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Sample records for cellular interactions governing

  1. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy;

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other...... governments, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors...

  2. Electromagnetic cellular interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, J. S.; Farhadi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2011), 223-246. ISSN 0079-6107. [36th International Congress of Physiological Sciences (IUPS2009). Kyoto, 27.07.2009-01.08.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP102/10/P454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : bioelectric phenomena * cellular biophysics Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.203, year: 2011

  3. CELLULAR INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY GLYCONECTIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Popescu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular interactions involve many types of cell surface molecules and operate via homophilic and/or heterophilic protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate binding. Our investigations in different model-systems (marine invertebrates and mammals have provided direct evidence that a novel class of primordial proteoglycans, named by us gliconectins, can mediate cell adhesion via a new alternative molecular mechanism of polyvalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate binding. Biochemical characterization of isolated and purified glyconectins revealed the presence of specific carbohydrate structures, acidic glycans, different from classical glycosaminoglycans. Such acidic glycans of high molecular weight containing fucose, glucuronic or galacturonic acids, and sulfate groups, originally found in sponges and sea urchin embryos, may represent a new class of carbohydrate carcino-embryonal antigens in mice and humans. Such interactions between biological macromolecules are usually investigated by kinetic binding studies, calorimetric methods, X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, and other spectroscopic analyses. However, these methods do not supply a direct estimation of the intermolecular binding forces that are fundamental for the function of the ligand-receptor association. Recently, we have introduced atomic force microscopy to quantify the binding strength between cell adhesion proteoglycans. Measurement of binding forces intrinsic to cell adhesion proteoglycans is necessary to assess their contribution to the maintenance of the anatomical integrity of multicellular organisms. As a model, we selected the glyconectin 1, a cell adhesion proteoglycan isolated from the marine sponge Microciona prolifera. This glyconectin mediates in vivo cell recognition and aggregation via homophilic, species-specific, polyvalent, and calcium ion-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions. Under physiological conditions, an adhesive force of up to 400 piconewtons

  4. Cellular structure in system of interacting particles

    OpenAIRE

    Lev, Bohdan

    2008-01-01

    The general description of formation the cellular structure in the system of interacting particles is proposed. Interactions between particles are presumably well-understood and the phase transition in which can be studied in the scale of particle resolution. We presented analytical results of possible cellular structures for suspension of colloidal particles, in system particles immersed in liquid crystal and gravitational system. We have shown that cellular structure formation can occur in ...

  5. Institutionalizing interactive governance for democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Interactive governance arenas such as networks and partnerships are increasingly seen as legitimate and valuable contributions to the production of effective public governance. This effectiveness is not least seen as a result of the self-constituting and self-regulating character of such arenas....... There is less certainty about their impact on democracy. Many governance researchers worry that networks and partnerships will end up reducing the level of democratic inclusion, deliberation and accountability in the political system because they demand a low level of formal or ‘hard......’ institutionalization. Neo-institutional theory points out, however, the considerable regulatory impact of ‘soft’ forms of institutionalization such as incentives structures, sedimented normative codes, logics of appropriateness and routinized practices. The article explores the role that soft forms of...

  6. Governing 'Spaces of Interaction' for Sustainable Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of 'spaces of interaction' to determine how existing market-based governance tools improve participation and deliberation between actors along fish value chains. Exploring these linkages through the sociology of environmental flows and interactive governance theory

  7. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…

  8. Thymocyte migration: an affair of multiple cellular interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino W.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration is a crucial event in the general process of thymocyte differentiation. The cellular interactions involved in the control of this migration are beginning to be defined. At least chemokines and extracellular matrix proteins appear to be part of the game. Cells of the thymic microenvironment produce these two groups of molecules, whereas developing thymocytes express the corresponding receptors. Moreover, although chemokines and extracellular matrix can drive thymocyte migration per se, a combined role for these molecules appears to contribute to the resulting migration patterns of thymocytes in their various stages of differentiation. The dynamics of chemokine and extracellular matrix production and degradation is not yet well understood. However, matrix metalloproteinases are likely to play a role in the breakdown of intrathymic extracellular matrix contents. Thus, the physiological migration of thymocytes should be envisioned as a resulting vector of multiple, simultaneous and/or sequential stimuli involving chemokines, adhesive and de-adhesive extracellular matrix proteins, as well as matrix metalloproteinases. Accordingly, it is conceivable that any pathological change in any of these loops may result in the alteration of normal thymocyte migration. This seems to be the case in murine infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. A better knowledge of the physiological mechanisms governing thymocyte migration will provide new clues for designing therapeutic strategies targeting developing T cells.

  9. Towards a continuum theory of movement in interacting cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Timothy

    2003-10-01

    Interacting cellular systems form the basis of all higher organisms, and are fundamental to the understanding of embryogenesis, organ function, and neoplasms. I will describe a stochastic model of cell interactions which can be applied to these problems, and present some of our recent results on chemotactic response.

  10. Learning Cellular Sorting Pathways Using Protein Interactions and Sequence Motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tien-ho; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Murphy, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Proper subcellular localization is critical for proteins to perform their roles in cellular functions. Proteins are transported by different cellular sorting pathways, some of which take a protein through several intermediate locations until reaching its final destination. The pathway a protein is transported through is determined by carrier proteins that bind to specific sequence motifs. In this article, we present a new method that integrates protein interaction and sequence motif data to m...

  11. Integration of peroxisomes into an endomembrane system that governs cellular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eBeach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisome is an organelle that has long been known for its essential roles in oxidation of fatty acids, maintenance of reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis and anaplerotic replenishment of tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediates destined for mitochondria. Growing evidence supports the view that these peroxisome-confined metabolic processes play an essential role in defining the replicative and chronological age of a eukaryotic cell. Much progress has recently been made in defining molecular mechanisms that link cellular aging to fatty acid oxidation, ROS turnover and anaplerotic metabolism in peroxisomes. Emergent studies have revealed that these organelles not only house longevity-defining metabolic reactions but can also regulate cellular aging via their dynamic communication with other cellular compartments. Peroxisomes communicate with other organelles by establishing extensive physical contact with lipid bodies, maintaining an endoplasmic reticulum (ER to peroxisome connectivity system, exchanging certain metabolites, and being involved in the bidirectional flow of some of their protein and lipid constituents. The scope of this review is to summarize the evidence that peroxisomes are dynamically integrated into an endomembrane system that governs cellular aging. We discuss recent progress in understanding how communications between peroxisomes and other cellular compartments within this system influence the development of a pro- or anti-aging cellular pattern. We also propose a model for the integration of peroxisomes into the endomembrane system governing cellular aging and critically evaluate several molecular mechanisms underlying such integration.

  12. Paradoxes of Deliberative Interactions on Government-Managed Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Zhu, Demi

    2016-01-01

    The presence of government agencies on increasingly popular social media platforms potentially enables interactions that go beyond one-way government-to-citizen information or service provision, and include citizen-to-citizen open interactions. These interactions can either contribute to delibera...

  13. Imaging protein interactions in vivo with sub-cellular resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Raicu, Valerica; Fung, Russell; Melnichuk, Mike; Jansma, David B; Pisterzi, Luca; Fox, Michael; Wells, James W; Saldin, Dilano K

    2008-01-01

    Resonant Energy Transfer (RET) from an optically excited donor molecule (D) to a non-excited acceptor molecule (A) residing nearby is widely used to detect molecular interactions in living cells. Stoichiometric information, such as the number of proteins forming a complex, has been obtained so far for a handful of proteins, but only after exposing the sample sequentially to at least two different excitation wavelengths. During this lengthy process of measurement, the molecular makeup of a cellular region may change, and this has so far limited the applicability of RET to determination of cellular averages. Here we demonstrate a method for imaging protein complex distribution in living cells with sub-cellular spatial resolution, which relies on a spectrally-resolved two-photon microscope, a simple but competent theory, and a keen selection of fluorescent tags. This technology may eventually lead to tracking dynamics of macromolecular complex formation and dissociation with spatial resolution inside living cell...

  14. Development and validation of computational models of cellular interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Smallwood, R H; Holcombe, W.M.L.; Walker, D C

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we take the view that computational models of biological systems should satisfy two conditions – they should be able to predict function at a systems biology level, and robust techniques of validation against biological models must be available. A modelling paradigm for developing a predictive computational model of cellular interaction is described, and methods of providing robust validation against biological models are explored, followed by a consideration of soft...

  15. A Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2015-03-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena. Work at Argonne National Laboratory is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work at the University of Minnesota is supported by MnDRIVE Initiative on Robotics, Sensors, and Advanced Manufacturing.

  16. Cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between cannabinoid and opioid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolaro, D; Rubino, T; Viganò, D; Massi, P; Guidali, C; Realini, N

    2010-04-01

    Recently, the presence of functional interaction between the opioid and cannabinoid system has been shown in various pharmacological responses. Although there is an increasing interest for the feasible therapeutic application of a co-administration of cannabinoids and opioids in some disorders (i.e. to manage pain, to modulate immune system and emotions) and the combined use of the two drugs by drug abusers is becoming largely diffuse, only few papers focused on cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this interaction. This review updates the biochemical and molecular underpinnings of opioid and cannabinoid interaction, both within the central nervous system and periphery. The most convincing theory for the explanation of this reciprocal interaction involves (i) the release of opioid peptides by cannabinoids or endocannabinoids by opioids, (ii) the existence of a direct receptor-receptor interaction when the receptors are co-expressed in the same cells, and (iii) the interaction of their intracellular pathways. Finally, the cannabinoid/opioid interaction might be different in the brain rewarding networks and in those accounting for other pharmacological effects (antinociception, modulation of emotionality and cognitive behavior), as well as between the central nervous system and periphery. Further insights about the cannabinoid/opioid interaction could pave the way for new and promising therapeutic approaches. PMID:20017730

  17. Democratic legitimacy criteria in interactive governance and their empirical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction:__ Governance and Democracy Whatever ‘governance’ is, it is certainly aimed at involving stakeholders. The literature gives various reasons for the necessity of involving stakeholders and thus why (interactive) governance can be more effective than more classical for

  18. Biotic interactions govern genetic adaptation to toxicants

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jeremias Martin; Liess, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The genetic recovery of resistant populations released from pesticide exposure is accelerated by the presence of environmental stressors. By contrast, the relevance of environmental stressors for the spread of resistance during pesticide exposure has not been studied. Moreover, the consequences of interactions between different stressors have not been considered. Here we show that stress through intraspecific competition accelerates microevolution, because it enhances fitness differences betw...

  19. Cellular interactions in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Gianluca; Harari, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) encompasses a large and diverse group of pathological conditions that share similar clinical, radiological and pathological manifestations, despite potentially having quite different aetiologies and comorbidities. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) represents probably the most aggressive form of ILD and systemic sclerosis is a multiorgan fibrotic disease frequently associated with ILD. Although the aetiology of these disorders remains unknown, in this review we analyse the pathogenic mechanisms by cell of interest (fibroblast, fibrocyte, myofibroblast, endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells and immune competent cells). New insights into the complex cellular contributions and interactions will be provided, comparing the role of cell subsets in the pathogenesis of IPF and systemic sclerosis. PMID:25726561

  20. The Evaluation of Cellular Phone Technology and Mobile Government from the Viewpoint of Public Policies

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Mete

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates cellular (mobile) phone technology as it relates to public policy and mobile government, and it presents a list of public policy problems that are related to the widespread use of cell phones in Turkey (and elsewhere). The main issues listed in the article are serious health problems that are thought to be caused by cell phone use and the proximity of cell phone masts to housing units, the risky behavior of talking with cell phones while driving and the problems caused by...

  1. Biotic interactions govern genetic adaptation to toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jeremias Martin; Liess, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The genetic recovery of resistant populations released from pesticide exposure is accelerated by the presence of environmental stressors. By contrast, the relevance of environmental stressors for the spread of resistance during pesticide exposure has not been studied. Moreover, the consequences of interactions between different stressors have not been considered. Here we show that stress through intraspecific competition accelerates microevolution, because it enhances fitness differences between adapted and non-adapted individuals. By contrast, stress through interspecific competition or predation reduces intraspecific competition and thereby delays microevolution. This was demonstrated in mosquito populations (Culex quinquefasciatus) that were exposed to the pesticide chlorpyrifos. Non-selective predation through harvesting and interspecific competition with Daphnia magna delayed the selection for individuals carrying the ace-1R resistance allele. Under non-toxic conditions, susceptible individuals without ace-1R prevailed. Likewise, predation delayed the reverse adaptation of the populations to a non-toxic environment, while the effect of interspecific competition was not significant. Applying a simulation model, we further identified how microevolution is generally determined by the type and degree of competition and predation. We infer that interactions with other species—especially strong in ecosystems with high biodiversity—can delay the development of pesticide resistance. PMID:25833856

  2. Biotic interactions govern genetic adaptation to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jeremias Martin; Liess, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    The genetic recovery of resistant populations released from pesticide exposure is accelerated by the presence of environmental stressors. By contrast, the relevance of environmental stressors for the spread of resistance during pesticide exposure has not been studied. Moreover, the consequences of interactions between different stressors have not been considered. Here we show that stress through intraspecific competition accelerates microevolution, because it enhances fitness differences between adapted and non-adapted individuals. By contrast, stress through interspecific competition or predation reduces intraspecific competition and thereby delays microevolution. This was demonstrated in mosquito populations (Culex quinquefasciatus) that were exposed to the pesticide chlorpyrifos. Non-selective predation through harvesting and interspecific competition with Daphnia magna delayed the selection for individuals carrying the ace-1(R) resistance allele. Under non-toxic conditions, susceptible individuals without ace-1(R) prevailed. Likewise, predation delayed the reverse adaptation of the populations to a non-toxic environment, while the effect of interspecific competition was not significant. Applying a simulation model, we further identified how microevolution is generally determined by the type and degree of competition and predation. We infer that interactions with other species-especially strong in ecosystems with high biodiversity-can delay the development of pesticide resistance. PMID:25833856

  3. Investigation of cellular responses upon interaction with silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbiah R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ramesh Subbiah,1,2 Seong Beom Jeon,3,4 Kwideok Park,1,2 Sang Jung Ahn,4,5 Kyusik Yun3 1Center for Biomaterials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejon, 3Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, 4Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science, 5Major of Nano Science, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea Abstract: In order for nanoparticles (NPs to be applied in the biomedical field, a thorough investigation of their interactions with biological systems is required. Although this is a growing area of research, there is a paucity of comprehensive data in cell-based studies. To address this, we analyzed the physicomechanical responses of human alveolar epithelial cells (A549, mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3, and human bone marrow stromal cells (HS-5, following their interaction with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. When compared with kanamycin, AgNPs exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Cell viability ranged from ≤80% at a high AgNPs dose (40 µg/mL to >95% at a low dose (10 µg/mL. We also used atomic force microscopy-coupled force spectroscopy to evaluate the biophysical and biomechanical properties of cells. This revealed that AgNPs treatment increased the surface roughness (P<0.001 and stiffness (P<0.001 of cells. Certain cellular changes are likely due to interaction of the AgNPs with the cell surface. The degree to which cellular morphology was altered directly proportional to the level of AgNP-induced cytotoxicity. Together, these data suggest that atomic force microscopy can be used as a potential tool to develop a biomechanics-based biomarker for the evaluation of NP-dependent cytotoxicity and cytopathology. Keywords: AFM, roughness, nanoindentation, biomarker, cytotoxicity, biomechanics

  4. Cellular interactions in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Bagnato

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD encompasses a large and diverse group of pathological conditions that share similar clinical, radiological and pathological manifestations, despite potentially having quite different aetiologies and comorbidities. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF represents probably the most aggressive form of ILD and systemic sclerosis is a multiorgan fibrotic disease frequently associated with ILD. Although the aetiology of these disorders remains unknown, in this review we analyse the pathogenic mechanisms by cell of interest (fibroblast, fibrocyte, myofibroblast, endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells and immune competent cells. New insights into the complex cellular contributions and interactions will be provided, comparing the role of cell subsets in the pathogenesis of IPF and systemic sclerosis.

  5. Mapping the Hsp90 Genetic Network Reveals Ergosterol Biosynthesis and Phosphatidylinositol-4-Kinase Signaling as Core Circuitry Governing Cellular Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Meara, Teresa R.; Valaei, Seyedeh Fereshteh; Diezmann, Stephanie; Cowen, Leah E.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a leading human fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening systemic infections. A key regulator of C. albicans stress response, drug resistance, morphogenesis, and virulence is the molecular chaperone Hsp90. Targeting Hsp90 provides a powerful strategy to treat fungal infections, however, the therapeutic utility of current inhibitors is compromised by toxicity due to inhibition of host Hsp90. To identify components of the Hsp90-dependent circuitry governing virulence and drug resistance that are sufficiently divergent for selective targeting in the pathogen, we pioneered chemical genomic profiling of the Hsp90 genetic network in C. albicans. Here, we screen mutant collections covering ~10% of the genome for hypersensitivity to Hsp90 inhibition in multiple environmental conditions. We identify 158 HSP90 chemical genetic interactors, most of which are important for growth only in specific environments. We discovered that the sterol C-22 desaturase gene ERG5 and the phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase (PI4K) gene STT4 are HSP90 genetic interactors under multiple conditions, suggesting a function upstream of Hsp90. By systematic analysis of the ergosterol biosynthetic cascade, we demonstrate that defects in ergosterol biosynthesis induce cellular stress that overwhelms Hsp90’s functional capacity. By analysis of the phosphatidylinositol pathway, we demonstrate that there is a genetic interaction between the PI4K Stt4 and Hsp90. We also establish that Stt4 is required for normal actin polarization through regulation of Wal1, and suggest a model in which defects in actin remodeling induces stress that creates a cellular demand for Hsp90 that exceeds its functional capacity. Consistent with this model, actin inhibitors are synergistic with Hsp90 inhibitors. We highlight new connections between Hsp90 and virulence traits, demonstrating that Erg5 and Stt4 enable activation of macrophage pyroptosis. This work uncovers novel circuitry regulating Hsp90

  6. Charged group surface accessibility determines micelleplexes formation and cellular interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Sen, Soumyo; Král, Petr; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-04-01

    Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The model micelle system was formed from methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) mixed with methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide)-b-oligoarginine (mPEG-PLA-Rx, x = 8 or 15). Surface properties of the micelles were varied by controlling the oligoarginine block length and conjugation density. Micelles were observed to have a core-shell conformation in the aqueous environment where the PLA block constituted the hydrophobic core, mPEG and oligoarginine formed a hydrophilic corona. Significantly different thermodynamic behaviors were observed during the interaction of single stranded miRNA with micelles of different surface properties, and the resulting micelleplexes mediated substantial cellular association. Depending upon the oligoarginine length and density, micelles exhibited miRNA loading capacity directly related to the presentation of charged groups on the surface. The effect of charged group accessibility of cationic micelle on micelleplex properties provides guidance on future miRNA delivery system design.Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The

  7. Cellular response to substrate rigidity is governed by either stress or strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ai Kia; Iwasaki, Katsuhiko; Ursekar, Chaitanya; Machiyama, Hiroaki; Saxena, Mayur; Chen, Huiling; Harada, Ichiro; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Sawada, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Cells sense the rigidity of their substrate; however, little is known about the physical variables that determine their response to this rigidity. Here, we report traction stress measurements carried out using fibroblasts on polyacrylamide gels with Young's moduli ranging from 6 to 110 kPa. We prepared the substrates by employing a modified method that involves N-acryloyl-6-aminocaproic acid (ACA). ACA allows for covalent binding between proteins and elastomers and thus introduces a more stable immobilization of collagen onto the substrate when compared to the conventional method of using sulfo-succinimidyl-6-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl-amino) hexanoate (sulfo-SANPAH). Cells remove extracellular matrix proteins off the surface of gels coated using sulfo-SANPAH, which corresponds to lower values of traction stress and substrate deformation compared to gels coated using ACA. On soft ACA gels (Young's modulus 20 kPa), traction stress plateaus at a limiting value and the substrate deformation decreases with increasing substrate rigidity. Sustained substrate strain on soft substrates and sustained traction stress on stiff substrates suggest these may be factors governing cellular responses to substrate rigidity. PMID:23332055

  8. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones.

  9. Parameters and characteristics governing cellular internalization and trans-barrier trafficking of nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Karmani Murugan, Yahya E Choonara, Pradeep Kumar, Divya Bijukumar, Lisa C du Toit, Viness Pillay Wits Advanced Drug Delivery Platform Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Abstract: Cellular internalization and trans-barrier transport of nanoparticles can be manipulated on the basis of the physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of nanoparticles. Research has shown that these factors significantly influence the uptake of nanoparticles. Dictating these characteristics allows for the control of the rate and extent of cellular uptake, as well as delivering the drug-loaded nanosystem intra-cellularly, which is imperative for drugs that require a specific cellular level to exert their effects. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles should be optimal for the nanosystem to bypass the natural restricting phenomena of the body and act therapeutically at the targeted site. The factors at the focal point of emerging smart nanomedicines include nanoparticle size, surface charge, shape, hydrophobicity, surface chemistry, and even protein and ligand conjugates. Hence, this review discusses the mechanism of internalization of nanoparticles and ideal nanoparticle characteristics that allow them to evade the biological barriers in order to achieve optimal cellular uptake in different organ systems. Identifying these parameters assists with the progression of nanomedicine as an outstanding vector of pharmaceuticals. Keywords: nanoparticles, transport mechanisms, cellular uptake, size, shape, charge

  10. Thrombospondin-1 Interacts with Trypanosoma cruzi Surface Calreticulin to Enhance Cellular Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Candice A.; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y.; Ikejiani, Adaeze O.; Udoko, Aniekanabasi N.; Cardenas, Tatiana C.; Pratap, Siddharth; Duquette, Mark A.; Lima, Maria F.; Lawler, Jack; Villalta, Fernando; Nde, Pius N.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which is a neglected tropical disease that produces severe pathology and mortality. The mechanisms by which the parasite invades cells are not well elucidated. We recently reported that T. cruzi up-regulates the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) to enhance the process of cellular invasion. Here we characterize a novel TSP-1 interaction with T. cruzi that enhances cellular infection. We show that labeled TSP-1 interacts specifically with the surfac...

  11. Governance of Innovation and Intermediation in Triple Helix Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todeva, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Research on sustainability and innovation-driven economic growth has exposed a lack of sufficient knowledge in the governance literature about the appropriate extent of government involvement. This paper focuses on the governance of innovation and the intermediary role of the state. The author synthesizes the literature on governance and…

  12. Cellular interactions of surface modified nanoporous silicon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbo, Luis M.; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Mäkilä, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo; Laaksonen, Päivi; Salonen, Jarno; Linder, Markus B.; Hirvonen, Jouni; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Santos, Hélder A.

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, 125I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi nanoparticles incubated in pH 7.4, which renders the particles the possibility for further track-imaging applications. The results highlight the potential of HFBII coating for improving wettability, increasing biocompatibility and possible intestinal association of PSi nanoparticulates for drug delivery applications.In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, 125I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi

  13. Interactions between X-rays and antimitotic drugs: cellular effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions between three drugs and X-rays were examined in rat hepatoma cells in vitro. Incubation with Daunomycine or 9-hydroxy ellipticine decreases the survival of both exponential and plateau phase cells, whereas cis-Pt (II) decreases the survival of plateau cells, especially irradiated in anoxia. The decrease in the Do was greater when the cells were incubated with the drugs prior to X-irradiation, and was greater in the case of plateau cells than in the case of exponential cells. The repair of potentially lethal damages was inhibited by these three compounds. However, the repair of sublethal damages was inhibited by cis-Pt II, but was modified neither by Daunomycine nor 9-hydroxy ellipticine

  14. Interactions of the HSV-1 UL25 Capsid Protein with Cellular Microtubule-associated Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei GUO; Ying ZHANG; Yan-chun CHE; Wen-juan WU; Wei-zhong LI; Li-chun WANG; Yun LIAO; Long-ding LIU; Qi-han LI

    2008-01-01

    An interaction between the HSV-1 UL25 capsid protein and cellular microtubule-associated protein was found using a yeast two-hybrid screen and β-D-galactosidase activity assays. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the UL25 protein demonstrated its co-localization with cellular microtubule-associated protein in the plasma membrane. Further investigations with deletion mutants suggest that UL25 is likely to have a function in the nucleus.

  15. Cellular mechanisms regulating sperm-zona pellucida interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew T Reid; Kate Redgrove; R John Aitken; Brett Nixon

    2011-01-01

    For mammalian spermatozoa to exhibit the ability to bind the zona pellucida(ZP)they must undergo three distinct phases of maturation,namely,spermatogenesis(testis),epididymal maturation(epididymis)and capacitation(female reproductive tract).An impressive array of spermatozoa surface remodeling events accompany these phases of maturation and appear critical for recognition and adhesion of the outer vestments of the oocyte,a structure known as the ZP.It is becoming increasingly apparent that species-specific zona adhesion is not mediated by a single receptor.Instead,compelling evidence now points toward models implicating a multiplicity of receptor-ligand interactions.This notion is in keeping with emerging research that has shown that there is a dynamic aggregation of proteins believed to be important in sperm-ZP recognition to the regions of sperm that mediate this binding event.Such remodeling may in turn facilitate the assembly of a multimeric zona recognition complex(MZRC).Though formation of MZRCs raises questions regarding the nature of the block to polyspermy,formation and assembly of such a structure would no doubt explain the strenuous maturation process that sperm endure on their sojourn to functional maturity.

  16. Governance through ?public utilities' models: a regional social interaction approach

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Immacolata; Vitolo, Tiziana

    2003-01-01

    Based on neo-regionalist literature, this paper put on the foreground the importance of public utilities in the “governance” processes. New economic and cultural trends need the abandon of a hierarchical model of government in favour of the governance model, based on organizational structures of partnership and/or of open market. A first step in governance process is the decentralization, or “decentralizing governance”, that is to restructure and to reorganize local authority with the creatio...

  17. The telomeric protein AKTIP interacts with A- and B-type lamins and is involved in regulation of cellular senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Romina; Carcuro, Mariateresa; Torre, Mattia La; Fratini, Federica; Crescenzi, Marco; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Spitalieri, Paola; Raffa, Grazia Daniela; Astrologo, Letizia; Lattanzi, Giovanna; Cundari, Enrico; Raimondo, Domenico; Biroccio, Annamaria; Gatti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    AKTIP is a shelterin-interacting protein required for replication of telomeric DNA. Here, we show that AKTIP biochemically interacts with A- and B-type lamins and affects lamin A, but not lamin C or B, expression. In interphase cells, AKTIP localizes at the nuclear rim and in discrete regions of the nucleoplasm just like lamins. Double immunostaining revealed that AKTIP partially co-localizes with lamin B1 and lamin A/C in interphase cells, and that proper AKTIP localization requires functional lamin A. In mitotic cells, AKTIP is enriched at the spindle poles and at the midbody of late telophase cells similar to lamin B1. AKTIP-depleted cells show senescence-associated markers and recapitulate several aspects of the progeroid phenotype. Collectively, our results indicate that AKTIP is a new player in lamin-related processes, including those that govern nuclear architecture, telomere homeostasis and cellular senescence. PMID:27512140

  18. Host-Parasite Interaction of Root-Knot Nematodes (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae): Cellular and Molecular Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan Aydınlı; Sevilhan Mennan

    2014-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) have specialized and complex relationships with their host plants. A better understanding of interaction between nematode and their host will help to provide new point of view for root-knot nematode management. For this purpose, recently investigations on cellular and molecular basis of root-knot nematode parasitism and host response were reviewed.

  19. A `Clicked' Tetrameric Hydroxamic Acid Glycopeptidomimetic Antagonizes Sugar-Lectin Interactions On The Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zang, Yi; Xie, Juan; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; He, Xiao-Peng; Tian, He

    2014-07-01

    A tetrameric N-acetyl galactosaminyl (GalNAc) peptidomimetic was constructed by N-acetylation of repeating proline-based hydroxamic acid units, followed by a convergent `click chemistry' coupling. This novel glycopeptidomimetic was determined to effectively antagonize the interaction between a transmembrane hepatic lectin and GalNAc on the cellular level.

  20. Dynamic circadian protein-protein interaction networks predict temporal organization of cellular functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wallach

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Essentially all biological processes depend on protein-protein interactions (PPIs. Timing of such interactions is crucial for regulatory function. Although circadian (~24-hour clocks constitute fundamental cellular timing mechanisms regulating important physiological processes, PPI dynamics on this timescale are largely unknown. Here, we identified 109 novel PPIs among circadian clock proteins via a yeast-two-hybrid approach. Among them, the interaction of protein phosphatase 1 and CLOCK/BMAL1 was found to result in BMAL1 destabilization. We constructed a dynamic circadian PPI network predicting the PPI timing using circadian expression data. Systematic circadian phenotyping (RNAi and overexpression suggests a crucial role for components involved in dynamic interactions. Systems analysis of a global dynamic network in liver revealed that interacting proteins are expressed at similar times likely to restrict regulatory interactions to specific phases. Moreover, we predict that circadian PPIs dynamically connect many important cellular processes (signal transduction, cell cycle, etc. contributing to temporal organization of cellular physiology in an unprecedented manner.

  1. Nanoparticle-cell interactions: molecular structure of the protein corona and cellular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Candace C; Payne, Christine K

    2014-08-19

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in biology and medicine requires a molecular-level understanding of how NPs interact with cells in a physiological environment. A critical difference between well-controlled in vitro experiments and in vivo applications is the presence of a complex mixture of extracellular proteins. It has been established that extracellular serum proteins present in blood will adsorb onto the surface of NPs, forming a "protein corona". Our goal was to understand how this protein layer affected cellular-level events, including NP binding, internalization, and transport. A combination of microscopy, which provides spatial resolution, and spectroscopy, which provides molecular information, is necessary to probe protein-NP-cell interactions. Initial experiments used a model system composed of polystyrene NPs functionalized with either amine or carboxylate groups to provide a cationic or anionic surface, respectively. Serum proteins adsorb onto the surface of both cationic and anionic NPs, forming a net anionic protein-NP complex. Although these protein-NP complexes have similar diameters and effective surface charges, they show the exact opposite behavior in terms of cellular binding. In the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the cellular binding of BSA-NP complexes formed from cationic NPs is enhanced, whereas the cellular binding of BSA-NP complexes formed from anionic NPs is inhibited. These trends are independent of NP diameter or cell type. Similar results were obtained for anionic quantum dots and colloidal gold nanospheres. Using competition assays, we determined that BSA-NP complexes formed from anionic NPs bind to albumin receptors on the cell surface. BSA-NP complexes formed from cationic NPs are redirected to scavenger receptors. The observation that similar NPs with identical protein corona compositions bind to different cellular receptors suggested that a difference in the structure of the adsorbed protein may be responsible for the

  2. Difficult forms : how government agencies interact with citizens

    OpenAIRE

    Dunleavy, Patrick; Margetts, Helen; Bastow, Simon; Bouçek, Francoise; Campbell, Rosie

    2003-01-01

    To gather information and implement government policy, central departments and agencies issue and receive back millions of paper forms per year, as well as handling a minority of forms by phone and the Internet. How well the bedrock tasks of issuing and processing forms are accomplished can have significant implications in shaping both the cost efficiency of departments and agencies, and how citizens perceive the public services. This study focuses on how public sector organizations design th...

  3. Integrated cellular network of transcription regulations and protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bor-Sen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the accumulation of increasing omics data, a key goal of systems biology is to construct networks at different cellular levels to investigate cellular machinery of the cell. However, there is currently no satisfactory method to construct an integrated cellular network that combines the gene regulatory network and the signaling regulatory pathway. Results In this study, we integrated different kinds of omics data and developed a systematic method to construct the integrated cellular network based on coupling dynamic models and statistical assessments. The proposed method was applied to S. cerevisiae stress responses, elucidating the stress response mechanism of the yeast. From the resulting integrated cellular network under hyperosmotic stress, the highly connected hubs which are functionally relevant to the stress response were identified. Beyond hyperosmotic stress, the integrated network under heat shock and oxidative stress were also constructed and the crosstalks of these networks were analyzed, specifying the significance of some transcription factors to serve as the decision-making devices at the center of the bow-tie structure and the crucial role for rapid adaptation scheme to respond to stress. In addition, the predictive power of the proposed method was also demonstrated. Conclusions We successfully construct the integrated cellular network which is validated by literature evidences. The integration of transcription regulations and protein-protein interactions gives more insight into the actual biological network and is more predictive than those without integration. The method is shown to be powerful and flexible and can be used under different conditions and for different species. The coupling dynamic models of the whole integrated cellular network are very useful for theoretical analyses and for further experiments in the fields of network biology and synthetic biology.

  4. Governing the UN sustainable development goals: interactions, infrastructures, and institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Waage; Christopher Yap; Sarah Bell; Caren Levy; Georgina Mace; Tom Pegram; Elaine Unterhalter; Niheer Dasandi; David Hudson; Richard Kock; Susannah Mayhew; Colin Marx; Nigel Poole

    2015-01-01

    Three of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned health. There is only one health goal in 17 proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Critiques of the MDGs included missed opportunities to realise positive interactions between goals. Here we report on an interdisciplinary analytical review of the SDG process, in which experts in different SDG areas identified potential interactions through a series of interdisciplinary workshops. This process generated a framework th...

  5. Agonistic encounters and cellular angst: social interactions induce heat shock proteins in juvenile salmonid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Suzanne; LeBlanc, Sacha; Watters, M. Alexandrea; Gilmour, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile salmonid fish readily form dominance hierarchies when faced with limited resources. While these social interactions may result in profound behavioural and physiological stress, it is unknown if this social stress is evident at the level of the cellular stress response—specifically, the induction of stress or heat shock proteins (Hsps). Thus, the goal of our study was to determine if Hsps are induced during hierarchy formation in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this e...

  6. ELF (extremely-low-frequency) field interactions at the animal, tissue and cellular levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    A description is given of the fundamental physical properties of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, and the mechanisms through which these fields interact with the human body at a macroscopic level. Biological responses to ELF fields at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels are summarized, including new evidence that ELF field exposure produces alterations in gene expression and the cytoplasmic concentrations of specific proteins.

  7. On the photonic cellular interaction and the electric activity of neurons in the human brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salari, V.; Tuszynski, J. A.; Bokkon, I.; Rahnama, M.; Cifra, Michal

    Vol. 329. Bristol: IOP, 2011 - (Cifra, M.; Pokorny, J.; Kučera, O.), 012006 ISSN 1742-6588. [9th International Frohlich's Symposium on Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells - Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics. Praha (CZ), 01.07.2011-03.07.2011] Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Electric activity * Cellular interaction * Empirical evidence Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiese-Smith, Deneille [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Highley, Aaron M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Behrens, Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kay, Jeffrey J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  9. The evolution of early cellular systems viewed through the lens of biological interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M Poole

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The minimal cell concept represents a pragmatic approach to the question of how few genes are required to run a cell. This is a helpful way to build a parts-list, and has been more successful than attempts to deduce a minimal gene set for life by inferring the gene repertoire of the Last Universal Common Ancestor, as few genes trace back to this hypothetical ancestral state. However, the study of minimal cellular systems is the study of biological outliers where, by practical necessity, coevolutionary interactions are minimised or ignored. In this paper, we consider the biological context from which minimal genomes have been removed. For instance, some of the most reduced genomes are from endosymbionts and are the result of coevolutionary interactions with a host; few such organisms are ‘free-living’. As few, if any, biological systems exist in complete isolation, we expect that, as with modern life, early biological systems were part of an ecosystem, replete with organismal interactions. We favour refocusing discussions of the evolution of cellular systems on processes rather than gene counts. We therefore draw a distinction between a pragmatic minimal cell (an interesting engineering problem, a distributed genome (a system resulting from an evolutionary transition involving more than one cell and the looser coevolutionary interactions that are ubiquitous in ecosystems. Finally, we consider the distributed genome and coevolutionary interactions between genomic entities in the context of early evolution.

  10. Effects of multiple enzyme–substrate interactions in basic units of cellular signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalent modification cycles are a ubiquitous feature of cellular signalling networks. In these systems, the interaction of an active enzyme with the unmodified form of its substrate is essential for signalling to occur. However, this interaction is not necessarily the only enzyme–substrate interaction possible. In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of a basic model of signalling in which additional, non-essential enzyme–substrate interactions are possible. These interactions include those between the inactive form of an enzyme and its substrate, and between the active form of an enzyme and its product. We find that these additional interactions can result in increased sensitivity and biphasic responses, respectively. The dynamics of the responses are also significantly altered by the presence of additional interactions. Finally, we evaluate the consequences of these interactions in two variations of our basic model, involving double modification of substrate and scaffold-mediated signalling, respectively. We conclude that the molecular details of protein–protein interactions are important in determining the signalling properties of enzymatic signalling pathways. (paper)

  11. Cellular automata (CA) simulation of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on urban low-grade uncontrolled roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on uncontrolled low-grade roads or branch roads without separating barriers in cities where pedestrians may cross randomly from any location on both sides of the road. The rules governing pedestrian street crossings are analyzed, and a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings is proposed. The influence of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on the volume and travel time of the vehicle flow and the average wait time for pedestrians to cross is investigated through simulations. The main results of the simulation are as follows: (1) The vehicle flow volume decreases because of interruption from pedestrian crossings, but a small number of pedestrian crossings do not cause a significant delay to vehicles. (2) If there are many pedestrian crossings, slow vehicles will have little chance to accelerate, causing travel time to increase and the vehicle flow volume to decrease. (3) The average wait time for pedestrians to cross generally decreases with a decrease in vehicle flow volume and also decreases with an increase in the number of pedestrian crossings. (4) Temporal and spatial characteristics of vehicle flows and pedestrian flows and some interesting phenomena such as "crossing belt" and "vehicle belt" are found through the simulations.

  12. Interactions between small viral RNAs of vesicular stomatitis virus and components of cellular gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J D

    1985-05-01

    Recent interest in the details of virus-host interactions has come to focus on molecular contacts between cell factors and components of viruses. These generally concern protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this review, protein-nucleic acid interactions involving viral transcription products and cell proteins are considered. Also examined here will be the hypothesis that such interactions have evolved because viruses have adopted cellular processes to favour their own replication and that the consequences of this co-evolution can be the disruption of the macromolecular functions of the cell, and eventual cytopathology. For its own survival in the long term, the host may evolve more refined mechanisms to evade the damage levied by the intruding virus. PMID:2856377

  13. Patterns of HIV-1 protein interaction identify perturbed host-cellular subsystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I MacPherson

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 exploits a diverse array of host cell functions in order to replicate. This is mediated through a network of virus-host interactions. A variety of recent studies have catalogued this information. In particular the HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database (HHPID has provided a unique depth of protein interaction detail. However, as a map of HIV-1 infection, the HHPID is problematic, as it contains curation error and redundancy; in addition, it is based on a heterogeneous set of experimental methods. Based on identifying shared patterns of HIV-host interaction, we have developed a novel methodology to delimit the core set of host-cellular functions and their associated perturbation from the HHPID. Initially, using biclustering, we identify 279 significant sets of host proteins that undergo the same types of interaction. The functional cohesiveness of these protein sets was validated using a human protein-protein interaction network, gene ontology annotation and sequence similarity. Next, using a distance measure, we group host protein sets and identify 37 distinct higher-level subsystems. We further demonstrate the biological significance of these subsystems by cross-referencing with global siRNA screens that have been used to detect host factors necessary for HIV-1 replication, and investigate the seemingly small intersect between these data sets. Our results highlight significant host-cell subsystems that are perturbed during the course of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, we characterise the patterns of interaction that contribute to these perturbations. Thus, our work disentangles the complex set of HIV-1-host protein interactions in the HHPID, reconciles these with siRNA screens and provides an accessible and interpretable map of infection.

  14. Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  15. Photonic crystals as templates and active devices for cellular and molecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonek, G. J.

    2005-04-01

    Photonic crystals are emerging as an important class of engineered nanophotonic devices that possess unique optical properties and which can also provide textured surfaces for the study and control of cellular and molecular interactions. From among the many types of photonic crystal structures, two-dimensional (2D) and planar (slab) photonic crystals are the most attractive because of their ability to support guided-wave and active optical devices in semiconductor and polymer materials, serve as templates for device replication, and interface with colloidal and nanoparticle systems. This paper reports on the results of modeling and design efforts that show how 2d and slab silicon photonic crystals, based on their in-plane optical waveguiding and out-of-plane radiation properties, might be used to probe surface-bound cells and molecules or perform localized spectroscopy. The results of a parametric analysis show that photonic crystals comprised of high-index contrast materials (e.g. Si, air) are sensitive to geometric and material factors, potentially making them an effective medium to study molecular and cellular interactions critical to a number of biotechnological applications

  16. Use of specific glycosidases to probe cellular interactions in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idoni, Brian; Ghazarian, Haike; Metzenberg, Stan; Hutchins-Carroll, Virginia; Oppenheimer, Steven B; Carroll, Edward J

    2010-08-01

    We present an unusual and novel model for initial investigations of a putative role for specifically conformed glycans in cellular interactions. We have used alpha- and ss-amylase and alpha- and ss-glucosidase in dose-response experiments evaluating their effects on archenteron organization using the NIH designated sea urchin embryo model. In quantitative dose-response experiments, we show that defined activity levels of alpha-glucosidase and ss-amylase inhibited archenteron organization in living Lytechinus pictus gastrula embryos, whereas all concentrations of ss-glucosidase and alpha-amylase were without substantial effects on development. Product inhibition studies suggested that the enzymes were acting by their specific glycosidase activities and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested that there was no detectable protease contamination in the active enzyme samples. The results provide evidence for a role of glycans in sea urchin embryo cellular interactions with special reference to the possible structural conformation of these glycans based on the differential activities of the alpha- and ss-glycosidases. PMID:20435035

  17. A Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) Case Study in E-Government and Public Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using ethnomethod......This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using...

  18. Cellular Phone Towers, Towers, Published in 2001, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Steuben County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2001. It is described...

  19. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2008, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Columbus Consolidated Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. Data by this...

  20. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2008, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, White County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. Data by this...

  1. Cellular Phone Towers, Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, St James Parish Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. Data by this...

  2. Interacting factors and cellular localization of SR protein-specific kinase Dsk1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhaohua, E-mail: ztang@jsd.claremont.edu [W.M. Keck Science Center, The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Luca, Maria; Taggart-Murphy, Laura; Portillio, Jessica; Chang, Cathey; Guven, Ayse [W.M. Keck Science Center, The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Lin, Ren-Jang [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States); Murray, Johanne; Carr, Antony [Genome Damage and Stability Center, University of Sussex, Falmer, BN1 9RQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dsk1 is an SR protein-specific kinase (SRPK), whose homologs have been identified in every eukaryotic organism examined. Although discovered as a mitotic regulator with protein kinase activity toward SR splicing factors, it remains largely unknown about what and how Dsk1 contributes to cell cycle and pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we investigated the Dsk1 function by determining interacting factors and cellular localization of the kinase. Consistent with its reported functions, we found that pre-mRNA processing and cell cycle factors are prominent among the proteins co-purified with Dsk1. The identification of these factors led us to find Rsd1 as a novel Dsk1 substrate, as well as the involvement of Dsk1 in cellular distribution of poly(A){sup +} RNA. In agreement with its role in nuclear events, we also found that Dsk1 is mainly localized in the nucleus during G{sub 2} phase and at mitosis. Furthermore, we revealed the oscillation of Dsk1 protein in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This paper marks the first comprehensive analysis of in vivo Dsk1-associated proteins in fission yeast. Our results reflect the conserved role of SRPK family in eukaryotic organisms, and provide information about how Dsk1 functions in pre-mRNA processing and cell-division cycle.

  3. Interaction of alpha particles at the cellular level - Implications for the radiation weighting factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since low dose effects of alpha particles are produced by cellular hits in a relatively small fraction of exposed cells, the present study focuses on alpha particle interactions in bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to inhaled radon progeny. A computer code was developed for the calculation of microdosimetric spectra, dose and hit probabilities for alpha particles emitted from uniform and non-uniform source distributions in cylindrical and Y-shaped bronchial airway geometries. Activity accumulations at the dividing spur of bronchial airway bifurcations produce hot spots of cellular hits, indicating that a small fraction of cells located at such sites may receive substantially higher doses. While presently available data on in vitro transformation frequencies suggest that the relative biological effectiveness for alpha particles ranges from about 3 to 10, the effect of inhomogeneous activity distributions of radon progeny may slightly increase the radiation weighting factor relative to a uniform distribution. Thus a radiation weighting factor of about 10 may be more realistic than the current value of 20, at least for lung cancer risk following inhalation of short-lived radon progeny. (authors)

  4. Interacting factors and cellular localization of SR protein-specific kinase Dsk1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dsk1 is an SR protein-specific kinase (SRPK), whose homologs have been identified in every eukaryotic organism examined. Although discovered as a mitotic regulator with protein kinase activity toward SR splicing factors, it remains largely unknown about what and how Dsk1 contributes to cell cycle and pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we investigated the Dsk1 function by determining interacting factors and cellular localization of the kinase. Consistent with its reported functions, we found that pre-mRNA processing and cell cycle factors are prominent among the proteins co-purified with Dsk1. The identification of these factors led us to find Rsd1 as a novel Dsk1 substrate, as well as the involvement of Dsk1 in cellular distribution of poly(A)+ RNA. In agreement with its role in nuclear events, we also found that Dsk1 is mainly localized in the nucleus during G2 phase and at mitosis. Furthermore, we revealed the oscillation of Dsk1 protein in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This paper marks the first comprehensive analysis of in vivo Dsk1-associated proteins in fission yeast. Our results reflect the conserved role of SRPK family in eukaryotic organisms, and provide information about how Dsk1 functions in pre-mRNA processing and cell-division cycle.

  5. The cellular membrane as a mediator for small molecule interaction with membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Christopher G; Arcario, Mark J; Mahinthichaichan, Paween; Baylon, Javier L; Vermaas, Josh V; Navidpour, Latifeh; Wen, Po-Chao; Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2016-10-01

    The cellular membrane constitutes the first element that encounters a wide variety of molecular species to which a cell might be exposed. Hosting a large number of structurally and functionally diverse proteins associated with this key metabolic compartment, the membrane not only directly controls the traffic of various molecules in and out of the cell, it also participates in such diverse and important processes as signal transduction and chemical processing of incoming molecular species. In this article, we present a number of cases where details of interaction of small molecular species such as drugs with the membrane, which are often experimentally inaccessible, have been studied using advanced molecular simulation techniques. We have selected systems in which partitioning of the small molecule with the membrane constitutes a key step for its final biological function, often binding to and interacting with a protein associated with the membrane. These examples demonstrate that membrane partitioning is not only important for the overall distribution of drugs and other small molecules into different compartments of the body, it may also play a key role in determining the efficiency and the mode of interaction of the drug with its target protein. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg. PMID:27163493

  6. An antiviral disulfide compound blocks interaction between arenavirus Z protein and cellular promyelocytic leukemia protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) forms nuclear bodies (NB) that can be redistributed by virus infection. In particular, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) influences disruption of PML NB through the interaction of PML with the arenaviral Z protein. In a previous report, we have shown that the disulfide compound NSC20625 has antiviral and virucidal properties against arenaviruses, inducing unfolding and oligomerization of Z without affecting cellular RING-containing proteins such as the PML. Here, we further studied the effect of the zinc-finger-reactive disulfide NSC20625 on PML-Z interaction. In HepG2 cells infected with LCMV or transiently transfected with Z protein constructs, treatment with NSC20625 restored PML distribution from a diffuse-cytoplasmic pattern to punctate, discrete NB which appeared identical to NB found in control, uninfected cells. Similar results were obtained in cells transfected with a construct expressing a Z mutant in zinc-binding site 2 of the RING domain, confirming that this Z-PML interaction requires the integrity of only one zinc-binding site. Altogether, these results show that the compound NSC20625 suppressed Z-mediated PML NB disruption and may be used as a tool for designing novel antiviral strategies against arenavirus infection.

  7. Evolution of altruism in spatial prisoner's dilemma: Intra- and inter-cellular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Hiroki; Uehara, Takashi; Sakata, Tomoyuki; Naito, Hiromi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Iterated prisoner's dilemma game is carried out on lattice with “colony” structure. Each cell is regarded as a colony which contains plural players with an identical strategy. Both intra- and inter-cellular interactions are assumed. In the former a player plays with all other players in the same colony, while in the latter he plays with one player each from adjacent colonies. Spatial patterns among four typical strategies exhibit various dynamics and winners. Both theory and simulation reveal that All Cooperation (AC) wins, when the members of colony or the intensity of noise increases. This result explains the evolution of altruism in animal societies, even though errors easily occur in animal communications.

  8. Targeting the molecular and cellular interactions of the bone marrow niche in immunologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozowski, Jaime M; Billard, Matthew J; Tarrant, Teresa K

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations have expanded our knowledge of the regulatory bone marrow (BM) niche, which is critical in maintaining and directing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation. Osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells are niche components in close association with HSCs and have been more clearly defined in immune cell function and homeostasis. Importantly, cellular inhabitants of the BM niche signal through G protein-coupled surface receptors (GPCRs) for various appropriate immune functions. In this article, recent literature on BM niche inhabitants (HSCs, osteoblasts, MSCs, CAR cells) and their GPCR mechanistic interactions are reviewed for better understanding of the BM cells involved in immune development, immunologic disease, and current immune reconstitution therapies. PMID:24408534

  9. DNA-controlled dynamic colloidal nanoparticle systems for mediating cellular interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Seiichi; Glancy, Dylan; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2016-02-01

    Precise control of biosystems requires development of materials that can dynamically change physicochemical properties. Inspired by the ability of proteins to alter their conformation to mediate function, we explored the use of DNA as molecular keys to assemble and transform colloidal nanoparticle systems. The systems consist of a core nanoparticle surrounded by small satellites, the conformation of which can be transformed in response to DNA via a toe-hold displacement mechanism. The conformational changes can alter the optical properties and biological interactions of the assembled nanosystem. Photoluminescent signal is altered by changes in fluorophore-modified particle distance, whereas cellular targeting efficiency is increased 2.5 times by changing the surface display of targeting ligands. These concepts provide strategies for engineering dynamic nanotechnology systems for navigating complex biological environments.

  10. Biomaterial design for specific cellular interactions: Role of surface functionalization and geometric features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhar, Poornima

    The areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering have experienced extraordinary growth in recent years with the application of engineering principles and their potential to support and improve the field of medicine. The tremendous progress in nanotechnology and biotechnology has lead to this explosion of research and development in biomedical applications. Biomaterials can now be engineered at a nanoscale and their specific interactions with the biological tissues can be modulated. Various design parameters are being established and researched for design of drug-delivery carriers and scaffolds to be implanted into humans. Nanoparticles made from versatile biomaterial can deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides. Similarly in the field of tissue engineering, current approaches emphasize nanoscale control of cell behavior by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) unlike, traditional scaffolds. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely connected fields and both of these applications require materials with exceptional physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide superior therapy. In the current study the surface functionalization and the geometric features of the biomaterials has been explored. In particular, a synthetic surface for culture of human embryonic stem cells has been developed, demonstrating the importance of surface functionalization in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs. In the second study, the geometric features of the drug delivery carriers are investigated and the polymeric nanoneedles mediated cellular permeabilization and direct cytoplasmic delivery is reported. In the third study, the combined effect of surface functionalization and geometric modification of carriers for vascular targeting is enunciated. These studies illustrate how the biomaterials can be designed to achieve various cellular behaviors and control the

  11. Optimal cellular mobility for synchronization arising from the gradual recovery of intercellular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell movement and intercellular signaling occur simultaneously during the development of tissues, but little is known about how movement affects signaling. Previous theoretical studies have shown that faster moving cells favor synchronization across a population of locally coupled genetic oscillators. An important assumption in these studies is that cells can immediately interact with their new neighbors after arriving at a new location. However, intercellular interactions in cellular systems may need some time to become fully established. How movement affects synchronization in this situation has not been examined. Here, we develop a coupled phase oscillator model in which we consider cell movement and the gradual recovery of intercellular coupling experienced by a cell after movement, characterized by a moving rate and a coupling recovery rate, respectively. We find (1) an optimal moving rate for synchronization and (2) a critical moving rate above which achieving synchronization is not possible. These results indicate that the extent to which movement enhances synchrony is limited by a gradual recovery of coupling. These findings suggest that the ratio of time scales of movement and signaling recovery is critical for information transfer between moving cells. (paper)

  12. Special Issue: Redox Active Natural Products and Their Interaction with Cellular Signalling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, research into natural products has experienced a certain renaissance. The urgent need for more and more effective antibiotics in medicine, the demand for ecologically friendly plant protectants in agriculture, “natural” cosmetics and the issue of a sustainable and healthy nutrition in an ageing society have fuelled research into Nature’s treasure chest of “green gold”. Here, redox active secondary metabolites from plants, fungi, bacteria and other (micro-organisms often have been at the forefront of the most interesting developments. These agents provide powerful means to interfere with many, probably most cellular signaling pathways in humans, animals and lower organisms, and therefore can be used to protect, i.e., in form of antioxidants, and to frighten off or even kill, i.e., in form of repellants, antibiotics, fungicides and selective, often catalytic “sensor/effector” anticancer agents. Interestingly, whilst natural product research dates back many decades, in some cases even centuries, and compounds such as allicin and various flavonoids have been investigated thoroughly in the past, it has only recently become possible to investigate their precise interactions and mode(s of action inside living cells. Here, fluorescent staining and labelling on the one side, and appropriate detection, either qualitatively under the microscope or quantitatively in flow cytometers and plate readers, on the other, enable researchers to obtain the various pieces of information necessary to construct a fairly complete puzzle of how such compounds act and interact in living cells. Complemented by the more traditional activity assays and Western Blots, and increasingly joined by techniques such as proteomics, chemogenetic screening and mRNA profiling, these cell based bioanalytical techniques form a powerful platform for “intracellular diagnostics”. In the case of redox active compounds, especially of Reactive Sulfur

  13. Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzoni, Umberto; Turci, Marco; Avesani, Francesca; Di Gennaro, Gianfranco; Bidoia, Carlo; Romanelli, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) present very similar genomic structures but HTLV-1 is more pathogenic than HTLV-2. Is this difference due to their transactivating Tax proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, which are responsible for viral and cellular gene activation? Do Tax-1 and Tax-2 differ in their cellular localization and in their interaction pattern with cellular factors? In this review, we summarize Tax-1 and Tax-2 structural and phenotypic properties, their interaction with factors involved in signal transduction and their localization-related behavior within the cell. Special attention will be given to the distinctions between Tax-1 and Tax-2 that likely play an important role in their transactivation activity. PMID:21994745

  14. Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Romanelli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1 and type 2 (HTLV-2 present very similar genomic structures but HTLV-1 is more pathogenic than HTLV-2. Is this difference due to their transactivating Tax proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, which are responsible for viral and cellular gene activation? Do Tax-1 and Tax-2 differ in their cellular localization and in their interaction pattern with cellular factors? In this review, we summarize Tax-1 and Tax-2 structural and phenotypic properties, their interaction with factors involved in signal transduction and their localization-related behavior within the cell. Special attention will be given to the distinctions between Tax-1 and Tax-2 that likely play an important role in their transactivation activity.

  15. Hydrophobic interaction governs unspecific adhesion of staphylococci: a single cell force spectroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Thewes; Peter Loskill; Philipp Jung; Henrik Peisker; Markus Bischoff; Mathias Herrmann; Karin Jacobs

    2014-01-01

    Unspecific adhesion of bacteria is usually the first step in the formation of biofilms on abiotic surfaces, yet it is unclear up to now which forces are governing this process. Alongside long-ranged van der Waals and electrostatic forces, short-ranged hydrophobic interaction plays an important role. To characterize the forces involved during approach and retraction of an individual bacterium to and from a surface, single cell force spectroscopy is applied: A single cell of the apathogenic spe...

  16. Material power or normative conflict : determinants of the interaction between global and local agrifood governance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Doris; Glaab, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    "We witness a constant interaction of global and local forces in the global agrifood system. This paper develops an analytical framework for the identification of the relative impact of these global versus local forces on the sustainability of the agrifood system. In pursuit of its objectives, the framework highlights material and ideational sources of power as important determinants of how the contest between global and local actors and norms in global agrifood governance plays out. With ...

  17. Drug permeation and cellular interaction of amino acid-coated drug combination powders for pulmonary delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Ville; Bimbo, Luis M; Hirvonen, Jouni; Kauppinen, Esko I; Raula, Janne

    2016-05-17

    The effect of three amino acid coatings (l-leucine, l-valine and l-phenylalanine) on particle integrity, aerosolization properties, cellular interaction, cytocompatibility, and drug permeation properties of drug combination powder particles (beclomethasone dipropionate and salbutamol sulphate) for dry powder inhalation (DPI) was investigated. Particles with crystalline l-leucine coating resulted in intact separated particles, with crystalline l-valine coating in slightly sintered particles and with amorphous l-phenylalanine coating in strongly fused particles. The permeation of beclomethasone dipropionate across a Calu-3 differentiated cell monolayer was increased when compared with its physical mixture. Drug crystal formation was also observed on the Calu-3 cell monolayer. The l-leucine coated particles were further investigated for cytocompatibility in three human pulmonary (Calu-3, A549 and BEAS-2B) and one human macrophage (THP-1) cell lines, where they showed excellent tolerability. The l-leucine coated particles were also examined for their ability to elicit reactive oxygen species in pulmonary BEAS-2B and macrophage THP-1 cell lines. The study showed the influence of the amino acid coatings for particle formation and performance and their feasibility for combination therapy for pulmonary delivery. PMID:27034001

  18. Gelatin-Modified Bone Substitute with Bioactive Molecules Enhance Cellular Interactions and Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Arun Kumar; Gupta, Ankur; Raina, Deepak Bushan; Lidgren, Lars; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we have synthesized injectable bone cement incorporated with gelatin to enhance cellular interaction. Human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells derived bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) and a bisphosphonate (zoledronic acid (0.2 mM)) were also incorporated to cement. In vitro studies conducted using Saos-2 demonstrated enhanced cell proliferation on gelatin (0.2%w/v) cement. The differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblast cells into bone forming cells showed 6-fold increase in ALP levels on gelatin cement. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bone biomarkers showed osteoinductive potential of gelatin cement. We investigated efficacy for local delivery of these bioactive molecules in enhancing bone substitution qualities of bone cements by implanting in 3.5 mm critical size defect in tibial metaphysis of wistar rats. The rats were sacrificed after 12 weeks and 16 weeks post implantation. X-ray, micro-CT, histology, and histomorphometry analysis were performed to check bone healing. The cement materials slowly resorbed from the defect site leaving HAP creating porous matrix providing surface for bone formation. The materials showed high biocompatibility and initial bridging was observed in all the animals but maximum bone formation was observed in animals implanted with cement incorporated with zoledronic acid followed by cement with BMP's compared to other groups. PMID:27077816

  19. Interaction between core protein of classical swine fever virus with cellular IQGAP1 proetin appears essential for virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we show that IQGAP1, a cellular protein that plays a pivotal role as a regulator of the cytoskeleton affecting cell adhesion, polarization and migration, interacts with Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) Core protein. Sequence analyses identified a defined set of residues within CSFV Core prote...

  20. Institutions for sustainable forest governance: Robustness, equity, and cross-level interactions in Mawlyngbna, Meghalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Oberlack

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts Ostrom’s Social-Ecological Systems (SES framework in empirical fieldwork to explain how local forestry institutions affect forest ecosystems and social equity in the community of Mawlyngbna in North-East India. Data was collected through 26 semi-structured interviews, participatory timeline development, policy documents, direct observation, periodicals, transect walks, and a concurrent forest-ecological study in the village. Results show that Mawlyngbna's forests provide important sources of livelihood benefits for the villagers. However, ecological disturbance and diversity varies among the different forest ownership types and forest-based livelihood benefits are inequitably distributed. Based on a bounded rationality approach, our analysis proposes a set of causal mechanisms that trace these observed social-ecological outcomes to the attributes of the resource system, resource units, actors and governance system. We analyse opportunities and constraints of interactions between the village, regional, and state levels. We discuss how Ostrom’s design principles for community-based resource governance inform the explanation of robustness but have a blind spot in explaining social equity. We report experiences made using the SES framework in empirical fieldwork. We conclude that mapping cross-level interactions in the SES framework needs conceptual refinement and that explaining social equity of forest governance needs theoretical advances.

  1. Propagation of fluctuations in interaction networks governed by the law of mass action

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, Sergei; Ispolatov, Iaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Using an example of physical interactions between proteins, we study how perturbations propagate in interconnected networks whose equilibrium state is governed by the law of mass action. We introduce a comprehensive matrix formalism which predicts the response of this equilibrium to small changes in total concentrations of individual molecules, and explain it using a heuristic analogy to a current flow in a network of resistors. Our main conclusion is that on average changes in free concentrations exponentially decay with the distance from the source of perturbation. We then study how this decay is influenced by such factors as the topology of a network, binding strength, and correlations between concentrations of neighboring nodes. An exact analytic expression for the decay constant is obtained for the case of uniform interactions on the Bethe lattice. Our general findings are illustrated using a real biological network of protein-protein interactions in baker's yeast with experimentally determined protein c...

  2. Intermolecular interactions governing the partition between particulate and gas phases for typical organic pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU HaiYing; QIAO XianLiang; YANG Ping; DING GuangHui; CHEN JingWen

    2007-01-01

    The partition coefficients between particulate and gas phases (Kp) for organic pollutants are of great importance to characterize the behavior of organic pollutants in atmosphere, and are basic data needed by ecological risk assessment. Partial least squares (PLS) regression with 16 theoretical molecular structural descriptors was used to develop polyparameter linear free energy relationship (LFER) model for Kp of 18 aliphatic hydrocarbons, 21 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 13 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The obtained model has a good predictive ability and robustness, which can be used for estimating Kp of chemicals with similar structures. Intermolecular dispersive interactions play a leading role in governing Kp, followed by charge-transfer interactions and hindrance effects of molecular size. The respective models developed for different group compounds imply that the action mechanism is similar, and dipole-dipole and dipole-induced dipole interactions play a minor role in governing Kp of n-alkanes, PCBs and PCDD/Fs.

  3. Interactions between bacterial surface and nanoparticles govern the performance of "chemical nose" biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mohit S; Wei, Shih-Chung; Rogowski, Jacob L; Tsuji, Jackson M; Chen, Paul Z; Lin, Chii-Wann; Jones, Lyndon; Gu, Frank X

    2016-09-15

    Rapid and portable diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria can save lives lost from infectious diseases. Biosensors based on a "chemical nose" approach are attracting interest because they are versatile but the governing interactions between bacteria and the biosensors are poorly understood. Here, we use a "chemical nose" biosensor based on gold nanoparticles to explore the role of extracellular polymeric substances in bacteria-nanoparticle interactions. We employ simulations using Maxwell-Garnett theory to show how the type and extent of aggregation of nanoparticles influence their colorimetric response to bacteria. Using eight different species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, we demonstrate that this "chemical nose" can detect and identify bacteria over two orders of magnitude of concentration (89% accuracy). Additionally, the "chemical nose" differentiates between binary and tertiary mixtures of the three most common hospital-isolated pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100% accuracy). We demonstrate that the complex interactions between nanoparticles and bacterial surface determine the colorimetric response of gold nanoparticles and thus, govern the performance of "chemical nose" biosensors. PMID:27108254

  4. Explanation of Interaction between Iranian Physicians and Government in the Field of Tax: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdaman, Mohsen; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Sefiddashti, Sara Emamgholipour; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Abdoli, Ghahreman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the main tools for fair redistribution of income in the society is taxes, and, in developing countries, the public sector is financed through taxes. Identifying physicians’ income to determine their income tax is associated with many problems. This study was conducted to identify the factors that affect the interaction between Iranian physicians and the government regarding taxes to cover gaps in the tax system and resolve the problems associated with the interactions between physicians and the government relative to taxes. Methods This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted in 2015. Two groups of participants were involved in this qualitative study. The first group was 11 experts and scholars from organizations related to taxes, and the second group was 10 general practitioners and specialists selected through purposive sampling until data saturation was achieved. MAXQDA 10 software was used for assigning interviews, mining codes, and categorizing the codes. In addition, qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Data analysis resulted in emergence of three categories, i.e., “Tax Affairs Organization and government,” “physicians,” and “Medical Council.” There were 12 subcategories for these three categories. The results of this study showed that the Tax Affairs Organization does not have access to the income information of physicians required to determine their taxes. The government should create motivation for accurate and proper tax payments by physicians by providing them with various amenities. It should be clear and tangible where the government spends the taxes received from physicians, and an appropriate tax culture should be created by using the mass media. Conclusion The Tax Affairs Organization should identify the physicians who do not pay taxes through interaction and cooperation of the Medical Council as a trade organization, and it should compile their tax records. The Medical

  5. Detection of regulatory circuits by integrating the cellular networks of protein–protein interactions and transcription regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Margalit, Hanah

    2003-01-01

    The post-genomic era is marked by huge amounts of data generated by large-scale functional genomic and proteomic experiments. A major challenge is to integrate the various types of genome-scale information in order to reveal the intra- and inter- relationships between genes and proteins that constitute a living cell. Here we present a novel application of classical graph algorithms to integrate the cellular networks of protein–protein interactions and transcription regulation. We demonstrate ...

  6. Protein-protein interaction networks identify targets which rescue the MPP+ cellular model of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Harriet; Ryan, Brent J.; Jackson, Brendan; Whitmore, Alan; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are complex multifactorial disorders characterised by the interplay of many dysregulated physiological processes. As an exemplar, Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves multiple perturbed cellular functions, including mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation in preferentially-sensitive dopamine neurons, a selective pathophysiology recapitulated in vitro using the neurotoxin MPP+. Here we explore a network science approach for the selection of therapeutic protein targets in the cellular MPP+ model. We hypothesised that analysis of protein-protein interaction networks modelling MPP+ toxicity could identify proteins critical for mediating MPP+ toxicity. Analysis of protein-protein interaction networks constructed to model the interplay of mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation (key aspects of MPP+ toxicity) enabled us to identify four proteins predicted to be key for MPP+ toxicity (P62, GABARAP, GBRL1 and GBRL2). Combined, but not individual, knockdown of these proteins increased cellular susceptibility to MPP+ toxicity. Conversely, combined, but not individual, over-expression of the network targets provided rescue of MPP+ toxicity associated with the formation of autophagosome-like structures. We also found that modulation of two distinct proteins in the protein-protein interaction network was necessary and sufficient to mitigate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings validate our network science approach to multi-target identification in complex neurological diseases.

  7. Governance, Innovation, and Information and Communications Technology for Civil-Military Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rochelle Guttieri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Civilian and military participants in relief and stability operations rely upon Information and Communications Technology (ICT to collect, analyze, store, display, and share information that is critical for these civil-military interactions. This article investigates ICT innovation in these operations over time. As researchers in the sociology of technology school might predict, ICT innovation for relief and stability operations emerges in a distributed fashion, within clusters of specialty expertise that migrate across interconnected technology systems and across humanitarian and military activities. Major events such as natural disasters have punctuated the development of ICT for civil-military interactions, often driving community learning and coherence. Among the many stakeholders in the United States, the federal government in particular has played an important role in shaping the ICT ecosystem through policies and engagements. Government policies and changes in the field of action in the 1990s created imperatives for the US military in particular to collaborate with civilian agencies on ICT innovation. Civil-military information sharing gaps persist today due, in part, to institutional factors.

  8. Mystery of the Toxic Flea Dip: An Interactive Approach to Teaching Aerobic Cellular Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, A. T.; McVey, M.; Rybarczyk, B.; Thompson, J. T.; Wilkins, H. R.

    2004-01-01

    We designed an interrupted case study to teach aerobic cellular respiration to major and nonmajor biology students. The case is based loosely on a real-life incident of rotenone poisoning. It places students in the role of a coroner who must determine the cause of death of the victim. The case is presented to the students in four parts. Each part…

  9. Hydrophobic interaction governs unspecific adhesion of staphylococci: a single cell force spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewes, Nicolas; Loskill, Peter; Jung, Philipp; Peisker, Henrik; Bischoff, Markus; Herrmann, Mathias; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Unspecific adhesion of bacteria is usually the first step in the formation of biofilms on abiotic surfaces, yet it is unclear up to now which forces are governing this process. Alongside long-ranged van der Waals and electrostatic forces, short-ranged hydrophobic interaction plays an important role. To characterize the forces involved during approach and retraction of an individual bacterium to and from a surface, single cell force spectroscopy is applied: A single cell of the apathogenic species Staphylococcus carnosus isolate TM300 is used as bacterial probe. With the exact same bacterium, hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces can be probed and compared. We find that as far as 50 nm from the surface, attractive forces can already be recorded, an indication of the involvement of long-ranged forces. Yet, comparing the surfaces of different surface energy, our results corroborate the model that large, bacterial cell wall proteins are responsible for adhesion, and that their interplay with the short-ranged hydrophobic interaction of the involved surfaces is mainly responsible for adhesion. The ostensibly long range of the attraction is a result of the large size of the cell wall proteins, searching for contact via hydrophobic interaction. The model also explains the strong (weak) adhesion of S. carnosus to hydrophobic (hydrophilic) surfaces. PMID:25247133

  10. Hydrophobic interaction governs unspecific adhesion of staphylococci: a single cell force spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Thewes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unspecific adhesion of bacteria is usually the first step in the formation of biofilms on abiotic surfaces, yet it is unclear up to now which forces are governing this process. Alongside long-ranged van der Waals and electrostatic forces, short-ranged hydrophobic interaction plays an important role. To characterize the forces involved during approach and retraction of an individual bacterium to and from a surface, single cell force spectroscopy is applied: A single cell of the apathogenic species Staphylococcus carnosus isolate TM300 is used as bacterial probe. With the exact same bacterium, hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces can be probed and compared. We find that as far as 50 nm from the surface, attractive forces can already be recorded, an indication of the involvement of long-ranged forces. Yet, comparing the surfaces of different surface energy, our results corroborate the model that large, bacterial cell wall proteins are responsible for adhesion, and that their interplay with the short-ranged hydrophobic interaction of the involved surfaces is mainly responsible for adhesion. The ostensibly long range of the attraction is a result of the large size of the cell wall proteins, searching for contact via hydrophobic interaction. The model also explains the strong (weak adhesion of S. carnosus to hydrophobic (hydrophilic surfaces.

  11. Discovering the cellular-localized functional modules and modular interactions in response to liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jing; Guo Zheng; Yang Da; Zhang Min; Wang Jing; Wang Chenguang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly identify the functional modules enriched with differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and characterized by biological processes in specific cellular locations, based on gene ontology (GO) and microarray data. Then, we further define and filter disease relevant signature modules according to the ranking of the disease discriminating abilities of the pre-selected functional modules. At last, we analyze the potential way by which they cooperate towards human disease. Application of the proposed method to the analysis of a liver cancer dataset shows that, using the same false discovery rate (FDR) threshold, we can find more biologically meaningful and detailed processes by using the cellular localization information. Some biological evidences support the relevancy of our biological modules to the disease mechanism.

  12. Current concepts in chronic inflammatory diseases: Interactions between microbes, cellular metabolism, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Holger; Bahn, Sabine; Baune, Bernhard T; Binder, Elisabeth B; Bisgaard, Hans; Chatila, Talal A; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Culmsee, Carsten; Dannlowski, Udo; Gay, Steffen; Gern, James; Haahtela, Tari; Kircher, Tilo; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Neurath, Markus F; Preissner, Klaus T; Reinhardt, Christoph; Rook, Graham; Russell, Shannon; Schmeck, Bernd; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Steinhoff, Ulrich; van Os, Jim; Weiss, Scott; Zemlin, Michael; Renz, Harald

    2016-07-01

    Recent research indicates that chronic inflammatory diseases, including allergies and autoimmune and neuropsychiatric diseases, share common pathways of cellular and molecular dysregulation. It was the aim of the International von-Behring-Röntgen Symposium (October 16-18, 2014, in Marburg, Germany) to discuss recent developments in this field. These include a concept of biodiversity; the contribution of urbanization, lifestyle factors, and nutrition (eg, vitamin D); and new mechanisms of metabolic and immune dysregulation, such as extracellular and intracellular RNAs and cellular and mitochondrial stress. Epigenetic mechanisms contribute further to altered gene expression and therefore to the development of chronic inflammation. These novel findings provide the foundation for further development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27373325

  13. Characterization of the Interaction of Lassa Fever Virus with Its Cellular Receptor α-Dystroglycan

    OpenAIRE

    Kunz, Stefan; Rojek, Jillian M.; Perez, Mar; Spiropoulou, Christina F.; Oldstone, Michael B. A.

    2005-01-01

    The cellular receptor for the Old World arenaviruses Lassa fever virus (LFV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has recently been identified as α-dystroglycan (α-DG), a cell surface receptor that provides a molecular link between the extracellular matrix and the actin-based cytoskeleton. In the present study, we show that LFV binds to α-DG with high affinity in the low-nanomolar range. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with LFV glycoprotein (GP) adopted the recepto...

  14. Comparing the epidermal growth factor interaction with four different cell lines: intriguing effects imply strong dependency of cellular context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Björkelund

    Full Text Available The interaction of the epidermal growth factor (EGF with its receptor (EGFR is known to be complex, and the common over-expression of EGF receptor family members in a multitude of tumors makes it important to decipher this interaction and the following signaling pathways. We have investigated the affinity and kinetics of (125I-EGF binding to EGFR in four human tumor cell lines, each using four culturing conditions, in real time by use of LigandTracer®.Highly repeatable and precise measurements show that the overall apparent affinity of the (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction is greatly dependent on cell line at normal culturing conditions, ranging from K(D ≈ 200 pM on SKBR3 cells to K(D≈8 nM on A431 cells. The (125I-EGF - EGFR binding curves (irrespective of cell line have strong signs of multiple simultaneous interactions. Furthermore, for the cell lines A431 and SKOV3, gefitinib treatment increases the (125I-EGF - EGFR affinity, in particular when the cells are starved. The (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction on cell line U343 is sensitive to starvation while as on SKBR3 it is insensitive to gefitinib and starvation.The intriguing pattern of the binding characteristics proves that the cellular context is important when deciphering how EGF interacts with EGFR. From a general perspective, care is advisable when generalizing ligand-receptor interaction results across multiple cell-lines.

  15. Towards Inter- and Intra- Cellular Protein Interaction Analysis: Applying the Betweenness Centrality Graph Measure for Node Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alan J.; Haqqani, Arsalan S.

    2011-11-01

    Three public biological network data sets (KEGG, GeneRIF and Reactome) are collected and described. Two problems are investigated (inter- and intra- cellular interactions) via augmentation of the collected networks to the problem specific data. Results include an estimate of the importance of proteins for the interaction of inflammatory cells with the blood-brain barrier via the computation of Betweenness Centrality. Subsequently, the interactions may be validated from a number of differing perspectives; including comparison with (i) existing biological results, (ii) the literature, and (iii) new hypothesis driven biological experiments. Novel therapeutic and diagnostic targets for inhibiting inflammation at the blood-brain barrier in a number of brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis are possible. In addition, this methodology may also be applicable towards investigating the breast cancer tumour microenvironment.

  16. Plant-Herbivore Interaction: Dissection of the Cellular Pattern of Tetranychus urticae Feeding on the Host Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Nicolas; Santamaria, M. Estrella; Zhurov, Vladimir; Diaz, Isabel; Grbić, Miodrag; Grbić, Vojislava

    2016-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking. Here, utilizing histology and microscopy methods, we uncovered several key features of T. urticae feeding. By following the stylet path within the plant tissue, we determined that the stylet penetrates the leaf either in between epidermal pavement cells or through a stomatal opening, without damaging the epidermal cellular layer. Our recordings of mite feeding established that duration of the feeding event ranges from several minutes to more than half an hour, during which time mites consume a single mesophyll cell in a pattern that is common to both bean and Arabidopsis plant hosts. In addition, this study determined that leaf chlorotic spots, a common symptom of mite herbivory, do not form as an immediate consequence of mite feeding. Our results establish a cellular context for the plant-spider mite interaction that will support our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cell signaling associated with spider mite feeding. PMID:27512397

  17. Fighting over forest: interactive governance of conflicts over forest and tree resources in Ghana’s high forest zone

    OpenAIRE

    Derkyi, M.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on eight case studies, this book analyses conflicts over forests and trees in Ghana’s high forest zone and ways of dealing with them. It thereby addresses the full range of forest and tree-based livelihoods. Combining interactive governance theory with political ecology and conflict theories, the book provides an integrated framework for the analysis of natural resource conflicts. Recognising conflict management as a key building block of forest governance, it proposes constructive conf...

  18. Genome-wide Mapping of Cellular Protein-RNA Interactions Enabled by Chemical Crosslinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyu Li; Jinghui Song; Chengqi Yi

    2014-01-01

    RNA-protein interactions influence many biological processes. Identifying the binding sites of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) remains one of the most fundamental and important chal-lenges to the studies of such interactions. Capturing RNA and RBPs via chemical crosslinking allows stringent purification procedures that significantly remove the non-specific RNA and protein interactions. Two major types of chemical crosslinking strategies have been developed to date, i.e., UV-enabled crosslinking and enzymatic mechanism-based covalent capture. In this review, we com-pare such strategies and their current applications, with an emphasis on the technologies themselves rather than the biology that has been revealed. We hope such methods could benefit broader audi-ence and also urge for the development of new methods to study RNA RBP interactions.

  19. Biogeochemistry and biodiversity interact to govern N2 fixers (Fabaceae) across Amazon tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Beto

    2015-04-01

    Dinitrogen (N2)-fixing trees in the Fabaceae fulfill a central role in tropical rainforests by supplying nitrogen from the atmosphere, yet whether they will support a forest CO2 sink in the future by alleviating nitrogen limitation may depend on whether and how they are controlled by local environmental conditions. Theory predicts that soil nutrients govern the function of N2 fixers, yet there have been no large-scale field-based tests of this idea. Moreover, recent findings indicate that N2-fixing species behave differently in biogeochemical cycles, suggesting that any environmental control may differ by species, and that the diversity of N2-fixing trees may be critical for ensuring tropical forest function. In this talk, we will use the RAINFOR dataset of 108 (~1.0 ha) lowland tropical rainforest plots from across the Amazon Basin to test whether the abundance and diversity of N2-fixing trees are controlled by soil nutrient availability (i.e., increasing with phosphorus and decreasing with nitrogen), or if fixer abundance and diversity simply follow the dynamics of all tree species. We also test an alternative - but not mutually exclusive - hypothesis that the governing factor for fixers is forest disturbance. Results show a surprising lack of control by local nutrients or disturbance on the abundance or diversity of N2 fixers. The dominant driver of fixer diversity was the total number of tree species, with fixers comprising 10% of all species in a forest plot (R2 = 0.75, linear regression). When considering the dominant taxa of N2 fixers (Inga, Swartzia, Tachigali) alone, environmental factors (nitrogen, phosphorus and disturbance) became important and clearly governed their abundance. These taxa, which contain >60% of N2-fixing trees in the data set, appear to have evolved to specialize in different local environmental conditions. The strong biogeochemistry-by-biodiversity interaction observed here points to a need to consider individual species or taxa of N2

  20. Modelling for near-surface interaction of lithium ceramics and sweep-gas by use of cellular automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium release from the lithium ceramics as a fusion reactor breeder material is strongly affected by the composition of the sweep-gas as result of its influences with the material's surface. The typical surface processes which play important roles are adsorption, desorption and interaction between vacancy site and the constituents of the sweep-gas. Among a large number of studies and models, yet it seems to be difficult to model the overall behaviour of those processes due to its complex time-transient nature. In the present work the coarse grained atomic simulation based on the Cellular Automaton (CA) is used to model the dynamics of near-surface interaction between Li2O surface and sweep-gas that is consisting of a noble gas, hydrogen gas and water vapour. (author)

  1. Cellular immunity and pathogen strategies in combative interactions involving Drosophila hosts and their endoparasitic wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Nappi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Various cellular innate immune responses protect invertebrates from attack by eukaryotic pathogens. In insects, assessments of the factor(s causing, or contributing to, pathogen mortality have long considered as toxic components certain molecules associated with enzyme-mediated melanogenesis. In Drosophila hosts, observations that have prompted additional or alternative considerations are those that document either the survival of certain endoparasitic wasps despite melanotic encapsulation, or the destruction of the parasite with no evidence of this type of host response. Investigations of the production of some reactive intermediates of oxygen and nitrogen during infection provide a basis for proposing that these molecules constitute important elements of the immune arsenal of Drosophila. Studies of the target specificity of virulence factors injected by female wasps during infection that suppress the host immune response will likely facilitate identification of the toxic host molecules, and contribute to a more detailed understanding of the cell-signaling pathways that regulate their synthesis.

  2. Cellular interactions via conditioned media induce in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells or mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We have attempted in vivo nephron generation using conditioned media. •Vascular and tubular cells do cross-talks on cell proliferation and tubular changes. •Tubular cells suppress these changes in mesenchymal stem cells. •Tubular cells differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into tubular cells. •Nephrons can be created from implanted tubular cells or mesenchymal stem cells. -- Abstract: There are some successful reports of kidney generation by utilizing the natural course of kidney development, namely, the use of an artificially treated metanephros, blastocyst or ureteric bud. Under a novel concept of cellular interactions via conditioned media (CMs), we have attempted in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells (TECs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we used 10× CMs of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and TECs, which is the first to introduce a CM into the field of organ regeneration. We first present stimulative cross-talks induced by these CMs between VECs and TECs on cell proliferation and morphological changes. In MSCs, TEC-CM suppressed these changes, however, induced cytokeratin expression, indicating the differentiation of MSCs into TECs. As a result, glomerular and tubular structures were created following the implantation of TECs or MSCs with both CMs. Our findings suggest that the cellular interactions via CMs might induce in vivo nephron generation from TECs or MSCs. As a promoting factor, CMs could also be applied to the regeneration of other organs and tissues

  3. Cellular interactions via conditioned media induce in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells or mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machiguchi, Toshihiko, E-mail: machiguchi.toshihiko.23u@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Tatsuo, E-mail: nakamura@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •We have attempted in vivo nephron generation using conditioned media. •Vascular and tubular cells do cross-talks on cell proliferation and tubular changes. •Tubular cells suppress these changes in mesenchymal stem cells. •Tubular cells differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into tubular cells. •Nephrons can be created from implanted tubular cells or mesenchymal stem cells. -- Abstract: There are some successful reports of kidney generation by utilizing the natural course of kidney development, namely, the use of an artificially treated metanephros, blastocyst or ureteric bud. Under a novel concept of cellular interactions via conditioned media (CMs), we have attempted in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells (TECs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we used 10× CMs of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and TECs, which is the first to introduce a CM into the field of organ regeneration. We first present stimulative cross-talks induced by these CMs between VECs and TECs on cell proliferation and morphological changes. In MSCs, TEC-CM suppressed these changes, however, induced cytokeratin expression, indicating the differentiation of MSCs into TECs. As a result, glomerular and tubular structures were created following the implantation of TECs or MSCs with both CMs. Our findings suggest that the cellular interactions via CMs might induce in vivo nephron generation from TECs or MSCs. As a promoting factor, CMs could also be applied to the regeneration of other organs and tissues.

  4. Driving biofuels in Europe. A research on the interaction between external regulation and value chain governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explain the unforeseen ascendancy of biofuels in the transport sector, a thorough understanding of the biofuel industry (i.e. the value chain) is crucial. Next to the industry structure, it seems that the regulatory framework surrounding the chain also contributes to the formation and structure of the biofuel industry in Europe. This assumption rests on the 2003 European Union (EU) biofuel directives for the promotion of biofuels in EU member states. With tax exemptions and reference values, the European Commission (EC) achieves to raise the amount of biofuels in transportation. The hypothesis in this thesis is that the European biofuel industry reflects a correlation between external regulation and value chain structure. More specifically, it is expected to be a mutual relation. The proposition is that value chain actors not only anticipate to the regulatory environment, they are also likely to influence decision-making on regulations in their advantage. Simply stated, value chain actors are concerned with the regulatory framework in order to enhance their position in the chain. From an empirical and theoretical point of view, this is an interesting proposition since the interaction between regulations and value chain governance receive little attention in theory. For the food industry, this approach contributes to understand the development in biofuel regulations and the European biofuel industry. Chapter Two reports the theoretical foundation of this study. The research framework rests on two rather independent streams of literature. The first part discusses 'value chain theory' and enables to examine how the biofuel value chains in Europe looks like. Among the analytical instruments of this research tradition, the role of powerful actors in controlling the value chain is elaborated in depth. The second stream is rooted in political theory and is characterized as 'political decision-making theory'. Its focus is on the formulation of governmental regulation. A

  5. Interaction between the human cytomegalovirus‑encoded UL142 and cellular Snapin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Qi, Ying; Ma, Yanping; He, Rong; Sun, Zhengrong; Huang, Yujing; Ji, Yaohua; Ruan, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can cause severe illness in immunocompromised and immunodeficient individuals. As a novel HCMV‑encoded major histocompatibility complex class I‑related molecule, the UL142‑encoded protein (pUL142) is capable of suppressing natural killer (NK) cell recognition in the course of infection. However, no host factors that directly interact with HCMV pUL142 have been reported so far. In order to understand the interactions between HCMV pUL142 and host proteins, the current study used yeast two‑hybrid screening, a GST pull‑down assay and an immunofluorescence assay. A host protein, the SNARE‑associated protein Snapin, was identified to directly interact and colocalize with HCMV pUL142 in transfected human embryonic kidney‑293 cells. Snapin is abundantly expressed in the majority of cells and mediates the release of neurotransmitters through vesicular transport in the nervous system and vesicle fusion in non‑neuronal cells. It is hypothesized that HCMV pUL142 may have an impact on the neurotransmitter release process and viral dissemination via interaction with Snapin. PMID:25369979

  6. Revealing the sequence and resulting cellular morphology of receptor-ligand interactions during Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta E Weiss

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During blood stage Plasmodium falciparum infection, merozoites invade uninfected erythrocytes via a complex, multistep process involving a series of distinct receptor-ligand binding events. Understanding each element in this process increases the potential to block the parasite's life cycle via drugs or vaccines. To investigate specific receptor-ligand interactions, they were systematically blocked using a combination of genetic deletion, enzymatic receptor cleavage and inhibition of binding via antibodies, peptides and small molecules, and the resulting temporal changes in invasion and morphological effects on erythrocytes were filmed using live cell imaging. Analysis of the videos have shown receptor-ligand interactions occur in the following sequence with the following cellular morphologies; 1 an early heparin-blockable interaction which weakly deforms the erythrocyte, 2 EBA and PfRh ligands which strongly deform the erythrocyte, a process dependant on the merozoite's actin-myosin motor, 3 a PfRh5-basigin binding step which results in a pore or opening between parasite and host through which it appears small molecules and possibly invasion components can flow and 4 an AMA1-RON2 interaction that mediates tight junction formation, which acts as an anchor point for internalization. In addition to enhancing general knowledge of apicomplexan biology, this work provides a rational basis to combine sequentially acting merozoite vaccine candidates in a single multi-receptor-blocking vaccine.

  7. Interaction of heavy ions with nuclear chromatin: Spatiotemporal investigations of biological responses in a cellular environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beams offer the possibility to generate strictly localized DNA lesions within subregions of a cell nucleus. The distribution of the ion-induced damage can be indirectly visualized by immunocytochemical detection of repair-related proteins as radiation-induced foci. The proteins analyzed here were the double-strand break marker γ-H2AX, the excision repair and replication protein PCNA and the cell cycle regulator CDKN1A. A newly developed adjustable sample holder is now used to apply an irradiation geometry characterized by a small angle between the plane of the cellular monolayer and the incoming ion beam. This allows the spatial analysis of protein accumulations along ion trajectories, revealing an unexpected clustering after irradiation with low-energy zinc ions. The patterns of protein aggregation observed show considerable intrinsic variability, but similar patterns of protein clustering were obtained for functionally different proteins irrespective of the type of ion beam applied, confirming previous observations for lower and higher LET beams. Foci sizes within ion tracks were found to be larger for γ-H2AX foci in comparison to CDKN1A foci, in agreement with the known histone H2AX phosphorylation response. The results suggest that not the pattern of dose deposition but the underlying chromatin structure determines the distribution of protein clusters along tracks. Therefore, the requirement of time-lapse studies using live cells is emphasized for future studies on chromatin movement as a potential component of the DNA damage response

  8. Characterization of the Interaction of Lassa Fever Virus with Its Cellular Receptor α-Dystroglycan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Stefan; Rojek, Jillian M.; Perez, Mar; Spiropoulou, Christina F.; Oldstone, Michael B. A.

    2005-01-01

    The cellular receptor for the Old World arenaviruses Lassa fever virus (LFV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has recently been identified as α-dystroglycan (α-DG), a cell surface receptor that provides a molecular link between the extracellular matrix and the actin-based cytoskeleton. In the present study, we show that LFV binds to α-DG with high affinity in the low-nanomolar range. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with LFV glycoprotein (GP) adopted the receptor binding characteristics of LFV and depended on α-DG for infection of cells. Mapping of the binding site of LFV on α-DG revealed that LFV binding required the same domains of α-DG that are involved in the binding of LCMV. Further, LFV was found to efficiently compete with laminin α1 and α2 chains for α-DG binding. Together with our previous studies on receptor binding of the prototypic immunosuppressive LCMV isolate LCMV clone 13, these findings indicate a high degree of conservation in the receptor binding characteristics between the highly human-pathogenic LFV and murine-immunosuppressive LCMV isolates. PMID:15857984

  9. Characterization of the interaction of lassa fever virus with its cellular receptor alpha-dystroglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Stefan; Rojek, Jillian M; Perez, Mar; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Oldstone, Michael B A

    2005-05-01

    The cellular receptor for the Old World arenaviruses Lassa fever virus (LFV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has recently been identified as alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG), a cell surface receptor that provides a molecular link between the extracellular matrix and the actin-based cytoskeleton. In the present study, we show that LFV binds to alpha-DG with high affinity in the low-nanomolar range. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with LFV glycoprotein (GP) adopted the receptor binding characteristics of LFV and depended on alpha-DG for infection of cells. Mapping of the binding site of LFV on alpha-DG revealed that LFV binding required the same domains of alpha-DG that are involved in the binding of LCMV. Further, LFV was found to efficiently compete with laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains for alpha-DG binding. Together with our previous studies on receptor binding of the prototypic immunosuppressive LCMV isolate LCMV clone 13, these findings indicate a high degree of conservation in the receptor binding characteristics between the highly human-pathogenic LFV and murine-immunosuppressive LCMV isolates. PMID:15857984

  10. Nutrient-Gene Interaction in Colon Cancer, from the Membrane to Cellular Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tim Y; Davidson, Laurie A; Kim, Eunjoo; Fan, Yang-Yi; Fuentes, Natividad R; Triff, Karen; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-07-17

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently released an assessment classifying red and processed meat as "carcinogenic to humans" on the basis of the positive association between increased consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. Diet, however, can also decrease the risk for colorectal cancer and be used as a chemopreventive strategy. Bioactive dietary molecules, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, curcumin, and fermentable fiber, have been proposed to exert chemoprotective effects, and their molecular mechanisms have been the focus of research in the dietary/chemoprevention field. Using these bioactives as examples, this review surveys the proposed mechanisms by which they exert their effects, from the nucleus to the cellular membrane. In addition, we discuss emerging technologies involving the culturing of colonic organoids to study the physiological effects of dietary bioactives. Finally, we address future challenges to the field regarding the identification of additional molecular mechanisms and other bioactive dietary molecules that can be utilized in our fight to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. PMID:27431370

  11. iGPCR-drug: a web server for predicting interaction between GPCRs and drugs in cellular networking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xiao

    Full Text Available Involved in many diseases such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative, inflammatory and respiratory disorders, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are among the most frequent targets of therapeutic drugs. It is time-consuming and expensive to determine whether a drug and a GPCR are to interact with each other in a cellular network purely by means of experimental techniques. Although some computational methods were developed in this regard based on the knowledge of the 3D (dimensional structure of protein, unfortunately their usage is quite limited because the 3D structures for most GPCRs are still unknown. To overcome the situation, a sequence-based classifier, called "iGPCR-drug", was developed to predict the interactions between GPCRs and drugs in cellular networking. In the predictor, the drug compound is formulated by a 2D (dimensional fingerprint via a 256D vector, GPCR by the PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition generated with the grey model theory, and the prediction engine is operated by the fuzzy K-nearest neighbour algorithm. Moreover, a user-friendly web-server for iGPCR-drug was established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iGPCR-Drug/. For the convenience of most experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated math equations presented in this paper just for its integrity. The overall success rate achieved by iGPCR-drug via the jackknife test was 85.5%, which is remarkably higher than the rate by the existing peer method developed in 2010 although no web server was ever established for it. It is anticipated that iGPCR-Drug may become a useful high throughput tool for both basic research and drug development, and that the approach presented here can also be extended to study other drug - target interaction networks.

  12. Interactions of HIV-1 proteins with their cellular partners : insights from computational methods

    OpenAIRE

    Quy, Vo Cam

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 attacks vital cells in the human immune system. HIV-1 differs from many viruses since it is characterized by a very high genetic variability. This means that many variants of HIV-1 virus can be generated in a single infected patient in the course of one day. HIV-1 hypervariability causes drug resistance and, consequently, medical treatment failure. Targeting the interactions between proteins from HIV-1 and from Homo sapiens may represent an excellent solution for drug design because it ...

  13. Fighting over forest: interactive governance of conflicts over forest and tree resources in Ghana’s high forest zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.A. Derkyi

    2012-01-01

    Based on eight case studies, this book analyses conflicts over forests and trees in Ghana’s high forest zone and ways of dealing with them. It thereby addresses the full range of forest and tree-based livelihoods. Combining interactive governance theory with political ecology and conflict theories,

  14. Interactions between Corporate Governance, Bankruptcy Law and Firms Debt Financing: the Brazilian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Funchal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between corporate governance level and the bankruptcy law for such debt variables as firms’ cost of debt and amount (and variation of debt. Our empirical results are consistent with the model's prediction. First, we find that the better the corporate governance, the lower the cost of debt. Second, we find that better corporate governance arrangements relate to firms with higher amounts of debt. Finally we find that better governance and harsher bankruptcy laws have a positive effect on debt. Moreover, this effect is stronger for firms with worse corporate governance, which indicates that the law works as a substitute for governance practices to protect creditors' interests.

  15. Cellular polarization: Interaction between extrinsic bounded noises and the wave-pinning mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Franciscis, Sebastiano; d'Onofrio, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    Cell polarization (cued or uncued) is a fundamental mechanism in cell biology. As an alternative to the classical Turing bifurcation, it has been proposed that the onset of cell polarity might arise by means of the well-known phenomenon of wave-pinning [Gamba , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.0503974102 102, 16927 (2005)]. A particularly simple and elegant deterministic model of cell polarization based on the wave-pinning mechanism has been proposed by Edelstein-Keshet and coworkers [Biophys. J.BIOJAU0006-349510.1529/biophysj.107.120824 94, 3684 (2008)]. This model consists of a small biomolecular network where an active membrane-bound factor interconverts into its inactive form that freely diffuses in the cell cytosol. However, biomolecular networks do communicate with other networks as well as with the external world. Thus, their dynamics must be considered as perturbed by extrinsic noises. These noises may have both a spatial and a temporal correlation, and in any case they must be bounded to preserve the biological meaningfulness of the perturbed parameters. Here we numerically show that the inclusion of external spatiotemporal bounded parametric perturbations in the above wave-pinning-based model of cellular polarization may sometimes destroy the polarized state. The polarization loss depends on both the extent of temporal and spatial correlations and on the kind of noise employed. For example, an increase of the spatial correlation of the noise induces an increase of the probability of cell polarization. However, if the noise is spatially homogeneous then the polarization is lost in the majority of cases. These phenomena are independent of the type of noise. Conversely, an increase of the temporal autocorrelation of the noise induces an effect that depends on the model of noise.

  16. Immunogenetic analysis of cellular interactions governing the recruitment of T lymphocytes and monocytes in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced immunopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lyt2+ class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted virus-immune T cells that induce murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) are targeted onto radiation-resistant cells in the central nervous system of virus-infected mice. The use of appropriate bone marrow radiation chimeras as LCM virus-infected, (immunosuppressed recipients for immune T-cell transfer has established that, though bone marrow-derived cells can stimulate virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in spleen, they do not reconstitute the barrier to T-cell recruitment from blood to cerebrospinal fluid. This is true for chimeras made up to 8 months previously, even though the inflammatory monocytes and macrophages in such chimeras are all of donor bone marrow origin. Radiation-resistant cells in the spleens of these chimeras are also still able to further stimulate virus-immune CTL. There is no requirement for H-2 compatibility between virus-immune T lymphocytes and secondarily recruited monocytes, or T cells of an inappropriate specificity. The key event in LCM immunopathology may thus be localization of T cells to the antigen-presenting endothelium in brain, leading to the secretion of mediators that promote the nonspecific recruitment of monocytes and other T cells

  17. Nanoparticle-allergen interactions mediate human allergic responses: protein corona characterization and cellular responses

    OpenAIRE

    Radauer-Preiml, Isabella; Andosch, Ancuela; Hawranek, Thomas; Luetz-Meindl, Ursula; Wiederstein, Markus; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Himly, Martin; Boyles, Matthew; Duschl, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) interact with different biomolecules as soon as they are in contact, resulting in the formation of a biomolecule ‘corona’. Hence, the ‘corona’ defines the biological identity of the ENMs and could affect the response of the immune system to ENM exposure. With up to 40 % of the world population suffering from type I allergy, a possible modulation of allergen effects by binding to ENMs is highly relevant with respect to work place and consumer safety. ...

  18. iNR-Drug: Predicting the Interaction of Drugs with Nuclear Receptors in Cellular Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Nong Fan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are closely associated with various major diseases such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disease, and osteoporosis. Therefore, NRs have become a frequent target for drug development. During the process of developing drugs against these diseases by targeting NRs, we are often facing a problem: Given a NR and chemical compound, can we identify whether they are really in interaction with each other in a cell? To address this problem, a predictor called “iNR-Drug” was developed. In the predictor, the drug compound concerned was formulated by a 256-D (dimensional vector derived from its molecular fingerprint, and the NR by a 500-D vector formed by incorporating its sequential evolution information and physicochemical features into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition, and the prediction engine was operated by the SVM (support vector machine algorithm. Compared with the existing prediction methods in this area, iNR-Drug not only can yield a higher success rate, but is also featured by a user-friendly web-server established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-Drug/, which is particularly useful for most experimental scientists to obtain their desired data in a timely manner. It is anticipated that the iNR-Drug server may become a useful high throughput tool for both basic research and drug development, and that the current approach may be easily extended to study the interactions of drug with other targets as well.

  19. Cellular and biophysical evidence for interactions between adenosine triphosphate and P-glycoprotein substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, E H; Shrivastav, B; Salikhova, A Y;

    2001-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is involved with the removal of drugs, most of them cations, from the plasma membrane and cytoplasm. Pgp is also associated with movement of ATP, an anion, from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space. The central question of this study is whether drug and ATP transport associated...... with the expression of Pgp are in any way coupled. We have measured the stoichiometry of transport coupling between drug and ATP release. The drug and ATP transport that is inhibitable by the sulfonylurea compound, glyburide (P. E. Golstein, A. Boom, J. van Geffel, P. Jacobs, B. Masereel, and R....... Beauwens, Pfluger's Arch. 437, 652, 1999), permits determination of the transport coupling ratio, which is close to 1:1. In view of this result, we asked whether ATP interacts directly with Pgp substrates. We show by measuring the movement of Pgp substrates in electric fields that ATP and drug movement are...

  20. Suppression of cellular transformation by poly (A binding protein interacting protein 2 (Paip2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available Controlling translation is crucial for the homeostasis of a cell. Its deregulation can facilitate the development and progression of many diseases including cancer. Poly (A binding protein interacting protein 2 (Paip2 inhibits efficient initiation of translation by impairing formation of the necessary closed loop of mRNA. The over production of Paip2 in the presence of a constitutively active form of hRas(V12 can reduce colony formation in a semi-solid matrix and focus formation on a cell monolayer. The ability of Paip2 to bind to Pabp is required to suppress the transformed phenotype mediated by hRas(V12. These observations indicate that Paip2 is able to function as a tumor suppressor.

  1. Mechanism of Laser/light beam interaction at cellular and tissue level and study of the influential factors for the application of low level laser therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    After the discovery of laser therapy it was realized it has useful application of wound healing and reduce pain, but due to the poor understanding of the mechanism and dose response this technique remained to be controversial for therapeutic applications. In order to understand the working and effectiveness different experiments were performed to determine the laser beam effect at the cellular and tissue level. This article discusses the mechanism of beam interaction at tissues and cellular l...

  2. Interaction of the Papillomavirus E8∧E2C Protein with the Cellular CHD6 Protein Contributes to Transcriptional Repression▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Fertey, Jasmin; Ammermann, Ingo; Winkler, Michael; Stöger, Reinhard; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) is controlled by cellular transcription factors and by viral E2 and E8∧E2C proteins, which are both derived from the HPV E2 gene. Both proteins bind to and repress the HPV E6/E7 promoter. Promoter inhibition has been suggested to be due to binding site competition with cellular transcription factors and to interactions of different cellular transcription modulators with the different amino termini of E2 and E8∧E2C...

  3. On the Photonic Cellular Interaction and the Electric Activity of Neurons in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of Ultraweak Photon Emission (UPE) by biological systems is very fascinating, and both evidence of its effects and applications are growing rapidly due to improvements in experimental techniques. Since the relevant equipment should be ultrasensitive with high quantum efficiencies and very low noise levels, the subject of UPE is still hotly debated and some of the interpretations need stronger empirical evidence to be accepted at face value. In this paper we first review different types of interactions between light and living systems based on recent publications. We then discuss the feasibility of UPE production in the human brain. The subject of UPE in the brain is still in early stages of development and needs more accurate experimental methods for proper analysis. In this work we also discuss a possible role of mitochondria in the production of UPE in the neurons of the brain and the plausibility of their effects on microtubules (MTs). MTs have been implicated as playing an important role in the signal and information processing taking place in the mammalian (especially human) brain. Finally, we provide a short discussion about the feasible effects of MTs on electric neural activity in the human brain.

  4. An inhibitory interaction between viral and cellular proteins underlies the resistance of tomato to nonadapted tobamoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2009-05-26

    Any individual virus can infect only a limited range of hosts, and most plant species are "nonhosts" to a given virus; i.e., all members of the species are insusceptible to the virus. In nonhost plants, the factors that control virus resistance are not genetically tractable, and how the host range of a virus is determined remains poorly understood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a nonhost species for Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), members of the genus Tobamovirus. Previously, we identified Tm-1, a resistance gene of tomato to another tobamovirus, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), and found that Tm-1 binds to ToMV replication proteins to inhibit RNA replication. Tm-1 is derived from a wild tomato species, S. habrochaites, and ToMV-susceptible tomato cultivars have the allelic gene tm-1. The tm-1 protein can neither bind to ToMV replication proteins nor inhibit ToMV multiplication. Here, we show that transgenic tobacco plants expressing tm-1 exhibit resistance to TMGMV and PMMoV. The tm-1 protein bound to the replication proteins of TMGMV and PMMoV and inhibited their RNA replication in vitro. In one of the tm-1-expressing tobacco plants, a tm-1-insensitive TMGMV mutant emerged. In tomato protoplasts, this mutant TMGMV multiplied as efficiently as ToMV. However, in tomato plants, the mutant TMGMV multiplied with lower efficiency compared to ToMV and caused systemic necrosis. These results suggest that an inhibitory interaction between the replication proteins and tm-1 underlies a multilayered resistance mechanism to TMGMV in tomato. PMID:19423673

  5. Looking for a needle in a haystack: Cellular proteins that may interact with the tyrosine-based sorting signal of the TGEV S protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincone, Anna; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel

    2015-04-16

    The spike protein S of transmissible gastroenteritis virus, an Alphacoronavirus, contains a tyrosine-based sorting signal that is responsible for ERGIC retention and may be important for a correct viral assembly process. To find out whether the S protein interacts with cellular proteins via this sorting signal, a pulldown assay with GST fusion proteins was performed. Filamin A has been identified as a putative interaction candidate. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed a co-localization between the TGEV S protein and filamin A. Further experiments have to be performed to prove a significant impact of filamin A on TGEV infection. Different approaches of several researchers for the identification of cellular interaction candidates relevant for coronavirus replication are summarized. These results may help in the future to identify the role of cellular proteins during coronavirus assembly at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. PMID:25481285

  6. Assembling an experimentalist regime: transnational governance interactions in the forest sector

    OpenAIRE

    Overdevest, C.; Zeitlin, J

    2012-01-01

    Transnational governance initiatives increasingly face the problem of regime complexity in which a proliferation of regulatory schemes operate in the same policy domain, supported by varying combinations of public and private actors. The literature suggests that such regime complexity can lead to forum shopping and other self-interested strategies, which undermine the effectiveness of transnational regulation. Based on the design principles of experimentalist governance, this paper identifies...

  7. Private-public interaction in global governance: The case of transnational commercial arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Whytock, CA

    2010-01-01

    Scholars of international relations and global governance are increasingly interested in the transnational commercial arbitration system. So far, they have tended to characterize the system as a form of private global governance. However, using a combination of empirical and legal analysis, this article draws attention to the critical role of the state in the transnational commercial arbitration system, and shows that both rule-making and enforcement in the system depend largely on interactio...

  8. The influence of receptor-mediated interactions on reaction-diffusion mechanisms of cellular self-organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, Václav; Baker, Ruth E; Headon, Denis; Gaffney, Eamonn A

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms governing and regulating self-organisation in the developing embryo is a key challenge that has puzzled and fascinated scientists for decades. Since its conception in 1952 the Turing model has been a paradigm for pattern formation, motivating numerous theoretical and experimental studies, though its verification at the molecular level in biological systems has remained elusive. In this work, we consider the influence of receptor-mediated dynamics within the framework of Turing models, showing how non-diffusing species impact the conditions for the emergence of self-organisation. We illustrate our results within the framework of hair follicle pre-patterning, showing how receptor interaction structures can be constrained by the requirement for patterning, without the need for detailed knowledge of the network dynamics. Finally, in the light of our results, we discuss the ability of such systems to pattern outside the classical limits of the Turing model, and the inherent dangers involved in model reduction. PMID:22072186

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, Dorchester County Cell Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Dorchester County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as...

  10. Micropatterned co-culture of hepatocyte spheroids layered on non-parenchymal cells to understand heterotypic cellular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfabrication and micropatterning techniques in tissue engineering offer great potential for creating and controlling cellular microenvironments including cell–matrix interactions, soluble stimuli and cell–cell interactions. Here, we present a novel approach to generate layered patterning of hepatocyte spheroids on micropatterned non-parenchymal feeder cells using microfabricated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Micropatterned PEG-hydrogel-treated substrates with two-dimensional arrays of gelatin circular domains (ϕ = 100 μm) were prepared by photolithographic method. Only on the critical structure of PEG hydrogel with perfect protein rejection, hepatocytes were co-cultured with non-parenchymal cells to be led to enhanced hepatocyte functions. Then, we investigated the mechanism of the functional enhancement in co-culture with respect to the contributions of soluble factors and direct cell–cell interactions. In particular, to elucidate the influence of soluble factors on hepatocyte function, hepatocyte spheroids underlaid with fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts) or endothelial cells (BAECs: bovine aortic endothelial cells) were compared with physically separated co-culture of hepatocyte monospheroids with NIH3T3 or BAEC using trans-well culture systems. Our results suggested that direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors, both of these between hepatocytes and fibroblasts, significantly enhanced hepatocyte functions. In contrast, direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact between hepatocytes and endothelial cells only contributed to enhance hepatocyte functions. This patterning technique can be a useful experimental tool for applications in basic science, drug screening and tissue engineering, as well as in the design of artificial liver devices. (paper)

  11. Graphene nanoplatelets spontaneously translocate into the cytosol and physically interact with cellular organelles in the fish cell line PLHC-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammel, Tobias; Navas, José M., E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • We assessed the cytotoxicity and uptake of graphene nanomaterials in PLHC-1 cells. • GO and CXYG nanoplatelets caused physical injury of the plasma membrane. • GO and CXYG accumulated in the cytosol and interacted with cellular organelles. • PLHC-1 cells exposed to GO/CXYG demonstrated high ROS levels but low cytotoxicity. • ROS formation was related with GO/CXYG-induced structural damage of mitochondria. - Abstract: Graphene and graphene derivatives constitute a novel class of carbon-based nanomaterials being increasingly produced and used in technical and consumer applications. Release of graphene nanoplatelets during the life cycle of these applications may result in human and environmental exposure calling for assessment of their potential to cause harm to humans and wildlife. This study aimed to assess the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) and carboxyl graphene (CXYG) nanoplatelets to non-mammalian species using the fish cell line PLHC-1 as in vitro model. The cytotoxicity of GO and CXYG was assessed using different assays measuring alterations in plasma membrane integrity, metabolic activity, and lysosomal and mitochondrial function. The induction of oxidative stress was assessed by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Interaction with the plasma membrane and internalization of nanoplatelets were investigated by electron microscopy. Graphene nanoplatelets spontaneously penetrated through the plasma membrane and accumulated in the cytosol, where they further interacted with mitochondrial and nuclear membranes. PLHC-1 cells demonstrated significantly reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased ROS levels at 16 μg/ml GO and CXYG (72 h), but barely any decrease in cell viability. The observation of intracellular graphene accumulations not enclosed by membranes suggests that GO and CXYG internalization in fish hepatoma cells occurs through an endocytosis-independent mechanism.

  12. Calcitriol-copper interaction leads to non enzymatic, reactive oxygen species mediated DNA breakage and modulation of cellular redox scavengers in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Asim; Farhan, Mohd; Naseem, Imrana; Hadi, S M

    2016-09-01

    Calcitriol is the metabolically active form of Vitamin D and is known to kill cancer cells. Using the rat model of DEN induced hepatocellular carcinoma we show that there is a marked increase in cellular levels of copper in hepatocellular carcinoma and that calcitriol-copper interaction leads to reactive oxygen species mediated DNA breakage selectively in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In vivo studies show that calcitriol selectively induces severe fluctuations in cellular enzymatic and non enzymatic scavengers of reactive oxygen species in the malignant tissue. Lipid peroxidation, a well established marker of oxidative stress, was found to increase, and substantial cellular DNA breakage was observed. We propose that calcitriol is a proxidant in the cellular milieu of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and this copper mediated prooxidant action of calcitriol causes selective DNA breakage in malignant cells, while sparing normal (non malignant) cells. PMID:27343126

  13. THE DETERMINANTS OF E-GOVERNMENT RELATIONAL MODELS CONSTRUCTION: INTERACTION, COMMUNICATION, PARTICIPATION AND COLLABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Neamtu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades the integrating approach of new information and communication technologies in the public sector grew faster. Worldwide, most states have made and still make substantiate efforts towards the coherent strategies implementation in order to favor the complex process of integrating the new information and communication technologies. Regardless of the objectives - maximizing efficiency, increase transparency in the decision process, improve service quality or citizen participation in decision making - what we call today e-Government has become an essential mechanism in administrative reforms, independent of aggregation level. The article presents an analysis of the factors that define the outline of the e-government relational model.

  14. From molecular interaction to acute promyelocytic leukemia: Calculating leukemogenesis and remission from endogenous molecular-cellular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ruoshi; Zhu, Xiaomei; Radich, Jerald P; Ao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) remains the best example of a malignancy that can be cured clinically by differentiation therapy. We demonstrate that APL may emerge from a dynamical endogenous molecular-cellular network obtained from normal, non-cancerous molecular interactions such as signal transduction and translational regulation under physiological conditions. This unifying framework, which reproduces APL, normal progenitor, and differentiated granulocytic phenotypes as different robust states from the network dynamics, has the advantage to study transition between these states, i.e. critical drivers for leukemogenesis and targets for differentiation. The simulation results quantitatively reproduce microarray profiles of NB4 and HL60 cell lines in response to treatment and normal neutrophil differentiation, and lead to new findings such as biomarkers for APL and additional molecular targets for arsenic trioxide therapy. The modeling shows APL and normal states mutually suppress each other, both in "wiring" and in dynamical cooperation. Leukemogenesis and recovery under treatment may be a consequence of spontaneous or induced transitions between robust states, through "passes" or "dragging" by drug effects. Our approach rationalizes leukemic complexity and constructs a platform towards extending differentiation therapy by performing "dry" molecular biology experiments. PMID:27098097

  15. Interaction of cadmium and zinc on accumulation and sub-cellular distribution in leaves of hyperaccumulator Potentilla griffithii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Rongliang, E-mail: eesqrl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Thangavel, Palaniswamy; Hu Pengjie; Senthilkumar, Palaninaicker; Ying Rongrong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Tang Yetao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Potentilla griffithii Hook is a newly found hyperaccumulator plant capable of high tolerance and accumulation of Zn and Cd. We investigated the interactive effects between Cd and Zn on accumulation and vacuolar sequestration in P. griffithii. Stimulatory effect of growth was noted at 0.2 mM Cd and 1.25 and 2.5 mM Zn tested. Accumulation of Zn and Cd in roots, petioles and leaves were increased significantly with addition of these metals individually. However, the Zn supplement decreased root Cd accumulation but increased the concentration of Cd in petioles and leaves. The results from sub-cellular distribution showed that up to 94% and 70% of the total Zn and Cd in the leaves were present in the protoplasts, and more than 90% Cd and Zn in the protoplasts were localized in the vacuoles. Nearly, 88% and 85% of total Cd and Zn were extracted in the cell sap of the leaves suggesting that most of the Cd and Zn in the leaves were available in soluble form. The present results indicate that Zn supplement significantly enhanced the petiole accumulation of Cd and further vacuolar sequestration plays an important role in tolerance, detoxification and hyperaccumulation of these metals in P. griffithii.

  16. Interaction of cadmium and zinc on accumulation and sub-cellular distribution in leaves of hyperaccumulator Potentilla griffithii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rong-Liang; Thangavel, Palaniswamy; Hu, Peng-Jie; Senthilkumar, Palaninaicker; Ying, Rong-Rong; Tang, Ye-Tao

    2011-02-28

    Potentilla griffithii Hook is a newly found hyperaccumulator plant capable of high tolerance and accumulation of Zn and Cd. We investigated the interactive effects between Cd and Zn on accumulation and vacuolar sequestration in P. griffithii. Stimulatory effect of growth was noted at 0.2 mM Cd and 1.25 and 2.5 mM Zn tested. Accumulation of Zn and Cd in roots, petioles and leaves were increased significantly with addition of these metals individually. However, the Zn supplement decreased root Cd accumulation but increased the concentration of Cd in petioles and leaves. The results from sub-cellular distribution showed that up to 94% and 70% of the total Zn and Cd in the leaves were present in the protoplasts, and more than 90% Cd and Zn in the protoplasts were localized in the vacuoles. Nearly, 88% and 85% of total Cd and Zn were extracted in the cell sap of the leaves suggesting that most of the Cd and Zn in the leaves were available in soluble form. The present results indicate that Zn supplement significantly enhanced the petiole accumulation of Cd and further vacuolar sequestration plays an important role in tolerance, detoxification and hyperaccumulation of these metals in P. griffithii. PMID:21211902

  17. A Hsp40 chaperone protein interacts with and modulates the cellular distribution of the primase protein of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Pei

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA replication is a universal and essential process for all herpesvirus including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. HCMV UL70 protein, which is believed to encode the primase activity of the viral DNA replication machinery and is highly conserved among herpesviruses, needs to be localized in the nucleus, the site of viral DNA synthesis. No host factors that facilitate the nuclear import of UL70 have been reported. In this study, we provided the first direct evidence that UL70 specifically interacts with a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed member of the heat shock protein Hsp40/DNAJ family, DNAJB6, which is expressed as two isoforms, a and b, as a result of alternative splicing. The interaction of UL70 with a common region of DNAJB6a and b was identified by both a two hybrid screen in yeast and coimmunoprecipitation in human cells. In transfected cells, UL70 was primarily co-localized with DNAJB6a in the nuclei and with DNAJB6b in the cytoplasm, respectively. The nuclear import of UL70 was increased in cells in which DNAJB6a was up-regulated or DNAJB6b was down-regulated, and was reduced in cells in which DNAJB6a was down-regulated or DNAJB6b was up-regulated. Furthermore, the level of viral DNA synthesis and progeny production was increased in cells in which DNAJB6a was up-regulated or DNAJB6b was down-regulated, and was reduced in cells in which DNAJB6a was down-regulated or DNAJB6b was up-regulated. Thus, DNAJB6a and b appear to enhance the nuclear import and cytoplasmic accumulation of UL70, respectively. Our results also suggest that the relative expression levels of DNAJB6 isoforms may play a key role in regulating the cellular localization of UL70, leading to modulation of HCMV DNA synthesis and lytic infection.

  18. Cellular Interactions and Biological Responses to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in HepG2 and BEAS-2B Cells: Role of Cell Culture Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT We have shown previously that the composition of the biological medium used in vitro can affect the cellular interaction and biological response of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in human lung epithelial cells. However, it is unclear if these effects are co...

  19. PUBLIC-PRIVATE INTERACTION IN CONTRACTING : GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES IN THE COMPETITIVE DIALOGUE OF DUTCH INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Sander; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    The competitive dialogue (CD) procurement procedure aims to structure and facilitate public-private interaction in procurement. In this article we examine the CD procedures of four complex Dutch road infrastructure projects and explore how the mix in public-private interaction between the three gove

  20. An Innovative, Open, Interoperable Citizen Engagement Cloud Platform for Smart Government and Users' Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Recupero, Diego Reforgiato; Castronovo, Mario; Consoli, Sergio; Costanzo, Tarcisio; Gangemi, Aldo; Grasso, Luigi; Lodi, Giorgia; Merendino, Gianluca; Mongiovì, Misael; Presutti, Valentina; Rapisarda, Salvatore Davide; Rosa, Salvo; Spampinato, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an open, interoperable, and cloud-computing-based citizen engagement platform for the management of administrative processes of public administrations, which also increases the engagement of citizens. The citizen engagement platform is the outcome of a 3-year Italian national project called PRISMA (Interoperable cloud platforms for smart government). The aim of the project is to constitute a new model of digital ecosystem that can support and enable new methods of intera...

  1. Mechanism of Laser/light beam interaction at cellular and tissue level and study of the influential factors for the application of low level laser therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khalid, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    After the discovery of laser therapy it was realized it has useful application of wound healing and reduce pain, but due to the poor understanding of the mechanism and dose response this technique remained to be controversial for therapeutic applications. In order to understand the working and effectiveness different experiments were performed to determine the laser beam effect at the cellular and tissue level. This article discusses the mechanism of beam interaction at tissues and cellular level with different light sources and dosimetry principles for clinical application of low level laser therapy. Different application techniques and methods currently in use for clinical treatment has also been reviewed.

  2. Community Interactions In Tropical Forest Restoration And Environmental Governance In The Panama Canal Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, Daniella

    2012-01-01

    Increased global awareness of the loss of environmental services that derive from deforestation has triggered calls to promote the recovery of tropical forests. I studied two types of community interactions in tropical forest restoration. The first two chapters present the results of applying tools from phylogenetic ecology to tropical forest restoration. I hypothesized that negative biotic interactions, driven mainly by shared deleterious symbionts, would reduce the natural recruitment of cl...

  3. Seismic Site-City Interaction: Main Governing Phenomena through Simplified Numerical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kham, A.; Semblat, Jean François; Bard, Pierre-Yves; DANGLA, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    International audience This work focuses on the analysis of the multiple interactions between soil layers and civil-engineering structures in dense urban areas submitted to a seismic wave. To investigate such phenomena, called site-city interaction (SCI) herein, two simplified site-city configurations are considered: a homogeneous, periodically spaced city and a heterogeneous, nonperiodically spaced city, both on a constant- depth basin model. These 2D boundary-element method models are su...

  4. Seismic site-city interaction : Main governing phenomena through simplified numerical models

    OpenAIRE

    KHAM, M; SEMBLAT, JF; BARD, PY; DANGLA, P

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of the multiple interactions between soil layers and civil-engineering structures in dense urban areas submitted to a seismic wave. To investigate such phenomena, called site-city interaction (SCI) herein, two simplified site-city configurations are considered: a homogeneous, periodically spaced city and a heterogeneous, nonperiodically spaced city, both on a constant- depth basin model. These 2D boundary-element method models are subjected to a vertically in...

  5. Community interactions govern host-switching with implications for host–parasite coevolutionary history

    OpenAIRE

    Harbison, Christopher W.; Clayton, Dale H.

    2011-01-01

    Reciprocal selective effects between coevolving species are often influenced by interactions with the broader ecological community. Community-level interactions may also influence macroevolutionary patterns of coevolution, such as cospeciation, but this hypothesis has received little attention. We studied two groups of ecologically similar feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) that differ in their patterns of association with a single group of hosts. The two groups, “body lice” and “wing li...

  6. Direct interaction of cellular hnRNP-F and NS1 of influenza A virus accelerates viral replication by modulation of viral transcriptional activity and host gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate novel NS1-interacting proteins, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid analysis, followed by co-immunoprecipitation assays. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP-F) as a cellular protein interacting with NS1 during influenza A virus infection. Co-precipitation assays suggest that interaction between hnRNP-F and NS1 is a common and direct event among human or avian influenza viruses. NS1 and hnRNP-F co-localize in the nucleus of host cells, and the RNA-binding domain of NS1 directly interacts with the GY-rich region of hnRNP-F determined by GST pull-down assays with truncated proteins. Importantly, hnRNP-F expression levels in host cells indicate regulatory role on virus replication. hnRNP-F depletion by small interfering RNA (siRNA) shows 10- to 100-fold increases in virus titers corresponding to enhanced viral RNA polymerase activity. Our results delineate novel mechanism of action by which NS1 accelerates influenza virus replication by modulating normal cellular mRNA processes through direct interaction with cellular hnRNP-F protein.

  7. The Influence of Receptor-Mediated Interactions on Reaction-Diffusion Mechanisms of Cellular Self-organisation

    KAUST Repository

    Klika, Václav

    2011-11-10

    Understanding the mechanisms governing and regulating self-organisation in the developing embryo is a key challenge that has puzzled and fascinated scientists for decades. Since its conception in 1952 the Turing model has been a paradigm for pattern formation, motivating numerous theoretical and experimental studies, though its verification at the molecular level in biological systems has remained elusive. In this work, we consider the influence of receptor-mediated dynamics within the framework of Turing models, showing how non-diffusing species impact the conditions for the emergence of self-organisation. We illustrate our results within the framework of hair follicle pre-patterning, showing how receptor interaction structures can be constrained by the requirement for patterning, without the need for detailed knowledge of the network dynamics. Finally, in the light of our results, we discuss the ability of such systems to pattern outside the classical limits of the Turing model, and the inherent dangers involved in model reduction. © 2011 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  8. Dissecting the chemical interactions and substrate structural signatures governing RNA polymerase II trigger loop closure by synthetic nucleic acid analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Liang; Butler, Kyle Vincent; Chong, Jenny; Wengel, Jesper; Kool, Eric T; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    The trigger loop (TL) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a conserved structural motif that is crucial for Pol II catalytic activity and transcriptional fidelity. The TL remains in an inactive open conformation when the mismatched substrate is bound. In contrast, TL switches from an inactive open...... remains elusive. Here we employed synthetic nucleotide analogues as 'chemical mutation' tools coupling with α-amanitin transcription inhibition assay to systematically dissect the key chemical interactions and structural signatures governing the substrate-coupled TL closure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol...

  9. Democratic Governance through interaction between NGOs, Universities and Science Shops:Experiences, Expectations, Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    is to contribute to improved interaction between NGOs, universities and Science Shops by providing information on the experiences and expectations of co-operation between small and medium NGOs and universities through intermediaries such as Science Shops. The project should be seen as a contribution...... Accompanying Measure to ISSNET (the Thematic Network of Inter-national Science Shop Network, Living Knowledge). The INTERACTS research project has included: • A State-of-the-Art survey about political and institutional contexts of co-operation between small to medium non-governmental organisations (NGOs......), Science Shops, and universities in the partner countries. • Twenty-one national case studies analysing experiences of interaction between NGOs, researchers, students and Science Shops and the impact on societal dis-courses, research agendas and university curricula • The expectations for and perspectives...

  10. Synaptotagmin interaction with SNAP-25 governs vesicle docking, priming, and fusion triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohrmann, Ralf; de Wit, Heidi; Connell, Emma; da Silva Pinheiro, Paulo César; Leese, Charlotte; Bruns, Dieter; Davletov, Bazbek; Verhage, Matthijs; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev

    2013-01-01

    no further functional alterations in synaptotagmin-1-deficient cells, indicating that the central acidic patch indeed constitutes a mechanistically relevant synaptotagmin-1 interaction site. Moreover, our data show that the C-terminal binding interface only plays a subsidiary role in triggering but...

  11. Islam, secularist government, and state-civil society interaction in Mozambique and South Africa since 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarsholm, Preben

    2015-01-01

    This article explores state–civil society interactions in Mozambique and South Africa with a focus on Islamic groupings, and places the two countries within an Indian Ocean coastal continuum of links to East Africa, India, and the Arab world. Contrasting the histories of dominant-party rule since...... spaces for accommodation of Islamic groups that have been created in South Africa with the more radical secularism that has been in place in post-Independence Mozambique. Finally, the article discusses the effects of this contrast on possibilities for stability and democratic consolidation in the context...

  12. Rewriting the rules governing high intensity interactions of light with matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Alex B; McCorkindale, John C; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Longworth, James W; Simon, Peter; Szatmári, Sándor; Rhodes, Charles K

    2016-04-01

    The trajectory of discovery associated with the study of high-intensity nonlinear radiative interactions with matter and corresponding nonlinear modes of electromagnetic propagation through material that have been conducted over the last 50 years can be presented as a landscape in the intensity/quantum energy [I-ħω] plane. Based on an extensive series of experimental and theoretical findings, a universal zone of anomalous enhanced electromagnetic coupling, designated as the fundamental nonlinear domain, can be defined. Since the lower boundaries of this region for all atomic matter correspond to ħω ~ 10(3) eV and I  ≈  10(16) W cm(-2), it heralds a future dominated by x-ray and γ-ray studies of all phases of matter including nuclear states. The augmented strength of the interaction with materials can be generally expressed as an increase in the basic electromagnetic coupling constant in which the fine structure constant α  →  Z (2) α, where Z denotes the number of electrons participating in an ordered response to the driving field. Since radiative conditions strongly favoring the development of this enhanced electromagnetic coupling are readily produced in self-trapped plasma channels, the processes associated with the generation of nonlinear interactions with materials stand in natural alliance with the nonlinear mechanisms that induce confined propagation. An experimental example involving the Xe (4d(10)5s(2)5p(6)) supershell for which Z  ≅  18 that falls in the specified anomalous nonlinear domain is described. This yields an effective coupling constant of Z (2) α  ≅  2.4  >  1, a magnitude comparable to the strong interaction and a value rendering as useless conventional perturbative analyses founded on an expansion in powers of α. This enhancement can be quantitatively understood as a direct consequence of the dominant role played by coherently driven multiply-excited states in the dynamics of the

  13. Rewriting the rules governing high intensity interactions of light with matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Alex B.; McCorkindale, John C.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Longworth, James W.; Simon, Peter; Szatmári, Sándor; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2016-04-01

    The trajectory of discovery associated with the study of high-intensity nonlinear radiative interactions with matter and corresponding nonlinear modes of electromagnetic propagation through material that have been conducted over the last 50 years can be presented as a landscape in the intensity/quantum energy [I-ħω] plane. Based on an extensive series of experimental and theoretical findings, a universal zone of anomalous enhanced electromagnetic coupling, designated as the fundamental nonlinear domain, can be defined. Since the lower boundaries of this region for all atomic matter correspond to ħω ~ 103 eV and I  ≈  1016 W cm-2, it heralds a future dominated by x-ray and γ-ray studies of all phases of matter including nuclear states. The augmented strength of the interaction with materials can be generally expressed as an increase in the basic electromagnetic coupling constant in which the fine structure constant α  →  Z 2 α, where Z denotes the number of electrons participating in an ordered response to the driving field. Since radiative conditions strongly favoring the development of this enhanced electromagnetic coupling are readily produced in self-trapped plasma channels, the processes associated with the generation of nonlinear interactions with materials stand in natural alliance with the nonlinear mechanisms that induce confined propagation. An experimental example involving the Xe (4d105s25p6) supershell for which Z  ≅  18 that falls in the specified anomalous nonlinear domain is described. This yields an effective coupling constant of Z 2 α  ≅  2.4  >  1, a magnitude comparable to the strong interaction and a value rendering as useless conventional perturbative analyses founded on an expansion in powers of α. This enhancement can be quantitatively understood as a direct consequence of the dominant role played by coherently driven multiply-excited states in the dynamics of the coupling. It is also

  14. A cellular stress response (CSR) that interacts with NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) is a new regulator of hypoxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Ami; Koyama, Chika; Xu, Jing; Imaoka, Susumu

    2014-02-28

    NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) was previously found to contribute to the hypoxic response of cells, but the mechanism was not clarified. In this study, we identified a cellular stress response (CSR) as a new factor interacting with NPR by a yeast two-hybrid system. Overexpression of CSR enhanced the induction of erythropoietin and hypoxia response element (HRE) activity under hypoxia in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (Hep3B), while knockdown of CSR suppressed them. This new finding regarding the interaction of NPR with CSR provides insight into the function of NPR in hypoxic response. PMID:24491563

  15. Vitamin B6 nutritional status and cellular availability of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate govern the function of the transsulfuration pathway's canonical reactions and hydrogen sulfide production via side reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jesse F; DeRatt, Barbara N; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Ralat, Maria; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2016-07-01

    The transsulfuration pathway (TS) acts in sulfur amino acid metabolism by contributing to the regulation of cellular homocysteine, cysteine production, and the generation of H2S for signaling functions. Regulation of TS pathway kinetics involves stimulation of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and oxidants such as H2O2, and by Michaelis-Menten principles whereby substrate concentrations affect reaction rates. Although pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) serves as coenzyme for both CBS and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), CSE exhibits much greater loss of activity than CBS during PLP insufficiency. Thus, cellular and plasma cystathionine concentrations increase in vitamin B6 deficiency mainly due to the bottleneck caused by reduced CSE activity. Because of the increase in cystathionine, the canonical production of cysteine (homocysteine → cystathionine → cysteine) is largely maintained even during vitamin B6 deficiency. Typical whole body transsulfuration flux in humans is 3-7 μmol/h per kg body weight. The in vivo kinetics of H2S production via side reactions of CBS and CSE in humans are unknown but they have been reported for cultured HepG2 cells. In these studies, cells exhibit a pronounced reduction in H2S production capacity and rates of lanthionine and homolanthionine synthesis in deficiency. In humans, plasma concentrations of lanthionine and homolanthionine exhibit little or no mean change due to 4-wk vitamin B6 restriction, nor do they respond to pyridoxine supplementation of subjects in chronically low-vitamin B6 status. Wide individual variation in responses of the H2S biomarkers to such perturbations of human vitamin B6 status suggests that the resulting modulation of H2S production may have physiological consequences in a subset of people. Supported by NIH grant DK072398. This paper refers to data from studies registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01128244 and NCT00877812. PMID:26765812

  16. Above-belowground interactions govern the course and impact of biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergård, Mette; Rønn, Regin; Ekelund, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of exotic organisms that subsequently become invasive is considered a serious threat to global biodiversity, and both scientists and nature-conservationists attempt to find explanations and means to meet this challenge. This requires a thorough analysis of the invasion phenomenon in an evolutionary and ecological context; in the case of invasive plants, we must have a major focus on above-belowground interactions. Thus, we discuss different theories that have been proposed to explain the course of invasions through interactions between plants and soil organisms. Further, a thorough analysis of invasion must include a temporal context. Invasions will typically include an initial acute phase, where the invader expands its territory and a later chronic phase where equilibrium is re-established. Many studies fail to make this distinction, which is unfortunate as it makes it impossible to thoroughly understand the invasion of focus. Thus, we claim that invasions fall into two broad categories. Some invasions irreversibly change pools and pathways of matter and energy in the invaded system; even if the abundance of the invader is reduced or it is completely removed, the system will not return to its former state. We use earthworm invasion in North America as a particular conspicuous example of invasive species that irreversibly change ecosystems. However, invasions may also be reversible, where the exotic organism dominates the system for a period, but in the longer term it either disappears, declines or its negative impact decreases. If the fundamental ecosystem structure and flows of energy and matter have not been changed, the system will return to a state not principally different from the original. PMID:25854693

  17. Information-governing dynamics of attacker-defender interactions in youth rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Gouveia, Luis; Milho, João; Serpa, Sidónio

    2008-11-01

    Previous work on dynamics of interpersonal interactions in 1 vs. 1 sub-phases of basketball has identified changes in interpersonal distance between an attacker and defender as a potential control parameter for influencing organizational states of attacker-defender dyads. Other studies have reported the constraining effect of relative velocity between an attacker and defender in 1 vs. 1 dyads. To evaluate the relationship between these candidate control parameters, we compared the impact of both interpersonal distance and relative velocity on the pattern-forming dynamics of attacker-defender dyads in the sport of rugby union. Results revealed that when interpersonal distance achieved a critical value of less than 4 m, and relative velocity values increased or were maintained above 1 m x s(-1), a successful outcome (i.e. clean attempt) for an attacker was predicted. Alternatively, when values of relative velocity suddenly decreased below this threshold, at the same critical value of interpersonal distance, a successful outcome for the defender was predicted. Data demonstrated how the coupling of these two potential, nested control parameters moved the dyadic system to phase transitions, characterized as a try or a tackle. Observations suggested that relative velocity increased its influence on the organization of attacker-defender dyads in rugby union over time as spatial proximity to the try line increased. PMID:18923958

  18. Investigating Beyond the Scales. Interactive governance analysis of small-scale fisheries in the San Andrés Archipelago, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Randin, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are complex, diverse and dynamic. Therefore, to understand these fisheries, governance is favoured to management as a more comprehensive analytical framework that aims to catch issues and challenged beyond the technical aspects of management. Following a phronesis approach, embedding theory into reality, I chose the case study of the small-scale fisheries of the San Andrés archipelago for analysis. To do so, the interactive governance theory and its conceptual framework ...

  19. Failure to interact with Brd4 alters the ability of HPV16 E2 to regulate host genome expression and cellular movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauson, Elaine J; Wang, Xu; Dornan, Edward S; Herzyk, Pawel; Bristol, Molly; Morgan, Iain M

    2016-01-01

    The E2 protein of the carcinogen human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) regulates replication and transcription of the viral genome in association with viral and cellular proteins. Our previous work demonstrated that E2 can regulate transcription from the host genome. E2 can activate transcription from adjacent promoters when located upstream using E2 DNA binding sequences and this activation is dependent upon the cellular protein Brd4; this report demonstrates that a Brd4 binding E2 mutant alters host genome expression differently from wild type E2. Of particular note is that highly down regulated genes are mostly not affected by failure to interact with Brd4 suggesting that the E2-Brd4 interaction is more responsible for the transcriptional activation of host genes rather than repression. Therefore failure to interact efficiently with Brd4, or altered levels of Brd4, would alter the ability of E2 to regulate the host genome and could contribute to determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26365679

  20. Accumulated SET protein up-regulates and interacts with hnRNPK, increasing its binding to nucleic acids, the Bcl-xS repression, and cellular proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luciana O.; Garcia, Cristiana B.; Matos-Silva, Flavia A. [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Curti, Carlos [Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leopoldino, Andréia M., E-mail: andreiaml@usp.br [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • hnRNPK is a new target of SET. • SET regulates hnRNPK. • SET and hnRNPK accumulation promotes tumorigenesis. • SET accumulation is a potential model to study genes regulated by SET-hnRNPK. - Abstract: SET and hnRNPK are proteins involved in gene expression and regulation of cellular signaling. We previously demonstrated that SET accumulates in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); hnRNPK is a prognostic marker in cancer. Here, we postulate that SET and hnRNPK proteins interact to promote tumorigenesis. We performed studies in HEK293 and HNSCC (HN6, HN12, and HN13) cell lines with SET/hnRNPK overexpression and knockdown, respectively. We found that SET and/or hnRNPK protein accumulation increased cellular proliferation. SET accumulation up-regulated hnRNPK mRNA and total/phosphorylated protein, promoted hnRNPK nuclear location, and reduced Bcl-x mRNA levels. SET protein directly interacted with hnRNPK, increasing both its binding to nucleic acids and Bcl-xS repression. We propose that hnRNPK should be a new target of SET and that SET–hnRNPK interaction, in turn, has potential implications in cell survival and malignant transformation.

  1. The 3′ Untranslated Region of the Rabies Virus Glycoprotein mRNA Specifically Interacts with Cellular PCBP2 Protein and Promotes Transcript Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Palusa, Saiprasad; Ndaluka, Christina; Bowen, Richard A.; Wilusz, Carol J.; Wilusz, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Viral polymerase entry and pausing at intergenic junctions is predicted to lead to a defined polarity in the levels of rhabdovirus gene expression. Interestingly, we observed that the rabies virus glycoprotein mRNA is differentially over-expressed based on this model relative to other transcripts during infection of 293T cells. During infection, the rabies virus glycoprotein mRNA also selectively interacts with the cellular poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2), a factor known to influence mRNA ...

  2. Biomechanics and Thermodynamics of Nanoparticle Interactions with Plasma and Endosomal Membrane Lipids in Cellular Uptake and Endosomal Escape

    OpenAIRE

    Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Jin, Shihua; Weimer, Jonathan; Elegbede, Adekunle; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    To be effective for cytoplasmic delivery of therapeutics, nanoparticles (NPs) taken up via endocytic pathways must efficiently transport across the cell membrane and subsequently escape from the secondary endosomes. We hypothesized that the biomechanical and thermodynamic interactions of NPs with plasma and endosomal membrane lipids are involved in these processes. Using model plasma and endosomal lipid membranes, we compared the interactions of cationic NPs composed of poly(d,l-lactide-co-gl...

  3. Cellular and molecular-genetic mechanisms of symbiosis and associative interaction of microorganisms with plants in rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioshina L. G.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The review contains the results of research on symbiotic and associative interaction of microorganisms and plants in rhizosphere. A special attention is given to the process of contact association of microorganisms and plants tissues including the concrete molecular structures and dominant role pertaining to protein-carbohydrate interaction. There are common features and distinctions at formation of arbuscular mycorhiza, rhizobia– legume symbiosis and association of non-leguminous plants with Azospirillum

  4. Interaction of cellular factors related to the Jun oncoprotein with the promoter of a replication-dependent hamster histone H3.2 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promoter region of a replication-dependent histone H3.2 gene contains a putative DNA binding site for the Jun oncoprotein within a 32-nucleotide regulatory domain. The hamster sequence differs by one nucleotide from the AP-1 consensus sequence found in several promoters responsive to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The authors have identified the factors interacting with this region as 42- and 45-kDa proteins by DNA affinity chromatography, immunoblotting, and UV crosslinking. These proteins, which are candidates for conferring high-level expression to the histone promoter, share an antigenic epitope with the DNA-binding domain of Jun but diverge from it at the amino terminus. The interaction of these proteins with the promoter of a replication-dependent cellular gene provides evidence that members of the Jun oncoprotein family may play specific roles in the expression of genes essential for progression of the cell cycle

  5. Systematic Cellular Disease Models Reveal Synergistic Interaction of Trisomy 21 and GATA1 Mutations in Hematopoietic Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Kimihiko; Omori, Sayaka; Hirata, Katsuya; Nawa, Nobutoshi; Nakagawa, Natsuki; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Toki, Tsutomu; Ito, Etsuro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Taniguchi, Hidetoshi; Arahori, Hitomi; Wada, Kazuko; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-05-10

    Chromosomal aneuploidy and specific gene mutations are recognized early hallmarks of many oncogenic processes. However, the net effect of these abnormalities has generally not been explored. We focused on transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) in Down syndrome, which is characteristically associated with somatic mutations in GATA1. To better understand functional interplay between trisomy 21 and GATA1 mutations in hematopoiesis, we constructed cellular disease models using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and genome-editing technologies. Comparative analysis of these engineered iPSCs demonstrated that trisomy 21 perturbed hematopoietic development through the enhanced production of early hematopoietic progenitors and the upregulation of mutated GATA1, resulting in the accelerated production of aberrantly differentiated cells. These effects were mediated by dosage alterations of RUNX1, ETS2, and ERG, which are located in a critical 4-Mb region of chromosome 21. Our study provides insight into the genetic synergy that contributes to multi-step leukemogenesis. PMID:27134169

  6. Correlations between cellular resistance to ionizing radiation and other DNA-damaging agents: Patterns of interaction with DFMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated a number of antitumor agents to determine the extent to which cytotoxic responses to these agents correlate with those of x-rays and PUVA. As part of this determination, the authors measured the effect of depletion of cellular levels of polyamines by DFMO on the survival patterns in V79 cells. These studies indicate several agents are cosensitive with x-rays and PUVA in that cell survival is markedly decreased in DFMO treated cells: cis-platinum, nitrogen mustard, mitomycin-C and 4 hydroxycyclophosphamide. The authors data taken in toto suggest common factors in the cytotoxic response of mammalian cells to most DNA-damaging agents whose initial level of damage can be modulated by higher-order chromatin structure

  7. Effect of self-interaction on the phase diagram of a Gibbs-like measure derived by a reversible Probabilistic Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular Automata are discrete-time dynamical systems on a spatially extended discrete space which provide paradigmatic examples of nonlinear phenomena. Their stochastic generalizations, i.e., Probabilistic Cellular Automata (PCA), are discrete time Markov chains on lattice with finite single-cell states whose distinguishing feature is the parallel character of the updating rule. We study the ground states of the Hamiltonian and the low-temperature phase diagram of the related Gibbs measure naturally associated with a class of reversible PCA, called the cross PCA. In such a model the updating rule of a cell depends indeed only on the status of the five cells forming a cross centered at the original cell itself. In particular, it depends on the value of the center spin (self-interaction). The goal of the paper is that of investigating the role played by the self-interaction parameter in connection with the ground states of the Hamiltonian and the low-temperature phase diagram of the Gibbs measure associated with this particular PCA

  8. Irradiations of human melanoma cells by 14 MeV neutrons; survival curves interpretation; physical simulation of neutrons interactions in the cellular medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14 MeV neutrons are used to irradiate human melanoma cells in order to study survival curves at low dose and low dose rate. We have simulated with the MCNP code, transport of neutrons through the experimental setup to evaluate the contamination of the primary beam by gamma and electrons, for the feasibility of our experiments. We have shown a rapid decrease of the survival curve in the first cGy followed by a plateau for doses up to 30 cGy; after we observed an exponential decrease. This results are observed for the first time, for neutrons at low dose rate (5 cGy/h). In parallel with this experimental point, we have developed a simulation code which permitted the study of neutrons interactions with the cellular medium for individual cells defined as in our experimental conditions. We show that most of the energy is deposited by protons from neutron interactions with external medium, and by heavy ions for interactions into the cell. On the other hand the code gives a good order of magnitude of the dose rate, compared to the experimental values given by silicon diodes. The first results show that we can, using a theory based on induced repair of cells, give an interpretation of the observed experimental plateau. We can give an estimation of the radial distribution of dose for the tracks of charged ions, we show the possibility of calculate interaction cross sections with cellular organelles. Such a work gives interesting perspectives for the future in radiobiology, radiotherapy or radioprotection. (author)

  9. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  10. Complex Interactions: How Non-Traditional Security Factors Affect Security Sector Reform, Cooperative Engagement for Partnership Capacity: Africa as a Model for Whole of Government [video

    OpenAIRE

    de Klerk, Eldred; Crevello, Stacy; Harris, Stayce; Dachos, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Complex Interactions: How Non-Traditional Security Factors Affect Security Sector Reform, Cooperative Engagement for Partnership Capacity: Africa as a Model for Whole of Government. U.S. Partnership for Peace Training & Education Center, Naval Postgraduate School. Cultural and Organizational Awareness Forum

  11. Detailed Study of the Interaction between Human Herpesvirus 6B Glycoprotein Complex and Its Cellular Receptor, Human CD134

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Huamin; Wang, Junjie; Mahmoud, Nora F.; Mori, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we identified a novel receptor, CD134, which interacts with the human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) glycoprotein (g)H/gL/gQ1/gQ2 complex and plays a key role in the entry of HHV-6B into target cells. However, details of the interaction between the HHV-6B gH/gL/gQ1/gQ2 complex and CD134 were unknown. In this study, we identified a cysteine-rich domain (CRD), CDR2, of CD134 that is critical for binding to the HHV-6B glycoprotein complex and HHV-6B infection. Furthermore, we found that the e...

  12. Propoxylation of cationic polymers provides a novel approach to controllable modulation of their cellular toxicity and interaction with nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vesta D; Salakhieva, Diana V; Yergeshov, Abdulla A; Badeev, Yuriy V; Shtyrlin, Yurii G; Abdullin, Timur I

    2016-12-01

    An effective chemical approach to modulation of biological interactions of cationic polymers was proposed and tested using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a drug carrier. Branched 25kDa PEI was modified in the reaction with propylene oxide (PO) to produce a series of propoxylated PEIs with NH groups grafted by single or oligomer PO units. Clear relationships between the propoxylation degree and biological effects, such as interaction with plasmid DNA, hemolytic, cytotoxic, and pro-apoptotic activities were revealed for PEIs modified upon PO/NH molar ratio of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 3.0. The partial modification of available cationic centers up to 100% is predominantly accompanied by a significant gradual reduction in polycation adverse effects, while ability of complex formation with plasmid DNA is being preserved. Grafted PEI with 0.75 PO/NH ratio provides better protection from nuclease degradation and transfection activity compared with other modified PEIs. Revealed relationships contribute to the development of safe polymeric systems with controllable physicochemical properties and biological interactions. PMID:27612689

  13. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Assay System to Investigate Ligand/AdipoR1 Interactions That Lead to Cellular Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha

    2013-06-07

    Adiponectin is a mammalian hormone that exerts anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and cardioprotective effects through interaction with its major ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane localized receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Here, we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based method for investigating agonist-AdipoR interactions that is amenable for high-throughput scale-up and can be used to study both AdipoRs separately. Agonist-AdipoR1 interactions are detected using a split firefly luciferase assay based on reconstitution of firefly luciferase (Luc) activity due to juxtaposition of its N- and C-terminal fragments, NLuc and CLuc, by ligand induced interaction of the chimeric proteins CLuc-AdipoR1 and APPL1-NLuc (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif 1-NLuc) in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking the yeast homolog of AdipoRs (Izh2p). The assay monitors the earliest known step in the adiponectin-AdipoR anti-diabetic signaling cascade. We demonstrate that reconstituted Luc activity can be detected in colonies or cells using a CCD camera and quantified in cell suspensions using a microplate reader. AdipoR1-APPL1 interaction occurs in absence of ligand but can be stimulated specifically by agonists such as adiponectin and the tobacco protein osmotin that was shown to have AdipoR-dependent adiponectin-like biological activity in mammalian cells. To further validate this assay, we have modeled the three dimensional structures of receptor-ligand complexes of membrane-embedded AdipoR1 with cyclic peptides derived from osmotin or osmotin-like plant proteins. We demonstrate that the calculated AdipoR1-peptide binding energies correlate with the peptides\\' ability to behave as AdipoR1 agonists in the split luciferase assay. Further, we demonstrate agonist-AdipoR dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in S. cerevisiae, which are homologous to

  14. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae assay system to investigate ligand/AdipoR1 interactions that lead to cellular signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Aouida

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is a mammalian hormone that exerts anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and cardioprotective effects through interaction with its major ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane localized receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Here, we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based method for investigating agonist-AdipoR interactions that is amenable for high-throughput scale-up and can be used to study both AdipoRs separately. Agonist-AdipoR1 interactions are detected using a split firefly luciferase assay based on reconstitution of firefly luciferase (Luc activity due to juxtaposition of its N- and C-terminal fragments, NLuc and CLuc, by ligand induced interaction of the chimeric proteins CLuc-AdipoR1 and APPL1-NLuc (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif 1-NLuc in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking the yeast homolog of AdipoRs (Izh2p. The assay monitors the earliest known step in the adiponectin-AdipoR anti-diabetic signaling cascade. We demonstrate that reconstituted Luc activity can be detected in colonies or cells using a CCD camera and quantified in cell suspensions using a microplate reader. AdipoR1-APPL1 interaction occurs in absence of ligand but can be stimulated specifically by agonists such as adiponectin and the tobacco protein osmotin that was shown to have AdipoR-dependent adiponectin-like biological activity in mammalian cells. To further validate this assay, we have modeled the three dimensional structures of receptor-ligand complexes of membrane-embedded AdipoR1 with cyclic peptides derived from osmotin or osmotin-like plant proteins. We demonstrate that the calculated AdipoR1-peptide binding energies correlate with the peptides' ability to behave as AdipoR1 agonists in the split luciferase assay. Further, we demonstrate agonist-AdipoR dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA signaling and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in S. cerevisiae, which are

  15. Characterization of L1 ORF1p self-interaction and cellular localization using a mammalian two-hybrid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Sokolowski

    Full Text Available Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1, L1 is an active retrotransposon that mobilizes using a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP intermediate composed of the full-length bicistronic L1 mRNA and the two proteins (ORF1p and ORF2p encoded by that mRNA. ORF1p and ORF2p demonstrate cis-preference for their encoding mRNA. Previous studies of ORF1p, purified from bacterial and insect cells demonstrated that this protein forms trimers in vitro. While valuable for understanding ORF1p function, these in vitro approaches do not provide any information on ORF1p self-interaction in the context of mammalian cells. We used a mammalian two-hybrid (M2H system in order to study L1 ORF1p self-interaction in human and mouse cells. We demonstrate that the M2H system successfully detects human and mouse ORF1p self-interactions in transiently transfected mammalian cells. We also generated mouse and human ORF1p-specific antibodies to characterize the expression of ORF1p fusion proteins used in the M2H system. Using these antibodies, we demonstrate that ORF1p interaction in trans leads to the formation of heterodimers that are expected to produce a positive signal in the M2H system. Although the role for L1 ORF1p cis-preference in L1 mobilization is established, the impact of ability of ORF1pto interact in trans on the L1 replication cycle is not known. Furthermore, western blot analysis of ORF1p generated by a full-length L1, wild type ORF1, or a codon-optimized ORF1 expression vector is detected in the nucleus. In contrast, the addition of a tag to the N-terminus of the mouse and human ORF1 proteins can significantly alter the subcellular localization in a tag-specific manner. These data support that nuclear localization of ORF1p may contribute to L1 (and potentially the SINE Alu RNP nuclear access in the host cell.

  16. Interaction of Frequency Allocation Schemes and Beam Forming on the Performance of Cellular Communication Systems Based on OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholami

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction of Beam Forming and frequency allocation schemes on an OFDM-based system such as LTE or WiMAX is investigated in order to support the maximum capacity and minimum outage probability. The results of simulation show that rank1 precode scheme based on MISO channel, according to what considered in LTE standard, along with the cell region division in order to allocate OFDM frequency carriers lead to a Considerable interest in the total capacity of the network in different traffics.

  17. D77, one benzoic acid derivative, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular LEDGF/p75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of viral-DNA into host chromosome mediated by the viral protein HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential step in the HIV-1 life cycle. In this process, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is discovered to function as a cellular co-factor for integration. Since LEDGF/p75 plays an important role in HIV integration, disruption of the LEDGF/p75 interaction with IN has provided a special interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that a benzoic acid derivative, 4-[(5-bromo-4-{[2,4-dioxo-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl) -1,3-thiazolidin-5-ylidene]methyl}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)methyl]benzoic acid (D77) could potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution thus exhibiting antiretroviral activity. Molecular docking with site-directed mutagenesis analysis and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays has clarified possible binding mode of D77 against HIV-1 integrase. As the firstly discovered small molecular compound targeting HIV-1 integrase interaction with LEDGF/p75, D77 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery

  18. Sterile α Motif Domain Containing 9 Is a Novel Cellular Interacting Partner to Low-Risk Type Human Papillomavirus E6 Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Dupuis, Crystal; Tyring, Stephen K.; Underbrink, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Low-risk type human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 11 infection causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) and genital warts. RRP is the most common benign tumor of the larynx in children with frequent relapses. Repeated surgeries are often needed to improve vocal function and prevent life-threatening respiratory obstruction. Currently, there are no effective treatments available to completely eliminate these diseases, largely due to limited knowledge regarding their viral molecular pathogenesis. HPV E6 proteins contribute to cell immortalization by interacting with a variety of cellular proteins, which have been well studied for the high-risk type HPVs related to cancer progression. However, the functions of low-risk HPV E6 proteins are largely unknown. In this study, we report GST-pulldown coupled mass spectrometry analysis with low-risk HPV E6 proteins that identified sterile alpha motif domain containing 9 (SAMD9) as a novel interacting partner. We then confirmed the interaction between HPV-E6 and SAMD9 using co-immunoprecipitation, proximity ligation assay, and confocal immunofluorescence staining. The SAMD9 gene is down-regulated in a variety of neoplasms and deleteriously mutated in normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. Interestingly, SAMD9 also has antiviral functions against poxvirus. Our study adds to the limited knowledge of the molecular properties of low-risk HPVs and describes new potential functions for the low-risk HPV E6 protein. PMID:26901061

  19. Intra-cellular transport by single-headed kinesin KIF1A: effects of single-motor mechano-chemistry and steric interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Greulich, P; Garai, A; Nishinari, K; Schadschneider, A; Chowdhury, Debashish; Garai, Ashok; Greulich, Philip; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, many motor proteins can move simultaneously on a single microtubule track. This leads to interesting collective phenomena like jamming. Recently we reported ({\\it Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 95}, 118101 (2005)}) a lattice-gas model which describes traffic of unconventional (single-headed) kinesins KIF1A. Here we generalize this model, introducing a novel interaction parameter $c$, to account for an interesting mechano-chemical process which has not been considered in any earlier model. We have been able to extract all the parameters of the model, except $c$, from experimentally measured quantities. In contrast to earlier models of intra-cellular molecular motor traffic, our model assigns distinct ``chemical'' (or, conformational) states to each kinesin to account for the hydrolysis of ATP, the chemical fuel of the motor. Our model makes experimentally testable theoretical predictions. We determine the phase diagram of the model in planes spanned by experimentally controllable parameters, namely...

  20. Cyclosporine suppression of lymphocyte recruitment, regional blood flow, and vascular permeability at sites of allogeneic cellular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although cyclosporine (CsA) has been thought to act primarily on the afferent phase of the immune response, we can demonstrate that it also acts at the efferent phase. The effect of CsA on lymphocyte recruitment (LR), regional blood flow (RBF), and vascular permeability (VP) was studied in paired, healed, subcutaneously placed urethane sponge grafts inoculated with specifically sensitized lymphocytes (SSLs) and allogeneic target cells. Intravenous injection of 111In-labelled unsensitized lymphocytes, 86RbCl and 125I-labelled albumin were used to assess LR, RBF, and VP, respectively. Suspensions of SSL and targets in CsA at 10 and 1 microgram/ml prior to graft inoculation markedly reduce the preferential increase in LR to the site of interaction between SSLs and targets bearing the sensitizing alloantigen (P less than 0.002 for both). Similarly, CsA blocks the preferential increase in RBF (P . 0.017) and VP (P less than 0.002) to the graft site. These effects persist for at least 24 hours. If SSLs and targets are washed after incubation with CsA, LR is still reduced. These results are consistent with the idea that cell-bound CsA blocks the elaboration of lymphokines which results from the interaction between SSLs and specific alloantigen in vivo. These lymphokines increase RBF and VP and are accompanied by an increase in LR. Inhibition of these vascular effects may prevent the recruitment of additional lymphocytes to the graft site. CsA may, therefore, prevent or interrupt allograft rejection by blocking amplification of the rejection mechanism at the graft site

  1. Lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles as oral drug delivery vehicles for poorly water-soluble drugs: cellular interaction and in vivo absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ni Zeng,1,3,* Xiaoling Gao,2,* Quanyin Hu,1 Qingxiang Song,2 Huimin Xia,1 Zhongyang Liu,1 Guangzhi Gu,1 Mengyin Jiang,1,4 Zhiqing Pang,1 Hongzhuan Chen,2 Jun Chen,1 Liang Fang3 1Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education and PLA, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Science, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 4School of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong People's Republic of China, *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs have attracted growing interest as novel drug-delivery systems for improving the bioavailability of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. However, their cellular interaction and in vivo behavior have not been fully developed and characterized.Methods: In this study, self-assembled LCNPs prepared from soy phosphatidylcholine and glycerol dioleate were developed as a platform for oral delivery of paclitaxel. The particle size of empty LCNPs and paclitaxel-loaded LCNPs was around 80 nm. The phase behavior of the liquid crystalline matrix was characterized using crossed polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, and showed both reversed cubic and hexagonal phase in the liquid crystalline matrix. Transmission electron microscopy and cryofield emission scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed an inner winding water channel in LCNPs and a "ball-like"/"hexagonal" morphology.Results: Cellular uptake of LCNPs in Caco-2 cells was found to be concentration-dependent and time-dependent, with involvement of both clathrin and caveolae/lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. Under confocal laser scanning microscopy, soy phosphatidylcholine was observed to segregate from the internalized LCNPs and

  2. Mapping of immunogenic and protein-interacting regions at the surface of the seven-bladed β-propeller domain of the HIV-1 cellular interactor EED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouet Patrice

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human EED protein, a member of the superfamily of Polycomb group proteins, is involved in multiple cellular protein complexes. Its C-terminal domain, which is common to the four EED isoforms, contains seven repeats of a canonical WD-40 motif. EED is an interactor of three HIV-1 proteins, matrix (MA, integrase (IN and Nef. An antiviral activity has been found to be associated with isoforms EED3 and EED4 at the late stage of HIV-1 replication, due to a negative effect on virus assembly and genomic RNA packaging. The aim of the present study was to determine the regions of the EED C-terminal core domain which were accessible and available to protein interactions, using three-dimensional (3D protein homology modelling with a WD-40 protein of known structure, and epitope mapping of anti-EED antibodies. Results Our data suggested that the C-terminal domain of EED was folded as a seven-bladed β-propeller protein. During the completion of our work, crystallographic data of EED became available from co-crystals of the EED C-terminal core with the N-terminal domain of its cellular partner EZH2. Our 3D-model was in good congruence with the refined structural model determined from crystallographic data, except for a unique α-helix in the fourth β-blade. More importantly, the position of flexible loops and accessible β-strands on the β-propeller was consistent with our mapping of immunogenic epitopes and sites of interaction with HIV-1 MA and IN. Certain immunoreactive regions were found to overlap with the EZH2, MA and IN binding sites, confirming their accessibility and reactivity at the surface of EED. Crystal structure of EED showed that the two discrete regions of interaction with MA and IN did not overlap with each other, nor with the EZH2 binding pocket, but were contiguous, and formed a continuous binding groove running along the lateral face of the β-propeller. Conclusion Identification of antibody-, MA-, IN- and EZH2

  3. Partnership and ownership : interaction between government and funding agencies in education policy processes in Uganda 1997-2009

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The target of this study was to analyse how development partnerships influence government ownership in education policy processes. Ownership has been emphasised as an important partnership commitment during the last decades. It has, however, often been understood as a mechanism for increasing aid effectiveness rather than a target of its own. In this study, the education partnership between funding agencies and the Government of Uganda, during 1997-2009, was selected as a case. Three educa...

  4. Dissecting stromal-epithelial interactions in a 3D in vitro cellularized intestinal model for permeability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Araújo, Francisca; Barrias, Cristina C; Granja, Pedro L; Sarmento, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    Absorption evaluation plays an increasingly important role at the early stage of drug discovery due to its potential to scan the ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) properties of new drug candidates. Therefore, a new three-dimensional (3D) in vitro model replicating the intestinal functioning is herein proposed aiming to dissect the stromal-epithelial interactions and evaluate the permeation of a model drug, insulin. Inspired on the intestinal mucosal architecture, the present model comprises intestinal myofibroblasts (CCD18-Co cells) embedded in Matrigel, onto which epithelial enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) and mucus-producing cells (HT29-MTX cells) were seeded. CCD18-Co myofibroblasts showed to have a central role in the remodeling of the surrounding matrix confirmed by the production of fibronectin. Subsequently, this matrix revealed to be essential to the maintenance of the model architecture by supporting the overlying epithelial cells. In terms of functionality, this model allowed the efficient prediction of insulin permeability in which the presence of mucus, the less tight character between Caco-2 and HT29-MTX epithelial cells and the 3D assembly were critical factors. Concluding, this model constitutes a robust tool in the drug development field with potential to bridge the traditional 2D cell culture models and in vivo animal models. PMID:25934277

  5. Multi-parametric cytometry from a complex cellular sample: Improvements and limits of manual versus computational-based interactive analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondois-Rey, F; Granjeaud, S; Rouillier, P; Rioualen, C; Bidaut, G; Olive, D

    2016-05-01

    The wide possibilities opened by the developments of multi-parametric cytometry are limited by the inadequacy of the classical methods of analysis to the multi-dimensional characteristics of the data. While new computational tools seemed ideally adapted and were applied successfully, their adoption is still low among the flow cytometrists. In the purpose to integrate unsupervised computational tools for the management of multi-stained samples, we investigated their advantages and limits by comparison to manual gating on a typical sample analyzed in immunomonitoring routine. A single tube of PBMC, containing 11 populations characterized by different sizes and stained with 9 fluorescent markers, was used. We investigated the impact of the strategy choice on manual gating variability, an undocumented pitfall of the analysis process, and we identified rules to optimize it. While assessing automatic gating as an alternate, we introduced the Multi-Experiment Viewer software (MeV) and validated it for merging clusters and annotating interactively populations. This procedure allowed the finding of both targeted and unexpected populations. However, the careful examination of computed clusters in standard dot plots revealed some heterogeneity, often below 10%, that was overcome by increasing the number of clusters to be computed. MeV facilitated the identification of populations by displaying both the MFI and the marker signature of the dataset simultaneously. The procedure described here appears fully adapted to manage homogeneously high number of multi-stained samples and allows improving multi-parametric analyses in a way close to the classic approach. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27059253

  6. Transcriptomic Changes in Osteoblasts Following Endothelial Cell-Cocultivation Suggest a Role of Extracellular Matrix in Cellular Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Florian M; Simunovic, Filip; Finkenzeller, Günter; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Stark, G Björn; Winninger, Oscar; Steiner, Dominik

    2016-08-01

    Vascularization is important for bone development, fracture healing and engineering of artificial bone tissue. In the context of bone tissue engineering, it was shown that coimplantation of human primary umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human osteoblasts (hOBs) results in the formation of functional blood vessels and enhanced bone regeneration. Implanted endothelial cells do not only contribute to blood vessel formation, but also support proliferation, cell survival and osteogenic differentiation of coimplanted hOBs. These effects are partially mediated by direct heterotypic cell contacts. In a previous report we could show that cocultivated hOBs strongly increase the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in HUVECs, suggesting that ECM may be involved in the intercellular communication between hOBs and HUVECs. The present study aimed at investigating whether comparable changes occur in hOBs. We therefore performed a microarray analysis of hOBs cultivated in direct contact with HUVECs, revealing 1,004 differentially expressed genes. The differentially expressed genes could be assigned to the functional clusters ECM, proliferation, apoptosis and osteogenic differentiation. The microarray data could be confirmed by performing quantitative real time RT-PCR on selected genes. Furthermore, we could show that the ECM produced by HUVECs increased the expression of the osteogenic differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in hOBs. In summary, our data demonstrate that HUVECs provoke complex changes in gene expression patterns in cocultivated hOBs and that ECM plays and important role in this interaction. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1869-1879, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26754918

  7. Cellular Prion Protein and Caveolin-1 Interaction in a Neuronal Cell Line Precedes Fyn/Erk 1/2 Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Toni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that cellular prion protein (PrPc is enriched in caveolae or caveolae-like domains with caveolin-1 (Cav-1 participating to signal transduction events by Fyn kinase recruitment. By using the Glutathione-S-transferase (GST-fusion proteins assay, we observed that PrPc strongly interacts in vitro with Cav-1. Thus, we ascertained the PrPc caveolar localization in a hypothalamic neuronal cell line (GN11, by confocal microscopy analysis, flotation on density gradient, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Following the anti-PrPc antibody-mediated stimulation of live GN11 cells, we observed that PrPc clustered on plasma membrane domains rich in Cav-1 in which Fyn kinase converged to be activated. After these events, a signaling cascade through p42/44 MAP kinase (Erk 1/2 was triggered, suggesting that following translocations from rafts to caveolae or caveolae-like domains PrPc could interact with Cav-1 and induce signal transduction events.

  8. Engineering hyaluronic acid hydrogel degradation to control cellular interactions and adult stem cell fate in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetan, Sudhir

    The design and implementation of extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimetic hydrogels for tissue engineering (TE) applications requires an intensive understanding of cell-material interactions, including matrix remodeling and stem cell differentiation. However, the influence of microenvironmental cues, e.g., matrix biodegradability, on cell behavior in vitro has not been well studied in the case of direct cell encapsulation within 3-dimensional (3D) hydrogels. To address these issues, a facile sequential crosslinking technique was developed that provides spatial and temporal control of 3D hydrogel degradability to investigate the importance of material design on cell behavior. Specifically, hydrogels were synthesized from hyaluronic acid (HA) macromers in a sequential process: (1) a primary Michael-type addition crosslinking using cell adhesive and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-degradable oligopeptides to consume a portion of total reactive groups and resulting in "-UV" hydrogels permissive to cell-mediated degradation, followed by (2) a secondary, light initiated free-radical crosslinking to consume remaining reactive groups and "switch" the network to a non-degradable structure ("+UV") via the addition of non-degradable kinetic chains. Using this approach, we demonstrated control of encapsulated hMSC spreading by varying the crosslink type (i.e., the relative hydrogel biodegradability), including with spatial control. Upon incubation with bipotential soluble differentiation factors, these same degradation-mediated spreading cues resulted in an hMSC differentiation fate switch within -UV versus +UV environments. Follow-up studies demonstrated that degradation-mediated traction generation, rather than matrix mechanics or cell morphology, is the critical biophysical signal determining hMSC fate. Sequentially crosslinked HA hydrogels were also studied for the capacity to support remodeling by in vivo and ex vivo tissues, including with spatial control, toward tissue

  9. Resource and Environmental Issues in Transitional China: A Perspective from the Interaction Among Market,Government and Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Haixia; Qu Futian; Zhu Peixin; Shi Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Along with the rapid growth of economy in the postreform period after 1979,China has faced severe problems of resource overusing and environmental degradation which would threaten the sustainable development of economy and society.This article explores an effective mechanism of managing resource and environment in China.It examines some major resource and environmental issues,and constructs a framework of institution innovation to cover three sectors(government,market and society).In addition,the article analyzes their experience and evaluation in resource management and environmental conservation during the transitional period.We argue that the combination of market regulation,government intervention and public participation is an effective way of allocating resource and protecting environment.Some suggestions are put forward to balance the relationship between them,including coordinating role of government and market,building platform for market operation and creating an atmosphere of public participation.

  10. The strategic interaction between the government and international oil companies in the UK: An example of a country with dwindling hydrocarbon reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2011 UK tax rise on hydrocarbon exploitation activities obviously increases short term tax revenues however the longer term effects are less clear. The strategic interaction between the UK government, a producer and a shipper has been analyzed in a game theoretical model. A complex interaction between players is expected given (1) dwindling resources and large decommissioning liabilities and (2) the fact that much of the hydrocarbons produced in the North Sea are exported through an infrastructure with shared ownership. The 2011 UK tax adjustment will most likely result in value destruction for the government, producers and shippers. Our analysis suggests that governments are unlikely to ultimately benefit from reducing their decommission liabilities at the expense of International Oil Companies. In countries with unstable tax regimes, such as the UK, International Oil Companies will adopt their strategies in anticipation of future tax changes. Their adopted strategy is a function of decommissioning liabilities and remaining reserves as well as whether they are producers, shippers or producers and shippers. The ultimate payoff of a government is a function of the remaining reserves and total decommissioning liabilities, but also depends on the distribution of these value metrics between producers and shippers. - Highlights: ► The 2011 UK hydrocarbon tax increase is likely to cause overall value destruction. ► Governments are unlikely to benefit from reducing their decommission liabilities. ► Differences in payoff functions of producers and shippers control the game. ► The distribution of reserves and decommissioning cost is a key factor in the game

  11. Exploring information-seeking processes by business: analyzing source and channel choices in business-to-government service interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, van den Yvon; Pieterson, Willem; Dijk, van Jan; Arendsen, Rex

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of electronic channels it has become easier for businesses to consult various types of information sources in information-seeking processes. Governments are urged to rethink their role as reliable information source and the roles of their (electronic) service channels to provide effici

  12. Multi-stakeholder governance and voluntary programme interactions: legitimation politics in the institutional design of Corporate Social Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Fransen

    2012-01-01

    A variety of innovative institutional forms have emerged within the context of voluntary attempts to address pressing social and environmental issues. Among such institutions, the prevailing wisdom is that those characterized as encompassing multi-stakeholder governance are generally seen as having

  13. Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnoli, Franco

    1998-01-01

    An introduction to cellular automata (both deterministic and probabilistic) with examples. Definition of deterministic automata, dynamical properties, damage spreading and Lyapunov exponents; probabilistic automata and Markov processes, nonequilibrium phase transitions, directed percolation, diffusion; simulation techniques, mean field. Investigation themes: life, epidemics, forest fires, percolation, modeling of ecosystems and speciation. They represent my notes for the school "Dynamical Mod...

  14. The influence of corporate governance on project governance

    OpenAIRE

    Gonda, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This work identifies the interaction between corporate governance and project management in project governance. It begins with introduction of basics of corporate governance and various principles of corporate governance in chosen countries and organizations. Further it introduces theoretical background of project governance and its connection and to corporate governance. In practical part work analyzes the level of compliancy with Swiss codex of best praxis in chosen company. The results con...

  15. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interaction and the Relationship between the Central Bank and the Government. (The Case of Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Chironachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analyzing the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on the dynamics of the exchange rate, inflation and other macroeconomic variables. The author investigates the forms of strategic interaction between the Government and the Central Bank in designing and implementing these policies. As a result, the author concludes the necessity of institutions cooperation in the development and implementation of monetary and fiscal policy measures, but also concluded that the responsible institutions must remain independent in achieving an efficient monetary and fiscal policy of the Republic of Moldova.

  16. Targeting Cells With MR Imaging Probes: Cellular Interaction And Intracellular Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Uptake In Brain Capillary Endothelial and Choroidal Plexus Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambianica, I.; Bossi, M.; Gasco, P.; Gonzalez, W.; Idee, J. M.; Miserocchi, G.; Rigolio, R.; Chanana, M.; Morjan, I.; Wang, D.; Sancini, G.

    2010-10-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in brain including their use as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. In delivery application, the critical step is the transport across cell layers and the internalization of NPs into specific cells, a process often limited by poor targeting specificity and low internalization efficiency. The development of the models of brain endothelial cells and choroidal plexus epithelial cells in culture has allowed us to investigate into these mechanisms. Our strategy is aimed at exploring different routes to the entrapment of iron oxide NPs in these brain related cells. Here we demonstrated that not only cells endowed with a good phagocytic activity like activated macrophages but also endothelial brain capillary and choroidal plexus epithelial cells do internalize iron oxide NPs. Our study of the intracellular trafficking of NPs by TEM, and confocal microscopy revealed that NPs are mainly internalized by the endocytic pathway. Iron oxide NPs were dispersed in water and coated with 3,4-dihydroxyl-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) using standard procedures. Magnetic lipid NPs were prepared by NANOVECTOR: water in oil in water (W/O/W) microemulsion process has been applied to directly coat different iron based NPs by lipid layer or to encapsulate them into Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs). By these coating/loading the colloidal stability was improved without strong alteration of the particle size distribution. Magnetic lipid NPs could be reconstituted after freeze drying without appreciable changes in stability. L-DOPA coated NPs are stable in PBS and in MEM (Modified Eagle Medium) medium. The magnetic properties of these NPs were not altered by the coating processes. We investigated the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and interaction of these NPs with rat brain capillary endothelial (REB4) and choroidal plexus epithelial (Z310) cells. By means of widefield, confocal

  17. Lipopolysaccharide density and structure govern the extent and distance of nanoparticle interaction with actual and model bacterial outer membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-07-24

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.

  18. Force control for mechanoinduction of impedance variation in cellular organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantly exposed to various forms of mechanical forces inherent in their physical environment (such as gravity, stress induced by fluid flow or cell–cell interactions, etc), cellular organisms sense such forces and convert them into biochemical signals through the processes of mechanosensing and mechanotransduction that eventually lead to biological changes. The effect of external forces on the internal structures and activities in a cellular organism may manifest in changes its physical properties, such as impedance. Studying variation in the impedance of a cellular organism induced by the application of an external mechanical force represents a meaningful endeavor (from a biosystems perspective) in exploring the complex mechanosensing and mechanotransduction mechanisms that govern the behavior of a cellular organism under the influence of external mechanical stimuli. In this paper we describe the development of an explicit force-feedback control system for exerting an indentation force on a cellular organism while simultaneously measuring its impedance. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this force-control system, we have conducted experiments using zebrafish embryos as a test model of a cellular organism. We report experimental results demonstrating that the application of a properly controlled external force leads to a significant change in the impedance of a zebrafish embryo. These results offer support for a plausible explanation that activities of pore canals in the chorion are responsible for the observed change in impedance.

  19. Cellular resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Lena; Harris, Georgina; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cellular resilience describes the ability of a cell to cope with environmental changes such as toxicant exposure. If cellular metabolism does not collapse directly after the hit or end in programmed cell death, the ensuing stress responses promote a new homeostasis under stress. The processes of reverting "back to normal" and reversal of apoptosis ("anastasis") have been studied little at the cellular level. Cell types show astonishingly similar vulnerability to most toxicants, except for those that require a very specific target, metabolism or mechanism present only in specific cell types. The majority of chemicals triggers "general cytotoxicity" in any cell at similar concentrations. We hypothesize that cells differ less in their vulnerability to a given toxicant than in their resilience (coping with the "hit"). In many cases, cells do not return to the naive state after a toxic insult. The phenomena of "pre-conditioning", "tolerance" and "hormesis" describe this for low-dose exposures to toxicants that render the cell more resistant to subsequent hits. The defense and resilience programs include epigenetic changes that leave a "memory/scar" - an alteration as a consequence of the stress the cell has experienced. These memories might have long-term consequences, both positive (resistance) and negative, that contribute to chronic and delayed manifestations of hazard and, ultimately, disease. This article calls for more systematic analyses of how cells cope with toxic perturbations in the long-term after stressor withdrawal. A technical prerequisite for these are stable (organotypic) cultures and a characterization of stress response molecular networks. PMID:26536287

  20. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell tower locations as derived from various sources including the Department of Licenses and Inspections and the Department of Planning and Zoning., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is...

  1. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative method for the cellular analysis of varying structures of gemini surfactants designed as nanomaterial drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkuru, McDonald; Michel, Deborah; Awad, Hanan; Katselis, George; El-Aneed, Anas

    2016-05-13

    Diquaternary gemini surfactants have successfully been used to form lipid-based nanoparticles that are able to compact, protect, and deliver genetic materials into cells. However, what happens to the gemini surfactants after they have released their therapeutic cargo is unknown. Such knowledge is critical to assess the quality, safety, and efficacy of gemini surfactant nanoparticles. We have developed a simple and rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of various structures of gemini surfactants in cells. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was employed allowing for a short simple isocratic run of only 4min. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) was 3ng/mL. The method was valid to 18 structures of gemini surfactants belonging to two different structural families. A full method validation was performed for two lead compounds according to USFDA guidelines. The HILIC-MS/MS method was compatible with the physicochemical properties of gemini surfactants that bear a permanent positive charge with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic elements within their molecular structure. In addition, an effective liquid-liquid extraction method (98% recovery) was employed surpassing previously used extraction methods. The analysis of nanoparticle-treated cells showed an initial rise in the analyte intracellular concentration followed by a maximum and a somewhat more gradual decrease of the intracellular concentration. The observed intracellular depletion of the gemini surfactants may be attributable to their bio-transformation into metabolites and exocytosis from the host cells. Obtained cellular data showed a pattern that grants additional investigations, evaluating metabolite formation and assessing the subcellular distribution of tested compounds. PMID:27086283

  2. Conceptual aspects of fiscal interactions between local governments and federally-owned, high-level radioactive waste-isolation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Johnson, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines a number of ways to transfer revenues between a federally-owned high level radioactive waste isolation facility (hereafter simply, facility) and local governments. Such payments could be used to lessen fiscal disincentives or to provide fiscal incentives for communities to host waste isolation facilities. Two facility characteristics which necessitate these actions are singled out for attention. First, because the facility is federally owned, it is not liable for state and local taxes and may be viewed by communities as a fiscal liability. Several types of payment plans to correct this deficiency are examined. The major conclusion is that while removal of disincentives or creation of incentives is possible, plans based on cost compensation that fail to consider opportunity costs cannot create incentives and are likely to create disincentives. Second, communities other than that in which the facility is sited may experience costs due to the siting and may, therefore, oppose it. These costs (which also accrue to the host community) arise due to the element of risk which the public generally associates with proximity to the transport and storage of radioactive materials. It is concluded that under certain circumstances compensatory payments are possible, but that measuring these costs will pose difficulty.

  3. Conceptual aspects of fiscal interactions between local governments and federally-owned, high-level radioactive waste-isolation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines a number of ways to transfer revenues between a federally-owned high level radioactive waste isolation facility (hereafter simply, facility) and local governments. Such payments could be used to lessen fiscal disincentives or to provide fiscal incentives for communities to host waste isolation facilities. Two facility characteristics which necessitate these actions are singled out for attention. First, because the facility is federally owned, it is not liable for state and local taxes and may be viewed by communities as a fiscal liability. Several types of payment plans to correct this deficiency are examined. The major conclusion is that while removal of disincentives or creation of incentives is possible, plans based on cost compensation that fail to consider opportunity costs cannot create incentives and are likely to create disincentives. Second, communities other than that in which the facility is sited may experience costs due to the siting and may, therefore, oppose it. These costs (which also accrue to the host community) arise due to the element of risk which the public generally associates with proximity to the transport and storage of radioactive materials. It is concluded that under certain circumstances compensatory payments are possible, but that measuring these costs will pose difficulty

  4. Molecular and environmental factors governing non-covalent bonding interactions and conformations of phosphorous functionalized γ-cyclodextrin hydrate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Recent strategies in molecular drugs-design shift efforts to nanomedicine. Large supra-molecular inclusion systems are implemented as therapeutics. The sophistication of design is based on major advances of cyclodextrins (CDs) as host molecules. They are friendly towards biological environment. CDs have good (bio)compatibility as well. CDs can form host-guest macromolecular systems incorporating small molecules with suitable shapes due to non-covalent interactions. Innovative strategies yield to polymeric nano-particles; micelles; linear polymers and/or CDs-functionalized dendrimeric nanostructures; nanofibers as well as hydrogels. Attractive are phosphorous containing (bio)matrerials, having high selectivity toward biological active molecules. The non-covalent interactions in aquatic CD-systems contribute to stability of host-guest systems under physiological conditions, determining conformational preferences of host-CD macromolecule and guest small molecular template. In this paper we have reported complementation application of mass spectrometric (MS) and quantum chemical analysis of phosphorous chemically substituted γ-cyclodextrin hydrates γ-CDPO/nH2O (n ∊ [0-14]), studying neutral and polynegatively charged molecules as an effort to describe realistic a representative scale of physiological conditions. The binding affinity and molecular conformations are discussed. The 250 neutral and charged systems (γ-CDPOHm/nH2O, n ∊ [10][0,14], m ∊ [0,15], γ-CDPOH-8/nH2O.8Na(+), and γ-CDPOH-16/nH2O.16Na(+)) in four main domains of non-covalent hydrogen bonding interactions are studied. PMID:26944657

  5. Are there generic mechanisms governing interactions between nanoparticles and cells? Epitope mapping the outer layer of the protein material interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Iseult

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the possibility of a general paradigm for cell-biomaterial and cell-nanoparticle interactions. The basis of the paradigm is that the nature of the biomaterial or nanoparticle surface is not the important parameter, but rather the nature of the outermost layer of adsorbed proteins as well as long-lived misfolded proteins shed from the surfaces. If the adsorbed protein is irreversibly adsorbed onto the surface it may be sufficiently disrupted so that a variety of peptide units (here termed “cryptic epitopes”) not usually expressed in nature at the surface of the protein become exposed. Similarly, where there is a slow exchange time with the surface, surface-induced perturbations may lead to long-lived misfolded proteins being shed from the surface and continuing to express altered surface peptide sequences. In cases where the proteins have lost most of their tertiary structure, anomalous peptide sequences and geometries that are not displayed at the surface by the native protein may in fact be presented after surface adsorption of a protein. Such anomalous surface expressions could contain novel epitopes that trigger various signalling pathways or even diseases. Thus, future approaches to understanding cell-biomaterial and cell-nanoparticle interactions should focus on characterising the outer layer of the adsorbed proteins, or “epitope mapping” as well as examining the possibility of formation of essentially “new” proteins as a result of desorption of conformationally or geometrically altered proteins.

  6. Interrogating cellular fate decisions with high-throughput arrays of multiplexed cellular communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sisi; Bremer, Andrew W; Scheideler, Olivia J; Na, Yun Suk; Todhunter, Michael E; Hsiao, Sonny; Bomdica, Prithvi R; Maharbiz, Michel M; Gartner, Zev J; Schaffer, David V

    2016-01-01

    Recreating heterotypic cell-cell interactions in vitro is key to dissecting the role of cellular communication during a variety of biological processes. This is especially relevant for stem cell niches, where neighbouring cells provide instructive inputs that govern cell fate decisions. To investigate the logic and dynamics of cell-cell signalling networks, we prepared heterotypic cell-cell interaction arrays using DNA-programmed adhesion. Our platform specifies the number and initial position of up to four distinct cell types within each array and offers tunable control over cell-contact time during long-term culture. Here, we use the platform to study the dynamics of single adult neural stem cell fate decisions in response to competing juxtacrine signals. Our results suggest a potential signalling hierarchy between Delta-like 1 and ephrin-B2 ligands, as neural stem cells adopt the Delta-like 1 phenotype of stem cell maintenance on simultaneous presentation of both signals. PMID:26754526

  7. Predicting Cellular Growth from Gene Expression Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham, Maitreya J.; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Airoldi, Edoardo; Broach, James R.; Caudy, Amy A.; Gresham, David; Botstein, David; Huttenhower, Curtis; Lu, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining balanced growth in a changing environment is a fundamental systems-level challenge for cellular physiology, particularly in microorganisms. While the complete set of regulatory and functional pathways supporting growth and cellular proliferation are not yet known, portions of them are well understood. In particular, cellular proliferation is governed by mechanisms that are highly conserved from unicellular to multicellular organisms, and the disruption of these processes in metazo...

  8. Quantum cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porod, Wolfgang; Lent, Craig S.; Bernstein, Gary H.

    1994-06-01

    The Notre Dame group has developed a new paradigm for ultra-dense and ultra-fast information processing in nanoelectronic systems. These Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA's) are the first concrete proposal for a technology based on arrays of coupled quantum dots. The basic building block of these cellular arrays is the Notre Dame Logic Cell, as it has been called in the literature. The phenomenon of Coulomb exclusion, which is a synergistic interplay of quantum confinement and Coulomb interaction, leads to a bistable behavior of each cell which makes possible their use in large-scale cellular arrays. The physical interaction between neighboring cells has been exploited to implement logic functions. New functionality may be achieved in this fashion, and the Notre Dame group invented a versatile majority logic gate. In a series of papers, the feasibility of QCA wires, wire crossing, inverters, and Boolean logic gates was demonstrated. A major finding is that all logic functions may be integrated in a hierarchial fashion which allows the design of complicated QCA structures. The most complicated system which was simulated to date is a one-bit full adder consisting of some 200 cells. In addition to exploring these new concepts, efforts are under way to physically realize such structures both in semiconductor and metal systems. Extensive modeling work of semiconductor quantum dot structures has helped identify optimum design parameters for QCA experimental implementations.

  9. Phi29 Connector-DNA Interactions Govern DNA Crunching and Rotation, Supporting the Check-Valve Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2016-01-19

    During replication of the ϕ29 bacteriophage inside a bacterial host cell, a DNA packaging motor transports the viral DNA into the procapsid against a pressure difference of up to 40 ± 20 atm. Several models have been proposed for the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine the role of the connector part of the motor, and specifically the one-way revolution and the push-roll model. We have focused at the structure and intermolecular interactions between the DNA and the connector, for which a near-complete structure is available. The connector is found to induce considerable DNA deformations with respect to its canonical B-form. We further assessed by force-probe simulations to which extent the connector is able to prevent DNA leakage and found that the connector can act as a partial one-way valve by a check-valve mechanism via its mobile loops. Analysis of the geometry, flexibility, and energetics of channel lysine residues suggested that this arrangement of residues is incompatible with the observed DNA packaging step-size of ∼2.5 bp, such that the step-size is probably determined by the other components of the motor. Previously proposed DNA revolution and rolling motions inside the connector channel are both found implausible due to structural entanglement between the DNA and connector loops that have not been resolved in the crystal structure. Rather, in the simulations, the connector facilitates minor DNA rotation during the packaging process compatible with recent optical-tweezers experiments. Combined with the available experimental data, our simulation results suggest that the connector acts as a check-valve that prevents DNA leakage and induces DNA compression and rotation during DNA packaging. PMID:26789768

  10. Nanotechnology governance

    OpenAIRE

    Kurath, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Current discourses in science, technology and innovation policy describe a shift from formal, governmental, or statutory regulation to non-hierarchical, informal, and cooperative self-regulatory approaches. They narrate a turn from government to governance, described as a “governance turn.” Governance as a new and popular mode of regulation, deliberation and shared responsibility is often linked to favored attributes of science and technology development, and policy making such as democracy a...

  11. Species-dependent effects of the phenolic herbicide ioxynil with potential thyroid hormone disrupting activity: modulation of its cellular uptake and activity by interaction with serum thyroid hormone-binding proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakura Akiyoshi; Gobun Sai; Kiyoshi Yamauchi

    2012-01-01

    Ioxynil,a phenolic herbicide,is known to exert thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting activity by interfering with TH-binding to plasma proteins and a step of the cellular TH-signaling pathway in restricted animal species.However,comparative studies are still lacking on the TH disruption.We investigated the interaction of [125I]ioxynil with serum proteins from rainbow trout,bullfrog,chicken,pig,rat,and mouse,using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.Candidate ioxynil-binding proteins,which included lipoproteins,albumin and transthyretin (TTR),differed among the vertebrates tested.Rainbow trout and bullfrog tadpole serum had the lowest binding activity for ioxynil,whereas the eutherian serum had the highest binding activity.The cellular uptake of,and response to,ioxynil were suppressed by rat serum greater than by tadpole serum.The cellular uptake of [125I]ioxynil competed strongly with phenols with a single ring,but not with THs.Our results suggested that ioxynil interferes with TH homeostasis in plasma and with a step of cellular TH-signaling pathwav other than TH-uptake system in a snecies-specific manner.

  12. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  13. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes a...... model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  14. Interactive effects of CO2 and trace metals on the proteasome activity and cellular stress response of marine bivalves Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Elevated PCO2 enhanced accumulation of Cu and Cd in the gills of mollusks. • The proteasome activities were affected by metals but robust to elevated PCO2. • Exposure to Cd and Cu had opposite effects on the proteasome activity. • Combined exposure to Cu and elevated PCO2 negatively affected energy status. - Abstract: Increased anthropogenic emission of CO2 changes the carbonate chemistry and decreases the pH of the ocean. This can affect the speciation and the bioavailability of metals in polluted habitats such as estuaries. However, the effects of acidification on metal accumulation and stress response in estuarine organisms including bivalves are poorly understood. We studied the interactive effects of CO2 and two common metal pollutants, copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), on metal accumulation, intracellular ATP/ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, stress response and energy metabolism in two common estuarine bivalves—Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) and Mercenaria mercenaria (hard shell clam). Bivalves were exposed for 4–5 weeks to clean seawater (control) and to either 50 μg L−1 Cu or 50 μg L−1 Cd at one of three partial pressures of CO2 (PCO2 ∼395, ∼800 and ∼1500 μatm) representative of the present-day conditions and projections of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) for the years 2100 and 2250, respectively. Clams accumulated lower metal burdens than oysters, and elevated PCO2 enhanced the Cd and Cu accumulation in mantle tissues in both species. Higher Cd and Cu burdens were associated with elevated mRNA expression of metal binding proteins metallothionein and ferritin. In the absence of added metals, proteasome activities of clams and oysters were robust to elevated PCO2, but PCO2 modulated the proteasome response to metals. Cd exposure stimulated the chymotrypsin-like activity of the oyster proteasome at all CO2 levels. In contrast, trypsin- and caspase-like activities of the oyster proteasome

  15. Interactive effects of CO₂ and trace metals on the proteasome activity and cellular stress response of marine bivalves Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Götze, Sandra [Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar, Marine Research, Functional Ecology, 27570 Bremerhaven (Germany); Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Matoo, Omera B. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Beniash, Elia [Department of Oral Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Saborowski, Reinhard [Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar, Marine Research, Functional Ecology, 27570 Bremerhaven (Germany); Sokolova, Inna M., E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Elevated PCO₂ enhanced accumulation of Cu and Cd in the gills of mollusks. • The proteasome activities were affected by metals but robust to elevated PCO₂. • Exposure to Cd and Cu had opposite effects on the proteasome activity. • Combined exposure to Cu and elevated PCO₂ negatively affected energy status. - Abstract: Increased anthropogenic emission of CO₂ changes the carbonate chemistry and decreases the pH of the ocean. This can affect the speciation and the bioavailability of metals in polluted habitats such as estuaries. However, the effects of acidification on metal accumulation and stress response in estuarine organisms including bivalves are poorly understood. We studied the interactive effects of CO₂ and two common metal pollutants, copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), on metal accumulation, intracellular ATP/ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, stress response and energy metabolism in two common estuarine bivalves—Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) and Mercenaria mercenaria (hard shell clam). Bivalves were exposed for 4–5 weeks to clean seawater (control) and to either 50 μg L⁻¹ Cu or 50 μg L⁻¹ Cd at one of three partial pressures of CO₂ PCO₂ ~395, ~800 and ~1500 μatm) representative of the present-day conditions and projections of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) for the years 2100 and 2250, respectively. Clams accumulated lower metal burdens than oysters, and elevated PCO₂ enhanced the Cd and Cu accumulation in mantle tissues in both species. Higher Cd and Cu burdens were associated with elevated mRNA expression of metal binding proteins metallothionein and ferritin. In the absence of added metals, proteasome activities of clams and oysters were robust to elevated PCO₂, but PCO₂ modulated the proteasome response to metals. Cd exposure stimulated the chymotrypsin-like activity of the oyster proteasome

  16. Predatory Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Dalida Kadyrzhanova

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that imperfect corporate control is a determinant of market structure. We integrate a widely accepted version of the separation of ownership and control -- Jensen's (1986) 'empire-building' hypothesis -- into a dynamic oligopoly model. Our main observation is that, due to product market competition, shareholders face an endogenous opportunity cost of governance. We derive shareholders' optimal governance choices and show analytically that governance has a first-order effect ...

  17. Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Zingales, Luigi

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes my own personal view of what corporate governance is about. I argue that it makes sense to discuss corporate governance only in an incomplete contract world. In this world, the notion of corporate governance is intrinsically related to the definition of the firm. In this respect, the shortcomings of the existing definitions of the firm are reviewed and the possible applications of the idea that the firm is a ‘nexus of specific investments’ introduced by Rajan and Zingale...

  18. Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Zingales

    1997-01-01

    This essay summarizes my own personal view of what corporate governance is about. I" argue that it makes sense to discuss corporate governance only in an incomplete contract world. " In this world, the notion of corporate governance is intrinsically related to the definition of the" firm. In this respect, I review the shortcomings of the existing definitions of the firm and the" possible applications of the idea that the firm is a specific investments" introduced by" Rajan and Zingales (1997a...

  19. The role of actin networks in cellular mechanosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azatov, Mikheil

    Physical processes play an important role in many biological phenomena, such as wound healing, organ development, and tumor metastasis. During these processes, cells constantly interact with and adapt to their environment by exerting forces to mechanically probe the features of their surroundings and generating appropriate biochemical responses. The mechanisms underlying how cells sense the physical properties of their environment are not well understood. In this thesis, I present my studies to investigate cellular responses to the stiffness and topography of the environment. In order to sense the physical properties of their environment, cells dynamically reorganize the structure of their actin cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of biopolymers, altering the shape and spatial distribution of protein assemblies. Several observations suggest that proteins that crosslink actin filaments may play an important role in cellular mechanosensitivity. Palladin is an actin-crosslinking protein that is found in the lamellar actin network, stress fibers and focal adhesions, cellular structures that are critical for mechanosensing of the physical environment. By virtue of its close interactions with these structures in the cell, palladin may play an important role in cell mechanics. However, the role of actin crosslinkers in general, and palladin in particular, in cellular force generation and mechanosensing is not well known. I have investigated the role of palladin in regulating the plasticity of the actin cytoskeleton and cellular force generation in response to alterations in substrate stiffness. I have shown that the expression levels of palladin modulate the forces exerted by cells and their ability to sense substrate stiffness. Perturbation experiments also suggest that palladin levels in cells altered myosin motor activity. These results suggest that the actin crosslinkers, such as palladin, and myosin motors coordinate for optimal cell function and to prevent aberrant

  20. 47 CFR 22.917 - Emission limitations for cellular equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limitations for cellular equipment. 22... SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.917 Emission limitations for cellular equipment. The rules in this section govern the spectral characteristics of emissions in the...

  1. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...... between institutions and social capital, since the same governance institutions have a different impact on the tax haven propensity for countries with different social capital....

  2. Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Žilková, Alena

    2009-01-01

    Definition and basic theoretic information about Corporate Governance of big industry company Description and Analyse of corporate Management, the functions of Top Management Members, their role in relationship to owners / shareholders (describtion of used tools for internal control of government, investment and tools for financial analyses)

  3. Cutting Edge: IL-4, IL-21, and IFN-γ Interact To Govern T-bet and CD11c Expression in TLR-Activated B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naradikian, Martin S; Myles, Arpita; Beiting, Daniel P; Roberts, Kenneth J; Dawson, Lucas; Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Bengsch, Bertram; Linderman, Susanne L; Stelekati, Erietta; Spolski, Rosanne; Wherry, E John; Hunter, Christopher; Hensley, Scott E; Leonard, Warren J; Cancro, Michael P

    2016-08-15

    T-bet and CD11c expression in B cells is linked with IgG2c isotype switching, virus-specific immune responses, and humoral autoimmunity. However, the activation requisites and regulatory cues governing T-bet and CD11c expression in B cells remain poorly defined. In this article, we reveal a relationship among TLR engagement, IL-4, IL-21, and IFN-γ that regulates T-bet expression in B cells. We find that IL-21 or IFN-γ directly promote T-bet expression in the context of TLR engagement. Further, IL-4 antagonizes T-bet induction. Finally, IL-21, but not IFN-γ, promotes CD11c expression independent of T-bet. Using influenza virus and Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections, we show that these interactions function in vivo to determine whether T-bet(+) and CD11c(+) B cells are formed. These findings suggest that T-bet(+) B cells seen in health and disease share the common initiating features of TLR-driven activation within this circumscribed cytokine milieu. PMID:27430719

  4. Cellular proteins in influenza virus particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Shaw

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Virions are thought to contain all the essential proteins that govern virus egress from the host cell and initiation of replication in the target cell. It has been known for some time that influenza virions contain nine viral proteins; however, analyses of other enveloped viruses have revealed that proteins from the host cell can also be detected in virions. To address whether the same is true for influenza virus, we used two complementary mass spectrometry approaches to perform a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified influenza virus particles. In addition to the aforementioned nine virus-encoded proteins, we detected the presence of 36 host-encoded proteins. These include both cytoplasmic and membrane-bound proteins that can be grouped into several functional categories, such as cytoskeletal proteins, annexins, glycolytic enzymes, and tetraspanins. Interestingly, a significant number of these have also been reported to be present in virions of other virus families. Protease treatment of virions combined with immunoblot analysis was used to verify the presence of the cellular protein and also to determine whether it is located in the core of the influenza virus particle. Immunogold labeling confirmed the presence of membrane-bound host proteins on the influenza virus envelope. The identification of cellular constituents of influenza virions has important implications for understanding the interactions of influenza virus with its host and brings us a step closer to defining the cellular requirements for influenza virus replication. While not all of the host proteins are necessarily incorporated specifically, those that are and are found to have an essential role represent novel targets for antiviral drugs and for attenuation of viruses for vaccine purposes.

  5. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance. PMID:17208717

  6. Government Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Ball; Gary Pflugrath

    2012-01-01

    As the current sovereign debt crisis engulfing Europe broadens and threatens to bring down more governments and lead the world into another, potentially very serious, economic slowdown, minimal commentary and public debate has focused on a fundamental problem, and the need to address it. That problem is the deficient – and sometimes fraudulent – accounting practices employed by many governments around the world. A major shortcoming of many governments has been highlighted by the crisis â€...

  7. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory, and the...

  8. A multi-scale approach to colorectal cancer: from a biochemical- interaction signaling-network level, to multi-cellular dynamics of malignant transformation. Interplay with mutations and onco-protein inhibitor drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortolina, L; Castagnino, N; De Ambrosi, C; Moran, E; Patrone, F; Ballestrero, A; Parodi, S

    2012-05-01

    This review article is part of a special Current Cancer Drug Targets issue devoted to colorectal cancer and molecularly targeted treatments. In our paper we made an attempt to connect more basic aspects with preclinical, pharmacological / therapeutic and clinical aspects. Reconstruction of a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM) comprising an important part of the G0 - G1 - S cell cycle transition, was a major component of our review. Such a MIM serves also as a convenient / organized database of a large set of important molecular events. The frequency of mutated / altered signaling-proteins indicates the importance of this signaling-network region. We have considered problems at different scale levels. Our MIM works at a biochemical-interaction level. We have also touched the multi-cellular dynamics of normal and aberrant colon crypts. Until recently, dynamic simulations at a biochemical or multi-cellular scale level were considered as a sort of esoteric approach. We tried to convince the reader, also on the basis of a rapidly growing literature, mostly published in high quality journals, that suspicion towards simulations should dissipate, as the limitations and advantages of their application are better appreciated, opening the door to their permanent adoption in everyday research. What is really required is a more interdisciplinary mentality and an interdisciplinary approach. The prize is a level of understanding going beyond mere intuition. PMID:22385511

  9. Measuring Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Charles P. Oman; Christiane Arndt

    2010-01-01

    The use of governance indicators, as applied to developing countries, has grown spectacularly in recent years. Following the maxim that you cannot manage what you cannot measure, international investors and official development aid agencies, together with academics and the media, have turned widely to using quantitative governance indicators for both analytical and decision-making purposes – with far-reaching consequences for developing countries…

  10. Governance matters

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, David E.; David Steven; Mark Weston

    1999-01-01

    In a cross-section of more than 150 countries, the authors provide new empirical evidence of a strong causal relationship from better governance to better development outcomes. They base their analysis on a new database containing more than 300 governance indicators compiled from a variety of sources. They provide a detailed description of each of these indicators and sources. Using an unobserved components methodology (described in the companion paper by the same authors,"Aggregating Governa...

  11. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  12. Integrated cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jason C.

    The generation of new three-dimensional (3D) matrices that enable integration of biomolecular components and whole cells into device architectures, without adversely altering their morphology or activity, continues to be an expanding and challenging field of research. This research is driven by the promise that encapsulated biomolecules and cells can significantly impact areas as diverse as biocatalysis, controlled delivery of therapeutics, environmental and industrial process monitoring, early warning of warfare agents, bioelectronics, photonics, smart prosthetics, advanced physiological sensors, portable medical diagnostic devices, and tissue/organ replacement. This work focuses on the development of a fundamental understanding of the biochemical and nanomaterial mechanisms that govern the cell directed assembly and integration process. It was shown that this integration process relies on the ability of cells to actively develop a pH gradient in response to evaporation induced osmotic stress, which catalyzes silica condensation within a thin 3D volume surrounding the cells, creating a functional bio/nano interface. The mechanism responsible for introducing functional foreign membrane-bound proteins via proteoliposome addition to the silica-lipid-cell matrix was also determined. Utilizing this new understanding, 3D cellular immobilization capabilities were extended using sol-gel matrices endowed with glycerol, trehalose, and media components. The effects of these additives, and the metabolic phase of encapsulated S. cerivisiase cells, on long-term viability and the rate of inducible gene expression was studied. This enabled the entrapment of cells within a novel microfluidic platform capable of simultaneous colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical detection of a single analyte, significantly improving confidence in the biosensor output. As a complementary approach, multiphoton protein lithography was utilized to engineer 3D protein matrices in which to

  13. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine fever virus non-structural protein 5A by yeast two-hybrid analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chengcheng Zhang; Lei He; Kai Kang; Heng Chen; Lei Xu; Yanming Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the pathogen of classical swine fever (CSF), causes severe hemorrhagic fever and vascular necrosis in domestic pigs and wild boar. A large number of evidence has proven that non-structural 5A (NS5A) is not only a very important part of viral replication complex, but also can regulate host cell’s function; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the current study, aiming to find more clues in understanding the molecular mechanisms of CSFV NS5A’s function, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell (SUVEC). Alignment with the NCBI database revealed 16 interactive proteins: DDX5, PSMC3, NAV1, PHF5A, GNB2L1, CSDE1, HSPA8, BRMS1, PPP2R3C, AIP, TMED10, POLR1C, TMEM70, METAP2, CHORDC1 and COPS6. These proteins are mostly related to gene transcription, protein folding, protein degradation and metabolism. The interactions detected by the Y2H system should be considered as preliminary results. Since identifying novel pathways and host targets, which play essential roles during infection, may provide potential targets for therapeutic development. The finding of proteins obtained from the SUVEC cDNA library that interact with the CSFV NS5A protein provide valuable information for better understanding the interactions between this viral protein and the host target proteins.

  14. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation to...... e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  15. Government Regulatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katie

    Government regulation of food products, food processing, and food preparation is imperative in bringing an unadulterated, nonmisleading, and safe food product to market and is relevant to all areas of food science, including engineering, processing, chemistry, and microbiology. The liability associated with providing consumers with an adulterated or substandard product cannot only tarnish a company's name and reputation, but also impose substantial financial repercussions on the company and those individuals who play an active role in the violation. In order for a company to fully comply with the relevant food laws (both federal and state), an intimate knowledge of food science is required. Individuals knowledgeable in food science play an integral role not only in implementing and counseling food companies/processors to ensure compliance with government regulations, but these individuals are also necessary to the state and federal governments that make and enforce the relevant laws and regulators.

  16. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke;

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  17. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...

  18. Copper and Zinc Interactions with Cellular Prion Proteins Change Solubility of Full-Length Glycosylated Isoforms and Induce the Occurrence of Heterogeneous Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brim, Svetlana; Groschup, Martin H.; Kuczius, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are characterized biochemically by protein aggregation of infectious prion isoforms (PrPSc), which result from the conformational conversion of physiological prion proteins (PrPC). PrPC are variable post-translationally modified glycoproteins, which exist as full length and as aminoterminally truncated glycosylated proteins and which exhibit differential detergent solubility. This implicates the presence of heterogeneous phenotypes, which overlap as protein complexes at the same molecular masses. Although the biological function of PrPC is still enigmatic, evidence reveals that PrPC exhibits metal-binding properties, which result in structural changes and decreased solubility. In this study, we analyzed the yield of PrPC metal binding affiliated with low solubility and changes in protein banding patterns. By implementing a high-speed centrifugation step, the interaction of zinc ions with PrPC was shown to generate large quantities of proteins with low solubility, consisting mainly of full-length glycosylated PrPC; whereas unglycosylated PrPC remained in the supernatants as well as truncated glycosylated proteins which lack of octarepeat sequence necessary for metal binding. This effect was considerably lower when PrPC interacted with copper ions; the presence of other metals tested exhibited no effect under these conditions. The binding of zinc and copper to PrPC demonstrated differentially soluble protein yields within distinct PrPC subtypes. PrPC–Zn2+-interaction may provide a means to differentiate glycosylated and unglycosylated subtypes and offers detailed analysis of metal-bound and metal-free protein conversion assays. PMID:27093554

  19. An Empirical Analysis of Interactive Governance Effects between Institutional Investors and Board of Directors%机构投资者与董事会之间交互治理效应的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕钦; 刘红娟

    2012-01-01

    本文利用机构相对长时间持股的上市公司为样本,考察了专业机构投资者和董事会这两种重要内外部治理机制在改善公司治理方面的交互效应。董事会的公司治理指标选择了独立董事比例和董事会的领导权结构。模型采用动态矩方法进行估计,结果表明:机构投资者和独立董事没有独立促进公司治理,但却通过交互影响来间接发挥了改善公司治理的作用;董事会领导权结构既没有表现出独立的治理作用,也没体现出交互效应。本文的研究结论为客观合理看待专业机构投资者和独立董事的治理价值提供了视角。%This study takes listed companies where there are long-time institational sharehdders as samples,analyzes the interactive effects between the professional institutional investors and the Board of Directors—two important internal and external governance mechanisms for corporate governance.The proportion of independent directors and the leadership structure of Board of Directors are selected as the indicators for the corporate governance of Board of Directors.The models are estimated with the dynamic moment estimation method.The study shows that institutional investors and independent directors play positive roles to improve indirectly corporate governance through their interactive influences,though they do not promote directly the corporate governance.And the leadership structure of Board of Directors neither plays independent governance roles nor has interactive effects in corporate governance.The research conclusions of this article provide objective and rational perspectives to review the governance value of professional institutional investors and independent directors.

  20. Small government or big government?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEO SPAHO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century, economists and philosophers were polarizedon their positions beyond the role that the government should have in the economy. On one hand John Maynard Keynes represented, within the optics of market economy, a position where the state should intervene in the economy to maintain the aggregate demand and the employment in the country, without hesitation in creating budget deficits and public debt expansion. This approach happens especially in the moments when the domestic economy and global economic trends show a weak growth or a recession. This means a heavy interference inthe economy, with higher income but with high expenditure to GDP too. On the other side, Liberals and Neoliberalsled by Friedrich Hayek advocated a withdrawal of the government from economic activity not just in moments of economic growth but also during the crisis, believing that the market has self-regulating mechanisms within itself. The government, as a result will have a smaller dimension with lower income and also low expenditures compared to the GDP of the country. We took the South-Eastern Europe countries distinguishing those with a "Big Government" or countries with "Small Government". There are analyzed the economic performances during the global crisis (2007-2014. In which countries the public debt grew less? Which country managed to attract more investments and which were the countries that preserved the purchasing power of their consumers? We shall see if during the economic crisis in Eastern Europe the Great Government or the Liberal and "Small" one has been the most successful the model.

  1. Investigating the consequences of eIF4E2 (4EHP interaction with 4E-transporter on its cellular distribution in HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubacka

    Full Text Available In addition to the canonical eIF4E cap-binding protein, eukaryotes have evolved sequence-related variants with distinct features, some of which have been shown to negatively regulate translation of particular mRNAs, but which remain poorly characterised. Mammalian eIF4E proteins have been divided into three classes, with class I representing the canonical cap-binding protein eIF4E1. eIF4E1 binds eIF4G to initiate translation, and other eIF4E-binding proteins such as 4E-BPs and 4E-T prevent this interaction by binding eIF4E1 with the same consensus sequence YX 4Lϕ. We investigate here the interaction of human eIF4E2 (4EHP, a class II eIF4E protein, which binds the cap weakly, with eIF4E-transporter protein, 4E-T. We first show that ratios of eIF4E1:4E-T range from 50:1 to 15:1 in HeLa and HEK293 cells respectively, while those of eIF4E2:4E-T vary from 6:1 to 3:1. We next provide evidence that eIF4E2 binds 4E-T in the yeast two hybrid assay, as well as in pull-down assays and by recruitment to P-bodies in mammalian cells. We also show that while both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 bind 4E-T via the canonical YX 4Lϕ sequence, nearby downstream sequences also influence eIF4E:4E-T interactions. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to demonstrate that eIF4E2, normally homogeneously localised in the cytoplasm, does not redistribute to stress granules in arsenite-treated cells, nor to P-bodies in Actinomycin D-treated cells, in contrast to eIF4E1. Moreover, eIF4E2 shuttles through nuclei in a Crm1-dependent manner, but in an 4E-T-independent manner, also unlike eIF4E1. Altogether we conclude that while both cap-binding proteins interact with 4E-T, and can be recruited by 4E-T to P-bodies, eIF4E2 functions are likely to be distinct from those of eIF4E1, both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, further extending our understanding of mammalian class I and II cap-binding proteins.

  2. Cellular evidence for nano-scale exosome secretion and interactions with spermatozoa in the epididymis of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Yang, Ping; Chu, Xiaoya; Huang, Yufei; Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Qian; Li, Quanfu; Hu, Lisi; Waqas, Yasir; Ahmed, Nisar; Chen, Qiusheng

    2016-01-01

    The epididymis is the location of sperm maturation and sperm storage. Recent studies have shown that nano-scale exosomes play a vital role during these complicated processes. Our aim was to analyze the secretory properties of epididymal exosomes and their ultrastructural interaction with maturing spermatozoa in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle. The exosome marker CD63 was primarily localized to the apices of principal cells throughout the epididymal epithelium. Identification of nano-scale exosomes and their secretory processes were further investigated via transmission electron microscopy. The epithelium secreted epididymal exosomes (50~300 nm in diameter) through apocrine secretion and the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. Spermatozoa absorbed epididymal exosomes through endocytosis or membrane fusion pathways. This study shows, for the first time, that nano-scale exosomes use two secretion and two absorption pathways in the reptile, which may be contribute to long-term sperm storage. PMID:26992236

  3. Cellular reactions to patterned biointerfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Vera Antonie

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is to study cellular reactions to topographically, mechanically and biochemically tunable polymeric biomaterials. Different aspects of in vitro cell-biomaterial interactions were systematically studied with the murine fibroblast cell line NIH L929 and primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Besides a general cytocompatibility assessment of the applied materials and the quantification of cell adhesion per se, cell morphological changes (e.g. cell spreading) and intr...

  4. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  5. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Alexandru SITARU

    2009-01-01

    The work is aimed to examine the issues “corporate governance” involves, with the goal set to clarify the meanings of such notion, and to provide an overall image of the positive effects arising implementing the corporate governance principles. The first section includes a series of definitions for the purpose of explaining and outlining the concept of “corporate governance”, subsequently giving a definition that appears adequate to us, from the legal standpoint pre eminently. The second sect...

  6. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Alexandru SITARU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed to examine the issues “corporate governance” involves, with the goal set to clarify the meanings of such notion, and to provide an overall image of the positive effects arising implementing the corporate governance principles. The first section includes a series of definitions for the purpose of explaining and outlining the concept of “corporate governance”, subsequently giving a definition that appears adequate to us, from the legal standpoint pre eminently. The second section has for purpose to state the corporate governance Principles, and briefly examine the same. Its purpose also includes concretely illustrating the efficient operation methods for a “corporation”, as well as the main dilemmas, and the existing solutions for the same within the internal structure of a joint stock company to adopt, and subject itself to, such principles. Finally, the last section of the work underlines the corporate governance importance, and states the goals to be attained for purposes of securing effective, balanced, and not in the last place profitable management.

  7. Parametric study of double cellular detonation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasainov, B.; Virot, F.; Presles, H.-N.; Desbordes, D.

    2013-05-01

    A parametric numerical study is performed of a detonation cellular structure in a model gaseous explosive mixture whose decomposition occurs in two successive exothermic reaction steps with markedly different characteristic times. Kinetic and energetic parameters of both reactions are varied in a wide range in the case of one-dimensional steady and two-dimensional (2D) quasi-steady self-supported detonations. The range of governing parameters of both exothermic steps is defined where a "marked" double cellular structure exists. It is shown that the two-level cellular structure is completely governed by the kinetic parameters and the local overdrive ratio of the detonation front propagating inside large cells. Furthermore, since it is quite cumbersome to use detailed chemical kinetics in unsteady 2D case, the proposed work should help to identify the mixtures and the domain of their equivalence ratio where double detonation structure could be observed.

  8. E-Government: Trends and Sophistication at the Local Level of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Wohlers

    2008-01-01

    Innovations in information communication technologies have contributed to new forms of interaction between governments and citizens in the United States and other industrialized democracies. The adoption of these technologies at different levels of government has contributed to the emergence of electronic-government or e-government designed to communicate information, deliver services, and offer additional avenues designed to interact with and participate in government. Based on a detailed co...

  9. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C. - Highlights: • EBV-encoded EBNA3C suppresses doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas. • EBNA3C binds to p73 to suppress its apoptotic effect. • EBNA3C maintains latency by regulating downstream mitochondrial pathways

  10. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit [Division of Infectious Disease Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 751023 (India); Kundu, Chanakya N. [School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar (India); Verma, Subhash C. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Choudhuri, Tathagata, E-mail: tatha@ils.res.in [Division of Infectious Disease Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 751023 (India); Department of Biotechnology, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati, Santiniketan, Bolpur (India)

    2014-01-05

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C. - Highlights: • EBV-encoded EBNA3C suppresses doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas. • EBNA3C binds to p73 to suppress its apoptotic effect. • EBNA3C maintains latency by regulating downstream mitochondrial pathways.

  11. The Research on Interaction Effect between Ownership Structure and Board Governance Efficiency%股权结构与董事会治理效率交互效应探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石大林; 孙晨童; 郭龙

    2014-01-01

    以2006-2011年983家上市公司为样本,运用面板数据的个体固定效应模型,不仅对股权结构、董事会治理效率与公司绩效间的关系进行了研究,还检验了股权结构与董事会治理效率间是否存在交互效应。通过研究发现,股权集中度和股权制衡度都与公司绩效呈倒U型关系,董事会治理效率与公司绩效正相关,股权结构与董事会治理效率间存在交互效应。具体来说,股权集中度与董事会治理效率的交互效应与公司绩效负相关,股权制衡度与董事会治理效率的交互效应与公司绩效正相关。%We study 983 listed corporation from 2006 to 2011. We not only apply panel data’s individual fixed effects model to study the relationship between ownership structure,board governance efficiency and corporate performance, but also to test whether there is interaction effect between ownership structure and board governance efficiency. We get the following conclusion, both ownership con-centration and equity balance degree have significantly inverted U-shaped relationship with corporate performance, board governance ef-ficiency has a significant positive correlation to corporate performance, there is interaction effect between ownership structure and board governance efficiency. Specifically, the interaction effect between ownership concentration and board governance efficiency has a signifi-cantly negative correlation with corporate performance, the interaction effect between equity balance degree and board governance effi-ciency has a significantly positive correlation with corporate performance.

  12. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3' end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation. PMID:26369818

  13. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A.; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3′ end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation. PMID:26369818

  14. Regulating Government

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Katherine; Davies, J. Clarence

    2001-01-01

    Federal, state, and local governments are major polluters of the environment. They account for more than 7% of SO2 air pollution emissions and more than 5% of all NO2 air emissions in the United States. Public entities are more likely than private ones to be in violation of the Clean Water Act, and they account for two-thirds of all major facilities in significant noncompliance with the act. Department of Energy nuclear sites are the worst hazardous waste problems in the nation. A lack of ade...

  15. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...

  16. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    , and demonstrated in public settings. We then describe INTERACT, a proposed research project that stages the robotic marionettes in a live performance. The interdisciplinary project brings humanities research to bear on scientific and technological inquiry, and culminates in the development a live......This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  17. Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists such as...

  18. Cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by metallo-intercalator ruthenium(II) complexes containing chloro-substituted phenylazopyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Breast cancers with a BRCA1 mutation are also frequently triple-negative. Currently, there is a lack of effective therapies and known specific molecular targets for this aggressive breast cancer subtype. To address this concern, we have explored the cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells, and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by the ruthenium(II) complexes containing the bidentate ligand, 5-chloro-2-(phenylazo)pyridine. Triple-negative MDA-MB-231, BRCA1-defective HCC1937 and BRCA1-competent MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were treated with ruthenium(II) complexes. The cytoxoxicity of ruthenium-induced breast cancer cells was evaluated by a real time cellular analyzer (RTCA). Cellular uptake of ruthenium complexes was determined by ICP-MS. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed using propidium iodide and Annexin V flow cytometry. The N-terminal BRCA1 RING protein was used for conformational and functional studies using circular dichroism and in vitro ubiquitination. HCC1937 cells were significantly more sensitive to the ruthenium complexes than the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Treatment demonstrated a higher degree of cytotoxicity than cisplatin against all three cell lines. Most ruthenium atoms were retained in the nuclear compartment, particularly in HCC1937 cells, after 24 h of incubation, and produced a significant block at the G2/M phase. An increased induction of apoptotic cells as well as an upregulation of p53 mRNA was observed in all tested breast cancer cells. It was of interest that BRCA1 mRNA and replication of BRCA1-defective cells were downregulated. Changes in the conformation and binding constants of ruthenium-BRCA1 adducts were observed, causing inactivation of the RING heterodimer BRCA1/BARD1-mediated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity

  19. Phosphorylation of eIF4E Confers Resistance to Cellular Stress and DNA-Damaging Agents through an Interaction with 4E-T: A Rationale for Novel Therapeutic Approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Martínez

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E is associated with malignant progression and poor cancer prognosis. Accordingly, here we have analyzed the association between eIF4E phosphorylation and cellular resistance to oxidative stress, starvation, and DNA-damaging agents in vitro. Using immortalized and cancer cell lines, retroviral expression of a phosphomimetic (S209D form of eIF4E, but not phospho-dead (S209A eIF4E or GFP control, significantly increased cellular resistance to stress induced by DNA-damaging agents (cisplatin, starvation (glucose+glutamine withdrawal, and oxidative stress (arsenite. De novo accumulation of eIF4E-containing cytoplasmic bodies colocalizing with the eIF4E-binding protein 4E-T was observed after expression of phosphomimetic S209D, but not S209A or wild-type eIF4E. Increased resistance to cellular stress induced by eIF4E-S209D was lost upon knockdown of endogenous 4E-T or use of an eIF4E-W73A-S209D mutant unable to bind 4E-T. Cancer cells treated with the Mnk1/2 inhibitor CGP57380 to prevent eIF4E phosphorylation and mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Mnk1/2 knockout mice were also more sensitive to arsenite and cisplatin treatment. Polysome analysis revealed an 80S peak 2 hours after arsenite treatment in cells overexpressing phosphomimetic eIF4E, indicating translational stalling. Nonetheless, a selective increase was observed in the synthesis of some proteins (cyclin D1, HuR, and Mcl-1. We conclude that phosphorylation of eIF4E confers resistance to various cell stressors and that a direct interaction or regulation of 4E-T by eIF4E is required. Further delineation of this process may identify novel therapeutic avenues for cancer treatment, and these results support the use of modern Mnk1/2 inhibitors in conjunction with standard therapy.

  20. MOBILE GOVERNMENT: AN EMERGING DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea GEORGESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new developments in ICT along with the growth of mobile communication have developed new ways of interaction between the governments and the citizens. More and more governments are using information and communication technology especially Internet or web-based network, to pro-vide services between government agencies and citizens, businesses, employees and other nongovernmental agencies.The paper try to present an introduction on the characteristics of mobile government and some major issues that justify the necessity of the mobile government and identify the potential that it pos-sesses, but also the problems that concerns such an activity (trust, security risks, privacy risks.Adoption of mobile technologies by government organizations not only benefits the parties who use these services, but also has a positive impact in the productivity and costs of these organizations.

  1. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of...... engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  2. Critical Behavior in a Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, P D; Chang, Julius

    2003-01-01

    Using a cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared on a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock on an infected premise (IP). Those farms that neighbor an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor iteractions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The non-local disease transport probability can be as low as .01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fissio...

  3. C. elegans Metabolic Gene Regulatory Networks Govern the Cellular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma; Walhout, Albertha J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Diet greatly impacts metabolism in health and disease. In response to the presence or absence of specific nutrients, metabolic gene regulatory networks sense the metabolic state of the cell and regulate metabolic flux accordingly, for instance by the transcriptional control of metabolic enzymes. Here we discuss recent insights regarding metazoan metabolic regulatory networks using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, including the modular organization of metabolic gene regulatory networks, the prominent impact of diet on the transcriptome and metabolome, specialized roles of nuclear hormone receptors in responding to dietary conditions, regulation of metabolic genes and metabolic regulators by microRNAs, and feedback between metabolic genes and their regulators. PMID:24731597

  4. Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has now become quite obvious that the Internet has brought significant changes to our society and a break on how we lived before its emergence. It is still too early to assess the impact on society of the new services at our disposal, such as the capacity to communicate faster and cheaper on a global scale, access information and, perhaps more importantly, to produce and disseminate information in a way that is accessible to all.It is clear that the advent of the Information Society implies changes in our society that constitute a point of no return. However, contrary to what happened when we entered the Industrial Age about three centuries ago, when the changing process was slow and led by older individuals, these days the entrance into the Information Society is taking place rapidly and the decisive players are younger people. The global nature of the Internet, the possibility of producing and distributing any type of content in digital form at almost zero cost, as well as the vast number of people who use the web, have highlighted the need for new forms of intervention in a sector where there are many types of players. It is in this context that the problem of Internet Governance becomes a very current issue, inasmuch as one feels the need to guarantee a diversity of rights and duties, which may appear difficult to reconcile.This paper presents a brief overview of the main players and initiatives which, in the field of Internet Governance, have tried to contribute to turning this network into a factor for social development and democraticity on a global scale.

  5. Differences between disease-associated endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) isoforms in cellular expression, interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and regulation by cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, N; Low, W Y; Onipinla, A; Mein, C; Caulfield, M; Munroe, P B; Chernajovsky, Y

    2015-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) processes peptides for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation and promotes cytokine receptor ectodomain shedding. These known functions of ERAP1 may explain its genetic association with several autoimmune inflammatory diseases. In this study, we identified four novel alternatively spliced variants of ERAP1 mRNA, designated as ΔExon-11, ΔExon-13, ΔExon-14 and ΔExon-15. We also observed a rapid and differential modulation of ERAP1 mRNA levels and spliced variants in different cell types pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have studied three full-length allelic forms of ERAP1 (R127-K528, P127-K528, P127-R528) and one spliced variant (ΔExon-11) and assessed their interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) in transfected cells. We observed variation in cellular expression of different ERAP1 isoforms, with R127-K528 being expressed at a much lower level. Furthermore, the cellular expression of full-length P127-K528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant was enhanced significantly when co-transfected with TNF-R1. Isoforms P127-K528, P127-R528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant associated with TNF-R1, and this interaction occurred in a region within the first 10 exons of ERAP1. Supernatant-derived vesicles from transfected cells contained the full-length and ectodomain form of soluble TNF-R1, as well as carrying the full-length ERAP1 isoforms. We observed marginal differences between TNF-R1 ectodomain levels when co-expressed with individual ERAP1 isoforms, and treatment of transfected cells with tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 exerted variable effects on TNF-R1 ectodomain cleavage. Our data suggest that ERAP1 isoforms may exhibit differential biological properties and inflammatory mediators could play critical roles in modulating ERAP1 expression, leading to altered functional activities of this enzyme. PMID:25545008

  6. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  7. Macromolecular lesions and cellular radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our studies of the interaction of densely ionizing particles with macromolecules in the living cell may be divided into four parts: characterization of lesions to cellular DNA in the unmodified Bragg ionization curve; characterization of lesions to cellular DNA in the spread Bragg curve as used in radiation therapy; elucidation of the cellular radiation chemistry characteristic of high vs. low LET radiation qualities; and the introduction of novel techniques designed to give a better understanding of the fundamental properties of induction of lesions and their repair potentials in high LET radiation

  8. ADENOVIRUS INTERACTION WITH ITS CELLULAR RECEPTOR CAR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOWITT,J.; ANDERSON,C.W.; FREIMUTH,P.

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of adenovirus attachment to the host cell plasma membrane has been revealed in detail by research over the past 10 years. It has long been known that receptor binding activity is associated with the viral fibers, trimeric spike proteins that protrude radially from the vertices of the icosahedral capsid (Philipson et al. 1968). In some adenovirus serotypes, fiber and other virus structural proteins are synthesized in excess and accumulate in the cell nucleus during late stages of infection. Fiber protein can be readily purified from lysates of cells infected with subgroup C viruses, for example Ad2 and Ad5 (Boulanger and Puvion 1973). Addition of purified fiber protein to virus suspensions during adsorption strongly inhibits infection, indicating that fiber and intact virus particles compete for binding sites on host cells (Philipson et al. 1968; Hautala et al. 1998). Cell binding studies using purified radiolabeled fiber demonstrated that fiber binds specifically and with high affinity to the cell plasma membrane, and that cell lines typically used for laboratory propagation of adenovirus have approximately 10{sup 4} high-affinity receptor sites per cell (Persson et al. 1985; Freimuth 1996). Similar numbers of high-affinity binding sites for radiolabeled intact virus particles also were observed (Seth et al. 1994).

  9. ADENOVIRUS INTERACTION WITH ITS CELLULAR RECEPTOR CAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of adenovirus attachment to the host cell plasma membrane has been revealed in detail by research over the past 10 years. It has long been known that receptor binding activity is associated with the viral fibers, trimeric spike proteins that protrude radially from the vertices of the icosahedral capsid (Philipson et al. 1968). In some adenovirus serotypes, fiber and other virus structural proteins are synthesized in excess and accumulate in the cell nucleus during late stages of infection. Fiber protein can be readily purified from lysates of cells infected with subgroup C viruses, for example Ad2 and Ad5 (Boulanger and Puvion 1973). Addition of purified fiber protein to virus suspensions during adsorption strongly inhibits infection, indicating that fiber and intact virus particles compete for binding sites on host cells (Philipson et al. 1968; Hautala et al. 1998). Cell binding studies using purified radiolabeled fiber demonstrated that fiber binds specifically and with high affinity to the cell plasma membrane, and that cell lines typically used for laboratory propagation of adenovirus have approximately 10(sup 4) high-affinity receptor sites per cell (Persson et al. 1985; Freimuth 1996). Similar numbers of high-affinity binding sites for radiolabeled intact virus particles also were observed (Seth et al. 1994)

  10. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  11. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  12. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, N; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this framework and provide the balance for all governance domains. (aut.ref.)

  13. Study of potential drug interactions between prescribed drugs in geriatric patients attending outpatient department in a government tertiary care hospital in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Bhimrao Nishandar

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, PDIs were studied in geriatric population. Knowledge of the prevalence and predictors of clinically important PDIs will help physicians and pharmacists identify patients at higher risk of adverse drug interactions requiring more cautious pharmacotherapy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1569-1573

  14. Adaptive approaches to biosecurity governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David C; Liu, Shuang; Murphy, Brendan; Lonsdale, W Mark

    2010-09-01

    This article discusses institutional changes that may facilitate an adaptive approach to biosecurity risk management where governance is viewed as a multidisciplinary, interactive experiment acknowledging uncertainty. Using the principles of adaptive governance, evolved from institutional theory, we explore how the concepts of lateral information flows, incentive alignment, and policy experimentation might shape Australia's invasive species defense mechanisms. We suggest design principles for biosecurity policies emphasizing overlapping complementary response capabilities and the sharing of invasive species risks via a polycentric system of governance. PMID:20561262

  15. Cellular oncogenes in neoplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, V T; McGee, J O

    1987-01-01

    In recent years cellular homologues of many viral oncogenes have been identified. As these genes are partially homologous to viral oncogenes and are activated in some tumour cell lines they are termed "proto-oncogenes". In tumour cell lines proto-oncogenes are activated by either quantitative or qualitative changes in gene structure: activation of these genes was originally thought to be a necessary primary event in carcinogenesis, but activated cellular oncogenes, unlike viral oncogenes, do ...

  16. Cellular Cardiomyoplasty: Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Chachques, J. (J.); Acar, C; J. Herreros; Trainini, J. (Jorge); Prosper, F.; D’Attellis, N. (N.); Fabiani, J. N.; Carpentier, A

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial regeneration can be induced with the implantation of a variety of myogenic and angiogenic cell types. More than 150 patients have been treated with cellular cardiomyoplasty worldwide, 18 patients have been treated by our group. Cellular cardiomyoplasty seems to reduce the size and fibrosis of infarct scars, limit postischemic remodelling, and restore regional myocardial contractility. Techniques for skeletal myoblasts culture and ex vivo expansion using auto...

  17. Petrol governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taminau, Y.; Vliet, M. van [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Public Management

    1995-12-31

    As the limits of the earth`s carrying capacity come to show, increasing pressure is brought to bear on private enterprise to behave in more environmentally responsible ways. One of the rare studies, that not only focuses on the enterprise level of analyse but at the industrial chain of production is Integrated Production Chain Management (IPCM), which postulates that the chain needs to be modified in its entirety. IPCM is not just a technical coordination problem but also a organizational problem in which different interests of actors play a role. These interests must be analysed. The present article will not go into the technical bottlenecks but will go into organizational bottlenecks that are the result of conflicts of interests. The choice between different technological options is not seen as a merely `technical` one but rather as a choice between different socio-technical (sub)systems. This choice is made in an interaction process in a network of various actors, each with their own perceptions and their own interests, in situations in which information is far from conclusive. (author)

  18. Stability of a Long Noncoding Viral RNA Depends on a 9-nt Core Element at the RNA 5' End to Interact with Viral ORF57 and Cellular PABPC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Massimelli, Jeong-Gu Kang, Vladimir Majerciak, Shu-Yun Le, David J. Liewehr, Seth M. Steinberg, Zhi-Ming Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV ORF57, also known as Mta (mRNA transcript accumulation, enhances viral intron-less transcript accumulation and promotes splicing of intron-containing viral RNA transcripts. In this study, we identified KSHV PAN, a long non-coding polyadenylated nuclear RNA as a main target of ORF57 by a genome-wide CLIP (cross-linking and immunoprecipitation approach. KSHV genome lacking ORF57 expresses only a minimal amount of PAN. In cotransfection experiments, ORF57 alone increased PAN expression by 20-30-fold when compared to vector control. This accumulation function of ORF57 was dependent on a structured RNA element in the 5' PAN, named MRE (Mta responsive element, but not much so on an ENE (expression and nuclear retention element in the 3' PAN previously reported by other studies. We showed that the major function of the 5' PAN MRE is increasing the RNA half-life of PAN in the presence of ORF57. Further mutational analyses revealed a core motif consisting of 9 nucleotides in the MRE-II , which is responsible for ORF57 interaction and function. The 9-nt core in the MRE-II also binds cellular PABPC1, but not the E1B-AP5 which binds another region of the MRE-II. In addition, we found that PAN RNA is partially exportable in the presence of ORF57. Together, our data provide compelling evidence as to how ORF57 functions to accumulate a non-coding viral RNA in the course of virus lytic infection.

  19. Autocatalytic closure and the evolution of cellular information processing networks

    OpenAIRE

    Decraene, James

    2009-01-01

    Cellular Information Processing Networks (CIPNs) are chemical networks of interacting molecules occurring in living cells. Through complex molecular interactions, CIPNs are able to coordinate critical cellular activities in response to internal and external stimuli. We hypothesise that CIPNs may be abstractly regarded as subsets of collectively autocatalytic (i.e., organisationally closed) reaction networks. These closure properties would subsequently interact with the evolution and adaptatio...

  20. Irregular Cellular Learning Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnaashari, Mehdi; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-08-01

    Cellular learning automaton (CLA) is a recently introduced model that combines cellular automaton (CA) and learning automaton (LA). The basic idea of CLA is to use LA to adjust the state transition probability of stochastic CA. This model has been used to solve problems in areas such as channel assignment in cellular networks, call admission control, image processing, and very large scale integration placement. In this paper, an extension of CLA called irregular CLA (ICLA) is introduced. This extension is obtained by removing the structure regularity assumption in CLA. Irregularity in the structure of ICLA is needed in some applications, such as computer networks, web mining, and grid computing. The concept of expediency has been introduced for ICLA and then, conditions under which an ICLA becomes expedient are analytically found. PMID:25291810

  1. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  2. Cellular Homeostasis and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, F Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Aging and longevity are controlled by a multiplicity of molecular and cellular signaling events that interface with environmental factors to maintain cellular homeostasis. Modulation of these pathways to extend life span, including insulin-like signaling and the response to dietary restriction, identified the cellular machineries and networks of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and stress resistance pathways as critical players in the aging process. A decline of proteostasis capacity during aging leads to dysfunction of specific cell types and tissues, rendering the organism susceptible to a range of chronic diseases. This volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry contains a set of two reviews addressing our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying aging in model organisms and humans. PMID:27050288

  3. Metal-support interaction: The key factor governing activity of Pd/SnO2 catalyst for denitration of ground water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Goran C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mesoporous nanocristalline Pd/SnO2 catalysts were prepared by modified solgel technique differing in the pH conditions (pH = 2 and 9.5 of the synthesis of their supports. Samples achieved different activity and selectivity in water denitration reaction using hydrogen. XPS results of reduced samples indicate a strong interaction between the Pd and the Sn possibly as a result of electron shift from Sn to Pd. The solid solution of Pd2+ and SnO2 is formed by taking O from the surface of the support. In such a way some SnO2-X species may stay onto the surface and be responsible for its pronounced activity.

  4. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zalud

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellularmobile communications, examined the progress in current secondgeneration (2G cellular standards and discussed their migration to thethird generation (3G. The European 2G cellular standard GSM and itsevolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. Thethird generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network andequipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of codedivision multiple access (CDMA is investigated too. A sketch of theperspective of mobile communication beyond 3G concludes this article.

  5. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this fram

  6. Translating partitioned cellular automata into classical type cellular automata

    OpenAIRE

    Poupet, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Partitioned cellular automata are a variant of cellular automata that was defined in order to make it very simple to create complex automata having strong properties such as number conservation and reversibility (which are often difficult to obtain on cellular automata). In this article we show how a partitioned cellular automaton can be translated into a regular cellular automaton in such a way that these properties are conserved.

  7. Historical changes in flowering phenology are governed by temperature × precipitation interactions in a widespread perennial herb in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Elizabeth R; Mazer, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    For most species, a precise understanding of how climatic parameters determine the timing of seasonal life cycle stages is constrained by limited long-term data. Further, most long-term studies of plant phenology that have examined relationships between phenological timing and climate have been local in scale or have focused on single climatic parameters. Herbarium specimens, however, can expand the temporal and spatial coverage of phenological datasets. Using Trillium ovatum specimens collected over > 100 yr across its native range, we analyzed how seasonal climatic conditions (mean minimum temperature (Tmin ), mean maximum temperature and total precipitation (PPT)) affect flowering phenology. We then examined long-term changes in climatic conditions and in the timing of flowering across T. ovatum's range. Warmer Tmin advanced flowering, whereas higher PPT delayed flowering. However, Tmin and PPT were shown to interact: the advancing effect of warmer Tmin was strongest where PPT was highest, and the delaying effect of higher PPT was strongest where Tmin was coldest. The direction of temporal change in climatic parameters and in the timing of flowering was dependent on geographic location. Tmin , for example, decreased across the observation period in coastal regions, but increased in inland areas. Our results highlight the complex effects of climate and geographic location on phenology. PMID:26595165

  8. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  9. Radioactivity of cellular concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radioactivity of cellular concrete is discussed. Some data on the concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in building materials in Poland are given. The results of dose rates measurements in living quarters as well as outside are presented. (A.S.)

  10. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  11. Cellular Particle Dynamics simulation of biomechanical relaxation processes of multi-cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Matthew; Kosztin, Ioan

    2013-03-01

    Cellular Particle Dynamics (CPD) is a theoretical-computational-experimental framework for describing and predicting the time evolution of biomechanical relaxation processes of multi-cellular systems, such as fusion, sorting and compression. In CPD, cells are modeled as an ensemble of cellular particles (CPs) that interact via short range contact interactions, characterized by an attractive (adhesive interaction) and a repulsive (excluded volume interaction) component. The time evolution of the spatial conformation of the multicellular system is determined by following the trajectories of all CPs through numerical integration of their equations of motion. Here we present CPD simulation results for the fusion of both spherical and cylindrical multi-cellular aggregates. First, we calibrate the relevant CPD model parameters for a given cell type by comparing the CPD simulation results for the fusion of two spherical aggregates to the corresponding experimental results. Next, CPD simulations are used to predict the time evolution of the fusion of cylindrical aggregates. The latter is relevant for the formation of tubular multi-cellular structures (i.e., primitive blood vessels) created by the novel bioprinting technology. Work supported by NSF [PHY-0957914]. Computer time provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.

  12. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Heijden

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify

  13. Cellular basis of radiation-induced fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrosis is a common sequela of both cancer treatment by radiotherapy and accidental irradiation and has been described in many tissues including skin, lung, heart and liver. The underlying mechanisms of the radiation-induced fibrosis still remain to be resolved. In the present review we tried to illustrate the basic cellular mechanisms of radiation-induced fibrosis based on the newest findings arising from molecular radiobiology and cell biology. Based on these findings the cellular mechanism of radiation-induced fibrosis can be seen as a multicellular process involving various interacting cell systems in the target organ resulting in the fibrotic phenotype of the fibroblast/fibrocyte cell system

  14. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  15. Steuern und Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Müller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: Taxation, in the modern state, has long been a mass phenomenon with an interdisciplinary outlook. On the macro level of the state, a new generation of administrative reforms has crystallized under the label “good public governance”. These reforms seek to resolve regulatory interdependence of state and non - state actors by way of cooperation and interaction. In parallel, on the micro level of businesses, “corporate governance” – voluntary compliance with legal and ethical standards – has become an increasingly important issue. With a view to tax law and tax collection, these developments open up new possibilities to raise tax compliance by means of consensual and cooperative instruments and, accordingly, address taxation as a mass phenomenon. DEUTSCH: Besteuerung ist im modernen Staat ein Massenphänomen und längst interdisziplinär ausgerichtet. Auf der Makro-Ebene des Staates hat sich unter dem Begriff Good Public Governance eine neue Generation von Staats- und Verwaltungsreformen herausgebildet, die Regelungsbeziehungen von staatlichen und nichtstaatlichen Akteuren durch Kooperationen und Interaktionen zu lösen versucht. Parallel dazu hat auf der Mikro-Ebene der Unternehmen mit dem Thema Corporate Governance die freiwillige Einhaltung von rechtlichen und ethischen Regeln an Bedeutung gewonnen. Für das Steuerrecht und den Steuervollzug resultieren aus diesen Entwicklungen neue Möglichkeiten, durch Nutzung konsens- und kooperationsorientierter Instrumente die Tax Compliance zu erhöhen und so dem Massenphänomen Besteuerung gerecht zu werden.

  16. Magnetic Cellular Switches

    OpenAIRE

    Overby, Darryl R.; Alenghat, Francis J.; Montoya-Zavala, Martín; Bei, HuCheng; Oh, Philmo; Karavitis, John; Ingber, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of magnetic cellular switches to enable magnetic control of intracellular functions in living mammalian cells, including receptor signal transduction and gene transcription. Our approach takes advantage of the mechanosensitivity of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) induction and downstream transcription controlled by the cAMP regulatory element (CRE) to engineer gene constructs that optically report gene expression in living cells. We activate transcri...

  17. Cellular therapy in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreemanta K. Parida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy now offer promise of potential adjunct therapeutic options for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB. We review here the role of Mesenchymal stromal cells, (MSCs, as well as other immune effector cells in the therapy of infectious diseases with a focus on TB. MSCs represent a population of tissue-resident non-hematopoietic adult progenitor cells which home into injured tissues increase the proliferative potential of broncho-alveolar stem cells and restore lung epithelium. MSCs have been shown to be immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory mediated via cell-cell contacts as well as soluble factors. We discuss the functional profile of MSCs and their potential use for adjunct cellular therapy of multi-drug resistant TB, with the aim of limiting tissue damage, and to convert unproductive inflammatory responses into effective anti-pathogen directed immune responses. Adjunct cellular therapy could potentially offer salvage therapy options for patients with drug-resistant TB, increase clinically relevant anti-M.tuberculosis directed immune responses and possibly shorten the duration of anti-TB therapy.

  18. Cellular therapy in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Shreemanta K; Madansein, Rajhmun; Singh, Nalini; Padayatchi, Nesri; Master, Iqbal; Naidu, Kantharuben; Zumla, Alimuddin; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Cellular therapy now offer promise of potential adjunct therapeutic options for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). We review here the role of Mesenchymal stromal cells, (MSCs), as well as other immune effector cells in the therapy of infectious diseases with a focus on TB. MSCs represent a population of tissue-resident non-hematopoietic adult progenitor cells which home into injured tissues increase the proliferative potential of broncho-alveolar stem cells and restore lung epithelium. MSCs have been shown to be immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory mediated via cell-cell contacts as well as soluble factors. We discuss the functional profile of MSCs and their potential use for adjunct cellular therapy of multi-drug resistant TB, with the aim of limiting tissue damage, and to convert unproductive inflammatory responses into effective anti-pathogen directed immune responses. Adjunct cellular therapy could potentially offer salvage therapy options for patients with drug-resistant TB, increase clinically relevant anti-M.tuberculosis directed immune responses and possibly shorten the duration of anti-TB therapy. PMID:25809753

  19. Col2a1 lineage tracing reveals that the meniscus of the knee joint has a complex cellular origin

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Gareth; Boot-Handford, Raymond P.; Wallis, Gillian A

    2008-01-01

    The knee joint consists of multiple interacting tissues that are prone to injury- and disease-related degeneration. Although much is known about the structure and function of the knee’s constituent tissues, relatively little is known about their cellular origin and the mechanisms governing their segregation. To investigate the origin and segregation of knee tissues in vivo we performed lineage tracing using a Col2a1-Cre/R26R mouse model system and compared the data obtained with actual Col2a1...

  20. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăceanu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.

  1. Too difficult to govern? An assessment of the governability of transport biofuels in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport biofuels are currently the subject of heated debate in the EU. In the past decade the deployment of these technologies has been justified by claims of attractive environmental, geopolitical and rural development benefits. However, expectations have rapidly turned into deep criticism regarding the sustainability of these technologies and the desirability of pursuing the biofuel path. This situation has generated an on-going controversy and policy deadlock at EU level. This study explores these issues from a governance perspective. Employing the concept of system governability, derived from interactive governance theory, it attempts to shed some light on the problems facing the governance of biofuels and on how the quality of the governance system could be improved. The analysis showed that the governability of the system decreased substantially in the period 2003–2012 due to increasing governing needs and decreasing governing capacity. The quality of the governance system can be improved by (i) improving governing capacity by reducing conflicts among governing actors, advancing consistency among institutions and creating capacity at international and global level; and (ii) promoting advanced technologies and adjusting societal ambitions and expectations regarding biofuels. - highlights: • Biofuels in the EU are significantly more difficult to govern today than in 2003. • This is due to the qualities of the system to be governed and the governing system. • Sustainable biofuel systems are inherently difficult to govern

  2. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  3. Cellular Phone Towers, File name = CELLTOWERS Contains point file of cell towers and an inclomplete poly cadastral layer of properties with cell towers. http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2011. It is...

  4. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Brown, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on corporate social responsibility (CSR)? Government CSR policies have been explained either as a means of substituting or supporting (mirroring) domestic political-economic institutions and policies, or as a means for government to...... government goals in this regard are not necessarily pre-defined....

  5. Molecular features of cellular reprogramming and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary D; Sindhu, Camille; Meissner, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Differentiating somatic cells are progressively restricted to specialized functions during ontogeny, but they can be experimentally directed to form other cell types, including those with complete embryonic potential. Early nuclear reprogramming methods, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and cell fusion, posed significant technical hurdles to precise dissection of the regulatory programmes governing cell identity. However, the discovery of reprogramming by ectopic expression of a defined set of transcription factors, known as direct reprogramming, provided a tractable platform to uncover molecular characteristics of cellular specification and differentiation, cell type stability and pluripotency. We discuss the control and maintenance of cellular identity during developmental transitions as they have been studied using direct reprogramming, with an emphasis on transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. PMID:26883001

  6. Cellular bridges: Routes for intercellular communication and cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Zani, Brett G.; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2010-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is the basis of all biology in multicellular organisms, allowing evolution of complex forms and viability in dynamic environments. Though biochemical interactions occur over distances, physical continuity remains the most direct means of cellular interactions. Cellular bridging through thin cytoplasmic channels—plasmodesmata in plants and tunneling nanotubes in animals—creates direct routes for transfer of signals and components, even pathogens, between cells. Recen...

  7. Understanding protein–protein interactions by genetic suppression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sitaraman Sujatha; Dipankar Chatterji

    2000-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions influence many cellular processes and it is increasingly being felt that even a weak and remote interplay between two subunits of a protein or between two proteins in a complex may govern the fate of a particular biochemical pathway. In a bacterial system where the complete genome sequence is available, it is an arduous task to assign function to a large number of proteins. It is possible that many of them are peripherally associated with a cellular event and it is very difficult to probe such interaction. However, mutations in the genes that encode such proteins (primary mutations) are useful in these studies. Isolation of a suppressor or a second-site mutation that restores the phenotype abolished by the primary mutation could be an elegant yet simple way to follow a set of interacting proteins. Such a reversion site need not necessarily be geometrically close to the primary mutation site.

  8. The fully Mobile City Government Project (MCity)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Hans; Fidel, Raya; Mai, Jens Erik

    The Fully Mobile City Government Project, also known as MCity, is an interdisciplinary research project on the premises, requirements, and effects of fully mobile, wirelessly connected applications (FWMC). The project will develop an analytical framework for interpreting the interaction and...

  9. Does E-Government Improve Government Capacity?

    OpenAIRE

    Kochanova, Anna; Hasnain, Zahid; Larson, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Using a cross-country data set on e-government systems, this paper analyzes whether e-filing of taxes and e-procurement adoption improves the capacity of governments to raise and spend resources through the lowering of tax compliance costs, improvement of public procurement competitiveness, and reduction of corruption. The paper finds that information and communications technology can help...

  10. 75 FR 4570 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing..., Program in Physical Biology, Section on Intracellular Interactions, is seeking statements of capability...

  11. Effect of cellular mobility on immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R. B.; Mannion, R.; Ruskin, H. J.

    2000-08-01

    Mobility of cell types in our HIV immune response model is subject to an intrinsic mobility and an explicit directed mobility, which is governed by Pmob. We investigate how restricting the explicit mobility, while maintaining the innate mobility of a viral-infected cell, affects the model's results. We find that increasing the explicit mobility of the immune system cells leads to viral dominance for certain levels of viral mutation. We conclude that increasing immune system cellular mobility indirectly increases the virus’ inherent mobility.

  12. Failover in cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2010-01-01

    A cellular automata (CA) configuration is constructed that exhibits emergent failover. The configuration is based on standard Game of Life rules. Gliders and glider-guns form the core messaging structure in the configuration. The blinker is represented as the basic computational unit, and it is shown how it can be recreated in case of a failure. Stateless failover using primary-backup mechanism is demonstrated. The details of the CA components used in the configuration and its working are described, and a simulation of the complete configuration is also presented.

  13. Cellular-scale hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abkarian, Manouk; Faivre, Magalie; Horton, Renita; Smistrup, Kristian; Best-Popescu, Catherine A; Stone, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic tools are providing many new insights into the chemical, physical and physicochemical responses of cells. Both suspension-level and single-cell measurements have been studied. We review our studies of these kinds of problems for red blood cells with particular focus on the shapes of ...... mechanical effects on suspended cells can be studied systematically in small devices, and how these features can be exploited to develop methods for characterizing physicochemical responses and possibly for the diagnosis of cellular-scale changes to environmental factors....

  14. Cellular mechanics and motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénon, Sylvie; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-10-01

    The term motility defines the movement of a living organism. One widely known example is the motility of sperm cells, or the one of flagellar bacteria. The propulsive element of such organisms is a cilium(or flagellum) that beats. Although cells in our tissues do not have a flagellum in general, they are still able to move, as we will discover in this chapter. In fact, in both cases of movement, with or without a flagellum, cell motility is due to a dynamic re-arrangement of polymers inside the cell. Let us first have a closer look at the propulsion mechanism in the case of a flagellum or a cilium, which is the best known, but also the simplest, and which will help us to define the hydrodynamic general conditions of cell movement. A flagellum is sustained by cellular polymers arranged in semi-flexible bundles and flagellar beating generates cell displacement. These polymers or filaments are part of the cellular skeleton, or "cytoskeleton", which is, in this case, external to the cellular main body of the organism. In fact, bacteria move in a hydrodynamic regime in which viscosity dominates over inertia. The system is thus in a hydrodynamic regime of low Reynolds number (Box 5.1), which is nearly exclusively the case in all cell movements. Bacteria and their propulsion mode by flagella beating are our unicellular ancestors 3.5 billion years ago. Since then, we have evolved to form pluricellular organisms. However, to keep the ability of displacement, to heal our wounds for example, our cells lost their flagellum, since it was not optimal in a dense cell environment: cells are too close to each other to leave enough space for the flagella to accomplish propulsion. The cytoskeleton thus developed inside the cell body to ensure cell shape changes and movement, and also mechanical strength within a tissue. The cytoskeleton of our cells, like the polymers or filaments that sustain the flagellum, is also composed of semi-flexible filaments arranged in bundles, and also in

  15. Radiolabelled Cellular Blood Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the abstracts of the 5th International Symposion on Radiolabelling of Cellular Blood Elements to be held in Vienna, Austria, September 10-14, 1989. The Meeting is the fifth in a series of meetings designed to discuss the basics and clinical application of radiolabelling techniques. In these days, beside the search for new labelling agents and extending the knowledge in clinical use, the use of monoclonal antibodies is a big new challenge. All reviewed contributions that have been accepted for presentation are contained in this volume. (authors) 58 of them are of INIS scope

  16. Interactive Governance: a Challenge to Institutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    , most of all, of neoliberalism as the new way of the world. It has become part of the 'institutional brickolage' undertaken by strong strategic actors to acquire control over each other and to 'nudge' laypeople to make the right choices in order to make them functional for boosting competition...

  17. Cellular Signaling in the Bovine Antral Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Vásquez - Cano; Martha Olivera - A.

    2010-01-01

    Antral follicle development in the ovary of female cattle is the product of a complex of endocrine, paracrine and autocrine relationships. The interactions of the pituitary gonadotropins over granulosa and theca cells prepare the follicle to produce estradiol and for the final stages of maturation of the oocyte and its potencial ovulation or atresia inside subordinate follicles. It is a dynamic event where cellular signaling patterns changes sequentiallyand quickly at different stages of foll...

  18. Theoretical Bases Of Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita N. Sokolov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article features of main of theories of local government are considered. Concepts of each theory are analyzed. Centuries-old practice of the realization of ideas of local government in various models generated need of scientific and world outlook judgment of the received results. Despite the identity of the purposes, each of doctrines and concepts in own way defines rational forms of interdependence and interaction of the state and society with institutes of local government. Thus in the comparative analysis of each theories it becomes clear that the orientation of the corresponding concept is in one way or another caused by historical, social, political circumstances and need of correction during their formation. In Russia publications on problems of interaction of the authorities in the system of public administration appeared in the middle of the XIX century, during discussion of the concept of liberalization of public administration, i.e. introductions of territorial (self-administrative establishments. Here the special attention is paid to the public and state theory of local government. Both make doctrinal basis of municipal reforms of the XIX-XX centuries. That is remarkable that municipal reform of the XXI century is the cornerstone the dualism doctrine.

  19. Cellular origins and differentiation control mechanisms during periodontal development and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitaru, S; McCulloch, C A; Narayanan, S A

    1994-03-01

    In the context of cellular origins, odontogenic epithelium and oral epithelium are the sources for junctional epithelium during development and during wound healing respectively. In contrast, both odontogenic and non-odontogenic mesenchyme contain the progenitors for gingival fibroblasts in developing tissues while in wounded tissues, gingival fibroblasts are derived from gingival connective tissues and comprise a heterogeneous population of cells with diverse properties and functions. Periodontal ligament, bone and cementum cell populations apparently originate from dental follicle progenitor cells during development, but during wound healing derive from ancestral cells in periodontal ligament and bone. Cellular differentiation in developing periodontium is governed in part by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that generate specific signals which regulate selective cell populations in time and space. On the other hand, differentiation during wound healing and regeneration is regulated by a vast array of extracellular matrix informational molecules and by cytokines that induce both selective and non-selective responses in the different cell lineages and their precursors. Further, several important signalling systems are irretrievably lost after development is complete. Thus, in the context of cellular origins and differentiation, developing and wounded periodontal tissues exhibit fundamental differences. Future prospects for improved healing and regeneration of periodontal tissues may derive from identification and isolation of informational molecules that are stored in connective tissue matrices. These molecules and elucidation of their functions may open new perspectives in our understanding of the biology of periodontal wound healing and may provide novel approaches to periodontal regeneration. PMID:8158503

  20. De-institutionalising governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kay, Adrian; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite several generations of literature on governance and the instruments involved, micro-foundational frameworks remain lacking to describe and model the positive, negative and confused feedback dynamics within any set of governance arrangements. In response, this article addresses the argument...... common in various historical accounts of a shift from government to governance that governance is a process of deinstitutionalisation. In doing so, governance is revealed not as the simple absence of institutions, but rather as a shift in the nature, composition and diversity of institutions and the...... instruments adopted by them. This raises important questions about the design and use of instruments and their institutional effects and legitimacy as micro-foundations of governance, and also about the ability of governments to control them given the nature and significance of feedback dynamics....

  1. Government and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies.......There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies....

  2. Practice of good governance and corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Bălăceanu Cristina; Tutor Predonu Andreea – Monica

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization), in effect re...

  3. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    OpenAIRE

    BĂLĂCEANU, Cristina; TILEA, Doina; Andreea-Monica PREDONU

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance reforms are implemented around the world and may impact upon the population worldwide. In developing countries, such reforms are implemented in a broader context that is primarily defined by previous attempts of promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalization reforms associated with the economic globalization), in effect, represent a new development strategy for t...

  4. 77 FR 73472 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  5. Corporate governance quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bocean, Claudiu George

    2008-01-01

    Corporate governance quality in most countries has overall improved, although to varying degrees and with a few notable exceptions. Corporate governance issues are especially important in emerging countries, since these countries do not have the long-established financial institution infrastructure to deal with corporate governance issues. This paper discusses how emerging countries are dealing with corporate governance quality issues. In emerging countries the impact of improvements in corpo...

  6. Privacy and Open Government

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-01-01

    The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to bala...

  7. Aggregating governance indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the growing interest of academics and policymakers in governance has been reflected in the proliferation of cross-country indices measuring various aspects of governance. The authors explain how a simple variant of an unobserved components model can be used to combine the information from these different sources into aggregate governance indicators. The main advantage of this method us that it allows quantification of the precision of both individual sources of governance data...

  8. Governance and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mushtaq

    2006-01-01

    Governance matters are arguably at the core of international development. What role do theory, policy and practice play in shaping matters of governance with respect to development? This review paper, which is organised in three parts, focuses on this subject since the demise of communism in 1991. In the first part, the theories on the governance and development nexus are outlined. In the second, governance policy is discussed with reference to: the early strategic policy shift; the concepts,...

  9. THEORIES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Nicolae BORLEA; Monica-Violeta ACHIM

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major objective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at re...

  10. Multiuser Cellular Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Modern radio communication is faced with a problem about how to distribute restricted frequency to users in a certain space. Since our task is to minimize the number of repeaters, a natural idea is enlarging coverage area. However, coverage has restrictions. First, service area has to be divided economically as repeater's coverage is limited. In this paper, our fundamental method is to adopt seamless cellular network division. Second, underlying physics content in frequency distribution problem is interference between two close frequencies. Consequently, we choose a proper frequency width of 0.1MHz and a relevantly reliable setting to apply one frequency several times. We make a few general assumptions to simplify real situation. For instance, immobile users yield to homogenous distribution; repeaters can receive and transmit information in any given frequency in duplex operation; coverage is mainly decided by antenna height. Two models are built up to solve 1000 users and 10000 users situations respectively....

  11. Modeling and cellular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing the applicability of mathematical models with carefully designed experiments is a powerful tool in the investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation on cells. The modeling and cellular studies complement each other, for modeling provides guidance for designing critical experiments which must provide definitive results, while the experiments themselves provide new input to the model. Based on previous experimental results the model for the accumulation of damage in Chlamydomonas reinhardi has been extended to include various multiple two-event combinations. Split dose survival experiments have shown that models tested to date predict most but not all the observed behavior. Stationary-phase mammalian cells, required for tests of other aspects of the model, have been shown to be at different points in the cell cycle depending on how they were forced to stop proliferating. These cultures also demonstrate different capacities for repair of sublethal radiation damage

  12. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds......, and pharmaceuticals. However, making cells into efficient factories is challenging because cells have evolved robust metabolic networks with hard-wired, tightly regulated lines of communication between molecular pathways that resist efforts to divert resources. Here, we will review the current status and challenges...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  13. Project governance: selected South African government experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.

  14. Foundations of Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Volonté, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the foundations of corporate governance. The discussion includes a review on the modern corporation, transaction costs theory, agency costs theory, legal investor protection, investor protection by corporate governance and its various mechanisms, as well as an overview of the determinants of corporate governance.

  15. Tourism and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses tourism education for sustainability with a particular focus on the challenges and opportunities associated with preparing students to work within complex tourism governance settings. It takes the position that the development of tourism within a sustainability framework...... and contemporary knowledge and understandings of governance; competencies for tourism governance for sustainability; and ethical action-oriented practice....

  16. Jordan Corporate Governance Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Institute of Directors

    2013-01-01

    As the importance of Corporate Governance increases, an awareness and understanding of the different relevant regulations becomes of paramount value. The importance and value of Corporate Governance is not the core of this publication. The publication is built around the premise that Corporate Governance is important and increasingly becoming of significant importance for growth, continued...

  17. Governance Indicators for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Oman; Christiane Arndt

    2006-01-01

    The use of governance “indicators” is booming. These indicators are supposed to quantify the quality of a country’s governance institutions by considering, for example, the extent of corruption in the economy, the quality of public and private regulatory systems, the prevalence of “rule of law”, the level of political stability, and the effectiveness of government.

  18. Teaching about Comparative Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    As international relationships become increasingly important (with both friendly and not-so-friendly governments), the author believes that it is important for U.S. students to learn about how a parliamentary democracy works--how it is similar, but different from a presidential-style government. Learning about the systems of government of other…

  19. Understanding FRET as a Research Tool for Cellular Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Shrestha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication of molecular species through dynamic association and/or dissociation at various cellular sites governs biological functions. Understanding these physiological processes require delineation of molecular events occurring at the level of individual complexes in a living cell. Among the few non-invasive approaches with nanometer resolution are methods based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET. FRET is effective at a distance of 1–10 nm which is equivalent to the size of macromolecules, thus providing an unprecedented level of detail on molecular interactions. The emergence of fluorescent proteins and SNAP- and CLIP- tag proteins provided FRET with the capability to monitor changes in a molecular complex in real-time making it possible to establish the functional significance of the studied molecules in a native environment. Now, FRET is widely used in biological sciences, including the field of proteomics, signal transduction, diagnostics and drug development to address questions almost unimaginable with biochemical methods and conventional microscopies. However, the underlying physics of FRET often scares biologists. Therefore, in this review, our goal is to introduce FRET to non-physicists in a lucid manner. We will also discuss our contributions to various FRET methodologies based on microscopy and flow cytometry, while describing its application for determining the molecular heterogeneity of the plasma membrane in various cell types.

  20. Empirical multiscale networks of cellular regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin de Bivort

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Grouping genes by similarity of expression across multiple cellular conditions enables the identification of cellular modules. The known functions of genes enable the characterization of the aggregate biological functions of these modules. In this paper, we use a high-throughput approach to identify the effective mutual regulatory interactions between modules composed of mouse genes from the Alliance for Cell Signaling (AfCS murine B-lymphocyte database which tracks the response of approximately 15,000 genes following chemokine perturbation. This analysis reveals principles of cellular organization that we discuss along four conceptual axes. (1 Regulatory implications: the derived collection of influences between any two modules quantifies intuitive as well as unexpected regulatory interactions. (2 Behavior across scales: trends across global networks of varying resolution (composed of various numbers of modules reveal principles of assembly of high-level behaviors from smaller components. (3 Temporal behavior: tracking the mutual module influences over different time intervals provides features of regulation dynamics such as duration, persistence, and periodicity. (4 Gene Ontology correspondence: the association of modules to known biological roles of individual genes describes the organization of functions within coexpressed modules of various sizes. We present key specific results in each of these four areas, as well as derive general principles of cellular organization. At the coarsest scale, the entire transcriptional network contains five divisions: two divisions devoted to ATP production/biosynthesis and DNA replication that activate all other divisions, an "extracellular interaction" division that represses all other divisions, and two divisions (proliferation/differentiation and membrane infrastructure that activate and repress other divisions in specific ways consistent with cell cycle control.

  1. Characteristics of Middle School Students Learning Actions in Outdoor Mathematical Activities with the Cellular Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…

  2. Governing To‐day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Kevin

    Governing To-day denotes a domain of research, and what the thesis undertakes is a theoretical discussion of some questions of method vis-à-vis researching this domain. There are two aspects to the title that enfold one another. Firstly, “governing to-day” signposts that it is to!day that is to be...... governed, that it is ourselves in our actuality that form the target of government, hence it is this government of ourselves in our present that we are to enquire into. Secondly, “governing to-day” highlights the fact that it is thus the state of contemporary arts of government, government at this moment...... in time, in the present!day, in this time that is our own, and so forth, that forms the object of enquiry. Accordingly, “governing to!day” denotes both a government of the present and government in the present. In working through said questions of method, the thesis sketches out an approach that...

  3. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in...... the case of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more...

  4. 78 FR 15726 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue and...

  5. 76 FR 18768 - Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue, and...

  6. 76 FR 64951 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory...

  7. 76 FR 49774 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory...

  8. Illuminating cellular physiology: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovko, Lubov Y; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2007-01-01

    Bioluminescent methods are gaining more and more attention among scientists due to their sensitivity, selectivity and simplicity; coupled with the fact that the bioluminescence can be monitored both in vitro and in vivo. Since the discovery of bioluminescence in the 19th century, enzymes involved in the bioluminescent process have been isolated and cloned. The bioluminescent reactions in several different organisms have also been fully characterized and used as reporters in a wide variety of biochemical assays. From the 1990s it became clear that bioluminescence can be detected and quantified directly from inside a living cell. This gave rise to numerous possibilities for the in vivo monitoring of intracellular processes non-invasively using bioluminescent molecules as reporters. This review describes recent developments in the area of bioluminescent imaging for cell biology. Newly developed imaging methods allow transcriptional/translational regulation, signal transduction, protein-protein interaction, oncogenic transformation, cell and protein trafficking, and target drug action to be monitored in vivo in real-time with high temporal and spatial resolution; thus providing researchers with priceless information on cellular functions. Advantages and limitations of these novel bioluminescent methods are discussed and possible future developments identified. PMID:17725230

  9. The State of Cellular Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Youngbin

    2003-01-01

    Cellular probe technology is one of several potentially promising technologies for obtaining accurate travel time information. In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mandated E911 requirements that cellular location be provided when 911 emergency calls come in to emergency management authorities. The E911 requirements allow 50 -300 meters from the emergency call location, depending on the type of cellular phone technology used and whether handset-based or network-based solutions...

  10. Never-ageing cellular senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ogrunc, Müge; d’Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Cellular senescence was historically discovered as a form of cellular ageing of in vitro cultured cells. It has been under the spotlight following the evidence of oncogene-induced senescence in vivo and its role as a potent tumour suppressor mechanism. Presently, a PubMed search using keywords ‘cellular senescence and cancer’ reveals 8398 number of references (by April 2011) showing that while our knowledge of senescence keeps expanding, the complexity of the phenomenon keeps us – researchers...

  11. THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS: A STEP FORWARD TOWARDS BETTER GLOBAL GOVERNANCE OR GLOBAL GOVERNMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Bonciu

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes the implications of the current global economic crisis for the decision making mechanisms and interactions among the major players. The analysis explores the possibility that the changes implied and required by the economic crisis may lead either to a better global governance or even a step closer to a possible, virtual, global government.

  12. Governance or Governing – the Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Maria Crăciun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Governance and governing are two distinct concepts, but they intertwine. “Good governing” exercises good influence on development. “Good governance” supposes first a relationship of power focused on a series of reforms structured at three levels: the political – administrative level, the economic level, and the level of civil society. As this dimension is difficult to measure, the qualitative evaluation of the governing act raised the interest of the World Bank researchers, who elaborated and monitored the dynamics of a set of indicators, which includes six major dimensions of the governing. A retrospective concerning the image of governing in Romania during the period from 1996 to 2005 suggests a modest increase of the score: from -0.138 (1996 to 0.008 (2002; that was partially achieved based on the voice and responsibility index and on the political stability index, not on those that measure more directly the administrative performance or the integrity of the governing act. For a comparative study, we chose seven countries for the purposes of analysis (two new European Union member states: Romania and Bulgaria; two older member countries of the European Union: Slovenia and Latvia; three non-member states: Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia, which reveal the quality of the governing from a comparative perspective. Corruption control completes the image created by the analyzed indicators. The mere formal accomplishment of commitments made in the pre-accession activity, doubled by recent internal evolutions, bring doubts about the credibility of the anticorruption reforms, as Romania continues to be considered the country with the highest CPI in the European Union. The pessimism of public opinion and the fact that only 34% of the Romanian people consider that the level of corruption will decrease in the following three years constitutes an alarm signal addressed to the governance, in view of the real reformation of the administration system

  13. Active Cellular Nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Guillaume; Erlenkaemper, Christoph; Garcia, Simon; Yevick, Hannah; Joanny, Jean-François; Silberzan, Pascal; Biology inspired physics at mesoscales Team; Physical approach of biological problems Team

    We study the emergence of a nematic order in a two-dimensional tissue of apolar elongated fibroblast cells. Initially, these cells are very motile and the monolayer is characterized by giant density fluctuations, a signature of far-from-equilibrium systems. As the cell density increases because of proliferation, the cells align with each other forming large perfectly oriented domains while the cellular movements slow down and eventually freeze. Therefore topological defects characteristic of nematic phases remain trapped at long times, preventing the development of infinite domains. By analogy with classical non-active nematics, we have investigated the role of boundaries and we have shown that cells confined in stripes of width smaller than typically 500 µm are perfectly aligned in the stripe direction. Experiments performed in cross-shaped patterns show that both the number of cells and the degree of alignment impact the final orientation. Reference: Duclos G., Garcia S., Yevick H.G. and Silberzan P., ''Perfect nematic order in confined monolayers of spindle-shaped cells'', Soft Matter, 10, 14, 2014

  14. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular markets. 22.909 Section 22.909... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular...

  15. Designing beauty the art of cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, Genaro

    2016-01-01

    This fascinating, colourful book offers in-depth insights and first-hand working experiences in the production of art works, using simple computational models with rich morphological behaviour, at the edge of mathematics, computer science, physics and biology. It organically combines ground breaking scientific discoveries in the theory of computation and complex systems with artistic representations of the research results. In this appealing book mathematicians, computer scientists, physicists, and engineers brought together marvelous and esoteric patterns generated by cellular automata, which are arrays of simple machines with complex behavior. Configurations produced by cellular automata uncover mechanics of dynamic patterns formation, their propagation and interaction in natural systems: heart pacemaker, bacterial membrane proteins, chemical rectors, water permeation in soil, compressed gas, cell division, population dynamics, reaction-diffusion media and self-organisation. The book inspires artists to tak...

  16. Quantum features of natural cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schrödinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of “natural” Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l are obtained, which for l → 0 reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement.

  17. Quantum features of natural cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schroedinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of "natural" Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, "deformed" quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale $l$ are obtained, which for $l\\rightarrow 0$ reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form "multipartite" systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce...

  18. Negotiating Collaborative Governance Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2016-01-01

    governance designs emerge and change. The findings of a case study of local governments' efforts to innovate quality management in education through collaborative governance suggest that such form of governance is continuingly negotiated in communication during both design and implementation phases. Through......This article addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public-management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem solving and public innovation. Although aspects of for example stakeholder inclusion and power are conceptualized in the literature, these...... issues remain challenging in practice. Therefore, the interest in understanding the emerging processes of collaborative governance is growing. This article contributes to theorizing discursive aspects of such processes by conceptualizing and exploring the meaning negotiations through which collaborative...

  19. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    challenging the type of governance which constitutional states were supposed to represent and ensure. They also provoke old questions: Who bears the responsibility for governance without a government? Can accountability be ensured? The term 'constitutionalism' is still widely identified with statal form of......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes. They are...... democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international...

  20. Ethics and Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Groenfeldt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethics and values are important dimensions of water governance. We show how a "values approach" contributes to an understanding of global water governance, and how it complements other perspectives on governance, namely management, institutional capacity, and social-ecological systems. We connect these other approaches to their own value systems and the ethical attitudes they engender. We then offer a way to explicitly incorporate, and where necessary adjudicate, competing value systems through a values-based approach to governance. A case of the Santa Fe River in New Mexico, USA illustrates how value systems are reflected in water policies and how these values affect governance priorities, such as in environmental flows. The values-based approach clarifies tacit values and creates space to align local values with those needed for effective water governance at the global level.

  1. Study of the interactivity between mercury and cellular system labeled with carboxymethyl chitosan-coated quantum dots and its application in a real-time in-situ detection of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenyu; Zhou, Peijiang; Zhu, Honghao

    2015-03-01

    In this study, canine kidney cells (MDCK) are fluorescently labeled by carboxymethyl chitosan-coated CdTe quantum dots to obtain a stable fluorescence. Fluorescently labeled MDCK cells are incubated with Hg2+ and passed flow cytometer to measure the mean fluorescence intensity, which shows [Hg2+] has a prominent quenching ability on the cells' fluorescence. The dose-dependent relation can be described by Stern-Volmer equation at the concentration range of 5-70 μg/L [Hg2+]. This method can be employed to determine the concentration of Hg2+ in living cells by measuring the changes in fluorescence of the cellular system. The results show a relative standard deviation of 7.16% (n = 11) and a recovery rate ranging from 92% to 103%, indicating a promising prospect of application on real-time in-situ analysis of [Hg2+] and its cytotoxic effects.

  2. Noise in cellular signaling pathways: causes and effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ladbury, John E.; Arold, Stefan T.

    2012-01-01

    Noise caused by stochastic fluctuations in genetic circuits (transcription and translation) is now appreciated as a central aspect of cell function and phenotypic behavior. Noise has also been detected in signaling networks, but the origin of this noise and how it shapes cellular outcomes remain poorly understood. Here, we argue that noise in signaling networks results from the intrinsic promiscuity of protein-protein interactions, and that this noise has shaped cellular signal transduction. ...

  3. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  4. Multistakeholder Internet Governance?

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Global debate over alternative approaches to governing the Internet has been wide ranging, but increasingly has pivoted around the wisdom of “multistakeholder governance.” This paper takes controversy around a multistakeholder versus an alternative multilateral approach as a focus for clarifying the changing context and significance of Internet governance. A critical perspective on this debate challenges some of the conventional wisdom marshaled around positions on the history ...

  5. Understanding Government Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka V. Půlpánová

    2013-01-01

    Government fi nal consumption represents one of the key indicators provided by national accounts, but at thesame time one with relatively problematic economic interpretation. Th e concept of government fi nal consumptionexpenditure involves a number of conventions. As a result, its economic and statistical character diff ersfrom other fi nal expenditure components in total economy like household consumption or investment. Th earticle explains how government fi nal consumption expenditure and ...

  6. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how...... deployment of governance mechanisms influences knowledge processes: sharing, retaining, and creating knowledge. We survey the papers in this volume of the special issue, and discuss the remaining research challenges....

  7. Second generation governance indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Knack, Stephen; Kugler, Mark; Manning, Nick

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes progress made in a DfID-funded World Bank initiative to test and develop policy-relevant, politically acceptable, quantitative indicators of governance. There are two major components involved in the process of generating indicators that are practical means of reform. Political acceptability is key in developing neutral quantitative benchmarks of good governance that can be embraced by reformers. In addition to political acceptability, measuring governance must be com...

  8. Measuring African Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Hazel M. McFerson

    2009-01-01

    A profusion of governance measures has emerged over the past decade. The major issue is whether governance should be understood only by its attributes (thus measured by process indicators) or also by its impact (thus measured also by outcome indicators). The article classifies the existing measures in three categories—indicators of governance and corruption, measures of civil liberties and human rights, specialized surveys—and discusses in greater depth the two comprehensive surveys: the ...

  9. Macroeconomics and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon de Brouwer

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the impact of institutions on economic growth and development. Governance, both at the economy-wide and firm-specific level, has emerged as one of the central aspects of institutional structure and design. The paper argues that the quality of governance matters to macroeconomic performance because it provides a key foundation for the equitable and efficient allocation of resources, including capital. Better governance tends to be asso...

  10. Good Governance i Cambodja

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Thomas Kieler

    2012-01-01

    This project aims to asses the concept of governance, in reference to its use in the Cambodian development strategy. A theoretical analysis of the term, will determine how and in what manner the notion of governance relates to the field of developmental aid. An identification of the key concepts that relate to governance theory, will hereafter be applied to the Cambodian development strategy, in search of which focal points are hindering for the country’s development process. With the use of ...

  11. Corporate Governance and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Bolton; Marco Becht; Alisa Röell

    2002-01-01

    Corporate governance is concerned with the resolution of collective action problems among dispersed investors and the reconciliation of conflicts of interest between various corporate claimholders. In this survey we review the theoretical and empirical research on the main mechanisms of corporate control, discuss the main legal and regulatory institutions in different countries, and examine the comparative corporate governance literature. A fundamental dilemma of corporate governance emerges ...

  12. Governance Issues for SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Clarke; Alice Klettner

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on research into the corporate governance practices of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. Interviews were conducted with the directors and/or company secretaries of 19 SMEs. The aim of the research was to explore not only SME corporate governance structures and processes but how SMEs had chosen to implement the Principles and the reasons for their choices. The paper addresses the issue of whether the ASX Corporate Governance Prin...

  13. Ethics and Water Governance

    OpenAIRE

    David Groenfeldt; Jeremy J. Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Ethics and values are important dimensions of water governance. We show how a "values approach" contributes to an understanding of global water governance, and how it complements other perspectives on governance, namely management, institutional capacity, and social-ecological systems. We connect these other approaches to their own value systems and the ethical attitudes they engender. We then offer a way to explicitly incorporate, and where necessary adjudicate, competing value systems throu...

  14. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-01-01

    Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the st...

  15. Energy Efficiency Governance: Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This handbook has been written to assist EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish effective EE governance structures for their country. The handbook provides readers with relevant information in an accessible format that will help develop comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. For each of the specific topics dealt with (see Figure 1 in the Handbook), the IEA offers guidelines for addressing issues, or directs readers to examples of how such issues have been dealt with by specific countries.

  16. E-Government Partnerships Across Levels of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Charbit, Claire; Michalun, Varinia

    2009-01-01

    E-government Partnerships across Levels of Government, is an overview of the challenges and approaches to creating a collaborative and cooperative partnership across levels of government for e-government development and implementation.

  17. 77 FR 18258 - Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. SUMMARY: The National Park Service announces two telephonic government-...

  18. Elastomeric Cellular Structure Enhanced by Compressible Liquid Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueting; Xu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengliang; Qiao, Yu; Li, Yibing

    2016-05-01

    Elastomeric cellular structures provide a promising solution for energy absorption. Their flexible and resilient nature is particularly relevant to protection of human bodies. Herein we develop an elastomeric cellular structure filled with nanoporous material functionalized (NMF) liquid. Due to the nanoscale infiltration in NMF liquid and its interaction with cell walls, the cellular structure has a much enhanced mechanical performance, in terms of loading capacity and energy absorption density. Moreover, it is validated that the structure is highly compressible and self-restoring. Its hyper-viscoelastic characteristics are elucidated.

  19. Elastomeric Cellular Structure Enhanced by Compressible Liquid Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueting; Xu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengliang; Qiao, Yu; Li, Yibing

    2016-01-01

    Elastomeric cellular structures provide a promising solution for energy absorption. Their flexible and resilient nature is particularly relevant to protection of human bodies. Herein we develop an elastomeric cellular structure filled with nanoporous material functionalized (NMF) liquid. Due to the nanoscale infiltration in NMF liquid and its interaction with cell walls, the cellular structure has a much enhanced mechanical performance, in terms of loading capacity and energy absorption density. Moreover, it is validated that the structure is highly compressible and self-restoring. Its hyper-viscoelastic characteristics are elucidated. PMID:27221079

  20. eGovernment

    OpenAIRE

    Shadbolt, Nigel; O'Hara, Kieron; Salvadores, Manuel; Alani, Harith

    2011-01-01

    The use of the Semantic Web (SW) in e-government is reviewed. The challenges for the introduction of SW technology in e-government are surveyed from the point of view both of the SW as a new technology that has yet to reach its full potential, and of e-government as a complex digital application with many constraints, competing interests and drivers, and a large and heterogeneous user base of citizens. The spread of SW technology through e-government is reviewed, looking at a number of intern...

  1. Mathematical analysis of complex cellular activity

    CERN Document Server

    Bertram, Richard; Teka, Wondimu; Vo, Theodore; Wechselberger, Martin; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on mathematical physiology that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. The first article reviews the basic theory of calcium oscillations (common to almost all cell types), including spatio-temporal behaviors such as waves. The second article uses, and expands on, much of this basic theory to show how the interaction of cytosolic calcium oscillators with membrane ion channels can result in highly complex patterns of electrical spiking. Through these examples one can see clearly how multiple oscillatory processes interact within a cell, and how mathematical methods can be used to understand such interactions better. The two reviews provide excellent examples of how mathematics and physiology can learn from each other, and work jointly towards a better understanding of complex cellular processes. Review 1: Richard Bertram, Joel Tabak, Wondimu Teka, Theodore Vo, Martin Wechselberger: Geometric Singular Perturbation Analysis of Burst...

  2. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  3. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  4. Globalisation, Corporate Governance and Firm Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Byung S. Min; Russell Smyth

    2012-01-01

    We examine the relationship between globalisation, corporate governance and firm productivity by breaking down total effects into direct and indirect effects. The estimation results, using longitudinal data from Korea, indicate that the positive effect of liberalising equity ownership on firms’ total factor productivity (TFP) was reinforced by indirect managerial effects when a firm improved its corporate governance. Our findings also confirm that the interaction of the managerial effect with...

  5. A decade of adaptive governance scholarship: synthesis and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Chaffin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance is an emergent form of environmental governance that is increasingly called upon by scholars and practitioners to coordinate resource management regimes in the face of the complexity and uncertainty associated with rapid environmental change. Although the term “adaptive governance” is not exclusively applied to the governance of social-ecological systems, related research represents a significant outgrowth of literature on resilience, social-ecological systems, and environmental governance. We present a chronology of major scholarship on adaptive governance, synthesizing efforts to define the concept and identifying the array of governance concepts associated with transformation toward adaptive governance. Based on this synthesis, we define adaptive governance as a range of interactions between actors, networks, organizations, and institutions emerging in pursuit of a desired state for social-ecological systems. In addition, we identify and discuss ambiguities in adaptive governance scholarship such as the roles of adaptive management, crisis, and a desired state for governance of social-ecological systems. Finally, we outline a research agenda to examine whether an adaptive governance approach can become institutionalized under current legal frameworks and political contexts. We suggest a further investigation of the relationship between adaptive governance and the principles of good governance; the roles of power and politics in the emergence of adaptive governance; and potential interventions such as legal reform that may catalyze or enhance governance adaptations or transformation toward adaptive governance.

  6. Contemporary Approaches to Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Pirožek

    2007-01-01

    The description of contemporary application of Corporate Governance principles in Czech companies. The prezentation of Corporate Governance decision steps. The definition of Corporate Governance individual practices in Czech companies. Presentation of future system development of Corporate Governance in Czech companies.

  7. Molecular and cellular neurocardiology: development, and cellular and molecular adaptations to heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habecker, Beth A; Anderson, Mark E; Birren, Susan J; Fukuda, Keiichi; Herring, Neil; Hoover, Donald B; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Paterson, David J; Ripplinger, Crystal M

    2016-07-15

    The nervous system and cardiovascular system develop in concert and are functionally interconnected in both health and disease. This white paper focuses on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie neural-cardiac interactions during development, during normal physiological function in the mature system, and during pathological remodelling in cardiovascular disease. The content on each subject was contributed by experts, and we hope that this will provide a useful resource for newcomers to neurocardiology as well as aficionados. PMID:27060296

  8. Regional Security Governance in the Sino-U.S. Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan; Jishe

    2015-01-01

    In the past 10 years,China’s comprehensive strength has markedly increased,having given China greater capacity to participate in global governance,especially regional security governance.Taking into consideration the future probability of the significantly increasing Sino-U.S.interaction in the field of regional security,this article mainly discusses capability of China’s participation in regional security governance and the areas of regional security governance in which China and

  9. The Role of Corporate Governance in Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sãveanu Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the term corporate governance is more and more associated with risk management objectives. Its importance increases for the main reason that a good governance is a symbol of balance between tactical and strategic decisions. This paper aims to clarify some issues related to corporate governance, starting from principles, ways of measuring, its level, presenting the influences and interactions between the quality of corporate governance and risk management process. The paper also emph...

  10. Using IT Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  11. Government Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearstyne, Bruce W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss government information policy in context of technology and electronic records; policies on information resources management from OMB (Office of Management and Budget); state information resources, including Council of State Governments (CSG); state record laws and preservation of archival records; and management of electronic…

  12. Educational Governance in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  13. "Growth without Governance"

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that there is a strong positive correlation between per capita incomes and the quality of governance across countries. the authors propose an empirical strategy that allows separation of this correlation into (1) a strong positive causal effect running from better governance to higher per capita incomes, and, perhaps surprisingly at first, (2) a weak and even negative caus...

  14. Policy Governance Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William J.

    2001-01-01

    An administrator trainer/former superintendent's experience suggests that corporate governance models don't fit the reality of school governance in many districts. Elected board members define their roles differently than their business counterparts and derive little or no monetary benefit from public service. The "new breed" resemble political…

  15. China and Global Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2007-01-01

    To enhance global governance has become more urgent with rapid development of globalization in the post-Cold War years. China has benefited from the process of globalization and hence should make greater contribution to the global governance in the future.

  16. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation and...

  17. Making Government Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Millo, Yuval; Tuck, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    assemblage. We argue that understanding such assemblages-their emergence, activity, and, frequently, their failures-opens a window on analysing the nature of contemporary forms of financialised governance as a technosocial system. In so doing we suggest that the governance devices approach can off er a way...

  18. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  19. Governance of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    towards shaping the future implies an expansion of public governance in to dimensions: in both time and space. Based on an ethnographic interpretation of Foucault’s notion of power, I wish to unfold how the technology of the future is practiced within PMTO-group sessions.......In my presentation I will explore the concept, ‘technology of the future’, in public governance. Public governance within social services aims at changing the existing conditions for the marginalized citizens including children with special needs. I pose the question: what happens if public...... governance seek to chance the possible future conditions and targets the marginalized child’s relatives? Parent Management Training (PMTO) is studied as a technology of the future that expands and transforms governance. PMTO targets parents with aggressive and asocial children and aims to “create the parent...

  20. A new corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate governance has become increasingly important as globalisation has begun to accelerate and the economic and financial turmoil have intensified. Post-crisis context has imposed the need to expand the prospects for analysis over governance and companies, as well as the need to identify new ways of administration and resource management. From this perspective, the author aims to highlight the conditions, factors and events that have generated profound changes within the business environment, while the analysis is focusing on contemporary changes in the systems of corporate governance and economic mutations, especially in terms of the companies. The establishment of new governance rules is demanding a theoretical approach based on new methodological requirements which are needed to reform theoretical foundations and to promote creative and effective shapes and governance systems.

  1. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  2. THEORIES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nicolae BORLEA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major objective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at resource dependence theory, transaction cost theory and political theory. Later, to these theories was added ethics theory, information asymmetry theory or the theory of efficient markets. These theories are defined based on the causes and effects of variables such as: the configuration of the board of directors, audit committee, independence of managers, the role of top management and their social relations beyond the legal regulatory framework. Effective corporate governance requires applying a combination

  3. Possibilities of government, business and education interaction and collaboration in the framework of the «triple helix» model on the example of agroindustrial complex of Transbaikal region

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoriya Akberdina; Yevgeniy Malyshev

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with questions on cross-sector cooperation between the government, business and education as part of an innovative model of «triple helix», by implementing state programs of development of agriculture in Transbaikal region. «Triple helix» model is organized in accordance with the principles of intersection of three sets of relationships; it describes innovative development through the dynamics of relations between science (education), business and government (represented ...

  4. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, I-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  5. Spatial game in cellular automaton evacuation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schantz, Anton; Ehtamo, Harri

    2015-11-01

    For numerical simulations of crowd dynamics in an evacuation we need a computationally light environment, such as the cellular automaton model (CA). By choosing the right model parameters, different types of crowd behavior and collective effects can be produced. But the CA does not answer why, when, and how these different behaviors and collective effects occur. In this article, we present a model, where we couple a spatial evacuation game to the CA. In the game, an agent chooses its strategy by observing its neighbors' strategies. The game matrix changes with the distance to the exit as the evacuation conditions develop. In the resulting model, an agent's strategy choice alters the parameters that govern its behavior in the CA. Thus, with our model, we are able to simulate how evacuation conditions affect the behavior of the crowd. Also, we show that some of the collective effects observed in evacuations are a result of the simple game the agents play.

  6. Actual problems of cellular cardiomyoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kaupov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides review of cellular technologies used incardiology, describes types of cellular preparations depending onsources of cells and types of compounding cells. The generalmechanisms of therapies with stem cells applications are described.Use of cellular preparations for treatment of cardiovascular diseasesand is improvement of the forecast at patients with heartinsufficiency of various genesis is considered as alternative topractice with organ transplantations. Efforts of biotechnologicallaboratories are directed on search of optimum population of cellsfor application in cardiology and studying of mechanisms andfactors regulating function of cardiac stem cells.

  7. Influence of electric field on cellular migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    Cells have the ability to detect continuous current electric fields (EFs) and respond to them with a directed migratory movement. Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d.) cells, a key model organism for the study of eukaryotic chemotaxis, orient and migrate toward the cathode under the influence of an EF. The underlying sensing mechanism and whether it is shared by the chemotactic response pathway remains unknown. Whereas genes and proteins that mediate the electric sensing as well as that define the migration direction have been previously investigated in D.d. cells, a deeper knowledge about the cellular kinematic effects caused by the EF is still lacking. Here we show that besides triggering a directional bias the electric field influences the cellular kinematics by accelerating the movement of cells along their path. We found that the migratory velocity of the cells in an EF increases linearly with the exposure time. Through the analysis of the PI3K and Phg2 distribution in the cytosol and of the cellular adherence to the substrate we aim at elucidating whereas this speed up effect in the electric field is due to either a molecular signalling or the interaction with the substrate. This work is part of the MaxSynBio Consortium which is jointly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany and the Max Planck Society.

  8. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Karkošková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is unclear how to achieve them. Cloud computing governance helps to create business value through obtain benefits from use of cloud computing services while optimizing investment and risk. Challenge, which organizations are facing in relation to governing of cloud services, is how to design and implement cloud computing governance to gain expected benefits. This paper aims to provide guidance on implementation activities of proposed Cloud computing governance lifecycle from cloud consumer perspective. Proposed model is based on SOA Governance Framework and consists of lifecycle for implementation and continuous improvement of cloud computing governance model.

  9. Topology and weights in a protein domain interaction network – a novel way to predict protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuchty Stefan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the analysis of unweighted biological webs as diverse as genetic, protein and metabolic networks allowed spectacular insights in the inner workings of a cell, biological networks are not only determined by their static grid of links. In fact, we expect that the heterogeneity in the utilization of connections has a major impact on the organization of cellular activities as well. Results We consider a web of interactions between protein domains of the Protein Family database (PFAM, which are weighted by a probability score. We apply metrics that combine the static layout and the weights of the underlying interactions. We observe that unweighted measures as well as their weighted counterparts largely share the same trends in the underlying domain interaction network. However, we only find weak signals that weights and the static grid of interactions are connected entities. Therefore assuming that a protein interaction is governed by a single domain interaction, we observe strong and significant correlations of the highest scoring domain interaction and the confidence of protein interactions in the underlying interactions of yeast and fly. Modeling an interaction between proteins if we find a high scoring protein domain interaction we obtain 1, 428 protein interactions among 361 proteins in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Assessing their quality by a logistic regression method we observe that increasing confidence of predicted interactions is accompanied by high scoring domain interactions and elevated levels of functional similarity and evolutionary conservation. Conclusion Our results indicate that probability scores are randomly distributed, allowing to treat static grid and weights of domain interactions as separate entities. In particular, these finding confirms earlier observations that a protein interaction is a matter of a single interaction event on domain level. As an immediate application, we

  10. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis. (paper)

  11. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms...... with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge...... represents various challenges to more `closed' social science disciplines, notably economics....

  12. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well as...

  13. e-Government

    OpenAIRE

    Vellendorfová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Although the e-Government was mentioned more frequently, especially because of data boxes, its origin dates back to 90th the 20th century. Then the first efforts to development of information systems began to connect various governmental offices. However, these efforts haven't been very successful. Subsequently, different e-Government services start developing and this is what the diploma thesis is about. First it outlines the progress of the e-Government. Then this thesis attempts to the e-G...

  14. Governance Issues for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Clarke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on research into the corporate governance practices of small and medium enterprises (SMEs listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. Interviews were conducted with the directors and/or company secretaries of 19 SMEs. The aim of the research was to explore not only SME corporate governance structures and processes but how SMEs had chosen to implement the Principles and the reasons for their choices. The paper addresses the issue of whether the ASX Corporate Governance Principles and Recommendations were appropriate for SMEs. It describes the SME responses to the requirements, how these differ from those of larger companies, and how these differences impact on small companies.

  15. Cellular mechanisms during vascular development

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    The vascular system is an essential organ in vertebrate animals and provides the organism with enough oxygen and nutrients. It is composed of an interconnected network of blood vessels, which form using a number of different morphogenetic mechanisms. Angiogenesis describes the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. A number of molecular pathways have been shown to be essential during angiogenesis. However, cellular architecture of blood vessels as well as cellular mechanisms...

  16. Predictive Modelling of Cellular Load

    OpenAIRE

    Carolan, Emmett; McLoone, Seamus; Farrell, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the temporal dynamics of cellular load in four Irish regions. Large scale underutilisation of network resources is identified both at the regional level and at the level of individual cells. Cellular load is modeled and prediction intervals are generated. These prediction intervals are used to put an upper bound on usage in a particular cell at a particular time. Opportunities for improvements in network utilization by incorporating these upper bounds on usage are identifie...

  17. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    OpenAIRE

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the...

  18. Modeling In Vitro Cellular Responses to Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwaipayan Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineered nanoparticles (NPs have been widely demonstrated to induce toxic effects to various cell types. In vitro cell exposure systems have high potential for reliable, high throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity, allowing focusing on particular pathways while excluding unwanted effects due to other cells or tissue dosimetry. The work presented here involves a detailed biologically based computational model of cellular interactions with NPs; it utilizes measurements performed in human cell culture systems in vitro, to develop a mechanistic mathematical model that can support analysis and prediction of in vivo effects of NPs. The model considers basic cellular mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, and production of cytokines in response to NPs. This new model is implemented for macrophages and parameterized using in vitro measurements of changes in cellular viability and mRNA levels of cytokines: TNF, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. The model includes in vitro cellular dosimetry due to nanoparticle transport and transformation. Furthermore, the model developed here optimizes the essential cellular parameters based on in vitro measurements, and provides a “stepping stone” for the development of more advanced in vivo models that will incorporate additional cellular and NP interactions.

  19. Combinatorial approaches to evaluate nanodiamond uptake and induced cellular fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldawud, Reem; Reitzig, Manuela; Opitz, Jörg; Rojansakul, Yon; Jiang, Wenjuan; Nangia, Shikha; Zoica Dinu, Cerasela

    2016-02-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are an emerging class of engineered nanomaterials that hold great promise for the next generation of bionanotechnological products to be used for drug and gene delivery, or for bio-imaging and biosensing. Previous studies have shown that upon their cellular uptake, NDs exhibit high biocompatibility in various in vitro and in vivo set-ups. Herein we hypothesized that the increased NDs biocompatibility is a result of minimum membrane perturbations and their reduced ability to induce disruption or damage during cellular translocation. Using multi-scale combinatorial approaches that simulate ND-membrane interactions, we correlated NDs real-time cellular uptake and kinetics with the ND-induced membrane fluctuations to derive energy requirements for the uptake to occur. Our discrete and real-time analyses showed that the majority of NDs internalization occurs within 2 h of cellular exposure, however, with no effects on cellular viability, proliferation or cellular behavior. Furthermore, our simulation analyses using coarse-grained models identified key changes in the energy profile, membrane deformation and recovery time, all functions of the average ND or ND-based agglomerate size. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for ND-cell membrane interactions could possibly advance their implementation in various biomedical applications.

  20. The 37/67kDa laminin receptor (LR) inhibitor, NSC47924, affects 37/67kDa LR cell surface localization and interaction with the cellular prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnataro, Daniela; Pepe, Anna; Altamura, Gennaro; De Simone, Imma; Pesapane, Ada; Nitsch, Lucio; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LR) is a non-integrin protein, which binds both laminin-1 of the extracellular matrix and prion proteins, that hold a central role in prion diseases. The 37/67 kDa LR has been identified as interactor for the prion protein (PrPC) and to be required for pathological PrP (PrPSc) propagation in scrapie-infected neuronal cells, leading to the possibility that 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction is related to the pathogenesis of prion diseases. A relationship between 37/67 kDa LR and PrPC in the presence of specific LR inhibitor compounds has not been investigated yet. We have characterized the trafficking of 37/67 kDa LR in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, finding the receptor on the cell surface and nuclei, and identified the 67 kDa LR as the almost exclusive isoform interacting with PrPC. Here, we show that the treatment with the 37/67 kDa LR inhibitor, NSC47924, affects both the direct 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction in vitro and the formation of the immunocomplex in live cells, inducing a progressive internalization of 37/67 kDa LR and stabilization of PrPC on the cell surface. These data reveal NSC47924 as a useful tool to regulate PrPC and 37/67 kDa LR trafficking and degradation, representing a novel small molecule to be tested against prion diseases. PMID:27071549

  1. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  2. Managing e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Persson, John Stouby; Heeager, Lise Tordrup;

    2015-01-01

    Public sector managers take much of the responsibility for selecting, commissioning, implementing and realising benefits from information technology (IT) projects. However, e-Government initiatives often suffer from complexity, vision failure, lack of goal clarity and insufficient commitment...

  3. Particles and Patterns in Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our objective has been to develop tools for studying particle interactions in a class of dynamical systems characterized by discreteness, determinism, local interaction, and an inherently parallel form of evolution. These systems can be described by cellular automata (CA) and the behavior we studied has improved our understanding of the nature of patterns generated by CAs, their ability to perform global computations, and their relationship to continuous dynamical systems. We have also developed a rule-table mathematics that enables one to custom-design CA rule tables to generate patterns of specified types, or to perform specified computational tasks

  4. Total Cellular RNA Modulates Protein Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Subhabrata; DeMott, Christopher M; Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2016-08-16

    RNA constitutes up to 20% of a cell's dry weight, corresponding to ∼20 mg/mL. This high concentration of RNA facilitates low-affinity protein-RNA quinary interactions, which may play an important role in facilitating and regulating biological processes. In the yeast Pichia pastoris, the level of ubiquitin-RNA colocalization increases when cells are grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol instead of methanol as the sole carbon source. Total RNA isolated from cells grown in methanol increases β-galactosidase activity relative to that seen with RNA isolated from cells grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol. Because the total cellular RNA content changes with growth medium, protein-RNA quinary interactions can alter in-cell protein biochemistry and may play an important role in cell adaptation, critical to many physiological and pathological states. PMID:27456029

  5. Explaining governance outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Paul; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    network analysis school, which has focused on the relationship between processes of interest intermediation and their impact on policy-making outcomes.We examine how each school is underpinned by important epistemological differences between positivist, interpretivist and critical realist approaches...... as overarching measures of how governance outcomes vary between different governance arrangements. This provides the basis for a broader discussion of how these outcomes are conditioned by both a network’s structural characteristics and the way in which it is managed....

  6. Managerial Corporate Governance Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio M. Brondoni

    2006-01-01

    Corporate governance communication has steadily become more important as markets have globalised. On open markets, the specific report on economic-financial disclosures supplements the communication system of companies, whose policies are founded strongly on integration, in order to tackle an economic context that is characterised by strong competitive dynamics and growing managerial complexity. Globalisation tends to underline the importance of corporate governance communication designed to ...

  7. Governing Logistics Information Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Klievink, A.J.; Aldewereld, H.M.; Knol, A.; Tan, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    The Extended Single Window (ESW) project aims to support goods flows by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Specifically, the project takes the concept of Single Windows (often used in the sense that governments offer a single portal or interface to which businesses can submit information, supporting re-ruse by multiple agencies and coordination of government activities) and includes the business side; creating an Extended Single Window. An Extended Single Window includes business...

  8. Districting and Government Overspending

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Baqir

    2001-01-01

    The common-pool problem is a central issue in the relationship between the political structure of jurisdictions and the size of public spending. Models predict that, other things being equal, greater political districting of a jurisdiction raises the scale of government. This paper presents new evidence on this and related predictions from a cross-section of city governments in the United States. The main finding is that one additional legislator is associated, on average, with 3 percent larg...

  9. Corporate Governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yan

    2011-01-01

    China has become the world's second largest economic entity following its economic reform process begun over 30 years ago. Corporate governance plays an important role in China economic success, but it also has many problems. These include the concentration of state ownership, management accountability and shareholder rights. Economic reform has made the problems more apparent. This thesis studies the evolution of corporate governance with the China's economic reform process, and explores i...

  10. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  11. Governing by planning inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet presents a critique of planning inquiries as a method of formulating central government policies, using the Windscale and Sizewell ''B'' inquiries as particular examples. The author argues that government, not Inquiry Inspectors, should shoulder responsibility for policy recommendations on such serious issues. Further, he suggests that advocates and instigators of such schemes as those described may be obliged to offer evidence in support of their case and cross-examine opponents in areas completely outside their own sphere of knowledge. (UK)

  12. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a "knowledge governance approach" as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment ...

  13. IT governance for SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Devos, Jan

    2010-01-01

    IT Governance is placing information technology (IT) and information systems (IS) on the agenda of CEOs. However research on the IT/IS value proposition is elaborate and strongly focused on large firms. Despite the numerous successes illustrating the advantages of IT Governance in organizations it is commonly accepted that the processes of developing and using IS are not straightforward. The focus of this research is the complex relation of IT/IS and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) ...

  14. Corporate Governance. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper pretends to do a theoretical approach of Corporate Governance, having as support some case studies about companies like Coca-Cola, Nokia, Microsoft, and Amazon.com. The methodology adopted for this work is based in information from these companies available in their websites and annual reports. I concluded that both companies show the corporate governance components according to their core business and their environmental business.

  15. eGovernment

    OpenAIRE

    Machačová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Summary This thesis is concerned with the use of e-Government in civil services especially at the work of The Czech Telecommunication Office. First of all there are described the basics of e-Government, its history and the most important terms, that are connected with the electronic services. Above all it is focused on delivering documents. Nowadays there are coexisting two ways of delivering. The first possibility is delivering by electronic mailbox; the second one is the traditio...

  16. Open Government and (Linked (Open (Government (Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Philipp Geiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the opening and the free usage of stored public sector data, supplied by state. In the age of Open Government and Open Data it’s not enough just to put data online. It should be rather weighed out whether, how and which supplied public sector data can be published. Open Data are defined as stored data which could be made accessible in a public interest without any restrictions for usage and distribution. These Open Data can possibly be statistics, geo data, maps, plans, environmental data and weather data in addition to materials of the parliaments, ministries and authorities. The preparation and the free access to existing data permit varied approaches to the reuse of data, discussed in the article. In addition, impulses can be given for Open Government – the opening of state and administration, to more transparency, participation and collaboration as well as to innovation and business development. The Open Data movement tries to get to the bottom of current publication processes in the public sector which could be formed even more friendly to citizens and enterprises.

  17. Probing intra-cellular drug release event using activatable (OFF/ON) CdS:Mn/ZnS quantum dots (Qdots): spectroscopic studies to investigate interaction of Qdots with quencher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharkur, Jeremy; Teblum, Andrew; Basumallick, Srijita; Shah, Rikhav; Cantarero, Karishma; Maity, Niharika; Rifai, Sara; Doshi, Mona; Gesquiere, Andre J.; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, activatable Quantum Dots (AQdots) are gaining popularity in a number of chemical and biological sensing applications. A basic design of AQdot probes involves a suitable quencher which is capable of altering optical properties of the Qdots. In our previous studies we have shown that CdS:Mn/ZnS fluorescence can be effectively quenched using small molecule quenchers (such as dopamine, chemotherapeutic drug) as well as iron oxide nanoparticle via electron/energy transfer process. We have also shown that the quenched Qdot fluorescence can be restored when the Qdots are separated from the quencher. Using Qdot based activatable probes, we detected intracellular drug release event. Qdot fluorescence was restored upon interaction with the intracellular glutathione (GSH). In this paper, we report a GSH induced quenching of water-soluble N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) surface-conjugated Cds:Mn/ZnS Qdots. Quenching of NAC-Qdots was due to aggregation of Qdots in solution. This aggregation induced fluorescence quenching phenomenon resembles with the self-quenching phenomenon of traditional organic fluorescence dyes at high concentrations. UV-VIS and fluorescence emission spectroscopy data support the interaction and binding of GSH with the NAC-Qdots. Increase in particle size due to GSH induced aggregation of NAC-Qdots was confirmed by the Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) data.

  18. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K

    2011-01-01

    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  19. Two Phase Flow Simulation Using Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical mathematical treatment of two-phase flows is based on the average of the conservation equations for each phase.In this work, a complementary approach to the modeling of these systems based on statistical population balances of aut omata sets is presented.Automata are entities defined by mathematical states that change following iterative rules representing interactions with the neighborhood.A model of automata for two-phase flow simulation is presented.This model consists of fie lds of virtual spheres that change their volumes and move around a certain environment.The model is more general than the classical cellular automata in two respects: the grid of cellular automata is dismissed in favor of a trajectory generator, and the rules of interaction involve parameters representing the actual physical interactions between phases.Automata simulation was used to study unsolved two-phase flow problems involving high heat flux rates. One system described in this work consists of a vertical channel with saturated water at normal pressure heated from the lower surface.The heater causes water to boil and starts the bubble production.We used cellular automata to describe two-phase flows and the interaction with the heater.General rule s for such cellular automata representing bubbles moving in stagnant liquid were used, with special attention to correct modeling of different mechanisms of heat transfer.The results of the model were compared to previous experiments and correlations finding good agreement.One of the most important findings is the confirmation of Kutateladze's idea about a close relation between the start of critical heat flux and a change in the flow's topology.This was analyzed using a control volume located in the upper surface of the heater.A strong decrease in the interfacial surface just before the CHF start was encountered.The automata describe quite well some characteristic parameters such as the shape of the local void fraction in the

  20. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. It is an update of the 2005 Corporate Governance ROSC. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, helps to protects mino...

  1. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. It is an update of the 2005 Corporate Governance ROSC. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, helps to protects mino...

  2. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report assesses Vietnam's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Vietnam. It is an update of the 2006 Corporate Governance ROSC for Vietnam. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, protec...

  3. Urban transport, the environment and deliberative governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2006-01-01

    range of deliberative and more interactive governance approaches have emerged. This article discusses the central role of interdependence and trust in such approaches, based on three cases, Aalborg (DK), Lund (S) and Groningen (NL), in which environmental objectives and strategies have materialized in......Today, actors in policy making and planning are often faced with demands of handling conditions characterized by increasing fragmentation, differentiation and complexity. In response to an apparent limited reach of traditional monocentric and top-down governing in dealing with those conditions, a...... in searching for new formats for collaboration and deliberative governance and, in particular, for generating trust among interdependent actors. The concluding remark holds that deliberative governance can illuminate conflicting relations and provoke or massage those early in policy and planning...

  4. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  5. Prognosis of Different Cellular Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetish Ranjan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement in mobile telephony from 1G to 3G, 4G and 5G has a very axiomatic fact that made an entire world a global village. The cellular system employs a different design approach and technology that most commercial radio and television system use. In the cellular system, the service area is divided into cells and a transmitter is designed to serve an individual cell. The system seeks to make efficient use of available channels by using low-power transmitters to allow frequency reuse at a smaller distance. Maximizing the number of times each channel can be reused in a given geographical area is the key to an efficient cellular system design. During the past three decades, the world has seen significant changes in telecommunications industry. There have been some remarkable aspects to the rapid growth in wireless communications, as seen by the large expansion in mobile systems. This paper focuses on “Past, Present & Future of Cellular Telephony” and some light has been thrown upon the technologies of the cellular systems, namely 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G and future generations like 4G and 5G systems as well.

  6. Risk Management in IT Governance Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GHEORGHE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of governance has an already old contour: the system by which business corporations are directed and controlled. The most praised principles regarding shareholder rights, transparency and board accountability now constitute the foundation for new tendencies evolved from such ground. Executive compensation, transparency and shareholder reporting are new issues attached to board responsibilities. Besides such almost negative approaches the board faces a more and more prominent role from risk management and IT governance perspective. Nowadays is generally acknowledged that the board is in charge for managing and controlling the risks to assets of the enterprises and business future. IT Governance has emerged as a support for corporate governance, as an important part of board’s striving efforts to perform better in a competition environment. These responsibilities, risk management and IT Governance, remain within the framework of old concept of corporate governance and are fed from its substance. The interaction between these concepts is the core interest of this research.IT Governance is defined as procedures and policies established in order to assure that the IT system of an organization sustains its goals and strategies. The management of the organisations face a new challenge: structural redefinition of the IT component in order to create plus value and to minimize IT risks through an efficient management of all IT resources of the organisation. The evolution of the present IT environment is a natural process according to which business environment should adapt.

  7. Academic Faculty Governance and Recruitment Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Walz, U.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the implications of the governance structure in academic faculties for their recruitment decisions when competing for new researchers. The value to individual members through social interaction within the faculty depends on the average status of their fellow members. In recruitment decisi

  8. Capital Structure, Strategic Competition, and Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.T. Nguyen (Thuy Thu)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis consists of four studies on the interactions of capital structure and product market competition, and on several aspects of governance, firm financing and growth. The first study investigates how competitive behavior and market uncertainty affect the capital structure of a fi

  9. Regulation of autophagy in oxygen-dependent cellular stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by supraphysiological production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), can cause cellular injury associated with protein and lipid oxidation, DNA damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The cellular responses triggered by oxidative stress include the altered regulation of signaling pathways that culminate in the regulation of cell survival or cell death pathways. Recent studies suggest that autophagy, a cellular homeostatic process that governs the turnover of damaged organelles and proteins, may represent a general cellular and tissue response to oxidative stress. The autophagic pathway involves the encapsulation of substrates in double-membraned vesicles, which are subsequently delivered to the lysosome for enzymatic degradation and recycling of metabolic precursors. Autophagy may play multifunctional roles in cellular adaptation to stress, by maintaining mitochondrial integrity, and removing damaged proteins. Additionally, autophagy may play important roles in the regulation of inflammation and immune function. Modulation of the autophagic pathway has been reported in cell culture models of oxidative stress, including altered states of oxygen tension (i.e., hypoxia, hyperoxia), and exposure to oxidants. Furthermore, proteins that regulate autophagy may be subject to redox regulation. The heme oxygenase- 1 (HO)-1 enzyme system may have a role in the regulation of autophagy. Recent studies suggest that carbon monoxide (CO), a reaction product of HO activity which can alter mitochondrial function, may induce autophagy in cultured epithelial cells. In conclusion, current research suggests a central role for autophagy as a mammalian oxidative stress response and its interrelationship to other stress defense systems. PMID:23092322

  10. Climate change governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knieling, Joerg [HafenCity Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Urban Planning and Regional Development; Leal Filho, Walter (eds.) [HAW Hamburg (Germany). Research and Transfer Centre Applications of Life Science

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is a cause for concern both globally and locally. In order for it to be tackled holistically, its governance is an important topic needing scientific and practical consideration. Climate change governance is an emerging area, and one which is closely related to state and public administrative systems and the behaviour of private actors, including the business sector, as well as the civil society and non-governmental organisations. Questions of climate change governance deal both with mitigation and adaptation whilst at the same time trying to devise effective ways of managing the consequences of these measures across the different sectors. Many books have been produced on general matters related to climate change, such as climate modelling, temperature variations, sea level rise, but, to date, very few publications have addressed the political, economic and social elements of climate change and their links with governance. This book will address this gap. Furthermore, a particular feature of this book is that it not only presents different perspectives on climate change governance, but it also introduces theoretical approaches and brings these together with practical examples which show how main principles may be implemented in practice.

  11. Romanian government bond market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia POP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian government bond market segment, as part of the country financial market. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romania are short, based on the secondary data offered by the official bodies involved in the process of issuing and trading the Romanian government bonds (Romanian Ministry of Public Finance, Romanian National Bank and Bucharest Stock Exchange, and also on secondary data provided by the Federation of European Stock Exchanges.To enhance the market credibility as a benchmark, a various combination of measures is necessary; among these measures are mentioned: the extension of the yield curve; the issuance calendars in order to improve transparency; increasing the disclosure of information on public debt issuance and statistics; holding regular meetings with dealers, institutional investors and rating agencies; introducing a system of primary dealers; establishing a repurchase (repo market in the government bond market. These measures will be discussed based on the evolution presented inside the paper.The paper conclude with the fact that, until now, the Romanian government bond market did not provide a benchmark for the domestic financial market and that further efforts are needed in order to increase the government bond market transparency and liquidity.

  12. Aging, cellular senescence, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Judith

    2013-01-01

    For most species, aging promotes a host of degenerative pathologies that are characterized by debilitating losses of tissue or cellular function. However, especially among vertebrates, aging also promotes hyperplastic pathologies, the most deadly of which is cancer. In contrast to the loss of function that characterizes degenerating cells and tissues, malignant (cancerous) cells must acquire new (albeit aberrant) functions that allow them to develop into a lethal tumor. This review discusses the idea that, despite seemingly opposite characteristics, the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies of aging are at least partly linked by a common biological phenomenon: a cellular stress response known as cellular senescence. The senescence response is widely recognized as a potent tumor suppressive mechanism. However, recent evidence strengthens the idea that it also drives both degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies, most likely by promoting chronic inflammation. Thus, the senescence response may be the result of antagonistically pleiotropic gene action. PMID:23140366

  13. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi

    The monitoring of cellular behavior is useful for the advancement of biomedical diagnostics, drug development and the understanding of a cell as the main unit of the human body. Micro- and nanotechnology allow for the creation of functional devices that enhance the study of cellular dynamics by...... modifications for electrochemical nanosensors for the detection of analytes released from cells. Two type of materials were investigated, each pertaining to the two different aspects of such devices: peptide nanostructures were studied for the creation of cellular sensing substrates that mimic in vivo surfaces...... and that offer advantages of functionalization, and conducting polymers were used as electrochemical sensor surface modifications for increasing the sensitivity towards relevant analytes, with focus on the detection of dopamine released from cells via exocytosis. Vertical peptide nanowires were...

  14. Cellular-based preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cellular-based preemption system that uses existing cellular infrastructure to transmit preemption related data to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles through one or more intersections. A cellular unit in an emergency vehicle is used to generate position reports that are transmitted to the one or more intersections during an emergency response. Based on this position data, the one or more intersections calculate an estimated time of arrival (ETA) of the emergency vehicle, and transmit preemption commands to traffic signals at the intersections based on the calculated ETA. Additional techniques may be used for refining the position reports, ETA calculations, and the like. Such techniques include, without limitation, statistical preemption, map-matching, dead-reckoning, augmented navigation, and/or preemption optimization techniques, all of which are described in further detail in the above-referenced patent applications.

  15. Modeling diffusion of innovations with probabilistic cellular automata

    OpenAIRE

    Boccara, Nino; Fuks, Henryk

    1997-01-01

    We present a family of one-dimensional cellular automata modeling the diffusion of an innovation in a population. Starting from simple deterministic rules, we construct models parameterized by the interaction range and exhibiting a second-order phase transition. We show that the number of individuals who eventually keep adopting the innovation strongly depends on connectivity between individuals.

  16. Two HAP2-GCS1 homologs responsible for gamete interactions in the cellular slime mold with multiple mating types: Implication for common mechanisms of sexual reproduction shared by plants and protozoa and for male-female differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Fujisaki, Yukie; Bloomfield, Gareth; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Urushihara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization is a central event in sexual reproduction, and understanding its molecular mechanisms has both basic and applicative biological importance. Recent studies have uncovered the molecules that mediate this process in a variety of organisms, making it intriguing to consider conservation and evolution of the mechanisms of sexual reproduction across phyla. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes sexual maturation and forms gametes under dark and humid conditions. It exhibits three mating types, type-I, -II, and -III, for the heterothallic mating system. Based on proteome analyses of the gamete membranes, we detected expression of two homologs of the plant fertilization protein HAP2-GCS1. When their coding genes were disrupted in type-I and type-II strains, sexual potency was completely lost, whereas disruption in the type-III strain did not affect mating behavior, suggesting that the latter acts as female in complex organisms. Our results demonstrate the highly conserved function of HAP2-GCS1 in gamete interactions and suggest the presence of additional allo-recognition mechanisms in D. discoideum gametes. PMID:27189178

  17. Cellular interactions of human T cell subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies in regulating B cell differentiation: a comparative study in Nocardia water-soluble mitogen- and pokeweed mitogen-stimulated culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two distinct human T cell subsets, OKT4+ cellrich and OKT8+ cellrich populations, were negatively selected with reasonable purity by C-mediated cytolysis with the use of monoclonal OKT4 and OKT8 antibodies. B cells were purified by rigorous depletion of E rosetting cells. Purified B cells responded to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) to yield a negligible number of immunoglobulin-producing cells (lg-PC), which were identified by a direct immunofluorescence method, after 7 days of culture, and to Nocardia water-soluble mitogen (NWSM) with the generation of a few, but a significant number of, lg-PC. Helper function of each T cell subset was measured as the ability of added T cells to restore the generation of lg-PC by B cells after 7 days of culture with NWSM or PWM. Results indicate that although NWSM by itself did not activate suppressor T cells to become effector cells, OKT8+ cells in the NWSM-driven system were able to exert suppressor effect for B cell differentiation only when used in combination with PWM-prestimulated OKT4+ cells. PWM-prestimulated OKT4+ cells had a pivotal role for the expression of suppressor activity by OKT8+ cells in this system, and the ability of these OKT4+ cells to interact with OKT8+ cells appeared to be radiosensitive

  18. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching, Germany (near Munich) on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in...

  19. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre- and the...... post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  20. Mediatization and Government Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo; Valentini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    communication efforts, and that they face a daily professional challenge as they attempt to promote the European Parliament and its activities to the news media in a way that will not compromise their credibility as government sources. The study provides new insights into communicative aspects of EU governance......Social actors see exposure in the news media as attractive for publicity purposes and are under pressure to adapt their press work to a “media logic” to be attractive sources for journalists and editors. This article investigates the European Parliament’s press officers’ professional practices in...... the light of mediatization and government communication theories. Without one pan-European public sphere, the European Parliament, like the other European Union (EU) institutions, competes with national actors for the news media’s attention in the EU’s twenty-eight national public spheres, where EU...

  1. World Government: Utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahram Ayvazyan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the possibility of having a world government, which world has been facing overarching changes since the end of Cold war, where bipolar world order has evolved into multipolar system through unipolarity. Analysis method in this paper have the sistematics: discussion of human nature and philosophical dimensions vis-à-vis individual, society and government, as well as society of societies; then briefly analyse globalization, the impact of individuals on interdependency of the current international arena and examine the individualism as the ongoing ideology “by individuals and for individuals.”; and then take the conclusion that the world government is not a utopia

  2. Governing To‐day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Kevin

    Governing To-day denotes a domain of research, and what the thesis undertakes is a theoretical discussion of some questions of method vis-à-vis researching this domain. There are two aspects to the title that enfold one another. Firstly, “governing to-day” signposts that it is to!day that is to be...... takes as its reference point and means of critique the “will not to be governed like that”. Consequently, the approach thus outlined is firmly situated within that rather loosely affiliated body of work that goes under the title studies in governmentality. Studies in governmentality have their point of...... departure in the research and writing of the French philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault. It is primarily within the writings of Foucault that the thesis seeks to find a workaround to the problem thrown forth by the aforementioned questions of method....

  3. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? What is the rationale and purpose of these policies? Scholars from various disciplines including Political Science, International Relations and Management Studies have offered explanations for this...... phenomenon. Research has tended either to rely on cross-country comparisons that generalize tendencies within given countries; or to over-generalize global trends. The current paper analyzes particular CSR policies in two countries – Denmark and the United Kingdom. We find that the rationales for government...... initiatives on CSR are neither consistent across countries or within them. Instead, CSR policies are utilized to address multiple issues crossing various areas of governance, including domestic social policy, global competitiveness policies and foreign policy....

  4. Adaptive stochastic cellular automata: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.; Lee, Y. C.; Jones, R. D.; Barnes, C. W.; Flake, G. W.; O'Rourke, M. K.; Lee, K.; Chen, H. H.; Sun, G. Z.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Chen, D.; Giles, C. L.

    1990-09-01

    The stochastic learning cellular automata model has been applied to the problem of controlling unstable systems. Two example unstable systems studied are controlled by an adaptive stochastic cellular automata algorithm with an adaptive critic. The reinforcement learning algorithm and the architecture of the stochastic CA controller are presented. Learning to balance a single pole is discussed in detail. Balancing an inverted double pendulum highlights the power of the stochastic CA approach. The stochastic CA model is compared to conventional adaptive control and artificial neural network approaches.

  5. Cellular senescence in aging primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Utz; Ferreira, Mark; Condel, Laura; Carey, Dee; Sedivy, John M

    2006-03-01

    The aging of organisms is characterized by a gradual functional decline of all organ systems. Mammalian somatic cells in culture display a limited proliferative life span, at the end of which they undergo an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as replicative senescence. Whether cellular senescence contributes to organismal aging has been controversial. We investigated telomere dysfunction, a recently discovered biomarker of cellular senescence, and found that the number of senescent fibroblasts increases exponentially in the skin of aging baboons, reaching >15% of all cells in very old individuals. In addition, the same cells contain activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase and heterochromatinized nuclei, confirming their senescent status. PMID:16456035

  6. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the system spontaneously splitting into stable domains separated by static boundaries, some synchronously oscillating and the others incoherent. When the coupling range is local, nontrivial coherent structures with different periodicities are formed.

  7. Prognosis of Different Cellular Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Preetish Ranjan; Prabhat Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Technological advancement in mobile telephony from 1G to 3G, 4G and 5G has a very axiomatic fact that made an entire world a global village. The cellular system employs a different design approach and technology that most commercial radio and television system use. In the cellular system, the service area is divided into cells and a transmitter is designed to serve an individual cell. The system seeks to make efficient use of available channels by using low-power transmitters to allow frequen...

  8. Role v Data Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Reken, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    This work is covering the area of Data Governance (DG) with the main focus on roles in DG. First part is capturing the DG field from a basic perspective. This chapter introduces main principles of DG and is considered as a guideline for better understanding of the second chapter. The second chapter contains different approaches on DG and on roles in DG. The approaches are from world leaders in the field of DG like IBM, Teradata, KIK Consulting and The Data Governance Institute. In the summary...

  9. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements of...

  10. Chernobyl - the government reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Farmers' Union of Wales submitted this memorandum to the Agriculture Committee of the House of Commons giving its interpretation of the Government's reaction to the Chernobyl disaster. The primary aim of the paper is to provide an objective assessment of the impact of the disaster and the Government's handling of it, for future reference. The subject is dealt with under the following headings:- Chernobyl nuclear fallout in Wales, monitoring of milk and fresh vegetables, silage contamination, the North Wales Sheep Sector, soil, herbage and genetic implications, recommendations for the future. (UK)

  11. Governance Vote Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzai, Anjuli; Robinson, Robert; Shirey, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Voting by the membership for proposed changes to AGU bylaws and articles of incorporation was completed on 13 November 2009. The proposed changes would expand AGU's Council to focus it on science; shift the business and fiduciary responsibility for AGU to a newly created, smaller Board of Directors, freeing the Council to focus on science policy and other science-related matters; and modernize AGU's governing documents to reflect current practice in not-for-profit governance. All background information was provided in the 15 September 2009 issue of Eos and in subsequent issues.

  12. Governing IT outsourcing relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung The dynamics of the relationship between service recipient and service provider in IS outsourcing relationships recently gained increased attention as relationships are believed to have a considerable influence on IS outsourcing success. This study adds to this growing field of interest by developing an IS outsourcing relationship framework in the form of a process model. Three rather disjointed areas of research, namely contractual governance, relational norms, and control, have been set in a common context by interrelating them as the three main governance modes

  13. Essence of Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available "Success is not the art of making mistakes when nobody is looking at, true success is the truthful expression of the performance when it is measured”.” Business is going to change more and more in the next ten years than it has in the last 50 years. These changes will occur because of a disarmingly simple idea: the flow of digital information. Who does not like the progress? Progress leads to success in terms of satisfaction of desires and expectations. When any individual compares his past performance with the present and when the graph is upward then individual appreciates himself or herself. The same is in the case of corporate or country or any country's economy, which want to be sound then they need success. But success is not simple to get. Now days there are many ways through which success can be achieved. The ways can be short cuts or may be long ways, where more sincerely and ethically one has to work. Corporate governance can be put in this 2nd category .Corporate Governance is the term given to the management practices followed by the business organization. Corporate governance is a way of life and not a set of rules. It is more of a way of life that necessitates taking interests in every business decision. It has succeeded in attracting a good deal of public interest because if it's apparent importance for the economic health of corporations and society in general. We know each corporation obtains its funds from different class of investors. When they do so, it becomes their prime responsibility to see that the funds are used in proper direction. The investors are also even needed assurance for such matter. "Corporate governance deals with the ways in which suppliers of finance to corporations assure themselves of getting return on their investment.” It has emerged as one of the key elements of public policy reforms individuals. It is still in its infancy; it has been around only for the last three to four years. It is however

  14. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Assessing the governability of capture fisheries in the Bay of Bengal - a conceptual enquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bavinck; V. Salagrama

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the theory of interactive governance, which is one branch in the scientific discipline of governance studies, by exploring the application of the governability concept to the capture fisheries of the Bay of Bengal. It focuses on two aspects of governability: the definition

  16. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M;

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in ra...

  17. Cellular signalling properties in microcircuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; El Manira, Abdeljabbar; Wallén, Peter; Svirskis, Gytis; Hounsgaard, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    Molecules and cells are the signalling elements in microcircuits. Recent studies have uncovered bewildering diversity in postsynaptic signalling properties in all areas of the vertebrate nervous system. Major effort is now being invested in establishing the specialized signalling properties at th...... cellular and molecular levels in microcircuits in specific brain regions. This review is part of the TINS Microcircuits Special Feature....

  18. Quantum Cloning by Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    D'Ariano, G. M.; Macchiavello, C.; M. Rossi

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a quantum cellular automaton that achieves approximate phase-covariant cloning of qubits. The automaton is optimized for 1-to-2N economical cloning. The use of the automaton for cloning allows us to exploit different foliations for improving the performance with given resources.

  19. Analysis of cellular manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Meng, Gang; Zijm, Henk; Ommeren, van Jan-Kees

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an open queuing network modeling approach to estimate performance measures of a cellular manufacturing layout. It is assumed a layout and production data for a planning period of specified length are available. The production data takes into account, processing and handli

  20. E-government Frameworks Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Riad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents survey of different e-government frameworks. After the new technologies that have been happened in the last decade therefore all countries move towards updating and developing their government into electronic government (e-government. E-Government has become a global phenomenon. There have been some great innovations in e-government over the last decade. Some governments compete for leadership in offering online services. In this paper more than evaluation criteria that determine the overall development of its e-government plan. The importance of citizen/end user satisfaction of the e-government e-services is a new parameter that affects e-government objectives. It is expected that the performance of e-government framework is more effective if and only if takes into its consideration.

  1. Making Migrants Governable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    2012-01-01

    This paper will investigate the production of knowledge regarding the number of illegalized migrants. Estimation of the number has been the common frame for production of this kind of knowledge, performed by social scientists, government officials, NGOs and others, but now biometric technology...

  2. Governability and Citizen Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarla de Quiroga

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available bjective conditions that allow for a harmonic relationship between the governors and the governed. We are speaking about a set of conditions for governing by consensus and in harmony. By “citizen participation” we refer to the fact that citizens share in the powerof decision over something that concerns them. In Bolivia, as well in other Latin American countries, citizenship participation in municipal management is a recent phenomena. This article describes the experience of citizenry participation in the municipality ofCochabamba (Bolivia in relation to quality of life and living conditions in a neighborhood. The municipality of Cochabamba has embarked upon a mission of rescue and evaluation of the neighborhood organizations, not only incorporating the population into the processes of participation, but also acting in favor of social integration because this stresses the commitment of the neighborhood citizens in the design of the plans. In conclusion, the unfolding experience in the municipality of Cochabamba makes the fact clear that beyond the concept of governability, the search for a co-government-type relation prevails, one that is more horizontal and equitable and where the population takes on a leading role for bringing about the social cohesion and the sense of belonging needed to face the serious problems that afflict Latin American cities.

  3. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen WAGENER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there are sufficiently differentiated success stories to test the hypothesis: it was good governance that is responsible for success and bad governance for failure. The empirical results support the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”: where freedom, security and trust prevail, the economy flourishes, where they are lacking, the costs of long-term investment are too high. The initial conditions of transition countries seem to be quite similar, nevertheless, even there one can discern good and bad governance. The extent of socialist lawfulness, planning security, cronyism and corruption differed widely between East Berlin and Tashkent. And a good deal of such variations can be found in the pre-socialist history of these countries. However, the main conclusion is that the co-evolution hypothesis states that both, welfare and good governance, go together.

  4. Governing of agrarian sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2008-01-01

    The new developing interdisciplinary methodology of the New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics (combining Economics, Organization, Law, Sociology, Behavioral and Political Sciences) is incorporated into agrarian sphere, and a framework for governing of agrarian sustainability suggested. It takes into account the role of the specific institutional environment (formal and informal property rights, and systems of their enforcement); and the behavioral characteristics of individuals (b...

  5. Communication between governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the requirements for communication, consultation and information exchange between governments. It focuses on these requirements in relation to shipments of INF category cargoes. The paper reviews the consideration of these issues at the IAEA General Conference and in selected legal instruments and evaluates the effectiveness of the current regulations. (author)

  6. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f...... entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  7. Governing Logistics Information Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.; Aldewereld, H.M.; Knol, A.; Tan, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Extended Single Window (ESW) project aims to support goods flows by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Specifically, the project takes the concept of Single Windows (often used in the sense that governments offer a single portal or interface to which businesses can submit informatio

  8. Beijing Managing Government Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAELO'NEILL

    2005-01-01

    Aroster of top-level speakers and over 100 delegates gathered at the 2nd China Government Relations Management Summit held in Beiiing at the end of March and organized by the Research Center on Transnational Corporation (CAITEC) of the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM). With presentations from a number of multinational corporations including Coca-Cola, Kodak,

  9. Corporate Media Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate

  10. Governance Final Briefing Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    One of the State Board of Education's (SBE) strategic plan goals is to advocate for an effective, accountable governance structure for public education in Washington. The development of this goal comes from Board members' experiences over the last five years to understand and address the complexity of Washington's education system and their role…

  11. Contractual Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Companies have the choice to deviate from their national corporate governance standards by opting into another system. They can do so via contractual devices – such as cross-border mergers and acquisitions, (re)incorporations, and cross-listings – which enable firms to choose their preferred level o

  12. Governments confront drunken violence

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Just five years after relaxing its alcohol licensing laws, the British Government is revisiting this legislation in response to soaring rates of alcohol-related violence. As Angel Desai reports, the problem – especially among young people – is of growing global concern.

  13. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commercial services used by the Government, such as transportation, food, and maintenance. Office of... should not be outsourced and commercial activities that may be subject to private sector competition has... shall be a preference for fixed-price type contracts. Cost-reimbursement contracts shall be used...

  14. Corporate Governance and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn

    2006-01-01

    The literature shows that good corporate governance generally pays for firms, for markets, and for countries. It is associated with a lower cost of capital, higher returns on equity, greater efficiency, and more favorable treatment of all stakeholders, although the direction of causality is not always clear. The law and finance literature has documented the important role of institutions a...

  15. Government support of innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Studt, T

    2003-01-01

    "One of the Federal government's few formal interagency enterprises, the Networking and Information Technology R&D (NITRD) program, is the collaborative framework of numerous federal agencies that conduct fundamental R&D in advanced networks, computing systems, software, and information management technologies" (1/2 page).

  16. Probing cellular behaviors through nanopatterned chitosan membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a high-throughput method for developing physically modified chitosan membranes to probe the cellular behavior of MDCK epithelial cells and HIG-82 fibroblasts adhered onto these modified membranes. To prepare chitosan membranes with micro/nanoscaled features, we have demonstrated an easy-to-handle, facile approach that could be easily integrated with IC-based manufacturing processes with mass production potential. These physically modified chitosan membranes were observed by scanning electron microscopy to gain a better understanding of chitosan membrane surface morphology. After MDCK cells and HIG-82 fibroblasts were cultured on these modified chitosan membranes for various culture durations (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 12 and 24 h), they were investigated to decipher cellular behavior. We found that both cells preferred to adhere onto a flat surface rather than on a nanopatterned surface. However, most (> 80%) of the MDCK cells showed rounded morphology and would suspend in the cultured medium instead of adhering onto the planar surface of negatively nanopatterned chitosan membranes. This means different cell types (e.g. fibroblasts versus epithelia) showed distinct capabilities/preferences of adherence for materials of varying surface roughness. We also showed that chitosan membranes could be re-used at least nine times without significant contamination and would provide us consistency for probing cell–material interactions by permitting reuse of the same substrate. We believe these results would provide us better insight into cellular behavior, specifically, microscopic properties and characteristics of cells grown under unique, nanopatterned cell-interface conditions. (paper)

  17. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill

  18. Knowledge governance, innovation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Burlamaqui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a very preliminary effort to contribute to a better understanding of the interaction among innovation, competition and intellectual property policies from an evolutionary-developmental perspective. As such, it seeks to build a more coherent framework within which the discussions of both institution building and policy design for development can proceed. In order to accomplish that, the paper introduces the concept of "Knowledge Governance" as an alternative analytical and policy-oriented approach, and suggests that from a public policy/public interest perspective, and within an evolutionary framework, it is a better way to address the problems concerning the production, appropriability and diffusion of knowledge. In doing so, it also intends contribute to broaden the ongoing discussions on the "New Developmentalism".

  19. Good governance, new development model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjar Salajeghe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world, which is called ultra-modern world, develops special political, cultural, social and economic requirements and necessities; whereby new relationship between state and nations is required. In the past, state played important role at develop or produce services or goods, Today’s state relationship and other departments will provide Possibility of developing. For this reason, extensive efforts have been made to achieve suitable pattern of development with focus on sustainable development, so structural system and relationship between departments have been surveyed. Good governance pattern focus on accountability, Consensus-oriented, partnership, law-oriented, efficiency, clarity, responsibility and justice and designs a modern system according to interaction between triple departments of state, private and civil which Latent abilities and talents in the society are used to present effective public services, reinforce effective civil Institution and economic growth in collaboration with economic department.

  20. Myocardin inhibits cellular proliferation by inhibiting NF-κB(p65)-dependent cell cycle progression

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Ru-hang; Zheng, Xi-Long; Callis, Thomas E.; Stansfield, William E.; He, Jiayin; Baldwin, Albert S.; Wang, Da-Zhi; Selzman, Craig H.

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported the importance of the serum response factor (SRF) cofactor myocardin in controlling muscle gene expression as well as the fundamental role for the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB in governing cellular fate. Inactivation of myocardin has been implicated in malignant tumor growth. However, the underlying mechanism of myocardin regulation of cellular growth remains unclear. Here we show that NF-κB(p65) represses myocardin activation of cardiac and smooth muscle gen...