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Sample records for cellular defense system

  1. Reproduction and love: strategies of the organism's cellular defense system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, A; Huybrechts, R; Kotanen, S

    1998-08-01

    A novel view is presented which states that primordial germ cells and their descendants can be regarded as 'cancerous cells' which emit signals that activate a whole array of cellular defensive mechanisms by the somatoplasm. These cells have become unrestrained in response to the lack of typical cell adhesion properties of epithelial cells. From this point of view: (1) the encapsulation of oocytes by follicle cells, vitelline membrane and egg shell; (2) the suppression of gonadal development in larval life; (3) the production of sex steroid hormones and of vitellogenin; and (4) the expulsion of the gametes from the body fit into a general framework for a defense strategy of the somatoplasm against germ line cells. Accordingly, the origin of sexual reproduction appears to be a story of failure and intercellular hostility rather than a 'romantic' and altruistic event. Yet, it has resulted in evolutionary success for the system in which it has evolved; probably through realizing feelings of 'pleasure' associated with reproduction.

  2. Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide inhibit cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Bing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cherr, Gary N

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are considered to be environmentally safe. In this study, we analyzed the potential effects of graphene and GO at relatively low concentrations on cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters. The results showed that graphene (graphene and GO at the nontoxic concentrations could increase calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter) activity) accumulation, indicating inhibition of ABC transporters' efflux capabilities. This inhibition was observed even at 0.005 μg/mL graphene and 0.05 μg/mL GO, which are 100 times and 400 times lower than their lowest toxic concentration from cytotoxicity experiments, respectively. The inhibition of ABC transporters significantly increased the toxicity of paraquat and arsenic, known substrates of ABC transporters. The inhibition of ABC transporters was found to be based on graphene and GO damaging the plasma membrane structure and fluidity, thus altering functions of transmembrane ABC transporters. This study demonstrates that low levels of graphene and GO are not environmentally safe since they can significantly make cell more susceptible to other xenobiotics, and this chemosensitizing activity should be considered in the risk assessment of graphene and GO.

  3. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Estimate RDT&E - Research , Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...all ranges and in all phases of flight. Following guidance from the President, the Secretary of Defense approved the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. We are currently sustaining 30

  4. Systemic defense signaling in tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Changbao; SUN Jiaqiang; JIANG Hongling; WU Xiaoyan; LI Chuanyou

    2005-01-01

    The wound-inducible expression of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) genes in tomato provides a powerful model system to elucidate the signal transduction pathway of sys- temic defense response. An increasing body of evidence indi- cates that systemin and jasmonic acid (JA) work in the same signaling pathway to activate the expression of PIs and other defense-related genes. However, little is known about how systemin and JA interact to regulate cell to cell communica- tion over long distances. Genetic analysis of the systemin/JA signaling pathway in tomato plants provides a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate systemic expression of defense-related genes. Previously, it has been proposed that systemin is the long-distance mobile signal for systemic expression of defense related genes. However, recent genetic approach provided new evidence that jasmonic acid, rather than systemin, functions as the systemic wound signal, and that the peptide systemin works to regulate the biosynthesis of JA.

  5. Risk Management Programs for Defense Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The audit objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of risk management programs for Defense acquisition systems. Specifically, we determined whether DoD risk management policies and procedures for Defense acquisition systems were effectively implemented and what impact risk management programs bad on reducing program risks and costs. We also reviewed management controls as they applied to the audit objectives.

  6. Ethanol cellular defense induce unfolded protein response in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet eNavarro-Tapia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, CECT10094 and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus

  7. Cellular systems biology profiling applied to cellular models of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Kenneth A; Premkumar, Daniel R; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Patricia; Taylor, Lansing

    2009-11-01

    Building cellular models of disease based on the approach of Cellular Systems Biology (CSB) has the potential to improve the process of creating drugs as part of the continuum from early drug discovery through drug development and clinical trials and diagnostics. This paper focuses on the application of CSB to early drug discovery. We discuss the integration of protein-protein interaction biosensors with other multiplexed, functional biomarkers as an example in using CSB to optimize the identification of quality lead series compounds.

  8. Adult Drosophila melanogaster evolved for antibacterial defense invest in infection-induced expression of both humoral and cellular immunity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGraw Elizabeth A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the transcription of innate immunity genes in response to bacterial infection has been well-characterised in the Drosophila model, we recently demonstrated the capacity for such transcription to evolve in flies selected for improved antibacterial defense. Here we use this experimental system to examine how insects invest in constitutive versus infection-induced transcription of immunity genes. These two strategies carry with them different consequences with respect to energetic and pleiotropic costs and may be more or less effective in improving defense depending on whether the genes contribute to humoral or cellular aspects of immunity. Findings Contrary to expectation we show that selection preferentially increased the infection-induced expression of both cellular and humoral immunity genes. Given their functional roles, infection induced increases in expression were expected for the humoral genes, while increases in constitutive expression were expected for the cellular genes. We also report a restricted ability to improve transcription of immunity genes that is on the order of 2-3 fold regardless of total transcription level of the gene. Conclusions The evolved increases in infection-induced expression of the cellular genes may result from specific cross talk with humoral pathways or from generalised strategies for enhancing immunity gene transcription. A failure to see improvements in constitutive expression of the cellular genes suggests either that increases might come at too great a cost or that patterns of expression in adults are decoupled from the larval phase where increases would be most effective. The similarity in fold change increase across all immunity genes may suggest a shared mechanism for the evolution of increased transcription in small, discrete units such as duplication of cis-regulatory elements.

  9. Relative roles of the cellular and humoral responses in the Drosophila host defense against three gram-positive bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine T Nehme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Toll and immune deficiency (imd, are required for survival to bacterial infections in Drosophila. In response to septic injury, these pathways mediate rapid transcriptional activation of distinct sets of effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, which are important components of a humoral defense response. However, it is less clear to what extent macrophage-like hemocytes contribute to host defense. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to dissect the relative importance of humoral and cellular defenses after septic injury with three different gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, we used latex bead pre-injection to ablate macrophage function in flies wildtype or mutant for various Toll and imd pathway components. We found that in all three infection models a compromised phagocytic system impaired fly survival--independently of concomitant Toll or imd pathway activation. Our data failed to confirm a role of the PGRP-SA and GNBP1 Pattern Recognition Receptors for phagocytosis of S. aureus. The Drosophila scavenger receptor Eater mediates the phagocytosis by hemocytes or S2 cells of E. faecalis and S. aureus, but not of M. luteus. In the case of M. luteus and E. faecalis, but not S. aureus, decreased survival due to defective phagocytosis could be compensated for by genetically enhancing the humoral immune response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results underscore the fundamental importance of both cellular and humoral mechanisms in Drosophila immunity and shed light on the balance between these two arms of host defense depending on the invading pathogen.

  10. Immediate-Early (IE) gene regulation of cytomegalovirus: IE1- and pp71-mediated viral strategies against cellular defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lilith; Tang, Qiyi

    2014-12-01

    Three crucial hurdles hinder studies on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV): strict species specificity, differences between in vivo and in vitro infection, and the complexity of gene regulation. Ever since the sequencing of the whole genome was first accomplished, functional studies on individual genes have been the mainstream in the CMV field. Gene regulation has therefore been elucidated in a more detailed fashion. However, viral gene regulation is largely controlled by both cellular and viral components. In other words, viral gene expression is determined by the virus-host interaction. Generally, cells respond to viral infection in a defensive pattern; at the same time, viruses try to counteract the cellular defense or else hide in the host (latency). Viruses evolve effective strategies against cellular defense in order to achieve replicative success. Whether or not they are successful, cellular defenses remain in the whole viral replication cycle: entry, immediate-early (IE) gene expression, early gene expression, DNA replication, late gene expression, and viral egress. Many viral strategies against cellular defense, and which occur in the immediate-early time of viral infection, have been documented. In this review, we will summarize the documented biological functions of IE1 and pp71 proteins, especially with regard to how they counteract cellular intrinsic defenses.

  11. Immediate–Early (IE) gene regulation of cytomegalovirus: IE1- and pp71-mediated viral strategies against cellular defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lilith; Tang, Qiyi

    2015-01-01

    Three crucial hurdles hinder studies on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV): strict species specificity, differences between in vivo and in vitro infection, and the complexity of gene regulation. Ever since the sequencing of the whole genome was first accomplished, functional studies on individual genes have been the mainstream in the CMV field. Gene regulation has therefore been elucidated in a more detailed fashion. However, viral gene regulation is largely controlled by both cellular and viral components. In other words, viral gene expression is determined by the virus–host interaction. Generally, cells respond to viral infection in a defensive pattern; at the same time, viruses try to counteract the cellular defense or else hide in the host (latency). Viruses evolve effective strategies against cellular defense in order to achieve replicative success. Whether or not they are successful, cellular defenses remain in the whole viral replication cycle: entry, immediate–early (IE) gene expression, early gene expression, DNA replication, late gene expression, and viral egress. Many viral strategies against cellular defense, and which occur in the immediate–early time of viral infection, have been documented. In this review, we will summarize the documented biological functions of IE1 and pp71 proteins, especially with regard to how they counteract cellular intrinsic defenses. PMID:25501994

  12. Immediate–Early(IE) gene regulation of cytomegalovirus:IE1-and pp71-mediated viral strategies against cellular defenses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lilith; Torres; Qiyi; Tang

    2014-01-01

    Three crucial hurdles hinder studies on human cytomegalovirus(HCMV): strict species specificity, differences between in vivo and in vitro infection, and the complexity of gene regulation. Ever since the sequencing of the whole genome was first accomplished, functional studies on individual genes have been the mainstream in the CMV field. Gene regulation has therefore been elucidated in a more detailed fashion. However, viral gene regulation is largely controlled by both cellular and viral components. In other words, viral gene expression is determined by the virus–host interaction. Generally, cells respond to viral infection in a defensive pattern; at the same time, viruses try to counteract the cellular defense or else hide in the host(latency). Viruses evolve effective strategies against cellular defense in order to achieve replicative success. Whether or not they are successful, cellular defenses remain in the whole viral replication cycle: entry, immediate–early(IE) gene expression, early gene expression, DNA replication, late gene expression, and viral egress. Many viral strategies against cellular defense, and which occur in the immediate–early time of viral infection, have been documented. In this review, we will summarize the documented biological functions of IE1 and pp71 proteins, especially with regard to how they counteract cellular intrinsic defenses.

  13. Recent development of cellular manufacturing systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Arora; A Haleem; M K Singh

    2013-06-01

    Cellular manufacturing system has been proved a vital approach for batch and job shop production systems. Group technology has been an essential tool for developing a cellular manufacturing system. The paper aims to discuss various cell formation techniques and highlights the significant research work done in past over the years and attempts to points out the gap in research.

  14. Department of Defense Healthcare Management System Modernization (DHMSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Department of Defense Healthcare Management System Modernization (DHMSM) Defense...Secretary of Defense PB - President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be...DSN Fax: Date Assigned: November 16, 2015 Program Information Program Name Department of Defense Healthcare Management System Modernization

  15. Integration of mobile satellite and cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Elliott H.; Estabrook, Polly; Pinck, Deborah; Ekroot, Laura

    1993-01-01

    By integrating the ground based infrastructure component of a mobile satellite system with the infrastructure systems of terrestrial 800 MHz cellular service providers, a seamless network of universal coverage can be established. Users equipped for both cellular and satellite service can take advantage of a number of features made possible by such integration, including seamless handoff and universal roaming. To provide maximum benefit at lowest posible cost, the means by which these systems are integrated must be carefully considered. Mobile satellite hub stations must be configured to efficiently interface with cellular Mobile Telephone Switching Offices (MTSO's), and cost effective mobile units that provide both cellular and satellite capability must be developed.

  16. Intelligent systems for strategic power infrastructure defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hwan

    A fault or disturbance in a power system can be severe due to the sources of vulnerability such as human errors, protection and control system failures, a failure of communication networks to deliver critical control signals, and market and load uncertainties. There have been several catastrophic failures resulting from disturbances involving the sources of vulnerability while power systems are designed to withstand disturbances or faults. To avoid catastrophic failures or minimize the impact of a disturbance(s), the state of the power system has to be analyzed correctly and preventive or corrective self-healing control actions have to be deployed. This dissertation addresses two aspects of power systems: Defense system and diagnosis, both concerned with the power system analysis and operation during events involving faults or disturbances. This study is intended to develop a defense system that is able to assess power system vulnerability and to perform self-healing control actions based on the system-wide analysis. In order to meet the requirements of the system-wide analysis, the defense system is designed with multi-agent system technologies. Since power systems are dynamic and uncertain the self-healing control actions need to be adaptive. This study applies the reinforcement learning technique to provide a theoretical basis for adaptation. One of the important issues in adaptation is the convergence of the learning algorithm. An appropriate convergence criterion is derived and an application with a load-shedding scheme is demonstrated in this study. This dissertation also demonstrates the feasibility of the defense system and self-healing control actions through multi-agent system technologies. The other subject of this research is to investigate the methodology for on-line fault diagnosis using the information from Sequence-of-Events Recorders (SER). The proposed multiple-hypothesis analysis generates one or more hypothetical fault scenarios to interpret the

  17. A cellular microRNA mediates antiviral defense in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecellier, Charles-Henri; Dunoyer, Patrice; Arar, Khalil; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Eyquem, Stephanie; Himber, Christophe; Saïb, Ali; Voinnet, Olivier

    2005-04-22

    In eukaryotes, 21- to 24-nucleotide-long RNAs engage in sequence-specific interactions that inhibit gene expression by RNA silencing. This process has regulatory roles involving microRNAs and, in plants and insects, it also forms the basis of a defense mechanism directed by small interfering RNAs that derive from replicative or integrated viral genomes. We show that a cellular microRNA effectively restricts the accumulation of the retrovirus primate foamy virus type 1 (PFV-1) in human cells. PFV-1 also encodes a protein, Tas, that suppresses microRNA-directed functions in mammalian cells and displays cross-kingdom antisilencing activities. Therefore, through fortuitous recognition of foreign nucleic acids, cellular microRNAs have direct antiviral effects in addition to their regulatory functions.

  18. The Universe as a Cellular System

    CERN Document Server

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Cellular systems are observed everywhere in nature, from crystal domains in metals, soap froth and cucumber cells to the network of cosmological voids. Surprisingly, despite their disparate scale and origin all cellular systems follow certain scaling laws relating their geometry, topology and dynamics. Using a cosmological N-body simulation we found that the Cosmic Web, the largest known cellular system, follows the same scaling relations seen elsewhere in nature. Our results extend the validity of scaling relations in cellular systems by over 30 orders of magnitude in scale with respect to previous studies. The dynamics of cellular systems can be used to interpret local observations such as the local velocity anomaly as the result of a collapsing void in our cosmic backyard. Moreover, scaling relations depend on the curvature of space, providing an independent measure of geometry.

  19. Integration of Mobil Satellite and Cellular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, E. H.; Estabrook, P.; Pinck, D.; Ekroot, L.

    1993-01-01

    By integrating the ground based infrastructure component of a mobile satellite system with the infrastructure systems of terrestrial 800 MHz cellular service providers, a seamless network of universal coverage can be established.

  20. Status of pulmonary host defense in the neonatal sheep: cellular and humoral aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, R.A.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    In consideration of the sheep neonate as a compromised host, we have examined the status of cellular and humoral pulmonary host defense components at selected developmental time points. The dynamic character of the early neonatal lung free cell (LFC) population, reflected in changes in subpopulations and proliferative capacity, most probably contributed to the observed changes in certain cell responses. For example blood and LFC neutrophil chemotaxis appeared intact by day 1. The ability of alveolar macrophages to elaborate a chemotactic factor(s) was first noted at day 21. Bacteria binding and killing presented a biphasic maturation pattern with full competence not present until day 180. Although the in vitro binding and killing activity of day 8 LFCs was comparable to that of the adult, it may be a poor indicator of in vivo host defense capacity, given the relative paucity of endogenous opsonins at that age. In fact, the interdependence of mediators suggests that the sheep neonate may remain a compromised host during the first three months of life. Cellular and humoral parameters begin to approximate those of adult sheep by 180 days.

  1. Missile Defense: Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities For over half a century , the Department of Defense (DOD) has been...or bi-annually in support of its goals for the defense of regional allies and U.S. forces deployed to Asia -Pacific, the Middle East, and Europe, known

  2. Cellular systems for epithelial invagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial invagination is a fundamental module of morphogenesis that iteratively occurs to generate the architecture of many parts of a developing organism. By changing the physical properties such as the shape and/or position of a population of cells, invagination drives processes ranging from reconfiguring the entire body axis during gastrulation, to forming the primordia of the eyes, ears and multiple ducts and glands, during organogenesis. The epithelial bending required for invagination is achieved through a variety of mechanisms involving systems of cells. Here we provide an overview of the different mechanisms, some of which can work in combination, and outline the circumstances in which they apply. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Systems morphodynamics: understanding the development of tissue hardware’. PMID:28348256

  3. Issues in defense training systems immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, Philip

    2006-05-01

    Display technology for DOD immersive projector-based flight training systems are at a crossroads as CRT technology slowly disappears from the market place. From the DOD perspective, emerging technologies arrive poorly matched to satisfy training needs. The DOD represents a minority voice in the marketplace. Current issues include: Satisfying requirements for black level, brightness and contrast ratio, Establishing standard metrics for resolution, system performance and reliability, Obtaining maintainability and self-calibration in multi-channel arrays, Reducing screen cross-reflection in wrap-around immersive display arrays. Laser, DLP, and LCOS projector systems are compared for their current acceptance and problems in defense flight training systems. General requirements of visual display systems are discussed and contrasted for flight trainers for low flyers (helicopters) high flyers (tactical aircraft) in real-time immersive, networked systems. FLIR and NVG simulation techniques are described.

  4. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K

    2011-01-01

    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  5. Literature Review on Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Houshyar, A.; Leman, Z.; Pakzad Moghadam, H.; Ariffin, M. K. A. M.; Ismail, N.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2014-06-01

    In previous decades, manufacturers faced a lot of challenges because of globalization and high competition in markets. These problems arise from shortening product life cycle, rapid variation in demand of products, and also rapid changes in manufcaturing technologies. Nowadays most manufacturing companies expend considerable attention for improving flexibility and responsiveness in order to overcome these kinds of problems and also meet customer's needs. By considering the trend toward the shorter product life cycle, the manufacturing environment is towards manufacturing a wide variety of parts in small batches [1]. One of the major techniques which are applied for improving manufacturing competitiveness is Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). CMS is type of manufacturing system which tries to combine flexibility of job shop and also productivity of flow shop. In addition, Dynamic cellular manufacturing system which considers different time periods for the manufacturing system becomes an important topic and attracts a lot of attention to itself. Therefore, this paper made attempt to have a brief review on this issue and focused on all published paper on this subject. Although, this topic gains a lot of attention to itself during these years, none of previous researchers focused on reviewing the literature of that which can be helpful and useful for other researchers who intend to do the research on this topic. Therefore, this paper is the first study which has focused and reviewed the literature of dynamic cellular manufacturing system.

  6. Free radicals, antioxidant defense systems, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2013-10-01

    The etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia are to date unknown, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Accumulating evidence suggests that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as evidenced by increased production of reactive oxygen or decreased antioxidant protection in schizophrenic patients. This review aims to summarize the basic molecular mechanisms of free radical metabolism, the impaired antioxidant defense system and membrane pathology in schizophrenia, their interrelationships with the characteristic clinical symptoms and the implications for antipsychotic treatments. In schizophrenia, there is accumulating evidence of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as altered levels of plasma antioxidants. Moreover, free radical-mediated abnormalities may contribute to specific aspects of schizophrenic symptomatology and complications of its treatment with antipsychotic drugs, as well as the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies implicated by the accumulating data on oxidative stress mechanisms for the treatment of schizophrenia are discussed.

  7. THE DEFENSE PLANNING SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo STICZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense planning in the Alliance is a fundamental element of the arrangements which enable its member countries to enjoy the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective defense and other common military efforts to enhance security and stability. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to outline the role of the Armed Forces and the specific processes aiming to achieve the ultimate goal of a nation regarding national security, with focus on defense planning and the PDPS.

  8. Dynamic Channel Allocation in Sectored Cellular Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is known that dynamic channel assignment(DCA) strategy outperforms the fixed channel assignment(FCA) strategy in omni-directional antenna cellular systems. One of the most important methods used in DCA was channel borrowing. But with the emergence of cell sectorization and spatial division multiple access(SDMA) which are used to increase the capacity of cellular systems, the channel assignment faces a series of new problems. In this paper, a dynamic channel allocation scheme based on sectored cellular systems is proposed. By introducing intra-cell channel borrowing (borrowing channels from neighboring sectors) and inter-cell channel borrowing (borrowing channels from neighboring cells) methods, previous DCA strategies, including compact pattern based channel borrowing(CPCB) and greedy based dynamic channel assignment(GDCA) schemes proposed by the author, are improved significantly. The computer simulation shows that either intra-cell borrowing scheme or inter-cell borrowing scheme is efficient enough to uniform and non-uniform traffic service distributions.

  9. Attenuation of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms in kidney of rats intoxicated with carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupindervir; Khera, Alka; Sandhir, Rajat

    2012-10-01

    Carbofuran, an anticholinestrase carbamate, is commonly used as an insecticide. Its toxic effect on kidney is less established. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of carbofuran on kidneys and to understand the mechanism involved in its nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups of eight animals each; control animals received sunflower oil (vehicle) and carbofuran exposed animals were treated with carbofuran (1 mg/kg body weight) orally for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, significant increase was observed in urea and creatinine levels in serum along with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, suggesting nephrotoxicity. The antioxidant defense system of animals treated with carbofuran was altered in terms of increased lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and total thiols and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results indicate that carbofuran is nephrotoxic and increased oxidative stress appears to be involved in its nephrotoxic effects.

  10. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  11. Defense Globalization: Impacts on the United States Defense Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    munitions and sub-systems to fit these U.S. platforms. One such case involved Rafael developing the Popeye missile to be used on the Israeli...version of the McDonnell Douglas F-4E. In the late 1980s, the USAF viewed the Popeye as a short- term solution to its requirement for smart munitions and...purchased the Popeye directly “off the shelf” from Rafael. The USAF then went on to partner with Rafael in modifying and marketing the munitions to

  12. [Division of regulatory cellular systems (Lvov)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusen', S I

    1995-01-01

    Two departments of the A. V. Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine were founded in 1969 in Lviv. These were: the Department of Biochemistry of Cell Differentiation headed by Professor S. I. Kusen and Department of Regulation of Cellular Synthesis of Low Molecular Weight Compounds headed by Professor G. M. Shavlovsky. The Lviv Division of the A. V. Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine with Professor S. I. Kusen as its chief, was founded in 1974 on the basis of these departments and the Laboratory of Modelling of Regulatory Cellular Systems headed by Professor M. P. Derkach. The above mentioned laboratory which was not the structural unit obtained the status of Structural Laboratory of Cellular Biophysics in 1982 and was headed by O. A. Goida, Candidate of biological sciences. From 1983 the Laboratory of Correcting Therapy of Malignant Tumors and Hemoblastoses at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Chief--S. V. Ivasivka, Candidate of medical sciences) was included in the structure of the Division. That Laboratory was soon transformed into the Department of Carbohydrate Metabolism Regulation headed by Professor I. D. Holovatsky. In 1988 this Department was renamed into the Department of Glycoprotein Biochemistry and headed by M. D. Lutsik, Doctor of biological sciences. In 1982 one more Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics was founded at the Department of Regulation of Cellular Synthesis of Low Molecular Weight Compounds, in 1988 it was transformed into the Department of Biochemical Genetics (Chief--Professor A. A. Sibirny). In 1989 the Laboratory of Anion Transport was taken from A. V. Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine to Lviv Division of this Institute. This laboratory was headed by Professor M. M. Veliky. One more reorganization in the Division structure took place in 1994. The Department of

  13. Simulating Complex Systems by Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Kroc, Jiri; Hoekstra, Alfons G

    2010-01-01

    Deeply rooted in fundamental research in Mathematics and Computer Science, Cellular Automata (CA) are recognized as an intuitive modeling paradigm for Complex Systems. Already very basic CA, with extremely simple micro dynamics such as the Game of Life, show an almost endless display of complex emergent behavior. Conversely, CA can also be designed to produce a desired emergent behavior, using either theoretical methodologies or evolutionary techniques. Meanwhile, beyond the original realm of applications - Physics, Computer Science, and Mathematics – CA have also become work horses in very different disciplines such as epidemiology, immunology, sociology, and finance. In this context of fast and impressive progress, spurred further by the enormous attraction these topics have on students, this book emerges as a welcome overview of the field for its practitioners, as well as a good starting point for detailed study on the graduate and post-graduate level. The book contains three parts, two major parts on th...

  14. Optimization of Inter Cellular Movement of Parts in Cellular Manufacturing System Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Prasad Darla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern manufacturing environment, Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS have gained greater importance in job shop or batch-type production to gain economic advantage similar to those of mass production. Successful implementation of CMS highly depends on the determination of part families; machine cells and minimizing inter cellular movement. This study considers machine component grouping problems namely inter-cellular movement and cell load variation by developing a mathematical model and optimizing the solution using Genetic Algorithm to arrive at a cell formation to minimize the inter-cellular movement and cell load variation. The results are presented with a numerical example.

  15. Myoblast fusion: Experimental systems and cellular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejter, Eyal D

    2016-12-01

    Fusion of myoblasts gives rise to the large, multi-nucleated muscle fibers that power and support organism motion and form. The mechanisms underlying this prominent form of cell-cell fusion have been investigated by a variety of experimental approaches, in several model systems. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss recent progress in the field, as well as point out issues currently unresolved and worthy of further investigation. Following a description of several new experimental settings employed in the study of myoblast fusion, a series of topics relevant to the current understanding of the process are presented. These pertain to elements of three major cellular machineries- cell-adhesion, the actin-based cytoskeleton and membrane-associated elements- all of which play key roles in mediating myoblast fusion. Among the issues raised are the diversity of functions ascribed to different adhesion proteins (e.g. external cell apposition and internal recruitment of cytoskeleton regulators); functional significance of fusion-associated actin structures; and discussion of alternative mechanisms employing single or multiple fusion pore formation as the basis for muscle cell fusion.

  16. HLH-30/TFEB-mediated autophagy functions in a cell-autonomous manner for epithelium intrinsic cellular defense against bacterial pore-forming toxin in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan-Da; Kao, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Bang-Yu; Huang, Shin-Whei; Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Ruan, Jhen-Wei; Lin, Yen-Hung; Huang, Cheng-Rung; Chen, Yu-Hung; Wang, Horng-Dar; Aroian, Raffi V; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2017-02-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular system that maintains cellular homeostasis by degrading and recycling damaged cellular components. The transcription factor HLH-30/TFEB-mediated autophagy has been reported to regulate tolerance to bacterial infection, but less is known about the bona fide bacterial effector that activates HLH-30 and autophagy. Here, we reveal that bacterial membrane pore-forming toxin (PFT) induces autophagy in an HLH-30-dependent manner in Caenorhabditis elegans. Moreover, autophagy controls the susceptibility of animals to PFT toxicity through xenophagic degradation of PFT and repair of membrane-pore cell-autonomously in the PFT-targeted intestinal cells in C. elegans. These results demonstrate that autophagic pathways and autophagy are induced partly at the transcriptional level through HLH-30 activation and are required to protect metazoan upon PFT intoxication. Together, our data show a new and powerful connection between HLH-30-mediated autophagy and epithelium intrinsic cellular defense against the single most common mode of bacterial attack in vivo.

  17. A cellular mechanism for system memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel W. H. Remme

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Declarative memories initially depend on the hippocampus. Over a period of weeks to years, however, these memories become hippocampus-independent through a process called system memory consolidation. The underlying cellular mechanisms are unclear. Here, we suggest a consolidation mechanism, which is based on STDP and a ubiquitous anatomical network motif. As a first step in the memory consolidation process, we consider pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area. These cells receive Schaffer collateral (SC input from the CA3 area at the proximal dendrites, and perforant path (PP input from entorhinal cortex at the distal dendrites. Both pathways carry sensory information that has been processed by cortical networks and that enters the hippocampus through the entorhinal cortex. Hence, information from entorhinal cortex reaches CA1 cells through an indirect pathway (via CA3 and SC and a direct pathway (PP. Memories are assumed to be initially stored in the recurrent CA3 network and the SC synapses during the awake, exploratory state. During a subsequent consolidation phase (during slow-wave sleep SC-dependent memories are partly transferred to the PP synapses. Through mathematical analysis and numerical simulations we show that this consolidation process occurs as a natural result from the combination of (1 STDP at PP synapses and (2 the temporal correlations between SC and PP activities, since the (indirect SC input is delayed compared to the (direct PP input by about 5-10 ms. With a detailed compartmental model we then show that the spatial tuning of a CA1 cell is copied from the proximal SC-synaptic inputs to the distal PP-inputs. Next, we repeated the network motif across many levels in a hierarchical network model: each direct connection at one level is part of the indirect pathway of the next level. Analysis and simulations of this hierarchical system demonstrate that memories gradually move from hippocampus into neocortex. Moreover, the

  18. Evolution of RNA- and DNA-guided antivirus defense systems in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: common ancestry vs convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-02-10

    Complementarity between nucleic acid molecules is central to biological information transfer processes. Apart from the basal processes of replication, transcription and translation, complementarity is also employed by multiple defense and regulatory systems. All cellular life forms possess defense systems against viruses and mobile genetic elements, and in most of them some of the defense mechanisms involve small guide RNAs or DNAs that recognize parasite genomes and trigger their inactivation. The nucleic acid-guided defense systems include prokaryotic Argonaute (pAgo)-centered innate immunity and CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity as well as diverse branches of RNA interference (RNAi) in eukaryotes. The archaeal pAgo machinery is the direct ancestor of eukaryotic RNAi that, however, acquired additional components, such as Dicer, and enormously diversified through multiple duplications. In contrast, eukaryotes lack any heritage of the CRISPR-Cas systems, conceivably, due to the cellular toxicity of some Cas proteins that would get activated as a result of operon disruption in eukaryotes. The adaptive immunity function in eukaryotes is taken over partly by the PIWI RNA branch of RNAi and partly by protein-based immunity. In this review, I briefly discuss the interplay between homology and analogy in the evolution of RNA- and DNA-guided immunity, and attempt to formulate some general evolutionary principles for this ancient class of defense systems.

  19. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael

    2016-03-22

    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  20. Cellular Particle Dynamics simulation of biomechanical relaxation processes of multi-cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Matthew; Kosztin, Ioan

    2013-03-01

    Cellular Particle Dynamics (CPD) is a theoretical-computational-experimental framework for describing and predicting the time evolution of biomechanical relaxation processes of multi-cellular systems, such as fusion, sorting and compression. In CPD, cells are modeled as an ensemble of cellular particles (CPs) that interact via short range contact interactions, characterized by an attractive (adhesive interaction) and a repulsive (excluded volume interaction) component. The time evolution of the spatial conformation of the multicellular system is determined by following the trajectories of all CPs through numerical integration of their equations of motion. Here we present CPD simulation results for the fusion of both spherical and cylindrical multi-cellular aggregates. First, we calibrate the relevant CPD model parameters for a given cell type by comparing the CPD simulation results for the fusion of two spherical aggregates to the corresponding experimental results. Next, CPD simulations are used to predict the time evolution of the fusion of cylindrical aggregates. The latter is relevant for the formation of tubular multi-cellular structures (i.e., primitive blood vessels) created by the novel bioprinting technology. Work supported by NSF [PHY-0957914]. Computer time provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.

  1. Blue Rose perimeter defense and security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, F.; Pollock, J.

    2006-05-01

    An in-ground perimeter security system has been developed by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport based upon fiber optic sensor technology. The system, called Blue Rose, exploits the physical phenomenon of Rayleigh optical scattering, which occurs naturally in optical fibers used traditionally for Optical Time Domain Reflectometry techniques to detect sound and vibration transmitted by intruders such as people walking or running and moving vehicles near the sensor. The actual sensor is a single-mode optical fiber with an elastomeric coating that is buried in the ground. A long coherence length laser is used to transmit encoded light down the fiber. Minute changes in the fiber in response to the intrusion produce phase changes to the returning backscattered light signal. The return light signal contains both the actual intrusion sound and the location information of where along the fiber the intrusion has occurred. A digital, in-ground, Blue Rose system has been built and is now operational at NUWC. Due to the low cost of the optical fiber sensor and unique benefits of the system, the Blue Rose system provides an advantage in long perimeter or border security applications and also reduces security manning requirements and therefore overall cost for security.

  2. Performance of the Defense Acquisition System. 2014 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    contractors to “win the franchise ” to become the sole-source producer of a system. Contractors are often willing to accept lower development...margins to win this production franchise . 86 Performance of the Defense Acquisition System, 2014 Figure 3-1. Final Margin on MDAP Development and...profits if the contractors determine the longer-term benefits from “winning the franchise ” form a good investment. Both types of sole-source contracts

  3. Cellular modelling using P systems and process algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco J.Romero-Campero; Marian Gheorghe; Gabriel Ciobanu; John M. Auld; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez

    2007-01-01

    In this paper various molecular chemical interactions are modelled under different computational paradigms. P systems and π-calculus are used to describe intra-cellular reactions like protein-protein interactions and gene regulation control.

  4. Interference cancellation technique under imperfect synchronization in cellular systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xin; WU; Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an asynchronous cooperative cellular system applied with space-time block coding(STBC)is investigated. A signal detector is proposed based on parallel interference cancellation(PIC), to cancel the inter-symbol interference(ISI)caused by the imperfect synchronization. Simulation results show that the proposed PIC detector can effectively suppress the ISI, but there is still a comparatively high error floor, due to the co-channel interference(CCI)of the cellular system.

  5. Design Skills and Prototyping for Defense Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Abrams tank. New variants are being ordered to maintain the single production plant in Lima , Ohio, even though the Army has sufficient quantities to...References Arena, M. V., Leonard, R. S., Murray, S. E., & Younossi, O. (2006). Historical cost growth of completed weapon system programs. Santa Monica, CA...development (R- 4161-ACQ). Santa Monica, CA: RAND. Drezner, J. A., & Huang, M. (2009). On prototyping: Lessons from RAND research. Santa Monica

  6. Strategic Defense System; Integrated Logistics Support Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    WEAPONS SBI SBL GBL NPB iiiwiiiii BSTS SSTS AOS CC/SOIF NTB :-.’-’\\.;v::v-X’X:.’:^v::v:.-:vS...Validation of test methods C. Evaluate test results IV. Simulation and Modelling A. Methodology B. Requirements C. Validation D. National Test Bed n...equipment and the systems they support; - On-the-job training capabilities incorporated in the prime equipment design as a method of reducing the need

  7. System Earned Readiness Management for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Pugh  1991),  Kasser’s  ( Kasser  2004)  First  Requirements   Elucidator  Demonstration  (FRED),  Integrated  Design  Model...Council  on  Systems   Engineering  (NCOSE),  Seattle,  Washington.   Kasser ,  J.  E.  (2004).  "The  first  requirements

  8. Defense Systems Modernization and Sustainment Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Maintainers Developer’s Analysis Tool The Developer’s Analysis Tool supports software and system developers to design and debug the health...Faces • PHP - Scripting language embedded in HTML Database and Communication Protocols The analysis of database technologies and communication...to be loaded and graphed, as well as the ability to save the data into CSV fdes for use in MATLAB. The tool was generally used for debugging purposes

  9. Passive automatic anti-piracy defense system of ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szustakowski, M.; Życzkowski, M.; Ciurapiński, W.; Karol, M.; Kastek, M.; Stachowiak, R.; Markowski, P.

    2013-10-01

    The article describes the technological solution for ship self-defense against pirate attacks. The paper presents the design solutions in the field of direct physical protection. All the solutions are connected with the latest optoelectronic and microwave systems and sensors to detect, recognize and the threat posed by pirates. In particular, tests of effectiveness and the detection-range of technology demonstrator developed by a team of authors were carried out.

  10. Genotoxicity and activation of cellular defenses in transplanted zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha along the Seine river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Châtel, Amélie; Faucet-Marquis, Virginie; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to confirm the relevance of studying DNA adduct formation in a field study. In that context, freshwater mussels Dreissena polymorpha, collected in a reference station, were transplanted in different sites with a pollution gradient. After one and two months, mussels were collected and DNA adduct formation was analyzed using the (32)P post labelling technique on both gills and digestive glands. In addition, the expression of genes involved in the detoxification system (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), HSP70, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), P glycoprotein (PgP), metallothionein (MT)) was assessed by RT-PCR. DNA adducts were observed at amount comparable to data from literature. Increase of DNA adducts after two months of transplantation could be correlated with strong modulation of gene expression implicated in detoxification processes. Indeed, PgP and HSP70 gene expressions were similarly induced in gills and digestive glands while SOD and CAT expressions were down regulated in both tissues. AHR, GST and MT genes were differently regulated depending upon the tissue studied and the level of contamination in the different sites. We demonstrated that mussels transplanted in the different stations with pollution gradient were able to biotransform PAHs, assessed by DNA adduct formation and the high decrease of detoxification genes. Specific DNA adducts pattern obtained after one and two month mussel transplantations demonstrated the relevance of DNA adduct as biomarker of environmental pollution.

  11. Performance evaluation of cellular layouts : extension to DRC system contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suresh, NC; Gaalman, GJC

    2000-01-01

    This study involves a comparison of the performance of functional layouts (FL) and cellular manufacturing (CM) systems in a dual-resource-constrained( DRC) system context. Past studies of FL and CM have been based mostly on single-resource-constrained( SRC) systems. Recent studies have included labo

  12. Cellular Therapies in Systemic Sclerosis : Recent Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rhijn-Brouwer, Femke C C; Gremmels, Hendrik; Fledderus, Joost O; Radstake, Timothy R D; Verhaar, Marianne C; van Laar, Jacob M

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune connective tissue disease with a high mortality and morbidity. While progress has been made in terms of identifying high-risk patients and implementing new treatment strategies, therapeutic options remain limited. In the past few decades, various cellula

  13. Complex systems modeling by cellular automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroc, J.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Rabuñal Dopico, J.R.; Dorado de la Calle, J.; Pazos Sierra, A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the notion of complex systems proved to be a very useful concept to define, describe, and study various natural phenomena observed in a vast number of scientific disciplines. Examples of scientific disciplines that highly benefit from this concept range from physics, mathematics, an

  14. Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzi, M. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Florence (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section.

  15. Evolution of System Safety at NASA as Related to Defense-in-Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2015-01-01

    Presentation given at the Defense-in-Depth Inter-Agency Workshop on August 26, 2015 in Rockville, MD by Homayoon Dezfuli. The presentation addresses the evolution of system safety at NASA as related to Defense-in-Depth.

  16. Active infrared systems: possible roles in ballistic missile defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologue, A.

    2006-05-01

    Active Infra-Red (IR) systems developed in the past ten years are now available for missile defense applications. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the advantages an active IR system could offer to a ballistic missile defense (BMD). The active IR system considered in this paper is a LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) system. Historically, the Lincoln Laboratory in the USA began using lasers in the early 1960's. The initial applications included the development of a LIDAR system enabling the measurement of the distance between the earth and the moon in 1962. Satellite tracking using LIDAR began early in 1973. Today, technological developments, with the miniaturization of systems and increased performance levels, have enabled new ambitious projects such as the Discrimination Interceptor Technology Program (DITP) program started in 1998 and the use of LIDAR to help in the discrimination of future exo-atmospheric interceptors within the framework of BMD. The first part of this paper presents the possible contribution of LIDAR to BMD: the main roles, objectives, and strategic advantages. The second part gives a brief overview of the technological features of a generic LIDAR instrument, rapidly addressing laser sources, detectors, optics and electronics. Finally, a modeling of an IR LIDAR system, limited solely to direct detection, and an estimation of performance levels will be presented. A list of possible IR active discriminators will be then presented on the basis of the previous analysis and proposed as new constraints in the design of discrete objects.

  17. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  18. Empirical study on entropy models of cellular manufacturing systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Zhang; Renbin Xiao

    2009-01-01

    From the theoretical point of view,the states of manufacturing resources can be monitored and assessed through the amount of information needed to describe their technological structure and operational state.The amount of information needed to describe cellular manufacturing systems is investigated by two measures:the structural entropy and the operational entropy.Based on the Shannon entropy,the models of the structural entropy and the operational entropy of cellular manufacturing systems are developed,and the cognizance of the states of manufacturing resources is also illustrated.Scheduling is introduced to measure the entropy models of cellular manufacturing systems,and the feasible concepts of maximum schedule horizon and schedule adherence are advanced to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of schedules.Finally,an example is used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed methodology.

  19. Hyper bio assembler for 3D cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Fumihito; Yamato, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Bio Assembler for Cellular Systems is the first book to present a new methodology for measuring and separating target cells at high speed and constructing 3D cellular systems in vitro. This book represents a valuable resource for biologists, biophysicists and robotic engineers, as well as researchers interested in this new frontier area, offering a better understanding of the measurement, separation, assembly, analysis and synthesis of complex biological tissue, and of the medical applications of these technologies. This book is the outcome of the new academic fields of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology’s Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Japan.

  20. Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Bharti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL, the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins (PP on the antioxidant defense system in the brain of female rats. The twenty-four rats were taken in present study and were divided into four groups: control (0 day, control (28 day, vehicle control and buffalo PP. The PP was injected 100 µg/kg BW intraperitoneal (i.p. daily for 28 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO in the brain tissue were measured to assess the antioxidant systems. These enzymes protect from adverse effects of free radicals and help in amelioration of oxidative stress. Buffalo pineal proteins administration did not cause any effect on brain LPO, whereas GPx, GR and GSH were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased. However, SOD and CAT activities were increased to significant levels than the control in PP treated rats. Our study herein suggested that buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins upregulates specific antioxidant defense systems and can be useful in control of various oxidative stress-induced neuronal diseases.

  1. Optimum Transmitter Power Control in WCDMA Cellular Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Power control is an important technique in WCDMA mobile systems for both increasing system capacity and guaranteeing the required QoS (time delay and wireless link transmission quality) of multimedia services. The optimum power control for narrow band CDMA cellular systems is a problem of single threshold optimization. Because these systems have only one type of traffic and have the same QoS requirement. However, WCDMA mobile systems should provide multimedia services and different types of traffic have different QoS requirements. Thus, the power control in WCDMA mobile systems doesn't be a problem of single threshold optimizing, but turns into the optimizing problem of multi-thresholds. In this paper, we analyze the power control problem in WCDMA cellular mobile systems and propose the optimum transmitter power control algorithm. Three criteria to optimize transmitter power levels of multi-thresholds based on grading the priority orders of multimedia services are proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms are more effective than conventional algorithms and can provide better performance for WCDMA cellular mobile systems.

  2. Plant mating system transitions drive the macroevolution of defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A; Kessler, André

    2013-03-05

    Understanding the factors that shape macroevolutionary patterns in functional traits is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Alternative strategies of sexual reproduction (inbreeding vs. outcrossing) have divergent effects on population genetic structure and could thereby broadly influence trait evolution. However, the broader evolutionary consequences of mating system transitions remain poorly understood, with the exception of traits related to reproduction itself (e.g., pollination). Across a phylogeny of 56 wild species of Solanaceae (nightshades), we show here that the repeated, unidirectional transition from ancestral self-incompatibility (obligate outcrossing) to self-compatibility (increased inbreeding) leads to the evolution of an inducible (vs. constitutive) strategy of plant resistance to herbivores. We demonstrate that inducible and constitutive defense strategies represent evolutionary alternatives and that the magnitude of the resulting macroevolutionary tradeoff is dependent on the mating system. Loss of self-incompatibility is also associated with the evolution of increased specificity in induced plant resistance. We conclude that the evolution of sexual reproductive variation may have profound effects on plant-herbivore interactions, suggesting a new hypothesis for the evolution of two primary strategies of plant defense.

  3. Neuroendocrine system response modulates oxidative cellular damage in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-Qi; Shinozawa, Yotaro; Sasaki, Junichi; Takuma, Kiyotsugu; Akaishi, Satoshi; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Endo, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Ryosuke; Kobayashi, Michio; Kudo, Daisuke; Hojo, Nobuko

    2007-02-01

    Oxygen-derived free radicals play important roles in pathophysiological processes in critically ill patients, but the data characterizing relationships between radicals and neuroendocrine system response are sparse. To search the cue to reduce the oxidative cellular damage from the point of view of neuroendocrine system response, we studied the indicators of neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses excreted in urine in 14 burn patients (42.3 +/- 31.4 years old, and 32.3 +/- 27.6% burn of total body surface area [%TBSA]) during the first seven days post burn. The daily mean amounts of urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative cellular damage, were above the upper limit of the standard value during the studied period. The total amount of urinary excretion of 8-OHdG in the first day post burn correlated with burn severity indices: %TBSA (r = 0.63, p = 0.021) and burn index (r = 0.70, p = 0.008). The daily urinary excretion of 8-OHdG correlated with the daily urinary excretion of norepinephrine and nitrite plus nitrate (NOx) during the studied period except day 2 post burn, and correlated with the daily urinary excretion of 17-hydroxycorticosteriod (17-OHCS) in days 2, 3, and 7 post burn. These data suggest that oxidative cellular damage correlates with burn severity and neuroendocrine system response modulates inflammation and oxidative cellular damage. Modulation of neuroendocrine system response and inflammation in the treatment in the early phase of burn may be useful to reduce the oxidative cellular damage and to prevent multiple organ failures in patients with extensive burn.

  4. Nicotine impact on melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in HEMn-DP melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delijewski, Marcin; Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2014-10-01

    Nicotine is a compound of tobacco plants and is responsible for addictive properties of tobacco which is used by about one billion of smokers all over the world. Recently, nicotine has drawn even more attention due to its presumed neuroprotective and antioxidant features as far as common use in various forms of smoking cessation therapies. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn influence biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in cultured normal human melanocytes (HEMn-DP). Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was determined to be 2.52 mM. Nicotine modulated melanin biosynthesis in normal human melanocytes. Significant changes in hydrogen peroxide content and cellular antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx activities were stated in melanocytes exposed to nicotine, which indicates alterations of antioxidant defense system. The results obtained in vitro may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long-term exposition to nicotine.

  5. Depth perception and defensive system activation in a 3-D environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eCombe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To survive, animals must be able to react appropriately (in temporal and behavioral terms when facing a threat. One of the essential parameters considered by the defensive system is the distance of the threat, the defensive distance. In this study, we investigate the visual depth cues that could be considered as an alarm cue for the activation of the defensive system. For this purpose, we performed an active-escape pain task in a virtual three-dimensional environment. In two experiments, we manipulated the nature and consistency of different depth cues: vergence, linear perspective, and angular size. By measuring skin conductance responses, we characterized the situations that activated the defensive system. We show that the angular size of the predator was sufficient information to trigger responses from the defensive system, but we also demonstrate that vergence, which can delay the emotional response in inconsistent situations, is also a highly reliable cue for the activation of the defensive system.

  6. Missile Defense: DOD’s Report Provides Limited Insight on Testing Options for the Ground-based Midcourse Defense System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Cochran Ranking Member Subcommittee on Defense Committee on Appropriations United States Senate The Honorable Howard P. " Buck " McKeon Chairman The...System Component Mission Location Ground Based Interceptor (GBI) The interceptor consists of a silo-based, three-stage booster stack and a “hit-to

  7. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense-in-Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Fabro

    2007-10-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: • Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems • Access to facilities via remote data link or modem • Public facing services for customer or corporate operations • A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  8. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES, CELLULAR REDOX SYSTEMS AND APOPTOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are products of normal metabolism and xenobiotic exposure, and depending on concentrations, ROS can be beneficial or harmful to cells and tissues. At physiological low levels, ROS function as “redox messengers” in intracellular signaling and regulation while excess ROS induce oxidative modification of cellular macromolecules, inhibit protein function and promote cell death. Additionally, various redox systems, such as the glutathione, thioredoxin, and pyridine nu...

  9. Strategic Planning and Management in Defense Systems Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    somewhere in the middle on the usefulness reports, included scenario planning, Balanced Scorecard , use of process consultants, and use of industry...Program analysis/assessment  Needs assessment  Mission/strategy mapping  SWOT analyses  Root cause analyses  Balanced Scorecard  Stakeholder...bäÉîÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Strategic Planning and Management in Defense Systems Acquisition

  10. 76 FR 44293 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... presented by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics in a memorandum dated... offered price. These provisions must also be used in acquisitions of commercial items conducted using part...--ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS 4. Add new section 212.205 to read as follows: 212.205 Offers. (c) When...

  11. Performance of the Defense Acquisition System, 2015 Annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Secretary of Defense, Acquisition, Technology, ,and Logistics (USD[AT&L]),3000 Defense Pentagon,,Washington,,DC, 20301 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Report. Washington, DC: Under Secretary of Defense, Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD[AT&L]), September, 2015. 3000 Defense Pentagon...FY 2014 at reversing the trend and meeting our goal. 23.0% 23.0% 23.0% 23.0% 22.2% 22.2% 22.3% 22.3% 22.5% 22.5% 21.4% 23.1% 24.6% 21.8

  12. Multiuser Scheduling on the Downlink of an LTE Cellular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Kwan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of scheduling user transmissions on the downlink of a long-term evolution (LTE cellular communication system is addressed. In particular, a novel optimalmultiuser scheduler is proposed. Numerical results show that the system performance improves with increasing correlation among OFDMA subcarriers. It is found that only a limited amount of feedback information is needed to achieve relatively good performance. A suboptimal reduced-complexity scheduler is also proposed and shown to provide good performance. The suboptimal scheme is especially attractive when the number of users is large, in which case the complexity of the optimal scheme is high.

  13. An Analysis of the Defense Acquisition Strategy for Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    funding for aviation applications from 1917 to 1927 is shown in Figure 7. The figure shows a dramatic drop in defense procurement following the Treaty ...of Versailles . Figure 7. Defense Aviation Appropriations 1917–1927 (from Lorell, 2003) 25 Figure 8 shows a pronounced gap between the

  14. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  15. Defense Information Systems Agency Management of Trouble Tickets for Electronic Commerce/Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    received, 15 were requests for quotes. The causes were break down of modems, and failure of computer equipment and software at the Columbus and Ogden...transaction identified on the trouble ticket? Yes 15 No 115 7. Do you have access to the trouble ticket resolution diary at Ogden NEP? Yes 10 No 120 8...Information Systems Agency, Arlington, VA Defense Megacenter Columbus , OH Defense Megacenter Mechanicsburg, PA Defense Megacenter Ogden, UT Non

  16. Modeling and simulation for train control system using cellular automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; KePing; GAO; ZiYou; YANG; LiXing

    2007-01-01

    Train control system plays a key role in railway traffic. Its function is to manage and control the train movement on railway networks. In our previous works, based on the cellular automata (CA) model, we proposed several models and algorithms for simulating the train movement under different control system conditions. However, these models are only suitable for some simple traffic conditions. Some basic factors, which are important for train movement, are not considered. In this paper, we extend these models and algorithms and give a unified formula. Using the proposed method, we analyze and discuss the space-time diagram of railway traffic flow and the trajectories of the train movement. The numerical simulation and analytical results demonstrate that the unified CA model is an effective tool for simulating the train control system.

  17. A unified theory for systems and cellular memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Pramod K; Hebert, April E; Runyan, Jason D

    2004-04-01

    The time-limited role of the hippocampus for explicit memory storage has been referred to as systems consolidation where learning-related changes occur first in the hippocampus followed by the gradual development of a more distributed memory trace in the neocortex. Recent experiments are beginning to show that learning induces plasticity-related molecular changes in the neocortex as well as in the hippocampus and with a similar time course. Present memory consolidation theories do not account for these findings. In this report, we present a theory (the C theory) that incorporates these new findings, provides an explanation for the length of time for hippocampal dependency, and that can account for the apparent longer consolidation periods in species with larger brains. This theory proposes that a process of cellular consolidation occurs in the hippocampus and in areas of the neocortex during and shortly after learning resulting in long-term memory storage in both areas. For a limited time, the hippocampus is necessary for memory retrieval, a process involving the coordinated reactivation of these areas. This reactivation is later mediated by longer extrahippocampal connectivity between areas. The delay in hippocampal-independent memory retrieval is the time it takes for gene products in these longer extrahippocampal projections to be transported from the soma to tagged synapses by slow axonal transport. This cellular transport event defines the period of hippocampal dependency and, thus, the duration of memory consolidation. The theoretical description for memory consolidation presented in this review provides alternative explanations for several experimental observations and presents a unification of the concepts of systems and cellular memory consolidation.

  18. THE PLANNING, PROGRAMING, BUDGETING SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE SERBIAN MINISTRY OF DEFENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa RADUSKI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of introducing the PPBES to the Serbian Ministry of Defense and the Serbian Armed Forces is to provide a rational management of resources and to maintain and build capacity of the Ministry and the Serbian Armed Forces in order to achieve their goals, objectives and missions.Expected results of implementation of the PPBES are reflected in increasing the efficiency and rationalization of the defense planning to a higher level, ensuring compatibility with defense planning and budgeting system of the state and developing a foundation for the effective management of defense resources.

  19. Adaptive cellular stress pathways as therapeutic targets of dietary phytochemicals: focus on the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewon; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Daeui; Chung, Hae Young; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-07-01

    During the past 5 decades, it has been widely promulgated that the chemicals in plants that are good for health act as direct scavengers of free radicals. Here we review evidence that favors a different hypothesis for the health benefits of plant consumption, namely, that some phytochemicals exert disease-preventive and therapeutic actions by engaging one or more adaptive cellular response pathways in cells. The evolutionary basis for the latter mechanism is grounded in the fact that plants produce natural antifeedant/noxious chemicals that discourage insects and other organisms from eating them. However, in the amounts typically consumed by humans, the phytochemicals activate one or more conserved adaptive cellular stress response pathways and thereby enhance the ability of cells to resist injury and disease. Examplesof such pathways include those involving the transcription factors nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, nuclear factor-κB, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and forkhead box subgroup O, as well as the production and action of trophic factors and hormones. Translational research to develop interventions that target these pathways may lead to new classes of therapeutic agents that act by stimulating adaptive stress response pathways to bolster endogenous defenses against tissue injury and disease. Because neurons are particularly sensitive to potentially noxious phytochemicals, we focus on the nervous system but also include findings from other cell types in which actions of phytochemicals on specific signal transduction pathways have been more thoroughly studied.

  20. Piezomechatronic-based systems in aircraft, space, and defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, T.; Claeyssen, F.; LeLetty, R.; Sosnicki, O.; Pages, A.; Vazquez Carazo, A.

    2009-05-01

    In Space & Defense fields, there is a trend for miniaturisation in active optics, fine instruments, robotic missions, microsatellites, UAVs, MAVs which directly impact on the design of actuators. A new generation of small and smart actuators such like piezoelectric (piezo) actuators, are responding to this trend, thanks to their capacity to offer high energy density and to support both extreme and various requirements. In Space vehicles, UAVs, missiles, military vehicles, etc., onboard place and available electric power can be very limited. For instance, a micro satellite often must operate all its instruments with less than 100W of power. As a result, allocated electric power per actuator is typically between 0.1 to 10W. This is also the case in small UAVs and in MAVs. Because of the high cost of embedded mass, space & military actuators need also to offer high output energy to mass ratio. One of the main difficulties is often the ability to withstand launching vibrations and shocks. Space environments add other constrains. A clear example is the vacuum conditions, which can induce difficulties to release the heat out off the actuator or for out gassing near optics. Other critical spacerelated environmental conditions include the thermal operation range required as well as the radiation-resistant requirements. In other situations, actuator strength to humidity is often an issue, especially for piezoelectric ceramics. Thus, the success of the application relies not only on design issues but also on material reliability. Specific actions at this level are needed to be undertaken to secure space projects. To cope with these issues and to illustrate the trend, the piezo actuators and mechanisms from Cedrat are presented. They have been initially developed and qualified to meet space requirements but logically found also applications in defense and micro aerial vehicle fields, for various micromechatronic functions. The paper presents typical applications and piezo

  1. Proteomic characterization of an isolated fraction of synthetic proteasome inhibitor (PSI-induced inclusions in PC12 cells might offer clues to aggresomes as a cellular defensive response against proteasome inhibition by PSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing'an

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cooperation of constituents of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS with chaperone proteins in degrading proteins mediate a wide range of cellular processes, such as synaptic function and neurotransmission, gene transcription, protein trafficking, mitochondrial function and metabolism, antioxidant defence mechanisms, and apoptotic signal transduction. It is supposed that constituents of the UPS and chaperone proteins are recruited into aggresomes where aberrant and potentially cytotoxic proteins may be sequestered in an inactive form. Results To determinate the proteomic pattern of synthetic proteasome inhibitor (PSI-induced inclusions in PC12 cells after proteasome inhibition by PSI, we analyzed a fraction of PSI-induced inclusions. A proteomic feature of the isolated fraction was characterized by identification of fifty six proteins including twenty previously reported protein components of Lewy bodies, twenty eight newly identified proteins and eight unknown proteins. These proteins, most of which were recognized as a profile of proteins within cellular processes mediated by the UPS, a profile of constituents of the UPS and a profile of chaperone proteins, are classed into at least nine accepted categories. In addition, prolyl-4-hydroxylase beta polypeptide, an endoplasmic reticulum member of the protein disulfide isomerase family, was validated in the developmental process of PSI-induced inclusions in the cells. Conclusions It is speculated that proteomic characterization of an isolated fraction of PSI-induced inclusions in PC12 cells might offer clues to appearance of aggresomes serving as a cellular defensive response against proteasome inhibition.

  2. Cellular behavior in micropatterned hydrogels by bioprinting system depended on the cell types and cellular interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soyoung; Song, Seung-Joon; Lee, Jae Yeon; Jang, Hwanseok; Choi, Jaesoon; Sun, Kyung; Park, Yongdoo

    2013-08-01

    The fabrication of patterned microstructures within three-dimensional (3D) matrices is a challenging subject in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A 3D, free-moving bioprinting system was developed and hydrogels were patterned by varying the process parameters of z-axis moving velocity and ejection velocity. The patterning of hydrogel based microfibers in a 3D matrigel was achieved with dimensions of 4.5 mm length and widths from 79 to 200 μm. Hyaluronan-based hydrogels mixed with fibroblasts (L929), mouse endothelial cells (MS1), or human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were patterned using a 3D moving axis bioprinter and cell behavior was monitored in culture for up to 16 days. L929 and MS1 cells and hMSCs in patterned hydrogel revealed cell-cell interactions and a morphological dependency on cell types. HMSCs formed spheres through cell aggregation, while L929 cells increased in cellular mass without cell aggregation and MS1 dispersed into the matrix instead of aggregating. The aggregation of hMSCs was attenuated by treatment with Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor and cadherin antibody. This reflected the close relationship between cell aggregation and migration with RhoA and cell-cell adhesion molecules. Angiogenic-specific gene expression profiles showed that expression of CD105 decreased to 22% in the ROCK inhibitor group compared to control group. These results showed that cell-based patterns in a 3D matrix are highly dependent on both cell aggregation and migration over time.

  3. Coarse-grained cellular automaton for traffic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczyk, Malgorzata J

    2012-01-01

    A coarse-grained cellular automaton is proposed to simulate traffic systems. There, cells represent road sections. A cell can be in two states: jammed or passable. Numerical calculations are performed for a piece of square lattice with open boundary conditions, for the same piece with some cells removed and for a map of a small city. The results indicate the presence of a phase transition in the parameter space, between two macroscopic phases: passable and jammed. The results are supplemented by exact calculations of the stationary probabilities of states for the related Kripke structure constructed for the traffic system. There, the symmetry-based reduction of the state space allows to partially reduce the computational limitations of the numerical method.

  4. Energy-Efficient Transmission Schemes in Cooperative Cellular Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Sun, Wanlu

    2010-01-01

    Energy-efficient communication is an important requirement for mobile devices, as the battery technology has not kept up with the growing requirements stemming from ubiquitous multimedia applications. This paper considers energy-efficient transmission schemes in cooperative cellular systems with unbalanced traffic between uplink and downlink. Theoretically, we derive the optimal transmission data rate, which minimizes the total energy consumption of battery-powered terminals per information bit. The energy-efficient cooperation regions are then investigated to illustrate the effects of relay locations on the energy-efficiency of the systems, and the optimal relay location is found for maximum energy-efficiency. Finally, numerical results are provided to demonstrate the tradeoff between energy-efficiency and spectral efficiency.

  5. A MULTI CRITERIA APPROACH TO DESIGNING THE CELLULAR MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Ampuh Hadiguna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular manufacturing system design problems such as design framework, manufacturing cells layout and layout evaluation. The research objective is developing the framework to designing manufacturing cells with considering the organization and management aspects in shopfloor. In this research have compared the existing layout with proposed layout which applied the multi criteria approach. The proposed method is combining Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, Clustering and heuristic approach. The result has show that grouping with Single Linkage Clustering (SLC to be selected as manufacturing cells. The comparison of clustering weight is 0,567, 0,245 and 0,188 for SLC, Complete Linkage Clustering (CLC and Average Linkage Clustering (ALC, respectively. This result shows that generating layout by using grouping result from SLC. The evaluation result shows that types of manufacturing cells better than process layout which used the existing system.

  6. Network modeling of membrane-based artificial cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Eric C.; Philen, Michael K.; Leo, Donald J.

    2013-04-01

    Computational models are derived for predicting the behavior of artificial cellular networks for engineering applications. The systems simulated involve the use of a biomolecular unit cell, a multiphase material that incorporates a lipid bilayer between two hydrophilic compartments. These unit cells may be considered building blocks that enable the fabrication of complex electrochemical networks. These networks can incorporate a variety of stimuli-responsive biomolecules to enable a diverse range of multifunctional behavior. Through the collective properties of these biomolecules, the system demonstrates abilities that recreate natural cellular phenomena such as mechanotransduction, optoelectronic response, and response to chemical gradients. A crucial step to increase the utility of these biomolecular networks is to develop mathematical models of their stimuli-responsive behavior. While models have been constructed deriving from the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model focusing on describing the system as a combination of traditional electrical components (capacitors and resistors), these electrical elements do not sufficiently describe the phenomena seen in experiment as they are not linked to the molecular scale processes. From this realization an advanced model is proposed that links the traditional unit cell parameters such as conductance and capacitance to the molecular structure of the system. Rather than approaching the membrane as an isolated parallel plate capacitor, the model seeks to link the electrical properties to the underlying chemical characteristics. This model is then applied towards experimental cases in order that a more complete picture of the underlying phenomena responsible for the desired sensing mechanisms may be constructed. In this way the stimuli-responsive characteristics may be understood and optimized.

  7. Recent findings with rainfall monitoring by cellular communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P.; Rayitsfeld, A.; David, N.; Goldshtein, O.; Messer, H.; Zinevich, A.

    2009-04-01

    We will demonstrate how 19 rainfall storms from recent two full winter seasons over south Israel are analyzed with high-resolution (1 minute time interval) data from a cellular network. New insight into the hydrological applications from this new source on rainfall, including flood warning, is given by this source of data and compared to classical methods based on rain-gauges and radar. One case of flooding in 2008 over the Judea Desert, central Israel, will be analyzed. Global spread of wireless networks brings a great opportunity for their use in environmental studies. Weather, atmospheric conditions and constituents cause propagation impairments on radio links. As such, wireless communication systems provide built-in monitoring capabilities, and can be considered as a widespread distributed, high-resolution atmospheric observation network, operating in real time, with minimum supervision and with almost no additional cost. Here, we demonstrate how standard measurements of the received signal level, made in a cellular network, provide reliable measurements for surface rainfall. We compare the estimated rainfall intensity with the radar and rain gauge measurements.

  8. Department of Defense (DOD) Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS) Version 1.2: Initial Operational Test and Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Director, Operational Test and Evaluation Department of Defense (DOD) Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS) Version 1.2 Initial...Operational Test and Evaluation Report May 2015 This report on the Department of Defense (DOD) Automated Biometric Identification System...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Department of Defense (DOD) Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS) Version 1.2 Initial Operational Test

  9. Regulation of System xc- by Pharmacological Manipulation of Cellular Thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cystine/glutamate exchanger (system xc- mediates the transport of cystine into the cell in exchange for glutamate. By releasing glutamate, system xc- can potentially cause excitotoxicity. However, through providing cystine to the cell, it regulates the levels of cellular glutathione (GSH, the main endogenous intracellular antioxidant, and may protect cells against oxidative stress. We tested two different compounds that deplete primary cortical cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes of intracellular GSH, L-buthionine-sulfoximine (L-BSO, and diethyl maleate (DEM. Both compounds caused significant concentration and time dependent decreases in intracellular GSH levels. However; DEM caused an increase in radiolabeled cystine uptake through system xc-, while unexpectedly BSO caused a decrease in uptake. The compounds caused similar low levels of neurotoxicity, while only BSO caused an increase in oxidative stress. The mechanism of GSH depletion by these two compounds is different, DEM directly conjugates to GSH, while BSO inhibits γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, a key enzyme in GSH synthesis. As would be expected from these mechanisms of action, DEM caused a decrease in intracellular cysteine, while BSO increased cysteine levels. The results suggest that negative feedback by intracellular cysteine is an important regulator of system xc- in this culture system.

  10. Regulation of System xc− by Pharmacological Manipulation of Cellular Thiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Rebecca; Raddatz, Nicholas J.; Hjelmhaug, Julie; Baker, David A.; Lobner, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The cystine/glutamate exchanger (system xc−) mediates the transport of cystine into the cell in exchange for glutamate. By releasing glutamate, system xc− can potentially cause excitotoxicity. However, through providing cystine to the cell, it regulates the levels of cellular glutathione (GSH), the main endogenous intracellular antioxidant, and may protect cells against oxidative stress. We tested two different compounds that deplete primary cortical cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes of intracellular GSH, L-buthionine-sulfoximine (L-BSO), and diethyl maleate (DEM). Both compounds caused significant concentration and time dependent decreases in intracellular GSH levels. However; DEM caused an increase in radiolabeled cystine uptake through system xc−, while unexpectedly BSO caused a decrease in uptake. The compounds caused similar low levels of neurotoxicity, while only BSO caused an increase in oxidative stress. The mechanism of GSH depletion by these two compounds is different, DEM directly conjugates to GSH, while BSO inhibits γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, a key enzyme in GSH synthesis. As would be expected from these mechanisms of action, DEM caused a decrease in intracellular cysteine, while BSO increased cysteine levels. The results suggest that negative feedback by intracellular cysteine is an important regulator of system xc− in this culture system. PMID:25949770

  11. Regulation of System xc(-) by Pharmacological Manipulation of Cellular Thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Rebecca; Raddatz, Nicholas J; Hjelmhaug, Julie; Baker, David A; Lobner, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The cystine/glutamate exchanger (system xc (-)) mediates the transport of cystine into the cell in exchange for glutamate. By releasing glutamate, system xc (-) can potentially cause excitotoxicity. However, through providing cystine to the cell, it regulates the levels of cellular glutathione (GSH), the main endogenous intracellular antioxidant, and may protect cells against oxidative stress. We tested two different compounds that deplete primary cortical cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes of intracellular GSH, L-buthionine-sulfoximine (L-BSO), and diethyl maleate (DEM). Both compounds caused significant concentration and time dependent decreases in intracellular GSH levels. However; DEM caused an increase in radiolabeled cystine uptake through system xc (-), while unexpectedly BSO caused a decrease in uptake. The compounds caused similar low levels of neurotoxicity, while only BSO caused an increase in oxidative stress. The mechanism of GSH depletion by these two compounds is different, DEM directly conjugates to GSH, while BSO inhibits γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, a key enzyme in GSH synthesis. As would be expected from these mechanisms of action, DEM caused a decrease in intracellular cysteine, while BSO increased cysteine levels. The results suggest that negative feedback by intracellular cysteine is an important regulator of system xc (-) in this culture system.

  12. Oxidative and antioxidative defense system in testicular torsion/detorsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F A Elshaari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the early effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury on the oxidants and anti-oxidant defense status in rat testicular tissue by measuring MDA, glucose-6-phosphte dehydrogenase activity and reduced glutathione levels in a designated time frame sequel to reperfusion. Animals were divided randomly into six groups (12 animals per group in the following order: Group I: Sham-operated control group (Cso without the application of the torsion. Group 2: Torsion-induced ischemia group (T30 m: Ischemia was induced through the torsion of spermatic cord for a period of 30 min. Group 3: One hour reperfusion group after detorsion (T30 mR1 h. Group 4: Twenty-four hour reperfusion group after detorsion (T30 mR24 h. Group 5: Forty-eight hours reperfusion group after detorsion (T30mR48h. Group 6: One week reperfusion group after detorsion (T30mR1wk. Results and Discussion: The oxidant-antioxidant system of the testicular tissue is altered during torsion as well as detorsion which results in the altered activities involved in the key enzyme of hexose monophosphate shunt pathway, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with a reduction of glutathione (G.SH content. The increase in G6PDH activity during torsion and followed by an increase in detorsion indicates the tissue′s response to counter the oxidant stress caused by reduced blood supply. Continued exposure to such oxidant stressed physiological state of a tissue may lead to decreased capacity of the tissue to perform its physiological function such as testicular steroidogenesis and spermiogenesis shown in the present study.

  13. Analysis of System Training Impact for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs): Training Systems Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    evidenced in our other case studies. However, with the rapid production and deployment of the vehicles in 2007–2008, the operators began to experience...Background The Patriot system began because of the need to replace an aging and limited air defense system in the 1970s, the Nike -Hercules, and...The program sponsors of the Patriot also desired to take advantage of technological innovation and information superiority to enhance overall

  14. Wireless Secrecy in Cellular Systems with Infrastructure--Aided Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Popovski, Petar

    2008-01-01

    In cellular systems, confidentiality of uplink transmission with respect to eavesdropping terminals can be ensured by creating intentional inteference via scheduling of concurrent downlink transmissions. In this paper, this basic idea is explored from an information-theoretic standpoint by focusing on a two-cell scenario where the involved base stations are connected via a finite-capacity backbone link. A number of transmission strategies are considered that aim at improving uplink confidentiality under constraints on the downlink rate that acts as an interfering signal. The strategies differ mainly in the way the backbone link is exploited by the cooperating downlink- to the uplink-operated base stations. Achievable rates are derived for both the Gaussian (unfaded) and the fading cases, under different assumptions on the channel state information available at different nodes. Numerical results are also provided to corroborate the analysis. Overall, the analysis reveals that a combination of scheduling and ba...

  15. Human multidrug resistance ABCB and ABCG transporters: participation in a chemoimmunity defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi, Balázs; Homolya, László; Szakács, Gergely; Váradi, András

    2006-10-01

    In this review we give an overview of the physiological functions of a group of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, which were discovered, and still referred to, as multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters. Although they indeed play an important role in cancer drug resistance, their major physiological function is to provide general protection against hydrophobic xenobiotics. With a highly conserved structure, membrane topology, and mechanism of action, these essential transporters are preserved throughout all living systems, from bacteria to human. We describe the general structural and mechanistic features of the human MDR-ABC transporters and introduce some of the basic methods that can be applied for the analysis of their expression, function, regulation, and modulation. We treat in detail the biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology of the ABCB1 (MDR1/P-glycoprotein) and the ABCG2 (MXR/BCRP) proteins and describe emerging information related to additional ABCB- and ABCG-type transporters with a potential role in drug and xenobiotic resistance. Throughout this review we demonstrate and emphasize the general network characteristics of the MDR-ABC transporters, functioning at the cellular and physiological tissue barriers. In addition, we suggest that multidrug transporters are essential parts of an innate defense system, the "chemoimmunity" network, which has a number of features reminiscent of classical immunology.

  16. WWP-1 is a novel modulator of the DAF-2 insulin-like signaling network involved in pore-forming toxin cellular defenses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Shi Chen

    Full Text Available Pore-forming toxins (PFTs are the single largest class of bacterial virulence factors. The DAF-2 insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway, which regulates lifespan and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans, is known to mutate to resistance to pathogenic bacteria. However, its role in responses against bacterial toxins and PFTs is as yet unexplored. Here we reveal that reduction of the DAF-2 insulin-like pathway confers the resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans to cytolitic crystal (Cry PFTs produced by Bacillus thuringiensis. In contrast to the canonical DAF-2 insulin-like signaling pathway previously defined for aging and pathogenesis, the PFT response pathway diverges at 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1 and appears to feed into a novel insulin-like pathway signal arm defined by the WW domain Protein 1 (WWP-1. In addition, we also find that WWP-1 not only plays an important role in the intrinsic cellular defense (INCED against PFTs but also is involved in innate immunity against pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in lifespan regulation. Taken together, our data suggest that WWP-1 and DAF-16 function in parallel within the fundamental DAF-2 insulin/IGF-1 signaling network to regulate fundamental cellular responses in C. elegans.

  17. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sambale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. They were used as benchmarks to set up our methods and to examine their effects on mammalian cell lines. Different biological processes such as cell viability, gene expression of interleukin-8 and heat shock protein 70, as well as morphology changes were investigated. Within our screening system, both nanoparticle suspensions and coatings can be tested. Electric cell impedance measurements revealed to be a good method for online monitoring of cellular behavior. The implementation of three-dimensional cell culture is essential to better mimic in vivo conditions. In conclusion, our screening system is highly efficient, cost minimizing, and reduces the need for animal studies.

  18. Melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes cultured in the presence of chlorpromazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otreba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-02-01

    Chlorpromazine is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders and belongs to phenothiazine class of neuroleptic drugs. It shows severe side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms as well as ocular and skin disorders, but the mechanism is still not fully established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chlorpromazine on cell viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes. It has been demonstrated that chlorpromazine induces concentration dependent loss in cell viability. The value of EC(50) was calculated to be 2.53 μM. Chlorpromazine in lower concentrations (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01 μM) increased the melanin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) content and tyrosinase activity, while changes of antioxidant enzymes activity were not observed. It suggests that long-term chlorpromazine therapy, even with low drug doses, may lead to hyperpigmentation disorders in skin and/or eye. The use of the analyzed drug in higher concentrations (0.1 and 1.0 μM) caused significant alterations of antioxidant enzymes activity in normal melanocytes, what may explain a potential role of chlorpromazine in the depletion of cellular antioxidant status leading to other adverse effects associated with the high-dose and/or long-term therapy.

  19. Cellular barcoding tool for clonal analysis in the hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Alice; Dykstra, Brad; Kalmykowa, Olga J; Klauke, Karin; Verovskaya, Evgenia; Broekhuis, Mathilde J C; de Haan, Gerald; Bystrykh, Leonid V

    2010-04-01

    Clonal analysis is important for many areas of hematopoietic stem cell research, including in vitro cell expansion, gene therapy, and cancer progression and treatment. A common approach to measure clonality of retrovirally transduced cells is to perform integration site analysis using Southern blotting or polymerase chain reaction-based methods. Although these methods are useful in principle, they generally provide a low-resolution, biased, and incomplete assessment of clonality. To overcome those limitations, we labeled retroviral vectors with random sequence tags or "barcodes." On integration, each vector introduces a unique, identifiable, and heritable mark into the host cell genome, allowing the clonal progeny of each cell to be tracked over time. By coupling the barcoding method to a sequencing-based detection system, we could identify major and minor clones in 2 distinct cell culture systems in vitro and in a long-term transplantation setting. In addition, we demonstrate how clonal analysis can be complemented with transgene expression and integration site analysis. This cellular barcoding tool permits a simple, sensitive assessment of clonality and holds great promise for future gene therapy protocols in humans, and any other applications when clonal tracking is important.

  20. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  1. Evaluating Defense Architecture Frameworks for C4I System Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S. Alghamdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I Systems provided situational awareness about operational environment and supported in decision making and directed to operative environment. These systems had been used by various agencies like defense, police, investigation, road, rail, airports, oil and gas related department. However, the increase use of C4I system had made it more important and attractive. Consequently interest in design and development of C4I system had increased among the researchers. Many defense industry frameworks were available but the problem was a suitable selection of a framework in design and development of C4I system. Approach: This study described the concepts, tool and methodology being used for evaluation analysis of different frameworks by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results: We had compared different defense industry frameworks like Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF, Ministry of Defense Architecture Framework (MODAF and NATO Architecture Framework (NAF and found that AHP is fairly good tool in terms of analysis. Conclusion: Different defense industry frameworks such as DODAF, MODAF and NAF had been evaluated and compared using AHP.

  2. A novel cell search scheme for OFDM cellular systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ming; LUO Han-wen; WU Yun

    2007-01-01

    A novel cell search scheme for OFDM cellular systems is proposed. It is based on one OFDM symbol with several identical slots as preamble, the time domain repetition structure of which can be utilized to accomplish OFDM timing/frequency synchronization. The cell ID is comprised of two parts: a sub-carrier mask index g and a sequence index x. Each sub-carrier mask activates or deactivates some of the sub-carriers, after which a differentially coded sequence is loaded on pairs of the adjacent active sub-carriers. The user equipment (UE) recognizes the mask with index g via power detection of the received frequency domain signal. Then it estimates the index x from differential demodulation followed by detection of the frequency domain sequence. In order to improve the performance, a method of jointly estimating g and x is devised. Simulation results showed that the proposed scheme is able to support a very large number of cell IDs while maintaining a good performance even in bad multi-cell environment.

  3. Linear systems analysis of activating processes of complement system as a defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, H; Yoshii, K; Ojima, H; Kawai, N; Gotoh, S; Fukuyama, Y

    1996-01-01

    The complement system is an important element of the host defense mechanism, although its kinetics and characteristics as a system are still unclear. We have investigated its temporal changes and system properties from the view point of system engineering. The temporal changes of sequential activating processes of the system were expressed by 26 non-linear differential equations using reported values of rate constants and serum concentration for each component. The intermediate products in the activating processes increased parabolically while the membrane attack component as the final product, increased linearly. The little change in inactive precursors afforded validity for system linearization. Linear systems analysis revealed that the system which was insensitive to the changes in rate constants was unstable. The system became stable when the feed-back input from the final product was set to operate on the first step of the activating processes. Seven uncontrollable variables were insensitive to changes in rate constants or system optimization that minimized the changes in concentrations of components in the complement system. The singular values of the complement system were reduced and the impulse responses of the system were improved when the system was optimized. When stronger minimization was imposed on the changes of concentration of the components in the complement system, the singular values were reduced more, the magnitude of the impulse responses was depressed further and the responses terminated earlier than those when the elements in the weighting matrix of concentration of the components were set to be unity. By this potent minimization, the influences of changes in rate constants on the singular values were diminished. The present theoretical analysis is presented to evaluate the ability of defense mechanism of complement system.

  4. A high-efficiency cellular extraction system for biological proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry have led to significant improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of biochemical analyses of cellular reactions, protein-protein interactions, and small molecule drug discovery. These approaches depend on cellular proteome extraction that preserves native protein activities. Here, we systematically analyzed mechanical methods of cell lysis and physical protein extraction to identify those that maximize the extraction ...

  5. Satellite augmentation of cellular type mobile radio telephone systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roy E.

    NASA's ATS-6 satellite relayed voice bandwidth communications between five trucks and the trucking company dispatchers as the trucks traveled throughout the north-eastern quarter of the contiguous United States. The experiment, conducted over a seven month period, demonstrated that propagation characteristics are much different for the satellite-mobile links than for terrestrial-mobile links. A properly designed satellite system can provide high quality, reliable voice and data communications except where the vehicle-satellite path is shadowed by a structure or terrain feature. Mobile equipment in the experiment was adapted from commercial mobile radios. The vehicle antennas were 75 cm tall, 2 cm diam. Another experiment proved the feasibility of vehicle position surveillance using active two-way tone-code ranging through ATS-6 to provide one line of position and passive one-way ranging by measuring the time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite. A position fix was printed out at an earth station 1 sec after it sent the interrogation signal to the distant vehicle, a towboat on the Mississippi River. The line of position from ATS-6 was accurate to 0.1 nautical mile using a voice bandwidth ranging signal. The line of position from the NOAA GOES satellite was accurate to 2 miles, using 100 Hz signal bandwidth. If the signal from the independent satellite had the same bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio as ATS-6, the fixes would have been accurate to about 0.1 nautical mile. A concept study concluded that satellites might be a cost effective augmentation of terrestrial cellular type mobile radio telephone systems. The satellites would serve thinly populated areas where terrestrial systems are not cost effective. In the United States, the satellites would serve about 90% of the land area where 20% of the population resides. A multibeam satellite with many channels in each beam would be compatible with the urban terrestrial systems and together they would

  6. New insights of an old defense system: structure, function, and clinical relevance of the complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrnthaller, Christian; Ignatius, Anita; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The complement system was discovered a century ago as a potent defense cascade of innate immunity. After its first description, continuous experimental and clinical research was performed, and three canonical pathways of activation were established. Upon activation by traumatic or surgical tissue damage, complement reveals beneficial functions of pathogen and danger defense by sensing and clearing injured cells. However, the latest research efforts have provided a more distinct insight into the complement system and its clinical subsequences. Complement has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory processes such as sepsis, multiorgan dysfunction, ischemia/reperfusion, cardiovascular diseases and many others. The three well-known activation pathways of the complement system have been challenged by newer findings that demonstrate direct production of central complement effectors (for example, C5a) by serine proteases of the coagulation cascade. In particular, thrombin is capable of producing C5a, which not only plays a decisive role on pathogens and infected/damaged tissues, but also acts systemically. In the case of uncontrolled complement activation, "friendly fire" is generated, resulting in the destruction of healthy host tissue. Therefore, the traditional research that focuses on a mainly positive-acting cascade has now shifted to the negative effects and how tissue damage originated by the activation of the complement can be contained. In a translational approach including structure-function relations of this ancient defense system, this review provides new insights of complement-mediated clinical relevant diseases and the development of complement modulation strategies and current research aspects.

  7. A two-level formal specification of a defense communications system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, G.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Kemmerer, R.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Reliable Software Group

    1994-04-01

    Computer systems are being used in critical situations with sensitive data, which makes it very important to ensure that these systems perform as desired. The defense communications system contains particularly sensitive data. A two-level ASLAN formal specification of a defense communications system is presented. The ASLAN model is designed to enhance the understanding of critical requirements and demands of the defense communications system. For the top-level (high-level) specifications, the structural details of the actual network are actual network are abstracted to allow more time for examining the interactions between the sites and the network. At this level, DataGrams move through the network, although the actual routing decisions are not specified. More details are added in the second-level specification. At this level, structure is added to the network.

  8. Development of the Defense Documentation Center Remote On-Line Retrieval System - Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennertz, Richard K.

    The document highlights in nontechnical language the development of the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) Remote On-Line Retrieval System from its inception in 1967 to what is planned. It describes in detail the current operating system, equipment configuration and associated costs, user training and system evaluation and may be of value to other…

  9. 75 FR 65439 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System (eSRS). The FAR has been revised to reflect use of the eSRS...--Summary Subcontract Report, for submission of small business subcontract reports. DATES: Effective...

  10. 77 FR 11355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS... proposed rule for Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038) in the Federal... contractor business systems, DoD has clarified the definition and administration of contractor...

  11. Uplink Power Saving Potential of Cellular System with Fixed Relays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Hong-kui; RONG Meng-tian; LIU Tao; YU Dan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented a scheme of relayed cellular mobile telecommunication network, which only employs fixed digital relays and not more than two-hop relay routes. Power saving potential of the network is deeply studied under the assumption of not occupying additional frequency bands (i. e. relays share the same frequency bands as used by the base stations). Theoretical analysis and simulation results have both shown that, with the same radio coverage requirement, the necessary effective transmission powers in such a relayed network have greatly decreased compared to conventional cellular network.

  12. Systems and photosystems: cellular limits of autotrophic productivity in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnap, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the modeling of microbial growth and metabolism have shown that growth rate critically depends upon the optimal allocation of finite proteomic resources among different cellular functions and that modeling growth rates becomes more realistic with the explicit accounting for the costs of macromolecular synthesis, most importantly, protein expression. The "proteomic constraint" is considered together with its application to understanding photosynthetic microbial growth. The central hypothesis is that physical limits of cellular space (and corresponding solvation capacity) in conjunction with cell surface-to-volume ratios represent the underlying constraints on the maximal rate of autotrophic microbial growth. The limitation of cellular space thus constrains the size the total complement of macromolecules, dissolved ions, and metabolites. To a first approximation, the upper limit in the cellular amount of the total proteome is bounded this space limit. This predicts that adaptation to osmotic stress will result in lower maximal growth rates due to decreased cellular concentrations of core metabolic proteins necessary for cell growth owing the accumulation of compatible osmolytes, as surmised previously. The finite capacity of membrane and cytoplasmic space also leads to the hypothesis that the species-specific differences in maximal growth rates likely reflect differences in the allocation of space to niche-specific proteins with the corresponding diminution of space devoted to other functions including proteins of core autotrophic metabolism, which drive cell reproduction. An optimization model for autotrophic microbial growth, the autotrophic replicator model, was developed based upon previous work investigating heterotrophic growth. The present model describes autotrophic growth in terms of the allocation protein resources among core functional groups including the photosynthetic electron transport chain, light-harvesting antennae, and the

  13. Systems and Photosystems: Cellular Limits of Autotrophic Productivity in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Burnap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the modeling of microbial growth and metabolism have shown that growth rate critically depends upon the optimal allocation of finite proteomic resources among different cellular functions and that modeling growth rates becomes more realistic with the explicit accounting for the costs of macromolecular, most importantly, protein expression. The ‘proteomic constraint’ is considered together with its application to understanding photosynthetic microbial growth. The central hypothesis is that physical limits of cellular space (and corresponding solvation capacity and cell surface to volume ratios represent the underlying constraints on the maximal rate of autotrophic microbial growth. The limitation of cellular space thus constrains the size the total complement of macromolecules, dissolved ions, and metabolites. To a first approximation, the upper limit in the cellular amount of the total proteome is bounded the space limit. This predicts that adaptation to osmotic stress will result in lower maximal growth rates due to decreased cellular concentrations of core metabolic proteins necessary for cell growth owing the accumulation of compatible osmolytes, as surmised previously. The finite capacity of membrane and cytoplasmic space also leads to the hypothesis that the species-specific differences in maximal growth rates likely reflect differences in the allocation of space to niche-specific proteins with the corresponding diminution of space devoted to other functions including proteins of core autotrophic metabolism, which drive cell reproduction. An optimization model for autotrophic microbial growth, the autotrophic replicator model (ARM, was developed based upon previous work investigating heterotrophic growth. The present model describes autotrophic growth in terms of the allocation protein resources among core functional groups including the photosynthetic electron transport chain, light harvesting antennae, and the

  14. Network attack detection and defense: securing industrial control systems for critical infrastructures (Dagstuhl Seminar 14292)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dacer, Marc; Kargl, Frank; König, Hartmut; Valdes, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14292 “Network Attack Detection and Defense: Securing Industrial Control Systems for Critical Infrastructures”. The main objective of the seminar was to discuss new approaches and ideas for securing industrial control systems. It

  15. 75 FR 71560 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... is provided for contractors with accounting software that does not accommodate the additional data... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS Case 2008-D027) AGENCY... Cost and Software Data Reporting system requirements for Major Defense Acquisition Programs and...

  16. Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1989-11-11

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

  17. Schema Redescription in Cellular Automata: Revisiting Emergence in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marques-Pita, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to eliminate redundancy in the transition tables of Boolean automata: schema redescription with two symbols. One symbol is used to capture redundancy of individual input variables, and another to capture permutability in sets of input variables: fully characterizing the canalization present in Boolean functions. Two-symbol schemata explain aspects of the behaviour of automata networks that the characterization of their emergent patterns does not capture. We use our method to compare two well-known cellular automata for the density classification task: the human engineered CA GKL, and another obtained via genetic programming. We show that despite having very different collective behaviour, these rules are very similar. Indeed, GKL is a special case of GP. Therefore, we demonstrate that it is more feasible to compare cellular automata via schema redescriptions of their rules, than by looking at their emergent behaviour, leading us to question the tendency in complexity research to pay much m...

  18. Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN Jing; NING Bin; LI Ke-Ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station.Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track.Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered.One is the scheme of "pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track".The other is the scheme of "two tracks play the same role".We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic.Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced.Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values.This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model.

  19. Diversity and Multiplexing Tradeoff in the Uplink of Cellular Systems with Linear MMSE Receiver

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Xiaoshi; Liu, Danpu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the diversity and multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) analysis from point-to-point channels to cellular systems to evaluate the impact of inter-cell interference on the system reliability and efficiency. Fundamental tradeoff among diversity order, multiplexing gain and inter-cell interference intensity is characterized to reveal the capability of multiple antennas in cellular systems. And the detrimental effects of the inter-cell interference on the system performance of diversity and multiplexing is presented and analyzed.

  20. Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durling, R L; Price, D E; Spero, K K

    2005-06-06

    For over ten years, the Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a planning tool used by U.S. combatant commands for mission support planning against foreign programs engaged in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). CAPS is endorsed by the Secretary of Defense as the preferred counterproliferation tool to be used by the nation's armed services. A sister system, the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging CAPS expertise designed to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented.

  1. Vulnerability And Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durling, Jr., R L; Price, D E; Spero, K K

    2005-01-03

    For over ten years, the Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a planning tool used by U.S. combatant commands for mission support planning against foreign programs engaged in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). CAPS is endorsed by the Secretary of Defense as the preferred counterproliferation tool to be used by the nation's armed services. A sister system, the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging CAPS expertise designed to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities is presented.

  2. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Mitchell Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamlet, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stout, William M.S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  3. A unique cellular scaling rule in the avian auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Long, Brendan; Krilow, Justin M; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Although it is clear that neural structures scale with body size, the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Several recent studies have shown that the relationship between neuron numbers and brain (or brain region) size are not only different across mammalian orders, but also across auditory and visual regions within the same brains. Among birds, similar cellular scaling rules have not been examined in any detail. Here, we examine the scaling of auditory structures in birds and show that the scaling rules that have been established in the mammalian auditory pathway do not necessarily apply to birds. In galliforms, neuronal densities decrease with increasing brain size, suggesting that auditory brainstem structures increase in size faster than neurons are added; smaller brains have relatively more neurons than larger brains. The cellular scaling rules that apply to auditory brainstem structures in galliforms are, therefore, different to that found in primate auditory pathway. It is likely that the factors driving this difference are associated with the anatomical specializations required for sound perception in birds, although there is a decoupling of neuron numbers in brain structures and hair cell numbers in the basilar papilla. This study provides significant insight into the allometric scaling of neural structures in birds and improves our understanding of the rules that govern neural scaling across vertebrates.

  4. Second Line of Defense Virtual Private Network Guidance for Deployed and New CAS Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.

  5. 75 FR 25165 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... reporting requirements that are essential for the DoD to estimate the cost of current and future weapon... and not cost allocations. The description will also show how the data from the offeror's accounting... Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations...

  6. BASICS OF INTEGRAL APPROACH TO IMPROVEMENT OF INNOVATION SYSTEM IN DEFENSE INDUSTRY COMPLEX OF RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Анатолий Андреевич Чудин

    2014-01-01

    The author develops integral approach to improvement of innovation system as exemplified by defense industry complex (DIC) of Russia. Integral approach includes the elements of 3 approaches: system, synergetic and geotrion. This approach contains conceptual, modeling-projecting and realizing parts and the principles, mechanisms and technologies aimed for improvement of management of innovation system in Russia. DIC of Russia is an earth object – it is complex of complexes which is supposed to...

  7. Towards an integrated defense system for cyber security situation awareness experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Sixiao; Ge, Linqiang; Shen, Dan; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an implemented defense system is demonstrated to carry out cyber security situation awareness. The developed system consists of distributed passive and active network sensors designed to effectively capture suspicious information associated with cyber threats, effective detection schemes to accurately distinguish attacks, and network actors to rapidly mitigate attacks. Based on the collected data from network sensors, image-based and signals-based detection schemes are implemented to detect attacks. To further mitigate attacks, deployed dynamic firewalls on hosts dynamically update detection information reported from the detection schemes and block attacks. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed system. A future plan to design an effective defense system is also discussed based on system theory.

  8. Applicability of Unmanned Aerial Systems to Homeland Defense Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    criticism after bungled and untimely responses to Hurricane Hugo in 1988 and the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989. However, a 1991 GAO study...1 A. EFFECTIVE USE OF UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS ........................1 B. HISTORY OF UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS AND...assistance was invaluable. xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. EFFECTIVE USE OF

  9. Defense strategies for infrastructures with multiple systems of components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL; Ma, Chris Y. T. [Purdue University; Hausken, K. [University of Stavanger; Zhuang, Jun [University at Buffalo (SUNY); He, Fei [University at Buffalo (SUNY); Yao, David K. Y. [Purdue University

    2016-01-01

    In several critical infrastructures correlations between the constituent systems represent certain vulnerabilities: disruptions to one may propagate to others and possibly to the entire infrastructure. The correlations between the systems are characterized in two ways in this paper: (i) the aggregate failure correlation function specifies the conditional failure probability of the infrastructure given the failure of an individual system, and (ii) the pairwise correlation function between two systems specifies the failure probability of one system given the failure of the other. The survival probabilities of individual systems satisfy firstorder differential conditions that generalize the contest success functions and statistical independence conditions. We formulate a problem of ensuring the resilience of an infrastructure as a game between the provider and attacker; their utility functions are sums of infrastructure survival probability terms and cost terms, both expressed in terms of the numbers of system components attacked and reinforced. We derive Nash Equilibrium conditions and sensitivity functions that highlight the dependence of infrastructure resilience on the cost terms, correlation functions, and individual system survival probabilities. We apply these results to models of distributed cloud computing and energy grid infrastructures.

  10. Bacteriophage exclusion, a new defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; van der Oost, John

    2015-01-01

    The ability to withstand viral predation is critical for survival of most microbes. Accordingly, a plethora of phage resistance systems has been identified in bacterial genomes (Labrie et al, 2010), including restriction-modification systems (R-M) (Tock & Dryden, 2005), abortive infection (Abi) (Chopin et al, 2005), Argonaute-based interference (Swarts et al, 2014), as well as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and associated protein (Cas) adaptive immune system (CRISPR-Cas) (Barrangou & Marraffini, 2014; Van der Oost et al, 2014). Predictably, the dark matter of bacterial genomes contains a wealth of genetic gold. A study published in this issue of The EMBO Journal by Goldfarb et al (2015) unveils bacteriophage exclusion (BREX) as a novel, widespread bacteriophage resistance system that provides innate immunity against virulent and temperate phage in bacteria. PMID:25502457

  11. A Recommender System in the Cyber Defense Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Constraint-based recommender systems: technologies and research issues”. Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Electronic commerce , ICEC... Electronic Commerce ”. In Knowledge-Based Electronic Markets, Papers from the AAAI Workshop, 78–83, 2000. [28] Walker-Brown, Andrew. “The art of the...systems have been studied for decades, but only in their original domain of retail customer suggestions. The same algorithms and techniques could have

  12. Department of Defense Air Traffic Control and Airspace Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-08

    Electronic Tabular Display System ( ETABS ) under development by the FAA. The FACTS-3200, an advanced 32 bit digital processor, is being added to the system... software compatible with FDIO. 2.1.1.4.2 Radar Facility Communications In general, military radar facilities employ or share the twenty-series family of...program is providing incremental changes to the existing radios by adding more frequencies, computer memory and software improvements, and equipment

  13. Modular Open System Architecture for Reducing Contamination Risk in the Space and Missile Defense Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasly, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    To combat contamination of physical assets and provide reliable data to decision makers in the space and missile defense community, a modular open system architecture for creation of contamination models and standards is proposed. Predictive tools for quantifying the effects of contamination can be calibrated from NASA data of long-term orbiting assets. This data can then be extrapolated to missile defense predictive models. By utilizing a modular open system architecture, sensitive data can be de-coupled and protected while benefitting from open source data of calibrated models. This system architecture will include modules that will allow the designer to trade the effects of baseline performance against the lifecycle degradation due to contamination while modeling the lifecycle costs of alternative designs. In this way, each member of the supply chain becomes an informed and active participant in managing contamination risk early in the system lifecycle.

  14. Cost-effective add-drop fiber optic microcell system for CDMA cellular network evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jong M.; Ham, David; Song, Myoung H.; Son, Yong S.

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a cost effective add-drop fiber-optic microcell system for CDMA cellular network. The add-drop microcell is compatible with the existing PCS or digital cellular services (DCS) systems & networks. The proposed fiber-optic add-drop access network is independent of the different channels and gives flexibility in evolution scenarios. This add-drop network provides the optimum solution to cut-down the additional rental fees by sharing the existing fiber-optic cable for cellular/PCS service providers who want to provide third generation services.

  15. Motivational cues predict the defensive system in team handball: A model based on regulatory focus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debanne, T; Laffaye, G

    2015-08-01

    This study was based on the naturalistic decision-making paradigm and regulatory focus theory. Its aim was to model coaches' decision-making processes for handball teams' defensive systems based on relevant cues of the reward structure, and to determine the weight of each of these cues. We collected raw data by video-recording 41 games that were selected using a simple random method. We considered the defensive strategy (DEF: aligned or staged) to be the dependent variable, and the three independent variables were (a) numerical difference between the teams; (b) score difference between the teams; and (c) game periods. We used a logistic regression design (logit model) and a multivariate logistic model to explain the link between DEF and the three category independent variables. Each factor was weighted differently during the decision-making process to select the defensive system, and combining these variables increased the impact on this process; for instance, a staged defense is 43 times more likely to be chosen during the final period in an unfavorable situation and in a man advantage. Finally, this shows that the coach's decision-making process could be based on a simple match or could require a diagnosis of the situation based on the relevant cues.

  16. Risk Assessment and Management for Interconnected and Interactive Critical Flood Defense Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hamedifar, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    The current State-of-the-Practice relies heavily in the deterministic characterization and assessment of performance of civil engineering infrastructure. In particular, flood defense systems, such as levees, have been evaluated within the context of Factor of Safety where the capacity of the system is compared with the expected demand. Uncertainty associated with the capacity and demand render deterministic modeling inaccurate. In particular, two structures with the same Factor of Safety can ...

  17. Department of Defense Systems Acquisition Management: Congressional Criticism and Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-05-01

    preparation period. Finally I want to thank my wife, Dolores , for her tolerance of my aca- demic preoccupation in I96O-61, 1966-67, and throughout the...policy: man on firing line adjusts to actual situation Washington finds out only occasionally, acci- dentally ; need dependable system to insure

  18. 2014 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    and necessary training aids and devices are not currently available and are not scheduled to become available for several years. Analyses of data...and Evaluation ( IOT &E) flight tests for the Aegis BMD 4.0 system and SM-3 Block IB missile. Outcome. INTERCEPT. The ship detected, tracked...missiles in a raid scenario. FTX-18 was the last of the three IOT &E test missions. Outcome. THREE SIMULATED INTERCEPTS. The ship detected, tracked

  19. Planning for a Department of Defense Mail Service Pharmacy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    USERS UNCLASSIFIED 22a NAME OF RESPONSrBE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (include Area Code) 22( OFFICE SYMBOL Dr. Keebom Kant (408) 646-3106 AS/Kk DD Form...number of prescriptions to be filled by a MSP system shows an Increase of 6.8% over FY 1991 demand. 30 The de-and fo: ind- vidu phaarm a- etica ! Z...c

  20. Department of Defense Gateway Information System (DGIS) Users’ Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    WELCOME TO T711 DoD QATEWAY INFO•MATION SYSTEM >~~»~1?W flXAIONTRANSFERn MODULES i directory D01S Directory of Resources 2 comunicate Connect to...Deuce ?hb-aom~ology. Economics , ilak Wedical Weseaerb,- , ducatlon Literature ’Consumer Realth) - ,istory Musaic, L ibrary ’Theater, * ~ Psychology ...for the selected database. Paitt" -t’ TOnact I Introduction to C~ona.Comand Langtuage West o INFO topics 𔃽 ,. IERS In National tecnical . Informaion

  1. A Simple Scheme for Improved Performance of Fixed Outage Rate Cellular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M.A. Basi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic characteristic of mobile cellular systems is rather distinct from that of a fixed telephone network. However the system planning and design are still carried out with the tools of conventional traffic theory. In the recent days much work is being done in the performance evaluation of mobile or cellular communication systems in order to develop a system with greater efficiency. The useful parameters to estimate the performance of the system are voice quality, frequency spectrum efficiency and Grade of Service (GOS. The grade of service will be affected due to outage of channels. In this study, a new scheme is proposed to reduce lost calls due to channel outage in the fixed rate outage cellular system. In this proposed scheme the call will never dropped but may be delayed. The system performance is evaluated for different conditions and the results are discussed.

  2. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@uw.edu

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  3. Transportni sistem u funkciji odbrane zemlje / The transportation system in function of defense of country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Jovanović

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Transportni sistem zemlje postoji i funkcioniše u miru, a od izuzetnog značaja je za odbranu zemlje. Uticaj ovog sistema na odbranu nije samo direktan, nego i indirektan, jer skoro svi sistemi uključeni u ovaj proces zavise od njega. U odnosu na mirnodopsko stanje, osnovna karakteristika funkcionisanja transportnog sistema u ratuje izvršavanje zadataka u uslovima razaranja infrastrukture, višestrukog povećanja transportnih zahteva i neprekidna izloženost udarima svih elemenata sistema. Zato su pripreme za funkcionisanje u takvim uslovima od izuzetnog značaja. / The transportation system of a country exists and functions in peace and it is very important for the defense of the country. The transportation system has not only direct but also indirect influence on defense, because almost all systems included in defense are dependent on it. When compared to peace, the basic characteristics of its functioning in war is carrying out the tasks in conditions of infrastructure destruction, multiplied transportation demands and continuous blow of all elements of the system. For all these reasons the preparations for transportation system functioning in those conditions are of exceptional importance.

  4. Downlink resource allocation in beyond 3G OFDMA cellular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgušeski, L.; Prasad, R.

    2007-01-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) based wireless communication is becoming a standard for providing broadband wireless services. OFDM is already deployed in various WLAN systems such as 802.11 a/g/e and in the mobile WiMAX systems (802.16e). The OFDM physical layer is also considered by

  5. Ginsan activated the antioxidant defense systems in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Jung, In Sung; Yun, Yeon Sook [KIRMS Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, has hematopoietic activity and is also known as a good biological-response modifier. In this investigation, we studied the effects of ginsan on the {gamma}-radiation induced alterations of some antioxidant systems in spleen of Balb/c mice. There are many data that irradiation induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which plays an important causative role in radiation damage of cell. The level of ROS in cells is regulated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems. The most powerful ones among them are superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide anion radical o{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, catalase deactivating h-2O{sub 2} and reduced glutathion (GSH) detoxifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and other ROS> At the 5{sub th} day after sublethal whole body irradiation, splenocytes of irradiated mice expressed only marginally increased levels of Mn-SOD, however, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase, thioredoxine reductase (TR) and thioredoxine (TRX) mRNA (135% increase compared to control), however, the combination of irradiation with ginsan increased the SODs and GPX production more effectively. In addition to the above results, we obtained the similar data of protein expression. The enzyme activities of SOD, catalase, and GPX of ginsan-treated and irradiated mice were significantly enhanced by 140, 115, 126% respectively, compared with those of irradiated mice. Based on these results, we propose that the induction of antioxidant enzymes of ginsan is at least in part due to its capacity to protect against radiation.

  6. Use of the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS) for Emergency Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durling, Jr., R L; Price, D E

    2005-12-16

    The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's expertise in weapons systems and in sparse information analysis to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented.

  7. Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D E; Durling, R L

    2005-10-10

    The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's expertise in weapons systems and in sparse information analysis to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented.

  8. Research Progression of Cellular Autophagy in Liver System Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyun Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a basic biological phenomenon widely existed in eukaryotic cells and an important mechanism for cells to adjust to the surrounding environment, prevent invasion of pathogenic micro-organisms and maintain homeostasis, whose activity changes evidently in multiple liver system diseases, suggesting that there is close association between autophagy and the generation and development of liver system diseases. It is also reported that autophagy develops and exerts an important function in many liver-related diseases, such as hepatic carcinoma, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, viral liver disease and acute liver injury. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the relationship between autophagy and multiple liver diseases, hoping to explore the effect of autophagy in liver system diseases and further study the regulative effect of autophagy so as to provide new thoughts for their treatment.

  9. Research Progression of Cellular Autophagy in Liver System Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chunyun; Gong Xiangwen; Xiao Xinfa; Yuan Xiangying

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a basic biological phenomenon widely existed in eukaryotic cells and an important mechanism for cells to adjust to the surrounding environment, prevent invasion of pathogenic micro-organisms and maintain homeostasis, whose activity changes evidently in multiple liver system diseases, suggesting that there is close association between autophagy and the generation and development of liver system diseases. It is also reported that autophagy develops and exerts an important function in many liver-related diseases, such as hepatic carcinoma, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, viral liver disease and acute liver injury. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the relationship between autophagy and multiple liver diseases, hoping to explore the effect of autophagy in liver system diseases and further study the regulative effect of autophagy so as to provide new thoughts for their treatment.

  10. The antioxidant defense system of Varroa destructor mites facilitates the infestation of Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmochowska-Ślęzak Kamila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite of the Western honey bee. The activity of five antioxidant enzymes of V. destructor were analysed. Glutathione content and total antioxidant status was also evaluated. Our results suggest that antioxidant enzymes constitute the main line of defense against ROS in V. destructor, whereas low-molecular-weight antioxidants play a limited role in the antioxidant system of mites.

  11. Application of System and Integration Readiness Levels to Department of Defense Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    this paper shows matrix notation in both reduced tensor notation and matrix notation as a convenience for a multidisciplinary audience. SRLj, [SRL...Doctrine, Organization, Training, materiel, Leadership and Education, Personnel, Facilities -Policy). 257Defense ARJ, July 2016, Vol. 23 No. 3 : 248–273 July...teaches courses on the subject. Dr. Ross led the creation of the Environmental Laser Test Facility to test high-energy laser systems and

  12. [Indices of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system and prostanoid level in patients with uterine cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipova, S V

    2000-10-01

    The state of peroxydal oxidation of lipids, system of antioxidant defense and content of prostanoids in patients with cancer of the corpus uteri were investigated. Syndrome of endogenous intoxication with lowering of antioxidant potential and dysbalance of cyclic nucleotides and prostaglandines was established. The severity of above-cited disorders increased significantly after operation and during conduction of radiotherapy. This demanded administration of antioxidant and detoxicational therapy in complex of preoperative preparation.

  13. Therapeutic intervention at cellular quality control systems in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Daniela M; Esteves, A Raquel; Silva, Diana F F; Martins-Branco, Diogo; Santos, Daniel; Pimentel, Diana F Gomes; Cardoso, Sandra M

    2011-01-01

    Cellular homeostasis relies on quality control systems so that damaged biologic structures are either repaired or degraded and entirely replaced by newly formed proteins or even organelles. The clearance of dysfunctional cellular structures in long-lived postmitotic cells, like neurons, is essential to eliminate, per example, defective mitochondria, lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes and oxidized proteins. Short-lived proteins are degraded mainly by proteases and proteasomes whether most long-lived proteins and all organelles are digested by autophagy in the lysosomes. Recently, it an interplay was established between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and macroautophagy, so that both degradative mechanisms compensate for each other. In this article we describe each of these clearance systems and their contribution to neuronal quality control. We will highlight some of the findings that provide evidence for the dysfunction of these systems in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Ultimately, we provide an outline on potential therapeutic interventions based on the modulation of cellular degradative systems.

  14. Four-Way Relaying in Wireless Cellular Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huaping; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Two-way relaying in wireless systems has initiated a large research effort during the past few years. Nevertheless, it represents only a specific traffic pattern and it is of interest to investigate other traffic patterns where such a simultaneous processing of information flows can bring...

  15. Multihop relaying and multiple antenna techniques: performance trade-offs in cellular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two very important and active areas of wireless research are multihop relaying and multiple antenna techniques. Wireless multihop relaying can increase the aggregate network data capacity and improve coverage of cellular systems by reducing path loss, mitigating shadowing, and enabling spatial reuse. In particular, multihop relaying can improve the throughput for mobiles suffering from poor signal to interference and noise ratio at the edge of a cell and reduce cell size to increase spectral efficiency. On the other hand, multiple antenna techniques can take advantage of scattering in the wireless channel to achieve higher capacity on individual links. Multiple antennas can provide impressive capacity gains, but the greatest gains occur in high scattering environments with high signal to interference and noise ratio, which are not typical characteristics of cellular systems. Emerging standards for fourth generation cellular systems include both multihop relaying and multiple antenna techniques, so it is necessary to study how these two work jointly in a realistic cellular system. In this paper, we look at the joint application of these two techniques in a cellular system and analyze the fundamental tradeoff between them. In order to obtain meaningful results, system performance is evaluated using realistic propagation models.

  16. MLDS: Multi-Layer Defense System for Preventing Advanced Persistent Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daesung Moon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on the issue of Advanced Persistent Threats (APT, which use malware for the purpose of leaking the data of large corporations and government agencies. APT attacks target systems continuously by utilizing intelligent and complex technologies. To overthrow the elaborate security network of target systems, it conducts an attack after undergoing a pre-reconnaissance phase. An APT attack causes financial loss, information leakage, etc. They can easily bypass the antivirus system of a target system. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Layer Defense System (MLDS that can defend against APT. This system applies a reinforced defense system by collecting and analyzing log information and various information from devices, by installing the agent on the network appliance, server and end-user. It also discusses how to detect an APT attack when one cannot block the initial intrusion while continuing to conduct other activities. Thus, this system is able to minimize the possibility of initial intrusion and damages of the system by promptly responding through rapid detection of an attack when the target system is attacked.

  17. The cellular composition of the human immune system is shaped by age and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward J; Dooley, James; Garcia-Perez, Josselyn E; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lee, James C; Wouters, Carine; Meyts, Isabelle; Goris, An; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Linterman, Michelle A; Liston, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Detailed population-level description of the human immune system has recently become achievable. We used a 'systems-level' approach to establish a resource of cellular immune profiles of 670 healthy individuals. We report a high level of interindividual variation, with low longitudinal variation, at the level of cellular subset composition of the immune system. Despite the profound effects of antigen exposure on individual antigen-specific clones, the cellular subset structure proved highly elastic, with transient vaccination-induced changes followed by a return to the individual's unique baseline. Notably, the largest influence on immunological variation identified was cohabitation, with 50% less immunological variation between individuals who share an environment (as parents) than between people in the wider population. These results identify local environmental conditions as a key factor in shaping the human immune system.

  18. Downlink Resource Allocation for Evolved UTRAN and WiMAX Cellular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorguseski, L.; Le, T.M.H.; Fledderus, E.R.; Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    The future broadband wireless cellular systems evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) and WiMAX are receiving a lot of interest in recent years. Both systems deploy orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) physical layer consisting of large number of mutually orthogonal sub-carriers. This physical layer prov

  19. Interference-Cancellation Scheme for Multilayer Cellular Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Yue Zhang; LiKe Huang

    2015-01-01

    A 5G network must be heterogeneous and support the co⁃existence of multilayer cells, multiple standards, and multiple applica⁃tion systems. This greatly improves link performance and increases link capacity. A network with co⁃existing macro and pico cells can alleviate traffic congestion caused by multicast or unicast subscribers, help satisfy huge traffic demands, and further extend converge. In order to practically implement advanced 5G technology, a number of technical problems have to be solved, one of which is inter⁃cell interference. A method called Almost Blank Subframe (ABS) has been proposed to mitigate interference;howev⁃er, the reference signal in ABS still causes interference. This paper describes how interference can be cancelled by using the in⁃formation in the ABS. First, the interference⁃signal model, which takes into account channel effect, time and frequency error, is presented. Then, an interference⁃cancellation scheme based on this model is studied. The timing and carrier frequency offset of the interference signal is compensated. Afterwards, the reference signal of the interfering cell is generated locally and the channel response is estimated using channel statistics. Then, the interference signal is reconstructed according to previous estimation of channel, timing, and carrier frequency offset. The interference is mitigated by subtracting the estimated interference signal. Com⁃puter simulation shows that this interference⁃cancellation algorithm significantly improves performance under different channel conditions.

  20. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  1. A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat Ronald L. Cypert Scientific...units, along with coordination at the state and federal agency level, a dynamic process modeling capability was chosen to chart the myriad...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against

  2. Application of spectral hole burning to the study of in vitro cellular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovich, Nebojsa [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-11-08

    Chapter 1 of this thesis describes the various stages of tumor development and a multitude of diagnostic techniques used to detect cancer. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the aspects of hole burning spectroscopy important for its application to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 3 gives general descriptions of cellular organelles, structures, and physical properties that can serve as possible markers for the differentiation of normal and cancerous cells. Also described in Chapter 3 are the principles of cryobiology important for low temperature spectroscopy of cells, characterization of MCF-10F (normal) and MCF-7 (cancer) cells lines which will serve as model systems, and cellular characteristics of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (APT), which was used as the test probe. Chapters 4 and 5 are previously published papers by the author pertaining to the results obtained from the application of hole burning to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 4 presents the first results obtained by spectral hole burning of cellular systems and Chapter 5 gives results for the differentiation of MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells stained with APT by an external applied electric (Stark) field. A general conclusion is presented in Chapter 6. Appendices A and B provide additional characterization of the cell/probe model systems. Appendix A describes the uptake and subcellular distribution of APT in MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells and Appendix B compares the hole burning characteristics of APT in cells when the cells are in suspension and when they are examined while adhering to a glass coverslip. Appendix C presents preliminary results for a novel probe molecule, referred to as a molecular thumbtack, designed by the authors for use in future hole burning applications to cellular systems.

  3. Influence of hydrodynamic conditions on quantitative cellular assays in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huabing; Zhang, Xunli; Pattrick, Nicola; Klauke, Norbert; Cordingley, Hayley C; Haswell, Stephen J; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2007-09-15

    This study demonstrates the importance of the hydrodynamic environment in microfluidic systems in quantitative cellular assays using live cells. Commonly applied flow conditions used in microfluidics were evaluated using the quantitative intracellular Ca2+ analysis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as a model system. Above certain thresholds of shear stress, hydrodynamically induced intracellular Ca2+ fluxes were observed which mimic the responses induced by chemical stimuli, such as the agonist uridine 5'-triphosphate tris salt (UTP). This effect is of significance given the increasing application of microfluidic devices in high-throughput cellular analysis for biophysical applications and pharmacological screening.

  4. Analysis of the call blocking rate of two-hop-relay cellular system in the dead spots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei-feng; WU Meng

    2007-01-01

    In a traditional cellular system, the call requests initiated by mobile stations (MSs) must be carried through a base station (BS) via the cellular interface, but when MSs are located in the dead spots, their call requests will be blocked because the MSs cannot communicate with the BS. It is considered to relay these blocked calls requested using Ad-hoc network, which will improve the performance of the system as a whole. This article first introduces a novel architecture of the two-hop-relay cellular system in the dead spots, and then analyzes and compares the call blocking rate of the traditional cellular and the two-hop-relay cellular system respectively under three different conditions. The first and second conditions are the traditional cellular system without and with taking account of the effect of the dead spots. The third condition is the two-hop-relay cellular system with taking account of the effect of the dead spots. Numerical analytical result shows that the two-hop-relay cellular system can obtain lower call blocking rate than the traditional cellular system when considering the effect of dead spots. Consequently, this novel architecture can resolve the problem of coverage limitation of a traditional cellular system effectively.

  5. Mimo radar waveform design for spectrum sharing with cellular systems a Matlab based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Khawar, Awais; Clancy, T Charles

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses spectrum sharing between cellular systems and radars. The book addresses a novel way to design radar waveforms that can enable spectrum sharing between radars and communication systems, without causing interference to communication systems, and at the same time achieving radar objectives of target detection, estimation, and tracking. The book includes a MATLAB-based approach, which provides reader with a way to learn, experiment, compare, and build on top of existing algorithms.

  6. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  7. Ethernet-based integrated surveillance system for homeland security and homeland defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, Michael G.; Thompson, Dean

    2004-09-01

    This report documents the results of an internal DRS effort to develop an Ethernet based integrated defense system to improve defense of cities, harbors, airports, power production, energy supplies, bridges, monuments, dams and so forth. Results of the integration of multiple SCOUT LPI radars and multiple Electro-optical targeting systems will be provided, illustrating the benefits of interfacing surveillance radars with imaging sensors to confirm detection and provide visual recognition and identification. An analysis of the handover errors will be provided including errors due to; sensor platforms location and orientation uncertainty, target location measurement errors, data latency and motion prediction errors, which contribute to target handoff and the re-acquisition timeline. These predictions will be compared to measured results. The system architecture will be defined including; security, support for both stationary and moving sensor platforms, remote control of sensor systems and distribution of imagery through the network and remote diagnostics, maintenance and software upgrades. Growth capabilities include secure wireless communication to/from moving platforms, integration with sonar and seismic sensors, cooperative location of friendly forces and acoustic detection and triangulation of gunshots with automated cueing of sensors and security forces to the shooters most probable location. The use of ad hoc multi-hopping wireless networking supplements hardwire networks, augments disaster response capabilities, provides high-speed communications for moving platforms and supplements GPS outage areas.

  8. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringingspecificity to the innate-immune system. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15075354 Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: brin... the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringingspecificity to the innate-...immune system. PubmedID 15075354 Title Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens:

  9. Fixed channel assignment in cellular communication systems considering the whole set of packed patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Pedro Manuel F. C.; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of fixed channel assignment in cellular communication systems with nonuniform traffic distribution. The objective of the channel assignment is to minimise the average blocking probability. Methods for finding a good allocation can be based on first building a numb...

  10. An integrated approach for the cell formation and layout design in cellular manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, Babak; Jolai, Fariborz; Slomp, Jannes; Rabbani, Masoud; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive model is presented for cell formation and layout design in cellular manufacturing systems (CMS). The proposed model incorporates an extensive coverage of important operational features and especially layout design aspects to determine optimal cell configuration and Int

  11. Physical-Layer Design for Next-Generation Cellular Wireless Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foschini, Gerard J.; Huang, Howard C.; Mullender, Sape J.; Venkatesan, Sivarama; Viswanathan, Harish

    2005-01-01

    The conventional cellular architecture will remain an integral part of nextgeneration wireless systems, providing high-speed packet data services directly to mobile users and also backhaul service for local area networks. In this paper, we present several proposals addressing the challenges associat

  12. Functional anatomy of the explosive defensive system of bombardier beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Brachininae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Muzzi, Maurizio; Romani, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides the first comparative anatomical study of the explosive pygidial defensive system of bombardier beetles in species classified in three brachinine subtribes: Brachinus (Brachinina), Pheropsophus (Pheropsophina) and Aptinus (Aptinina). We investigated the morphology and ultrastructure of this system using optical, fluorescence, and focused ion beam (FIB/SEM) microscopy. In doing so, we characterized and comparatively discussed: (1) the ultrastructure of the gland tissues producing hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide (secretory lobes), and those producing catalases and peroxidases (accessory glands); (2) the complex anatomy of the collecting duct; (3) the arrangement of the muscular bundles and the folding of the cuticle of the reservoir, suggesting a functional division of this chamber (dynamic part and storage part); (4) the great structural diversity of sculpticles inside the reaction chamber, where we could recognize six main types of microsculpture located in specific districts of the chamber. Additionally, using fluorescence microscopy, we highlighted the presence of resilin in two structures strongly subjected to mechanical stress during the discharge, the valve and the turrets of the reaction chamber. The results of this paper give a solid anatomic overview of the most popular beetle defensive system, contributing to the debate on its evolution within the Carabidae.

  13. Prevention of γ-radiation induced cellular genotoxicity by tempol: protection of hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Lakshmy; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan

    2012-09-01

    Tempol (TPL) under in vitro conditions reduced the extent of gamma radiation induced membrane lipid peroxidation and disappearance of covalently closed circular form of plasmid pBR322. TPL protected cellular DNA from radiation-induced damage in various tissues under ex vivo and in vivo conditions as evidenced by comet assay. TPL also prevented radiation induced micronuclei formation (in peripheral blood leucocytes) and chromosomal aberrations (in bone marrow cells) in whole body irradiated mice. TPL enhanced the rate of repair of cellular DNA (blood leucocytes and bone marrow cells) damage when administered immediately after radiation exposure as revealed from the increased Cellular DNA Repair Index (CRI). The studies thus provided compelling evidence to reveal the effectiveness of TPL to protect hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

  14. Cooperative joint precoding in a downlink cellular system with shared relay: Design and performance evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kwon, JaeWoo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate a relay enhanced cellular system, where a relay station is located in the overlap area served by two base stations. We propose cooperative joint precoding schemes for the downlink transmission of such relay enhanced cellular system to maximize the system capacity while minimizing the interference at both the relay station and the mobile stations. We formulate the optimization problems to maximize the system capacity and design the multiuser precoding vectors at each base station and the relay station. We quantify the ergodic rate performance of the proposed multiuser precoding schemes through statistical analysis. The extensively derived ergodic expressions will facilitate the accurate performance evaluation of the proposed transmission schemes. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes can effectively cancel the interference and improve the sum rate and the outage performance for cell edge users. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  15. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG, which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I and glyoxalase II (Gly II, and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III, has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated

  16. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Hossain, Md. Shahadat; Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Rahman, Anisur; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of

  17. Cell Based GIS as Cellular Automata for Disaster Spreading Predictions and Required Data Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for prediction and simulation based on the Cell Based Geographic Information System(GIS as Cellular Automata (CA is proposed together with required data systems, in particular metasearch engine usage in an unified way. It is confirmed that the proposed cell based GIS as CA has flexible usage of the attribute information that is attached to the cell in concert with location information and does work for disaster spreading simulation and prediction.

  18. Telemedicine system using a cellular telephone for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Kawamoto, Atsushi; Tanabe, Yoshimasa; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Nishida, Eiichi; Akiba, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2003-01-01

    We developed a new telemedicine system to monitor the condition of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients by using a cellular telephone and an Internet Web site. All data for the CAPD patients--blood pressure, heart rate, body weight, ultrafiltration volume, and urine volume--are collected and sent directly by cellular telephone to a data server that was constructed at the NTT DoCoMo Company data center. The system is directly connected to Internet by application service provider (ASP) technology. Anywhere, at any time, each patient can confirm changes in their data in graph form by using a cellular telephone or a computer connection to an Internet Web site. The average of each type of data is calculated and shown at the Web site. All data collected by cellular telephone are calculated and, in real time, sent directly to the treating physician's office over the Internet. Abnormal data are sent directly to the treating physician's office and shown in the host computer with an emergency signal (emergency alarm system). In addition, CAPD patients can easily contact the medical staff in the Kidney and Dialysis Center of Saitama Medical School (main hospital) using the same telemedicine system. We are using this telemedicine system for 46 CAPD patients being treated by Saitama Medical School. The cost of using the system is just US$3.00 or less per month for each patient. This newly developed system has great advantages for CAPD patients, especially elderly and handicapped patients. The system can be expanded into a network that serves all CAPD patients and all hospitals in Japan.

  19. A novel adaptive joint power control algorithm with channel estimation in a CDMA cellular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Joint power control has advantages of multi-user detection and power control; and it can combat the multi-access interference and the near-far problem. A novel adaptive joint power control algorithm with channel estimation in a CDMA cellular system was designed. Simulation results show that the algorithm can control the power not only quickly but also precisely with a time change. The method is useful for increasing system capacity.

  20. 32 CFR 37.1025 - Must I report information to the Defense Assistance Awards Data System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Executing the Award Reporting Information About the Award § 37.1025 Must I report information to the Defense... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I report information to the...

  1. Bifurcation and complex dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sohel Rana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense. The existence and local stability of positive fixed point of the discrete dynamical system is analyzed algebraically. It is shown that the system undergoes a flip bifurcation and a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the interior of R+2 by using bifurcation theory. Numerical simulation results not only show the consistence with the theoretical analysis but also display the new and interesting dynamical behaviors, including phase portraits, period-7, 20-orbits, attracting invariant circle, cascade of period-doubling bifurcation from period-20 leading to chaos, quasi-periodic orbits, and sudden disappearance of the chaotic dynamics and attracting chaotic set. The Lyapunov exponents are numerically computed to characterize the complexity of the dynamical behaviors.

  2. Configuration of Risk Monitor System by PLant Defense-In.Depth Monitor and Relability Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Lind, Morten; Yang, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    A new method of risk monitor system of a nuclear power plant has been proposed from the aspect by what degree of safety functions incorporated in the plant system is maintained by multiple barriers of defense-in-depth (DiD). Wherein, the central idea is plant DiD risk monitor and reliability...... monitor derived from the four aspects of (i) design principle of nuclear safety to realize DiD concept, (ii) definition of risk and risk to be monitored, (iii) severe accident phenomena as major risk, (iv) scheme of risk ranking, and (v) dynamic risk display. In this paper, the overall frame...... of the proposed frame on risk monitor system is summarized and the detailed discussion is made on the definitions of major terminologies of risk, risk ranking, anatomy of fault occurrence, two-layer configuration of risk monitor, how to configure individual elements of plant DiD risk monitor and its example...

  3. A glutathione-based system for defense against carbonyl stress in Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidd Stephen P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background adhC from Haemophilus influenzae encodes a glutathione-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase that has previously been shown to be required for protection against killing by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO. This group of enzymes is known in other systems to be able to utilize substrates that form adducts with glutathione, such as aldehydes. Results Here, we show that expression of adhC is maximally induced under conditions of high oxygen tension as well as specifically with glucose as a carbon source. adhC could also be induced in response to formaldehyde but not GSNO. An adhC mutant was more susceptible than wild-type Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20 to killing by various short chain aliphatic aldehydes, all of which can be generated endogenously during cell metabolism but are also produced by the host as part of the innate immune response. Conclusions These results indicate that AdhC plays a role in defense against endogenously generated reactive carbonyl electrophiles in Haemophilus influenzae and may also play a role in defense against the host innate immune system.

  4. Catalase prevents maternal diabetes-induced perinatal programming via the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiao-Ying; Chen, Yun-Wen; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Chenier, Isabelle; Tran, Stella; Sauvé, Alexandre; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2012-10-01

    We investigated whether overexpression of catalase (CAT) in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) could prevent the programming of hypertension and kidney disease in the offspring of dams with maternal diabetes. Male offspring of nondiabetic and diabetic dams from two transgenic (Tg) lines (Hoxb7-green fluorescent protein [GFP]-Tg [controls] and Hoxb7/CAT-GFP-Tg, which overexpress CAT in RPTCs) were studied from the prenatal period into adulthood. Nephrogenesis, systolic blood pressure, renal hyperfiltration, kidney injury, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed. Gene expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), nuclear factor erythroid 2p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was tested in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Renal dysmorphogenesis was observed in offspring of Hoxb7-GFP-Tg dams with severe maternal diabetes; the affected male offspring displayed higher renal ROS generation and developed hypertension and renal hyperfiltration as well as renal injury with heightened TGF-β1 expression in adulthood. These changes were ameliorated in male offspring of diabetic Hoxb7/CAT-GFP-Tg dams via the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system. CAT promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 gene expression, seen in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In conclusion, CAT overexpression in the RPTCs ameliorated maternal diabetes-induced perinatal programming, mediated, at least in part, by triggering the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system.

  5. Path loss analysis in millimeter wave cellular systems for urban mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Ramesh; Hoffman, Mitchell

    2016-09-01

    The proliferation in the number of mobile devices and developments in cellular technology has led to an ever increasing demand for mobile data. The global bandwidth shortage facing wireless carriers today has motivated research for fifth generation (5G) cellular systems. In recent years, millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz are being considered as a promising technology for 5G systems. Such systems can offer superior user experience by providing data rates that exceed one Gigabit per second and latencies lower than a millisecond. However, there is little research about cellular mmW propagation in densely populated urban environments. Understanding the radio channel is a primary requirement for optimal design of mmW systems. Radio propagation in mmW systems faces significant challenges due to rapidly varying channel conditions and intermittent connectivity. In this paper, we study the propagation of mmW spectrum in an urban environment. We use a statistical model to simulate an urban environment with diverse building distributions. We perform extensive simulations to analyze the path loss behavior for both line of sight (LOS) and non line of sight (NLOS) conditions for 28 GHZ and 73 GHZ mmW frequencies. We observe that the path loss approximates a logarithmic fit for both LOS and NLOS environments. Our simulations show that the omnidirectional free space path loss is approximately 30 dB higher for mmW systems compared to current 3G PP cellular systems. To address this challenge, we propose using highly directional horn antennas with beam forming for reducing the path loss.

  6. Host Active Defense Responses Occur within 24 Hours after Pathogen Inoculation in the Rice Blast System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-hua; JIA Yu-lin; LIN Hui; Adair INTERN; Barbara VALENT; J. Neil RUTGER

    2007-01-01

    Phenotypical, cytological and molecular responses of rice to the fungus Magnaporthe grisea were studied using rice cultivars and lesion mimic plants. The cultivar Katy was susceptible to several virulent M. grisea isolates, and a Sekiguchi like-lesion mimic mutant of Katy (LmmKaty) showed enhanced resistance to these isolates. Lesion mimic phenotype of LmmKaty was rapidly induced by virulent M. grisea isolates or by avirulent ones only at high levels of inoculum.Autofluorescence (a sign of an active defense response) was visible under ultraviolet light 24 h after localized inoculation in the incompatible interaction, whereas, not evident in the compatible interaction. Autofluorescence was also observed in LmmKaty 20 h after pathogen inoculation, indicating that rapid cell death is a mechanism of LmmKaty to restrict pathogen invasion. Rapid accumulations of defense related (DR) gene transcripts, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and β-glucanase,were observed beginning at 6 h and were obvious at 16 h and 24 h after inoculation in an incompatible interaction. Rapid transcript accumulations of PR-1 and chitinase had occurred by 24 h after inoculation in an incompatible interaction.Accumulations of these transcripts were delayed in the compatible interaction. These results indicate that host active defense responses occur 24 h after pathogen inoculation and that LmmKaty exhibits enhanced resistance to M. grisea. It is suggested that the autofluorescence and expression of the DR genes after heavy inoculation are important cytological and molecular markers respectively for early determination of the host response to M. grisea in the rice blast system.

  7. A preliminary study on estimating extra-cellular nitrate reductase activities in estuarine systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pant H. K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes catalyzing ammonium (NH4+/nitrate (NO3– into nitrous oxide (N2O/molecular nitrogen (N2, play critical roles in water quality management. The objective of this paper was to investigate the role of extra-cellular enzymes in cycling of nitrogen (N in aquatic systems. It appears that N in estuaries, salt marshes, etc., does not stay long enough to be available for uptake, thus, creating N limited conditions. This study showed that indigenous extra-cellular nitrate reductase along with others involved in N transformations in the waters/sediments of estuarine systems can cause complete removal of NH4+ and NO3– from the waters and available NH4+ and NO3– from the sediments. These results indicate that due to high extra-cellular nitrate reductase and other enzymes associated with N transformations in sediments/waters, substantial amounts of NH4+ and NO3– can be quickly lost from the systems as N2O and/or nitric oxide (NO, in turn, creating N limited conditions in estuarine systems. Such high activities of indigenous nitrate reductase and others are useful in removing readily bioavailable N from the systems, thereby avoidance of eutrophic conditions. However, they might contribute in increasing the N2O, a potent greenhouse gas with global warming potential (GWP of 296, in the atmosphere.

  8. Cellular and functional aspects of the renal kallikrein system in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vio, C P; Olavarría, V; González, C; Nazal, L; Córdova, M; Balestrini, C

    1998-01-01

    The kallikrein kinin system is a tissue-derived system with potent renal and cardiovascular effects. Within the kidney, the components of the kallikrein kinin system (kallikrein, kininogen, kinins, kininases, kinin receptors and mediators/modulators) originate from or are located in discrete segments of the nephron in highly specialized cells which determine its physiological effects. The kallikrein system acts on the kidney in a paracrine fashion in two anatomical microenvironments where the system regulates glomerular function, renal hemodynamics, and salt and water excretion. Impairment of the renal kallikrein system contributes to the development of hypertension, in particular to the salt-sensitive hypertension, and other pathologies like diabetes. There are several links between the vasodepressor kallikrein system and the vasopressor renin system which are relevant to normal renal function and to the pathophysiology of hypertension and renal diseases. Local induction of kininase II or angiotensin converting enzyme in the kidney could be a novel mechanism contributing to the renal damage in hypertension and other renal diseases. This review evaluates cellular and functional aspects of the renal kallikrein system with emphasis placed on the cellular localization of its components along the nephron, the links to other vasoactive systems, and the contribution of the system to the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  9. A novel antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism involved in defense against malaria requires costimulation of monocytes FcgammaRII and FcgammaRIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jafarshad, Ali; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Lundquist, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Clinical experiments have shown that the Ab-dependent cell-mediated inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum is a major mechanism controlling malaria parasitemia and thereby symptoms. In this study, we demonstrate that a single merozoite per monocyte (MN) is sufficient to trigger optimal antiparasitic......-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and implies that all MN are not equally effective. These findings have both fundamental and practical implications, particularly for vaccine discovery....

  10. Response of the antioxidant defense system to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alía, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the response of the antioxidant defense system to two oxidative stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, in HepG2 cells in culture. The parameters evaluated included enzyme activity and gene expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and activity of glutathione reductase. Besides, markers of the cell damage and oxidative stress evoked by the stressors such as cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, malondialdehyde levels, and reduced glutathione concentration were evaluated. Both stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, enhanced cell damage and reactive oxygen species generation at doses above 50 microM. The concentration of reduced glutathione decreased, and levels of malondialdehyde and activity of the antioxidant enzymes consistently increased only when HepG2 cells were treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide but not when hydrogen peroxide was used. A slight increase in the gene expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase with 500 microM tert-butyl hydroperoxide and of catalase with 200 microM hydrogen peroxide was observed. The response of the components of the antioxidant defense system evaluated in this study indicates that tert-butyl hydroperoxide evokes a consistent cellular stress in HepG2.

  11. The Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 Type 3 Secretion System Suppresses Early Defense Responses to Effectively Nodulate Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Irene; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Monreal, José Antonio; Preston, Gail M; Fones, Helen; Vioque, Blanca; Ollero, Francisco Javier; López-Baena, Francisco Javier

    2015-07-01

    Plants that interact with pathogenic bacteria in their natural environments have developed barriers to block or contain the infection. Phytopathogenic bacteria have evolved mechanisms to subvert these defenses and promote infection. Thus, the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) delivers bacterial effectors directly into the plant cells to alter host signaling and suppress defenses, providing an appropriate environment for bacterial multiplication. Some rhizobial strains possess a symbiotic T3SS that seems to be involved in the suppression of host defenses to promote nodulation and determine the host range. In this work, we show that the inactivation of the Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 T3SS negatively affects soybean nodulation in the early stages of the symbiotic process, which is associated with a reduction of the expression of early nodulation genes. This symbiotic phenotype could be the consequence of the bacterial triggering of soybean defense responses associated with the production of salicylic acid (SA) and the impairment of the T3SS mutant to suppress these responses. Interestingly, the early induction of the transcription of GmMPK4, which negatively regulates SA accumulation and defense responses in soybean via WRKY33, could be associated with the differential defense responses induced by the parental and the T3SS mutant strain.

  12. A single-cell bioluminescence imaging system for monitoring cellular gene expression in a plant body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Tomoaki; Kubota, Saya; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2013-12-01

    Gene expression is a fundamental cellular process and expression dynamics are of great interest in life science. We succeeded in monitoring cellular gene expression in a duckweed plant, Lemna gibba, using bioluminescent reporters. Using particle bombardment, epidermal and mesophyll cells were transfected with the luciferase gene (luc+) under the control of a constitutive [Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S)] and a rhythmic [Arabidopsis thaliana CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (AtCCA1)] promoter. Bioluminescence images were captured using an EM-CCD (electron multiply charged couple device) camera. Luminescent spots of the transfected cells in the plant body were quantitatively measured at the single-cell level. Luminescence intensities varied over a 1,000-fold range among CaMV35S::luc+-transfected cells in the same plant body and showed a log-normal-like frequency distribution. We monitored cellular gene expression under light-dark conditions by capturing bioluminescence images every hour. Luminescence traces of ≥50 individual cells in a frond were successfully obtained in each monitoring procedure. Rhythmic and constitutive luminescence behaviors were observed in cells transfected with AtCCA1::luc+ and CaMV35S::luc+, respectively. Diurnal rhythms were observed in every AtCCA1::luc+-introduced cell with traceable luminescence, and slight differences were detected in their rhythmic waveforms. Thus the single-cell bioluminescence monitoring system was useful for the characterization of cellular gene expression in a plant body.

  13. Redox Homeostasis and Cellular Antioxidant Systems: Crucial Players in Cancer Growth and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marengo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and their products are components of cell signaling pathways and play important roles in cellular physiology and pathophysiology. Under physiological conditions, cells control ROS levels by the use of scavenging systems such as superoxide dismutases, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione that balance ROS generation and elimination. Under oxidative stress conditions, excessive ROS can damage cellular proteins, lipids, and DNA, leading to cell damage that may contribute to carcinogenesis. Several studies have shown that cancer cells display an adaptive response to oxidative stress by increasing expression of antioxidant enzymes and molecules. As a double-edged sword, ROS influence signaling pathways determining beneficial or detrimental outcomes in cancer therapy. In this review, we address the role of redox homeostasis in cancer growth and therapy and examine the current literature regarding the redox regulatory systems that become upregulated in cancer and their role in promoting tumor progression and resistance to chemotherapy.

  14. Proportional fair scheduling with superposition coding in a cellular cooperative relay system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Hayashi, Kazunori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Many works have tackled on the problem of throughput and fairness optimization in cellular cooperative relaying systems. Considering firstly a two-user relay broadcast channel, we design a scheme based on superposition coding (SC) which maximizes the achievable sum-rate under a proportional...... fairness constraint. Unlike most relaying schemes where users are allocated orthogonally, our scheme serves the two users simultaneously on the same time-frequency resource unit by superposing their messages into three SC layers. The optimal power allocation parameters of each SC layer are derived...... by analysis. Next, we consider the general multi-user case in a cellular relay system, for which we design resource allocation algorithms based on proportional fair scheduling exploiting the proposed SC-based scheme. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithms allowing simultaneous user allocation...

  15. Redox Homeostasis and Cellular Antioxidant Systems: Crucial Players in Cancer Growth and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Barbara; Nitti, Mariapaola; Furfaro, Anna Lisa; Colla, Renata; Ciucis, Chiara De; Marinari, Umberto Maria; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Traverso, Nicola; Domenicotti, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their products are components of cell signaling pathways and play important roles in cellular physiology and pathophysiology. Under physiological conditions, cells control ROS levels by the use of scavenging systems such as superoxide dismutases, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione that balance ROS generation and elimination. Under oxidative stress conditions, excessive ROS can damage cellular proteins, lipids, and DNA, leading to cell damage that may contribute to carcinogenesis. Several studies have shown that cancer cells display an adaptive response to oxidative stress by increasing expression of antioxidant enzymes and molecules. As a double-edged sword, ROS influence signaling pathways determining beneficial or detrimental outcomes in cancer therapy. In this review, we address the role of redox homeostasis in cancer growth and therapy and examine the current literature regarding the redox regulatory systems that become upregulated in cancer and their role in promoting tumor progression and resistance to chemotherapy.

  16. Digital Array Radar for Ballistic Missile Defense and Counter-Stealth Systems Analysis and Parameter Tradeoff Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-14

    Missile BMD Ballistic Missile Defense CAS Computer Algebra System CDD Capability Development Document CONOPS Concept of Operations CONUS Continental...this section. Analysis and calculations described in this section were conducted using Waterloo Maple® 7 Computer Algebra System (CAS). Initially...When two or more electromagnetic waves combine, their electric fields are integrated vectorially at each point in space for any

  17. Multihop relaying and multiple antenna techniques: performance trade-offs in cellular systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson Kevin; Krzymień Witold

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two very important and active areas of wireless research are multihop relaying and multiple antenna techniques. Wireless multihop relaying can increase the aggregate network data capacity and improve coverage of cellular systems by reducing path loss, mitigating shadowing, and enabling spatial reuse. In particular, multihop relaying can improve the throughput for mobiles suffering from poor signal to interference and noise ratio at the edge of a cell and reduce cell size to increase ...

  18. Throughput of Cellular Systems with Conferencing Mobiles and Cooperative Base Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Somekh O; Poor HV; Shamai (Shitz) S; Kramer G.; Simeone O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers an enhancement to multicell processing for the uplink of a cellular system, whereby the mobile stations are allowed to exchange messages on orthogonal channels of fixed capacity (conferencing). Both conferencing among mobile stations in different cells and in the same cell (inter- and intracell conferencing, resp.) are studied. For both cases, it is shown that a rate-splitting transmission strategy, where part of the message is exchanged on the conferencing channels and ...

  19. Encapsulated Cellular Implants for Recombinant Protein Delivery and Therapeutic Modulation of the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Lathuilière

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ex vivo gene therapy using retrievable encapsulated cellular implants is an effective strategy for the local and/or chronic delivery of therapeutic proteins. In particular, it is considered an innovative approach to modulate the activity of the immune system. Two recently proposed therapeutic schemes using genetically engineered encapsulated cells are discussed here: the chronic administration of monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization against neurodegenerative diseases and the local delivery of a cytokine as an adjuvant for anti-cancer vaccines.

  20. Stochastic Ordering based Carrier-to-Interference Ratio Analysis for the Shotgun Cellular Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhanan, Prasanna; Youjian,; Liu,; Brown, Timothy X; Baker, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    A simple analytical tool based on stochastic ordering is developed to compare the distributions of carrier-to-interference ratio at the mobile station of two cellular systems where the base stations are distributed randomly according to certain non-homogeneous Poisson point processes. The comparison is conveniently done by studying only the base station densities without having to solve for the distributions of the carrier-to-interference ratio, that are often hard to obtain.

  1. Cultivated sea lettuce is a multiorgan protector from oxidative and inflammatory stress by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Ranjala; Liu, Yanxia; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-09-01

    The health-promoting effects of seaweeds have been linked to antioxidant activity that may counteract cancer-causing oxidative stress-induced damage and inflammation. Although antioxidant activity is commonly associated with direct radical scavenging activity, an alternative way to increase the antioxidant status of a cell is to enhance the endogenous (phase II) defense system consisting of cytoprotective antioxidant enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). These enzymes are transcriptionally regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) via the transcription factor Nrf2. Extracts derived from cultivated Ulva sp., a green alga regarded as a marine vegetable (sea lettuce), potently activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in IMR-32 neuroblastoma and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. RNA interference studies showed that Nrf2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) are essential for the phase II response in IMR-32 cells. Activity-enriched fractions induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and target gene transcription, and boosted the cellular glutathione level and therefore antioxidant status. A single-dose gavage feeding of Ulva-derived fractions increased Nqo1 transcript levels in various organs. Nqo1 induction spiked in different tissues, depending on the specific chemical composition of each administered fraction. We purified and characterized four ARE inducers in this extract, including loliolide (1), isololiolide (2), a megastigmen (3), and a novel chlorinated unsaturated aldehyde (4). The ARE-active fractions attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and Cox2 gene expression in macrophagic RAW264.7 cells, decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, respectively. Nqo1 activity and NO production were abrogated in nrf2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, providing a direct link between the induction of phase II response and anti-inflammatory activity.

  2. Measuring information flow in cellular networks by the systems biology method through microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Li, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    In general, it is very difficult to measure the information flow in a cellular network directly. In this study, based on an information flow model and microarray data, we measured the information flow in cellular networks indirectly by using a systems biology method. First, we used a recursive least square parameter estimation algorithm to identify the system parameters of coupling signal transduction pathways and the cellular gene regulatory network (GRN). Then, based on the identified parameters and systems theory, we estimated the signal transductivities of the coupling signal transduction pathways from the extracellular signals to each downstream protein and the information transductivities of the GRN between transcription factors in response to environmental events. According to the proposed method, the information flow, which is characterized by signal transductivity in coupling signaling pathways and information transductivity in the GRN, can be estimated by microarray temporal data or microarray sample data. It can also be estimated by other high-throughput data such as next-generation sequencing or proteomic data. Finally, the information flows of the signal transduction pathways and the GRN in leukemia cancer cells and non-leukemia normal cells were also measured to analyze the systematic dysfunction in this cancer from microarray sample data. The results show that the signal transductivities of signal transduction pathways change substantially from normal cells to leukemia cancer cells.

  3. Generalized Carrier to Interference Ratio Analysis for the Shotgun Cellular System

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhanan, Prasanna; Liu, Youjian; Brown, Timothy X; Baker, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of cellular systems in which the base-stations (BS) are randomly placed (so-called shotgun cellular system, SCS) is studied. Previous results for a uniform 2-dimensional distribution of BS are generalized to non-uniform placement of BS in any dimension. The carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR) and the carrier-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (CINR) are analyzed for dense and sparse BS density cellular systems, respectively. A semi-analytical expression for the tail probability of the CIR is derived. Additionally, a tool for comparing the CIR performances of two SCSs based on BS densities is presented. With these results, we completely characterize the performance of a SCS with an arbitrary BS density function. Next, a SCS affected by random shadow fading is shown to be equivalent to another SCS without shadow fading and a different BS density function, and hence the performance of a uniform l-D SCS is independent of shadow fading. Thus, for a sparse uniform l-D SCS, the effect of...

  4. Translocation Biosensors - Cellular System Integrators to Dissect CRM1-Dependent Nuclear Export by Chemicogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetz, Verena; Knauer, Shirley K; Bier, Carolin; von Kries, Jens Peter; Stauber, Roland H

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescent protein biosensors are powerful cellular systems biology tools for dissecting the complexity of cellular processes with high spatial and temporal resolution. As regulated nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is crucial for the modulation of numerous (patho)physiological cellular responses, a detailed understanding of its molecular mechanism would open up novel options for a rational manipulation of the cell. In contrast to genetic approaches, we here established and employed high-content cellular translocation biosensors applicable for dissecting nuclear export by chemicogenomics. A431 cell lines, stably expressing a translocation biosensor composed of glutathione S-transferase, GFP and a rational combination of nuclear import and export signals, were engineered by antibiotic selection and flow cytometry sorting. Using an optimized nuclear translocation algorithm, the translocation response could be robustly quantified on the Cellomics Arrayscan(®) VTI platform. Subsequent to assay optimization, the assay was developed into a higher density 384-well format high-content assay and employed for the screening of the 17K ChemBioNet compound collection. This library was selected on the basis of a genetic algorithm used to identify maximum common chemical substructures in a database of annotated bioactive molecules and hence, is well-placed in the chemical space covered by bioactive compounds. Automated multiparameter data analysis combined with visual inspection allowed us to identify and to rationally discriminate true export inhibitors from false positives, which included fluorescent compounds or cytotoxic substances that dramatically affected the cellular morphology. A total of 120 potential hit compounds were selected for Cellomics Arrayscan(®) VTI based rescreening. The export inhibitory activity of 20 compounds effective at concentrations export receptor CRM1-mediated nuclear export not only in an irreversible, but also in a reversible fashion. In sum

  5. Cognitive Cellular Systems: A New Challenge on the RF Analog Frontend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Gabor; Schrey, Moritz; Subbiah, Iyappan; Ashok, Arun; Heinen, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive Cellular Systems are seen today as one of the most promising ways of moving forward solving or at least easing the still worsening situation of congested spectrum caused by the growing number of users and the expectation of higher data transfer rates. As the intelligence of a Cognitive Radio system is located in the digital domain - the Cognitive Engine and associated layers - extensive research has been ongoing in that domain since Mitola published his idea in 1999. Since, a big progress has been made in the domain of architectures and algorithms making systems more efficient and highly flexible. The pace of this progress, however, is going to be impeded by hard requirements on the received and transmitted signal quality, introducing ultimate challenges on the performance of the RF analog frontend, such as in-band local oscillator harmonics, ultra low sensitivity and ultra high linearity. The RF frontend is thus likely to become the limiting technical factor in the true realization of a Cognitive Cellular System. Based on short recapitulations of the most crucial issues in RF analog design for Cognitive Systems, this article will point out why those mechanisms become responsible for the limitation of the overall performance particularly in a broadband Cognitive Cellular System. Furthermore, as part of a possible solution to ease the situation, system design of a high intermediate frequency (IF) to UHF frequency converter for cognitive radios is discussed and the performance of such a converter analyzed as a proof of concept. In addition to successfully tackling some of the challenges, such a high-IF converter enables white space operation for existing commercial devices by acting as frequency converter. From detailed measurements, the capabilities in both physical layer and application layer performance of a high-IF frontend developed out of off-the-shelf components is explained and is shown to provide negligible degradation to the commercial device

  6. The insect cellular immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R. Strand

    2008-01-01

    The innate immune system of insects is divided into humoral defenses that include the production of soluble effector molecules and cellular defenses like phagocytosis and encapsulation that are mediated by hemocytes. This review summarizes current understanding of the cellular immune response. Insects produce several terminally differentiated types of hemocytes that are distinguished by morphology, molecular and antigenic markers, and function. The differentiated hemocytes that circulate in larval or nymphal stage insects arise from two sources: progenitor cells produced during embryogenesis and mesodermally derived hematopoietic organs. Regulation of hematopoiesis and hemocyte differentiation also involves several different signaling pathways. Phagocytosis and encapsulation require that hemocytes first recognize a given target as foreign followed by activation of downstream signaling and effector responses. A number of humoral and cellular receptors have been identified that recognize different microbes and multicellular parasites. In turn, activation of these receptors stimulates a number of signaling pathways that regulate different hemocyte functions. Recent studies also identify hemocytes as important sources of a number of humoral effector molecules required for killing different foreign invaders.

  7. A Geometrical-Based Model for Cochannel Interference Analysis and Capacity Estimation of CDMA Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos B. Baltzis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption in cellular communications is the circular-cell approximation. In this paper, an alternative analysis based on the hexagonal shape of the cells is presented. A geometrical-based stochastic model is proposed to describe the angle of arrival of the interfering signals in the reverse link of a cellular system. Explicit closed form expressions are derived, and simulations performed exhibit the characteristics and validate the accuracy of the proposed model. Applications in the capacity estimation of WCDMA cellular networks are presented. Dependence of system capacity of the sectorization of the cells and the base station antenna radiation pattern is explored. Comparisons with data in literature validate the accuracy of the proposed model. The degree of error of the hexagonal and the circular-cell approaches has been investigated indicating the validity of the proposed model. Results have also shown that, in many cases, the two approaches give similar results when the radius of the circle equals to the hexagon inradius. A brief discussion on how the proposed technique may be applied to broadband access networks is finally made.

  8. A Geometrical-Based Model for Cochannel Interference Analysis and Capacity Estimation of CDMA Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltzis KonstantinosB

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common assumption in cellular communications is the circular-cell approximation. In this paper, an alternative analysis based on the hexagonal shape of the cells is presented. A geometrical-based stochastic model is proposed to describe the angle of arrival of the interfering signals in the reverse link of a cellular system. Explicit closed form expressions are derived, and simulations performed exhibit the characteristics and validate the accuracy of the proposed model. Applications in the capacity estimation of WCDMA cellular networks are presented. Dependence of system capacity of the sectorization of the cells and the base station antenna radiation pattern is explored. Comparisons with data in literature validate the accuracy of the proposed model. The degree of error of the hexagonal and the circular-cell approaches has been investigated indicating the validity of the proposed model. Results have also shown that, in many cases, the two approaches give similar results when the radius of the circle equals to the hexagon inradius. A brief discussion on how the proposed technique may be applied to broadband access networks is finally made.

  9. Coordinated multi-point transmission technique in TDD cellular mobile system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Shaohui; Gao Qiubin; Rakesh Tamrakar; Wang Yingmin

    2011-01-01

    Coordinated multi-point transmission/reception, CoMP, technique converts the interference signal into the useful information by controlling the interfering signals among adjacent cells. Theoretically, it is a breakthrough from the traditional interference limited non-cooperative single point transmission system, improving link reliability and enhancing the data rate. CoMP is regarded as one of the most essential and effective techniques in eliminating the inter-cell interference, boosting cell edge throughput and overall system throughput. CoMP technique has obvious advantages in TDD (time division duplexing) cellular mobile system; the necessary channel state information for CoMP can be easily obtained through channel reciprocity property in TDD system. CoMP scheme in TDD system and likely problems are analyzed in this paper, and it is shown by system simulations that the significant gain can be achieved.

  10. A Pedestrian Navigation System Using Cellular Phone Video-Conferencing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Sugiura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A user’s position-specific field has been developed using the Global Positioning System (GPS technology. To determine the position using cellular phones, a device was developed, in which a pedestrian navigation unit carries the GPS. However, GPS cannot specify a position in a subterranean environment or indoors, which is beyond the reach of transmitted signals. In addition, the position-specification precision of GPS, that is, its resolution, is on the order of several meters, which is deemed insufficient for pedestrians. In this study, we proposed and evaluated a technique for locating a user’s 3D position by setting up a marker in the navigation space detected in the image of a cellular phone. By experiment, we verified the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Additionally, we improved the positional precision because we measured the position distance using numerous markers.

  11. Changes in the cellular energy state affect the activity of the bacterial phosphotransferase system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohwer, J.M.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Shinohara, Y.;

    1996-01-01

    The effect of different cellular free-energy states on the uptake of methyl alfa-D-glucopyranoside, an analoque of glucose, by Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system was investigated. The intracellular ATP/ADP ratio was varied by changing the expression...... of the atp operon, which codes for the H+-ATPase, or by adding an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation or an inhibitor of respiration. Corresponding initial phosphotransferase uptake rates were determined using an improved uptake assay that works with growing cells in steady state. The results show...... that the initial uptake rate was decreased under conditions of lowered intracellular ATP/ADP ratios, irrespective of which method was used to change the cellular energy state.. When either the expression of the atp operon was changed or 2,4-dinitrophenol was added to wild-type cells, the relationship between...

  12. Cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) system: factors, mechanism, and relevance to cellular iron regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anil K; Pallesen, Leif J; Spang, Robert J; Walden, William E

    2010-08-27

    FeS cluster biogenesis is an essential process in virtually all forms of life. Complex protein machineries that are conserved from bacteria through higher eukaryotes facilitate assembly of the FeS cofactor in proteins. In the last several years, significant strides have been made in our understanding of FeS cluster assembly and the functional overlap of this process with cellular iron homeostasis. This minireview summarizes the present understanding of the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) system in eukaryotes, with a focus on information gained from studies in budding yeast and mammalian systems.

  13. BASICS OF INTEGRAL APPROACH TO IMPROVEMENT OF INNOVATION SYSTEM IN DEFENSE INDUSTRY COMPLEX OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Андреевич Чудин

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author develops integral approach to improvement of innovation system as exemplified by defense industry complex (DIC of Russia. Integral approach includes the elements of 3 approaches: system, synergetic and geotrion. This approach contains conceptual, modeling-projecting and realizing parts and the principles, mechanisms and technologies aimed for improvement of management of innovation system in Russia. DIC of Russia is an earth object – it is complex of complexes which is supposed to be established not only with the use of technological structure which is mainly referred to industrial society. The elements of new technological structures must be added to integral approach: knowledge economy and harmonization of society. The second, synergetic approach, is predominantly referred to post-industrial society. The third, geotrion approach, which is only being formed, is mainly referred to the society of sustainable harmonic development. Such objects were called geotrions by Russian scientist N. D. Matrusov [5], they consist of people, economy and environment (nature, territory, external opposed and interacting systems. The method of geotrion management is called integral approach. Knowledge economy can not be realized in Russia without harmonization of the country.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-13

  14. AN EFFICIENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR ADAPTIVE OFDM CELLULAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Guanding; Zhang Zhaoyang; Qiu Peiliang

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient Radio Resource Management (RRM) strategy for adaptive Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) cellular systems. In the proposed strategy, only those users who have the same distance from their base stations can reuse a same subcarrier. This can guarantee the received Carrier-to-Interference ratio (C/I) of each subcarrier to be acceptable as required by system planning. Then by employing different modulation scheme on each subcarrier according to its received C/I, system spectral efficiency can be gracefully increased. Analytical and simulation results show that the spectral efficiency is improved by 40% without sacrificing the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance and call blocking probability and system capacity of the proposed strategy is better than conventional systems.

  15. SELF-ADAPTIVE CONTROLS OF A COMPLEX CELLULAR SIGNALING TRANSDUCTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; ZHOU Zhiyuan; DAI Rongyang; LUO Bo; ZHENG Xiaoli; YANG Wenli; HE Tao; WU Minglu

    2004-01-01

    In cells, the interactions of distinct signaling transduction pathways originating from cross-talkings between signaling molecules give rise to the formation of signaling transduction networks, which contributes to the changes (emergency) of kinetic behaviors of signaling system compared with single molecule or pathway. Depending on the known experimental data, we have constructed a model for complex cellular signaling transduction system, which is derived from signaling transduction of epidermal growth factor receptor in neuron. By the computational simulating methods, the self-adaptive controls of this system have been investigated. We find that this model exhibits a relatively stable selfadaptive system, especially to over-stimulation of agonist, and the amplitude and duration of signaling intermediates in it could be controlled by multiple self-adaptive effects, such as "signal scattering", "positive feedback", "negative feedback" and "B-Raf shunt". Our results provide an approach to understanding the dynamic behaviors of complex biological systems.

  16. Autophagy is redundant for the host defense against systemic Candida albicans infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.P.; Malireddi, R.K.; Plantinga, T.S.; Buffen, K.; Oosting, M.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Perfect, J.R.; Scott, W.K.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Xavier, R.J.; Vosse, E. van de; Kanneganti, T.D.; Johnson, M.D.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy has been demonstrated to play an important role in the immunity against intracellular pathogens, but very little is known about its role in the host defense against fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans. Therefore, the role of autophagy for the host defense against C. albicans was asse

  17. Silicon induced systemic defense responses in perennial ryegrass against Magnaporthe oryzae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable integrated disease management for gray leaf spot of perennial ryegrass may involve use of plant defense elicitors with compatible traditional fungicides to reduce disease incidence and severity. Silicon (Si) is a potential inducer or modulator of plant defenses against different pathogen...

  18. Defense Enterprise Accounting and Management System-Increment 1 (DEAMS Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    FY - Fiscal Year IA - Information Assurance IATO - Interim Authority to Operate ICD - Initial Capability Document IEA - Information Enterprise...of the Secretary of Defense PB - President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD...solution to achieving the Fiscal Year 2010 National Defense Authorization Act auditability requirement by 2017. It transforms financial management

  19. 32 CFR 21.200 - What is the Defense Grant and Agreement Regulatory System (DGARS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Defense Grant and Agreement... Washington Headquarters Services Internet site http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives. Paper copies may be obtained, at cost, from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield,...

  20. DNA Mismatch Repair System: Repercussions in Cellular Homeostasis and Relationship with Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cristóbal Conde-Pérezprina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that concern DNA repair have been studied in the last years due to their consequences in cellular homeostasis. The diverse and damaging stimuli that affect DNA integrity, such as changes in the genetic sequence and modifications in gene expression, can disrupt the steady state of the cell and have serious repercussions to pathways that regulate apoptosis, senescence, and cancer. These altered pathways not only modify cellular and organism longevity, but quality of life (“health-span”. The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR is highly conserved between species; its role is paramount in the preservation of DNA integrity, placing it as a necessary focal point in the study of pathways that prolong lifespan, aging, and disease. Here, we review different insights concerning the malfunction or absence of the DNA-MMR and its impact on cellular homeostasis. In particular, we will focus on DNA-MMR mechanisms regulated by known repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and MHL1, among others.

  1. A new stochastic mixed integer programming to design integrated cellular manufacturing system: A supply chain framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Reza Ghezavati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research defines a new application of mathematical modeling to design a cellular manufacturing system integrated with group scheduling and layout aspects in an uncertain decision space under a supply chain characteristics. The aim is to present a mixed integer programming (MIP which optimizes cell formation, scheduling and layout decisions, concurrently where the suppliers are required to operate exceptional products. For this purpose, the time in which parts need to be operated on machines and also products' demand are uncertain and explained by set of scenarios. This model tries to optimize expected holding cost and the costs regarded to the suppliers network in a supply chain in order to outsource exceptional operations. Scheduling decisions in a cellular manufacturing framework is treated as group scheduling problem, which assumes that all parts in a part group are operated in the same cell and no inter-cellular transfer is required. An efficient hybrid method made of genetic algorithm (GA and simulated annealing (SA will be proposed to solve such a complex problem under an optimization rule as a sub-ordinate section. This integrative combination algorithm is compared with global solutions and also, a benchmark heuristic algorithm introduced in the literature. Finally, performance of the algorithm will be verified through some test problems.

  2. DNA Mismatch Repair System: Repercussions in Cellular Homeostasis and Relationship with Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Pérezprina, Juan Cristóbal; León-Galván, Miguel Ángel; Konigsberg, Mina

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms that concern DNA repair have been studied in the last years due to their consequences in cellular homeostasis. The diverse and damaging stimuli that affect DNA integrity, such as changes in the genetic sequence and modifications in gene expression, can disrupt the steady state of the cell and have serious repercussions to pathways that regulate apoptosis, senescence, and cancer. These altered pathways not only modify cellular and organism longevity, but quality of life (“health-span”). The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) is highly conserved between species; its role is paramount in the preservation of DNA integrity, placing it as a necessary focal point in the study of pathways that prolong lifespan, aging, and disease. Here, we review different insights concerning the malfunction or absence of the DNA-MMR and its impact on cellular homeostasis. In particular, we will focus on DNA-MMR mechanisms regulated by known repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and MHL1, among others. PMID:23213348

  3. Synchronization, TIGoRS, and Information Flow in Complex Systems: Dispositional Cellular Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, William H

    2016-04-01

    Synchronization has a long history in physics where it refers to the phase matching of two identical oscillators. This notion has been extensively studied in physics as well as in biology, where it has been applied to such widely varying phenomena as the flashing of fireflies and firing of neurons in the brain. Human behavior, however, may be recurrent but it is not oscillatory even though many physiological systems do exhibit oscillatory tendencies. Moreover, much of human behaviour is collaborative and cooperative, where the individual behaviours may be distinct yet contemporaneous (if not simultaneous) and taken collectively express some functionality. In the context of behaviour, the important aspect is the repeated co-occurrence in time of behaviours that facilitate the propagation of information or of functionality, regardless of whether or not these behaviours are similar or identical. An example of this weaker notion of synchronization is transient induced global response synchronization (TIGoRS). Previous work has shown that TIGoRS is a ubiquitous phenomenon among complex systems, enabling them to stably parse environmental transients into salient units to which they stably respond. This leads to the notion of Sulis machines, which emergently generate a primitive linguistic structure through their dynamics. This article reviews the notion of TIGoRS and its expression in several complex systems models including tempered neural networks, driven cellular automata and cocktail party automata. The emergent linguistics of Sulis machines are discussed. A new class of complex systems model, the dispositional cellular automaton is introduced. A new metric for TIGoRS, the excess synchronization, is introduced and applied to the study of TIGoRS in dispositional cellular automata. It is shown that these automata exhibit a nonlinear synchronization response to certain perturbing transients.

  4. An Analysis of the First Fifteen Years of the Department of Defense Framework for Unmanned Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    270  E.  THE DARPA INTERVENTION ................................................................274  F.  SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS...28  Table 4.  Funding Agreement between DARPA and TWP ($M; from DOD, 1991) .....30  Table 5.  Requirements Articulation 1992 UGV Master...Kit CRS Common Robotic System CRS Congressional Research Service CTD Concept and Technology Demonstrations DARPA Defense Advanced Research

  5. Joint-Service Integration: An Organizational Culture Study of the United States Department of Defense Voluntary Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the descriptive case study with a multiple case framework was to (a) describe the organizational cultures of education programs and leaders in the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) voluntary education system on Oahu, Hawaii; (b) determine if an overlapping common organizational culture exists; and (c) assess the…

  6. Teaching Clinical (and Nonclinical) Psychology through Applications to the Legal System: Violence Risk Assessment and the Insanity Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Marina L.; Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of dangerousness and the insanity defense are two areas where psychologists provide research-based expertise to the courts. Teachers of psychology can use these topics to capture the attention of students and to show how psychological research and theory can inform and influence the legal system. Specifically, teachers can use the…

  7. Analysis of the NATO Fleet Air-Defense System%北约舰队防空体系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐强; 王瑞麒

    2001-01-01

    介绍了以美国为首的北约舰队防空体系的构成、任务和主要防御对象。对北约舰队防空体系的最新发展动向进行了分析。针对目前北约舰队防空体系中的薄弱环节,提出了突防的具体构想。%This paper introduces the construction, tasks ,targets and analyzed the future developing tendency of the fleet air-defense system of NATO led by U.S.. According to the weak links of the defense system,this paper presents a idea to break through the defense net.

  8. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  9. Performance Analysis of Channel-barrowing Hand-off Scheme in CDMA Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kesavan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For cellular communication systems, mobility and limited radio coverage of a cell require calls to be handed over from one Base Station System (BSS to another. Due to the limited band width available in various cells, there is a finite probability that an ongoing call, while being handed off, may get dropped. Minimizing the dropping of ongoing calls during hand off is an important design criterion. Some digital cellular systems, e.g., the Global System for Mobile Communications and the IS-136, use Mobile-Assisted Hand off (MAHO, in which a Mobile Terminal (MT assists, it’s BSS and a mobiles witching center in making hand off decisions. MAHO requires an MT to regularly report, back to its serving BSS, its current radio-link state (defined in terms of the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI and the Bit Error Rate (BER of transmissions received from neighboring BSSs. In the proposed technique, the MT reports back not only the RSSI and the BER but the number of free channels that are available for the hand off traffic as well. This will ensure that a handed-off call has acceptable signal quality as well as a free available channel. The performance of this hand off technique is analyzed using an analytical model whose solution gives the desired performance measures in terms of blocking and dropping probabilities.

  10. Development of the hyperspectral cellular imaging system to apply to regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Miya; Sato, Masato; Matsumura, Kouji; Mochida, Joji; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2010-02-01

    Regenerative medicine by the transplantation of differentiated cells or tissue stem cells has been clinically performed, particularly in the form of cell sheets. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of cell therapy, the efficient selection of desired cells with high quality is a critical issue, which requires the development of a new evaluation method to discriminate cells non-invasively with high throughput. There were many ways to characterize cells and their components, among which the optical spectral analysis has a powerful potential for this purpose. We developed a cellular hyperspectral imaging system, which captured both spatial and spectral information in a single pixel. Hyperspectral data are composed of continual spectral bands, whereas multispectral data are usually composed of about 5 to 10 discrete bands of large bandwidths. The hyperspectral imaging system which we developed was set up by a commonly-used inverted light microscope for cell culture experiments, and the time-lapse imaging system with automatic focus correction. Spectral line imaging device with EMCCD was employed for spectral imaging. The system finally enabled to acquire 5 dimensional (x, y, z, time, wavelength) data sets and cell-by-cell evaluation. In this study, we optimized the protocol for the creation of cellular spectral database under biological understanding. We enabled to confirm spectrum of autofluorescence of collagen, absorption of specific molecules in the cultural sample and increase of scattering signal due to cell components although detail spectral analyses have not been performed.

  11. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eGómez-Lama Cabanás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets, many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR experiments aiming to: (i validate the induction of these genes, and (ii shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days. Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lypoxigenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e. jerf, bHLH, WRKYs, as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mount a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves. This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the ‘non-hostile’ colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.

  12. Towards local electromechanical probing of cellular and biomolecular systems in a liquid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [Materials Sciences and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37931 (United States); Rodriguez, Brian J [Materials Sciences and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37931 (United States); Jesse, Stephen [Materials Sciences and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37931 (United States); Seal, Katyayani [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37931 (United States); Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Hohlbauch, Sophia [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Revenko, Irene [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Thompson, Gary Lee [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Vertegel, Alexey A [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2007-10-24

    Electromechanical coupling is ubiquitous in biological systems, with examples ranging from simple piezoelectricity in calcified and connective tissues to voltage-gated ion channels, energy storage in mitochondria, and electromechanical activity in cardiac myocytes and outer hair cell stereocilia. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) originally emerged as a technique to study electromechanical phenomena in ferroelectric materials, and in recent years has been employed to study a broad range of non-ferroelectric polar materials, including piezoelectric biomaterials. At the same time, the technique has been extended from ambient to liquid imaging on model ferroelectric systems. Here, we present results on local electromechanical probing of several model cellular and biomolecular systems, including insulin and lysozyme amyloid fibrils, breast adenocarcinoma cells, and bacteriorhodopsin in a liquid environment. The specific features of PFM operation in liquid are delineated and bottlenecks on the route towards nanometre-resolution electromechanical imaging of biological systems are identified.

  13. Flat Cellular (UMTS) Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Samuel, L.G.; Mullender, S.J.; Polakos, P.; Rittenhouse, G.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, cellular systems have been built in a hierarchical manner: many specialized cellular access network elements that collectively form a hierarchical cellular system. When 2G and later 3G systems were designed there was a good reason to make system hierarchical: from a cost-perspective i

  14. Phase-Type Models of Channel-Holding Times in Cellular Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Kaare; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell re...... residence times are correlated are derived. All distributions are of phase type, making them very general and flexible. The channel-holding times are of importance in performance evaluation and simulation of cellular mobile communication systems....

  15. Immune multi-agent model using vaccine for cooperative air-defense system of systems for surface warship formation based on danger theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Xiaozhe Zhao; Beiping Xu; Wei Wang; Zhiyong Niu

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problem on cooperative air-defense of surface warship formation, this paper maps the cooperative air-defense system of systems (SoS) for surface warship formation (CASoSSWF) to the biological immune system (BIS) according to the similarity of the defense mechanism and characteristics be-tween the CASoSSWF and the BIS, and then designs the mo-dels of components and the architecture for a monitoring agent, a regulating agent, a kil er agent, a pre-warning agent and a com-municating agent by making use of the theories and methods of the artificial immune system, the multi-agent system (MAS), the vaccine and the danger theory (DT). Moreover a new immune multi-agent model using vaccine based on DT (IMMUVBDT) for the cooperative air-defense SoS is advanced. The immune response and immune mechanism of the CASoSSWF are analyzed. The model has a capability of memory, evolution, commendable dy-namic environment adaptability and self-learning, and embodies adequately the cooperative air-defense mechanism for the CA-SoSSWF. Therefore it shows a novel idea for the CASoSSWF which can provide conception models for a surface warship forma-tion operation simulation system.

  16. Multi-objective group scheduling with learning effect in the cellular manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Taghavi-fard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Group scheduling problem in cellular manufacturing systems consists of two major steps. Sequence of parts in each part-family and the sequence of part-family to enter the cell to be processed. This paper presents a new method for group scheduling problems in flow shop systems where it minimizes makespan (Cmax and total tardiness. In this paper, a position-based learning model in cellular manufacturing system is utilized where processing time for each part-family depends on the entrance sequence of that part. The problem of group scheduling is modeled by minimizing two objectives of position-based learning effect as well as the assumption of setup time depending on the sequence of parts-family. Since the proposed problem is NP-hard, two meta heuristic algorithms are presented based on genetic algorithm, namely: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II and non-dominated rank genetic algorithm (NRGA. The algorithms are tested using randomly generated problems. The results include a set of Pareto solutions and three different evaluation criteria are used to compare the results. The results indicate that the proposed algorithms are quite efficient to solve the problem in a short computational time.

  17. Joint Relaying Selection and Power Allocation Algorithms for Cooperative Cellular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-mei; SHAO Chun-ju; WANG Ying; ZHANG Ping

    2005-01-01

    An architecture introducing wireless relaying technologies into the cellular infrastructure has emerged as an approach to enlarge the coverage area and enhance system capacity. In this paper, a two-hop cellular system incorporated with the fixed Relaying Station (RS) is studied, where besides the Uniform Power Allocation (UPA), the Optimal Power Allocation (OPA) between the Base Station (BS) and RS is also adopted considering resource utilization. To maximize the performance gains and reduce the overhead, it is necessary to provide an effective RS selection algorithm and combine it with other resource management strategies. So two kinds of RS selection criteria based upon Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) and PathLoss (PL), are evolved into four Joint RS Selection and Power Allocation (JRSPA) algorithms, which are based on SIR with OPA (SIR-OPA), SIR with UPA (SIR-UPA), PL with OPA (PL-OPA) and PL with UPA (PL-UPA). The simulation results show that among these four algorithms, the SIR-OPA scheme provides the best capacity performance, but taking the overhead into account, the PL-OPA scheme is a better choice to reduce the complexity and trade off the system performance with signaling load.

  18. Report of the Defense Science Board task force on military system applications of superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    The Task Force found a number of superconductivity applications that could result in significant new military capabilities, including electronics and high power applications. In particular, superconducting materials could enable significant military improvements in: Magnetic Field Sensors with greatly increased sensitivity for improved detection and identification capability; Passive Microwave and Millimeter-wave Components enabling increased detection range and discrimination in clutter; Staring Infrared Focal Plane Array sensors incorporating superconducting electronics permitting significant range and sensitivity increases over current scanning IR sensors; Wideband Analog and Ultra-Fast Digital Signal Processing for radar and optical sensors; High Power Motors and Generators for ship and aircraft propulsion leading to: decreased displacement; drive system flexibility; increased range; or longer endurance on station; Magnets/Energy Storage for high power microwave, millimeter-wave or optical generators (e.g., free electron laser); capability for powering quiet propulsion systems; Electro-Magnetic Launchers capable of launching hypervelocity projectiles for antiarmor weapons and close-in ship defense weapons; and Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Propulsion enabling ultra quiet drives for submarines, torpedoes, and surface ships.

  19. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  20. Effects of magnetic field on the antioxidant defense system of recirculation-cultured Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Ying; Zeng, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Si-Yuan; Li, Zong-Tao

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of magnetic fields (MF) on growth of microalgae such as Chlorella vulgaris, which has been consumed as health food for various nutritional and pharmacological effects. This preliminary study investigated whether static MF can modulate the antioxidant system in C. vulgaris by exposing the cells to static MF generated by dual yoke electromagnets with magnetic flux density of 10-50 mT for 12 h. After exposure to 10-35 mT for 12 h, the activity of superoxide dismutases and peroxidase increased significantly compared to control cells. However, a remarkable increase of catalase activity occurred at 45 and 50 mT. The lipid peroxidation of algae cells determined by production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was much increased when exposed to 35, 45, and 50 mT of MF. The scavenging ability of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was decreased markedly while there was no variation of total carotenoids content in C. vulgaris cells. Assay of specific growth rate in 72 h cultivation after MF exposure was also conducted. In groups after exposure to 10-35 mT of MF, specific growth rate was significantly increased. These results suggest that 10-35 mT of static MF exposure could promote the growth of C. vulgaris and regulate its antioxidant defense system to protect cells efficiently, which could possibly enhance the growth of C. vulgaris in industrialized cultivation by MF.

  1. Detection and Cellular Localization of Phospho-STAT2 in the Central Nervous System by Immunohistochemical Staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) indicates their involvement in active signaling. Here we describe immunohistochemical staining procedures for detection and identification of the cellular localization of phospho-STAT2 in the central nervous system (CNS...

  2. Aversive picture processing: effects of a concurrent task on sustained defensive system engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangelin, Bethany C; Löw, Andreas; McTeague, Lisa M; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Viewing a series of aversive pictures prompts emotional reactivity reflecting sustained defensive engagement. The present study examined the effects of a concurrent visual task on autonomic, somatic, electrocortical, and facial components of this defensive state. Results indicated that emotional activation was largely preserved despite continuous visual distraction, although evidence of attenuation was observed in startle reflex and electrocortical measures. Concurrent task-specific reactivity was also apparent, suggesting that motivational circuits can be simultaneously activated by stimuli with intrinsic survival significance and instructed task significance and that these processes interact differently across the separate components of defensive engagement.

  3. Rail-guided Multi-robot System for 3D Cellular Hydrogel Assembly with Coordinated Nanomanipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The 3D assembly of micro-/nano-building blocks with multi-nanomanipulator coordinated manipulation is one of the central elements of nanomanipulation. A novel rail-guided nanomanipulation system was proposed for the assembly of a cellular vascular-like hydrogel microchannel. The system was equipped with three nanomanipulators and was restricted on the rail in order to realize the arbitrary change of the end-effectors during the assembly. It was set up with hybrid motors to achieve both a large operating space and a 30 nm positional resolution. The 2D components such as the assembly units were fabricated through the encapsulation of cells in the hydrogel. The coordinated manipulation strategies among the multi-nanomanipulators were designed with vision feedback and were demonstrated through the bottom-up assembly of the vascular-like microtube. As a result, the multi-layered microchannel was assembled through the cooperation of the nanomanipulation system.

  4. A federation of simulations based on cellular automata in cyber-physical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Tran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In cyber-physical system (CPS, cooperation between a variety of computational and physical elements usually poses difficulties to current modelling and simulation tools. Although much research has proposed to address those challenges, most solutions do not completely cover uncertain interactions in CPS. In this paper, we present a new approach to federate simulations for CPS. A federation is a combination of, and coordination between simulations upon a standard of communication. In addition, a mixed simulation is defined as several parallel simulations federated in a common time progress. Such simulations run on the models of physical systems, which are built based on cellular automata theory. The experimental results are performed on a federation of three simulations of forest fire spread, river pollution diffusion and wireless sensor network. The obtained results can be utilized to observe and predict the behaviours of physical systems in their interactions.

  5. DNA-controlled dynamic colloidal nanoparticle systems for mediating cellular interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Seiichi; Glancy, Dylan; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2016-02-01

    Precise control of biosystems requires development of materials that can dynamically change physicochemical properties. Inspired by the ability of proteins to alter their conformation to mediate function, we explored the use of DNA as molecular keys to assemble and transform colloidal nanoparticle systems. The systems consist of a core nanoparticle surrounded by small satellites, the conformation of which can be transformed in response to DNA via a toe-hold displacement mechanism. The conformational changes can alter the optical properties and biological interactions of the assembled nanosystem. Photoluminescent signal is altered by changes in fluorophore-modified particle distance, whereas cellular targeting efficiency is increased 2.5 times by changing the surface display of targeting ligands. These concepts provide strategies for engineering dynamic nanotechnology systems for navigating complex biological environments.

  6. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. A new method for decreasing cell-load variation in dynamic cellular manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Delgoshaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell load variation is considered a significant shortcoming in scheduling of cellular manufacturing systems. In this article, a new method is proposed for scheduling dynamic cellular manufacturing systems in the presence of bottleneck and parallel machines. The aim of this method is to control cell load variation during the process of determining the best trading off values between in-house manufacturing and outsourcing. A genetic algorithm (GA is developed because of the high potential of trapping in the local optima, and results are compared with the results of LINGO® 12.0 software. The Taguchi method (an L_9 orthogonal optimization is used to estimate parameters of GA in order to solve experiments derived from literature. An in-depth analysis is conducted on the results in consideration of various factors, and control charts are used on machine-load variation. Our findings indicate that the dynamic condition of product demands affects the routing of product parts and may induce machine-load variations that yield to cell-load diversity. An increase in product uncertainty level causes the loading level of each cell to vary, which in turn results in the development of “complex dummy sub-cells”. The effect of the complex sub-cells is measured using another mathematical index. The results showed that the proposed GA can provide solutions with limited cell-load variations.

  9. Cross-talk between the cellular redox state and the circadian system in Neurospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yusuke; Iigusa, Hideo; Wang, Niyan; Hasunuma, Kohji

    2011-01-01

    The circadian system is composed of a number of feedback loops, and multiple feedback loops in the form of oscillators help to maintain stable rhythms. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa exhibits a circadian rhythm during asexual spore formation (conidiation banding) and has a major feedback loop that includes the FREQUENCY (FRQ)/WHITE COLLAR (WC) -1 and -2 oscillator (FWO). A mutation in superoxide dismutase (sod)-1, an antioxidant gene, causes a robust and stable circadian rhythm compared with that of wild-type (Wt). However, the mechanisms underlying the functions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remain unknown. Here, we show that cellular ROS concentrations change in a circadian manner (ROS oscillation), and the amplitudes of ROS oscillation increase with each cycle and then become steady (ROS homeostasis). The ROS oscillation and homeostasis are produced by the ROS-destroying catalases (CATs) and ROS-generating NADPH oxidase (NOX). cat-1 is also induced by illumination, and it reduces ROS levels. Although ROS oscillation persists in the absence of frq, wc-1 or wc-2, its homeostasis is altered. Furthermore, genetic and biochemical evidence reveals that ROS concentration regulates the transcriptional function of WCC and a higher ROS concentration enhances conidiation banding. These findings suggest that the circadian system engages in cross-talk with the cellular redox state via ROS-regulatory factors.

  10. Part and Parcel of the Cardiac Autonomic Nerve System: Unravelling Its Cellular Building Blocks during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. D. Végh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system (cANS is essential for proper heart function, and complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death are associated with an altered cANS function. A changed innervation state may underlie (part of the atrial and ventricular arrhythmias observed after myocardial infarction. In other cardiac diseases, such as congenital heart disease, autonomic dysfunction may be related to disease outcome. This is also the case after heart transplantation, when the heart is denervated. Interest in the origin of the autonomic nerve system has renewed since the role of autonomic function in disease progression was recognized, and some plasticity in autonomic regeneration is evident. As with many pathological processes, autonomic dysfunction based on pathological innervation may be a partial recapitulation of the early development of innervation. As such, insight into the development of cardiac innervation and an understanding of the cellular background contributing to cardiac innervation during different phases of development is required. This review describes the development of the cANS and focuses on the cellular contributions, either directly by delivering cells or indirectly by secretion of necessary factors or cell-derivatives.

  11. The lactoperoxidase system links anion transport to host defense in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Gregory E; Wijkstrom-Frei, Corinne; Randell, Scott H; Fernandez, Vania E; Salathe, Matthias

    2007-01-23

    Chronic respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis result from CFTR channel mutations but how these impair antibacterial defense is less clear. Airway host defense depends on lactoperoxidase (LPO) that requires thiocyanate (SCN-) to function and epithelia use CFTR to concentrate SCN- at the apical surface. To test whether CFTR mutations result in impaired LPO-mediated host defense, CF epithelial SCN- transport was measured. CF epithelia had significantly lower transport rates and did not accumulate SCN- in the apical compartment. The lower CF [SCN-] did not support LPO antibacterial activity. Modeling of airway LPO activity suggested that reduced transport impairs LPO-mediated defense and cannot be compensated by LPO or H2O2 upregulation.

  12. Avian host defense peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, M.; van Dijk, A.; Haagsman, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense

  13. Patriot/Medium Extended Air Defense System Combined Aggregate Program (Patriot/MEADS CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    FUE - First Unit Equipped IOT &E - Initial Operational Test and Evaluation Missile Milestones SAR Baseline Dev Est Current APB Development...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ...Milestone c FUE IOT &E Start Complete Full Rate Production Deci... AcQuisition Increment 2 Milestone C Lightweight Launcher FUE IOT &E Start

  14. The Impact of Civilian Control on Contemporary Defense Planning Systems: Challenges for South East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    NATO – Decisive Test for the Government of the Republic of Moldova,” Folder: Pros and Cos of NATO, November 13, 2009, http://prisa.md/eng... Barany , Zoltan. Defense Academy Publication Series. Vienna: National Defense Experience. Comparative Politics, Vol. 30, No. 1 (October 1997): 21...and Military Effectiveness: Romania. Mija, Valeriu. “Implementation of IPAP RM-NATO – Decisive Test for the Government of the Republic of Moldova

  15. Influenza Viral Manipulation of Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling to Modulate Host Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuvanthi Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses attempt to create a distinctive cellular environment to favor viral replication and spread. Recent studies uncovered new functions of the sphingolipid signaling/metabolism during pathogenic virus infections. While sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide were reported to influence the entry step of several viruses, sphingolipid-metabolizing enzymes could directly alter viral replication processes. Influenza virus was shown to increase the level of sphingosine kinase (SK 1 to promote virus propagation. The mechanism involves regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, leading to the amplification of influenza viral RNA synthesis and nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex. However, bovine viral diarrhea virus inhibits SK1 to enhance the efficacy of virus replication, demonstrating the presence of virus-specific strategies for modulation of the sphingolipid system. Therefore, investigating the sphingolipid metabolism and signaling in the context of virus replication could help us design innovative therapeutic approaches to improve human health.

  16. Plant natriuretic peptides: Systemic regulators of plant homeostasis and defense that can affect cardiomyoblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2010-09-01

    Immunologic evidence has suggested the presence of biologically active natriuretic peptide (NPs) hormones in plants because antiatrial NP antibodies affinity purify biologically active plant NPs (PNP). In the model plant, an Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) has been identified and characterized. AtPNP-A belongs to a novel class of molecules that share some similarity with the cell wall loosening expansins but do not contain the carbohydrate-binding wall anchor thus suggesting that PNPs and atrial natriuretic peptides are heterologs. AtPNP-A acts systemically, and this is consistent with its localization in the apoplastic extracellular space and the conductive tissue. Furthermore, AtPNP-A signals via the second messenger cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate and modulates ion and water transport and homeostasis. It also plays a critical role in host defense against pathogens. AtPNP-A can be classified as novel paracrine plant hormone because it is secreted into the apoplastic space in response to stress and can enhance its own expression. Interestingly, purified recombinant PNP induces apo-ptosis in a dose-dependent manner and was most effective on cardiac myoblast cell lines. Because PNP is mimicking the effect of ANP in some instances, PNP may prove to provide useful leads for development of novel therapeutic NPs. Copyright © 2013 by The American Federation for Medical Research.

  17. Juglans mandshurica leaf extract protects skin fibroblasts from damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Jang, Dae Sik; Oh, Myung Sook

    2012-05-01

    Skin is mainly damaged by genetic and environmental factors such as ultraviolet light, xenobiotics, hormonal changes, heat, and smoking. ROS production is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by these factors, causing skin aging, including wrinkling, by activating the metalloproteinases (MMP-1) that break down type I collagen (COL1A1). The walnut tree Juglans mandshurica MAX. (JM) is found in China, Siberia and Korea. JM has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and anti-bacterial effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of JM leaf extract (JME) against oxidative stress in HS68 human skin fibroblasts. JME significantly and dose-dependently protected HS68 cells against H₂O₂-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Other assays demonstrated that JME protected HS68 cells by regulating ROS production and increasing levels of glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and activated NF-E2-related factor 2. JME additionally prevented the elevation of MMP-1 and reduction of COL1A1 induced by H₂O₂. It also inhibited H₂O₂-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK. These results indicate that JME protects human skin fibroblasts from H₂O₂-induced damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  18. Brassinosteroids Denigrate the Seasonal Stress through Antioxidant Defense System in Seedlings of Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been undertaken to study the effect of exogenously application of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL on soluble protein, proline contents and antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. RLM 619 under the influence of seasonal stress. It was observed that 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL treatment enhance the soluble protein, dry weight and shoot length of B. juncea seedlings under seasonal stress. If seeds treated with the different concentrations (10-6, 10-8 and 10-10 M of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL revealed batter growth, protein and proline contents as compare to untreated seedlings. Similarly the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, APOX, DHAR, PPO and Auxinases were enhanced by the application of different concentration of both brassinosteroids, whereas MDA content was decrease with both brassinosteroids treatments. Then we have concluded that both brassinolides have the seasonal stress ameliorative properties in B. juncea seedlings grown under the influence of seasonal stress. This study culminates to the role of brassinolides as an anti-stress property for protection of plant from various types of stresses.

  19. Imbalanced free radicals and antioxidant defense systems in schizophrenia: A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-chun; CHEN Qiao-zhen; MA Ying; ZHOU Jun-fu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes of blood oxidative-antiovidative level in schizophrenic patients and its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods: Forty-six Chinese patients met DSM-Ⅳ (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Ⅳ) criteria for schizophrenia and fifty age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Baseline psychiatric symptom severity was assessed with brief psychiatric rating scale, positive and negative syndrome scale on the blood draw day. Fresh blood samples were collected to measure levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxide in plasma as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in red blood cells by spectrophotometric assays simultaneously. Results:Comparison of the biochemical parameters indicated that the level of nitric oxide and lipid peroxide increased in patient group,which represented a positive correlation with positive scale scores; while the activities of three critical enzymes decreased and showed a negative linear correlation. Conclusion: This study showed that there are dysregulation of free radical metabolism and poor activities of the antioxidant defense systems in schizophrenic patients. Excess free radicals formation may play a critical role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Using antioxidants might be an effective therapeutic approach to partially alleviate or prevent the symptoms of schizophrenia.

  20. Biotransformation and nitroglycerin-induced effects on antioxidative defense system in rat erythrocytes and reticulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Snežana D; Dorđević, Nataša Z; Curčić, Milena G; Stajn, Andraš S; Spasić, Mihajlo B

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate - GTN) are mediated by liberated nitric oxide (NO) and formed reactive nitrogen species, which induces oxidative stress during biotransformation in red blood cells (RBCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of GTN on antioxidative defense system (AOS) in rat erythrocytes (without) and reticulocytes (with functional mitochondria). Rat erythrocyte and reticulocyte-rich RBC suspensions were aerobically incubated (2 h, 37°C) without (control) or in the presence of different concentrations of GTN (0.1-1.5 mM). After incubation, concentrations of non-enzymatic components of AOS, activities of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway activity were followed in RBC suspensions. In rat reticulocytes, GTN decreased the activity of mitochondrial MnSOD and increased the activity of CuZnSOD. In rat RBCs, GTN induced increase of Vit E concentration (at high doses), but decreased glutathione content and activities of all glutathione-dependent antioxidative enzymes; the OPP pathway activity significantly increased. GTN biotransformation and induction of oxidative stress were followed by general disbalance of antioxidative capacities in both kinds of RBCs. We suggest that oxidative stress, MnSOD inhibition and depletion of glutathione pool in response to GTN treatment lead to decreased bioavailability of NO after GTN biotransformation in rat reticulocytes.

  1. Contemporary strategic management approach in the defense system by U.S. methodology concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin I. Mrdak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to emphasize the importance of contemporary strategic management approachs in the defense system. Displays the work of American author Leslie Lewis and C. Robert Roll "Strategy-to- tasks: a methodology for resource allocation and management". It were used by parts of the discussion above, in order to describe the strategy-to-tasks methodology for planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS. In developed Western countries adopted some elements of strategic management to determine and monitor the execution of strategic plans in the defense system. This trend is spreading to other countries as a result of the necessity of obeying certain methodological and technological achievements. The uncritical acceptance of a strategic management approach can cause great confusion and problems, and the terminology and scientific explanation for this trend is of great importance. Introduction PPBS is a resource management framework based on force planning concept. It was developed at the lRand Company during the late eighties and is adapted to the special needs of several DoD organization. The planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS PPBS is DoD`ş primary system for planning and managing defense resources. It links the overall U.S. national security strategy to specific programs. It was designed to facilitate fiscally-constrained planning, programming and budgeting in terms of complete programs (i.e. forces and systems rather than through artificial budget categories. The goal is to determine forces, systems and program costs. Strategy-to-tasks and the PPBS The Strategy-To-Tasks methodology, regardless of its application, it must be consistent and supportive of each phase of the PPBS. This section describes the basics frameworks of which are adapted to resource allocation and management activities for the Special Operations Command (USSOCOM. The authors have used it during the various phases of the PPBS. The National Security

  2. Cell-Penetrating Peptides—Mechanisms of Cellular Uptake and Generation of Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Trabulo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful clinical application of nucleic acid-based therapeutic strategies has been limited by the poor delivery efficiency achieved by existing vectors. The development of alternative delivery systems for improved biological activity is, therefore, mandatory. Since the seminal observations two decades ago that the Tat protein, and derived peptides, can translocate across biological membranes, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs have been considered one of the most promising tools to improve non-invasive cellular delivery of therapeutic molecules. Despite extensive research on the use of CPPs for this purpose, the exact mechanisms underlying their cellular uptake and that of peptide conjugates remain controversial. Over the last years, our research group has been focused on the S413-PV cell-penetrating peptide, a prototype of this class of peptides that results from the combination of 13-amino-acid cell penetrating sequence derived from the Dermaseptin S4 peptide with the SV40 large T antigen nuclear localization signal. By performing an extensive biophysical and biochemical characterization of this peptide and its analogs, we have gained important insights into the mechanisms governing the interaction of CPPs with cells and their translocation across biological membranes. More recently, we have started to explore this peptide for the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids (plasmid DNA, siRNA and oligonucleotides. In this review we discuss the current knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for the cellular uptake of cell-penetrating peptides, including the S413-PV peptide, and the potential of peptide-based formulations to mediate nucleic acid delivery.

  3. Complex Dynamical Behaviors in a Predator-Prey System with Generalized Group Defense and Impulsive Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunyi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A predator-prey system with generalized group defense and impulsive control strategy is investigated. By using Floquet theorem and small amplitude perturbation skills, a local asymptotically stable prey-eradication periodic solution is obtained when the impulsive period is less than some critical value. Otherwise, the system is permanent if the impulsive period is larger than the critical value. By using bifurcation theory, we show the existence and stability of positive periodic solution when the pest eradication lost its stability. Numerical examples show that the system considered has more complicated dynamics, including (1 high-order quasiperiodic and periodic oscillation, (2 period-doubling and halving bifurcation, (3 nonunique dynamics (meaning that several attractors coexist, and (4 chaos and attractor crisis. Further, the importance of the impulsive period, the released amount of mature predators and the degree of group defense effect are discussed. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the impulsive control strategy are discussed.

  4. Cross-Layer Design and Analysis of Downlink Communications in Cellular CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jin Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A cellular CDMA network with voice and data communications is considered. Focusing on the downlink direction, we seek for the overall performance improvement which can be achieved by cross-layer analysis and design, taking physical layer, link layer, network layer, and transport layer into account. We are concerned with the role of each single layer as well as the interaction among layers, and propose algorithms/schemes accordingly to improve the system performance. These proposals include adaptive scheduling for link layer, priority-based handoff strategy for network admission control, and an algorithm for the avoidance of TCP spurious timeouts at the transport layer. Numerical results show the performance gain of each proposed scheme over independent performance of an individual layer in the wireless mobile network. We conclude that the system performance in terms of capacity, throughput, dropping probability, outage, power efficiency, delay, and fairness can be enhanced by jointly considering the interactions across layers.

  5. An Efficient Algorithm to Solve the Problem of Dropped Call in CDMA Cellular Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the mobile environment, the dropped calls can be resulted from shadowing and rapid signal loss. As the cells shrink to accommodate an increasingly large demand for services, the dropped-call recovery procedure will become more important over the air interface. But in the current protocols, the recovery procedure is too simple to demonstrate the procedure. In this paper, we present a Transparent Reconnection Procedure (TRP) which is an efficient algorithm that can be adapted easily to the benefit of decreased dropped calls. In the simulation of a typical cellular system, it is shown that there are fewer dropped calls using TRP compared to the conventional procedure. This benefit comes at the expense of a slight increase (less than percent 1) in blocked call percentage. It depends on some relevant system parameters, the values of which are decided by the operators accordingly.

  6. Coordinated Transmissions to Direct and Relayed Users in Wireless Cellular Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thai, Chan Dai Truyen; Kaneko, Megumi; de Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The ideas of wireless network coding at the physical layer promise high throughput gains in wireless systems with relays and multi-way traffic flows. This gain can be ascribed to two principles: (1) joint transmission of multiple communication flows and (2) usage of \\emph{a priori} information to cancel the interference. In this paper we use these principles to devise new transmission schemes in wireless cellular systems that feature both users served directly by the base stations (direct users) and users served through relays (relayed users). We present four different schemes for \\emph{coordinated transmission} of uplink and downlink traffic in which one direct and one relayed user are served. These schemes are then used as building blocks in multi-user scenarios, where we present several schemes for scheduling pairs of users for coordinated transmissions. The optimal scheme involves exhaustive search of the best user pair in terms of overall rate. We propose several suboptimal scheduling schemes, which perf...

  7. Phase transition in the economically modeled growth of a cellular nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Schafer, William R; Latora, Vito; Bullmore, Edward T; 10.1073/pnas.1300753110

    2013-01-01

    Spatially-embedded complex networks, such as nervous systems, the Internet and transportation networks, generally have non-trivial topological patterns of connections combined with nearly minimal wiring costs. However the growth rules shaping these economical trade-offs between cost and topology are not well understood. Here we study the cellular nervous system of the nematode worm C. elegans, together with information on the birth times of neurons and on their spatial locations. We find that the growth of this network undergoes a transition from an accelerated to a constant increase in the number of links (synaptic connections) as a function of the number of nodes (neurons). The time of this phase transition coincides closely with the observed moment of hatching, when development switches metamorphically from oval to larval stages. We use graph analysis and generative modelling to show that the transition between different growth regimes, as well as its coincidence with the moment of hatching, can be explain...

  8. Coordinated Transmissions to Direct and Relayed Users in Wireless Cellular Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Chan; Popovski, Petar; Kaneko, Megumi

    2011-01-01

    The ideas of wireless network coding at the physical layer promise high throughput gains in wireless systems with relays and multi–way traffic flows. This gain can be ascribed to two principles: (1) joint transmission of multiple communication flows and (2) usage of a priori information to cancel...... the interference. In this paper we use these principles to devise new transmission schemes in wireless cellular systems that feature both users served directly by the base stations (direct users) and users served through relays (relayed users). We present four different schemes for coordinated transmission...... of uplink and downlink traffic in which one direct and one relayed user are served. These schemes are then used as building blocks in multi–user scenarios, where we present several schemes for scheduling pairs of users for coordinated transmissions. The optimal scheme involves exhaustive search of the best...

  9. Cocaine and MDMA Induce Cellular and Molecular Changes in Adult Neurogenic Systems: Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the brain to generate new adult neurons is a recent discovery that challenges the old theory of an immutable adult brain. A new and fascinating field of research now focuses on this regenerative process. The two brain systems that constantly produce new adult neurons, known as the adult neurogenic systems, are the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the lateral ventricules/olfactory bulb system. Both systems are involved in memory and learning processes. Different drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and MDMA, have been shown to produce cellular and molecular changes that affect adult neurogenesis. This review summarizes the effects that these drugs have on the adult neurogenic systems. The functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is obscured by the functions of the systems that integrate adult neurons. Therefore, we explore the effects that cocaine and MDMA produce not only on adult neurogenesis, but also on the DG and olfactory bulbs. Finally, we discuss the possible role of new adult neurons in cocaine- and MDMA-induced impairments. We conclude that, although harmful drug effects are produced at multiple physiological and anatomical levels, the specific consequences of reduced hippocampus neurogenesis are unclear and require further exploration.

  10. Cellular changes, molecular pathways and the immune system following photodynamic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupin-Mrugalska, P; Sobotta, L; Kucinska, M; Murias, M; Mielcarek, J; Düzgüneş, N

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel medical technique involving three key components: light, a photosensitizer molecule and molecular oxygen, which are essential to achieve the therapeutic effect. There has been great interest in the use of PDT in the treatment of many cancers and skin disorders. Upon irradiation with light of a specific wavelength, the photosensitizer undergoes several reactions resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS may react with different biomolecules, causing defects in many cellular structures and biochemical pathways. PDT-mediated tumor destruction in vivo involves cellular mechanisms with photodamage of mitochondria, lysosomes, nuclei, and cell membranes that activate apoptotic, necrotic and autophagic signals, leading to cell death. PDT is capable of changing the tumor microenvironment, thereby diminishing the supply of oxygen, which explains the antiangiogenic effect of PDT. Finally, inflammatory and immune responses play a crucial role in the long-lasting consequences of PDT treatment. This review is focused on the biochemical effects exerted by photodynamic treatment on cell death signaling pathways, destruction of the vasculature, and the activation of the immune system.

  11. A Real Space Cellular Automaton Laboratory (ReSCAL) to analyze complex geophysical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, O.; Narteau, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Real Space Cellular Automaton Laboratory (ReSCAL) is a generator of 3D multiphysics, markovian and stochastic cellular automata with continuous time. The objective of this new software released under a GNU licence is to develop interdisciplinary research collaboration to investigate the dynamics of complex geophysical systems. In a vast majority of cases, a numerical model is a set of physical variables (temperature, pressure, velocity, etc...) that are recalculated over time according to some predetermined rules or equations. Then, any point in space is entirely characterized by a local set of parameters. This is not the case in ReSCAL where the only local variable is a state-parameter that represent the different phases involved in the problem. An elementary cell represent a given volume of real-space. Pairs of nearest neighbour cells are called doublet. For each individual physical process that we take into account, there is a set of doublet transitions. Using this approach we can model a wide range of physical-chemical or anthropological processes. Here, we present different ingredients of ReSCAL using published applications in geosciences (Narteau et al. 2001 and 2009). We also show how ReSCAL can be developped and used across many displines in geophysics and physical geography. Supplementary informations: Sources files of ReSCAL can be download on http://www.ipgp.fr/~rozier/ReSCAL/rescal-en.html

  12. Molecular and cellular organization of the taste system in the Drosophila larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae Young; Dahanukar, Anupama; Weiss, Linnea A; Carlson, John R

    2011-10-26

    We examine the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in the Drosophila larva through a comprehensive analysis of the expression patterns of all 68 Gustatory receptors (Grs). Gr-GAL4 lines representing each Gr are examined, and 39 show expression in taste organs of the larval head, including the terminal organ (TO), the dorsal organ (DO), and the pharyngeal organs. A receptor-to-neuron map is constructed. The map defines 10 neurons of the TO and DO, and it identifies 28 receptors that map to them. Each of these neurons expresses a unique subset of Gr-GAL4 drivers, except for two neurons that express the same complement. All of these neurons express at least two drivers, and one neuron expresses 17. Many of the receptors map to only one of these cells, but some map to as many as six. Conspicuously absent from the roster of Gr-GAL4 drivers expressed in larvae are those of the sugar receptor subfamily. Coexpression analysis suggests that most larval Grs act in bitter response and that there are distinct bitter-sensing neurons. A comprehensive analysis of central projections confirms that sensory information collected from different regions (e.g., the tip of the head vs the pharynx) is processed in different regions of the suboesophageal ganglion, the primary taste center of the CNS. Together, the results provide an extensive view of the molecular and cellular organization of the larval taste system.

  13. RNAi and antiviral defense in Drosophila: setting up a systemic immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlikow, Margot; Goic, Bertsy; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) controls gene expression in eukaryotic cells and thus, cellular homeostasis. In addition, in plants, nematodes and arthropods it is a central antiviral effector mechanism. Antiviral RNAi has been well described as a cell autonomous response, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. This dsRNA is the precursor for the silencing of viral RNA in a sequence-specific manner. In plants, systemic antiviral immunity has been demonstrated, however much less is known in animals. Recently, some evidence for a systemic antiviral response in arthropods has come to light. Cell autonomous RNAi may not be sufficient to reach an efficient antiviral response, and the organism might rely on the spread and uptake of an RNAi signal of unknown origin. In this review, we offer a perspective on how RNAi-mediated antiviral immunity could confer systemic protection in insects and we propose directions for future research to understand the mechanism of RNAi-immune signal sorting, spreading and amplification.

  14. Investigation of Applications of SA in the Design of Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jayakumar,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing industries are under intense pressure from the increasingly competitive global marketplace. Shorter product lifecycle, time to market and diverse customer needs have challengedmanufacturers to improve the efficiency and productivity of their production activities. Manufacturing systems should be able to adjust or respond quickly to adopt necessary changes in product design and product demand without major investment. Traditional manufacturingsystems are not capable of satisfying such requirements. Although a cellular manufacturing system (CMS provides great benefits, the design of CMS is complex for real life problems. The design of such a kind of manufacturing system under dynamic production environment, with variety and demand varying between each planning horizon, requires pervasive use of a Metaheuristics such as Genetic Algorithm (GA, Simulated Annealing algorithm (SA, and Tabu Search (TS. Thedynamic cell formation (CF problem (involving the formation of a mathematical model depicting the variableproduct mix and demand across the planning horizons is known to be one of the NP-hard combinational problems. Although some optimization algorithms can find the optimal solution for small- and medium-sized problems, they have a disadvantage in that the memory and computational time requirements are extremely high, and increase exponentially, as the problem size increases. In such situations, meta-heuristics are used for exploring and exploiting the search space to obtain good solutions. In contrast to other stochastic searches, SAs in particularhave the following unique features: it does not get trapped in local minimum. Allow uphill moves controlled by parameter called temperature. Final result not dependent on initial state.These features often makes them a preferable choice over traditional heuristics. The objective of this paper is to review how the SA has been applied so far for the Design of Cellular Manufacturing

  15. Chronic exposure to MDMA (ecstasyinduces DNA damage, impairs functional antioxidant cellular defenses, enhances the lipid peroxidation process and alters testes histopathology in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gamal Zaki, ** Laila Abdel Kawy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy" is consumed mainly by young population. For this reason, it is especially relevant to take into consideration the effects on the reproductive system. The influence of MDMA on the fertility and reproduction of the male rat was assessed in this study. Material and methods: MDMA was administered orally at 0 mg/kg (control, 10 and 30 mg/kg to male rats for 15,30,45 consecutive days followed by 15 days withdrawal. Hormonal, biochemical, histological and testicular were evaluated in the rats. The present study aimed to investigate if daily oral administration of ecstasy at low doses(10mg for 45 days has any deleterious effects on reproductive functions of male rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of ten rats each, assigned as control rats, or(0mg ecstasy, rats treated with 10mg ecstasy for, (15,30,45 days, rats treated with 30mg/kg body weight ecstasy for(,15,30,45days by oral gavage. The third group(45 days was followed by 15 withdrawal period(W15. Results: The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in testicular homogenate were decreased while the levels of lipid peroxidation increased significantly in the treated rats as compared with the corresponding group of control animals. In group 30mg, only, arachidonic acid was significantly elevated in the testicular homogenate while linoleic acid was decresed when compared to control. Testis DNA fragmentation was observed in 30mg group, but not 10.mg. It is concluded that low doses of ecstasy exposure(10 mg/Kg had moderate detrimental effects on reproductive organ system and more severe effects are likely to be observed at higher dose levels. These results indicate that ecstasy is directly toxic to primary Leydig cells, and that the decreased percentage of normal cells and the increased level of DNA damage in ecstasy -exposed Leydig cells may be responsible for

  16. Program Manager: The Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 12, Number 6, November-December 1983,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    of new technologies. In a recent Army conducted in-depth reviews of a small number of systems to Science Board report on artificial intelligence and...their busines addresses) to th Editor-in-Chief. Nongovernment employeas and organizations may I at $14 mmuly thrg the Superintendent of Documents, U.S...reason, we The job of all of us in the defense ac- the Affordable Acquisition Approach, must make intelligent decisions about quisition community is to

  17. Brassinosteroids make plant life easier under abiotic stresses mainly by modulating major components of antioxidant defense system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojjam V. Vardhini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various abiotic stress factors significantly contribute to major worldwide-losses in crop productivity by mainly impacting plant’s stress tolerance/adaptive capacity. The latter is largely governed by the efficiency of antioxidant defense system for the metabolism of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS, caused by different abiotic stresses. Plant antioxidant defense system includes both enzymatic (such as superoxide dismutase, SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1; catalase, CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6; glutathione reductase, GR, E.C. 1.6.4.2; peroxidase, POD, E.C. 1.11.1.7; ascorbate peroxidase, APX, E.C. 1.11.1.11; guaiacol peroxidase, GPX, E.C. 1.11.1.7 and non-enzymatic (such as ascorbic acid, AsA; glutathione, GSH; tocopherols; phenolics, proline etc. components. Research reports on the status of various abiotic stresses and their impact on plant growth, development and productivity are extensive. However, least information is available on sustainable strategies for the mitigation of abiotic stress-mediated major consequences in plants. Brassinosteroids (BRs are a novel group of phytohormones with significant growth promoting nature. BRs are considered as growth regulators with pleiotropic effects, as they influence diverse physiological processes like growth, germination of seeds, rhizogenesis, senescence etc. and also confer abiotic stress resistance in plants. In the light of recent reports this paper: (a overviews major abiotic stresses and plant antioxidant defense system, (b introduces BRs and highlights their significance in general plant growth and development, and (c appraises recent literature available on BRs mediated modulation of various components of antioxidant defense system in plants under major abiotic stresses including metals/metalloids, drought, salinity, and temperature regimes. The outcome can be significant in devising future research in the current direction.

  18. RESOURCE ALLOCATION TECHNIQUE USING LOAD MATRIX METHOD IN WIRELESS CELLULAR SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Prabhakar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient resource allocation is one of the greatest challenges in wireless cellular communication. The resource allocation schemes avoid wastage of resources by allocating resources to a mobile terminal over a short period of time, providing quality of service over wireless networks is the most stressing point for service providers. In general a high degree of sharing is efficient, but requires service protection mechanisms to guarantee the QoS for all services. In this paper we address the multi cell interference on overall radio resource utilization and propose a new strategy for resource allocation in multi cell systems. we also propose a joint management of interference within and between cells for allocation of radio resources , Simulation results are showing that there is a significant improvement in the resource utilization so that overall network performance.

  19. Designing a mathematical model for integrating dynamic cellular manufacturing into supply chain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalaei, Amin; Davoudpour, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    This article presents designing a new mathematical model for integrating dynamic cellular manufacturing into supply chain system with an extensive coverage of important manufacturing features consideration of multiple plants location, multi-markets allocation, multi-period planning horizons with demand and part mix variation, machine capacity, and the main constraints are demand of markets satisfaction in each period, machine availability, machine time-capacity, worker assignment, available time of worker, production volume for each plant and the amounts allocated to each market. The aim of the proposed model is to minimize holding and outsourcing costs, inter-cell material handling cost, external transportation cost, procurement & maintenance and overhead cost of machines, setup cost, reconfiguration cost of machines installation and removal, hiring, firing and salary worker costs. Aimed to prove the potential benefits of such a design, presented an example is shown using a proposed model.

  20. Hierarchical random cellular neural networks for system-level brain-like signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert; Puljic, Marko

    2013-09-01

    Sensory information processing and cognition in brains are modeled using dynamic systems theory. The brain's dynamic state is described by a trajectory evolving in a high-dimensional state space. We introduce a hierarchy of random cellular automata as the mathematical tools to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of the cortex. The corresponding brain model is called neuropercolation which has distinct advantages compared to traditional models using differential equations, especially in describing spatio-temporal discontinuities in the form of phase transitions. Phase transitions demarcate singularities in brain operations at critical conditions, which are viewed as hallmarks of higher cognition and awareness experience. The introduced Monte-Carlo simulations obtained by parallel computing point to the importance of computer implementations using very large-scale integration (VLSI) and analog platforms.

  1. Cellular computational networks--a scalable architecture for learning the dynamics of large networked systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Bipul; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Neural networks for implementing large networked systems such as smart electric power grids consist of multiple inputs and outputs. Many outputs lead to a greater number of parameters to be adapted. Each additional variable increases the dimensionality of the problem and hence learning becomes a challenge. Cellular computational networks (CCNs) are a class of sparsely connected dynamic recurrent networks (DRNs). By proper selection of a set of input elements for each output variable in a given application, a DRN can be modified into a CCN which significantly reduces the complexity of the neural network and allows use of simple training methods for independent learning in each cell thus making it scalable. This article demonstrates this concept of developing a CCN using dimensionality reduction in a DRN for scalability and better performance. The concept has been analytically explained and empirically verified through application.

  2. Throughput of Cellular Systems with Conferencing Mobiles and Cooperative Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somekh O

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an enhancement to multicell processing for the uplink of a cellular system, whereby the mobile stations are allowed to exchange messages on orthogonal channels of fixed capacity (conferencing. Both conferencing among mobile stations in different cells and in the same cell (inter- and intracell conferencing, resp. are studied. For both cases, it is shown that a rate-splitting transmission strategy, where part of the message is exchanged on the conferencing channels and then transmitted cooperatively to the base stations, is capacity achieving for sufficiently large conferencing capacity. In case of intercell conferencing, this strategy performs convolutional pre-equalization of the signal encoding the common messages in the spatial domain, where the number of taps of the finite-impulse response equalizer depends on the number of conferencing rounds. Analysis in the low signal-to-noise ratio regime and numerical results validate the advantages of conferencing as a complementary technology to multicell processing.

  3. Throughput of Cellular Systems with Conferencing Mobiles and Cooperative Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shamai (Shitz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an enhancement to multicell processing for the uplink of a cellular system, whereby the mobile stations are allowed to exchange messages on orthogonal channels of fixed capacity (conferencing. Both conferencing among mobile stations in different cells and in the same cell (inter- and intracell conferencing, resp. are studied. For both cases, it is shown that a rate-splitting transmission strategy, where part of the message is exchanged on the conferencing channels and then transmitted cooperatively to the base stations, is capacity achieving for sufficiently large conferencing capacity. In case of intercell conferencing, this strategy performs convolutional pre-equalization of the signal encoding the common messages in the spatial domain, where the number of taps of the finite-impulse response equalizer depends on the number of conferencing rounds. Analysis in the low signal-to-noise ratio regime and numerical results validate the advantages of conferencing as a complementary technology to multicell processing.

  4. Pathogens penetrating the central nervous system: infection pathways and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Norton, Robert; Currie, Bart J; St John, James A; Ekberg, Jenny A K; Batzloff, Michael; Ulett, Glen C; Beacham, Ifor R

    2014-10-01

    The brain is well protected against microbial invasion by cellular barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In addition, cells within the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of producing an immune response against invading pathogens. Nonetheless, a range of pathogenic microbes make their way to the CNS, and the resulting infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Bacteria, amoebae, fungi, and viruses are capable of CNS invasion, with the latter using axonal transport as a common route of infection. In this review, we compare the mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens reach the CNS and infect the brain. In particular, we focus on recent data regarding mechanisms of bacterial translocation from the nasal mucosa to the brain, which represents a little explored pathway of bacterial invasion but has been proposed as being particularly important in explaining how infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei can result in melioidosis encephalomyelitis.

  5. Cellular and molecular pathways of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field interactions with living systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-06-01

    There is growing evidence that environmental electric and magnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) band below 300 Hz can influence biological functions by mechanisms that are only poorly understood at the present time. The primary objectives of this paper are to review the physical properties of ELF fields, their interactions with living systems at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels, and the key role of cell membranes ;in the transduction of signals from imposed ELF fields. Topics of discussion include signal-to-noise ratios for single cells and cell aggregates, resonance phenomena involving a combination of static and ELF magnetic fields, and the possible influence of ELF fields on molecular signaling pathways that involve membrane receptors and cytoplasmic second messengers.

  6. The role of time delay in adaptive cellular negative feedback systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapytsko, Anastasiya; Schaber, Jörg

    2016-06-07

    Adaptation in cellular systems is often mediated by negative feedbacks, which usually come with certain time delays causing several characteristic response patterns including an overdamped response, damped or sustained oscillations. Here, we analyse generic two-dimensional delay differential equations with delayed negative feedback describing the dynamics of biochemical adaptive signal-response networks. We derive explicit thresholds and boundaries showing how time delay determines characteristic response patterns of these networks. Applying our theoretical analyses to concrete data we show that adaptation to osmotic stress in yeast is optimal in the sense of minimizing adaptation time without causing oscillatory behaviour, i.e., a critically damped response. In addition, our framework demonstrates that a slight increase of time delay in the NF-κB system might induce a switch from damped to sustained oscillatory behaviour. Thus, we demonstrate how delay differential equations can be used to explicitly study the delay in biochemical negative feedback systems. Our analysis also provides insight into how time delay may tune biological signal-response patterns and control the systems behaviour.

  7. Performance Analysis of 3D Massive MIMO Cellular Systems with Collaborative Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive MIMO have drawn considerable attention as they enable significant capacity and coverage improvement in wireless cellular network. However, pilot contamination is a great challenge in massive MIMO systems. Under this circumstance, cooperation and three-dimensional (3D MIMO are emerging technologies to eliminate the pilot contamination and to enhance the performance relative to the traditional interference-limited implementations. Motivated by this, we investigate the achievable sum rate performance of MIMO systems in the uplink employing cooperative base station (BS and 3D MIMO systems. In our model, we consider the effects of both large-scale and small-scale fading, as well as the spatial correlation and indoor-to-outdoor high-rise propagation environment. In particular, we investigate the cooperative communication model based on 3D MIMO and propose a closed-form lower bound on the sum rate. Utilizing this bound, we pursue a “large-system” analysis and provide the asymptotic expression when the number of antennas at the BS grows large, and when the numbers of antennas at transceiver grow large with a fixed ratio. We demonstrate that the lower bound is very tight and becomes exact in the massive MIMO system limits. Finally, under the sum rate maximization condition, we derive the optimal number of UTs to be served.

  8. Error Performance Analysis to Increase Capacity of A Cellular System Using SDMA

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Md M

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest drawbacks of the wireless environment is the limited bandwidth. However, the users sharing this limited bandwidth have been increasing considerably.Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) is a new technology by which the capacity of existing mobile communication systems can economically be increased. This paper has been presented how the capacity can be enhanced by using SDMA with smart antennas in mobile communications system. Based on Adaptive Antenna Array (AAA) technology the spatial dimension of the existing system is exploited by means of forming independent radio beams in each of the original channels. This paper analyses the comparison of average Bit Error Rate (BER) of SDMA and CDMA technique and the different ways in which SDMA can be introduced to increase the capacity of a cellular system. The probability of error is found for a standard omni directional base station antenna, and another set of curves is found for flat top beam having a directivity of 5.1dB. It is assumed that k s...

  9. A Novel Algorithm for Efficient Downlink Packet Scheduling for Multiple-Component-Carrier Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Liang Chung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous aggregation of multiple component carriers (CCs for use by a base station constitutes one of the more promising strategies for providing substantially enhanced bandwidths for packet transmissions in 4th and 5th generation cellular systems. To the best of our knowledge, however, few previous studies have undertaken a thorough investigation of various performance aspects of the use of a simple yet effective packet scheduling algorithm in which multiple CCs are aggregated for transmission in such systems. Consequently, the present study presents an efficient packet scheduling algorithm designed on the basis of the proportional fair criterion for use in multiple-CC systems for downlink transmission. The proposed algorithm includes a focus on providing simultaneous transmission support for both real-time (RT and non-RT traffic. This algorithm can, when applied with sufficiently efficient designs, provide adequate utilization of spectrum resources for the purposes of transmissions, while also improving energy efficiency to some extent. According to simulation results, the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of system throughput, mean delay, and fairness constitute substantial improvements over those of an algorithm in which the CCs are used independently instead of being aggregated.

  10. The relationship between yield and the antioxidant defense system in tomatoes grown under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, D T; Gossett, D R; Millhollon, E P; Hanna, H Y; Banks, S W; Lucas, M C

    1996-11-01

    Four putative heat-tolerant tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) cultivars (Tamasabro, Heat Wave, LHT-24, and Solar Set) and one putative heat-sensitive tomato cultivar (Floradade) were grown in the field under non-stress (average daily temperature of 26 degrees C) and heat-stress (average daily temperature of 34 degrees C) conditions. At anthesis, approximately five weeks after being transplanted to the field, leaf samples were collected for antioxidant analyses. Yield was determined by harvesting ripe fruit seven weeks after the collection of leaf samples. Heat stress resulted in a 79.1% decrease in yield for the heat-sensitive Floradade, while the fruit yield in the heat-tolerant cultivars Heat Wave, LHT-24, Solar Set, and Tamasabro was reduced 51.5%, 22.1%, 43.8%, and 34.8% respectively. When grown under heat stress, antioxidant activities were also greater in the heat-tolerant cultivars. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased up to 9-fold in the heat-tolerant cultivars but decreased 83.1% in the heat-sensitive Floradade. Catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase activity increased significantly in all cultivars. Only Heat Wave showed a significant increase in glutathione reductase in response to heat stress but all heat-tolerant cultivars exhibited significantly lower oxidized ascorbate/reduced ascorbate ratios, greater reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione rations, and greater alpha-tocopherol concentrations compared to the heat-sensitive cultivar Floridade. These data indicate that the more heat-tolerant cultivars had an enhanced capacity for scavenging active oxygen species and a more active ascorbate-glutathione cycle and suggest a strong correlation between the ability to up-regulate the antioxidant defense system and the ability of tomatoes to produce greater yields when grown under heat stress.

  11. Toll-like receptors are part of the innate immune defense system of sponges (demospongiae: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Matthias; Korzhev, Michael; Perovic-Ottstadt, Sanja; Luthringer, Bérengère; Brandt, David; Klein, Stefanie; Müller, Werner E G

    2007-03-01

    host-defense system of Metazoa.

  12. Hotline Allegations Regarding Defense Contract Management Agency Contracting Officer Actions on Several Business System Audit Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-20

    2 0 , 2 0 1 4 Report No. DODIG-2014-084 Hotline Allegations Regarding Defense Contract Management Agency Contracting Officer Actions on...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 20 JUN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hotline Allegations...i l / h o t l i n e HOTLINE Department of Defense F r a u d , W a s t e , & A b u s e Mission Our mission is to provide independent, relevant, and

  13. Defense Travel System: An Analysis of the System’s Reservation Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Weekly, 63(6), 20-20. Retrieved October 19, 2007, from EBSCOhost Research database . Margasak, Larry. (2006, November). Pentagon Travel System...was supposed to capture all flights information in the database . The problem with this process is that it is not reliable. The commercial product...arrival/departure times, flight routes, airports, connecting flights, etc.). 4 Travel database that contains applicable flight and airfare information

  14. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    electronic warfare, and special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access...information and information systems. IA, physical security, OPSEC, counter-deception, counter-psyops, CI, EW, and special information operations. Ensure

  15. Thiamine primed defense provides reliable alternative to systemic fungicide carbendazim against sheath blight disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Rajeev Nayan; Joshi, Rohit; Shukla, Alok; Pandey, Mayank; Kumar, J

    2012-08-01

    A novel pathogen defense strategy by thiamine priming was evaluated for its efficacy against sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani AG-1A, of rice and compared with that of systemic fungicide, carbendazim (BCM). Seeds of semidwarf, high yielding, basmati rice variety Vasumati were treated with thiamine (50 mM) and BCM (4 mM). The pot cultured plants were challenge inoculated with R. solani after 40 days of sowing and effect of thiamine and BCM on rice growth and yield traits was examined. Higher hydrogen peroxide content, total phenolics accumulation, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity under thiamine treatment displayed elevated level of systemic resistance, which was further augmented under challenging pathogen infection. High transcript level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) validated mode of thiamine primed defense. Though minimum disease severity was observed under BCM treatment, thiamine produced comparable results, with 18.12 per cent lower efficacy. Along with fortifying defense components and minor influence on photosynthetic pigments and nitrate reductase (NR) activity, thiamine treatment significantly reduced pathogen-induced loss in photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, NR activity and NR transcript level. Physiological traits affected under pathogen infection were found signatory for characterizing plant's response under disease and were detectable at early stage of infection. These findings provide a novel paradigm for developing alternative, environmentally safe strategies to control plant diseases.

  16. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  17. Role of Dectin-2 for Host Defense against Systemic Infection with Candida glabrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifrim, D.C.; Bain, J.M.; Reid, D.M.; Oosting, M.; Verschueren, I.; Gow, N.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Brown, G.D.; Kullberg, B.J.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Koentgen, F.; Erwig, L.P.; Quintin, J.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Although Candida glabrata is an important pathogenic Candida species, relatively little is known about its innate immune recognition. Here, we explore the potential role of Dectin-2 for host defense against C. glabrata. Dectin-2-deficient (Dectin-2(-/-)) mice were found to be more susceptible to C.

  18. Bone remodeling in the context of cellular and systemic regulation: the role of osteocytes and the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzki, Tadeusz; Filipowska, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes constant remodeling. The appropriate course of this process determines development and regeneration of the skeleton. Tight molecular control of bone remodeling is vital for the maintenance of appropriate physiology and microarchitecture of the bone, providing homeostasis, also at the systemic level. The process of remodeling is regulated by a rich innervation of the skeleton, being the source of various growth factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones regulating function of the bone. Although the course of bone remodeling at the cellular level is mainly associated with the activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, recently also osteocytes have gained a growing interest as the principal regulators of bone turnover. Osteocytes play a significant role in the regulation of osteogenesis, releasing sclerostin (SOST), an inhibitor of bone formation. The process of bone turnover, especially osteogenesis, is also modulated by extra-skeletal molecules. Proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts are promoted by the brain-derived serotonin and hypothetically inhibited by its intestinal equivalent. The activity of SOST and serotonin is either directly or indirectly associated with the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, the main regulatory pathway of osteoblasts function. The impairment of bone remodeling may lead to many skeletal diseases, such as high bone mass syndrome or osteoporosis. In this paper, we review the most recent data on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling control, with particular emphasis on the role of osteocytes and the nervous system in this process.

  19. Using a Virtual Tissue Culture System to Assist Students in Understanding Life at the Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauglin, Jacqueline S.; Seaquist, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    In every biology course ever taught in the nation's classrooms, and in every biology book ever published, students are taught about the "cell." The cell is as fundamental to biology as the atom is to chemistry. Truly, everything an organism does occurs fundamentally at the cellular level. Beyond memorizing the cellular definition, students are not…

  20. Induced pluripotent stem cell derived macrophages as a cellular system to study salmonella and other pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hale

    Full Text Available A number of pathogens, including several human-restricted organisms, persist and replicate within macrophages (Mφs as a key step in pathogenesis. The mechanisms underpinning such host-restricted intracellular adaptations are poorly understood, in part, due to a lack of appropriate model systems. Here we explore the potential of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived macrophages (iPSDMs to study such pathogen interactions. We show iPSDMs express a panel of established Mφ-specific markers, produce cytokines, and polarise into classical and alternative activation states in response to IFN-γ and IL-4 stimulation, respectively. iPSDMs also efficiently phagocytosed inactivated bacterial particles as well as live Salmonella Typhi and S. Typhimurium and were able to kill these pathogens. We conclude that iPSDMs can support productive Salmonella infection and propose this as a flexible system to study host/pathogen interactions. Furthermore, iPSDMs can provide a flexible and practical cellular platform for assessing host responses in multiple genetic backgrounds.

  1. On Intercell Interference and Its Cancellation in Cellular Multicarrier CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plass Simon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The handling of intercell interference at the cell border area is a strong demand in future communication systems to guarantee efficient use of the available bandwidth. Therefore, this paper focuses on the application of iterative intercell interference cancellation schemes in cellular multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA systems at the receiver side for the downlink. First, the influence of the interfering base stations to the total intercell interference is investigated. Then, different concepts for intercell interference cancellation are described and investigated for scenarios with several interfering cells. The first approach is based on the use of the hard decision of the demodulator to reconstruct the received signals. This does not require the higher amount of complexity compared to the second approach which is based on the use of the more reliable soft values from the decoding process. Furthermore, the extrinsic information as a reliability measure of this soft iterative cancellation process is investigated in more detail based on the geographical position of the mobile terminal. Both approaches show significant performance gains in the severe cell border area. With the soft intercell interference cancellation scheme, it is possible to reach the single-user bound. Therefore, the intercell interference can be almost eliminated.

  2. Scaling Laws and Design Principles for Multi-Cellular Wireless OFDMA Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Rohit; Schniter, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the downlink of large-scale multi-cellular OFDMA-based networks and study performance bounds of the system as a function of the number of users $K$, the number of base-stations $B$, and the number of resource-blocks $N$. Here, a resource block is a collection of subcarriers such that all such collections, that are disjoint have associated independently fading channels. We derive novel upper and lower bounds on the sum-utility for a general spatial geometry of base stations, a truncated path loss model, and a variety of fading models (Rayleigh, Nakagami-$m$, Weibull, and LogNormal). We also establish the associated scaling laws and show that, in the special case of fixed number of resource blocks, a grid-based network of base stations, and Rayleigh-fading channels, the sum information capacity of the system scales as $\\Theta(B \\log\\log K/B)$ for extended networks, and as $O(B \\log\\log K)$ and $\\Omega(\\log \\log K)$ for dense networks. Interpreting these results, we develop some design...

  3. Targeted chiral lipidomics analysis of bioactive eicosanoid lipids in cellular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Blair, Ian A

    2009-07-31

    We have developed a targeted lipidomics approach that makes it possible to directly analyze chiral eicosanoid lipids generated in cellular systems. The eicosanoids, including prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes (TXs), leukotrienes (LTs) and alcohols (HETEs), have been implicated as potent lipid mediators of various biological processes. Enzymatic formations of eicosanoids are regioselective and enantioselective, whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated formation proceeds with no stereoselectivity. To distinguish between enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways of eicosanoid formation, it is necessary to resolve enantiomeric forms as well as regioisomers. High sensitivity is also required to analyze the eicosanoid lipids that are usually present as trace amounts (pM level) in biological fluids. A discovery of liquid chromatography-electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (LCECAPCI/MS) allows us to couple normal phase chiral chromatography without loss of sensitivity. Analytical specificity was obtained by the use of collision-induced dissociation (CID) and tandem MS (MS/MS). With combination of stable isotope dilution methodology, complex mixtures of regioisomeric and enantiomeric eicosanoids have been resolved and quantified in biological samples with high sensitivity and specificity. Targeted chiral lipidomics profiles of bioactive eicosanoid lipids obtained from various cell systems and their biological implications have been discussed.

  4. OFDM AF Variable Gain Relay System for the Next Generation Mobile Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kocan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present analytical performance evaluation of a dual-hop OFDM amplify-andforward (AF variable gain (VG relay system implementing ordered subcarrier mapping (SCM at the relay station (R, considered to be a very interesting solution for the next generation mobile cellular networks. A scenario with no direct communication between the source of information (S and destination terminal (D, with the Rayleigh fading statistics on both hops is assumed. A closed form analytical expression for the bit error rate (BER performance of the considered system with DPSK modulation is derived, while for its ergodic capacity performance, a tight upper bound expression is obtained. The accuracy of the undertaken analytical approach is confirmed through comparison with simulation results. It is shown that significant capacity enhancement can be achieved through SCM implementation at R, for all the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR values on both hops, but especially in the region of small SNRs on hops. BER analysis reveals that in the region of small and medium average SNRs on both hops BER performance may also be improved with SCM at R station.

  5. Kinetic Monte Carlo and cellular particle dynamics simulations of multicellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenner, Elijah; Janosi, Lorant; Barz, Bogdan; Neagu, Adrian; Forgacs, Gabor; Kosztin, Ioan

    2012-03-01

    Computer modeling of multicellular systems has been a valuable tool for interpreting and guiding in vitro experiments relevant to embryonic morphogenesis, tumor growth, angiogenesis and, lately, structure formation following the printing of cell aggregates as bioink particles. Here we formulate two computer simulation methods: (1) a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) and (2) a cellular particle dynamics (CPD) method, which are capable of describing and predicting the shape evolution in time of three-dimensional multicellular systems during their biomechanical relaxation. Our work is motivated by the need of developing quantitative methods for optimizing postprinting structure formation in bioprinting-assisted tissue engineering. The KMC and CPD model parameters are determined and calibrated by using an original computational-theoretical-experimental framework applied to the fusion of two spherical cell aggregates. The two methods are used to predict the (1) formation of a toroidal structure through fusion of spherical aggregates and (2) cell sorting within an aggregate formed by two types of cells with different adhesivities.

  6. A biofidelic 3D culture model to study the development of brain cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Du, C.; Herrero Acero, E.; Tang-Schomer, M. D.; Özkucur, N.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how cells assemble as systems during corticogenesis to generate collective functions. We built a neurobiology platform that consists of fetal rat cerebral cortical cells grown within 3D silk scaffolds (SF). Ivermectin (Ivm), a glycine receptor (GLR) agonist, was used to modulate cell resting membrane potential (Vmem) according to methods described in a previous work that implicated Ivm in the arrangement and connectivity of cortical cell assemblies. The cells developed into distinct populations of neuroglial stem/progenitor cells, mature neurons or epithelial-mesenchymal cells. Importantly, the synchronized electrical activity in the newly developed cortical assemblies could be recorded as local field potential (LFP) measurements. This study therefore describes the first example of the development of a biologically relevant cortical plate assembly outside of the body. This model provides i) a preclinical basis for engineering cerebral cortex tissue autografts and ii) a biofidelic 3D culture model for investigating biologically relevant processes during the functional development of cerebral cortical cellular systems. PMID:27112667

  7. Multi-tier Network Performance Analysis using a Shotgun Cellular System

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhanan, Prasanna; Youjian,; Liu,; Brown, Timothy X; Baker, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR) and carrier-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (CINR) performance at the mobile station (MS) within a multi-tier network composed of M tiers of wireless networks, with each tier modeled as the homogeneous n-dimensional (n-D, n=1,2, and 3) shotgun cellular system, where the base station (BS) distribution is given by the homogeneous Poisson point process in n-D. The CIR and CINR at the MS in a single tier network are thoroughly analyzed to simplify the analysis of the multi-tier network. For the multi-tier network with given system parameters, the following are the main results of this paper: (1) semi-analytical expressions for the tail probabilities of CIR and CINR; (2) a closed form expression for the tail probability of CIR in the range [1,Infinity); (3) a closed form expression for the tail probability of an approximation to CIR in the entire range [0,Infinity); (4) a lookup table based approach for obtaining the tail probability of CINR, and (5) the ...

  8. Hetero-cellular prototyping by synchronized multi-material bioprinting for rotary cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica; Son, Ae Rin; Hamid, Qudus; Wu, Honglu; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-13

    Bottom-up tissue engineering requires methodological progress of biofabrication to capture key design facets of anatomical arrangements across micro, meso and macro-scales. The diffusive mass transfer properties necessary to elicit stability and functionality require hetero-typic contact, cell-to-cell signaling and uniform nutrient diffusion. Bioprinting techniques successfully build mathematically defined porous architecture to diminish resistance to mass transfer. Current limitations of bioprinted cell assemblies include poor micro-scale formability of cell-laden soft gels and asymmetrical macro-scale diffusion through 3D volumes. The objective of this work is to engineer a synchronized multi-material bioprinter (SMMB) system which improves the resolution and expands the capability of existing bioprinting systems by packaging multiple cell types in heterotypic arrays prior to deposition. This unit cell approach to arranging multiple cell-laden solutions is integrated with a motion system to print heterogeneous filaments as tissue engineered scaffolds and nanoliter droplets. The set of SMMB process parameters control the geometric arrangement of the combined flow's internal features and constituent material's volume fractions. SMMB printed hepatocyte-endothelial laden 200 nl droplets are cultured in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to study the effect of microgravity on an in vitro model of the human hepatic lobule. RCCS conditioning for 48 h increased hepatocyte cytoplasm diameter 2 μm, increased metabolic rate, and decreased drug half-life. SMMB hetero-cellular models present a 10-fold increase in metabolic rate, compared to SMMB mono-culture models. Improved bioprinting resolution due to process control of cell-laden matrix packaging as well as nanoliter droplet printing capability identify SMMB as a viable technique to improve in vitro model efficacy.

  9. ELR chemokine signaling in host defense and disease in a viral model of central nervous system disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Hosking

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial infection of the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV into the central nervous system (CNS of susceptible strains of mice results in an acute encephalomyelitis, accompanied by viral replication in glial cells and robust infiltration of virus-specific T cells that contribute to host defense through cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity. Mice that survive the acute stage of disease develop an immune-mediated demyelinating diseases characterized by viral persistence in white matter tracts and a chronic neuroinflammatory response dominated by T cells and macrophages. Early following JHMV infection, there is a dynamic expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors that contribute to neuroinflammation by regulating innate and adaptive immune responses as well influencing glial biology. In response to JHMV infection, we have shown that signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2 contributes to host defense through recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs to the CNS that enhance permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and facilitating entry of virus-specific T cells into the parenchyma. Further, CXCR2 promotes the protection of oligodendroglia from cytokine-induced apoptosis and restricts the severity of demyelination. This review covers aspects related to the role of CXCR2 in host defense and disease in response to JHMV infection.

  10. Development of an Insert Co-culture System of Two Cellular Types in the Absence of Cell-Cell Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Justine; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2016-07-17

    The role of secreted soluble factors in the modification of cellular responses is a recurrent theme in the study of all tissues and systems. In an attempt to make straightforward the very complex relationships between the several cellular subtypes that compose multicellular organisms, in vitro techniques have been developed to help researchers acquire a detailed understanding of single cell populations. One of these techniques uses inserts with a permeable membrane allowing secreted soluble factors to diffuse. Thus, a population of cells grown in inserts can be co-cultured in a well or dish containing a different cell type for evaluating cellular changes following paracrine signaling in the absence of cell-cell contact. Such insert co-culture systems offer various advantages over other co-culture techniques, namely bidirectional signaling, conserved cell polarity and population-specific detection of cellular changes. In addition to being utilized in the field of inflammation, cancer, angiogenesis and differentiation, these co-culture systems are of prime importance in the study of the intricate relationships that exist between the different cellular subtypes present in the central nervous system, particularly in the context of neuroinflammation. This article offers general methodological guidelines in order to set up an experiment in order to evaluating cellular changes mediated by secreted soluble factors using an insert co-culture system. Moreover, a specific protocol to measure the neuroinflammatory effects of cytokines secreted by lipopolysaccharide-activated N9 microglia on neuronal PC12 cells will be detailed, offering a concrete understanding of insert co-culture methodology.

  11. Polyamines confer salt tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. by reducing sodium uptake, improving nutrient homeostasis, antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrun Nahar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2. Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•– generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl and relative water content (RWC. Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II, which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected in improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth.

  12. Implementation of a cellular neural network-based segmentation algorithm on the bio-inspired vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiber, Fethullah; Grassi, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Pietro; Arik, Sabri; Yalcin, M. Erhan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the cellular neural network (CNN) paradigm, the bio-inspired (bi-i) cellular vision system is a computing platform consisting of state-of-the-art sensing, cellular sensing-processing and digital signal processing. This paper presents the implementation of a novel CNN-based segmentation algorithm onto the bi-i system. The experimental results, carried out for different benchmark video sequences, highlight the feasibility of the approach, which provides a frame rate of about 26 frame/sec. Comparisons with existing CNN-based methods show that, even though these methods are from two to six times faster than the proposed one, the conceived approach is more accurate and, consequently, represents a satisfying trade-off between real-time requirements and accuracy.

  13. Impact of the Defense Critical Technologies Plan on Weapon Systems Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    middle of the 1980’s several factors led to the realization that DoD’s T&E capabilities were approaching a crisis situation. These factors included...techologies most critica to saing the long-term quai.- tative superiority of United States wampon syvtme. The number of such technologie identified in any...United States, The Defense Technology Base, Introduction and Overview, U.S. Government Printing Office, March 1988. Pastine, John, D. Dr., "A Crisis

  14. A Management Analysis and Systems Model of Department of Defense Acquisition Structure and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    8217 * " " *~. ~ INV FMS - - 0 CAPU ---- CINV ------ " PRSK TKPRO/TKAV 1 - -- - - - UC PRCSTUS -- -- -- -- Figure 94. Industry Sector Modified Flow...Diagram 5 4 -C. 242 Table 7. -- Figure 94 Key VARIABLE NAME MEASURE CAPDR Capital Depreciation Rate years CAPU Capital Utilization % CINV Industry Capital...1.2 CAPU /PRSK (%/risk units) - (IA4, IA6) Figure 95. Structure for Industry Capital Investment Government capital investment in the defense industry

  15. Noise Parameters of CW Radar Sensors Used in Active Defense Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Active defense represents an innovative way of protecting military vehicles. It is based on the employment of a set of radar sensors which detect an approaching threat missile and activate a suitable counter-measure. Since the radar sensors are supposed to detect flying missiles very fast and, at the same time, distinguish them from stationary or slow-moving objects, CW Doppler radar sensors can be employed with a benefit. The submitted article deals with a complex noise analysis of this type...

  16. Kinetic approach and estimation of the parameters of cellular interaction between the immunity system and a tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V A; Zhivoglyadov, V P; Stepanova, L A

    1993-01-01

    A method is suggested to estimate multi component dynamic systems, which permits, with the help of the computer-calculated kinetic curves, to obtain information about the possible mechanisms of the system component interaction. The method is based on the structural and parametrical identification of mathematical models presented in the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations, using a multi-criterial approach. Using experimental data of studies on growth kinetics and regression of multicellular tumor EMT6 line spheroids in the mouse allogenic system and the immune system cell accumulation in spheroids a mathematical model has been developed of the cellular interaction process in a spheroid. It has been stated that the rate of macrophage and neutrophil accumulation in a spheroid depends on the amount of tumor cells and is determined by the hyperbolic law (as analogous to the Michaelis-Menthen kinetics), while the accumulation of immune lymphocytes in a tumor is determined besides that by the three-cellular cooperation of lymphocytes, macrophages and tumor cells. According to the model, the inhibition of the process of neutrophil and lymphocyte (but not of macrophages) accumulation is realized through the auto-suppression mechanism. The numerical values of the process parameters, which characterise the rates of accumulation, cellular death in a tumor and of local cellular interactions intensity are obtained.

  17. Lead tolerance mechanism in Conyza canadensis: subcellular distribution, ultrastructure, antioxidative defense system, and phytochelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhou, Chuifan; Huang, Meiying; Luo, Jiewen; Hou, Xiaolong; Wu, Pengfei; Ma, Xiangqing

    2016-03-01

    We used hydroponic experiments to examine the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) on the performance of the Pb-tolerable plant Conyza canadensis. In these experiments, most of the Pb was accumulated in the roots; there was very little Pb accumulated in stems and leaves. C. canadensis is able to take up significant amounts of Pb whilst greatly restricting its transportation to specific parts of the aboveground biomass. High Pb concentrations inhibited plant growth, increased membrane permeability, elevated antioxidant enzyme activity in roots, and caused a significant increase in root H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Analysis of Pb content at the subcellular level showed that most Pb was associated with the cell wall fraction, followed by the nucleus-rich fraction, and with a minority present in the mitochondrial and soluble fractions. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of root cells revealed that the cell wall and intercellular space in C. canadensis roots are the main locations of Pb accumulation. Additionally, high Pb concentrations adversely affected the cellular structure of C. canadensis roots. The increased enzyme activity suggests that the antioxidant system may play an important role in eliminating or alleviating Pb toxicity in C. canadensis roots. However, the levels of non-protein sulfhydryl compounds, glutathione, and phytochelatin did not significantly change in either the roots or leaves under Pb-contaminated treatments. Our results provide strong evidence that cell walls restrict Pb uptake into the root and act as an important barrier protecting root cells, while demonstrating that antioxidant enzyme levels are correlated with Pb exposure. These findings demonstrate the roles played by these detoxification mechanisms in supporting Pb tolerance in C. canadensis.

  18. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    other. SCM and ERP systems both contribute to the overall distribution and coordination of resources. Just as an ERP enhances information flow...inventory management system (Thureen 2008). It combines the Army’s disparate wholesale and retail inventories, into one combined system (Sparacino 2002...Studies.............................................................................. 73 1. Defense Integrated Military Human Resource System

  19. Designing and implementing a regional urban modeling system using the SLEUTH cellular urban model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, C.A.; Goetz, S.J.; Donato, D.; Claggett, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fine-scale (30 meter resolution) regional land cover modeling system, based on the SLEUTH cellular automata model, that was developed for a 257000 km2 area comprising the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin in the eastern United States. As part of this effort, we developed a new version of the SLEUTH model (SLEUTH-3r), which introduces new functionality and fit metrics that substantially increase the performance and applicability of the model. In addition, we developed methods that expand the capability of SLEUTH to incorporate economic, cultural and policy information, opening up new avenues for the integration of SLEUTH with other land-change models. SLEUTH-3r is also more computationally efficient (by a factor of 5) and uses less memory (reduced 65%) than the original software. With the new version of SLEUTH, we were able to achieve high accuracies at both the aggregate level of 15 sub-regional modeling units and at finer scales. We present forecasts to 2030 of urban development under a current trends scenario across the entire Chesapeake Bay drainage basin, and three alternative scenarios for a sub-region within the Chesapeake Bay watershed to illustrate the new ability of SLEUTH-3r to generate forecasts across a broad range of conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effect of water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane on Clarias gariepinus' cellular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O; Oginni, O; Osubor, C C; Adeyemi, O; Oloyede, O B; Oladiji, A T; Adebayo, E A

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane (major components of municipal waste in Nigeria) on the cellular system of Clarias gariepinus. Standard enzyme assays were conducted for alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase of selected tissues of C. gariepinus cultivated in contaminated water over a period of 56 days. Generally, a significant decrease in the activity of the enzymes of the tissues of C. gariepinus cultivated in contaminated water was observed relative to the control (pgariepinus cultivated in phthalate contaminated water was found to be 8.26+/-1.42 while that of control was 14.42+/-1.09. The activity of serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase of serum of the same group of fish was found to be twice that of control. It could be inferred that membrane integrity of the tissues studied are compromised and that tissue dysfunction may result. Consumption of C. gariepinus cultivated in water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane could pose threats to public health.

  1. Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support Systems-Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS-FDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Tissue Culture Module (TCM) is the stationary bioreactor vessel in which cell cultures grow. However, for the Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support Systems-Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS-FDI), color polystyrene beads are used to measure the effectiveness of various mixing procedures. Uniform mixing is a crucial component of CBOSS experiments involving the immune response of human lymphoid cell suspensions. In this picture, the beads are trapped in the injection port shortly after injection. Swirls of beads indicate, event to the naked eye, the contents of the TCM are not fully mixed. The beads are similar in size and density to human lymphoid cells. The goal is to develop procedures that are both convenient for the flight crew and are optimal in providing uniform and reproducible mixing of all components, including cells. The average bead density in a well mixed TCM will be uniform, with no bubbles, and it will be measured using the absorption of light

  2. ac and dc conductivity, magnetoresistance, and scaling in cellular percolation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiteme, C.; McLachlan, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    Percolation phenomena, which include the ac and dc conductivity, dielectric constant, and magnetoresistance, are studied in a series of seven cellular composites, consisting of small conductor particles embedded on the surface of larger insulator particles. Carbon black (ground and unground), graphite, graphite boron-nitride, niobium carbide, nickel, and magnetite (Fe3O4) powders were the conducting components with talc-wax powder as the common insulating component. The dc conductivity results were fitted to the standard percolation equations and to a two-exponent phenomenological equation, which yields the percolation parameters σi, σc, s, t, and φc in the ideal limits. Both universal and nonuniversal values of s and t are measured in the systems. Close to the percolation threshold (φc), the ac conductivity (σmr) and the dielectric constant (ɛmr) are found to scale as σmr∝ωu and ɛmr∝ω-v. All these exponents are examined using the most recent theories and compared with previous studies. The dielectric constant exponent (s'), from ɛmr∝(φc-φ)- s', is shown to be frequency dependent. The exponents gc (magnetoresistance) and tm (from magnetoconductivity) in composites are not yet clearly understood but these and previous results show that tm>t. dc scaling is shown in a real composite comprising Fe3O4 and talc wax.

  3. Integrating the system dynamic and cellular automata models to predict land use and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.

  4. Effects of some iridoids from plant origin on arachidonic acid metabolism in cellular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo Benito, P; Díaz Lanza, A M; Silván Sen, A M; De Santos Galindez, J; Fernandez Matellano, L; Sanz Gómez, A; Abad Martínez, M J

    2000-05-01

    Seven iridoid glycosides isolated from different extracts of Scrophularia scorodonia L., namely bartsioside, aucubin, harpagide, harpagoside, 8-acetylharpagide, scorodioside and scropolioside B, had been evaluated for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in cellular systems generating COX and LOX metabolites. Structure-activity relationships obtained from in vitro screening results were discussed. Most compounds assayed did not exhibit any significant effect on PGE2- and LTC4-release from calcium ionophore-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. In the LTC4-assay, only aucubin showed a significant effect, with an IC50 value of 72 microM. Harpagoside and harpagide also inhibited release of LTC4, but neither effect reached statistical significance. The release of PGE2 by mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with calcium ionophore was inhibited by harpagoside and 8-acetylharpagide, but this effect is not statistically significant. However, most iridoids assayed showed a significant effect on TXB2-release from calcium ionophorestimulated human platelets, with inhibition percentages slightly lower than the reference drug ibuprofen. Only harpagide, scorodioside and scropolioside B had no significant effect on TXB2-release. Our results indicate that selective inhibition of the TX-synthase enzyme may be the primary target of action of most of these iridoids, and one of the mechanisms through which they exert their anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. [Effects of electromagnetic field from cellular phones on selected central nervous system functions: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Marek; Zmyślony, Marek

    2010-01-01

    In the opinion of some experts, a growing emission of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF), also known as electromagnetic is a source of continuously increasing health hazards to the general population. Due to their large number and very close proximity to the user's head, mobile phones deserve special attention. This work is intended to give a systematic review of objective studies, assessing the effects of mobile phone EMF on the functions of the central nervous system (CNS) structures. Our review shows that short exposures to mobile phone EMF, experienced by telephone users during receiving calls, do not affect the cochlear function. Effects of GSM mobile phone EMF on the conduction of neural impulses from the inner car neurons to the brainstem auditory centres have not been detected either. If Picton's principle, saying that P300 amplitude varies with the improbability of the targets and its latency varies with difficulty of discriminating the target stimulus from standard stimuli, is true, EMF changes the improbability of the targets without hindering their discrimination. Experiments with use of indirect methods do not enable unequivocal verification of EMF effects on the cognitive functions due to the CNS anatomical and functional complexity. Thus, it seems advisable to develop a model of EMF effects on the excitable brain structures at the cellular level.

  6. An archived multi-objective simulated annealing for a dynamic cellular manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Hossein; Kia, Reza; Javadian, Nikbakhsh; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza

    2014-05-01

    To design a group layout of a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) in a dynamic environment, a multi-objective mixed-integer non-linear programming model is developed. The model integrates cell formation, group layout and production planning (PP) as three interrelated decisions involved in the design of a CMS. This paper provides an extensive coverage of important manufacturing features used in the design of CMSs and enhances the flexibility of an existing model in handling the fluctuations of part demands more economically by adding machine depot and PP decisions. Two conflicting objectives to be minimized are the total costs and the imbalance of workload among cells. As the considered objectives in this model are in conflict with each other, an archived multi-objective simulated annealing (AMOSA) algorithm is designed to find Pareto-optimal solutions. Matrix-based solution representation, a heuristic procedure generating an initial and feasible solution and efficient mutation operators are the advantages of the designed AMOSA. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, the performance of AMOSA is compared with an exact algorithm (i.e., ∈-constraint method) solved by the GAMS software and a well-known evolutionary algorithm, namely NSGA-II for some randomly generated problems based on some comparison metrics. The obtained results show that the designed AMOSA can obtain satisfactory solutions for the multi-objective model.

  7. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CellRad)": Hardware and biological system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CellRad, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CellRad in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  8. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CELLRAD)": Hardware and biological system tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F.; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CELLRAD, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CELLRAD in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  9. Glutathione-dependent induction of local and systemic defense against oxidative stress by exogenous melatonin in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; He, Jie; Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Xin; Luo, Dan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is involved in defending against oxidative stress caused by various environmental stresses in plants. In this study, the roles of exogenous melatonin in regulating local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and the involvement of redox signaling were examined. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin enhanced tolerance to photooxidative stress in both melatonin-treated leaves and untreated systemic leaves. Increased melatonin levels are capable of increasing glutathione (reduced glutathione [GSH]) redox status. Application of H2 O2 and GSH also induced tolerance to photooxidative stress, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation and GSH synthesis compromised melatonin-induced local and systemic tolerance to photooxidative stress. H2 O2 treatment increased the GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation prevented a melatonin-induced increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio. Additionally, inhibition of GSH synthesis blocked H2 O2 -induced photooxidative stress tolerance, whereas scavenging or inhibition of H2 O2 production attenuated but did not abolish GSH-induced tolerance to photooxidative stress. These results strongly suggest that exogenous melatonin is capable of inducing both local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress and melatonin-enhanced GSH/GSSG ratio in a H2 O2 -dependent manner is critical in the induction of tolerance.

  10. Cellular respiration: replicating in vivo systems biology for in vitro exploration of human exposome, microbiome, and disease pathogenesis biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This editorial develops a philosophy for expanding the scope of Journal of Breath Research (JBR) into the realm of cellular level study, and links certain topics back to more traditional systemic research for understanding human health based on exhaled breath constituents. The ex...

  11. Systemic molecular and cellular changes induced in rats upon inhalation of JP-8 petroleum fuel vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanas, Jay S; Bruce Briggs, G; Lerner, Megan R; Lightfoot, Stan A; Larabee, Jason L; Karsies, Todd J; Epstein, Robert B; Hanas, Rushie J; Brackett, Daniel J; Hocker, James R

    2010-05-01

    Limited information is available regarding systemic changes in mammals associated with exposures to petroleum/hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, systemic toxicity of JP-8 jet fuel was observed in a rat inhalation model at different JP-8 fuel vapor concentrations (250, 500, or 1000 mg/m(3), for 91 days). Gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry sequencing identified the alpha-2 microglobulin protein to be elevated in rat kidney in a JP-8 dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis of kidney and lung tissue extracts revealed JP-8 dependent elevation of inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Tissue changes were observed histologically (hematoxylin and eosin staining) in liver, kidney, lung, bone marrow, and heart, and more prevalently at medium or high JP-8 vapor phase exposures (500-1000 mg/m(3)) than at low vapor phase exposure (250 mg/m(3)) or non-JP-8 controls. JP-8 fuel-induced liver alterations included dilated sinusoids, cytoplasmic clumping, and fat cell deposition. Changes to the kidneys included reduced numbers of nuclei, and cytoplasmic dumping in the lumen of proximal convoluted tubules. JP-8 dependent lung alterations were edema and dilated alveolar capillaries, which allowed clumping of red blood cells (RBCs). Changes in the bone marrow in response to JP-8 included reduction of fat cells and fat globules, and cellular proliferation (RBCs, white blood cells-WBCs, and megakaryocytes). Heart tissue from JP-8 exposed animals contained increased numbers of inflammatory and fibroblast cells, as well as myofibril scarring. cDNA array analysis of heart tissue revealed a JP-8 dependent increase in atrial natriuretic peptide precursor mRNA and a decrease in voltage-gated potassium (K+) ion channel mRNA.

  12. Riboflavin-induced Priming for Pathogen Defense in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujian Zhang; Xue Yang; Maowu Sun; Feng Sun; Sheng Deng; Hansong Dong

    2009-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) participates in a variety of redox processes that affect plant defense responses. Previously we have shown that riboflavin induces pathogen resistance in the absence of hypersensitive cell death (HCD) in plants. Herein, we report that riboflavin induces priming of defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana toward infection by virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst). Induced resistance was mechanistically connected with the expression of defense response genes and cellular defense events, including H2O2 burst, HCD, and callose deposition in the plant. Riboflavin treatment and inoculation of plants with Pst were neither active but both synergized to induce defense responses. The priming process needed NPR1 (essential regulator of systemic acquired resistance) and maintenance of H2O2 burst but was independent of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that the role of riboflavin in priming defenses is subject to a signaling process distinct from the known pathways of hormone signal transduction.

  13. Hybrid-modified poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanospheres for a novel cellular drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Kohei; Furukawa, Sahori; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2010-06-15

    We prepared surface-modified poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres (NS) for use as cellular drug and gene delivery systems using an emulsion solvent diffusion method. In this study, we screened for an appropriate surface modifier to improve NS cellular uptake. Poly-L-lysine (PLL)-modified PLGA NS were taken up by A549 cells in significantly higher amounts (17-fold) than unmodified NS. In order to provide a novel function, PLGA NS were hybrid-modified using both; a cationic polymer, PLL, and a nonionic surfactant, polysorbate 80, to improve cellular uptake in serum-containing medium (SCM). Hybrid modification abrogated the decreased PLGA NS cellular uptake in SCM as a result of better dispersion in serum compared to PLL-PLGA NS, which aggregated in SCM. Luciferase activity of Hybrid-NS/pCMV-Luc complexes in A549 cells in SCM was 122-fold higher than PLL-NS. Hybrid-PLGA NS were not cytotoxic for A549 cells. In conclusion, Hybrid-PLGA NS have great potential as effective cellular drug delivery carriers.

  14. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  15. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight......, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce...

  16. DEFENSE SYSTEM TO EXPLORE ON MILITARY CASTLE OF HAILONG TUEN%古代军事城堡海龙屯防御体系探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮; 但文红; 吴孟珊

    2013-01-01

    建于13世纪中期海龙屯是中国军事防御城堡的杰出代表,是西南地区播州土司文化军事领域的重要遗迹.海龙屯城堡在军事防御思想、堡址选择、军事防御体系布防等方面体现了冷兵器时代“以弱御强”的战略防御思想.借自然天险筑军事城堡,设立远、中、近的军事防御体系,屯兵于民,建立自给自足的军事给养保障,是海龙屯军事城堡防御思想的集中体现.%Hailong tuen is outstanding representative of China's military defense castle and it was built in middle of 13 th century . It is an important historical remains of sowing state toast culture of military field in southwest. The military defense thought of the age of cold" to the weak strong " is reflected by Hailong tuen in the aspects of the military defense thought, fort address selection, military defense system etc. The military castle defense concentration system of Hailong tuen depends natural , setting up far, medium and near military defense system, assembled troops in people , and established self - sufficient military supplies security.

  17. Arabidopsis transcriptome analysis reveals key roles of melatonin in plant defense systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Weeda

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule and exists across kingdoms including plant species. Studies on melatonin in plants have mainly focused on its physiological influence on growth and development, and on its biosynthesis. Much less attention has been drawn to its affect on genome-wide gene expression. To comprehensively investigate the role(s of melatonin at the genomics level, we utilized mRNA-seq technology to analyze Arabidopsis plants subjected to a 16-hour 100 pM (low and 1 mM (high melatonin treatment. The expression profiles were analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes. 100 pM melatonin treatment significantly affected the expression of only 81 genes with 51 down-regulated and 30 up-regulated. However, 1 mM melatonin significantly altered 1308 genes with 566 up-regulated and 742 down-regulated. Not all genes altered by low melatonin were affected by high melatonin, indicating different roles of melatonin in regulation of plant growth and development under low and high concentrations. Furthermore, a large number of genes altered by melatonin were involved in plant stress defense. Transcript levels for many stress receptors, kinases, and stress-associated calcium signals were up-regulated. The majority of transcription factors identified were also involved in plant stress defense. Additionally, most identified genes in ABA, ET, SA and JA pathways were up-regulated, while genes pertaining to auxin responses and signaling, peroxidases, and those associated with cell wall synthesis and modifications were mostly down-regulated. Our results indicate critical roles of melatonin in plant defense against various environmental stresses, and provide a framework for functional analysis of genes in melatonin-mediated signaling pathways.

  18. Game Theory for Proactive Dynamic Defense and Attack Mitigation in Cyber-Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letchford, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    While there has been a great deal of security research focused on preventing attacks, there has been less work on how one should balance security and resilience investments. In this work we developed and evaluated models that captured both explicit defenses and other mitigations that reduce the impact of attacks. We examined these issues both in more broadly applicable general Stackelberg models and in more specific network and power grid settings. Finally, we compared these solutions to existing work in terms of both solution quality and computational overhead.

  19. Game Theory for Proactive Dynamic Defense and Attack Mitigation in Cyber-Physical Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letchford, Joshua

    2016-10-01

    While there has been a great deal of security research focused on preventing attacks, there has been less work on how one should balance security and resilience investments. In this work we developed and evaluated models that captured both explicit defenses and other mitigations that reduce the impact of attacks. We examined these issues both in more broadly applicable general Stackelberg models and in more specific network and power grid settings. Finally, we compared these solutions to existing work in terms of both solution quality and computational overhead.

  20. Montecarlo Simulation Applied to Measurement of the Impact of the Smart Antenna Technology in Digital Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castañeda-Camacho Josefina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The smart antenna technology has received increasing interest due to its capability for improving the performance of wireless radio systems. In this work, we studied the throughput maximization in a digital cellular system when a smart antenna array is implemented. We focus, in the study of the downlink of a 3G cellular system and consider a packet data direct-sequence code division, multiple access (DS-CDMA. Our methodology is based on the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and it is used to show that it is possible to obtain a significant increment in the throughput of the system due to the switched beam smart antenna array. From our results we conclude that it is feasible to consider the application of this technology in 4G environments.

  1. 75 FR 2457 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... define contractor business systems as accounting systems, estimating systems, purchasing systems, earned... conditions of this contract. Business systems means-- (1) Accounting system, if this contract includes the... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS...

  2. Daily variations of the antioxidant defense system of the lithodid crab Lithodes santolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvezov, Natasha; Lovrich, Gustavo A; Tapella, Federico; Romero, M Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Several physiological processes can induce daily variations in aerobic metabolism. Lithodes santolla is a decapod crustacean of special concern since it is a sub-Antarctic species of commercial interest. The aim of this work was to study in L. santolla the daily variations in levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and haemolymphatic pH. Males of L. santolla of commercial size were randomly dissected every 4 h during a period of 24 h. Enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were determined in samples of gills, muscle, hepatopancreas and haemolymph. Ascorbic acid, total glutathione, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were also determined in all tissues. Gills showed the highest enzymatic activity and hepatopancreas the highest concentration of non-enzymatic antioxidants. Maximum antioxidant activity was during the dark phase in gills and during the photophase in the haemolymph. Muscle showed significant daily variations, with peaks during the photophase and scotophase. Overall, an antioxidant protective mechanism is present in all tissues, where SOD and CAT represent the first line of defense. The defense mechanism in L. santolla seems to be more active during the dark phase, with slight differences among the analyzed tissues, indicating a higher metabolic rate.

  3. Host-pathogen interactions between the human innate immune system and Candida albicans - Understanding and modeling defense and evasion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille eDühring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The diploid, polymorphic yeast Candida albicans is one of the most important humanpathogenic fungi. C. albicans can grow, proliferate and coexist as a commensal on or within thehuman host for a long time. Alterations in the host environment, however, can render C. albicansvirulent. In this review, we describe the immunological cross-talk between C. albicans and thehuman innate immune system. We give an overview in form of pairs of human defense strategiesincluding immunological mechanisms as well as general stressors such as nutrient limitation,pH, fever etc. and the corresponding fungal response and evasion mechanisms. FurthermoreComputational Systems Biology approaches to model and investigate these complex interactionare highlighted with a special focus on game-theoretical methods and agent-based models. Anoutlook on interesting questions to be tackled by Systems Biology regarding entangled defenseand evasion mechanisms is given.

  4. Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Szu-Hsien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1 on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Methods Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20 and Rg1 (N = 20 groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats. Results Exhaustive exercise significantly (p Conclusions This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  5. Systemic defense priming by Pseudomonas putida KT2440 in maize depends on benzoxazinoid exudation from the roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Andrew L; Ton, Jurriaan

    2013-01-01

    Exudation of benzoxazinoid metabolites from roots of young maize seedlings recruits the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440 from the soil to the rhizosphere. In this study, we have investigated whether these rhizobacteria are beneficial for maize by eliciting systemic defense priming. Root colonization of the maize hybrid cultivar Delprim by P. putida primed wound- and jasmonic acid (JA)-inducible emission of aromatic and terpenoid volatiles, but not the emission of the green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Furthermore, root colonization by P. putida primed stress-inducible transcription of the JA-dependent gene SerPIN, whereas JA-dependent induction of the MPI gene was unaffected. Systemic priming of SerPIN by P. putida only occurred in benzoxazinoid-producing plants, and was absent in benzoxazinoid-deficient plants. The results from this study suggest that root colonization by P. putida primes a selection of JA-dependent defenses in Maize, which is reliant on benzoxazinoid exudation from the roots.

  6. Influence of Genotype, Environment, and Gypsy Moth Herbivory on Local and Systemic Chemical Defenses in Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Couture, John J; Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter; Lindroth, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have explored the impacts of intraspecific genetic variation and environment on the induction of plant chemical defenses by herbivory. Relatively few, however, have considered how those factors affect within-plant distribution of induced defenses. This work examined the impacts of plant genotype and soil nutrients on the local and systemic phytochemical responses of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) to defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). We deployed larvae onto foliage on individual tree branches for 15 days and then measured chemistry in leaves from: 1) branches receiving damage, 2) undamaged branches of insect-damaged trees, and 3) branches of undamaged control trees. The relationship between post-herbivory phytochemical variation and insect performance also was examined. Plant genotype, soil nutrients, and damage all influenced phytochemistry, with genotype and soil nutrients being stronger determinants than damage. Generally, insect damage decreased foliar nitrogen, increased levels of salicinoids and condensed tannins, but had little effect on levels of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, TI3. The largest damage-mediated tannin increases occurred in leaves on branches receiving damage, whereas the largest salicinoid increases occurred in leaves of adjacent, undamaged branches. Foliar nitrogen and the salicinoid tremulacin had the strongest positive and negative relationships, respectively, with insect growth. Overall, plant genetics and environment concomitantly influenced both local and systemic phytochemical responses to herbivory. These findings suggest that herbivory can contribute to phytochemical heterogeneity in aspen foliage, which may in turn influence future patterns of herbivory and nutrient cycling over larger spatial scales.

  7. Calcium supplementation improves Na+/K+ ratio, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems in salt-stressed rice seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur eRahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-d-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47 seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger for three days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt-induced stress caused oxidative stress in rice seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS production and methylglyoxal (MG formation. The salt-stressed rice seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the rice seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system.

  8. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  9. Color image encryption based on hybrid hyper-chaotic system and cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghouti Niyat, Abolfazl; Moattar, Mohammad Hossein; Niazi Torshiz, Masood

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes an image encryption scheme based on Cellular Automata (CA). CA is a self-organizing structure with a set of cells in which each cell is updated by certain rules that are dependent on a limited number of neighboring cells. The major disadvantages of cellular automata in cryptography include limited number of reversal rules and inability to produce long sequences of states by these rules. In this paper, a non-uniform cellular automata framework is proposed to solve this problem. This proposed scheme consists of confusion and diffusion steps. In confusion step, the positions of the original image pixels are replaced by chaos mapping. Key image is created using non-uniform cellular automata and then the hyper-chaotic mapping is used to select random numbers from the image key for encryption. The main contribution of the paper is the application of hyper chaotic functions and non-uniform CA for robust key image generation. Security analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method has a very large key space and is resistive against noise and attacks. The correlation between adjacent pixels in the encrypted image is reduced and the amount of entropy is equal to 7.9991 which is very close to 8 which is ideal.

  10. Studies of cellular radiosensitivity in hereditary disorders of nervous system and muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, S.; Lewis, P.D. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK))

    1983-12-01

    Skin fibroblasts from patients with familial dysautonomia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease show normal sensitivity to ionising radiation, as measured by post-irradiation clonal growth. Previous reports of cellular hypersensitivity to ionising radiation and other DNA-damaging agents in familial dysautonomia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy have not been confirmed.

  11. Floating point based Cellular Automata simulations using a dual FPGA-enabled system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murtaza, S.; Hoekstra, A.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Kindratenko, V.

    2008-01-01

    With the recent emergence of multicore architectures, the age of multicore computing might have already dawned upon us. This shift might have triggered the evolution of von Neumann architecture towards a parallel processing paradigm. Cellular Automata- inherently decentralized spatially extended sys

  12. Department of Defense Materiel Distribution System Study. Volume 3, Book 2. Appendices A, B and C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    Logistics Agency: M-Gen John L. Klingenhagen, USA (to Sep 75) M-Gen Eugene B. Sterling, USAF Office Of the Assistant Secretary of Defense...m-ohi ki.iuu iOMI K£Y • lbl.OLl n I N« l-HOUUCI IbbULb wt l&hl lUBI HKKL CHOO PCX CUMH Pll...1OOo 1 101 /PCT l-KUO 12 1 >»iIOOOI/per CHOO HI t»llOOOI/flT fKOO 112 »»iIOOOI/PCT PKOU 111 ••1lOOOt/PCT KMOo Itb »t|10001/PCT fHOO Ibl

  13. 人防地下室楼盖选型%Selection on Civil Air Defense Basement Floor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马东亚

    2015-01-01

    Through the selection and comprehensive analysis of civil air defense basement floor system, it can be found that the occupancy floor height, construction cost, concrete and steel bar cost of beam and slab of Girderless floor are less than those of other floor systems.Girderless floor has huge comprehensive benefits.%进行人防地下室楼盖选型,综合分析比较可以得到:无梁楼盖相对于其他形式楼盖占用层高最少,施工费用最低,梁和板混凝土和钢筋材料费最少,综合效益最好。

  14. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husler, R.O. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Weir, T.J. (Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  15. Microbial modulation of bacoside A biosynthetic pathway and systemic defense mechanism in Bacopa monnieri under Meloidogyne incognita stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Srivastava, Madhumita; Singh, Vivek; Gupta, M. M.; Pandey, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Plant-associated beneficial microbes have been explored to fulfill the imperative function for plant health. However, their impact on the host secondary metabolite production and nematode disease management remains elusive. Our present work has shown that chitinolytic microbes viz., Chitiniphilus sp. MTN22 and Streptomyces sp. MTN14 singly as well as in combination modulated the biosynthetic pathway of bacoside A and systemic defense mechanism against Meloidogyne incognita in Bacopa monnieri. Interestingly, expression of bacoside biosynthetic pathway genes (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, and squalene synthase) were upregulated in plants treated with the microbial combination in the presence as well as in absence of M. incognita stress. These microbes not only augmented bacoside A production (1.5 fold) but also strengthened host resistance via enhancement in chlorophyll a, defense enzymes and phenolic compounds like gallic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid and cinnamic acid. Furthermore, elevated lignification and callose deposition in the microbial combination treated plants corroborate well with the above findings. Overall, the results provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of priming by beneficial microbes and underscore their capacity to trigger bacoside A production in B. monnieri under biotic stress. PMID:28157221

  16. [Effect of ecopathogenic environmental factors on the system of antioxidant defense in different parts of the rat brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severynovs'ka, O V; Hryhorova, M O; Zaĭchenko, O Iu; Rybal'chenko, V K

    2006-01-01

    Influence ofecopathogenic environmental (radiation-chemical) factors on activities of superoxiddismutase, catalase and total antioxidative activity (TAA) has been investigated in morphologically and functionally different parts of rat brain. It has been found that reaction of cells in brain cortex, subcortical structures and cerebellum to these factors in all cases is revealed through the antioxidant enzyme activities decrease in all studied brain structures but in various degrees. In brain cortex, which is characterized by higher metabolic level, functional complexity and specialization, the higher level of antioxidation defense is marked both in normal state and under the action of negative factors, that allows to maintain the prooxidation-antioxidation balance. Subcortical structures were more sensitive to the heavy metal impact. Compared to the action of single factors at chronic combined influence of radiation and heavy metals on the separate antioxidative enzymes a summation effect can be observed and at aforesaid joint impact on multi-component system of antioxidation defense a partial mutual evening-out of effects of radiation and chemical agents can be marked.

  17. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  18. Effectiveness Evaluation of Air Defense System Based on Queuing Theory%基于排队论的防空作战效能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志华; 唐金国; 文建国; 李木易; 刘志豪; 王雷

    2012-01-01

    文章分析了防空体系对空袭目标的拦截次数计算方法,通过排队论的方法,建立了防空体系效能评估模型。最后通过仿真计算,得出影响防空体系作战效能的重要因素,为决策提供一定的理论依据。%This text analyzes the computing technology of intercepting numbers of air defense system to the goal. Through the queuing theory method, have set up the evaluation efficiency model of air defense system. Finally simulation results show the important factors of in- fluencing the fighting efficiency of air defense system, and offer certain theoretical foundation for people who making policy.

  19. Performance Analysis of a DS-CDMA Cellular System with Effects of Soft Handoff in Log-Normal Shadowing Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng-rui; LUO Hong; ZHOU Jie; HISAKAZU Kikuchi

    2004-01-01

    Next generation wireless communication is based on a global system of fixed and wireless mobile services that are transportable across different network back-bones, network service providers and network geographical boundaries.This paper presents an approach to investigate the effects of soft handover and perfect power control on the forward link in a DS-CDMA cellular system. Especially, the relationships between the size of handover zone and the capacity gain are evaluated under the log-normal shadow channel. Then the optimization of maximum forward capacity is very necessary to be done with the maximum size of soft handover zone to the various system characteristics.

  20. Design and validation of a multi-electrode bioimpedance system for enhancing spatial resolution of cellular impedance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Frank A; Celestin, Michael; Price, Dorielle T; Nanjundan, Meera; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the design and evaluation of a multi-electrode design that improves upon the statistical significance and spatial resolution of cellular impedance data measured using commercial electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) systems. By evaluating cellular impedance using eight independent sensing electrodes, position-dependent impedance measurements can be recorded across the device and compare commonly used equivalent circuit and mathematical models for extraction of cell parameters. Data from the 8-electrode device was compared to data taken from commercial electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system by deriving a relationship between equivalent circuit and mathematically modelled parameters. The impedance systems were evaluated and compared by investigating the effects of arsenic trioxide (As2O3), a well-established chemotherapeutic agent, on ovarian cancer cells. Impedance spectroscopy, a non-destructive, label-free technique, was used to continuously measure the frequency-dependent cellular properties, without adversely affecting the cells. The importance of multiple measurements within a cell culture was demonstrated; and the data illustrated that the non-uniform response of cells within a culture required redundant measurements in order to obtain statistically significant data, especially for drug discovery applications. Also, a correlation between equivalent circuit modelling and mathematically modelled parameters was derived, allowing data to be compared across different modelling techniques.

  1. Networking Effect Analysis of Ship-Airplane Cooperating Air Defense System%舰机协同防空体系网络化效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国生; 刘钢; 贾子英

    2011-01-01

    针对舰机海上协同防空作战体系网络化效应难以度量的问题,提出舰机协同组网概念,建立舰机协同组网网络环模型.将舰机协同防空区域进行划分,通过核心子网络在不同防空区域的转移以及邻接矩阵Perron-Frobenius特征值(PFE)的计算,分析了舰机协同防空体系的网络化效应.该分析方法简单,将其应用在舰机协同防空体系网络化效应分析是有效的.%To solve the question of measuring networking effect for ship-airplane cooperating air defense system, the definition of ship-airplane cooperating networking is proposed, and the networking loop model of ship-airplane cooperating networking is established. The ship-airplane cooperating air defense area is divided, through the core sub-networking shifting in different air defense area and the computation of adjoin matrix Perron-Frobeniu eigenvalue(PFE), the networking effect of ship-airplane cooperating air defense system is analyzed. This analysis method is simple and effective on analyzing networking effect of ship-airplane cooperating air defense system.

  2. Regeneration in Macrostomum lignano (Platyhelminthes): cellular dynamics in the neoblast stem cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimeth, Katharina Theresia; Egger, Bernhard; Rieger, Reinhard; Salvenmoser, Willi; Peter, Roland; Gschwentner, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Neoblasts are potentially totipotent stem cells and the only proliferating cells in adult Platyhelminthes. We have examined the cellular dynamics of neoblasts during the posterior regeneration of Macrostomum lignano. Double-labeling of neoblasts with bromodeoxyuridine and the anti-phospho histone H3 mitosis marker has revealed a complex cellular response in the first 48 h after amputation; this response is different from that known to occur during regeneration in triclad platyhelminths and in starvation/feeding experiments in M. lignano. Mitotic activity is reduced during the first 8 h of regeneration but, at 48 h after amputation, reaches almost twice the value of control animals. The total number of S-phase cells significantly increases after 1 day of regeneration. A subpopulation of fast-cycling neoblasts surprisingly shows the same dynamics during regeneration as those in control animals. Wound healing and regeneration are accompanied by the formation of a distinct blastema. These results present new insights, at the cellular level, into the early regeneration of rhabditophoran Platyhelminthes.

  3. Microbial community induces a plant defense system under growing on the lunar regolith analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaetz, Irina; Mytrokhyn, Olexander; Lukashov, Dmitry; Mashkovska, Svitlana; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Foing, Bernard H.

    The lunar rock considered as a potential source of chemical elements essential for plant nutrition, however, this substrate is of a low bioavailability. The use of microorganisms for decomposition of silicate rocks and stimulation of plant growth is a key idea in precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (Kozyrovska et al., 2004; 2006; Zaetz et al., 2006). In model experiments a consortium of well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, analogous to a lunar rock. Inoculated plants appeared better seed germination, more fast development and also increased accumulation of K, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu and lowered level of the toxic Zn, Ni, Cr, comparing to control tagetes'. Bacteria regulate metal homeostasis in plants by changing their bioavailability and by stimulating of plant defense mechanisms. Inoculated plants were being accommodated to growth under stress conditions on anorthosite used as a substrate. In contrast, control plants manifested a heavy metal-induced oxidative stress, as quantified by protein carbonyl accumulation. Depending on the plant organ sampled and developmental stage there were increases or loses in the antioxidant enzyme activities (guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase). These changes were most evident in inoculated plants. Production of phenolic compounds, known as antioxidants and heavy metal chelators, is rised in variants of inoculated marigolds. Guaiacol peroxidase plays the main role, finally, in a reducing toxicity of heavy metals in plant leaves, while glutathione-S-transferase and phenolics overcome stress in roots.

  4. Involvement of an antioxidant defense system in the adaptive response to cadmium in maize seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Liu, Cuiying; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Renying; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were used to investigate the growth response and antioxidant defense mechanism of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) grown in soils with 0-100 mg kg(-1) Cd. Results showed that maize seedlings have strong abilities to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd. For soil with 50 mg kg(-1) Cd, the Cd contents in roots and shoots of maize seedlings are as large as 295.6 and 153.0 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, without visible symptoms of toxicity. Lower soil Cd concentrations lead to a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of maize seedlings, whereas higher soil Cd concentrations resulted in an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase. Maize seedlings have strong capacities to adapt to low concentrations of Cd by consuming GSH and to develop an antioxidative enzyme system to defend against high-Cd stress.

  5. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Cellular/WLAN Systems with Integrated Service-Based Vertical Handoff Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weiwei; Shen, Lianfeng

    We propose two vertical handoff schemes for cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) integration: integrated service-based handoff (ISH) and integrated service-based handoff with queue capabilities (ISHQ). Compared with existing handoff schemes in integrated cellular/WLAN networks, the proposed schemes consider a more comprehensive set of system characteristics such as different features of voice and data services, dynamic information about the admitted calls, user mobility and vertical handoffs in two directions. The code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular network and IEEE 802.11e WLAN are taken into account in the proposed schemes. We model the integrated networks by using multi-dimensional Markov chains and the major performance measures are derived for voice and data services. The important system parameters such as thresholds to prioritize handoff voice calls and queue sizes are optimized. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed ISHQ scheme can maximize the utilization of overall bandwidth resources with the best quality of service (QoS) provisioning for voice and data services.

  6. 75 FR 76692 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case... INFORMATION: I. Background DoD published a proposed rule for Business Systems--Definition and...

  7. Systems Biology-Based Investigation of Cellular Antiviral Drug Targets Identified by Gene-Trap Insertional Mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfei; Sheng, Jinsong; Rubin, Donald H.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses require host cellular factors for successful replication. A comprehensive systems-level investigation of the virus-host interactome is critical for understanding the roles of host factors with the end goal of discovering new druggable antiviral targets. Gene-trap insertional mutagenesis is a high-throughput forward genetics approach to randomly disrupt (trap) host genes and discover host genes that are essential for viral replication, but not for host cell survival. In this study, we used libraries of randomly mutagenized cells to discover cellular genes that are essential for the replication of 10 distinct cytotoxic mammalian viruses, 1 gram-negative bacterium, and 5 toxins. We herein reported 712 candidate cellular genes, characterizing distinct topological network and evolutionary signatures, and occupying central hubs in the human interactome. Cell cycle phase-specific network analysis showed that host cell cycle programs played critical roles during viral replication (e.g. MYC and TAF4 regulating G0/1 phase). Moreover, the viral perturbation of host cellular networks reflected disease etiology in that host genes (e.g. CTCF, RHOA, and CDKN1B) identified were frequently essential and significantly associated with Mendelian and orphan diseases, or somatic mutations in cancer. Computational drug repositioning framework via incorporating drug-gene signatures from the Connectivity Map into the virus-host interactome identified 110 putative druggable antiviral targets and prioritized several existing drugs (e.g. ajmaline) that may be potential for antiviral indication (e.g. anti-Ebola). In summary, this work provides a powerful methodology with a tight integration of gene-trap insertional mutagenesis testing and systems biology to identify new antiviral targets and drugs for the development of broadly acting and targeted clinical antiviral therapeutics. PMID:27632082

  8. MICROBIAL CONSORTIA ENGINEERING FOR CELLULAR FACTORIES: IN VITRO TO IN SILICO SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Bernstein

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review discusses the current state of experimental and computational microbial consortia engineering with a focus on cellular factories. A discussion of promising ecological theories central to community resource usage is presented to facilitate interpretation of consortial designs. Recent case studies exemplifying different resource usage motifs and consortial assembly templates are presented. The review also highlights in silico approaches to design and to analyze consortia with an emphasis on stoichiometric modeling methods. The discipline of microbial consortia engineering possesses a widely accepted potential to generate highly novel and effective bio-catalysts for applications from biofuels to specialty chemicals to enhanced mineral recovery.

  9. The DEFENSE (debris Flows triggEred by storms - nowcasting system): An early warning system for torrential processes by radar storm tracking using a Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Davide; Cremonini, Roberto; Marco, Federica; Gaeta, Armando Riccardo; Barbero, Secondo

    2014-09-01

    Debris flows, responsible for economic losses and occasionally casualties in the alpine region, are mainly triggered by heavy rains characterized by hourly peaks of varying intensity, depending on the features of the basin under consideration. By integrating a recent classification of alpine basins with the radar storm tracking method, an innovative early warning system called DEFENSE (DEbris Flows triggEred by storms - Nowcasting SystEm) was developed using a Geographical Information System (GIS). Alpine catchments were classified into three main classes based on the weathering capacity of the bedrock into clay or clay-like minerals, the amount of which, in unconsolidated material, directly influences the debris flow rheology, and thus the sedimentary processes, the alluvial fan architecture, as well as the triggering frequency and seasonal occurrence probability of debris flows. Storms were identified and tracked by processing weather radar observations; subsequently, rainfall intensities and storm severity were estimated over each classified basin. Due to rainfall threshold values determined for each basin class, based on statistical analysis of historical records, an automatic corresponding warning could be issued to municipalities.

  10. Defense Research Enterprise Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    MEMORANDUM FOR: SEE DISTRIBUTION SUBJECT: Final Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Research Enterprise Assessment The...attached report contains the findings and recommendations of the Defense Science Board (DSB) Study on Defense Research Enterprise Assessment. The 2015...National Defense Authorization Act directed the Secretary of Defense to task the DSB to conduct an assessment of the organization, missions, authorities

  11. Virtual cellular manufacturing system based on resource element approach and analyzing its performance over different basic layouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Esmaeilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to present how choosing a suitable layout can improve the performance of virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMSs, especially minimizing the material flow between machines required by each family group. To present the efficacy of basic layouts on performances of VCMSs, a multi-objective mathematical model with a goal programming (GP approach is developed to generate VCMSs based on resource-elements (REs. The formulated model is coded in Lingo software and is run over functional and distributed arrangements of the same machines. The performance and the validity of the developed model are checked by a numerical example taken from the literature. The objective function of the mathematical model is measured for that example over two mentioned layout to compare the performance of the generated systems. Moreover, because of the material handling costs importance, material flows are measured to find the best option as a basic layout for VCMSs. To compare the performance of the generated system with the classical cellular manufacturing system (CMS, cell capacity utilization (CCU is employed as an independent criterion to evaluate each system. The result illustrates the priority of distributed layouts for generating RE-based VCMSs because of its flexibility, minimizing the objective function for the mathematical model, and smaller material flow by the components. In addition, the generated VCMSs outperforms the classical CMS from the CCU point of view.

  12. BER Analysis to Increase Capacity of A Cellular System Using SDMA Over a Multipath Rayleigh Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gangadharappa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented how the capacity of cellular system can be enhanced by using Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA with directive antenna in mobile communication systems. One of the biggest draw back of wireless environment is the limited bandwidth. However,the users sharing this limited bandwidth have been increased considerably. SDMA is a technology by which the capacity of the existing mobile communication system can economically be increased. Adaptive Antenna provides a spot beam for each users in the cells as it moves. This paper analysis the comparison of average Bit Error Rate (BER of SDMA and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMAtechnique and the way in which SDMA can be introduced to increase the capacity of a cellular system in Frequency Selective Multipath Rayleigh Fading Channel. The BER is found for a standard omni directional base station antenna, and the another set of curve is found for flat top beam having a directivity of 8 dB. We see that SDMA offers improved capacity in wireless communication system.

  13. High resolution light-sheet based high-throughput imaging cytometry system enables visualization of intra-cellular organelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Regmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of intracellular organelles is achieved using a newly developed high throughput imaging cytometry system. This system interrogates the microfluidic channel using a sheet of light rather than the existing point-based scanning techniques. The advantages of the developed system are many, including, single-shot scanning of specimens flowing through the microfluidic channel at flow rate ranging from micro- to nano- lit./min. Moreover, this opens-up in-vivo imaging of sub-cellular structures and simultaneous cell counting in an imaging cytometry system. We recorded a maximum count of 2400 cells/min at a flow-rate of 700 nl/min, and simultaneous visualization of fluorescently-labeled mitochondrial network in HeLa cells during flow. The developed imaging cytometry system may find immediate application in biotechnology, fluorescence microscopy and nano-medicine.

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaolong; Zeng, Qing; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Zeng, Zhijie; Yang, Weijun; Qiu, Jiawen; Du, Lei; Boddu, Swapna; Wu, Tongwei; Cai, Danxian; Huang, Sheng-He; Cao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal integrity. In vivo experiments revealed that pre-treatment with LCS significantly decrease susceptibility of neonatal rats to oral E. coli K1 infection as reflected by reduced bacterial intestinal colonization, translocation, dissemination and systemic infections. Further, we found that LCS treated neonatal rats have higher intestinal expressions of Ki67, MUC2, ZO-1, IgA, mucin and lower barrier permeability than those in untreated rats. These results indicated that LCS could enhance neonatal resistance to systemic E. coli K1 infection via promoting maturation of neonatal intestinal defense. In conclusions, our findings suggested that LCS has a prophylactic effect against systemic E. coli K1 infection in neonates. Future studies aimed at identifying the specific active ingredients in LCS will be helpful in developing effective pharmacological strategies for preventing neonatal E. coli K1 infection. PMID:28262688

  15. Dark matter in archaeal genomes: a rich source of novel mobile elements, defense systems and secretory complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Forterre, Patrick; Prangishvili, David; Krupovic, Mart; Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-09-01

    Microbial genomes encompass a sizable fraction of poorly characterized, narrowly spread fast-evolving genes. Using sensitive methods for sequences comparison and protein structure prediction, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of clusters of such genes, which we denote "dark matter islands", in archaeal genomes. The dark matter islands comprise up to 20% of archaeal genomes and show remarkable heterogeneity and diversity. Nevertheless, three classes of entities are common in these genomic loci: (a) integrated viral genomes and other mobile elements; (b) defense systems, and (c) secretory and other membrane-associated systems. The dark matter islands in the genome of thermophiles and mesophiles show similar general trends of gene content, but thermophiles are substantially enriched in predicted membrane proteins whereas mesophiles have a greater proportion of recognizable mobile elements. Based on this analysis, we predict the existence of several novel groups of viruses and mobile elements, previously unnoticed variants of CRISPR-Cas immune systems, and new secretory systems that might be involved in stress response, intermicrobial conflicts and biogenesis of novel, uncharacterized membrane structures.

  16. System Re-set: High LET Radiation or Transient Musculoskeletal Disuse Cause Lasting Changes in Oxidative Defense Pathways Within Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, A.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Six months post-IR, there were no notable changes in skeletal expression of 84 principal genes in the p53 signaling pathway due to low dose IR (0.5Gy), HU, or both. In contrast, numerous genes relevant to oxidative stress were regulated by the treatments, typically in a direction indicative of increased oxidative stress and impaired defense. IR and HU independently reduced (between 0.46 to 0.88 fold) expression levels of Noxa1, Gpx3, Prdx2, Prdx3, and Zmynd17. Surprisingly, transient HU alone (sham-irradiated) decreased expression of several redox-related genes (Gpx1,Gstk1, Prdx1, Txnrd2), which were not affected significantly by IR alone. Irradiation increased (1.13 fold) expression of a gene responsible for production of superoxides by neutrophils (NCF2). Of interest, only combined treatment with HU and IR led to increased expression levels of Ercc2, (1.19 fold), a DNA excision repair enzyme. Differences in gene expression levels may reflect a change in gene expression on a per cell basis, a shift in the repertoire of specific cell types within the tissue, or both. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were elevated to comparable levels (1.6-fold) due to IR, HU or both, indicative of elevated systemic nitrosyl stress. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of changes in skeletal expression of oxidative stress-related genes six months after irradiation and/or transient unloading tended to be relatively modest (0.46-1.15 fold), whereas the p53 pathway was not affected. The finding that many different oxidative stress-related genes differed from controls at this late time point implicates a generalized impairment of oxidative defense within skeletal tissue, which coincides with both profound radiation damage to osteoprogenitors/stem cells in bone marrow and impaired remodeling of mineralized tissue.

  17. A Systems Biology Approach to the Coordination of Defensive and Offensive Molecular Mechanisms in the Innate and Adaptive Host-Pathogen Interaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chou; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Infected zebrafish coordinates defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms in response to Candida albicans infections, and invasive C. albicans coordinates corresponding molecular mechanisms to interact with the host. However, knowledge of the ensuing infection-activated signaling networks in both host and pathogen and their interspecific crosstalk during the innate and adaptive phases of the infection processes remains incomplete. In the present study, dynamic network modeling, protein interaction databases, and dual transcriptome data from zebrafish and C. albicans during infection were used to infer infection-activated host-pathogen dynamic interaction networks. The consideration of host-pathogen dynamic interaction systems as innate and adaptive loops and subsequent comparisons of inferred innate and adaptive networks indicated previously unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways and suggested roles of immunological memory in the coordination of host defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms to achieve specific and powerful defense against pathogens. Moreover, pathogens enhance intraspecific crosstalk and abrogate host apoptosis to accommodate enhanced host defense mechanisms during the adaptive phase. Accordingly, links between physiological phenomena and changes in the coordination of defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms highlight the importance of host-pathogen molecular interaction networks, and consequent inferences of the host-pathogen relationship could be translated into biomedical applications.

  18. Hypoxia tolerance and antioxidant defense system of juvenile jumbo squids in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-10-01

    Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) is a large oceanic squid endemic off the Eastern Tropical Pacific that undertakes diel vertical migrations into mesopelagic oxygen minimum zones. One of the expected physiological effects of such migration is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the surface, promoted by the transition between hypoxia and reoxygenation states. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy expenditure rates and the antioxidant stress strategies of juvenile D. gigas under normoxia and hypoxia, namely by quantifying oxygen consumption rates, antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], heat shock protein expression (Hsp70/Hsc70), and lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. A high significant decrease (68%) in squid's metabolic rates was observed during hypoxia (p0.05), with the latter indicating no enhancement of lipid peroxidation (i.e. cellular damage) at the warmer and normoxic surface waters. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how this species is quickly responding to the impacts of environmental stressors coupled with global climate change.

  19. 75 FR 75549 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038...D published a proposed rule for Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009... contractor business systems, DoD is considering a rule to clarify the definition and administration...

  20. The Effects of Transition from DoD (Department of Defense) to ISO (international Standards Organization) OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Communication Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Alpert , Director 1 copy Center for Advanced Study University of Illinois 912 W. Illinois Street Dr. Barry W. Boehm 1 copy TRW Defense Systems Group MS...Dr. Larry E. Druffel 1 copy Software Engineering Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 Dr. C.E. Hutchinson, Dean 1 copy

  1. Prokaryotic homologs of Argonaute proteins are predicted to function as key components of a novel system of defense against mobile genetic elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarova, K.S.; Wolf, Y.I.; Oost, van der J.; Koonin, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes, RNA interference (RNAi) is a major mechanism of defense against viruses and transposable elements as well of regulating translation of endogenous mRNAs. The RNAi systems recognize the target RNA molecules via small guide RNAs that are completely or partially comp

  2. Strain-Related Differences on Response of Liver and Kidney Antioxidant Defense System in Two Rat Strains Following Diazinon Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diazinon (DZN is one of the most organophosphates that widely used in agriculture and ectoparasiticide formulations. Its extensive use as an effective pesticide was associated with the environmental deleterious effects on biological systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of DZN to affect serum biochemical parameters and the antioxidant defense system in the liver and kidney of two rat strains. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 female Wistar and 30 female Norway rats were randomly divided into control and DZN groups. DZN group was divided into four subgroups: 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of DZN administered groups by i.p. injection. The parameters were evaluated after 24 hours. Results At higher doses of DZN, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney of Wistar rats were higher than Norway rats. At these concentrations, DZN increased some serum biochemical indices such as liver enzymes activities and levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in Wistar rat. Conclusions DZN at higher doses alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance in liver and kidney of both rat strains and induces oxidative stress, which is associated with a depletion of GSH and increased lipid peroxidation. However, Wistar rats are found to be more sensitive to the toxicity of DZN compared to Norway rats. In addition, the effect of DZN on liver antioxidant system was more than kidney.

  3. Multi-modal low cost mobile indoor surveillance system on the Robust Artificial Intelligence-based Defense Electro Robot (RAIDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Binu M.; Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-10-01

    We present an autonomous system capable of performing security check routines. The surveillance machine, the Clearpath Husky robotic platform, is equipped with three IP cameras with different orientations for the surveillance tasks of face recognition, human activity recognition, autonomous navigation and 3D reconstruction of its environment. Combining the computer vision algorithms onto a robotic machine has given birth to the Robust Artificial Intelligencebased Defense Electro-Robot (RAIDER). The end purpose of the RAIDER is to conduct a patrolling routine on a single floor of a building several times a day. As the RAIDER travels down the corridors off-line algorithms use two of the RAIDER's side mounted cameras to perform a 3D reconstruction from monocular vision technique that updates a 3D model to the most current state of the indoor environment. Using frames from the front mounted camera, positioned at the human eye level, the system performs face recognition with real time training of unknown subjects. Human activity recognition algorithm will also be implemented in which each detected person is assigned to a set of action classes picked to classify ordinary and harmful student activities in a hallway setting.The system is designed to detect changes and irregularities within an environment as well as familiarize with regular faces and actions to distinguish potentially dangerous behavior. In this paper, we present the various algorithms and their modifications which when implemented on the RAIDER serves the purpose of indoor surveillance.

  4. Multiscale systems analysis of root growth and development: modeling beyond the network and cellular scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Leah R; Fozard, John A; Godin, Christophe; Jensen, Oliver E; Pridmore, Tony; Bennett, Malcolm J; King, John R

    2012-10-01

    Over recent decades, we have gained detailed knowledge of many processes involved in root growth and development. However, with this knowledge come increasing complexity and an increasing need for mechanistic modeling to understand how those individual processes interact. One major challenge is in relating genotypes to phenotypes, requiring us to move beyond the network and cellular scales, to use multiscale modeling to predict emergent dynamics at the tissue and organ levels. In this review, we highlight recent developments in multiscale modeling, illustrating how these are generating new mechanistic insights into the regulation of root growth and development. We consider how these models are motivating new biological data analysis and explore directions for future research. This modeling progress will be crucial as we move from a qualitative to an increasingly quantitative understanding of root biology, generating predictive tools that accelerate the development of improved crop varieties.

  5. Cellular automata-based artificial life system of horizontal gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-xin Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutation and natural selection is the core of Darwin's idea about evolution. Many algorithms and models are based on this idea. However, in the evolution of prokaryotes, more and more researches have indicated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT would be much more important and universal than the authors had imagined. Owing to this mechanism, the prokaryotes not only become adaptable in nearly any environment on Earth, but also form a global genetic bank and a super communication network with all the genes of the prokaryotic world. Under this background, they present a novel cellular automata model general gene transfer to simulate and study the vertical gene transfer and HGT in the prokaryotes. At the same time, they use Schrodinger's life theory to formulate some evaluation indices and to discuss the intelligence and cognition of prokaryotes which is derived from HGT.

  6. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of HGF/Met in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Simona; Sala, Valentina; Gatti, Stefano; Crepaldi, Tiziana

    2015-12-01

    Met tyrosine kinase receptor, also known as c-Met, is the HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) receptor. The HGF/Met pathway has a prominent role in cardiovascular remodelling after tissue injury. The present review provides a synopsis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of HGF/Met in the heart and blood vessels. In vivo, HGF/Met function is particularly important for the protection of the heart in response to both acute and chronic insults, including ischaemic injury and doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Accordingly, conditional deletion of Met in cardiomyocytes results in impaired organ defence against oxidative stress. After ischaemic injury, activation of Met provides strong anti-apoptotic stimuli for cardiomyocytes through PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. Recently, we found that HGF/Met is also important for autophagy regulation in cardiomyocytes via the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. HGF/Met induces proliferation and migration of endothelial cells through Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) activation. In fibroblasts, HGF/Met antagonizes the actions of TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor β1) and AngII (angiotensin II), thus preventing fibrosis. Moreover, HGF/Met influences the inflammatory response of macrophages and the immune response of dendritic cells, indicating its protective function against atherosclerotic and autoimmune diseases. The HGF/Met axis also plays an important role in regulating self-renewal and myocardial regeneration through the enhancement of cardiac progenitor cells. HGF/Met has beneficial effects against myocardial infarction and endothelial dysfunction: the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying repair function in the heart and blood vessels are common and include pro-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions. Thus administration of HGF or HGF mimetics may represent a promising therapeutic agent for the

  7. Complex cellular responses to reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Mark D; Perrone, Gabriel G; Dawes, Ian W

    2005-06-01

    Genome-wide analyses of yeast provide insight into cellular responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many deletion mutants are sensitive to at least one ROS, but no one oxidant is representative of 'oxidative stress' despite the widespread use of a single compound such as H(2)O(2). This has major implications for studies of pathological situations. Cells have a range of mechanisms for maintaining resistance that involves either induction or repression of many genes and extensive remodeling of the transcriptome. Cells have constitutive defense systems that are largely unique to each oxidant, but overlapping, inducible repair systems. The pattern of the transcriptional response to a particular ROS depends on its concentration, and 'classical' antioxidant systems that are induced by high concentrations of ROS can be repressed when cells adapt to low concentrations of ROS.

  8. Guidelines on the defense-in-depth and diversity planning and analysis in digital instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Se Woo; Park, Jong Kyun; Lee, Ki Young; Kwon, Ki Choon; Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Jang Yeol

    2000-08-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are becoming an ever-increasing part in I and C systems of nuclear power plants due to such features such as versatility, flexibility, and reduced sizes. The digital technology introduces a possibility that common-cause or common-mode failures (CCF or CMF) may cause redundant safety systems to fail in such a way that there is loss of safety function. A special form of CMF analysis called 'defense-in-depth and diversity' (D-in-D and D) analysis has been developed to identify possible common-mode failure vulnerabilities and to support a specific licensing action in digital systems. There are two main stages in D-in-D and D activities: both plan and analysis. The purposes of this technical report are (i) to review background of D-in-D and D and some of important issues in digital D-in-D and D, (ii) to provide guidelines for a vendor to prepare planning and/or analysis documents on D-in-D and D, and (iii) to provide guidelines for an evaluator to review applicant's D-in-D and D planning and/or analysis documents, to ensure that the requirements of the D-in-D and D for digital I and C systems are followed. Most of guidelines suggested in this report were based on NUREG/CR-6303 which was published in 1994. The report will be helpful for a vendor to prepare and for an evaluator to review both D-in-D and D planning or analysis documents for digital I and C systems such as the KNGR project.

  9. Software Intensive Systems Data Quality and Estimation Research in Support of Future Defense Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    integration, Enterprise content delivery network (caching specification, distributed caching, forward staging), Session management,, Audio & video over...2007] Lane J., and Boehm B., "Modern Tools to Support DoD Software Intensive System of Systems Cost Estimation - A DACS State-of-the-Art Report," August

  10. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Cyber Defense Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    initialeffort. Preferably, this system will be associated with an F-35 wing or Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) DSB TASK FORCE ON CYBER DEFENSE CHAPTER 4...Warning and Control SystemBCT brigade combat teamBMD Ballistic Missile DefenseBN battalionC&A certification and accreditationC2 command and controlC4ISR...Richard Hale DoD CIO Ms. Jenine Patterson DoD CIO Members Mr. Christopher W. Day Packet Forensics Ms. Lynn A. Dugle Private Consultant Mr. Page Hoeper

  11. A Retroviral CRISPR-Cas9 System for Cellular Autism-Associated Phenotype Discovery in Developing Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael R; Fricano-Kugler, Catherine J; Getz, Stephanie A; Skelton, Patrick D; Lee, Jeonghoon; Rizzuto, Christian P; Geller, Joseph S; Li, Meijie; Luikart, Bryan W

    2016-05-10

    Retroviruses expressing a fluorescent protein, Cas9, and a small guide RNA are used to mimic nonsense PTEN mutations from autism patients in developing mouse neurons. We compare the cellular phenotype elicited by CRISPR-Cas9 to those elicited using shRNA or Cre/Lox technologies and find that knockdown or knockout (KO) produced a corresponding moderate or severe neuronal hypertrophy in all cells. In contrast, the Cas9 approach produced missense and nonsense Pten mutations, resulting in a mix of KO-equivalent hypertrophic and wild type-like phenotypes. Importantly, despite this mixed phenotype, the neuronal hypertrophy resulting from Pten loss was evident on average in the population of manipulated cells. Having reproduced the known Pten KO phenotype using the CRISPR-Cas9 system we design viruses to target a gene that has recently been associated with autism, KATNAL2. Katnal2 deletion in the mouse results in decreased dendritic arborization of developing neurons. We conclude that retroviral implementation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system is an efficient system for cellular phenotype discovery in wild-type animals.

  12. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  13. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husler, R.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Weir, T.J. [Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  14. 76 FR 28855 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... they have the requisite skills in contracting. When specialized expertise is required, contracting... Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), the system criteria are applicable equally to DoD, NASA, and...

  15. Inflammatory monocytes mediate early and organ-specific innate defense during systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lisa Y; Kasahara, Shinji; Kumasaka, Debra K; Knoblaugh, Sue E; Jhingran, Anupam; Hohl, Tobias M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that can cause systemic disease in patients with breaches in mucosal integrity, indwelling catheters, and defects in phagocyte function. Although circulating human and murine monocytes bind C. albicans and promote inflammation, it remains unclear whether C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)- and Ly6C-expressing inflammatory monocytes exert a protective or a deleterious function during systemic infection. During murine systemic candidiasis, interruption of CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocyte trafficking into infected kidneys impaired fungal clearance and decreased murine survival. Depletion of CCR2-expressing cells led to uncontrolled fungal growth in the kidneys and brain and demonstrated an essential antifungal role for inflammatory monocytes and their tissue-resident derivatives in the first 48 hours postinfection. Adoptive transfer of purified inflammatory monocytes in depleted hosts reversed the defect in fungal clearance to a substantial extent, indicating a compartmentally and temporally restricted protective function that can be transferred to enhance systemic innate antifungal immunity.

  16. Major Defense Acquisition Program (MDAP) Trail Boss Overview and Joint Strike Fighter Decontamination Shelter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Individual Protection Joint Project Manager  Individual Protection 3 JAN 11 Joint Project Manager  Chemical Biological Medical Systems ( Biosurveillance ...Trail Boss) Joint Project Manager  Chemical Biological Medical Systems ( Biosurveillance  Trail Boss) • ra oss      Decontamination  Joint Project

  17. Study of Adversarial and Defensive Components in an Experimental Machinery Control Systems Laboratory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    GNU Radio , iPDC, PMU Simulator, Saleae Logic, and Termineter). These tools enhance the vulnerability identification and security assessment of energy...Name INL Kali SamuraiSTFU Developer System(s) OpenDNP3 x Automatak Cross-platform Energy Sector Tools GNU Radio x Eric Blossom / GNU Project...code, Revision Number, as well as the Device IP. https://github.com/digitalbond/Redpoint GNU Radio Eric Blossom / GNU Project Cross

  18. Performance of Diversity System Output Signal in Mobile Cellular System in the Presence of α-μ Short Term Fading and Gamma Long Term Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Krstic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, wireless mobile communication system with macrodiversity reception is considered. Macrodiversity system is consisting of macrodiversity selection combining (SC receiver and three microdiversity SC receivers. Propagation channel suffers α-μ short term fading and Gamma long term fading resulting in system performance degradation. Analytical closed form expression for average level crossing rate (LCR of macrodiversity SC receiver output signal envelope is obtained. Mathematical results are analyzed, presenting the influence of long term fading parameters and short term fading parameters on average level crossing rate. Obtained results can be used in the process of simulation and design of real-world environments mobile cellular telecommunication systems.

  19. Solution to Upgrade the Existing Power System Network Security Defense System%提升电力系统现有网络安全防御体系的解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永康; 周军鹏; 陈云峰

    2011-01-01

    Analyzed technologies of the existing power system network security defense,it shows the current security and defense technology can solve the vast majority of known malicious code attacks,but it is in a state of passive defense,which can not recognize the new and unknown malicious code,it proposed to upgrade the existing security defense system for the active defense system,to achieve the solution of differentiation and defense in depth.%对电力系统现有的网络安全防御技术进行了分析,得出当前的安全防御技术虽能够解决绝大部分已知的恶意代码攻击,但却处于对新型的和未知的恶意代码攻击无法识别的被动防御的状态,并提出将现有的安全防御体系提升为主动防御体系,实现差异化、纵深防御的解决方案。

  20. Reversible quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, B

    2004-01-01

    We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...

  1. Multi-functional MIMO communication in multi-hop cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Sandra; Calabuig, Daniel; Monserrat, Jose F.; Cardona, Narcis

    2014-12-01

    In the context of multi-hop cellular communications, user equipment devices (UEs) with relaying capabilities provide a virtual infrastructure that can enhance the cell spectral efficiency. UE relays, which are generally transparent to the destination user and lack channel state information, mainly operate in an open-loop mode. Most open-loop transmission techniques for relaying are based on orthogonal space-time block coding (OSTBC), which offers a good trade-off between performance and complexity. In this paper, we consider the concept of multi-functional multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission, which combines OSTBC with beamforming techniques. This concept is applied to networks with multiple relays, which can offer a high number of antennas to implement multi-functional MIMO techniques. The proposed schemes are shown to reduce the bit error rate of the destination user with respect to a direct transmission from the base station (BS). Furthermore, the multi-functional setup exhibits better performance than conventional OSTBC at high transmission rates.

  2. Cellular Systems with Full-Duplex Compress-and-Forward Relaying and Cooperative Base Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Somekh, Oren; Poor, H Vincent; Shamai, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the advantages provided by multicell processing of signals transmitted by mobile terminals (MTs) which are received via dedicated relay terminals (RTs) are studied. It is assumed that each RT is capable of full-duplex operation and receives the transmission of adjacent relay terminals. Focusing on intra-cell TDMA and non-fading channels, a simplified relay-aided uplink cellular model based on a model introduced by Wyner is considered. Assuming a nomadic application in which the RTs are oblivious to the MTs' codebooks, a form of distributed compress-and-forward (CF) scheme with decoder side information is employed. The per-cell sum-rate of the CF scheme is derived and is given as a solution of a simple fixed point equation. This achievable rate reveals that the CF scheme is able to completely eliminate the inter-relay interference, and it approaches a ``cut-set-like'' upper bound for strong RTs transmission power. The CF rate is also shown to surpass the rate of an amplify-and-forward scheme via ...

  3. Tetanus toxoid-loaded layer-by-layer nanoassemblies for efficient systemic, mucosal, and cellular immunostimulatory response following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Harshad; Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Jain, Sanyog

    2015-10-01

    The present study reports the tetanus toxoid (TT)-loaded layer-by-layer nanoassemblies (layersomes) with enhanced protection, permeation, and presentation for comprehensive oral immunization. The stable and lyophilized TT-loaded layersomes were prepared by a thin-film hydration method followed by alternate layer-by-layer coating of an electrolyte. The developed system was assessed for in vitro stability of antigen and formulation, cellular uptake, ex vivo intestinal uptake, and immunostimulatory response using a suitable experimental protocol. Layersomes improved the stability in simulated biological media as well as protected the integrity/conformation and native 3D structure of TT as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The cell culture studies demonstrated a 3.8-fold higher permeation of layersomes in Caco-2 cells and an 8.5-fold higher uptake by antigen-presenting cells (RAW 264.7). The TT-loaded layersomes elicited a complete immunostimulatory profile consisting of higher systemic (serum IgG titer), mucosal (sIgA titer), and cellular (interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels) immune response after peroral administration in mice. The modified TT inhibition assay further confirmed the elicitation of complete protective levels of anti-TT antibody (>0.1 IU/mL) by layersomes. In conclusion, the proposed strategy is expected to contribute significantly in the field of stable liposome technology for mass immunization through the oral route.

  4. New Concepts and Theories For Intelligent Control of Cellular Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad

    1996-01-01

    This paper will present some new theories such as biological manufacturing system, the fractal factory theory, holonic manufacturing systems, and multi-agent theory in the context of manufacturing systems. The objective of the paper is to show how these theories can contribute to develop the new...... concepts that are required for controlling the manufacturing systems of the future. Thereafter it will present the potential for improvement of the manufacturing system by introduction and implementation of these theories. The paper tries to encapsulate the main area of my Ph.D. thesis research which...... will evolve around the idea of integrating intelligent elements into the control systems of the manufacturing systems. The research will concentrate on integration of manufacturing units by use of intelligent control mechanisms, information technology and the material handling as the key integrators....

  5. 76 FR 11361 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Preservation of Tooling for Major Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... contractor to ``have a system to manage (control, use, preserve, protect, repair, and maintain) Government... internal DoD procedural matters. Specifically, this implementation of section 815 of the National Defense... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 207 RIN 0750-AG45 Defense Federal...

  6. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream? Headline Series No. 275.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Grier, Peter

    This pamphlet presents a discussion of the various components of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) including the problem of pulling together various new technologies into an effective defensive system and the politics of the so-called "star wars" system. An important part of the defense initiative is the "layered" defense…

  7. Defense Systems Management Review. Volume 3, Number 2, Spring 1980. Managing the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    private sector. For example, a firm may want to minimize layoffs and/or to sus- tain no more than 20 percent unused production capacity. These goals may...times as large as that of the proposed national-level system. The National Aeronautics and Space Ad- ministration ( NASA ), with holdings of more than

  8. Concepts. The Journal of Defense Systems Acquisition Management. Summer 1981. Volume 4, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Market research and analysis will...totally new function, market research and analysis , and by requiring decisions which could replace entire sections of the existing pro- cedures for major...systems acquisition. The market research and analysis (MR&A) function will determine the success or failure of the ADCP policy. Its that

  9. Conversion of the Defense Communications System from Analog to Digital Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    Digital Services ," Proceedings of the IEEE, LX, No. 11 (November 1972), 1352. I p. 1353. 69Allen R. Worley, "The DATRAN System," Proceedings o t he IEE...August 1973, entire issue. Cox, J. E. "Western Union Digital Services ." Proceedings of the IEEE, LX, No. 11 (November 1972), 1350-57. "Crosstalk." Lenkurt

  10. Using Organizational Systems Theory to Improve Defense Acquisition and Warfighter Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    is no reality knowable.”13 The famous German philosopher, Friedrich Hegel, also mused over systems and is credited with highlighting the existence...Goodman, 1977). Although the best performing organizations are both effective and efficient ( Katz & Kahn, 1978), there may be tradeoffs between the two

  11. Plants versus fungi and oomycetes: pathogenesis, defense and counter-defense in the proteomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; El-Bebany, Ahmed F; Yao, Zhen; Adam, Lorne R; El Hadrami, Ismailx; Daayf, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    Plant-fungi and plant-oomycete interactions have been studied at the proteomic level for many decades. However, it is only in the last few years, with the development of new approaches, combined with bioinformatics data mining tools, gel staining, and analytical instruments, such as 2D-PAGE/nanoflow-LC-MS/MS, that proteomic approaches thrived. They allow screening and analysis, at the sub-cellular level, of peptides and proteins resulting from plants, pathogens, and their interactions. They also highlight post-translational modifications to proteins, e.g., glycosylation, phosphorylation or cleavage. However, many challenges are encountered during in planta studies aimed at stressing details of host defenses and fungal and oomycete pathogenicity determinants during interactions. Dissecting the mechanisms of such host-pathogen systems, including pathogen counter-defenses, will ensure a step ahead towards understanding current outcomes of interactions from a co-evolutionary point of view, and eventually move a step forward in building more durable strategies for management of diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. Unraveling intricacies of more complex proteomic interactions that involve additional microbes, i.e., PGPRs and symbiotic fungi, which strengthen plant defenses will generate valuable information on how pathosystems actually function in nature, and thereby provide clues to solving disease problems that engender major losses in crops every year.

  12. Dissertation Defense: Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional validation by test only mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions.Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations. This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics predictions

  13. Dissertation Defense Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional "validation by test only" mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions. Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in "Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations". This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics

  14. Stress responses sculpt the insect immune system, optimizing defense in an ever-changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley Anne

    2017-01-01

    A whole organism, network approach can help explain the adaptive purpose of stress-induced changes in immune function. In insects, mediators of the stress response (e.g. stress hormones) divert molecular resources away from immune function and towards tissues necessary for fight-or-flight behaviours. For example, molecules such as lipid transport proteins are involved in both the stress and immune responses, leading to a reduction in disease resistance when these proteins are shifted towards being part of the stress response system. Stress responses also alter immune system strategies (i.e. reconfiguration) to compensate for resource losses that occur during fight-or flight events. In addition, stress responses optimize immune function for different physiological conditions. In insects, the stress response induces a pro-inflammatory state that probably enhances early immune responses.

  15. Strategic Defense Initiative Demonstration/Validation Program Environmental Assessment. Exoatmospheric Reentry Vehicle Interception System (ERIS),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Force N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Unemployment (%) N/A N/A N/A .... Per Capita Income ($)(1) N/A 6,685 8,837 .... Median FamilT Income ($)) N/A 15,260 N/A...Jr. AA Business Management Facility Description Cogsvell, John C. MS/MBA Systems Project Engineering Description Davis, Rodney J. PhD Environmental

  16. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Next-Generation Unmanned Undersea Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    portfolio that enhances mission agility and outpaces the threat.The portfolio should include at least one program that is structured to accommodate...support streamlining testing and evaluation (T&E) and logistics requirements in theseprograms to accommodate short system lifetimes and large numbers of...potentially expendablesystems.The task force also suggests that ASN(RDA) reassess the scope of the LDUUV program in light of therecommended portfolio

  17. Accelerating Technology Transition: Bridging the Valley of Death for Materials and Processes in Defense Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    California, Berkeley GARY FISCHMAN , University of Illinois, Chicago KATHARINE G. FRASE, IBM HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University JOHN J. GASSNER...Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, and Ranji Vaidyanathan, Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. 10:30 a.m. Boeing Phantom Works, David Banks, The Boeing...Bushman, 3M 8:45 a.m. Approaches Used for Deployment of Automated Biological Detection Systems, David Tilles, Northrop Grumman Automation and

  18. Major Automated Information Systems: Selected Defense Programs Need to Implement Key Acquisition Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    information system NGEN Next Generation Enterprise Network PMBOK ® Project Management Body of Knowledge TMIP-J Theater Medical Information Program...Management Institute’s Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge ( PMBOK ®), and assessed each of the 3 programs against these criteria.14 To...1) requirements management and (2) project monitoring and control best practices, as defined by CMMI-ACQ and PMBOK ®. We also assessed these

  19. System and Mass Storage Study for Defense Mapping Agency Topographic Center (DMATC/HC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    extraction, file merging, and file extension (beyond 1x1 blocks) features • Automated transaction log The DIED system was installed at...34 This standard establishes a uniform structure for the content and format of digital terrain elevation data. The file structure is organized into 1x1 ...time they completed their minicomputer evaluation study; a la^ge market for the PDP 11/70 already exists in both the government and commercial

  20. Defense Information Systems Agency Technical Integration Support (DISA- TIS). MUMPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    programming language; it includes facilities for both high- and low-level programming . C supports low-level hardware control and bit manipulation in addition...purposes. Sup- porting structured programming C 1974 D. Ritchie ALGOL 68 Systems programming (Bell Labs) BCPL Ada 1979 J. lchbiah eta.. Pascal, General...requirements and has high de facto usage for scientific and mathematical programming . C also provides support for efficient array and matrix calculations

  1. The Defense Civilian Intelligence Personnel System: An Independent Assessment of Design, Implementation, and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    recruiting among the “ millennial ” generation of workers who are more accustomed to instant feedback and recognition and would not be content with a...curve, the suppression of wages by permitting bonuses to be paid instead of base salary increases, and the virtual elimination of merit consideration...not support a pay system which ultimately is designed to suppress wages for civilian DoD employees over time. In March 2009, DoD suspended

  2. Influence of Different Doses of Levofloxacin on Antioxidant Defense Systems and Markers of Renal and Hepatic Dysfunctions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Levofloxacin (LFX is a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in the treatment of infections such as pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis. The present study assessed the likely toxic effect of LFX on hepatic and renal tissues in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: A: control, B: 5 mg/kg bw LFX (half therapeutic dose, C: 10 mg/kg bw LFX (therapeutic dose, and D: 20 mg/kg bw LFX (double therapeutic dose. After seven days of administration, result indicated significant (P<0.05 increase in plasma ALT, AST, and ALP activities in the treated groups compared to control. Also, there was a significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, and total bilirubin in the treated groups relative to control. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides also increased significantly in the treated groups relative to control. Also, hepatic MDA level increased significantly in all the treated groups. However, hepatic SOD, catalase, and GST activities were significantly reduced in the LFX-treated animals. Moreover, GSH and ascorbic acid levels were significantly decreased in the LFX-treated groups relative to control. In conclusion, three doses of levofloxacin depleted antioxidant defense system and induced oxidative stress and hepatic and renal dysfunctions in rats.

  3. Changes in Antioxidant Defense System Using Different Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition in Children after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Auxiliadora Baena-Gómez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally, lipids used in parenteral nutrition (PN are based on ω-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, with potential adverse effects involving oxidative stress. Methods: We evaluated the antioxidant defense system in children, after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, who were randomized to use a lipid emulsion with fish oil or soybean oil. Blood samples at baseline, at 10 days, and at the end of the PN were taken to analyze plasma retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, coenzyme Q9 and coenzyme Q10 levels, and catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPOX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in lysed erythrocytes. Results: An increase in plasma α-tocopherol levels in the group of patients receiving the fish oil-containing emulsion (FO compared with the group receiving the soybean emulsion was observed at day 10 of PN. Concurrently, plasma α-tocopherol increased in the FO group and β-carotene decreased in both groups at day 10 compared with baseline levels, being more significant in the group receiving the FO emulsion. Conclusion: FO-containing emulsions in PN could improve the antioxidant profile by increasing levels of α-tocopherol in children after HSCT who are at higher risk of suffering oxidative stress and metabolic disorders.

  4. Effect of vitamin E and C supplements on antioxidant defense system in cardiovascular disease patients in Zahedan, southeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karajibani, Mansour; Hashemi, Mohammad; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Dikshit, Madhurima

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggest that antioxidant vitamins might reduce the risk of disease outcomes by their ability to scavenge free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the supplementation of vitamins E and C on oxidant and antioxidant status in CVD patients. We conducted a case-control study with vitamin E (400 IU/d) and vitamin C (500 mg/d) supplementation in 40 CVD patients for 2 mo. Antioxidant (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) and oxidant status were analyzed pre and post supplementation. In the initial stage the activity of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were lower, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was elevated (pvitamin E (83.7%), C (145.3%), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (62.8%) and a significant decrease in MDA (40%) value were observed (pvitamins E and C reduced lipid peroxidation and strengthened the antioxidant defense system. Hence, there will be beneficial effects on the heart by reducing oxidative stress in CVD patients.

  5. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  6. Host-pathogen interactions between the human innate immune system and Candida albicans-understanding and modeling defense and evasion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dühring, Sybille; Germerodt, Sebastian; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F; Dandekar, Thomas; Schuster, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The diploid, polymorphic yeast Candida albicans is one of the most important human pathogenic fungi. C. albicans can grow, proliferate and coexist as a commensal on or within the human host for a long time. However, alterations in the host environment can render C. albicans virulent. In this review, we describe the immunological cross-talk between C. albicans and the human innate immune system. We give an overview in form of pairs of human defense strategies including immunological mechanisms as well as general stressors such as nutrient limitation, pH, fever etc. and the corresponding fungal response and evasion mechanisms. Furthermore, Computational Systems Biology approaches to model and investigate these complex interactions are highlighted with a special focus on game-theoretical methods and agent-based models. An outlook on interesting questions to be tackled by Systems Biology regarding entangled defense and evasion mechanisms is given.

  7. Onset of herbivore-induced resistance in systemic tissue primed for jasmonate-dependent defenses is activated by abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Irene A; Verhage, Adriaan; Schuurink, Robert C; Watt, Lewis G; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the MYC2 transcription factor on the one hand and the AP2/ERF transcription factors ORA59 and ERF1 on the other hand regulate distinct branches of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway in an antagonistic fashion, co-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene, respectively. Feeding by larvae of the specialist herbivorous insect Pieris rapae (small cabbage white butterfly) results in activation of the MYC-branch and concomitant suppression of the ERF-branch in insect-damaged leaves. Here we investigated differential JA signaling activation in undamaged systemic leaves of P. rapae-infested plants. We found that the MYC2 transcription factor gene was induced both in the local insect-damaged leaves and the systemic undamaged leaves of P. rapae-infested Arabidopsis plants. However, in contrast to the insect-damaged leaves, the undamaged tissue did not show activation of the MYC-branch marker gene VSP1. Comparison of the hormone signal signature revealed that the levels of JA and (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine raised to similar extents in locally damaged and systemically undamaged leaves, but the production of ABA and the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid was enhanced only in the local herbivore-damaged leaves, and not in the distal undamaged leaves. Challenge of undamaged leaves of pre-infested plants with either P. rapae larvae or exogenously applied ABA led to potentiated expression levels of MYC2 and VSP1, with the latter reaching extremely high expression levels. Moreover, P. rapae-induced resistance, as measured by reduction of caterpillar growth on pre-infested plants, was blocked in the ABA biosynthesis mutant aba2-1, that was also impaired in P. rapae-induced expression of VSP1. Together, these results suggest that ABA is a crucial regulator of herbivore-induced resistance by activating primed JA-regulated defense responses upon secondary herbivore attack in Arabidopsis.

  8. New Concepts and Theories For Intelligent Control of Cellular Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad

    1996-01-01

    This paper will present some new theories such as biological manufacturing system, the fractal factory theory, holonic manufacturing systems, agile manufacturing, object orientation, multi-agent theory, artificial intelligence, and artificial life in the context of manufacturing systems....... The paper tries to encapsulate the main area of my Ph.D. thesis research which will evolve around the idea of integrating intelligent elements into the control systems of the manufacturing systems. Furthermore it intends to show how the curriculum and discussions of the IPS Ph.D. course will and have...... contributed to my research. The research will concentrate on integration of manufacturing units by use of intelligent control mechanisms, information technology and the material handling as the key integrators....

  9. Defense Science Board Task Force Report: The Role of Autonomy in DoD Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Huang. 2005. Machine Learning in Computer Vision. Dordrecht: Springer . 32 Jurafsky, Daniel, James H. Martin. 2008. An Introduction to Natural...Computer Vision. Dordrecht: Springer . D E F E N S E S C I E N C E B O A R D | D E P A R T M E N T O F D E F E N S E DSB TASK FORCE REPORT...systems researchers, with cooperation being either active (such as in robot soccer ) or non-active (such as the foraging behavior seen in ants

  10. Defense and counterdefense in the RNAi-based antiviral immune system in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Joël T; van Cleef, Koen W R; van Rij, Ronald P

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an important pathway to combat virus infections in insects and plants. Hallmarks of antiviral RNAi in these organisms are: (1) an increase in virus replication after inactivation of major actors in the RNAi pathway, (2) production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (v-siRNAs), and (3) suppression of RNAi by dedicated viral proteins. In this chapter, we will review the mechanism of RNAi in insects, its function as an antiviral immune system, viral small RNA profiles, and viral counterdefense strategies. We will also consider alternative, inducible antiviral immune responses.

  11. The Regional Dimension of Romania's Participation to the Anti-Missile Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current security environment is characterized by a high degree of instability and unpredictability, through the manifestation of new risks and threats, especially those with asymmetrical nature, by redefining the relations between the great powers, and increasing freedom of action of the regional actors (state and non-state. At the international level, the end of the Cold War has led to a fragmentation of efforts in the security field, with direct implications on the need for further efforts of the international community coordination. In this era of profound change and transformation it is not possible the adoption of an isolationist policy of security, but only in a broader context of interdependencies and relationships between general trends, threats or challenges specific to a particular area or geographic areas. Swift operationalization of the anti-missile system will strengthen the national security both directly, through the protection it provides for the entire national territory, and indirectly, as the system will have a deterrent important role, able to mitigate risks of possible attacks by ballistic missiles. The role of deterrence will remove the risk of attack against any Allied territory on which, by virtue of membership in NATO and obligations involved according to article 5 of the Washington Treaty, Romania has also responsibilities.

  12. In the presence of danger:the extracellular matrix defensive response to central nervous system injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lyn B. Jakeman; Kent E. Williams; Bryan Brautigam

    2014-01-01

    Glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to formation of the extracellular matrix, which provides adhesive sites, signaling molecules, and a diffusion barrier to enhance efifcient neurotransmission and axon potential propagation. In the normal adult CNS, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is relatively stable except in selected regions characterized by dynamic remodel-ing. However, after trauma such as a spinal cord injury or cortical contusion, the lesion epicenter becomes a focus of acute neuroinlfammation. The activation of the surrounding glial cells leads to a dramatic change in the composition of the ECM at the edges of the lesion, creating a perile-sion environment dominated by growth inhibitory molecules and restoration of the peripheral/central nervous system border. An advantage of this response is to limit the invasion of damaging cells and diffusion of toxic molecules into the spared tissue regions, but this occurs at the cost of inhibiting migration of endogenous repair cells and preventing axonal regrowth. The following review was prepared by reading and discussing over 200 research articles in the ifeld published in PubMed and selecting those with signiifcant impact and/or controversial points. This article highlights structural and functional features of the normal adult CNS ECM and then focuses on the reactions of glial cells and changes in the perilesion border that occur following spinal cord or contusive brain injury. Current research strategies directed at modifying the inhibitory perile-sion microenvironment without eliminating the protective functions of glial cell activation are discussed.

  13. System-on-chip-centric unattended embedded sensors in homeland security and defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Shih, Min-Yi; Walter, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Esterkin, Vladimir

    2009-05-01

    System-on-chip (SoC) single-die electronic integrated circuit (IC) integration has recently been attracting a great deal of attention, due to its high modularity, universality, and relatively low fabrication cost. The SoC also has low power consumption and it is naturally suited to being a base for integration of embedded sensors. Such sensors can run unattended, and can be either commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic, COTS microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), or optical-COTS or produced in house (i.e., at Physical Optics Corporation, POC). In the version with the simplest electronic packaging, they can be integrated with low-power wireless RF that can communicate with a central processing unit (CPU) integrated in-house and installed on the specific platform of interest. Such a platform can be a human body (for e-clothing), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), or many others. In this paper we discuss SoC-centric embedded unattended sensors in Homeland Security and military applications, including specific application scenarios (or CONOPS). In one specific example, we analyze an embedded polarization optical sensor produced in house, including generalized Lambertian light-emitting diode (LED) sources and secondary nonimaging optics (NIO).

  14. Comparative analysis of kill probability one of the main features of Air Defense Integrated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile SANDRU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The combat features of the Ground Based Air Defence Systems represent the potential of search, discovery, indicate, combat and destruction of the enemy's air assets and the ability to manoeuvre of forces and combat means, for the purpose of capturing the enemy's airspace and avoid actions and attack to defend objectives (of troops assigned in the area of responsibility tacking into account the conditions established by the mission. The paper is focused on a comparative study on the possibilities of target destruction of the Air Air Defence Systems (antiaircraft artillery and Surface-To-Air Missiles. Two situations were chosen: for the first case, related to S1, S2 and S3, we’ve assumed the presence of a flying target describing a uniform rectilinear trajectory both in the presence and in the absence of the enemy’s electronic jamming. For the second case concerning S4 we’ve assumed that the target changed its angle of flight.

  15. 防空武器系统射击概率研究%Research on Firing Probability of Air Defense System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩星; 段芳芳; 高剑

    2014-01-01

    Operational effectiveness of an air defense system is an important factor to evaluate advantages and disad-vantage of the system. Through establishing firing probability model of air defense weapon system, firing probability of an anti-aircraft gun and missile integrated air defense system is analyzed, relation between firing probability and air attack intensity and multi-target capability is determined, which can provide design consideration for system designer.%地面防空武器系统作战效能是衡量武器系统优劣的重要因素。本文通过建立防空武器系统射击概率模型,对某弹炮结合防空武器系统射击概率进行分析,明确射击概率与空袭密度和系统同时多目标能力之间的关系,为系统设计人员提供设计依据。

  16. Hsp70 chaperone systems: diversity of cellular functions and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M P; Bukau, B

    1998-03-01

    Hsp70 chaperone systems play an essential role in the life cycle of many proteins not only in an hostile environment but also under normal growth conditions. In the course of evolution the diversification of functions was accompanied by an amplification of components of the Hsp70 system. Here strategies are reviewed how different Hsp70 systems work independently or cooperate with each other in a functional network to perform their housekeeping tasks even under stress conditions. We further discuss how co-chaperones which act as targeting factors regulate the cycle of substrate binding and release upon which the Hsp70 chaperone activity depends.

  17. Developing land use scenario dynamics model by the integration of system dynamics model and cellular automata model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Chunyang; SHI; Peijun; CHEN; Jin; Li; Xiaobing; PAN; Ya

    2005-01-01

    Modeling land use scenario changes and its potential impacts on the structure and function of the ecosystem in the typical regions are helpful to understanding the interactive mechanism between land use system and ecological system. A Land Use Scenario Dynamics (LUSD) model by the integration of System Dynamics (SD) model and Cellular Automata (CA) model is developed with land use scenario changes in northern China in the next 20 years simulated in this paper. The basic idea of LUSD model is to simulate the land use scenario demands by using SD model at first, then allocate the land use scenario patterns at the local scale with the considerations of land use suitability, inheritance ability and neighborhood effect by using CA model to satisfy the balance between land use scenario demands and supply. The application of LUSD model in northern China suggests that the model has the ability to reflect the complex behavior of land use system at different scales to some extent and is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of land use system on ecological system. In addition, the simulated results also indicate that obvious land use changes will take place in the farming-pastoral zone of northern China in the next 20 years with cultivated land and urban land being the most active land use types.

  18. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOMARKERS AND POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC TARGETS IN SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Mesnyankina

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the most severe and prognostically poor systemic connective tissue diseases that affect mainly women of childbearing age. The recent researches have provided a deeper insight into its pathogenesis, the identification and definition of a role of cytokines, cells, and intercellular bonds involved in the development of SLE. These data are borne in mind when designing novel biological agents, the action of which is aimed at inhibiting the targets impli...

  19. Cellular Telephone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨周

    1996-01-01

    Cellular phones, used in automobiles, airliners, and passenger trains, are basically low-power radiotelephones. Calls go through radio transmitters that are located within small geographical units called cells. Because each cell’s signals are too weak to interfere with those of other cells operating on the same fre-

  20. Interleukin 17-Mediated Host Defense against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Sparber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is part of the normal microbiota in most healthy individuals. However, it can cause opportunistic infections if host defenses are breached, with symptoms ranging from superficial lesions to severe systemic disease. The study of rare congenital defects in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis led to the identification of interleukin-17 (IL-17 as a key factor in host defense against mucosal fungal infection. Experimental infections in mice confirmed the critical role of IL-17 in mucocutaneous immunity against C. albicans. Research on mouse models has also contributed importantly to our current understanding of the regulation of IL-17 production by different cellular sources and its effector functions in distinct tissues. In this review, we highlight recent findings on IL-17-mediated immunity against C. albicans in mouse and man.

  1. Enhancement of antioxidant defense system by epigallocatechin-3-gallate during bleomycin induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Narayanan; Kalayarasan, Srinivasan; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2008-07-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance between radical-generating and radical scavenging systems plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol and a major component of green tea, possess a potent antioxidant property. This study was designed to evaluate the potential antioxidative activity of EGCG in the plasma and lungs during bleomycin induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Intratracheal administration of bleomycin (6.5 U/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significant reduction of body weight, enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin A). Elevations in lung W/D (wet weight/dry weight) ratio, hydroxyproline content was observed with a synchronized increase in lipid peroxidation markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides). Intraperitoneal administration of EGCG at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight significantly improved the body weight, enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants and considerably decreased the W/D ratio, hydroxyproline and lipid peroxidation marker levels. Histological observations also correlated with the biochemical parameters. Thus, this study confirms the beneficial use of EGCG in alleviating the oxidative stress induced during pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. Optimization of the Design of Pre-Signal System Using Improved Cellular Automaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pre-signal system can improve the efficiency of intersection approach under rational design. One of the main obstacles in optimizing the design of pre-signal system is that driving behaviors in the sorting area cannot be well evaluated. The NaSch model was modified by considering slow probability, turning-deceleration rules, and lane changing rules. It was calibrated with field observed data to explore the interactions among design parameters. The simulation results of the proposed model indicate that the length of sorting area, traffic demand, signal timing, and lane allocation are the most important influence factors. The recommendations of these design parameters are demonstrated. The findings of this paper can be foundations for the design of pre-signal system and show promising improvement in traffic mobility.

  3. Optimization of the design of pre-signal system using improved cellular automaton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Ke; Tao, Siran; Wan, Xia; Chen, Kuanmin

    2014-01-01

    The pre-signal system can improve the efficiency of intersection approach under rational design. One of the main obstacles in optimizing the design of pre-signal system is that driving behaviors in the sorting area cannot be well evaluated. The NaSch model was modified by considering slow probability, turning-deceleration rules, and lane changing rules. It was calibrated with field observed data to explore the interactions among design parameters. The simulation results of the proposed model indicate that the length of sorting area, traffic demand, signal timing, and lane allocation are the most important influence factors. The recommendations of these design parameters are demonstrated. The findings of this paper can be foundations for the design of pre-signal system and show promising improvement in traffic mobility.

  4. A cellular and regulatory map of the cholinergic nervous system of C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Laura; Kratsios, Paschalis; Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi E; Hall, David H; White, John G; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L Rene; Alon, Uri; Hobert, Oliver

    2015-12-25

    Nervous system maps are of critical importance for understanding how nervous systems develop and function. We systematically map here all cholinergic neuron types in the male and hermaphrodite C. elegans nervous system. We find that acetylcholine (ACh) is the most broadly used neurotransmitter and we analyze its usage relative to other neurotransmitters within the context of the entire connectome and within specific network motifs embedded in the connectome. We reveal several dynamic aspects of cholinergic neurotransmitter identity, including a sexually dimorphic glutamatergic to cholinergic neurotransmitter switch in a sex-shared interneuron. An expression pattern analysis of ACh-gated anion channels furthermore suggests that ACh may also operate very broadly as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. As a first application of this comprehensive neurotransmitter map, we identify transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control cholinergic neurotransmitter identity and cholinergic circuit assembly.

  5. 分布式信息安全防御系统的设计与实现%Design and Realization of Distributed Information Security Defense System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国鑫; 朱宪花

    2012-01-01

    In allusion to the United Threat Management(UTM)'s problems of single point failure and stability of equipment etc., a distributed information security defense system is designed. This system is tree multi-level management structure, it can be divided into three parts, including proactive defense platform, monitoring nodes and host monitoring module. They separately undertake different information system defense tasks. So it can effectively relieve the safety management burden of the gateway, thus solve the problems of single point failure and system stability. This helps to solve hybrid network security threats.%针对统一威胁管理(UTM)的单点失效、设备稳定性等问题,设计一种分布式信息安全防御系统.该系统为树形多级管理结构,可分为主动防御平台、监控节点、主机监控模块3个部分,分别承担不同的信息系统防御任务.实验结果表明,该系统可有效地减轻网关处的安全管理负担,解决单点失效及系统稳定性问题,适用于防御混合型网络安全威胁.

  6. 舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统技术研究%Study on Shipped Missile-Gun Integrated Defense Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白奕

    2014-01-01

    现代高性能反舰导弹是舰艇末端防御的最大威胁,而舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统为舰艇的末端防御提供了一种有效的途径。分析了舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统的作战使用和主要特点,针对海上空袭武器的特点,重点研究了增强系统抗饱和攻击能力的设计方法,并探讨了舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统在现代海战中的使用方向。%Modern high-powered antiship missile is the main threaten of ship,and shipped missile-gun integrated defense weapon system is an effective way to the terminal defense of ship. This paper first analyzes the combat operation and main characteristic of missile-gun integrated defense weapon system,then studies the key factor of designing a system. At last the system usage is discussed in the modern sea war.

  7. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOMARKERS AND POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC TARGETS IN SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mesnyankina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is one of the most severe and prognostically poor systemic connective tissue diseases that affect mainly women of childbearing age. The recent researches have provided a deeper insight into its pathogenesis, the identification and definition of a role of cytokines, cells, and intercellular bonds involved in the development of SLE. These data are borne in mind when designing novel biological agents, the action of which is aimed at inhibiting the targets implicated in the development of the disease. This information also may provide better understanding the mechanism of action of drugs, such as belimumab and rituximab, which have already proven their efficacy. 

  8. Impact of Contract Bundling and Consolidation on Defense Acquisition System and Defense Industrial Base: The Case of the U.S. Department of the Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    or 39% of the value of such contracts. Next, a group of nine firms—EDO Communications and Countermeasures Systems, Lockheed Martin, Sociedad ...49,437,854.00 5.94% SOCIEDAD ESPAIOLA DE MONTAJES INDUSTRIALES SA $60,000,000.00 7.21% LOCKHEED MARTIN CORPORATION $79,342,491.00 9.54% EDO

  9. [The condition of the system "peroxide oxidation of lipids-antioxidant defense" in mixed saliva of patients with chronic generalized periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butiyugin, I A; Volchegorskiy, I A

    2014-02-01

    The comparative analysis was made concerning conditions of the system "Peroxide oxidation of lipids-antioxidant defenses in mixed saliva of patients with chronic disseminated periodontitis of light (n = 45), mean (n = 36) and severe (n = 18) degrees. The control group consisted of 25 clinically healthy persons with intact periodontium. The study revealed that in comparison with control group, in patients with chronic disseminated periodontitis occurred an increasing of content of heptane-soluble diene conjugates, isopropanol-soluble ketodienes and conjugated trienes, ceruloplasmin and a decreasing of level of alpha-tocopherol, especially under severe degree of disease. The study also established a non-linear U-dependence between indicators of the system "Peroxide oxidation of lipids-antioxidant defenses" in mixed saliva and severity of affection of tissues of periodontium in patients with chronic disseminated dermatosis.

  10. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  11. GIS BASED SYSTEM FOR POST-EARTHQUAKE CRISIS MANAGMENT USING CELLULAR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raeesi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters. Earthquakes happen mainly near the edges of tectonic plates, but they may happen just about anywhere. Earthquakes cannot be predicted. Quick response after disasters, like earthquake, decreases loss of life and costs. Massive earthquakes often cause structures to collapse, trapping victims under dense rubble for long periods of time. After the earthquake and destroyed some areas, several teams are sent to find the location of the destroyed areas. The search and rescue phase usually is maintained for many days. Time reduction for surviving people is very important. A Geographical Information System (GIS can be used for decreasing response time and management in critical situations. Position estimation in short period of time time is important. This paper proposes a GIS based system for post–earthquake disaster management solution. This system relies on several mobile positioning methods such as cell-ID and TA method, signal strength method, angel of arrival method, time of arrival method and time difference of arrival method. For quick positioning, the system can be helped by any person who has a mobile device. After positioning and specifying the critical points, the points are sent to a central site for managing the procedure of quick response for helping. This solution establishes a quick way to manage the post–earthquake crisis.

  12. Cloud computing models and their application in LTE based cellular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A.J.; Karagiannis, G.

    2013-01-01

    As cloud computing emerges as the next novel concept in computer science, it becomes clear that the model applied in large data storage systems used to resolve issues coming forth from an increasing demand, could also be used to resolve the very high bandwidth requirements on access network, core ne

  13. Diversity Performance of Multiantenna Systems for UMTS Cellular Phones in Different Propagation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Diallo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the evaluation of the diversity performance of several two-antenna systems for UMTS terminals. First, a two-antenna system with poor antenna-to-antenna isolation is described. Then, with the help of a neutralization technique, we introduced an optimized structure with high antenna-to-antenna isolation. The key parameters for an efficient diversity performance are then discussed, some of them being actually dependent on the propagation environment (uniform, indoor, outdoor, and outdoor-to-indoor chosen here. All these parameters, the total efficiency, the envelope correlation coefficient, the mean effective gain, the diversity gain, and the effective diversity gain, are computed with the help of the simulated radiation patterns of both antenna systems. Next, these key parameters are measured in a reverberation chamber to validate the simulations we achieved in the uniform environment. The comparison of the performance of the two prototypes is especially showing the usefulness of using a neutralization technique for enhanced diversity antenna systems.

  14. Cellular processing and nuclear targeting of non-viral gene delivery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, M.A.E.M. van der

    2005-01-01

    Gene therapy utilizes genetic material in order to cure patients either by DNA vaccines or by replacement of a defective gene with a normal one. For successful gene therapy certain elements are required: gene delivery systems with low toxicity and immunity, with efficient gene transfer and high gene

  15. Investigation of the Nonlinear Model of the Cellular Population System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vinogradova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An isolated population system is considered which consists of two types of human stem cells: normal cells and cells with chromosomal anomalies (abnormal. In the paper the nonlinear dynamic model which describes dynamics of cell populations developing in vitro is elaborated. The model allows to investigate the processes of the formation of the abnormal cells population from the abnormal cells population of normal cells as well as joint development of these populations. The model takes into account the limited resources.An important feature of the developed model is the use of biological characteristics of processes in the cell population system, such as the proportion of cells, divided over a specified time, the proportion of cells whish are not divided, and which are "lost" and which are passed in the population of abnormal cells from the normal population. This approach allows a more detailed analysis of the impact of various "primary" parameters on the evolution of the population system.Under cultivation of cell populations in vitro a struggle for resources primarily affects the processes of the cell reproduction. This is reflected in the existence of the dividing cells frequency dependence of the total population of normal and abnormal cells. For the account of such dependencies different non-linear functions are typically used. However, the use of such non-linear relationships leads to the difficulties in finding confidence intervals for the estimates of the model parameters at subsequent stages of research. At the same time, the problem of the system parameters estimating and finding of the corresponding confidence intervals for estimates can be solved easy in case when the nonlinear system is linear with respect to the unknown parameters. In the paper it is achieved due to the piecewise linear approximation of nonlinear dependencies.An important feature of the model is a different view of the right part of the differential equations system

  16. Systems Engineering of Unmanned DoD Systems: Following the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System/Defense Acquisition System Process to Develop an Unmanned Ground Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Manual D-A-1). APAs are “Performance attributes of a system not important enough to be considered KPPs or KSAs, but still appropriate to include in...the CDD or CPD are designated as APAs ” (JCIDS Manual D-A-1). The requirements are expressed using Thresholds (T) and Objectives (O). “Performance...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT Approved for public release; distribution is

  17. A Decision Support System for Identifying and Ranking Critical Habitat Parcels on and in the Vicinity of Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    DOD Department of Defense DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DSS Decision Support System DTM Digital Terrain...Typically a 200 foot buffer is marked around the set of cavity trees belonging to a woodpecker group (termed a cavity tree cluster), and within...girdling trees with wire, burying cable, firing artillery within 600 feet and using anything that produces excessive disturbance (e.g., noise

  18. The Development and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Department of Defense Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, Version 7.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    human factors ” are causal in a majority of military mishaps. This report also reports on a Department of Defense (DoD) effort to improve the system...used to categorize causal and contributing human factors . Specifically, recent attempts to improve coding methods with the goal of achieving better...only as causal . Factor – Any deviation, out-of-the-ordinary, or deficient action or condition discovered in the course of a mishap investigation

  19. Construction of the Disciplinary System of Defense S & T Information Science & Its Core Field Research%装备科技情报学科体系构筑与核心领域研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符福峘

    2003-01-01

    Five issues regarding the construction of the disciplinary system of defense S & T information science are discussed, i. e. the concept and the research subject; the basic factors; the research object and major fields; the na-ture and academic position; and the function and mission. It's pointed out that strengthening the research on the theoreti-cal system of defense S & T information science and using this system to guide information practice and promote the devel-opment of defense S & T information undertakings are of great significance.

  20. Analytical tools for the study of cellular glycosylation in the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette eVan Kooyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that glycosylation plays important role in intercellular communication within the immune system. Glycosylation-dependent interactions are crucial for the innate and adaptive immune system and regulate immune cell trafficking, synapse formation, activation, and survival. These functions take place by the cis or trans interaction of lectins with glycans. Classical immunological and biochemical methods have been used for the study of lectin function; however, the investigation of their counterparts, glycans, requires very specialized methodologies that have been extensively developed in the past decade within the Glycobiology scientific community. This Mini-Review intends to summarize the available technology for the study of glycan biosynthesis, its regulation and characterization for their application to the study of glycans in Immunology.

  1. A functional screen for copper homeostasis genes identifies a pharmacologically tractable cellular system

    OpenAIRE

    Schlecht, Ulrich; Suresh, Sundari; Xu, Weihong; Aparicio, Ana Maria; Chu, Angela; Proctor, Michael J; Davis, Ronald W.; Scharfe, Curt; St.Onge, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Copper is essential for the survival of aerobic organisms. If copper is not properly regulated in the body however, it can be extremely cytotoxic and genetic mutations that compromise copper homeostasis result in severe clinical phenotypes. Understanding how cells maintain optimal copper levels is therefore highly relevant to human health. Results We found that addition of copper (Cu) to culture medium leads to increased respiratory growth of yeast, a phenotype which we then system...

  2. Radiating Fröhlich system as a model of cellular electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrobár, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Oscillating polar entities inside the biological cells, most notably microtubules, are bound to emit electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon is described by Fröhlich kinetic equations expressing, in terms of quantum occupancy numbers of each discrete collective oscillatory mode, the balance between incoming metabolic energy flow and losses due to linear and non-linear interactions with the thermal environs of the oscillators. Hitherto, radiation losses have not been introduced as part of the balance; it was assumed that they were proportional to the modal occupation numbers. It is demonstrated that this formulation is incorrect and the radiation losses must be taken into account in the kinetic equations explicitly. Results of a numerical study of kinetic equations, enlarged in this sense, are presented for the case of three coupled oscillators which was shown to evince the essential attributes of the Fröhlich systems. Oscillator eigenfrequencies were chosen, alternatively, to fall into the MHz and the THz frequency domains. It was found that large radiation levels destroy the main hallmark of the Fröhlich systems, the energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode. The system then functions as a convertor of metabolic energy into radiation. At more moderate radiation levels, both energy condensation and significant radiation can coexist. Possible consequences for the cell physiology are suggested.

  3. Tinnitus: pathology of synaptic plasticity at the cellular and system levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu J Guitton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite being more and more common, and having a high impact on the quality of life of sufferers, tinnitus does not yet have a cure. This has been mostly the result of limited knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying this adverse pathology. However, the last decade has witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. Animal models have demonstrated that tinnitus is a pathology of neural plasticity, and has two main components: a molecular, peripheral component related to the initiation phase of tinnitus; and a system-level, central component related to the long-term maintenance of tinnitus. Using the most recent experimental data and the molecular/system dichotomy as a framework, we describe here the biological basis of tinnitus. We then discuss these mechanisms from an evolutionary perspective, highlighting similarities with memory. Finally, we consider how these discoveries can translate into therapies, and we suggest operative strategies to design new and effective combined therapeutic solutions using both pharmacological (local and systemic and behavioral tools (e.g., using tele-medicine and virtual reality settings.

  4. A cellular and regulatory map of the GABAergic nervous system of C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendrel, Marie; Atlas, Emily G; Hobert, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter maps are important complements to anatomical maps and represent an invaluable resource to understand nervous system function and development. We report here a comprehensive map of neurons in the C. elegans nervous system that contain the neurotransmitter GABA, revealing twice as many GABA-positive neuron classes as previously reported. We define previously unknown glia-like cells that take up GABA, as well as 'GABA uptake neurons' which do not synthesize GABA but take it up from the extracellular environment, and we map the expression of previously uncharacterized ionotropic GABA receptors. We use the map of GABA-positive neurons for a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulators that define the GABA phenotype. We synthesize our findings of specification of GABAergic neurons with previous reports on the specification of glutamatergic and cholinergic neurons into a nervous system-wide regulatory map which defines neurotransmitter specification mechanisms for more than half of all neuron classes in C. elegans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17686.001 PMID:27740909

  5. Defense-in-depth by mucosally administered anti-HIV dimeric IgA2 and systemic IgG1 mAbs: complete protection of rhesus monkeys from mucosal SHIV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholukh, Anton M; Watkins, Jennifer D; Vyas, Hemant K; Gupta, Sandeep; Lakhashe, Samir K; Thorat, Swati; Zhou, Mingkui; Hemashettar, Girish; Bachler, Barbara C; Forthal, Donald N; Villinger, Francois; Sattentau, Quentin J; Weiss, Robin A; Agatic, Gloria; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Heeney, Jonathan L; Ruprecht, Ruth M

    2015-04-21

    Although IgA is the most abundantly produced immunoglobulin in humans, its role in preventing HIV-1 acquisition, which occurs mostly via mucosal routes, remains unclear. In our passive mucosal immunizations of rhesus macaques (RMs), the anti-HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nmAb) HGN194, given either as dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1) or dIgA2 intrarectally (i.r.), protected 83% or 17% of the RMs against i.r. simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge, respectively. Data from the RV144 trial implied that vaccine-induced plasma IgA counteracted the protective effector mechanisms of IgG1 with the same epitope specificity. We thus hypothesized that mucosal dIgA2 might diminish the protection provided by IgG1 mAbs targeting the same epitope. To test our hypothesis, we administered HGN194 IgG1 intravenously (i.v.) either alone or combined with i.r. HGN194 dIgA2. We enrolled SHIV-exposed, persistently aviremic RMs protected by previously administered nmAbs; RM anti-human IgG responses were undetectable. However, low-level SIV Gag-specific proliferative T-cell responses were found. These animals resemble HIV-exposed, uninfected humans, in which local and systemic cellular immune responses have been observed. HGN194 IgG1 and dIgA2 used alone and the combination of the two neutralized the challenge virus equally well in vitro. All RMs given only i.v. HGN194 IgG1 became infected. In contrast, all RMs given HGN194 IgG1+dIgA2 were completely protected against high-dose i.r. SHIV-1157ipEL-p challenge. These data imply that combining suboptimal defenses at the mucosal and systemic levels can completely prevent virus acquisition. Consequently, active vaccination should focus on defense-in-depth, a strategy that seeks to build up defensive fall-back positions well behind the fortified frontline.

  6. Variations in Growth, Photosynthesis and Defense System Among Four Weed Species Under Increased UV-B Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Liusheng Duan; Anthony Egrinya Eneji; Zhaohu Li

    2007-01-01

    Weed tolerance of UV-B radiation varies with species, and the radiation could affect weed ecology and management.Variations in growth, photosynthesis and defense system among four important agronomic weeds, Abutilon theophrasti Medik, Amaranthus retroflexus L., Digitaria sangulnalis (L.) Scop and Chloris virgata Swartz, under increased UV-B radiation (ambient and increased radiation at 2.7, 5.4 and 10.8 kJ·m-2·d-1) were studied in the greenhouse experiment. After 2 weeks of radiation, the shoots' dry mass decreased with increasing UV-B radiation except for D. sanguinalis. The reduction in biomass was the result of changes in morphology and physiology.Higher levels of UV-B treatment decreased the leaf area, plant height, net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents, while it increased the contents of wax and UV-B absorbing compound in all species, except for A. retroflexus,which did not increase significantly. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxide and the content of ascorbic acid changed differently among the weed species as UV-B radiation increased. D. sanguinalis was the most tolerant and A. retroflexus the most sensitive to increased UV-B radiation. The results also show that the two grass species (D. sanguinalis and C. virgata) were more tolerant to UV-B radiation than the two broadleafed species (A. theophrasti and A. retroflexus). The UV-B absorbing compound and leaf wax played important roles against UV-B damages in the two grass weeds. The overall results suggest that weed community, competition and management will be altered by continuous ozone depletion.

  7. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism. PMID:26104400

  8. Role of 9-Lipoxygenase and α-Dioxygenase Oxylipin Pathways as Modulators of Local and Systemic Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Vicente; Tomás Cascón; Begonya Vicedo; Pilar García-Agustín; Mats Hamberg; Carmen Castresana

    2012-01-01

    Plant 9-lipoxygenases(9-LOX)and α-dioxygenases(α-DOX)initiate the synthesis of oxylipins after bacterial infection.Here,the role of these enzymes in plants' defense was investigated using individual Arabidopsis thaliana lox1 and dox1 mutants and a double lox1 dox1 mutant.Studies with Pseudomonas syringae pv.tomato(Pst)revealed the enhanced susceptibility of lox1 to the virulent strain Pst DC3000 and the partial impairment of lox1 and dox1 mutants to activate systemic acquired resistance.Notably,both defects were enhanced in the lox1 dox1 plants as compared with individual mutants.We found that pre-treatment with 9-LOX- and α-DOX-generated oxylipins protected plant tissues against bacterial infection.The strongest effect in this respect was exerted by 9-ketooctadecatrienoic acid(9-KOT),which is produced from linolenic acid by 9-LOX.Quantification of 9-KOT revealed its accumulation after bacterial infection.The levels were reduced in lox1 and lox1 dox1 plants but strongly increased in the dox1 mutant due to metabolic interaction of the two pathways.Transcriptional analyses indicated that 9-KOT pre-treatment modifies hormone homeostasis during bacterial infection.The nature of the changes detected suggested that 9-KOT interferes with the hormonal changes caused by bacterial effectors.This notion was substantiated by the finding that 9-KOT failed to reduce the growth of PstDC3000hrpA,a mutant compromised in effector secretion,and of the avirulent strain Pst DC3000 avrRpm1.Further support for the action of the 9-LOX- and α-DOX-oxylipin pathways as modulators of hormone homeostasis was the observation that lox1 dox1 seedlings are hypersensitive to the growth-inhibitory effect of ABA and showed enhanced activation of ABA-inducible marker genes as compared with wild-type plants.

  9. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  10. Salicylic acid mediates antioxidant defense system and ABA pathway related gene expression in Oryza sativa against quinclorac toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Mengting; Islam, Faisal; Gill, Rafaqat A; Yang, Chong; Ali, Basharat; Yan, Guijun; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-11-01

    The auxin herbicide quinclorac is widely used for controlling weeds in transplanted and direct-seeded rice fields. However, its phytotoxic responses on rice are still unknown. Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.5g/L) of quinclorac herbicide on the physiological and biochemical changes of two rice cultivars (XS 134 and ZJ 88) and further analyzed the ameliorating role of salicylic acid (SA) on quinclorac toxicity in rice plants. The results revealed that exogenous application of SA significantly increased plant biomass and total chlorophyll contents in herbicide stressed plants. The lipid peroxidation and ROS (H2O2, O2(-.), (-)OH) production were significantly increased in roots and leaves of both rice cultivars under quinclorac stress, demonstrating an oxidative burst in rice plants. Whereas, application of SA significantly lowered ROS contents under quinclorac stress. Further, exogenous SA treatment significantly modulated antioxidant enzymes and enhanced GSH concentration in stress plants. Anatomical observations of leaf and root revealed that herbicide affected internal structures, while SA played a vital role in protection from toxic effects. Expression analysis of stress hormone ABA genes (OsABA8oxs, OsNCEDs) revealed that quinclorac application enhanced stress condition in cultivar ZJ 88, while SA treatment downregulated ABA genes more in cultivar XS 134, which correlated with the enhanced tolerance to quinclorac induced oxidative stress in this cultivar. The present study delineated that SA played a critical role under quinclorac stress in both rice cultivars by regulating antioxidant defense system, reducing ROS formation and preventing the degradation of internal cell organelles.

  11. Stimulatory and possible antioxidant effects of High Density Green Photons (HDGP) on cellular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslaru, L; Nastase, A; Stefan, L; Florea, R; Sorop, A; Ionescu, E; Popescu, I; Comorasan, S

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between the electromagnetic field and the biological systems were extensively investigated, with remarkable results and advanced technologies. Nevertheless, the visible domain of the spectrum has been rather neglected, since the classic physics did not allow electronic transitions induced by visible light. Recently, the interaction of light with the matter has generated a new scientific domain known in Physics as optical manipulation, with the new concepts of optical matter and optical force. This article presents the results of our work concerning in vitro effects of High Density Green Photons (HDGP) irradiation on cell cultures: stimulation of cell proliferation and migration and a possible antioxidant action.

  12. Characterization of the emergent properties of a synthetic quasi-cellular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzerini-Ospri Lorenzo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of solutes entrapment during liposomes formation is interesting for the investigation of the relationship between the formation of compartments and the distribution of molecules inside them; a relevant issue in the studies of the origin of life. Theoretically, when no interactions are supposed among the chemical species to be entrapped, the entrapment is described by a standard Poisson process. But very recent experimental findings show that, for small liposomes (100 nm diameter, the distribution of entrapped molecules is best described by a power-law function. This is of a great importance, as the two random processes give rise to two completely different scenarios. Here we present an in silico stochastic simulation of the encapsulation of a cell-free molecular translation system (the PURE system, obtained following two different entrapment models: a pure Poisson process, and a power-law. The protein synthesis inside the liposomes has been studied in both cases, with the aim to highlight experimental observables that could be measured to assess which model gives a better representation of the real process. Results Firstly, a minimal model for in vitro protein synthesis, based on the PURE system molecular composition, has been formalized. Then, we have designed a reliable experimental simulation where stochastic factors affect the reaction course inside the compartment. To this end, 24 solutes, which represent the PURE system components, have been stochastically distributed among vesicles by following either a Poisson or a power-law distribution. The course of the protein synthesis within each vesicle has been consequently calculated, as a function of vesicle size. Our study can predict translation yield in a population of small liposomes down to the attoliter (10-18 L range. Our results show that the efficiency of protein synthesis peaks at approximately 3·10-16 L (840 nm diam. with a Poisson distribution of

  13. 22 CFR 124.15 - Special Export Controls for Defense Articles and Defense Services Controlled under Category XV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special Export Controls for Defense Articles...-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.15 Special Export Controls for Defense Articles and Defense Services Controlled under Category XV: Space Systems and Space Launches. (a) The export of...

  14. Involvement of the thymus and cellular immune system in craniofacial malformation syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerle, A E; Good, R A; Habal, M B

    1990-04-01

    Craniofacial structures, the aortic arch, thymus, and parathyroid glands all arise from the embryologic pharyngeal pouches, and DiGeorge and Job craniofacial malformation syndromes have defined immunologic deficiencies. The question addressed by this study is whether patients with other pharyngeal pouch malformations could also have immunologic abnormalities. Twelve patients, 4 female and 8 male, were selected at random from the Tampa Bay Craniofacial Center. Their diagnoses included: cleft lip/cleft palate, hemifacial microsomia/Goldenhar syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, craniofacial hemangiomata, cranio-synostosis syndromes, and Tessier 13 cleft. Fresh blood samples were analyzed against age-matched controls for immunoglobin number, using immunoelectrophoresis, T-cell, B-cell, and natural killer cell quantity via Coulter counter and monoclonal antibody labeling, as well as lymphocyte stimulation and response functions with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen, and Staphylococcus aureus mitogens. All patients studied had some abnormality of their immune systems. Seven had specific T-cell abnormalities and three patients had abnormalities in all three categories studied. This indicates that patients with any pharyngeal pouch malformation may have an abnormality of the immune system.

  15. Low-Complexity User Scheduling with Switched Tilting for 3D Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a low-complexity user scheduling scheme to enhance the sum rate performance for a multicell downlink system, in which the base station (BS is equipped with a large-scale active antenna array. First, we divide each cell into N regions according to the vertical beamwidth of the BS antennas. Next, candidate user equipment (UE items are assigned to corresponding groups to their locations. Each scheduling slot is also divided into N equal-time subslots. Then, at each subslot, we focus on one UE group, select the optimal number, K*, of UEs for simultaneous data transmission in the manner of round-robin scheduling, and adjust the BS antenna tilting to the optimal angle θtilt*. In particular, K* and θtilt* for each UE group are both obtained by means of large-system asymptotic analysis. Benefiting from the random matrix theory tools, the asymptotic analytical results are independent of instantaneous channel state information of UE, which make it possible to solve K* and θtilt* offline, therefore saving the online computational resources significantly. Numerical results verify that the proposed scheme achieves good sum rate performance with extremely low computational complexity.

  16. Avian host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  17. Polyhydroxylated fullerene attenuates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via a fortifying Nrf2-regulated cellular antioxidant defence system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye SF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shefang Ye,1 Min Chen,1 Yuanqin Jiang,1,2 Mingliang Chen,3 Tong Zhou,1 Yange Wang,1 Zhenqing Hou,1 Lei Ren11Department of Biomaterials, Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China; 2First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China; 3Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Polyhydroxylated derivatives of fullerene C60, named fullerenols (C60[OH]n, have stimulated great interest because of their potent antioxidant properties in various chemical and biological systems, which enable them to be used as a new promising pharmaceutical for the future treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases, but the details remain unknown. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a principal transcription factor that regulates expression of several antioxidant genes via binding to the antioxidant response element and plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress. In this study we investigated whether activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway contributes to the cytoprotective effects of C60(OH24. Our results showed that C60(OH24 enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and upregulated expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, NAD(PH: quinine oxidoreductase 1, and γ-glutamate cysteine ligase in A549 cells. Treatment with C60(OH24 resulted in phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinases. By using inhibitors of cellular kinases, we showed that pretreatment of A549 cells with SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, abolished nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and induction of HO-1 protein induced by C60(OH24, indicating an involvement of p38 MAPK in Nrf2/HO-1 activation by C60

  18. Efficient Uplink Modeling for Dynamic System-Level Simulations of Cellular and Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobinger Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel theoretical framework for uplink simulations is proposed. It allows investigations which have to cover a very long (real- time and which at the same time require a certain level of accuracy in terms of radio resource management, quality of service, and mobility. This is of particular importance for simulations of self-organizing networks. For this purpose, conventional system level simulators are not suitable due to slow simulation speeds far beyond real-time. Simpler, snapshot-based tools are lacking the aforementioned accuracy. The runtime improvements are achieved by deriving abstract theoretical models for the MAC layer behavior. The focus in this work is long term evolution, and the most important uplink effects such as fluctuating interference, power control, power limitation, adaptive transmission bandwidth, and control channel limitations are considered. Limitations of the abstract models will be discussed as well. Exemplary results are given at the end to demonstrate the capability of the derived framework.

  19. Onset of herbivore-induced resistance in systemic tissue primed for jasmonate-dependent defenses is activated by abscisic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene A. Vos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, the MYC2 transcription factor on the one hand and the AP2/ERF transcription factors ORA59 and ERF1 on the other hand regulate distinct branches of the jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathway in an antagonistic fashion, co-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA and ethylene, respectively. Feeding by larvae of the specialist herbivorous insect Pieris rapae (small cabbage white butterfly results in activation of the MYC-branch and concomitant suppression of the ERF-branch in insect-damaged leaves. Here we investigated differential JA signaling activation in undamaged systemic leaves of P. rapae-infested plants. We found that the MYC2 transcription factor gene was induced both in the local insect-damaged leaves and the systemic undamaged leaves of P. rapae-infested Arabidopsis plants. However, in contrast to the insect-damaged leaves, the undamaged tissue did not show activation of the MYC-branch marker gene VSP1. Comparison of the hormone signal signature revealed that the levels of JA and (+-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile raised to similar extents in locally damaged and systemically undamaged leaves, but the production of ABA and the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA was enhanced only in the local herbivore-damaged leaves, and not in the distal undamaged leaves. Challenge of undamaged leaves of pre-infested plants with either P. rapae larvae or exogenously applied ABA led to potentiated expression levels of MYC2 and VSP1, with the latter reaching extremely high expression levels. Moreover, P. rapae-induced resistance, as measured by reduction of caterpillar growth on pre-infested plants, was blocked in the ABA biosynthesis mutant aba2-1, that was also impaired in P. rapae-induced expression of VSP1. Together, these results suggest that ABA is a crucial regulator of herbivore-induced resistance by activating primed JA-regulated defense responses upon secondary herbivore attack in Arabidopsis.

  20. In vitro toxicity assessment of polyvinyl chloride particles and comparison of six cellular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyan; Hoet, Peter H M; Nemery, Benoit

    2002-08-23

    Occupational exposure to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dust has been occasionally associated with lung disease. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro toxicity of various types of PVC particles in relevant cell culture systems. Six samples from the normal industrial suspension process (PVC-S) and eight samples from the emulsion process (PVC-E) were studied. Cytotoxicity was assessed, using the MTT assay, after 20 h of incubation in A549 cells and in primary cultures of alveolar macrophages (AM) and type II pneumocytes (TII) obtained from rats (r-AM, r-TII) or from human surgical specimens (h-AM, h-TII). Hemolysis was assessed after 2 h of incubation with human erythrocytes (h-RBC). A positive control (crystalline SiO(2), Min-U-Sil) and relevant additives of these PVC particles were tested concurrently. No toxicity of PVC-S particles could be established up to 5 mg/ml in the hemolysis test and 2.5 mg/ml in the MTT assay. In contrast, 4 out of 8 PVC-E particles induced significant toxicity, with EC50 values ranging from 0.7 to 3.7 mg/ml in the hemolysis test and from 0.2 to 1.2 mg/ml in primary cells. The most toxic particles were those that contained the additives with the highest in vitro cytotoxicity. There was a good correlation between EC50 values obtained in relevant bioassays. The sensitivity order of the cell systems was A549 PVC-E particles produced a moderate in vitro toxicity for primary rat and human pulmonary cells, probably because of the residual presence of additives.

  1. Cellular transcripts regulated during infections with Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza virus in 3 host systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Suriani M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI virus is able to infect many hosts and the virus replicates in high levels in the respiratory tract inducing severe lung lesions. The pathogenesis of the disease is actually the outcome of the infection as determined by complex host-virus interactions involving the functional kinetics of large numbers of participating genes. Understanding the genes and proteins involved in host cellular responses are therefore, critical for the elucidation of the mechanisms of infection. Methods Differentially expressed transcripts regulated in a H5N1 infections of whole lung organ of chicken, in-vitro chick embryo lung primary cell culture (CeLu and a continuous Madin Darby Canine Kidney cell line was undertaken. An improved mRNA differential display technique (Gene Fishing™ using annealing control primers that generates reproducible, authentic and long PCR products that are detectable on agarose gels was used for the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Seven of the genes have been selected for validation using a TaqMan® based real time quantitative PCR assay. Results Thirty seven known and unique differentially expressed genes from lungs of chickens, CeLu and MDCK cells were isolated. Among the genes isolated and identified include heat shock proteins, Cyclin D2, Prenyl (decaprenyl diphosphate synthase, IL-8 and many other unknown genes. The quantitative real time RT-PCR assay data showed that the transcription kinetics of the selected genes were clearly altered during infection by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus. Conclusion The Gene Fishing™ technique has allowed for the first time, the isolation and identification of sequences of host cellular genes regulated during H5N1 virus infection. In this limited study, the differentially expressed genes in the three host systems were not identical, thus suggesting that their responses to the H5N1 infection may not share

  2. Perilipin Expression Reveals Adipogenic Potential of hADSCs inside Superporous Polymeric Cellular Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Dinescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine envisages the use of cell-scaffold bioconstructs to best mimic the natural in vivo microenvironment. Our aim was not only to develop novel 3D porous scaffolds for regenerative applications by the association of gelatin (G, alginate (A, and polyacrylamide (PAA major assets but also to evaluate their in vitro potential to support human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs adipogenesis. G-A-PAA biomatrix investigated in this work is an interesting substrate combining the advantages of the three individual constituents, namely, biodegradability of G, hydrophilicity of A and PAA, superior elasticity at compression with respect to the G-A and PAA controls, and the capacity to generate porous scaffolds. hADSCs inside these novel interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs were able to populate the entire scaffold structure and to display their characteristic spindle-like shape as a consequence of a good interaction with G component of the matrices. Additionally, hADSCs proved to display the capacity to differentiate towards mature adipocytes, to accumulate lipids inside their cytoplasm, and to express perilipin late adipogenic marker inside novel IPNs described in this study. On long term, this newly designed biomatrix aims to represent a stem cell delivery system product dedicated for modern regenerative strategies.

  3. Cellular and molecular phenotypes depending upon the RNA repair system RtcAB of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Christoph; Schaefer, Jorrit; Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Buck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    RNA ligases function pervasively across the three kingdoms of life for RNA repair, splicing and can be stress induced. The RtcB protein (also HSPC117, C22orf28, FAAP and D10Wsu52e) is one such conserved ligase, involved in tRNA and mRNA splicing. However, its physiological role is poorly described, especially in bacteria. We now show in Escherichia coli bacteria that the RtcR activated rtcAB genes function for ribosome homeostasis involving rRNA stability. Expression of rtcAB is activated by agents and genetic lesions which impair the translation apparatus or may cause oxidative damage in the cell. Rtc helps the cell to survive challenges to the translation apparatus, including ribosome targeting antibiotics. Further, loss of Rtc causes profound changes in chemotaxis and motility. Together, our data suggest that the Rtc system is part of a previously unrecognized adaptive response linking ribosome homeostasis with basic cell physiology and behaviour. PMID:27402162

  4. Dissecting systems-wide data using mixture models: application to identify affected cellular processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giphart-Gassler Micheline

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional analysis of data from genome-scale experiments, such as microarrays, requires an extensive selection of differentially expressed genes. Under many conditions, the proportion of differentially expressed genes is considerable, making the selection criteria a balance between the inclusion of false positives and the exclusion of false negatives. Results We developed an analytical method to determine a p-value threshold from a microarray experiment that is dependent on the quality and design of the data set. To this aim, populations of p-values are modeled as mathematical functions in which the parameters to describe these functions are estimated in an unsupervised manner. The strength of the method is exemplified by its application to a published gene expression data set of sporadic and familial breast tumors with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Conclusion We present an objective and unsupervised way to set thresholds adapted to the quality and design of the experiment. The resulting mathematical description of the data sets of genome-scale experiments enables a probabilistic approach in systems biology.

  5. Extralysosomal turnover of cellular proteins: Targeting substrates in the ubiquitin, ATP-dependent degradation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.

    1988-01-01

    Calmodulin derived from a cloned chicken gene can be ubiquitinated and degraded by an in vitro reticulocyte lysate system. The chemical reactivity and the surface accessibility of the {epsilon}-amino group on lysine 115 in the calmodulin polypeptide chain were studied by trace labeling with acetic anhydride and with a ubiquitin derivative containing an azido group at the C-terminal glycine residue. Fractionation of reticulocyte lysate proteins separated the activity which degrades the calmodulin moiety of ubiquitin-calmodulin conjugates from that which acts on the isopeptide linkage. Neither of these two activities act on a synthetic isopeptide, which mimics the junction of ubiquitin-calmodulin, indicating the importance of the folding of ubiquitin for recognition. Based on recent findings that the ubiquitin moieties linked to {beta}galactosidase exist as a single multiubiquitin chain, studies were carried out to determine the structure of the ubiquitin-ubiquitin linkage. Ubiquitin was in vivo labeled with ({sup 3}H) and conjugated to {beta}galactosidase. Individual conjugates were isolated and subjected to peptide mapping by trypsin digestion, and tryptic fragments were analyzed of HPLC. The results indicated that the ubiquitin-ubiquitin linkage involves lysine residue 48 in the ubiquitin sequence.

  6. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 17, Number 4, July-August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Senator Phil Gramm, ranking minority member, to advise the Senate Armed Services Committee Defense Industry and , . Technology Subcommittee on "...those... Crosby cisions concerning changes and others have translated to the process. general theories into prac- tical applications that are changing the corporate

  7. A Model for Operational Efficiency Evaluation of Air-defense Weapon System%地面防空武器系统的效能评估模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜广顺

    2012-01-01

    作战系统服务能力是衡量其作战效能的重要指标,结合现代作战系统的特点,运用排队论原理,建立了一种地面防空武器系统效能评估模型,确定了武器系统作为随机服务系统的主要性能指标,包括目标突防概率、目标杀伤概率、占用射击通道的平均数、射击通道占用概率和武器系统效率等.示例计算分析显示,该模型与外部条件和地面防空武器系统的综合特性密切相关,对辅助指挥员决策有一定的参考价值.%The combat system' s service capability is one of the important factors of its operational efficiency. Based on the characteristics of modern combat system, a model for operational efficiency evaluation of air-defense weapon system was established by applying basic principle of queuing theory. The main features of air-defense weapon system as a random service system were defined, such as target penetration probability, target kill probability, the average number of occupying the firing channel, shooting channel occupancy probability and weapon system efficiency and so on. The analysis and calculation to an example showed that this model was closely related to the external conditions and all-round property of air-defense weapon system, and could be taken as a reference for aiding decision-making for commanders.

  8. 76 FR 50461 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Types of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Types of Contracts AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of... information collection requirement. SUMMARY: In compliance with Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the...

  9. Synergistic defensive mechanism of phytochelatins and antioxidative enzymes in Brassica chinensis L. against Cd stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN LiQin; GUO YiFei; YANG LiMin; WANG QiuQuan

    2008-01-01

    Brassica chinensis L. was chosen and exposed to different concentrations of Cd exposure to evaluate its Cd-accumulating capacity and its potential cellular defensive mechanisms. Cd accumulation in the shoots and roots of B. chinensis was up to 1348.3±461.8 and 3761.0±795.0 mg per killogram of dry weight, respectively, under 200 μmol/L of Cd exposure. Increasing Cd accumulation in the plant was accompanied by rapid accumulation of phytochelatins (PCs), and the sequestration of Cd by PCs pro-vided a primary cellular mechanism for Cd detoxification and tolerance of B. chinensis. Furthermore, malondialdehyde formation, hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidative enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were observed in the shoots of Cd-stressed B. chinensis. Increasing enzyme activities in response to concentrations of 5 to 50 μmol/L Cd showed an efficient defense against oxidative stress, suggesting that the antioxidative system was a secondary defensive mechanism. These resulted in reduced free Cd damage and en-hanced Cd accumulation and tolerance. Glutathione plays a pivotal role in these two detoxification pathways. In general, these results suggested that PCs and the antioxidative system are synergistic in combatting Cd-induced oxidative stress and that they play important roles in Cd detoxification of B. chinensis, and also give a deep understanding of the natural defensive mechanisms in plants under heavy metal stress.

  10. Dynamic cellular manufacturing system design considering alternative routing and part operation tradeoff using simulated annealing based genetic algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAMAL DEEP; PARDEEP K SINGH

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an integrated mathematical model of multi-period cell formation and part operation tradeoff in a dynamic cellular manufacturing system is proposed in consideration with multiple part process route. This paper puts emphasize on the production flexibility (production/subcontracting part operation) to satisfy the product demand requirement in different period segments of planning horizon considering production capacity shortage and/or sudden machine breakdown. The proposed model simultaneously generates machine cells and part families and selects the optimum process route instead of the user specifying predetermined routes. Conventional optimization method for the optimal cell formation problem requires substantial amount of time and memory space. Hence a simulated annealing based genetic algorithm is proposed to explore the solution regions efficiently and to expedite the solution search space. To evaluate the computability of the proposed algorithm, different problem scenarios are adopted from literature. The results approve the effectiveness of theproposed approach in designing the manufacturing cell and minimization of the overall cost, considering various manufacturing aspects such as production volume, multiple process route, production capacity, machine duplication, system reconfiguration, material handling and subcontracting part operation.

  11. The United States’ European Phased Adaptive Approach Missile Defense System: Defending Against Iranian Missile Threats Without Diluting the Russian Deterrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    responsible move by the U.S. president.”16 Then–Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin , echoing this sentiment, said, “The latest decision by the Obama...the system was deployed. Then, arguing against the deployment of the system, Russian President Vladamir Putin said, “If a part of the strategic...Russia’s Putin Praises Obama’s Missile Defense Decision,” Los Angeles Times, September 19, 2009. 18 Clifford J. Levy and Peter Baker, “Russia’s Reaction

  12. Low probability of intercept-based adaptive radar waveform optimization in signal-dependent clutter for joint radar and cellular communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenguang; Salous, Sana; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianjiang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of low probability of intercept (LPI)-based adaptive radar waveform optimization in signal-dependent clutter for joint radar and cellular communication systems, where the radar system optimizes the transmitted waveform such that the interference caused to the cellular communication systems is strictly controlled. Assuming that the precise knowledge of the target spectra, the power spectral densities (PSDs) of signal-dependent clutters, the propagation losses of corresponding channels and the communication signals is known by the radar, three different LPI based criteria for radar waveform optimization are proposed to minimize the total transmitted power of the radar system by optimizing the multicarrier radar waveform with a predefined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) constraint and a minimum required capacity for the cellular communication systems. These criteria differ in the way the communication signals scattered off the target are considered in the radar waveform design: (1) as useful energy, (2) as interference or (3) ignored altogether. The resulting problems are solved analytically and their solutions represent the optimum power allocation for each subcarrier in the multicarrier radar waveform. We show with numerical results that the LPI performance of the radar system can be significantly improved by exploiting the scattered echoes off the target due to cellular communication signals received at the radar receiver.

  13. System Requirements Analysis and Technological Support for the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) - FY07 Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    formal requirement for a distributed-system protocol ( leader election ) operating with non- ideal communication links. The proof-of-concept prototype is as...in OMNeT++ Figure 5 shows the top-level statechart of a leader election (LE) module. The top-level statechart consists of four states, the...component under test using events, time, and data information specified in the component. The likelihood of success of the leader - election requirement

  14. The Trend of Missile-Gun Combined Weapon System for Aerial Defense%弹炮结合防空武器系统新趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈薇; 王军

    2016-01-01

    Since the Kosovo War started to use a form of simple air raids and counter-air raids,a increasing number of wars use air raids to attack the enemy,so how to defense the enemy in the air become more and more important. Missile-Gun combined weapon system not only has a big air defense area but also has a high effective-cost,so it will become the trend of air defense weapon system. This paper describes the structure and classification of Missile-Gun combined weapon system,and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems; finally the trend of Missile-Gun combined weapon system is proposed.%自从科索沃战争开创了单纯空袭作战与反空袭作战的先例之后,空袭就成为了战争的焦点,如何更好地抵御空中目标的来袭成为各国战争防御的主题。弹炮结合防空武器系统具有防空区域大、效费比高等优点,是防空武器系统的发展趋势之一。在分析现有典型弹炮结合防空武器系统的基础上,依据弹炮结合武器系统是否共用火控系统将其分为弹炮混编式和弹炮同控式两种形式;随后,结合现代空袭的特点提出了弹炮结合武器系统的发展趋势。

  15. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    the MT-I+II-mediated antioxidant capacity and its response to exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes, biopsies and blood samples were taken from 13 matched subjects (type 2 diabetes n = 8, control subjects n = 5) both before and after 8 weeks of exercise training......-I+II in muscle and plasma, as well as the deficient MT-I+II response to exercise, indicate that this antioxidant defense is impaired. This study presents a novel candidate in the pathogenesis of complications related to oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes.......Oxidative stress is implicated in diabetes complications, during which endogenous antioxidant defenses have important pathophysiological consequences. To date, the significance of endogenous antioxidants such as metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. To examine...

  16. Program Manager: The Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 12, Number 3, May-June 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    service groups, education, and professional organiza- tions. When we apply the ratio, we usually express it as an busine index in which the current...financial leverage. accept artificially low contract profits, he will react by striv- ing to increase profitability. This translates into low levels...Officer, MCC Corporation, and former deputy cited Refe e director of the Central Intelligence Agency. 1. On April 30, 1981, Deputy Secretary of Defense

  17. An Approach to the Design of a Management Information System: Development Procedure for the Indonesian Defense Logistics Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    DEVELOPMENT PROCEDURE FOR THENMINDONESIAN EFENSE LOGISTICS STAFF E. Sudaryanto Wreksomindojo Major, Indonesia Army LSSR 61-83 DTICELECTE >.. NOV 8 1983 C...PROCEDURE FOR THE INDONESIAN DEFENSE LOGISTICS STAFF E. Sudaryanto Wreksomindojo -Major, Indonesia Army LSSR 61-83 Apprr ’-;,, .; e 1. . ,: ;r...PERFORMING O0G. REPORT NUMBER 1. AUTHOR(*) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) E. Sudaryanto Wreksomindojo " " Major, Indonesia Army _ -." -** PERFORMING 10

  18. Plant structural complexity and mechanical defenses mediate predator-prey interactions in an odonate-bird system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grof-Tisza, Patrick; LoPresti, Eric; Heath, Sacha K; Karban, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Habitat-forming species provide refuges for a variety of associating species; these refuges may mediate interactions between species differently depending on the functional traits of the habitat-forming species. We investigated refuge provisioning by plants with different functional traits for dragonfly and damselfly (Odonata: Anisoptera and Zygoptera) nymphs emerging from water bodies to molt into their adult stage. During this period, nymphs experience high levels of predation by birds. On the shores of a small pond, plants with mechanical defenses (e.g., thorns and prickles) and high structural complexity had higher abundances of odonate exuviae than nearby plants which lacked mechanical defenses and exhibited low structural complexity. To disentangle the relative effects of these two potentially important functional traits on nymph emergence-site preference and survival, we conducted two fully crossed factorial field experiments using artificial plants. Nymphs showed a strong preference for artificial plants with high structural complexity and to a lesser extent, mechanical defenses. Both functional traits increased nymph survival but through different mechanisms. We suggest that future investigations attempt to experimentally separate the elements contributing to structural complexity to elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of refuge provisioning.

  19. Simulating the conversion of rural settlements to town land based on multi-agent systems and cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.

  20. A matured fruit extract of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stimulates the cellular immune system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Koji; Uzuhashi, Yuji; Hirota, Mitsuru; Otani, Hajime

    2011-10-26

    The immunomodulatory effects of a hot water extract from matured fruit of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were investigated in comparison to those of prune and fig fruit in mice. The number of spleen IFN-γ(+)CD4(+), IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells was highest in mice given the date extract-added diet. Polyphenols identified in the date extract, such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, pelargonin and ferulic acid, stimulated IFN-γ mRNA expression significantly in mouse Peyer's patch cell cultures. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid also increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) cells significantly, while some polyphenols increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly. On the other hand, a 70% ethanol-insoluble date extract treated with trypsin increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly. These results indicate that some polyphenols and polysaccharides present in date fruit stimulate the cellular immune system in mice.