biology is the complex and diverse regulation of cytokine activity. The activity of cytokines is controlled at the level of transcription, translation, storage, processing, posttranslational modification, trapping, binding by soluble proteins, and receptor number and/or function. Translation of this diverse regulation in strategies aimed at the control of cytokine activity will result in the development of more specific and selective drugs to treat diseases.

  19. A Course in Cellular Bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    Gives an overview of a course in chemical engineering entitled "Cellular Bioengineering," dealing with how chemical engineering principles can be applied to molecular cell biology. Topics used are listed and some key references are discussed. Listed are 85 references. (YP)

  20. Cellular arsenic transport pathways in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbeck, Barbara A; Banerjee, Mayukh; Leslie, Elaine M

    2016-11-01

    Natural contamination of drinking water with arsenic results in the exposure of millions of people world-wide to unacceptable levels of this metalloid. This is a serious global health problem because arsenic is a Group 1 (proven) human carcinogen and chronic exposure is known to cause skin, lung, and bladder tumors. Furthermore, arsenic exposure can result in a myriad of other adverse health effects including diseases of the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, reproductive, and endocrine systems. In addition to chronic environmental exposure to arsenic, arsenic trioxide is approved for the clinical treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, and is in clinical trials for other hematological malignancies as well as solid tumors. Considerable inter-individual variability in susceptibility to arsenic-induced disease and toxicity exists, and the reasons for such differences are incompletely understood. Transport pathways that influence the cellular uptake and export of arsenic contribute to regulating its cellular, tissue, and ultimately body levels. In the current review, membrane proteins (including phosphate transporters, aquaglyceroporin channels, solute carrier proteins, and ATP-binding cassette transporters) shown experimentally to contribute to the passage of inorganic, methylated, and/or glutathionylated arsenic species across cellular membranes are discussed. Furthermore, what is known about arsenic transporters in organs involved in absorption, distribution, and metabolism and how transport pathways contribute to arsenic elimination are described.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolism basically consists of the conversion of chemical compounds taken up from the extracellular environment into energy (conserved in energy-rich bonds of organic phosphates) and a wide array of organic molecules serving as catalysts (enzymes), information carriers (nucleic acids), and building blocks for cellular structures such as membranes or ribosomes. Metabolic modeling aims at the construction of mathematical representations of the cellular metabolism that can be used to calculate the concentration of cellular molecules and the rates of their mutual chemical interconversion in response to varying external conditions as, for example, hormonal stimuli or supply of essential nutrients. Based on such calculations, it is possible to quantify complex cellular functions as cellular growth, detoxification of drugs and xenobiotic compounds or synthesis of exported molecules. Depending on the specific questions to metabolism addressed, the methodological expertise of the researcher, and available experimental information, different conceptual frameworks have been established, allowing the usage of computational methods to condense experimental information from various layers of organization into (self-) consistent models. Here, we briefly outline the main conceptual frameworks that are currently exploited in metabolism research.

  2. APOBEC3G induces a hypermutation gradient: purifying selection at multiple steps during HIV-1 replication results in levels of G-to-A mutations that are high in DNA, intermediate in cellular viral RNA, and low in virion RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak Vinay K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturally occurring Vif variants that are unable to inhibit the host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G have been isolated from infected individuals. A3G can potentially induce G-to-A hypermutation in these viruses, and hypermutation could contribute to genetic variation in HIV-1 populations through recombination between hypermutant and wild-type genomes. Thus, hypermutation could contribute to the generation of immune escape and drug resistant variants, but the genetic contribution of hypermutation to the viral evolutionary potential is poorly understood. In addition, the mechanisms by which these viruses persist in the host despite the presence of A3G remain unknown. Results To address these questions, we generated a replication-competent HIV-1 Vif mutant in which the A3G-binding residues of Vif, Y40RHHY44, were substituted with five alanines. As expected, the mutant was severely defective in an A3G-expressing T cell line and exhibited a significant delay in replication kinetics. Analysis of viral DNA showed the expected high level of G-to-A hypermutation; however, we found substantially reduced levels of G-to-A hypermutation in intracellular viral RNA (cRNA, and the levels of G-to-A mutations in virion RNA (vRNA were even further reduced. The frequencies of hypermutation in DNA, cRNA, and vRNA were 0.73%, 0.12%, and 0.05% of the nucleotides sequenced, indicating a gradient of hypermutation. Additionally, genomes containing start codon mutations and early termination codons within gag were isolated from the vRNA. Conclusion These results suggest that sublethal levels of hypermutation coupled with purifying selection at multiple steps during the early phase of viral replication lead to the packaging of largely unmutated genomes, providing a mechanism by which mutant Vif variants can persist in infected individuals. The persistence of genomes containing mutated gag genes despite this selection pressure indicates that dual

  3. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K

    2011-01-01

    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  4. Classifying cellular automata using grossone

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alotto, Louis

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes an application of the Infinite Unit Axiom and grossone, introduced by Yaroslav Sergeyev (see [7] - [12]), to the development and classification of one and two-dimensional cellular automata. By the application of grossone, new and more precise nonarchimedean metrics on the space of definition for one and two-dimensional cellular automata are established. These new metrics allow us to do computations with infinitesimals. Hence configurations in the domain space of cellular automata can be infinitesimally close (but not equal). That is, they can agree at infinitely many places. Using the new metrics, open disks are defined and the number of points in each disk computed. The forward dynamics of a cellular automaton map are also studied by defined sets. It is also shown that using the Infinite Unit Axiom, the number of configurations that follow a given configuration, under the forward iterations of cellular automaton maps, can now be computed and hence a classification scheme developed based on this computation.

  5. Prognosis of Different Cellular Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetish Ranjan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement in mobile telephony from 1G to 3G, 4G and 5G has a very axiomatic fact that made an entire world a global village. The cellular system employs a different design approach and technology that most commercial radio and television system use. In the cellular system, the service area is divided into cells and a transmitter is designed to serve an individual cell. The system seeks to make efficient use of available channels by using low-power transmitters to allow frequency reuse at a smaller distance. Maximizing the number of times each channel can be reused in a given geographical area is the key to an efficient cellular system design. During the past three decades, the world has seen significant changes in telecommunications industry. There have been some remarkable aspects to the rapid growth in wireless communications, as seen by the large expansion in mobile systems. This paper focuses on “Past, Present & Future of Cellular Telephony” and some light has been thrown upon the technologies of the cellular systems, namely 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G and future generations like 4G and 5G systems as well.

  6. 一种非欧几何电子绘图板%A Non-Euclidean Geometry Electronic Drawing-board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华书

    2001-01-01

    The concept and method of adding a projection plane to AUTO CAD drawing-board and drawing non-Euclidean geometry graph on the board are discussed. The correlative application software is programmed. The analysis of the working angle of complicate shows that developing the new type cutters are rapidly and accurately with this software.%提出了将射影平面叠加到AUTO CAD绘图板上并进行电子非欧几何作图的思想和方法;编制了相关的实用程序;通过对一复杂刀具的工作角度解析结果表明,用该软件分析刀具角度,开发新型刀具可达到即快又准的效果。

  7. 平面Bonnesen型不等式的几点注记%NOTES ON BONNESEN-STYLE INEQUALITY IN THE EUCLIDEAN PLANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何刚; 徐文学

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first investigate the Bonnesen-style inequality for compact domain in the Euclidean plane. By using the perimeters and areas of the compact domain and its convex hull, we obtain some new Bonnesen-style inequalities and two new Bonnesen-style inequalities for planar compact convex domain expressing by its inradius and outradius.%本文研究了平面紧域的Bonnesen型不等式.利用紧域及其凸包的周长和面积得到一些新的Bonnesen型不等式以及两个用最大内切圆半径与最小外接圆半径表示的Bonnesen型不等式.

  8. SEM++: A particle model of cellular growth, signaling and migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde, Florian; Tauriello, Gerardo; Haberkern, Hannah; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2014-06-01

    We present a discrete particle method to model biological processes from the sub-cellular to the inter-cellular level. Particles interact through a parametrized force field to model cell mechanical properties, cytoskeleton remodeling, growth and proliferation as well as signaling between cells. We discuss the guiding design principles for the selection of the force field and the validation of the particle model using experimental data. The proposed method is integrated into a multiscale particle framework for the simulation of biological systems.

  9. In situ elemental analysis and visualization in cryofixed nervous tissues. X-ray microanalytical investigations of embryological and mature brain, inner ear, photoreceptors, muscle and muscle spindles. Comparison of preparation methods for analysis and visualization at cellular and subcellular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewski, R

    1989-07-01

    For meaningful X-ray microanalysis (XRMA) in biology and medicine, the development of preparative and quantitative methods has been necessary. The methods need to preserve close to in vivo distribution of diffusible ions with at the same time reasonable morphological preservation of the tissue. Analyses at low and middle microanalytical resolution are useful at the initial stages of an investigation or when data from large populations of samples have to be acquired. Cryomicrotomy, which makes it possible for the single cells within semi-thin and thick cryosections examined by X-ray microanalysis to be further characterized histochemically (enzyme and substrate content), has been adopted for several pathophysiological studies. The method is particularly suitable for the analysis of complex morphological tissues with many cell types as in the brain or sensory organs of the internal ear. For microanalysis at the subcellular level, we developed a preparative procedure based on the frozen fixed preparation which is freeze-dried in vacuo at -80 degrees C and then at the same temperature, without breaking the vacuum, impregnated with a low-temperature Lowicryl-type resin. The resin is polymerized by u.v. light. This method prevents redistribution of the ions in the tissue and retains the antigenicity of the tissue. A considerable number of cells can be analysed simultaneously and the elemental composition in different cell compartments can be compared due to the similar analytical conditions within the section. An alternative to thin plastic sections of freeze-dried material is thin cryosections cut at -150 degrees C and analysed at low temperatures. Although some methodological problems still exist in preparation of cryosections, this type of section is potentially the most useful in analysis of diffusible ions, especially calcium which in most biological systems is present in very low concentrations. New preparative techniques for XRMA brought severe problems in

  10. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi

    The monitoring of cellular behavior is useful for the advancement of biomedical diagnostics, drug development and the understanding of a cell as the main unit of the human body. Micro- and nanotechnology allow for the creation of functional devices that enhance the study of cellular dynamics...... modifications for electrochemical nanosensors for the detection of analytes released from cells. Two type of materials were investigated, each pertaining to the two different aspects of such devices: peptide nanostructures were studied for the creation of cellular sensing substrates that mimic in vivo surfaces...... and that offer advantages of functionalization, and conducting polymers were used as electrochemical sensor surface modifications for increasing the sensitivity towards relevant analytes, with focus on the detection of dopamine released from cells via exocytosis. Vertical peptide nanowires were synthesized from...

  11. Cellular models for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenburger, Björn H; Saridaki, Theodora; Dinter, Elisabeth

    2016-10-01

    Developing new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease requires cellular models. Current models reproduce the two most salient changes found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease: The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the existence of protein aggregates consisting mainly of α-synuclein. Cultured cells offer many advantages over studying Parkinson's disease directly in patients or in animal models. At the same time, the choice of a specific cellular model entails the requirement to focus on one aspect of the disease while ignoring others. This article is intended for researchers planning to use cellular models for their studies. It describes for commonly used cell types the aspects of Parkinson's disease they model along with technical advantages and disadvantages. It might also be helpful for researchers from other fields consulting literature on cellular models of Parkinson's disease. Important models for the study of dopaminergic neuron degeneration include Lund human mesencephalic cells and primary neurons, and a case is made for the use of non-dopaminergic cells to model pathogenesis of non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. With regard to α-synuclein aggregates, this article describes strategies to induce and measure aggregates with a focus on fluorescent techniques. Cellular models reproduce the two most salient changes of Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the existence of α-synuclein aggregates. This article is intended for researchers planning to use cellular models for their studies. It describes for commonly used cell types and treatments the aspects of Parkinson's disease they model along with technical advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this article describes strategies to induce and measure aggregates with a focus on fluorescent techniques. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease.

  12. Empirical multiscale networks of cellular regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin de Bivort

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Grouping genes by similarity of expression across multiple cellular conditions enables the identification of cellular modules. The known functions of genes enable the characterization of the aggregate biological functions of these modules. In this paper, we use a high-throughput approach to identify the effective mutual regulatory interactions between modules composed of mouse genes from the Alliance for Cell Signaling (AfCS murine B-lymphocyte database which tracks the response of approximately 15,000 genes following chemokine perturbation. This analysis reveals principles of cellular organization that we discuss along four conceptual axes. (1 Regulatory implications: the derived collection of influences between any two modules quantifies intuitive as well as unexpected regulatory interactions. (2 Behavior across scales: trends across global networks of varying resolution (composed of various numbers of modules reveal principles of assembly of high-level behaviors from smaller components. (3 Temporal behavior: tracking the mutual module influences over different time intervals provides features of regulation dynamics such as duration, persistence, and periodicity. (4 Gene Ontology correspondence: the association of modules to known biological roles of individual genes describes the organization of functions within coexpressed modules of various sizes. We present key specific results in each of these four areas, as well as derive general principles of cellular organization. At the coarsest scale, the entire transcriptional network contains five divisions: two divisions devoted to ATP production/biosynthesis and DNA replication that activate all other divisions, an "extracellular interaction" division that represses all other divisions, and two divisions (proliferation/differentiation and membrane infrastructure that activate and repress other divisions in specific ways consistent with cell cycle control.

  13. Cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Jitin; Halima, Saoussen Ben; Felmy, Boas; Goodger, Zoe; Zurbriggen, Sebastian; Rajendran, Lawrence

    2010-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. A characteristic feature of the disease is the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) which either in its soluble oligomeric form or in the plaque-associated form is causally linked to neurodegeneration. Aβ peptide is liberated from the membrane-spanning -amyloid precursor protein by sequential proteolytic processing employing β- and γ-secretases. All these proteins involved in the production of Aβ peptide are membrane associated and hence, membrane trafficking and cellular compartmentalization play important roles. In this review, we summarize the key cellular events that lead to the progression of AD.

  14. On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao

    To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.

  15. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, MQT; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian H.;

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN(-...

  16. Cellular and molecular connections between sleep and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benington, Joel H; Frank, Marcos G

    2003-02-01

    The hypothesis that sleep promotes learning and memory has long been a subject of active investigation. This hypothesis implies that sleep must facilitate synaptic plasticity in some way, and recent studies have provided evidence for such a function. Our knowledge of both the cellular neurophysiology of sleep states and of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity has expanded considerably in recent years. In this article, we review findings in these areas and discuss possible mechanisms whereby the neurophysiological processes characteristic of sleep states may serve to facilitate synaptic plasticity. We address this issue first on the cellular level, considering how activation of T-type Ca(2+) channels in nonREM sleep may promote either long-term depression or long-term potentiation, as well as how cellular events of REM sleep may influence these processes. We then consider how synchronization of neuronal activity in thalamocortical and hippocampal-neocortical networks in nonREM sleep and REM sleep could promote differential strengthening of synapses according to the degree to which activity in one neuron is synchronized with activity in other neurons in the network. Rather than advocating one specific cellular hypothesis, we have intentionally taken a broad approach, describing a range of possible mechanisms whereby sleep may facilitate synaptic plasticity on the cellular and/or network levels. We have also provided a general review of evidence for and against the hypothesis that sleep does indeed facilitate learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity.

  17. Ethanol teratogenesis in Japanese medaka: effects at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Chaudhary, Amit; Khan, Ikhlas A; Dasmahapatra, Asok K

    2008-01-01

    The adverse effects of alcohol on the developing humans represent a spectrum of structural and neurobehavioral abnormalities, most appropriately termed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The mechanism by which ethanol induces FASD is unknown. Human studies of FASD are very limited due to ethical constraints; however, several animal models from nematodes to mammals are utilized to understand the molecular mechanism of this disorder. We have used Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryo-larval development as a unique non-mammalian model to study the molecular mechanism of FASD. Fertilized medaka eggs were exposed to ethanol (0-400 mM) for 48 h post fertilization (hpf) and then maintained in regular embryo rearing medium without ethanol. Viable embryos were harvested on 0, 2, 4 and 6 day post fertilization (dpf) and analyzed for DNA, RNA and protein contents of the embryos. By applying semi-quantitative RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), RNA samples were further analyzed for seven transcription factors, emx2, en2, iro3, otx2, shh, wnt1 and zic5 which are expressed in the neural tube of medaka embryo during early phase of development. RNA and protein contents of the embryos were significantly reduced by ethanol at 400 mM dose on 4 and 6 dpf compared to the control (no ethanol), and 100 mM ethanol treated embryos. However, significant reduction of DNA was observed only in 4 dpf embryos. Total protein contents of yolk remained unaltered after ethanol treatment. Expression pattern of emx2, en2, iro3, otx2, shh, wnt1, and zic5 mRNAs were found to be developmentally regulated, however, remained unaltered after ethanol treatment. It is therefore concluded that alteration of nucleic acid and protein contents of medaka embryo by ethanol could be used as an indicator of embryonic growth retardation which might be the result of disruption of specific gene function during development.

  18. β-Amyloid pathogenesis: Chemical properties versus cellular levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2016-01-01

    , or aggregation propensities. Cytotoxicity correlates inversely with total Aβ42 (R2=0.65, P =.016) and Aβ42/Aβ40 ratios (R2=0.76, P=.005), i.e., chemical properties that increase Aβ42 also reduce toxicity. The complexity and heterogeneity of data reveal the need to understand these phenotypes better, e.......g., by focusing on the chemical properties of the involved Aβ species....

  19. On the efficiency of catabolism at the cellular level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, P.

    2013-01-01

    The major focus of this work is on the understanding and manipulation of the energetic efficiency of growth of E. coli in glucose limited continuous culture, and in glucose excess batch cultures. The presence and absence of oxygen as the signaling molecule for the availability of an external electro

  20. Agent-Based Modeling of Mitochondria Links Sub-Cellular Dynamics to Cellular Homeostasis and Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasso, Giovanni; Marin Zapata, Paula Andrea; Brady, Nathan Ryan; Hamacher-Brady, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelles that supply energy for cellular biochemistry through oxidative phosphorylation. Within a cell, hundreds of mobile mitochondria undergo fusion and fission events to form a dynamic network. These morphological and mobility dynamics are essential for maintaining mitochondrial functional homeostasis, and alterations both impact and reflect cellular stress states. Mitochondrial homeostasis is further dependent on production (biogenesis) and the removal of damaged mitochondria by selective autophagy (mitophagy). While mitochondrial function, dynamics, biogenesis and mitophagy are highly-integrated processes, it is not fully understood how systemic control in the cell is established to maintain homeostasis, or respond to bioenergetic demands. Here we used agent-based modeling (ABM) to integrate molecular and imaging knowledge sets, and simulate population dynamics of mitochondria and their response to environmental energy demand. Using high-dimensional parameter searches we integrated experimentally-measured rates of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, and using sensitivity analysis we identified parameter influences on population homeostasis. By studying the dynamics of cellular subpopulations with distinct mitochondrial masses, our approach uncovered system properties of mitochondrial populations: (1) mitochondrial fusion and fission activities rapidly establish mitochondrial sub-population homeostasis, and total cellular levels of mitochondria alter fusion and fission activities and subpopulation distributions; (2) restricting the directionality of mitochondrial mobility does not alter morphology subpopulation distributions, but increases network transmission dynamics; and (3) maintaining mitochondrial mass homeostasis and responding to bioenergetic stress requires the integration of mitochondrial dynamics with the cellular bioenergetic state. Finally, (4) our model suggests sources of, and stress conditions amplifying

  1. WWW Business Applications Based on the Cellular Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshio Kodama; Tosiyasu L. Kunii; Yoichi Seki

    2008-01-01

    A cellular model based on the Incrementally Modular Abstraction Hierarchy (IMAH) is a novel model that can represent the architecture of and changes in cyberworlds, preserving invariants from a general level to a specific one. We have developed a data processing system called the Cellular Data System (CDS). In the development of business applications, you can prevent combinatorial explosion in the process of business design and testing by using CDS. In this paper, we have first designed and implemented wide-use algebra on the presentation level. Next, we have developed and verified the effectiveness of two general business applications using CDS: 1) a customer information management system, and 2) an estimate system.

  2. Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Gershenfeld, Neil

    2013-09-13

    We introduce composite materials made by reversibly assembling a three-dimensional lattice of mass-produced carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite parts with integrated mechanical interlocking connections. The resulting cellular composite materials can respond as an elastic solid with an extremely large measured modulus for an ultralight material (12.3 megapascals at a density of 7.2 milligrams per cubic centimeter). These materials offer a hierarchical decomposition in modeling, with bulk properties that can be predicted from component measurements and deformation modes that can be determined by the placement of part types. Because site locations are locally constrained, structures can be produced in a relative assembly process that merges desirable features of fiber composites, cellular materials, and additive manufacturing.

  3. Glycosylation regulates prestin cellular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Lavanya; Organ-Darling, Louise E; Liu, Haiying; Davidson, Amy L; Raphael, Robert M; Brownell, William E; Pereira, Fred A

    2010-03-01

    Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins and is implicated in a variety of cellular functions including protein folding, degradation, sorting and trafficking, and membrane protein recycling. The membrane protein prestin is an essential component of the membrane-based motor driving electromotility changes (electromotility) in the outer hair cell (OHC), a central process in auditory transduction. Prestin was earlier identified to possess two N-glycosylation sites (N163, N166) that, when mutated, marginally affect prestin nonlinear capacitance (NLC) function in cultured cells. Here, we show that the double mutant prestin(NN163/166AA) is not glycosylated and shows the expected NLC properties in the untreated and cholesterol-depleted HEK 293 cell model. In addition, unlike WT prestin that readily forms oligomers, prestin(NN163/166AA) is enriched as monomers and more mobile in the plasma membrane, suggesting that oligomerization of prestin is dependent on glycosylation but is not essential for the generation of NLC in HEK 293 cells. However, in the presence of increased membrane cholesterol, unlike the hyperpolarizing shift in NLC seen with WT prestin, cells expressing prestin(NN163/166AA) exhibit a linear capacitance function. In an attempt to explain this finding, we discovered that both WT prestin and prestin(NN163/166AA) participate in cholesterol-dependent cellular trafficking. In contrast to WT prestin, prestin(NN163/166AA) shows a significant cholesterol-dependent decrease in cell-surface expression, which may explain the loss of NLC function. Based on our observations, we conclude that glycosylation regulates self-association and cellular trafficking of prestin(NN163/166AA). These observations are the first to implicate a regulatory role for cellular trafficking and sorting in prestin function. We speculate that the cholesterol regulation of prestin occurs through localization to and internalization from membrane microdomains by

  4. Stochastic Nature in Cellular Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 刘圣君; 王祺; 晏世伟; 耿轶钊; SAKATA Fumihiko; GAO Xing-Fa

    2011-01-01

    The importance of stochasticity in cellular processes is increasingly recognized in both theoretical and experimental studies. General features of stochasticity in gene regulation and expression are briefly reviewed in this article, which include the main experimental phenomena, classification, quantization and regulation of noises. The correlation and transmission of noise in cascade networks are analyzed further and the stochastic simulation methods that can capture effects of intrinsic and extrinsic noise are described.

  5. Cellular fiber–reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Isachenko S.; Kodzoev M.

    2016-01-01

    Methods disperse reinforcement of concrete matrix using polypropylene, glass, basalt and metal fibers allows to make the construction of complex configuration, solve the problem of frost products. Dispersed reinforcement reduces the overall weight of the structures. The fiber replaces the secondary reinforcement, reducing the volume of use of structural steel reinforcement. Cellular Fiber concretes are characterized by high-performance properties, especially increased bending strength and...

  6. Identification of Nonstationary Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AndrewI.Adamatzky

    1992-01-01

    The principal feature of nonstationary cellular automata(NCA) is that a local transitiol rule of each cell is changed at each time step depending on neighborhood configuration at previous time step.The identification problem for NCA is extraction of local transition rules and the establishment of mechanism for changing these rules using sequence of NCA configurations.We present serial and parallel algorithms for identification of NCA.

  7. CELLULAR INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY GLYCONECTIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, O.; Sumanovski, L. T.; I. Checiu; Elisabeta Popescu; G. N. Misevic

    1999-01-01

    Cellular interactions involve many types of cell surface molecules and operate via homophilic and/or heterophilic protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate binding. Our investigations in different model-systems (marine invertebrates and mammals) have provided direct evidence that a novel class of primordial proteoglycans, named by us gliconectins, can mediate cell adhesion via a new alternative molecular mechanism of polyvalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate binding. Biochemical characterization of...

  8. The insect cellular immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R. Strand

    2008-01-01

    The innate immune system of insects is divided into humoral defenses that include the production of soluble effector molecules and cellular defenses like phagocytosis and encapsulation that are mediated by hemocytes. This review summarizes current understanding of the cellular immune response. Insects produce several terminally differentiated types of hemocytes that are distinguished by morphology, molecular and antigenic markers, and function. The differentiated hemocytes that circulate in larval or nymphal stage insects arise from two sources: progenitor cells produced during embryogenesis and mesodermally derived hematopoietic organs. Regulation of hematopoiesis and hemocyte differentiation also involves several different signaling pathways. Phagocytosis and encapsulation require that hemocytes first recognize a given target as foreign followed by activation of downstream signaling and effector responses. A number of humoral and cellular receptors have been identified that recognize different microbes and multicellular parasites. In turn, activation of these receptors stimulates a number of signaling pathways that regulate different hemocyte functions. Recent studies also identify hemocytes as important sources of a number of humoral effector molecules required for killing different foreign invaders.

  9. Progress of cellular dedifferentiation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hu-xian; HU Da-hai; JIA Chi-yu; FU Xiao-bing

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation, the stepwise specialization of cells, and transdifferentiation, the apparent switching of one cell type into another, capture much of the stem cell spotlight. But dedifferentiation, the developmental reversal of a cell before it reinvents itself, is an important process too. In multicellular organisms, cellular dedifferentiation is the major process underlying totipotency, regeneration and formation of new stem cell lineages. In humans,dedifferentiation is often associated with carcinogenesis.The study of cellular dedifferentiation in animals,particularly early events related to cell fate-switch and determination, is limited by the lack of a suitable,convenient experimental system. The classic example of dedifferentiation is limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians, such as salamanders. Recently, several investigators have shown that certain mammalian cell types can be induced to dedifferentiate to progenitor cells when stimulated with the appropriate signals or materials. These discoveries open the possibility that researchers might enhance the endogenous regenerative capacity of mammals by inducing cellular dedifferentiation in vivo.

  10. Euclidean Closed Linear Transformations of Complex Spacetime and generally of Complex Spaces of dimension four endowed with the Same or Different Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias

    2016-08-01

    Relativity Theory and the corresponding Relativistic Quantum Mechanics are the fundamental theories of physics. Special Relativity (SR) relates the frames of Relativistic Inertial observers (RIOs), through Linear Spacetime Transformation (LSTT) of linear spacetime. Classic Special Relativity uses real spacetime endowed with Lorentz metric and the frames of two RIOs with parallel spatial axes are always related through Lorentz Boost (LB). This cancels the transitive attribute in parallelism, when three RIOs are related, because LB is not closed transformation, causing Thomas Rotation. In this presentation, we consider closed LSTT of Complex Spacetime, so there is no necessity for spatial axes rotation and all the frames are chosen having parallel spatial axes. The solution is expressed by a 4x4 matrix (Λ) containing components of the complex velocity of one Observer wrt another and two functions depended by the metric of Spacetime. Demanding isometric transformation, it emerges a class of metrics that are in accordance with the closed LSTT and the transformation matrix contains one parameter ω depended by the metric of Spacetime. In case that we relate RIOs with steady metric, it emerges one steady number (ωI ) depended by the metric of Spacetime of the specific SR. If ωI is an imaginary number, the elements of the Λ are complex numbers, so the corresponding spacetime is necessarily complex and there exists real Universal Speed (UI). The specific value ωI =±i gives Vossos transformation (VT) endowed with Lorentz metric (for gii=1) of complex spacetime and invariant spacetime interval (or equivalently invariant speed of light in vacuum), which produce the theory of Euclidean Complex Relativistic Mechanics (ECRMs). If ωI is a real number (ωI #0) the elements of the Λ are real numbers, so the corresponding spacetime is real, but there exist imaginary UI. The specific value ωI =0 gives Galileo Transformation (GT) with the invariant time, in which any other

  11. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  12. Modeling In Vitro Cellular Responses to Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwaipayan Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineered nanoparticles (NPs have been widely demonstrated to induce toxic effects to various cell types. In vitro cell exposure systems have high potential for reliable, high throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity, allowing focusing on particular pathways while excluding unwanted effects due to other cells or tissue dosimetry. The work presented here involves a detailed biologically based computational model of cellular interactions with NPs; it utilizes measurements performed in human cell culture systems in vitro, to develop a mechanistic mathematical model that can support analysis and prediction of in vivo effects of NPs. The model considers basic cellular mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, and production of cytokines in response to NPs. This new model is implemented for macrophages and parameterized using in vitro measurements of changes in cellular viability and mRNA levels of cytokines: TNF, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. The model includes in vitro cellular dosimetry due to nanoparticle transport and transformation. Furthermore, the model developed here optimizes the essential cellular parameters based on in vitro measurements, and provides a “stepping stone” for the development of more advanced in vivo models that will incorporate additional cellular and NP interactions.

  13. Lightweight 3D cellular composites inspired by balsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Sardar; Raney, Jordan; Lewis, Jennifer; Gibson, Lorna

    2017-02-13

    Additive manufacturing technologies offer new ways to fabricate cellular materials with composite cell walls, mimicking the structure and mechanical properties of woods. However, materials limitations and a lack of design tools have confined the usefulness of 3D printed cellular materials. We develop new carbon fiber reinforced, epoxy inks for 3D printing which result in printed materials with longitudinal Young's modulus up to 57 GPa (exceeding the longitudinal modulus of wood cell wall material). To guide the design of hierarchical cellular materials, we developed a parameterized, multi-scale, finite element model. Computational homogenization based on finite element simulations at multiple length scales is employed to obtain the elastic properties of the material at multiple length scales. Parameters affecting the elastic response of cellular composites, such as the volume fraction, orientation distribution, and aspect ratio of fibers within the cell walls as well as the cell geometry and relative density are included in the model. To validate the model, experiments are conducted on both solid carbon fiber/epoxy composites and cellular structures made from them, showing excellent agreement with model predictions, both at the cell-wall and at the cellular-structure levels. Using the model, cellular structures are designed and experimentally shown to achieve a specific stiffness nearly as high as that observed in balsa wood. The good agreement between the multi-scale model predictions and experimental data provides confidence in the practical utility of this model as a tool for designing novel 3D cellular composites with unprecedented specific elastic properties.

  14. Alpha-synuclein is a cellular ferrireductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Davies

    Full Text Available α-synuclein (αS is a cellular protein mostly known for the association of its aggregated forms with a variety of diseases that include Parkinson's disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies. While the role of αS in disease is well documented there is currently no agreement on the physiological function of the normal isoform of the protein. Here we provide strong evidence that αS is a cellular ferrireductase, responsible for reducing iron (III to bio available iron (II. The recombinant form of the protein has a V(Max of 2.72 nmols/min/mg and K(m 23 µM. This activity is also evident in lysates from neuronal cell lines overexpressing αS. This activity is dependent on copper bound to αS as a cofactor and NADH as an electron donor. Overexpression of α-synuclein by cells significantly increases the percentage of iron (II in cells. The common disease mutations associated with increased susceptibility to PD show no [corrected] differences in activity or iron (II levels. This discovery may well provide new therapeutic targets for PD and Lewy body dementias.

  15. Cellular Auxin Homeostasis:Gatekeeping Is Housekeeping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michel Ruiz Rosquete; Elke Barbez; Jürgen Kleine-Vehn

    2012-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is essential for plant development and contributes to nearly every aspect of the plant life cycle.The spatio-temporal distribution of auxin depends on a complex interplay between auxin metabolism and cell-to-cell auxin transport.Auxin metabolism and transport are both crucial for plant development;however,it largely remains to be seen how these processes are integrated to ensure defined cellular auxin levels or even gradients within tissues or organs.In this review,we provide a glance at very diverse topics of auxin biology,such as biosynthesis,conjugation,oxidation,and transport of auxin.This broad,but certainly superficial,overview highlights the mutual importance of auxin metabolism and transport.Moreover,it allows pinpointing how auxin metabolism and transport get integrated to jointly regulate cellular auxin homeostasis.Even though these processes have been so far only separately studied,we assume that the phytohormonal crosstalk integrates and coordinates auxin metabolism and transport.Besides the integrative power of the global hormone signaling,we additionally introduce the hypothetical concept considering auxin transport components as gatekeepers for auxin responses.

  16. 基于WSN定位的Euclidean算法改进研究%Research on Improved Euclidean Algorithm Based on WSN Localization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯向科; 沈雪梅

    2013-01-01

    The node location is basic technology for WSN application..During the location process of RSSI,the position relation between the nodes and signal source has serious influence on the distance measurement error.We have analyzed the wireless broadcasting loss model and proposed an optimized selection rule for beacon nodes.S Simultaneously the Euclidean algorithm is also optimized based on the type of unknown nodes.The experiments shows that the improved scheme has obviously decreased the location error in WSN,compared with traditional positioning algorithm.%节点定位技术是WSN网络应用的基础,在基于RSSI的定位过程中,节点与信号源之间的位置关系对测距误差有较大影响.通过对无线传播路径损耗模型的分析,给出了信标节点的优选原则,同时将Euclidean算法根据未知节点的类型进行了优化.实验证明,改进方案与传统的定位算法相比明显降低了WSN网络中的定位误差.

  17. Distributed weighted node localization algorithm based on Euclidean correction%基于Euclidean修正的分布式加权定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付锴; 雷勇; 颜嘉俊

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Multi-Dimensional Scaling ( MDS) algorithm adopts multi-hop distance to replace direct  distance, resulting in low accuracy of the local network and large localization error in irregular network. Relative to the existing  algorithms, the paper introduced the Euclidean algorithm to generate accurate multi-hop distance between nodes, and used  weighting mechanism to improve the coefficient of stress. The simulation results show that in low connectivity rectangle network  and C-shape network localization, this method acTheves better performance.%传统的多维定标(MDS)算法由于采用多跳距离代替节点间的直接距离,生成的局部网络准确度低,在不规则网络中定位误差大.相对于现有的算法,引入Euclidean方法来产生多跳节点间的准确距离,并采用一种加权机制来改进协强系数,以抑制累积误差.仿真结果表明该方法在C型网络和低连通度的矩形网络定位中能取得更好的效果.

  18. 基于欧氏Ricci流的形状分析算法%Shape Analysis Algorithm Based on Euclidean Ricci Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董绍毅

    2014-01-01

    针对Ricci流强大的功能,提出了一种基于欧氏Ricci曲率流的形状分析算法,利用欧氏Ricci曲率流方法将双连通曲面映射为一个平面图像,通过测量平面图像内圆和外圆的半径,此曲面的共形模被给出,通过比较共形模的值,建立了曲面之间的形状分析算法。采用计算机模拟该算法,验证了在曲面的形状分析中有良好的性能。%The Ricci flow is a powerful curvature flow method. This paper presents a new shape analysis algorithm. A doublely connected surface maps a planar image by using Euclidean Ricci curvature flow method, via measuring the radius of inter circle and outer circle of the image, a conformal modules of the surface is given, by comparing the value of conformal modules, the shape analysis algorithm can be easily established between surfaces. Experiments comparison results show that it has a good performance for shape analysis of surface.

  19. On the use of a Euclidean norm function for the estimation of local dynamic stability from 3D kinematics using time-delayed Lyapunov analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudette, Shawn M; Howarth, Samuel J; Graham, Ryan B; Brown, Stephen H M

    2016-10-01

    Several different state-space reconstruction methods have been employed to assess the local dynamic stability (LDS) of a 3D kinematic system. One common method is to use a Euclidean norm (N) transformation of three orthogonal x, y, and z time-series' followed by the calculation of the maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponent (λmax) from the resultant N waveform (using a time-delayed state space reconstruction technique). By essentially acting as a weighted average, N has been suggested to account for simultaneous expansion and contraction along separate degrees of freedom within a 3D system (e.g. the coupling of dynamic movements between orthogonal planes). However, when estimating LDS using N, non-linear transformations inherent within the calculation of N should be accounted for. Results demonstrate that the use of N on 3D time-series data with arbitrary magnitudes of relative bias and zero-crossings cause the introduction of error in estimates of λmax obtained through N. To develop a standard for the analysis of 3D dynamic kinematic waveforms, we suggest that all dimensions of a 3D signal be independently shifted to avoid the incidence of zero-crossings prior to the calculation of N and subsequent estimation of LDS through the use of λmax.

  20. A metabolic-transcriptional network links sleep and cellular energetics in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisor, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    This review proposes a mechanistic link between cellular metabolic status, transcriptional regulatory changes and sleep. Sleep loss is associated with changes in cellular metabolic status in the brain. Metabolic sensors responsive to cellular metabolic status regulate the circadian clock transcriptional network. Modifications of the transcriptional activity of circadian clock genes affect sleep/wake state changes. Changes in sleep state reverse sleep loss-induced changes in cellular metabolic status. It is thus proposed that the regulation of circadian clock genes by cellular metabolic sensors is a critical intermediate step in the link between cellular metabolic status and sleep. Studies of this regulatory relationship may offer insights into the function of sleep at the cellular level.