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Sample records for cellular base excision

  1. Mitochondrial base excision repair assays

    Maynard, Scott; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The main source of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during normal cellular metabolism. The main mtDNA lesions generated by ROS are base modifications, such as the ubiquitous 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesion; however, base loss and strand breaks may also occur....... Many human diseases are associated with mtDNA mutations and thus maintaining mtDNA integrity is critical. All of these lesions are repaired primarily by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. It is now known that mammalian mitochondria have BER, which, similarly to nuclear BER, is catalyzed by DNA...... glycosylases, AP endonuclease, DNA polymerase (POLgamma in mitochondria) and DNA ligase. This article outlines procedures for measuring oxidative damage formation and BER in mitochondria, including isolation of mitochondria from tissues and cells, protocols for measuring BER enzyme activities, gene...

  2. Base excision repair, aging and health span

    Xu, G.; Herzig, M.; Rotrekl, Vladimír; Walter, Ch. A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 129, 7-8 (2008), s. 366-382 ISSN 0047-6374 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : base excision repair * aging * DNA damage Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.915, year: 2008

  3. Base excision repair mechanisms and relevance to cancer susceptibility

    Dogliotti, E.; Wilson, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway is considered the predominant DNA repair system in mammalian cells for eliminating small DNA lesions generated at DNA bases either exogenously by environmental agents or endogenously by normal cellular metabolic processes (e.g. production of oxyradical species, alkylating agents, etc). The main goal of this project is the understanding of the involvement of BER in genome stability and in particular in sporadic cancer development associated with inflammation such as gastric cancer (GC). A major risk factor of GC is the infection by Helicobacter pylori, which causes oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is mainly repaired by BER

  4. Nasal base narrowing: the combined alar base excision technique.

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the combined alar base excision technique in narrowing the nasal base and correcting excessive alar flare. The study included 60 cases presenting with a wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. The surgical procedure combined an external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. All cases were followed up for a mean of 32 (range, 12-144) months. Nasal tip modification and correction of any preexisting caudal septal deformities were always completed before the nasal base narrowing. The mean width of the external alar wedge excised was 7.2 (range, 4-11) mm, whereas the mean width of the sill excision was 3.1 (range, 2-7) mm. Completing the internal excision first resulted in a more conservative external resection, thus avoiding any blunting of the alar-facial crease. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or keloid formation were encountered, and the external alar wedge excision healed with an inconspicuous scar that was well hidden in the depth of the alar-facial crease. Finally, the risk of notching of the alar rim, which can occur at the junction of the external and internal excisions, was significantly reduced by adopting a 2-layered closure of the vestibular floor (P = .01). The combined alar base excision resulted in effective narrowing of the nasal base with elimination of excessive alar flare. Commonly feared complications, such as blunting of the alar-facial crease or notching of the alar rim, were avoided by using simple modifications in the technique of excision and closure.

  5. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision.

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2011-04-01

    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  6. Cellular Blue Nevus Diagnosed following Excision of Melanoma: A Challenge in Diagnosis

    Nives Jonjić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a 41-year-old woman with a history of nodular melanoma (NM, associated with an indurated dome-shaped blue-black nodule with a diameter of 1.2 cm in the gluteal region, is presented. Clinical diagnosis of the lesion, present from birth, was blue nevus. Recently, the nodule has been showing a mild enlargement and thus complete resection was performed. Histological analysis revealed a pigmented lesion with an expansive pattern of extension into the dermis and the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The lesion displayed an alveolar pattern as well as a pigmented dendritic cell pattern. The histology was consistent with cellular blue nevus (CBN; however, the history of NM which was excised one year earlier, as well as the clinical information about the slow growing lesion, included a differential diagnosis of CBN, borderline melanocytic tumor, and malignant blue nevus. Additional immunohistochemical (HMB-45, p16, and Ki-67 and molecular (BRAF V600E mutation analyses were performed on both lesions: the CBN-like and the previously excised NM. Along with lesion history and histological analyses, p16 staining and BRAF were useful diagnostic tools for confirming the benign nature of CBN in this case.

  7. Role of excision repair in postradiation recovery of biological activity of cellular DNA Bacillus subtilis

    Filippov, V.D.

    1976-01-01

    DNA extracted from UV-irradiated prototroph cells of Bacillus subtilis uvr + (45 sec. of UV light, 20% survivals) has a lowered transforming activity (TA) of markers purB and metB, and a lowered ratio TA pur/TA met. During the subsequent incubation of uvr + cells in glucose-salt medium free of nitrogen sources the TA of markers and the ratio between them increase. No increase is observed during the postradiation incubation under the same conditions or in a nutrition medium of uvr cells, deficient in escision of pyrimidine dimers. The increment of DNA begins approsimately in 30 min. after the beginning of incubation of irradiated uvr cells in nutrition medium. On the basis of these facts it is concluded that neither the replication of damaged DNA nor the postreplication repair, but only excision repair, can provide the recovery of biological (transforming) activity of cellular DNA in Bac. subtilis. The system given might be a suitable model for testing compounds which affect the activity of this process. The well-known inhibitors of dark repair, caffeine, proflavine to inhibit reversibly the initial steps of the process/ and especially acriflavine, delay the recovery of markers of cellular DNA in irradiated uvr + cells. Caffeine is proved to inhibit reversibly the initial steps of the process

  8. The role of DNA base excision repair in brain homeostasis and disease

    Akbari, Mansour; Morevati, Marya; Croteau, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification and spontaneous loss of nucleotide bases from DNA are estimated to occur at the rate of thousands per human cell per day. DNA base excision repair (BER) is a critical mechanism for repairing such lesions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Defective expression or function of p...... energy homeostasis, mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics, with especially strong influence on neurological function. Further studies in this area could lead to novel approaches to prevent and treat human neurodegenerative disease....

  9. Modeling base excision repair in Escherichia coli bacterial cells

    Belov, O.V.

    2011-01-01

    A model describing the key processes in Escherichia coli bacterial cells during base excision repair is developed. The mechanism is modeled of damaged base elimination involving formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (the Fpg protein), which possesses several types of activities. The modeling of the transitions between DNA states is based on a stochastic approach to the chemical reaction description

  10. Both base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair in humans are influenced by nutritional factors.

    Brevik, Asgeir; Karlsen, Anette; Azqueta, Amaya; Tirado, Anna Estaban; Blomhoff, Rune; Collins, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Lack of reliable assays for DNA repair has largely prevented measurements of DNA repair from being included in human biomonitoring studies. Using newly developed modifications of the comet assay we tested whether a fruit- and antioxidant-rich plant-based intervention could affect base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) in a group of 102 male volunteers. BER and NER repair capacities were measured in lymphocytes before and after a dietary intervention lasting 8 weeks. The study had one control group, one group consuming three kiwifruits per day and one group consuming a variety of antioxidant-rich fruits and plant products in addition to their normal diet. DNA strand breaks were reduced following consumption of both kiwifruits (13%, p = 0.05) and antioxidant-rich plant products (20%, p = 0.02). Increased BER (55%, p = 0.01) and reduced NER (-39%, p plant products. Reduced NER was also observed in the kiwifruit group (-38%, p = 0.05), but BER was not affected in this group. Here we have demonstrated that DNA repair is affected by diet and that modified versions of the comet assay can be used to assess activity of different DNA repair pathways in human biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Modulation of DNA base excision repair during neuronal differentiation

    Sykora, Peter; Yang, Jenq-Lin; Ferrarelli, Leslie K

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage susceptibility and base excision DNA repair (BER) capacity in undifferentiated and differentiated human neural cells. The results show that undifferentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are less sensitive to oxidative damage than their differentiated counterparts, in part because...

  12. Aag-initiated base excision repair promotes ischemia reperfusion injury in liver, brain, and kidney.

    Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Daneshmand, Ali; Mazumder, Aprotim; Allocca, Mariacarmela; Calvo, Jennifer A; Abolhassani, Nona; Jhun, Iny; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Ayata, Cenk; Samson, Leona D

    2014-11-11

    Inflammation is accompanied by the release of highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) that damage DNA, among other cellular molecules. Base excision repair (BER) is initiated by DNA glycosylases and is crucial in repairing RONS-induced DNA damage; the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag/Mpg) excises several DNA base lesions induced by the inflammation-associated RONS release that accompanies ischemia reperfusion (I/R). Using mouse I/R models we demonstrate that Aag(-/-) mice are significantly protected against, rather than sensitized to, I/R injury, and that such protection is observed across three different organs. Following I/R in liver, kidney, and brain, Aag(-/-) mice display decreased hepatocyte death, cerebral infarction, and renal injury relative to wild-type. We infer that in wild-type mice, Aag excises damaged DNA bases to generate potentially toxic abasic sites that in turn generate highly toxic DNA strand breaks that trigger poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) hyperactivation, cellular bioenergetics failure, and necrosis; indeed, steady-state levels of abasic sites and nuclear PAR polymers were significantly more elevated in wild-type vs. Aag(-/-) liver after I/R. This increase in PAR polymers was accompanied by depletion of intracellular NAD and ATP levels plus the translocation and extracellular release of the high-mobility group box 1 (Hmgb1) nuclear protein, activating the sterile inflammatory response. We thus demonstrate the detrimental effects of Aag-initiated BER during I/R and sterile inflammation, and present a novel target for controlling I/R-induced injury.

  13. Nucleotide Excision Repair in Cellular Chromatin: Studies with Yeast from Nucleotide to Gene to Genome

    Simon Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we review our development of, and results with, high resolution studies on global genome nucleotide excision repair (GGNER in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have focused on how GGNER relates to histone acetylation for its functioning and we have identified the histone acetyl tranferase Gcn5 and acetylation at lysines 9/14 of histone H3 as a major factor in enabling efficient repair. We consider results employing primarily MFA2 as a model gene, but also those with URA3 located at subtelomeric sequences. In the latter case we also see a role for acetylation at histone H4. We then go on to outline the development of a high resolution genome-wide approach that enables one to examine correlations between histone modifications and the nucleotide excision repair (NER of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers throughout entire genomes. This is an approach that will enable rapid advances in understanding the complexities of how compacted chromatin in chromosomes is processed to access DNA damage and then returned to its pre-damaged status to maintain epigenetic codes.

  14. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    Hansen, M; Met, Ö; Svane, I M

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... to transiently affect in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  15. Cellular-based preemption system

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cellular-based preemption system that uses existing cellular infrastructure to transmit preemption related data to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles through one or more intersections. A cellular unit in an emergency vehicle is used to generate position reports that are transmitted to the one or more intersections during an emergency response. Based on this position data, the one or more intersections calculate an estimated time of arrival (ETA) of the emergency vehicle, and transmit preemption commands to traffic signals at the intersections based on the calculated ETA. Additional techniques may be used for refining the position reports, ETA calculations, and the like. Such techniques include, without limitation, statistical preemption, map-matching, dead-reckoning, augmented navigation, and/or preemption optimization techniques, all of which are described in further detail in the above-referenced patent applications.

  16. Base Sequence Context Effects on Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Yuqin Cai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide excision repair (NER plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the genome when damaged by bulky DNA lesions, since inefficient repair can cause mutations and human diseases notably cancer. The structural properties of DNA lesions that determine their relative susceptibilities to NER are therefore of great interest. As a model system, we have investigated the major mutagenic lesion derived from the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 10S (+-trans-anti-B[a]P-2-dG in six different sequence contexts that differ in how the lesion is positioned in relation to nearby guanine amino groups. We have obtained molecular structural data by NMR and MD simulations, bending properties from gel electrophoresis studies, and NER data obtained from human HeLa cell extracts for our six investigated sequence contexts. This model system suggests that disturbed Watson-Crick base pairing is a better recognition signal than a flexible bend, and that these can act in concert to provide an enhanced signal. Steric hinderance between the minor groove-aligned lesion and nearby guanine amino groups determines the exact nature of the disturbances. Both nearest neighbor and more distant neighbor sequence contexts have an impact. Regardless of the exact distortions, we hypothesize that they provide a local thermodynamic destabilization signal for repair.

  17. DNA Damage and Base Excision Repair in Mitochondria and Their Role in Aging

    Ricardo Gredilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, our knowledge about the processes involved in the aging process has exponentially increased. However, further investigation will be still required to globally understand the complexity of aging. Aging is a multifactorial phenomenon characterized by increased susceptibility to cellular loss and functional decline, where mitochondrial DNA mutations and mitochondrial DNA damage response are thought to play important roles. Due to the proximity of mitochondrial DNA to the main sites of mitochondrial-free radical generation, oxidative stress is a major source of mitochondrial DNA mutations. Mitochondrial DNA repair mechanisms, in particular the base excision repair pathway, constitute an important mechanism for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA integrity. The results reviewed here support that mitochondrial DNA damage plays an important role in aging.

  18. Ku80-deleted cells are defective at base excision repair

    Li, Han; Marple, Teresa; Hasty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ku80-deleted cells are hypersensitive to ROS and alkylating agents. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Ku70 or Lig4, have reduced BER capacity. • OGG1 rescues hypersensitivity to H 2 O 2 and paraquat in Ku80-mutant cells. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4, are defective at repairing AP sites. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4 or Brca2 exon 27, exhibit increased PAR. - Abstract: Ku80 forms a heterodimer with Ku70, called Ku, that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As a consequence of deleting NHEJ, Ku80-mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that cause DNA DSBs like ionizing radiation. Here we show that Ku80 deletion also decreased resistance to ROS and alkylating agents that typically cause base lesions and single-strand breaks (SSBs). This is unusual since base excision repair (BER), not NHEJ, typically repairs these types of lesions. However, we show that deletion of another NHEJ protein, DNA ligase IV (Lig4), did not cause hypersensitivity to these agents. In addition, the ROS and alkylating agents did not induce γ-H2AX foci that are diagnostic of DSBs. Furthermore, deletion of Ku80, but not Lig4 or Ku70, reduced BER capacity. Ku80 deletion also impaired BER at the initial lesion recognition/strand scission step; thus, involvement of a DSB is unlikely. Therefore, our data suggests that Ku80 deletion impairs BER via a mechanism that does not repair DSBs

  19. Ku80-deleted cells are defective at base excision repair

    Li, Han [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain); Marple, Teresa [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Hasty, Paul, E-mail: hastye@uthscsa.edu [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ku80-deleted cells are hypersensitive to ROS and alkylating agents. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Ku70 or Lig4, have reduced BER capacity. • OGG1 rescues hypersensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and paraquat in Ku80-mutant cells. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4, are defective at repairing AP sites. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4 or Brca2 exon 27, exhibit increased PAR. - Abstract: Ku80 forms a heterodimer with Ku70, called Ku, that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As a consequence of deleting NHEJ, Ku80-mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that cause DNA DSBs like ionizing radiation. Here we show that Ku80 deletion also decreased resistance to ROS and alkylating agents that typically cause base lesions and single-strand breaks (SSBs). This is unusual since base excision repair (BER), not NHEJ, typically repairs these types of lesions. However, we show that deletion of another NHEJ protein, DNA ligase IV (Lig4), did not cause hypersensitivity to these agents. In addition, the ROS and alkylating agents did not induce γ-H2AX foci that are diagnostic of DSBs. Furthermore, deletion of Ku80, but not Lig4 or Ku70, reduced BER capacity. Ku80 deletion also impaired BER at the initial lesion recognition/strand scission step; thus, involvement of a DSB is unlikely. Therefore, our data suggests that Ku80 deletion impairs BER via a mechanism that does not repair DSBs.

  20. Base excision repair deficiency in acute myeloid leukemia

    Scheer, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy of the hematopoietic system arising from a transformed myeloid progenitor cell. Genomic instability is the hallmark of AML and characterized by a variety of cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities. Whereas 10% to 20% of AML cases reflect long-term sequelae of cytotoxic therapies for a primary disorder, the etiology for the majority of AMLs remains unknown. The integrity of DNA is under continuous attack from a variety of exogenous and endogenous DNA damaging agents. The majority of DNA damage is caused by constantly generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from metabolic by-products. Base excision repair (BER) is the major DNA repair mechanism dealing with DNA base lesions that are induced by oxidative stress or alkylation. In this study we investigated the BER in AML. Primary AML patients samples as well as AML cell lines were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). DNA damage induction and repair was monitored by the alkaline comet assay. In 15/30 leukemic samples from patients with therapy-related AML, in 13/35 with de novo AML and 14/26 with AML following a myelodysplastic syndrome, significantly reduced single strand breaks (SSBs) representing BER intermediates were found. In contrast, normal SSB formation was seen in mononuclear cells of 30 healthy individuals and 30/31 purified hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cell preparations obtained from umbilical cord blood. Additionally, in 5/10 analyzed AML cell lines, no SSBs were formed upon H 2 O 2 treatment, either. Differences in intracellular ROS concentrations or apoptosis could be excluded as reason for this phenomenon. A significantly diminished cleavage capacity for 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine as well as for Furan was observed in cell lines that exhibited no SSB formation. These data demonstrate for the first time that initial steps of BER are impaired in a proportion of AML cell lines and leukemic cells from patients with different forms of

  1. A history of the DNA repair and mutagenesis field: The discovery of base excision repair.

    Friedberg, Errol C

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the early history of the discovery of an DNA repair pathway designated as base excision repair (BER), since in contrast to the enzyme-catalyzed removal of damaged bases from DNA as nucleotides [called nucleotide excision repair (NER)], BER involves the removal of damaged or inappropriate bases, such as the presence of uracil instead of thymine, from DNA as free bases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Base excision repair of both uracil and oxidatively damaged bases contribute to thymidine deprivation-induced radiosensitization

    Allen, Bryan G.; Johnson, Monika; Marsh, Anne E.; Dornfeld, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Increased cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation due to thymidine depletion is the basis of radiosensitization with fluoropyrimidine and methotrexate. The mechanism responsible for cytotoxicity has not been fully elucidated but appears to involve both the introduction of uracil into, and its removal from, DNA. The role of base excision repair of uracil and oxidatively damaged bases in creating the increased radiosensitization during thymidine depletion is examined. Methods and Materials: Isogenic strains of S. cerevisiae differing only at loci involved in DNA repair functions were exposed to aminopterin and sulfanilamide to induce thymidine deprivation. Cultures were irradiated and survival determined by clonogenic survival assay. Results: Strains lacking uracil base excision repair (BER) activities demonstrated less radiosensitization than the parental strain. Mutant strains continued to show partial radiosensitization with aminopterin treatment. Mutants deficient in BER of both uracil and oxidatively damaged bases did not demonstrate radiosensitization. A recombination deficient rad52 mutant strain was markedly sensitive to radiation; addition of aminopterin increased radiosensitivity only slightly. Radiosensitization observed in rad52 mutants was also abolished by deletion of the APN1, NTG1, and NTG2 genes. Conclusion: These data suggest radiosensitization during thymidine depletion is the result of BER activities directed at both uracil and oxidatively damaged bases

  3. Excision without excision

    Brown, David; Sarbach, Olivier; Schnetter, Erik; Diener, Peter; Tiglio, Manuel; Hawke, Ian; Pollney, Denis

    2007-01-01

    to turducken (turduckens, turduckening, turduckened, turduckened) [math.]: To stuff a black hole. We analyze and apply an alternative to black hole excision based on smoothing the interior of black holes with arbitrary initial data, and solving the vacuum Einstein evolution equations everywhere. By deriving the constraint propagation system for our hyperbolic formulation of the BSSN evolution system we rigorously prove that the constraints propagate causally and so any constraint violations introduced inside the black holes cannot affect the exterior spacetime. We present evolutions of Cook-Pfeiffer binary black hole initial configurations showing that these techniques appear to work robustly for generic data. We also present evidence from spherically symmetric evolutions that for the gauge conditions used the same stationary end-state is approached irrespective of the choice of initial data and smoothing procedure

  4. Enhanced base excision repair capacity in carotid atherosclerosis may protect nuclear DNA but not mitochondrial DNA

    Skarpengland, Tonje; B. Dahl, Tuva; Skjelland, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Lesional and systemic oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, potentially leading to accumulation of DNA base lesions within atherosclerotic plaques. Although base excision repair (BER) is a major pathway counteracting oxidative DNA damage, our knowledge on BER...

  5. X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1 in base excision repair

    Hanssen-Bauer, Audun; Solvang-Garten, Karin; Akbari, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    X-ray Repair Cross Complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) acts as a scaffolding protein in the converging base excision repair (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR) pathways. XRCC1 also interacts with itself and rapidly accumulates at sites of DNA damage. XRCC1 can thus mediate the assembly of large...

  6. Base excision repair deficient mice lacking the Aag alkyladenine DNA glycosylase.

    B.P. Engelward (Bevin); G. Weeda (Geert); M.D. Wyatt; J.L.M. Broekhof (Jose'); J. de Wit (Jan); I. Donker (Ingrid); J.M. Allan (James); B. Gold (Bert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); L.D. Samson (Leona)

    1997-01-01

    textabstract3-methyladenine (3MeA) DNA glycosylases remove 3MeAs from alkylated DNA to initiate the base excision repair pathway. Here we report the generation of mice deficient in the 3MeA DNA glycosylase encoded by the Aag (Mpg) gene. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase turns out to be the major DNA

  7. How are base excision DNA repair pathways deployed in vivo? [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Upasna Thapar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the base excision repair (BER system for DNA more than 40 years ago, new branches of the pathway have been revealed at the biochemical level by in vitro studies. Largely for technical reasons, however, the confirmation of these subpathways in vivo has been elusive. We review methods that have been used to explore BER in mammalian cells, indicate where there are important knowledge gaps to fill, and suggest a way to address them.

  8. Selective base excision repair of DNA damage by the non-base-flipping DNA glycosylase AlkC

    Shi, Rongxin; Mullins, Elwood A.; Shen, Xing; #8208; Xing; Lay, Kori T.; Yuen, Philip K.; David, Sheila S.; Rokas, Antonis; Eichman, Brandt F. (UCD); (Vanderbilt)

    2017-10-20

    DNA glycosylases preserve genome integrity and define the specificity of the base excision repair pathway for discreet, detrimental modifications, and thus, the mechanisms by which glycosylases locate DNA damage are of particular interest. Bacterial AlkC and AlkD are specific for cationic alkylated nucleobases and have a distinctive HEAT-like repeat (HLR) fold. AlkD uses a unique non-base-flipping mechanism that enables excision of bulky lesions more commonly associated with nucleotide excision repair. In contrast, AlkC has a much narrower specificity for small lesions, principally N3-methyladenine (3mA). Here, we describe how AlkC selects for and excises 3mA using a non-base-flipping strategy distinct from that of AlkD. A crystal structure resembling a catalytic intermediate complex shows how AlkC uses unique HLR and immunoglobulin-like domains to induce a sharp kink in the DNA, exposing the damaged nucleobase to active site residues that project into the DNA. This active site can accommodate and excise N3-methylcytosine (3mC) and N1-methyladenine (1mA), which are also repaired by AlkB-catalyzed oxidative demethylation, providing a potential alternative mechanism for repair of these lesions in bacteria.

  9. A cryptosystem based on elementary cellular automata

    Abdo, A. A.; Lian, Shiguo; Ismail, I. A.; Amin, M.; Diab, H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on elementary cellular automata, a new image encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, a special kind of periodic boundary cellular automata with unity attractors is used. From the viewpoint of security, the number of cellular automata attractor states are changed with respect to the encrypted image, and different key streams are used to encrypt different plain images. The cellular neural network with chaotic properties is used as the generator of a pseudo-random key stream. Theoretical analysis and experimental results have both confirmed that the proposed algorithm possesses high security level and good performances against differential and statistical attacks. The comparison with other existing schemes is given, which shows the superiority of the proposal scheme.

  10. Modulation of proteostasis counteracts oxidative stress and affects DNA base excision repair capacity in ATM-deficient cells.

    Poletto, Mattia; Yang, Di; Fletcher, Sally C; Vendrell, Iolanda; Fischer, Roman; Legrand, Arnaud J; Dianov, Grigory L

    2017-09-29

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a syndrome associated with loss of ATM protein function. Neurodegeneration and cancer predisposition, both hallmarks of A-T, are likely to emerge as a consequence of the persistent oxidative stress and DNA damage observed in this disease. Surprisingly however, despite these severe features, a lack of functional ATM is still compatible with early life, suggesting that adaptation mechanisms contributing to cell survival must be in place. Here we address this gap in our knowledge by analysing the process of human fibroblast adaptation to the lack of ATM. We identify profound rearrangement in cellular proteostasis occurring very early on after loss of ATM in order to counter protein damage originating from oxidative stress. Change in proteostasis, however, is not without repercussions. Modulating protein turnover in ATM-depleted cells also has an adverse effect on the DNA base excision repair pathway, the major DNA repair system that deals with oxidative DNA damage. As a consequence, the burden of unrepaired endogenous DNA lesions intensifies, progressively leading to genomic instability. Our study provides a glimpse at the cellular consequences of loss of ATM and highlights a previously overlooked role for proteostasis in maintaining cell survival in the absence of ATM function. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Adaptive downtilt for cellular base stations

    Mestrom, R.M.C.; Coenen, T.J.; Smolders, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency, reconfigurability, and power consumption are paramount for future communication systems in applications such as cellular handsets, base stations and home networking systems. We present our work in the European PANAMA project which addresses the associated challenges. Our work focuses on

  12. Initial steps of the base excision repair pathway within the nuclear architecture

    Amouroux, R.

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative stress induced lesions threaten aerobic organisms by representing a major cause of genomic instability. A common product of guanine oxidation, 8-oxo-guanine (8- oxoG) is particularly mutagenic by provoking G to T transversions. Removal of oxidised bases from DNA is initiated by the recognition and excision of the damaged base by a DNA glycosylase, initiating the base excision repair (BER) pathway. In mammals, 8-oxoG is processed by the 8-oxoG-DNA-glycosylase I (OGG1), which biochemical mechanisms has been well characterised in vitro. However how and where this enzyme finds the modified base within the complex chromatin architecture is not yet understood. We show that upon induction of 8-oxoG, OGG1, together with at least two other proteins involved in BER, is recruited from a soluble fraction to chromatin. Formation kinetics of this patches correlates with 8-oxoG excision, suggesting a direct link between presence of this chromatin-associated complexes and 8-oxoG repair. More precisely, these repair patches are specifically directed to euchromatin regions, and completely excluded from heterochromatin regions. Inducing of artificial chromatin compaction results in a complete inhibition of the in vivo repair of 8-oxoG, probably by impeding the access of OGG1 to the lesion. Using OGG1 mutants, we show that OGG1 direct recognition of 8-oxoG did not trigger its re-localisation to the chromatin. We conclude that in response to the induction of oxidative DNA damage, the DNA glycosylase is actively recruited to regions of open chromatin allowing the access of the BER machinery to the lesions. (author)

  13. Excision of x-ray-induced thymine damage in chromatin from heated cells

    Warters, R.L.; Roti Roti, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were performed to distinguish between two possible modes of hyperthermia-induced inhibition of thymine base damage excision from the DNA of CHO cells: (1) heat denaturation of excision enzyme(s) or (2) heat-induced alteration of the substrate for damage excision (chromatin). While hyperthermia (45 0 C, 15 min) had no apparent effect on the capacity of the excision enzymes to excise damage from DNA it had a dramatic effect (ca. 80% inhibition) on the ability of chromatin to serve as a substrate for unheated enzymes. These results suggest that hyperthermia-induced radiosensitization of CHO cells may be due primarily to lesions in the cellular chromatin

  14. Abnormal Base Excision Repair at Trinucleotide Repeats Associated with Diseases: A Tissue-Selective Mechanism

    Agathi-Vasiliki Goula

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available More than fifteen genetic diseases, including Huntington’s disease, myotonic dystrophy 1, fragile X syndrome and Friedreich ataxia, are caused by the aberrant expansion of a trinucleotide repeat. The mutation is unstable and further expands in specific cells or tissues with time, which can accelerate disease progression. DNA damage and base excision repair (BER are involved in repeat instability and might contribute to the tissue selectivity of the process. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms of trinucleotide repeat instability, focusing more specifically on the role of BER.

  15. Oxidatively-induced DNA damage and base excision repair in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    Ceylan, Deniz; Tuna, Gamze; Kirkali, Güldal; Tunca, Zeliha; Can, Güneş; Arat, Hidayet Ece; Kant, Melis; Dizdaroglu, Miral; Özerdem, Ayşegül

    2018-05-01

    Oxidatively-induced DNA damage has previously been associated with bipolar disorder. More recently, impairments in DNA repair mechanisms have also been reported. We aimed to investigate oxidatively-induced DNA lesions and expression of DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy individuals. DNA base lesions including both base and nucleoside modifications were measured using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with isotope-dilution in DNA samples isolated from leukocytes of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (n = 32) and healthy individuals (n = 51). The expression of DNA repair enzymes OGG1 and NEIL1 were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The levels of malondialdehyde were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Seven DNA base lesions in DNA of leukocytes of patients and healthy individuals were identified and quantified. Three of them had significantly elevated levels in bipolar patients when compared to healthy individuals. No elevation of lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde was observed. The level of OGG1 expression was significantly reduced in bipolar patients compared to healthy individuals, whereas the two groups exhibited similar levels of NEIL1 expression. Our results suggest that oxidatively-induced DNA damage occurs and base excision repair capacity may be decreased in bipolar patients when compared to healthy individuals. Measurement of oxidatively-induced DNA base lesions and the expression of DNA repair enzymes may be of great importance for large scale basic research and clinical studies of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA is thought to play a role in carcinogenesis by causing mutations, and indeed accumulation of oxidized DNA bases has been observed in samples obtained from tumors but not from surrounding tissue within the same patient. Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway...... for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non......-cancerous counterparts were measured using oligonucleotide substrates with single DNA lesions to assess specific BER enzymes. The activities of four BER enzymes, OGG1, NTH1, UDG and APE1, were compared in mitochondrial and nuclear extracts. For each specific lesion, the repair activities were similar among the three...

  17. Base excision repair in Archaea: back to the future in DNA repair.

    Grasso, Stefano; Tell, Gianluca

    2014-09-01

    Together with Bacteria and Eukarya, Archaea represents one of the three domain of life. In contrast with the morphological difference existing between Archaea and Eukarya, these two domains are closely related. Phylogenetic analyses confirm this evolutionary relationship showing that most of the proteins involved in DNA transcription and replication are highly conserved. On the contrary, information is scanty about DNA repair pathways and their mechanisms. In the present review the most important proteins involved in base excision repair, namely glycosylases, AP lyases, AP endonucleases, polymerases, sliding clamps, flap endonucleases, and ligases, will be discussed and compared with bacterial and eukaryotic ones. Finally, possible applications and future perspectives derived from studies on Archaea and their repair pathways, will be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Base excision DNA repair in the embryonic development of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Torgasheva, Natalya A; Menzorova, Natalya I; Sibirtsev, Yurii T; Rasskazov, Valery A; Zharkov, Dmitry O; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-06-21

    In actively proliferating cells, such as the cells of the developing embryo, DNA repair is crucial for preventing the accumulation of mutations and synchronizing cell division. Sea urchin embryo growth was analyzed and extracts were prepared. The relative activity of DNA polymerase, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, uracil-DNA glycosylase, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and other glycosylases was analyzed using specific oligonucleotide substrates of these enzymes; the reaction products were resolved by denaturing 20% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We have characterized the profile of several key base excision repair activities in the developing embryos (2 blastomers to mid-pluteus) of the grey sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The uracil-DNA glycosylase specific activity sharply increased after blastula hatching, whereas the specific activity of 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase steadily decreased over the course of the development. The AP-endonuclease activity gradually increased but dropped at the last sampled stage (mid-pluteus 2). The DNA polymerase activity was high at the first cleavage division and then quickly decreased, showing a transient peak at blastula hatching. It seems that the developing sea urchin embryo encounters different DNA-damaging factors early in development within the protective envelope and later as a free-floating larva, with hatching necessitating adaptation to the shift in genotoxic stress conditions. No correlation was observed between the dynamics of the enzyme activities and published gene expression data from developing congeneric species, S. purpuratus. The results suggest that base excision repair enzymes may be regulated in the sea urchin embryos at the level of covalent modification or protein stability.

  19. Repair of 3-methyladenine and abasic sites by base excision repair mediates glioblastoma resistance to temozolomide

    Bobola, Michael S.; Kolstoe, Douglas D.; Blank, A. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Chamberlain, Marc C. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Silber, John R., E-mail: jrsilber@u.washington.edu [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Alkylating agents have long played a central role in the adjuvant therapy of glioblastoma (GBM). More recently, inclusion of temozolomide (TMZ), an orally administered methylating agent with low systemic toxicity, during and after radiotherapy has markedly improved survival. Extensive in vitro and in vivo evidence has shown that TMZ-induced O{sup 6}-methylguanine (O{sup 6}-meG) mediates GBM cell killing. Moreover, low or absent expression of O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), the sole human repair protein that removes O{sup 6}-meG from DNA, is frequently associated with longer survival in GBMs treated with TMZ, promoting interest in developing inhibitors of MGMT to counter resistance. However, the clinical efficacy of TMZ is unlikely to be due solely to O{sup 6}-meG, as the agent produces approximately a dozen additional DNA adducts, including cytotoxic N3-methyladenine (3-meA) and abasic sites. Repair of 3-meA and abasic sites, both of which are produced in greater abundance than O{sup 6}-meG, is mediated by the base excision repair (BER) pathway, and occurs independently of removal of O{sup 6}-meG. These observations indicate that BER activities are also potential targets for strategies to potentiate TMZ cytotoxicity. Here we review the evidence that 3-meA and abasic sites mediate killing of GBM cells. We also present in vitro and in vivo evidence that alkyladenine-DNA glycosylase, the sole repair activity that excises 3-meA from DNA, and Ape1, the major human abasic site endonuclease, mediate TMZ resistance in GBMs and represent potential anti-resistance targets.

  20. Differential role of base excision repair proteins in mediating cisplatin cytotoxicity.

    Sawant, Akshada; Floyd, Ashley M; Dangeti, Mohan; Lei, Wen; Sobol, Robert W; Patrick, Steve M

    2017-03-01

    Interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are covalent lesions formed by cisplatin. The mechanism for the processing and removal of ICLs by DNA repair proteins involves nucleotide excision repair (NER), homologous recombination (HR) and fanconi anemia (FA) pathways. In this report, we monitored the processing of a flanking uracil adjacent to a cisplatin ICL by the proteins involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Using a combination of extracts, purified proteins, inhibitors, functional assays and cell culture studies, we determined the specific BER proteins required for processing a DNA substrate with a uracil adjacent to a cisplatin ICL. Uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) is the primary glycosylase responsible for the removal of uracils adjacent to cisplatin ICLs, whereas other uracil glycosylases can process uracils in the context of undamaged DNA. Repair of the uracil adjacent to cisplatin ICLs proceeds through the classical BER pathway, highlighting the importance of specific proteins in this redundant pathway. Removal of uracil is followed by the generation of an abasic site and subsequent cleavage by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). Inhibition of either the repair or redox domain of APE1 gives rise to cisplatin resistance. Inhibition of the lyase domain of Polymerase β (Polβ) does not influence cisplatin cytotoxicity. In addition, lack of XRCC1 leads to increased DNA damage and results in increased cisplatin cytotoxicity. Our results indicate that BER activation at cisplatin ICLs influences crosslink repair and modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity via specific UNG, APE1 and Polβ polymerase functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Information theory based approaches to cellular signaling.

    Waltermann, Christian; Klipp, Edda

    2011-10-01

    Cells interact with their environment and they have to react adequately to internal and external changes such changes in nutrient composition, physical properties like temperature or osmolarity and other stresses. More specifically, they must be able to evaluate whether the external change is significant or just in the range of noise. Based on multiple external parameters they have to compute an optimal response. Cellular signaling pathways are considered as the major means of information perception and transmission in cells. Here, we review different attempts to quantify information processing on the level of individual cells. We refer to Shannon entropy, mutual information, and informal measures of signaling pathway cross-talk and specificity. Information theory in systems biology has been successfully applied to identification of optimal pathway structures, mutual information and entropy as system response in sensitivity analysis, and quantification of input and output information. While the study of information transmission within the framework of information theory in technical systems is an advanced field with high impact in engineering and telecommunication, its application to biological objects and processes is still restricted to specific fields such as neuroscience, structural and molecular biology. However, in systems biology dealing with a holistic understanding of biochemical systems and cellular signaling only recently a number of examples for the application of information theory have emerged. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Systems Biology of Microorganisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The base excision repair pathway is required for efficient lentivirus integration.

    Kristine E Yoder

    Full Text Available An siRNA screen has identified several proteins throughout the base excision repair (BER pathway of oxidative DNA damage as important for efficient HIV infection. The proteins identified included early repair factors such as the base damage recognition glycosylases OGG1 and MYH and the late repair factor POLß, implicating the entire BER pathway. Murine cells with deletions of the genes Ogg1, Myh, Neil1 and Polß recapitulate the defect of HIV infection in the absence of BER. Defective infection in the absence of BER proteins was also seen with the lentivirus FIV, but not the gammaretrovirus MMLV. BER proteins do not affect HIV infection through its accessory genes nor the central polypurine tract. HIV reverse transcription and nuclear entry appear unaffected by the absence of BER proteins. However, HIV integration to the host chromosome is reduced in the absence of BER proteins. Pre-integration complexes from BER deficient cell lines show reduced integration activity in vitro. Integration activity is restored by addition of recombinant BER protein POLß. Lentiviral infection and integration efficiency appears to depend on the presence of BER proteins.

  3. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de, E-mail: nadja@iq.usp.br

    2015-06-15

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin.

  4. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de

    2015-01-01

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin

  5. DREMECELS: A Curated Database for Base Excision and Mismatch Repair Mechanisms Associated Human Malignancies.

    Ankita Shukla

    Full Text Available DNA repair mechanisms act as a warrior combating various damaging processes that ensue critical malignancies. DREMECELS was designed considering the malignancies with frequent alterations in DNA repair pathways, that is, colorectal and endometrial cancers, associated with Lynch syndrome (also known as HNPCC. Since lynch syndrome carries high risk (~40-60% for both cancers, therefore we decided to cover all three diseases in this portal. Although a large population is presently affected by these malignancies, many resources are available for various cancer types but no database archives information on the genes specifically for only these cancers and disorders. The database contains 156 genes and two repair mechanisms, base excision repair (BER and mismatch repair (MMR. Other parameters include some of the regulatory processes that have roles in these disease progressions due to incompetent repair mechanisms, specifically BER and MMR. However, our unique database mainly provides qualitative and quantitative information on these cancer types along with methylation, drug sensitivity, miRNAs, copy number variation (CNV and somatic mutations data. This database would serve the scientific community by providing integrated information on these disease types, thus sustaining diagnostic and therapeutic processes. This repository would serve as an excellent accompaniment for researchers and biomedical professionals and facilitate in understanding such critical diseases. DREMECELS is publicly available at http://www.bioinfoindia.org/dremecels.

  6. Discrepancies between biopsy-based and excision-based grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: the important role of time between excision and biopsy.

    Zhang, Lu; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Mingyu; Jia, Lin; Zhang, Youzhong

    2015-05-01

    We sought to evaluate the rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) ≤ 1 in loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) specimens after the treatment of biopsy-proven CIN 2-3, and to identify factors that are associated with the rate of CIN ≤ 1, especially focusing on the time interval between biopsy and LEEP. The goal of this research is to reduce the overtreatment of women with CIN 2-3. This was a retrospective study performed on women undergoing LEEP for biopsy-proven CIN 2-3 in Qilu hospital in Shandong, China. Patients were separated according to LEEP pathology (CIN ≤ 1 vs. CIN 2-3), and compared using the χ2 test and Student t test. The main outcome measures were pathologic discrepancy (defined as CIN 2-3 at biopsy, but CIN ≤ 1 at excision). Of the 391 women with biopsy-proven CIN 2-3, 26.9% had LEEP specimens with CIN ≤ 1 histologies. The likelihood of a CIN ≤ 1 LEEP specimen increases for greater biopsy-LEEP intervals (odds ratio, 1.374; 95% confidence interval, 1.089-1.735; P = 0.008). Cases in younger women and biopsy-assessed CIN 2 cases were both more likely to have CIN 1 or negative LEEP specimens. The rate of spontaneous histologic regression (defined as CIN ≤ 1 at resection) was 26.9%. These low-grade lesions were more common in LEEP specimens from young women with CIN 2 at biopsy, and who underwent LEEP later after the initial biopsy.

  7. Measurement of DNA base and nucleotide excision repair activities in mammalian cells and tissues using the comet assay - A methodological overview

    Azqueta, A.; Langie, S. A. S.; Slyšková, Jana; Collins, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2013), s. 1007-1010 ISSN 1568-7864 Grant - others:EU FP6(XE) LSHB-CT-2006-037575 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : comet assay * base excision repair * nucleotide excision repair Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.362, year: 2013

  8. On-bead fluorescent DNA nanoprobes to analyze base excision repair activities

    Gines, Guillaume; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Gasparutto, Didier, E-mail: didier.gasparutto@cea.fr

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •On magnetic beads fluorescent enzymatic assays. •Simple, easy, non-radioactive and electrophoresis-free functional assay. •Lesion-containing hairpin DNA probes are selective for repair enzymes. •The biosensing platform allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or within cell free extracts. -- Abstract: DNA integrity is constantly threatened by endogenous and exogenous agents that can modify its physical and chemical structure. Changes in DNA sequence can cause mutations sparked by some genetic diseases or cancers. Organisms have developed efficient defense mechanisms able to specifically repair each kind of lesion (alkylation, oxidation, single or double strand break, mismatch, etc). Here we report the adjustment of an original assay to detect enzymes’ activity of base excision repair (BER), that supports a set of lesions including abasic sites, alkylation, oxidation or deamination products of bases. The biosensor is characterized by a set of fluorescent hairpin-shaped nucleic acid probes supported on magnetic beads, each containing a selective lesion targeting a specific BER enzyme. We have studied the DNA glycosylase alkyl-adenine glycosylase (AAG) and the human AP-endonuclease (APE1) by incorporating within the DNA probe a hypoxanthine lesion or an abasic site analog (tetrahydrofuran), respectively. Enzymatic repair activity induces the formation of a nick in the damaged strand, leading to probe's break, that is detected in the supernatant by fluorescence. The functional assay allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or in cell-free extracts in a fast, specific, quantitative and sensitive way, using only 1 pmol of probe for a test. We recorded a detection limit of 1 μg mL{sup −1} and 50 μg mL{sup −1} of HeLa nuclear extracts for APE1 and AAG enzymes, respectively. Finally, the on-bead assay should be useful to screen inhibitors of DNA repair

  9. On-bead fluorescent DNA nanoprobes to analyze base excision repair activities

    Gines, Guillaume; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Gasparutto, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •On magnetic beads fluorescent enzymatic assays. •Simple, easy, non-radioactive and electrophoresis-free functional assay. •Lesion-containing hairpin DNA probes are selective for repair enzymes. •The biosensing platform allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or within cell free extracts. -- Abstract: DNA integrity is constantly threatened by endogenous and exogenous agents that can modify its physical and chemical structure. Changes in DNA sequence can cause mutations sparked by some genetic diseases or cancers. Organisms have developed efficient defense mechanisms able to specifically repair each kind of lesion (alkylation, oxidation, single or double strand break, mismatch, etc). Here we report the adjustment of an original assay to detect enzymes’ activity of base excision repair (BER), that supports a set of lesions including abasic sites, alkylation, oxidation or deamination products of bases. The biosensor is characterized by a set of fluorescent hairpin-shaped nucleic acid probes supported on magnetic beads, each containing a selective lesion targeting a specific BER enzyme. We have studied the DNA glycosylase alkyl-adenine glycosylase (AAG) and the human AP-endonuclease (APE1) by incorporating within the DNA probe a hypoxanthine lesion or an abasic site analog (tetrahydrofuran), respectively. Enzymatic repair activity induces the formation of a nick in the damaged strand, leading to probe's break, that is detected in the supernatant by fluorescence. The functional assay allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or in cell-free extracts in a fast, specific, quantitative and sensitive way, using only 1 pmol of probe for a test. We recorded a detection limit of 1 μg mL −1 and 50 μg mL −1 of HeLa nuclear extracts for APE1 and AAG enzymes, respectively. Finally, the on-bead assay should be useful to screen inhibitors of DNA repair activities

  10. Genetic variation in the base excision repair pathway, environmental risk factors, and colorectal adenoma risk.

    Roman Corral

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking, high alcohol intake, and low dietary folate levels are risk factors for colorectal adenomas. Oxidative damage caused by these three factors can be repaired through the base excision repair pathway (BER. We hypothesized that genetic variation in BER might modify colorectal adenoma risk. In a sigmoidoscopy-based study, we examined associations between 182 haplotype tagging SNPs in 14 BER genes, and colorectal adenoma risk, and examined their potential role as modifiers of the effect cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and dietary folate levels. Among all individuals, no statistically significant associations between BER SNPs and adenoma risk persisted after correction for multiple comparisons. However, among Asian-Pacific Islanders we observed two SNPs in FEN1 and one in NTHL1, and among African-Americans one SNP in APEX1 that were associated with colorectal adenoma risk. Significant associations were also observed between SNPs in the NEIL2 gene and rectal adenoma risk. Three SNPS modified the effect of smoking (MUTYH interaction p = 0.002; OGG1 interaction p = 0.013; FEN1 interaction p = 0.013, one SNP in LIG3 modified the effect of alcohol consumption (interaction p = 0.024 and two SNPs in LIG3 modified the effect of dietary folate (interaction p = 0.001 and p = 0.08 on colorectal adenoma risk. These findings support a role for genetic variants in the BER pathway as potential modifiers of colorectal adenoma risk. Our findings strengthen the role of oxidative damage induced by key lifestyle and dietary risk factors in colorectal adenoma formation.

  11. Repair of DNA-polypeptide crosslinks by human excision nuclease

    Reardon, Joyce T.; Sancar, Aziz

    2006-03-01

    DNA-protein crosslinks are relatively common DNA lesions that form during the physiological processing of DNA by replication and recombination proteins, by side reactions of base excision repair enzymes, and by cellular exposure to bifunctional DNA-damaging agents such as platinum compounds. The mechanism by which pathological DNA-protein crosslinks are repaired in humans is not known. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of recognition and repair of protein-DNA and oligopeptide-DNA crosslinks by the human excision nuclease. Under our assay conditions, the human nucleotide excision repair system did not remove a 16-kDa protein crosslinked to DNA at a detectable level. However, 4- and 12-aa-long oligopeptides crosslinked to the DNA backbone were recognized by some of the damage recognition factors of the human excision nuclease with moderate selectivity and were excised from DNA at relatively efficient rates. Our data suggest that, if coupled with proteolytic degradation of the crosslinked protein, the human excision nuclease may be the major enzyme system for eliminating protein-DNA crosslinks from the genome. damage recognition | nucleotide excision repair

  12. The mitochondrial transcription factor A functions in mitochondrial base excision repair

    Canugovi, Chandrika; Maynard, Scott; Bayne, Anne-Cécile V

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is an essential component of mitochondrial nucleoids. TFAM plays an important role in mitochondrial transcription and replication. TFAM has been previously reported to inhibit nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vitro but NER has not yet been detected i...

  13. Chromatin associated mechanisms in base excision repair - nucleosome remodeling and DNA transcription, two key players.

    Menoni, Hervé; Di Mascio, Paolo; Cadet, Jean; Dimitrov, Stefan; Angelov, Dimitar

    2017-06-01

    Genomic DNA is prone to a large number of insults by a myriad of endogenous and exogenous agents. The base excision repair (BER) is the major mechanism used by cells for the removal of various DNA lesions spontaneously or environmentally induced and the maintenance of genome integrity. The presence of persistent DNA damage is not compatible with life, since abrogation of BER leads to early embryonic lethality in mice. There are several lines of evidences showing existence of a link between deficient BER, cancer proneness and ageing, thus illustrating the importance of this DNA repair pathway in human health. Although the enzymology of BER mechanisms has been largely elucidated using chemically defined DNA damage substrates and purified proteins, the complex interplay of BER with another vital process like transcription or when DNA is in its natural state (i.e. wrapped in nucleosome and assembled in chromatin fiber is largely unexplored. Cells use chromatin remodeling factors to overcome the general repression associated with the nucleosomal organization. It is broadly accepted that energy-dependent nucleosome remodeling factors disrupt histones-DNA interactions at the expense of ATP hydrolysis to favor transcription as well as DNA repair. Importantly, unlike transcription, BER is not part of a regulated developmental process but represents a maintenance system that should be efficient anytime and anywhere in the genome. In this review we will discuss how BER can deal with chromatin organization to maintain genetic information. Emphasis will be placed on the following challenging question: how BER is initiated within chromatin? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cellular-based sea level gauge

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.

    treaties with greater transparency. Among the various communication technologies used for real-time transmission of sea-level data are the wired telephone connection, VHF/UHF transceivers, satellite transmit terminals and cellular connectivity. Wired... telephone connections are severely susceptible to loss of connectivity during natural disasters such as storm surges, primarily because of telephone line breakage. Communication via VHF/UHF transceivers is limited by line-of-sight distance between...

  15. Metal inhibition of human alkylpurine-DNA-N-glycosylase activityin base excision repair

    Wang, Ping; Guliaev, Anton B.; Hang, Bo

    2006-02-28

    Cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}), nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) and cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) are human and/or animal carcinogens. Zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) is not categorized as a carcinogen, and rather an essential element to humans. Metals were recently shown to inhibit DNA repair proteins that use metals for their function and/or structure. Here we report that the divalent ions Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} can inhibit the activity of a recombinant human N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG) toward a deoxyoligonucleotide with ethenoadenine (var epsilonA). MPG removes a variety of toxic/mutagenic alkylated bases and does not require metal for its catalytic activity or structural integrity. At concentrations starting from 50 to 1000 {micro}M, both Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} showed metal-dependent inhibition of the MPG catalytic activity. Ni{sup 2+} also inhibited MPG, but to a lesser extent. Such an effect can be reversed with EDTA addition. In contrast, Co{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} did not inhibit the MPG activity in the same dose range. Experiments using HeLa cell-free extracts demonstrated similar patterns of inactivation of the var epsilonA excision activity by the same metals. Binding of MPG to the substrate was not significantly affected by Cd{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Ni{sup 2+} at concentrations that show strong inhibition of the catalytic function, suggesting that the reduced catalytic activity is not due to altered MPG binding affinity to the substrate. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with Zn{sup 2+} showed that the MPG active site has a potential binding site for Zn{sup 2+}, formed by several catalytically important and conserved residues. Metal binding to such a site is expected to interfere with the catalytic mechanism of this protein. These data suggest that inhibition of MPG activity may contribute to metal genotoxicity and depressed repair of alkylation damage by metals in vivo.

  16. KIN17, XPC, DNA-PKCS and XRCC4 proteins in the cellular response to DNA damages. Relations between nucleotide excision repair and non-homologous end joining in a human syn-genic model

    Despras, Emmanuelle

    2006-01-01

    The response to genotoxic stress involves many cellular factors in a complex network of mechanisms that aim to preserve the genetic integrity of the organism. These mechanisms enclose the detection and repair of DNA lesions, the regulation of transcription and replication and, eventually, the setting of cell death. Among the nuclear proteins involved in this response, kin17 proteins are zinc-finger proteins conserved through evolution and activated by ultraviolet (UV) or ionizing radiations (IR). We showed that human kin17 protein (HSAkin17) is found in the cell under a soluble form and a form tightly anchored to nuclear structures. A fraction of HSAkin17 protein is directly associated with chromatin. HSAkin17 protein is recruited to nuclear structures 24 hours after treatment with various agents inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and/or replication forks blockage. Moreover, the reduction of total HSAkin17 protein level sensitizes RKO cells to IR. We also present evidence for the involvement of HSAkin17 protein in DNA replication. This hypothesis was further confirmed by the biochemical demonstration of its belonging to the replication complex. HSAkin17 protein could link DNA replication and DNA repair, a defect in the HSAkin17 pathway leading to an increased radiosensitivity. In a second part, we studied the interactions between two DNA repair mechanisms: nucleotide excision repair (NER) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). NER repairs a wide variety of lesions inducing a distortion of the DNA double helix including UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. NHEJ allows the repair of DSB by direct joining of DNA ends. We used a syn-genic model for DNA repair defects based on RNA interference developed in the laboratory. Epstein-Barr virus-derived vectors (pEBV) allow long-term expression of siRNA and specific extinction of the targeted gene. The reduction of the expression of genes involved in NER (XPA and XPC) or NHEJ (DNA-PKcs and XRCC4) leads to the expected

  17. Soliton cellular automata associated with crystal bases

    Hatayama, Goro; Kuniba, Atsuo; Takagi, Taichiro

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a class of cellular automata associated with crystals of irreducible finite dimensional representations of quantum affine algebras U' q (g-circumflex n ). They have solitons labeled by crystals of the smaller algebra U' q (g-circumflex n-1 ). We prove stable propagation of one soliton for g-circumflex n =A (2) 2n-1 ,A (2) 2n ,B (1) n ,C (1) n ,D (1) n and D (2) n+1 . For g-circumflex n =C (1) n , we also prove that the scattering matrices of two solitons coincide with the combinatorial R matrices of U' q (C (1) n-1 )-crystals

  18. DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) and Cancer Gene Therapy: Use of the Human N-mythlpurien DNA Glycosylase (MPG) to Sensitize Breast Cancer Cells to Low Dose Chemotherapy

    Harvey, Tia

    2003-01-01

    The DNA Base Excision Repair (PER) pathway is responsible for the repair of alkylation and oxidative DNA damage resulting in protection against the deleterious effects of endogenous and exogenous agents encountered on a daily basis...

  19. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    Craig, William W [Pittsburg, CA; Labov, Simon E [Berkeley, CA

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  20. The degree of compliance based on excise duties in Romania between 2002 and 2015

    Todor Silvia Paula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal policy is an instrument that collects resources for the state budget necessary to perform state functions; stabilize the economy; regulation of the economy and recovery growth. The most important instruments are taxes and taxpayers. Since 1989, with the transition to a market economy, a special tax policy has been known by excise taxes. Analyzing the case of Romania and the evolution of excise duties (hereinafter ED conformity we created some regressions that illustrate the ED correlation in Romania between 2002 and 2015. The methodology used: three unifactorial regression models showing how ED impacts economic indicators such as GDP, power purchase expressed through the net annual average salary, and household final consumption expenditure. Moreover, each model has been tested and verified using statistic tests to give reliable results. In a first stage, we analyzed the correlation between GDP and consumption as endogen variable and ED, then we created another model that we kept ED as an independent variable, but we changed the dependent variable using the purchasing power as a dependent variable. Because according to the used tests we demonstrated that correlation coefficients are significant, we proceeded to explain them starting from fiscal policy and economic reality, own of these analyzed 14 years. In conclusion we highlighted below as the ED depends on GDP and consumption and the purchasing power can influence the ED. For future discussion and studies we intend to compare the results with other countries in different geographic areas in Europe

  1. IS IT NECESSARY TO EXCISE ALL BREAST LESIONS? EXPERIENCE FROM A UNIVERSITY-BASED BREAST UNIT

    YIP CH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is becoming more important in Asia since it affect the younger age group. Question arises whether it is safe for breast lesions to be left in-situ if all the elements in triple assessment are benign. The aim of this study is to audit all the excision biopsies of breast lumps done in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC, to review the association of age with the type of pathological finding and to evaluate the rate of carcinoma in these biopsies. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all women who had excision biopsy of a breast lump in the University Malaya Medical Centre from January 2005 to December 2006. All patients with malignant preoperative biopsies were excluded. Results: Of 717 lesions in 664 patients, 459 (64% were fibroadenoma, 114 (15.9% were fibrocystic disease, 20 (2.8% were phylloides tumour, 27 (3.8% were papilloma, 59 (8.2% were malignant and 38 (5.3% were of other pathology. Of the 717 open biopsies, 449 (62.6% had fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, 31 (4.3% had core needle biopsy (CNB, while 14 (2.0% had both FNAC and CNB done prior to excision biopsy. 251 (35% had neither FNAC nor CNB. The incidence of fibroadenoma decreased with increasing age and the incidence of fibrocystic changes and papilloma increased with increasing age. There was no association of age with phylloides tumour. The incidence of unexpected malignancy increased with increasing age. The incidence rates were 0.3%, 4.5%, 19.4%, 29.7% and 29.6% for the age group below 30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and above 60 years of age respectively. Of the 59 malignant lesions, FNAC was performed on 47 (79.7% and CNB on 16 (27.1%. 9 had both FNAC and CNB and 3 had neither FNAC nor CNB. Out of the 56 lesions where FNAC/CNB were done, 23 (41.1% were reported as benign, 20 (35.7% as suspicious, 4 (7.1% as atypical, 5 (8.9% as inadequate, 2 (3.6% as equivocal and 2 (3.6% as lymphoid lesions. Out of the 23 prior biopsies reported as

  2. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Ghazzai, Hakim; Kadri, Abdullah; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two

  3. Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A ...

    Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A Concern for Public ... as well as safety guidelines relating to exposure of non-ionizing radiation. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) operators claimed that their ...

  4. Radiation-induced thymine base damage and its excision repair in active and inactive chromatin of HeLa cells

    Patil, M.S.; Locher, S.E.; Hariharan, P.V.

    1985-01-01

    The extent of production and excision repair of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine type base (t') damage was determined in transcriptionally active and inactive chromatin of HeLa cells after exposure to 6.8 MeV electrons. It was observed that not only the yield but also rate of repair of t' products was greater in the active chromatin compared to the inactive chromatin of HeLa cells. The results strongly indicate that the conformation of chromatin is an important factor in determining the sensitivity to radiation damage and accessibility to enzymes required for repair of such damage. (author)

  5. Observations of cellular transformation products in nickel-base superalloys

    Barlow, C.Y.; Ralph, B.

    1979-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to identify the products in cellularly transformed regions of alloys based on the Nimonic 80 A composition. The commercial alloy is shown to undergo a small degree of cellular transformation even after conventional heat treatments, while recrystallization is found to increase the incidence of this reaction type. Low carbon versions of this alloy demonstrate cellular precipitation over a wider range of heat treatments. It is shown that the cellular reaction may take place in these alloys under a variety of different conditions and with a range of driving forces. Reasons for this unexpected behaviour are offeredm as is a suggestion as to why the cellular reaction occurs on a local scale. (author)

  6. Spontaneous germline excision of Tol1, a DNA-based transposable element naturally occurring in the medaka fish genome.

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koga, Hajime; Nakamura, Kodai; Fujita, Akiko; Hattori, Akimasa; Matsuda, Masaru; Koga, Akihiko

    2014-04-01

    DNA-based transposable elements are ubiquitous constituents of eukaryotic genomes. Vertebrates are, however, exceptional in that most of their DNA-based elements appear to be inactivated. The Tol1 element of the medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, is one of the few elements for which copies containing an undamaged gene have been found. Spontaneous transposition of this element in somatic cells has previously been demonstrated, but there is only indirect evidence for its germline transposition. Here, we show direct evidence of spontaneous excision in the germline. Tyrosinase is the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. In an albino laboratory strain of medaka fish, which is homozygous for a mutant tyrosinase gene in which a Tol1 copy is inserted, we identified de novo reversion mutations related to melanin pigmentation. The gamete-based reversion rate was as high as 0.4%. The revertant fish carried the tyrosinase gene from which the Tol1 copy had been excised. We previously reported the germline transposition of Tol2, another DNA-based element that is thought to be a recent invader of the medaka fish genome. Tol1 is an ancient resident of the genome. Our results indicate that even an old element can contribute to genetic variation in the host genome as a natural mutator.

  7. The mechanism of the glycosylase reaction with hOGG1 base-excision repair enzyme: concerted effect of Lys249 and Asp268 during excision of 8-oxoguanine

    Šebera, Jakub; Hattori, Y.; Sato, D.; Řeha, David; Nencka, Radim; Kohno, T.; Kojima, C.; Tanaka, Y.; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2017), s. 5231-5242 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-27676S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : 8-oxoguanine * hOGG1 * QM/MM * NMR * base-excision repair Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/nar/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/nar/gkx157

  8. Analysis of Human Mobility Based on Cellular Data

    Arifiansyah, F.; Saptawati, G. A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays not only adult but even teenager and children have then own mobile phones. This phenomena indicates that the mobile phone becomes an important part of everyday’s life. Based on these indication, the amount of cellular data also increased rapidly. Cellular data defined as the data that records communication among mobile phone users. Cellular data is easy to obtain because the telecommunications company had made a record of the data for the billing system of the company. Billing data keeps a log of the users cellular data usage each time. We can obtained information from the data about communication between users. Through data visualization process, an interesting pattern can be seen in the raw cellular data, so that users can obtain prior knowledge to perform data analysis. Cellular data processing can be done using data mining to find out human mobility patterns and on the existing data. In this paper, we use frequent pattern mining and finding association rules to observe the relation between attributes in cellular data and then visualize them. We used weka tools for finding the rules in stage of data mining. Generally, the utilization of cellular data can provide supporting information for the decision making process and become a data support to provide solutions and information needed by the decision makers.

  9. Targeted detection of in vivo endogenous DNA base damage reveals preferential base excision repair in the transcribed strand.

    Reis, António M C; Mills, Wilbur K; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Friedberg, Errol C; Thompson, David; Queimado, Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous DNA damage is removed mainly via base excision repair (BER), however, whether there is preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage is still under intense debate. We developed a highly sensitive primer-anchored DNA damage detection assay (PADDA) to map and quantify in vivo endogenous DNA damage. Using PADDA, we documented significantly higher levels of endogenous damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in stationary phase than in exponential phase. We also documented that yeast BER-defective cells have significantly higher levels of endogenous DNA damage than isogenic wild-type cells at any phase of growth. PADDA provided detailed fingerprint analysis at the single-nucleotide level, documenting for the first time that persistent endogenous nucleotide damage in CAN1 co-localizes with previously reported spontaneous CAN1 mutations. To quickly and reliably quantify endogenous strand-specific DNA damage in the constitutively expressed CAN1 gene, we used PADDA on a real-time PCR setting. We demonstrate that wild-type cells repair endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. In contrast, yeast BER-defective cells accumulate endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. These data provide the first direct evidence for preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage and documents the major role of BER in this process.

  10. The Influence of Hepatitis C Virus Therapy on the DNA Base Excision Repair System of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Czarny, Piotr; Merecz-Sadowska, Anna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Szemraj, Janusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz; Karwowski, Bolesław

    2017-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can infect extrahepatic tissues, including lymphocytes, creating reservoir of the virus. Moreover, HCV proteins can interact with DNA damage response proteins of infected cells. In this article we investigated the influence of the virus infection and a new ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV) anti-HCV therapy on the PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mainly lymphocytes) DNA base excision repair (BER) system. BER protein activity was analyzed in the nuclear and mitochondrial extracts (NE and ME) of PBMC isolated from patients before and after therapy, and from subjects without HCV, using modeled double-strand DNA, with 2'-deoxyuridine substitution as the DNA damage. The NE and ME obtained from patients before therapy demonstrated lower efficacy of 2'-deoxyuridine removal and DNA repair polymerization than those of the control group or patients after therapy. Moreover, the extracts from the patients after therapy had similar activity to those from the control group. However, the efficacy of apurinic/apyrimidinic site excision in NE did not differ between the studied groups. We postulate that infection of lymphocytes by the HCV can lead to a decrease in the activity of BER enzymes. However, the use of novel therapy results in the improvement of glycosylase activity as well as the regeneration of endonuclease and other crucial repair enzymes.

  11. Mitochondrial base excision repair in mouse synaptosomes during normal aging and in a model of Alzheimer's disease

    Diaz, Ricardo Gredilla; Weissman, Lior; Yang, JL

    2012-01-01

    Brain aging is associated with synaptic decline and synaptic function is highly dependent on mitochondria. Increased levels of oxidative DNA base damage and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations or deletions lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, playing an important role in the aging...... process and the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we have investigated the repair of oxidative base damage, in synaptosomes of mouse brain during normal aging and in an AD model. During normal aging, a reduction in the base excision repair (BER) capacity was observed...... suggest that the age-related reduction in BER capacity in the synaptosomal fraction might contribute to mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction during aging. The development of AD-like pathology in the 3xTgAD mouse model was, however, not associated with deficiencies of the BER mechanisms...

  12. Agent-Based Modeling of Mitochondria Links Sub-Cellular Dynamics to Cellular Homeostasis and Heterogeneity.

    Giovanni Dalmasso

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelles that supply energy for cellular biochemistry through oxidative phosphorylation. Within a cell, hundreds of mobile mitochondria undergo fusion and fission events to form a dynamic network. These morphological and mobility dynamics are essential for maintaining mitochondrial functional homeostasis, and alterations both impact and reflect cellular stress states. Mitochondrial homeostasis is further dependent on production (biogenesis and the removal of damaged mitochondria by selective autophagy (mitophagy. While mitochondrial function, dynamics, biogenesis and mitophagy are highly-integrated processes, it is not fully understood how systemic control in the cell is established to maintain homeostasis, or respond to bioenergetic demands. Here we used agent-based modeling (ABM to integrate molecular and imaging knowledge sets, and simulate population dynamics of mitochondria and their response to environmental energy demand. Using high-dimensional parameter searches we integrated experimentally-measured rates of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, and using sensitivity analysis we identified parameter influences on population homeostasis. By studying the dynamics of cellular subpopulations with distinct mitochondrial masses, our approach uncovered system properties of mitochondrial populations: (1 mitochondrial fusion and fission activities rapidly establish mitochondrial sub-population homeostasis, and total cellular levels of mitochondria alter fusion and fission activities and subpopulation distributions; (2 restricting the directionality of mitochondrial mobility does not alter morphology subpopulation distributions, but increases network transmission dynamics; and (3 maintaining mitochondrial mass homeostasis and responding to bioenergetic stress requires the integration of mitochondrial dynamics with the cellular bioenergetic state. Finally, (4 our model suggests sources of, and stress conditions

  13. Cellular automaton-based position sensitive detector equalization

    Ferrando, Nestor [Grupo de Diseno de Sistemas Digitales, Instituto de Aplicaciones de las Tecnologias de la Informacion y de las Comunicaciones Avanzadas, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: nesferjo@upvnet.upv.es; Herrero, V.; Cerda, J.; Lerche, C.W.; Colom, R.J.; Gadea, R.; Martinez, J.D.; Monzo, J.M.; Mateo, F.; Sebastia, A.; Benlloch, J.M. [Grupo de Diseno de Sistemas Digitales, Instituto de Aplicaciones de las Tecnologias de la Informacion y de las Comunicaciones Avanzadas, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    Indirect position detectors based on scintillator crystals lack of spacial uniformity in their response. This happens due to crystal inhomogeneities and gain differences among the photomultiplier anodes. In order to solve this, PESIC, an integrated front-end for multianode photomultiplier based nuclear imaging devices was created. One of its main features is the digitally programmable gain adjustment for every photomultiplier output. On another front, cellular automata have been proved to be a useful method for dynamic system modeling. In this paper, a cellular automaton which emulates the behavior of the scintillator crystal, the photomultiplier and the front-end is introduced. Thanks to this model, an automatic energy-based calibration of the detector can be done by configuring the cellular automaton with experimental data and making it evolve up to an stable state. This can be useful as a precalibration method of the detector.

  14. Cellular automaton-based position sensitive detector equalization

    Ferrando, Nestor; Herrero, V.; Cerda, J.; Lerche, C.W.; Colom, R.J.; Gadea, R.; Martinez, J.D.; Monzo, J.M.; Mateo, F.; Sebastia, A.; Benlloch, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Indirect position detectors based on scintillator crystals lack of spacial uniformity in their response. This happens due to crystal inhomogeneities and gain differences among the photomultiplier anodes. In order to solve this, PESIC, an integrated front-end for multianode photomultiplier based nuclear imaging devices was created. One of its main features is the digitally programmable gain adjustment for every photomultiplier output. On another front, cellular automata have been proved to be a useful method for dynamic system modeling. In this paper, a cellular automaton which emulates the behavior of the scintillator crystal, the photomultiplier and the front-end is introduced. Thanks to this model, an automatic energy-based calibration of the detector can be done by configuring the cellular automaton with experimental data and making it evolve up to an stable state. This can be useful as a precalibration method of the detector.

  15. Connection machine: a computer architecture based on cellular automata

    Hillis, W D

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the connection machine, a programmable computer based on cellular automata. The essential idea behind the connection machine is that a regular locally-connected cellular array can be made to behave as if the processing cells are connected into any desired topology. When the topology of the machine is chosen to match the topology of the application program, the result is a fast, powerful computing engine. The connection machine was originally designed to implement knowledge retrieval operations in artificial intelligence programs, but the hardware and the programming techniques are apparently applicable to a much larger class of problems. A machine with 100000 processing cells is currently being constructed. 27 references.

  16. Modulation of DNA polymerase beta-dependent base excision repair in cultured human cells after low dose exposure to arsenite

    Sykora, Peter; Snow, Elizabeth T.

    2008-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is crucial for development and for the repair of endogenous DNA damage. However, unlike nucleotide excision repair, the regulation of BER is not well understood. Arsenic, a well-established human carcinogen, is known to produce oxidative DNA damage, which is repaired primarily by BER, whilst high doses of arsenic can also inhibit DNA repair. However, the mechanism of repair inhibition by arsenic and the steps inhibited are not well defined. To address this question we have investigated the regulation of DNA polymerase β (Pol β) and AP endonuclease (APE1), in response to low, physiologically relevant doses of arsenic. GM847 lung fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to sodium arsenite, As(III), and mRNA, protein levels and BER activity were assessed. Both Pol β and APE1 mRNA exhibited significant dose-dependant down regulation at doses of As(III) above 1 μM. However, at lower doses Pol β mRNA and protein levels, and consequently, BER activity were significantly increased. In contrast, APE1 protein levels were only marginally increased by low doses of As(III) and there was no correlation between APE1 and overall BER activity. Enzyme supplementation of nuclear extracts confirmed that Pol β was rate limiting. These changes in BER correlated with overall protection against sunlight UV-induced toxicity at low doses of As(III) and produced synergistic toxicity at high doses. The results provide evidence that changes in BER due to low doses of arsenic could contribute to a non-linear, threshold dose response for arsenic carcinogenesis

  17. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L.; Jiang, Yanlin; Kelley, Mark R.; Vasko, Michael R.; Lee, Suk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons

  18. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    Kim, Hyun-Suk [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Jiang, Yanlin [Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Kelley, Mark R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Vasko, Michael R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Lee, Suk-Hee, E-mail: slee@iu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons.

  19. Distinct spatio temporal patterns and PARP dependence of XRCC1 recruitment to single-strand break and base excision repair

    Campalans, Anna; Kortulewski, Thierry; Amouroux, Rachel; Radicella, J. Pablo; Menoni, Herve; Vermeulen, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Single-strand break repair (SSBR) and base excision repair (BER) of modified bases and abasic sites share several players. Among them is XRCC1, an essential scaffold protein with no enzymatic activity, required for the coordination of both pathways. XRCC1 is recruited to SSBR by PARP-1, responsible for the initial recognition of the break. The recruitment of XRCC1 to BER is still poorly understood. Here we show by using both local and global induction of oxidative DNA base damage that XRCC1 participation in BER complexes can be distinguished from that in SSBR by several criteria. We show first that XRCC1 recruitment to BER is independent of PARP. Second, unlike SSBR complexes that are assembled within minutes after global damage induction, XRCC1 is detected later in BER patches, with kinetics consistent with the repair of oxidized bases. Third, while XRCC1-containing foci associated with SSBR are formed both in eu- and heterochromatin domains, BER complexes are assembled in patches that are essentially excluded from heterochromatin and where the oxidized bases are detected. (authors)

  20. Novel measurement-based indoor cellular radio system design

    Aragón-Zavala, A

    2008-01-01

    A scaleable, measurement-based radio methodology has been created to use for the design, planing and optimisation of in door cellular radio systems. The development of this measurement-based methodology was performed having in mind that measurements are of ten required to valiate radio coverage in a building. Therefore, the concept of using care fully calibrated measurements to design and optimise a system is feasible since these measurements can easily be obtained prior to system deployment ...

  1. DNA polymerases beta and lambda mediate overlapping and independent roles in base excision repair in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Elena K Braithwaite

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Base excision repair (BER is a DNA repair pathway designed to correct small base lesions in genomic DNA. While DNA polymerase beta (pol beta is known to be the main polymerase in the BER pathway, various studies have implicated other DNA polymerases in back-up roles. One such polymerase, DNA polymerase lambda (pol lambda, was shown to be important in BER of oxidative DNA damage. To further explore roles of the X-family DNA polymerases lambda and beta in BER, we prepared a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line with deletions in the genes for both pol beta and pol lambda. Neutral red viability assays demonstrated that pol lambda and pol beta double null cells were hypersensitive to alkylating and oxidizing DNA damaging agents. In vitro BER assays revealed a modest contribution of pol lambda to single-nucleotide BER of base lesions. Additionally, using co-immunoprecipitation experiments with purified enzymes and whole cell extracts, we found that both pol lambda and pol beta interact with the upstream DNA glycosylases for repair of alkylated and oxidized DNA bases. Such interactions could be important in coordinating roles of these polymerases during BER.

  2. DNA Glycosylases Involved in Base Excision Repair May Be Associated with Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Osorio, Ana; Milne, Roger L; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of th...

  3. DNA Glycosylases Involved in Base Excision Repair May Be Associated with Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    A. Osorio (Ana); R.L. Milne (Roger); K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); T. Vaclová (Tereza); G. Pita (Guillermo); R. Alonso (Rosario); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); I. Blanco (Ignacio); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); M. Durán (Mercedes); O. Díez (Orland); T. Ramon Y Cajal; I. Konstantopoulou (I.); C. Martínez-Bouzas (Cristina); R. Andrés Conejero (Raquel); P. Soucy (Penny); L. McGuffog (Lesley); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); A. Lee (Andrew); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); J. Rantala (Johanna); N. Loman (Niklas); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); M.S. Beattie (Mary); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); B.K. Arun (Banu); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); C.S. Walsh (Christine); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); E.M. John (Esther); A.S. Whittemore (Alice); M.B. Daly (Mary); M.C. Southey (Melissa); J.L. Hopper (John); M.-B. Terry (Mary-Beth); S.S. Buys (Saundra); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); L. Steele (Linda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); L. Jønson (Lars); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); J. Infante (Jon); B. Herráez (Belén); L.T. Moreno (Leticia Thais); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); J. Herzog (Josef); K. Weeman (Kisa); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (D.); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); F. Mariette (F.); S. Volorio (Sara); A. Viel (Alessandra); L. Varesco (Liliana); L. Papi (Laura); L. Ottini (Laura); M.G. Tibiletti (Maria Grazia); P. Radice (Paolo); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); J. Garber; S.D. Ellis (Steve); D. Frost (Debra); R. Platte (Radka); E. Fineberg (Elena); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Eeles (Rosalind); J.W. Adlard (Julian); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); T.J. Cole (Trevor); D. Eccles (Diana); J. Cook (Jackie); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); C. Brewer (Carole); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); F. Douglas (Fiona); M.E. Porteous (Mary); L. Side (Lucy); L.J. Walker (Lisa); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); A. Donaldson (Alan); J. Kennedy (John); C. Foo (Claire); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); C.W. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); N. Ditsch (Nina); N. Arnold (Norbert); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); D. Niederacher (Dieter); C. Sutter (Christian); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); D. Steinemann (Doris); S. Preisler-Adams (Sabine); K. Kast (Karin); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); F. Damiola (Francesca); B. Poppe (Bruce); K. Claes (Kathleen); M. Piedmonte (Marion); K. Tucker (Kathryn); F.J. Backes (Floor); P.M. Rodríguez; W. Brewster (Wendy); K. Wakeley (Katie); T. Rutherford (Thomas); T. Caldes (Trinidad); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); M.A. Rookus (Matti); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); L. van der Kolk (Lizet); J.L. de Lange (J.); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); J.M. Collée (Margriet); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); P. Devilee (Peter); E. Olah (Edith); C. Lazaro (Conxi); A. Teulé (A.); M. Menéndez (Mireia); A. Jakubowska (Anna); C. Cybulski (Cezary); J. Gronwald (Jacek); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Durda (Katarzyna); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); O.T. Johannson (Oskar); C. Maugard; M. Montagna (Marco); S. Tognazzo (Silvia); P.J. Teixeira; S. Healey (Sue); C. Olswold (Curtis); L. Guidugli (Lucia); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); S. Slager (Susan); C. Szabo (Csilla); J. Vijai (Joseph); M. Robson (Mark); N. Kauff (Noah); L. Zhang (Lingling); R. Rau-Murthy (Rohini); A. Fink-Retter (Anneliese); C.F. Singer (Christian); C. Rappaport (Christine); D. Geschwantler Kaulich (Daphne); G. Pfeiler (Georg); M.-K. Tea; A. Berger (Annemarie); C. Phelan (Catherine); M.H. Greene (Mark); P.L. Mai (Phuong); F. Lejbkowicz (Flavio); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); G. Glendon (Gord); A.E. Toland (Amanda); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); I.S. Pedersen (Inge Sokilde); L. Sunde (Lone); M. Thomassen (Mads); T.A. Kruse (Torben); U.B. Jensen; E. Friedman (Eitan); Y. Laitman (Yael); S.P. Shimon (Shani Paluch); J. Simard (Jacques); D.F. Easton (Douglas); K. Offit (Kenneth); F.J. Couch (Fergus); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); J. Benítez (Javier)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSingle Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between

  4. DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    Osorio, A.; Milne, R.L.; Kuchenbaecker, K.; Vaclova, T.; Pita, G.; Alonso, R.; Peterlongo, P.; Blanco, I.; Hoya, M. de la; Duran, M.; Diez, O.; Ramon, Y.C.T.; Konstantopoulou, I.; Martinez-Bouzas, C.; Conejero, R. Andres; Soucy, P.; McGuffog, L.; Barrowdale, D.; Lee, A.; Swe, B.; Arver, B.; Rantala, J.; Loman, N.; Ehrencrona, H.; Olopade, O.I.; Beattie, M.S.; Domchek, S.M.; Nathanson, K.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Arun, B.K.; Karlan, B.Y.; Walsh, C.; Lester, J.; John, E.M.; Whittemore, A.S.; Daly, M.B.; Southey, M.; Hopper, J.; Terry, M.B.; Buys, S.S.; Janavicius, R.; Dorfling, C.M.; Rensburg, E.J. van; Steele, L.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Ding, Y.C.; Hansen, T.V.; Jonson, L.; Ejlertsen, B.; Gerdes, A.M.; Infante, M.; Herraez, B.; Moreno, L.T.; Weitzel, J.N.; Herzog, J.; Weeman, K.; Manoukian, S.; Peissel, B.; Zaffaroni, D.; Scuvera, G.; Bonanni, B.; Mariette, F.; Volorio, S.; Viel, A.; Varesco, L.; Papi, L.; Ottini, L.; Tibiletti, M.G.; Radice, P.; Yannoukakos, D.; Garber, J.; Ellis, S.; Frost, D.; Platte, R.; Fineberg, E.; Evans, G.; Lalloo, F.; Izatt, L.; Eeles, R.; Adlard, J.; Davidson, R.; Cole, T.; Eccles, D.; Cook, J; Hodgson, S.; Brewer, C.; Tischkowitz, M.; Douglas, F.; Porteous, M.; Side, L.; Walker, L.; Morrison, P.; Donaldson, A.; Kennedy, J.; Foo, C.; Godwin, A.K.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Rhiem, K.; Engel, C.; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the

  5. Loop electrosurgical excision of the cervix and subsequent risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a population-based study of singleton deliveries during a 9-year period

    Noehr, Bugge; Jensen, Allan; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the association between loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and the subsequent risk for spontaneous preterm delivery, with the use of population-based data from various nationwide registries. STUDY DESIGN: The study population consisted of all singleton...

  6. Variation within 3' UTRs of base excision repair genes and response to therapy in colorectal cancer patients: a potential modulation of microRNAs binding.

    Pardini, B.; Rosa, F.; Barone, E.; Di Gaetano, C.; Slyšková, Jana; Novotný, J.; Levý, M.; Garritano, S.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Buchler, T.; Gemignani, F.; Landi, S.; Vodička, Pavel; Naccarati, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 21 (2013), s. 6044-6056 ISSN 1078-0432 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/10/1286; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1585 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : colorectal cancer * base excision repair * survival Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.193, year: 2013

  7. Fire and Heat Spreading Model Based on Cellular Automata Theory

    Samartsev, A. A.; Rezchikov, A. F.; Kushnikov, V. A.; Ivashchenko, V. A.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Filimonyuk, L. Yu; Dolinina, O. N.; Kushnikov, O. V.; Shulga, T. E.; Tverdokhlebov, V. A.; Fominykh, D. S.

    2018-05-01

    The distinctive feature of the proposed fire and heat spreading model in premises is the reduction of the computational complexity due to the use of the theory of cellular automata with probability rules of behavior. The possibilities and prospects of using this model in practice are noted. The proposed model has a simple mechanism of integration with agent-based evacuation models. The joint use of these models could improve floor plans and reduce the time of evacuation from premises during fires.

  8. Biochemical properties and base excision repair complex formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease from Pyrococcus furiosus

    Kiyonari, Shinichi; Tahara, Saki; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Iwai, Shigenori; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2009-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are the most frequently found mutagenic lesions in DNA, and they arise mainly from spontaneous base loss or modified base removal by damage-specific DNA glycosylases. AP sites are cleaved by AP endonucleases, and the resultant gaps in the DNA are repaired by DNA polymerase/DNA ligase reactions. We identified the gene product that is responsible for the AP endonuclease activity in the hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. Furthermore, we detected...

  9. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures...

  10. Prediction Based Energy Balancing Forwarding in Cellular Networks

    Yang Jian-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent cellular network technologies, relay stations extend cell coverage and enhance signal strength for mobile users. However, busy traffic makes the relay stations in hot area run out of energy quickly. Energy is a very important factor in the forwarding of cellular network since mobile users(cell phones in hot cells often suffer from low throughput due to energy lack problems. In many situations, the energy lack problems take place because the energy loading is not balanced. In this paper, we present a prediction based forwarding algorithm to let a mobile node dynamically select the next relay station with highest potential energy capacity to resume communication. Key to this strategy is that a relay station only maintains three past status, and then it is able to predict the potential energy capacity. Then, the node selects the next hop with potential maximal energy. Moreover, a location based algorithm is developed to let the mobile node figure out the target region in order to avoid flooding. Simulations demonstrate that our approach significantly increase the aggregate throughput and decrease the delay in cellular network environment.

  11. Cellular Automata-Based Parallel Random Number Generators Using FPGAs

    David H. K. Hoe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular computing represents a new paradigm for implementing high-speed massively parallel machines. Cellular automata (CA, which consist of an array of locally connected processing elements, are a basic form of a cellular-based architecture. The use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs for implementing CA accelerators has shown promising results. This paper investigates the design of CA-based pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs using an FPGA platform. To improve the quality of the random numbers that are generated, the basic CA structure is enhanced in two ways. First, the addition of a superrule to each CA cell is considered. The resulting self-programmable CA (SPCA uses the superrule to determine when to make a dynamic rule change in each CA cell. The superrule takes its inputs from neighboring cells and can be considered itself a second CA working in parallel with the main CA. When implemented on an FPGA, the use of lookup tables in each logic cell removes any restrictions on how the super-rules should be defined. Second, a hybrid configuration is formed by combining a CA with a linear feedback shift register (LFSR. This is advantageous for FPGA designs due to the compactness of the LFSR implementations. A standard software package for statistically evaluating the quality of random number sequences known as Diehard is used to validate the results. Both the SPCA and the hybrid CA/LFSR were found to pass all the Diehard tests.

  12. Anatomy of the Transverse Mesocolon Based on Embryology for Laparoscopic Complete Mesocolic Excision of Right-Sided Colon Cancer.

    Matsuda, Takeru; Sumi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshiko; Kanaji, Shingo; Oshikiri, Taro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2017-11-01

    To treat colon cancer via complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation (CVL), dissection along the embryologic fusion planes is required. However, this surgery is difficult, especially for right-sided colon cancer, because the anatomy and embryology of the transverse mesocolon are not familiar to gastrointestinal surgeons. In this video article, the anatomic details of the transverse mesocolon based on embryology are illustrated with a focus on the venous anatomy. Dissection of the transverse mesocolon along the embryologic planes using a cranial approach during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy also is presented. During the development of the primitive gastrointestinal tract, the transverse mesocolon locates between the terminal portion of the midgut and the beginning of the hindgut. After 270° counterclockwise rotation of the primary intestinal loop, the transverse mesocolon fuses with the frontal surface of the duodenum and pancreas. Simultaneously, the greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach in front of the transverse colon and fuses with the transverse mesocolon. Moreover, the drainage vein of the right colon sometimes joins the right gastroepiploic vein, and the gastrocolic trunk is formed. Anatomic complexity of the transverse mesocolon is caused by rotation and fusion of the gastrointestinal tract during embryologic development. Knowledge concerning these embryologic peculiarities of the transverse mesocolon should be useful in the performance of laparoscopic CME with CVL for right-sided colon cancer.

  13. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-02-07

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two-way power flow and metering that enable the integration of distributed renewable energy generators at BS sites into a microgrid. In this paper, we develop an optimized energy management framework for microgrid-connected cellular BSs that are equipped with renewable energy generators and finite battery storage to minimize energy cost. The BSs share excess renewable energy with others to reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity grid. Three cases are investigated where the renewable energy generation is unknown, perfectly known, and partially known ahead of time. For the partially known case where only the statistics of renewable energy generation are available, stochastic programming is used to achieve a conservative solution. Results show the time varying energy management behaviour of the BSs and the effect of energy sharing between them.

  14. Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material

    Luo, Xin; Xu, Jin-Yu; Li, Weimin

    2015-09-01

    Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material (BFRPGCM) was prepared. The stress-strain curve has been worked out. The ideal energy-absorbing efficiency has been analyzed and the application prospect has been explored. The results show the following: fiber reinforced cellular material has successively sized pore structures; the stress-strain curve has two stages: elastic stage and yielding plateau stage; the greatest value of the ideal energy-absorbing efficiency of BFRPGCM is 89.11%, which suggests BFRPGCM has excellent energy-absorbing property. Thus, it can be seen that BFRPGCM is easy and simple to make, has high plasticity, low density and excellent energy-absorbing features. So, BFRPGCM is a promising energy-absorbing material used especially in civil defense engineering.

  15. Monitoring of Electromagnetic Radiation from Cellular Base Stations in Kuwait

    Al-Otaibi, A.H.; Al-Ajmi, D.; Williams, T.; McGee, D.; Dennis, J.A.; Beg, M.U.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of the radio frequency electromagnetic environment in Kuwait was carried out. The primary purpose of this survey was to monitor electromagnetic radiation (EMR) field strength levels emitted by cellular base stations installed and operated by the Kuwait Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC). Measurements were made at 26 cellular-phone base stations, chosen as a representative sample to include 14 school sites, 2 residential sites, 2 hospital sites, 3 ministerial building sites, 3 commercial sites and 1 typical stand-alone site. On all the selected sites measurements were made with a spectrum analyser to determine the emission level in the frequency bands used by the base station transmitters (917-960 MHz). The results indicated that total field strength, specifically due to the MTC base stations, found in public access areas, varied generally between 0.05 and 1.13 V.m -1 . These values are in the order of between 40 and 800 times lower than the new pan-European CENELEC pre-standard ENV 50166-2 'Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields'. In terms of power density the highest observed value (0.34 μW.m -2 ) was more than a thousand times below the prescribed standards. (author)

  16. Measurements of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Cellular Base Stations in

    K. J. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing the usage of mobile communication devices and internet network information, the entry of private telecommunications companies in Iraq has been started since 2003. These companies began to build up cellular towers to accomplish the telecommunication works but they ignore the safety conditions imposed for the health and environment that are considered in random way. These negative health effects which may cause a health risk for life beings and environment pollution. The aim of this work is to determine the safe and unsafe ranges and discuss damage caused by radiation emitted from Asia cell base stations in Shirqat city and discuses the best ways in which can be minimize its exposure level to avoid its negative health effects. Practical measurements of power density around base stations has been accomplished by using a radiation survey meter type (Radio frequency EMF Strength Meter 480846 in two ways. The first way of measurements has been accomplished at a height of 2 meters above ground for different distances from (0-300 meters .The second way is at a distance of 150 meters for different levels from (2-15 meters above ground level. The maximum measured power density is about (3 mW/m2. Results indicate that the levels of power density are far below the RF radiation exposure of USSR safety standards levels. And that means these cellular base station don't cause negative the health effect for life being if the exposure is within the acceptable international standard levels.

  17. "Blow-torch phenomenon" during laser assisted excision of a thyroglossal cyst at the base of the tongue

    Anitha G Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of blow-torch phenomenon encountered during diode laser assisted excision of a thyroglossal cyst in a child. This is first such case report from India and highlights an unusual complication which anesthesiologists need to be aware of due to the increasing use of operative laser.

  18. The role of the PHP domain associated with DNA polymerase X from Thermus thermophilus HB8 in base excision repair.

    Nakane, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Masui, Ryoji

    2012-11-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is one of the most commonly used DNA repair pathways involved in genome stability. X-family DNA polymerases (PolXs) play critical roles in BER, especially in filling single-nucleotide gaps. In addition to a polymerase core domain, bacterial PolXs have a polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain with phosphoesterase activity which is also required for BER. However, the role of the PHP domain of PolX in bacterial BER remains unresolved. We found that the PHP domain of Thermus thermophilus HB8 PolX (ttPolX) functions as two types of phosphoesterase in BER, including a 3'-phosphatase and an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease. Experiments using T. thermophilus HB8 cell lysates revealed that the majority of the 3'-phosphatase and AP endonuclease activities are attributable to the another phosphoesterase in T. thermophilus HB8, endonuclease IV (ttEndoIV). However, ttPolX possesses significant 3'-phosphatase activity in ΔttendoIV cell lysate, indicating possible complementation. Our experiments also reveal that there are only two enzymes that display the 3'-phosphatase activity in the T. thermophilus HB8 cell, ttPolX and ttEndoIV. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of ΔttpolX, ΔttendoIV, and ΔttpolX/ΔttendoIV using hydrogen peroxide and sodium nitrite supports the hypothesis that ttPolX functions as a backup for ttEndoIV in BER. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of a cervical cancer screening program based on HPV testing and LLETZ excision in a low resource setting.

    Margaret McAdam

    Full Text Available We conducted studies in Vanuatu to evaluate potential screening and treatment strategies to assist with control of cervical cancer. In a pilot study of 496 women, visual inspection and cytology were evaluated as screening tests for detection of CIN 2 or worse (CIN2+, observed in 21 of 206 subjects biopsied on the basis of abnormal visual inspection or cytology. Sensitivity of visual inspection with Lugol's Iodine for detection of CIN2+ on biopsy was 0.63, specificity was 0.32, and the positive predictive value was 0.09. For HSIL cytology, sensitivity was 0.99, specificity was 0.77, and the positive predictive value was 0.88. HSIL cytology was significantly more sensitive and had a significantly higher PPV for CIN 2+ than visual inspection (p<0.01. In a further study of 514 women, we compared testing for HR HPV and cytology as predictors of biopsy proven CIN 2+. Sensitivity of HSIL cytology for CIN2+ as established by loop excision of the cervix was 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.48. Sensitivity of a positive test for HR HPV for detection of CIN2+ was non-significantly different from cytology at 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.42. Combining the two tests gave a significantly lower sensitivity of 0.63, a specificity of 0.98, and a positive predictive value of 0.68. For women over 30 in a low resource setting without access to cytology, a single locally conducted test for high risk HPV with effective intervention could reduce cervical cancer risk as effectively as intervention based on cytology conducted in an accredited laboratory.

  20. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II effort will continue to develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular...

  1. The Cellular Differential Evolution Based on Chaotic Local Search

    Qingfeng Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To avoid immature convergence and tune the selection pressure in the differential evolution (DE algorithm, a new differential evolution algorithm based on cellular automata and chaotic local search (CLS or ccDE is proposed. To balance the exploration and exploitation tradeoff of differential evolution, the interaction among individuals is limited in cellular neighbors instead of controlling parameters in the canonical DE. To improve the optimizing performance of DE, the CLS helps by exploring a large region to avoid immature convergence in the early evolutionary stage and exploiting a small region to refine the final solutions in the later evolutionary stage. What is more, to improve the convergence characteristics and maintain the population diversity, the binomial crossover operator in the canonical DE may be instead by the orthogonal crossover operator without crossover rate. The performance of ccDE is widely evaluated on a set of 14 bound constrained numerical optimization problems compared with the canonical DE and several DE variants. The simulation results show that ccDE has better performances in terms of convergence rate and solution accuracy than other optimizers.

  2. An inverse switch in DNA base excision and strand break repair contributes to melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma cells.

    Mirta M L Sousa

    Full Text Available Alterations in checkpoint and DNA repair pathways may provide adaptive mechanisms contributing to acquired drug resistance. Here, we investigated the levels of proteins mediating DNA damage signaling and -repair in RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cells and its Melphalan-resistant derivative 8226-LR5. We observed markedly reduced steady-state levels of DNA glycosylases UNG2, NEIL1 and MPG in the resistant cells and cross-resistance to agents inducing their respective DNA base lesions. Conversely, repair of alkali-labile sites was apparently enhanced in the resistant cells, as substantiated by alkaline comet assay, autoribosylation of PARP-1, and increased sensitivity to PARP-1 inhibition by 4-AN or KU58684. Reduced base-excision and enhanced single-strand break repair would both contribute to the observed reduction in genomic alkali-labile sites, which could jeopardize productive processing of the more cytotoxic Melphalan-induced interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs. Furthermore, we found a marked upregulation of proteins in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ pathway of double-strand break (DSB repair, likely contributing to the observed increase in DSB repair kinetics in the resistant cells. Finally, we observed apparent upregulation of ATR-signaling and downregulation of ATM-signaling in the resistant cells. This was accompanied by markedly increased sensitivity towards Melphalan in the presence of ATR-, DNA-PK, or CHK1/2 inhibitors whereas no sensitizing effect was observed subsequent to ATM inhibition, suggesting that replication blocking lesions are primary triggers of the DNA damage response in the Melphalan resistant cells. In conclusion, Melphalan resistance is apparently contributed by modulation of the DNA damage response at multiple levels, including downregulation of specific repair pathways to avoid repair intermediates that could impair efficient processing of cytotoxic ICLs and ICL-induced DSBs. This study has revealed several novel

  3. The role of base excision repair in the development of primary open angle glaucoma in the Polish population

    Cuchra, Magda; Markiewicz, Lukasz; Mucha, Bartosz [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz (Poland); Pytel, Dariusz [The Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Szymanek, Katarzyna [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, SPKSO Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Szemraj, Janusz [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P. [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, SPKSO Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Majsterek, Ireneusz, E-mail: ireneusz.majsterek@umed.lodz.pl [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We suggested the association of XRCC1 gene with the increase risk of POAG development. • We indicated the association of clinical factor and XRCC1, MUTYH, ADPRT and APE1 genes with POAG progression. • We postulated the increase level of oxidative DNA damage in group of patients with POAG in relation to healthy controls. • We suggested the slightly decrease ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage. • This is the first data that showed the role of BER mechanism in POAG pathogenesis. - Abstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in developing countries. Previous data have shown that progressive loss of human TM cells may be connected with chronic exposure to oxidative stress. This hypothesis may suggest a role of the base excision repair (BER) pathway of oxidative DNA damage in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an association of BER gene polymorphism with a risk of POAG. Moreover, an association of clinical parameters was examined including cup disk ratio (c/d), rim area (RA) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) with glaucoma progression according to BER gene polymorphisms. Our research included 412 patients with POAG and 454 healthy controls. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) clinical parameters were also analyzed. The 399Arg/Gln genotype of the XRCC1 gene (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.02–1.89 p = 0.03) was associated with an increased risk of POAG occurrence. It was indicated that the 399Gln/Gln XRCC1 genotype might increase the risk of POAG progression according to the c/d ratio (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.07–2.61 P = 0.02) clinical parameter. Moreover, the association of VF factor with 148Asp/Glu of APE1 genotype distribution and POAG progression (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.30–3.89) was also found. Additionally, the analysis of the 324Gln/His MUTYH polymorphism gene distribution in the patient group according to RNFL factor showed that it might

  4. Cellular-automata-based learning network for pattern recognition

    Tzionas, Panagiotis G.; Tsalides, Phillippos G.; Thanailakis, Adonios

    1991-11-01

    Most classification techniques either adopt an approach based directly on the statistical characteristics of the pattern classes involved, or they transform the patterns in a feature space and try to separate the point clusters in this space. An alternative approach based on memory networks has been presented, its novelty being that it can be implemented in parallel and it utilizes direct features of the patterns rather than statistical characteristics. This study presents a new approach for pattern classification using pseudo 2-D binary cellular automata (CA). This approach resembles the memory network classifier in the sense that it is based on an adaptive knowledge based formed during a training phase, and also in the fact that both methods utilize pattern features that are directly available. The main advantage of this approach is that the sensitivity of the pattern classifier can be controlled. The proposed pattern classifier has been designed using 1.5 micrometers design rules for an N-well CMOS process. Layout has been achieved using SOLO 1400. Binary pseudo 2-D hybrid additive CA (HACA) is described in the second section of this paper. The third section describes the operation of the pattern classifier and the fourth section presents some possible applications. The VLSI implementation of the pattern classifier is presented in the fifth section and, finally, the sixth section draws conclusions from the results obtained.

  5. Use of capillary GC-MS for identification of radiation-induced DNA base damage: Implications for base-excision repair of DNA

    Dizdaroglu, M.

    1985-01-01

    Application of GC-MS to characterization of radiation-induced base products of DNA and DNa base-amino acid crosslinks is presented. Samples of γ-irradiated DNa were hydrolyzed with formic acid, trimethylsilylated and subjected to GC-MS analysis using a fused silica capillary column. Hydrolysis conditions suitable for the simultaneous analysis of the radiation-induced products of all four DNA bases in a single run were determined. The trimethylsilyl derivatives of these products had excellent GC-properties and easily interpretable mass spectra. The complementary use of t-butyldimetylsilyl derivatives was also demonstrated. Moreover, the usefulness of this method for identification of radiation-induced DNA base-amino acid crosslinks was shown using γ-irradiated mixtures of thymine and tyrosine or phenylalanine. Because of the excellent resolving power of capillary GC and the instant and highly sensitive identification by MS, GC-MS is suggested as a suitable technique for identification of altered bases removed from DNA by base-excision repair enzymes

  6. Excision repair of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine from the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans

    Targovnik, H.S.; Hariharan, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    One of the major ionizing radiation products, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), was measured in the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans following exposure of cells to 6.8-MeV electrons or 254-nm ultraviolet light. Removal of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine was measured in both an ionizing radiation-sensitive strain (262) and a highly radioresistant strain (the wild type W + ) of Micrococcus radiodurans. Within 30 min of incubation (33 0 C) following exposure to ultraviolet light (2400 J/m 2 ) approximately 60% of the thymine glycols were excised, whereas in the case of ionizing radiation (250 krad) only 35% were removed from the cellular DNA of the wild-type strain. In contrast less than 50% of the thymine glycols were excised from the sensitive strain. The amount of DNA degradation induced by radiation was less than 10% in both strains. The results suggest a possible correlation between reduced excision repair of base damage and increased radiation sensitivity

  7. New insights in the removal of the hydantoins, oxidation product of pyrimidines, via the base excision and nucleotide incision repair pathways.

    Modesto Redrejo-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage to DNA, if not repaired, can be both miscoding and blocking. These genetic alterations can lead to mutations and/or cell death, which in turn cause cancer and aging. Oxidized DNA bases are substrates for two overlapping repair pathways: base excision (BER and nucleotide incision repair (NIR. Hydantoin derivatives such as 5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-Hyd and 5-methyl-5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-5Me-Hyd, major products of cytosine and thymine oxidative degradation pathways, respectively, have been detected in cancer cells and ancient DNA. Hydantoins are blocking lesions for DNA polymerases and excised by bacterial and yeast DNA glycosylases in the BER pathway. However little is known about repair of pyrimidine-derived hydantoins in human cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, using both denaturing PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS analyses we report that the bacterial, yeast and human AP endonucleases can incise duplex DNA 5' next to 5OH-Hyd and 5OH-5Me-Hyd thus initiating the NIR pathway. We have fully reconstituted the NIR pathway for these lesions in vitro using purified human proteins. Depletion of Nfo in E. coli and APE1 in HeLa cells abolishes the NIR activity in cell-free extracts. Importantly, a number of redundant DNA glycosylase activities can excise hydantoin residues, including human NTH1, NEIL1 and NEIL2 and the former protein being a major DNA glycosylase activity in HeLa cells extracts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that both BER and NIR pathways can compete and/or back-up each other to remove hydantoin DNA lesions in vivo.

  8. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  9. Base excision repair efficiency and mechanism in nuclear extracts are influenced by the ratio between volume of nuclear extraction buffer and nuclei-Implications for comparative studies

    Akbari, Mansour; Krokan, Hans E

    2012-01-01

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway corrects many different DNA base lesions and is important for genomic stability. The mechanism of BER cannot easily be investigated in intact cells and therefore in vitro methods that reflect the in vivo processes are in high demand. Reconstitution of BER...... using purified proteins essentially mirror properties of the proteins used, and does not necessarily reflect the mechanism as it occurs in the cell. Nuclear extracts from cultured cells have the capacity to carry out complete BER and can give important information on the mechanism. Furthermore......, candidate proteins in extracts can be inhibited or depleted in a controlled way, making defined extracts an important source for mechanistic studies. The major drawback is that there is no standardized method of preparing nuclear extract for BER studies, and it does not appear to be a topic given much...

  10. Origami-based cellular metamaterial with auxetic, bistable, and self-locking properties

    Kamrava, Soroush; Mousanezhad, Davood; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2017-04-01

    We present a novel cellular metamaterial constructed from Origami building blocks based on Miura-ori fold. The proposed cellular metamaterial exhibits unusual properties some of which stemming from the inherent properties of its Origami building blocks, and others manifesting due to its unique geometrical construction and architecture. These properties include foldability with two fully-folded configurations, auxeticity (i.e., negative Poisson’s ratio), bistability, and self-locking of Origami building blocks to construct load-bearing cellular metamaterials. The kinematics and force response of the cellular metamaterial during folding were studied to investigate the underlying mechanisms resulting in its unique properties using analytical modeling and experiments.

  11. The Algorithm of Continuous Optimization Based on the Modified Cellular Automaton

    Oleg Evsutin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the application of the cellular automata mathematical apparatus to the problem of continuous optimization. The cellular automaton with an objective function is introduced as a new modification of the classic cellular automaton. The algorithm of continuous optimization, which is based on dynamics of the cellular automaton having the property of geometric symmetry, is obtained. The results of the simulation experiments with the obtained algorithm on standard test functions are provided, and a comparison between the analogs is shown.

  12. Arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts.

    Bontempo, Nicholas A; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2014-02-01

    Arthroscopy is an advancing field in orthopedics, the applications of which have been expanding over time. Traditionally, excision of ganglion cysts has been done in an open fashion. However, more recently, studies show outcomes following arthroscopic excision to be as good as open excision. Cosmetically, the incisions are smaller and heal faster following arthroscopy. In addition, there is the suggested benefit that patients will regain function and return to work faster following arthroscopic excision. More prospective studies comparing open and arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts need to be done in order to delineate if there is a true functional benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. RPA physically interacts with the human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 to regulate excision of oxidative DNA base damage in primer-template structures.

    Theriot, Corey A; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Hazra, Tapas K; Mitra, Sankar

    2010-06-04

    The human DNA glycosylase NEIL1, activated during the S-phase, has been shown to excise oxidized base lesions in single-strand DNA substrates. Furthermore, our previous work demonstrating functional interaction of NEIL1 with PCNA and flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) suggested its involvement in replication-associated repair. Here we show interaction of NEIL1 with replication protein A (RPA), the heterotrimeric single-strand DNA binding protein that is essential for replication and other DNA transactions. The NEIL1 immunocomplex isolated from human cells contains RPA, and its abundance in the complex increases after exposure to oxidative stress. NEIL1 directly interacts with the large subunit of RPA (K(d) approximately 20 nM) via the common interacting interface (residues 312-349) in NEIL1's disordered C-terminal region. RPA inhibits the base excision activity of both wild-type NEIL1 (389 residues) and its C-terminal deletion CDelta78 mutant (lacking the interaction domain) for repairing 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU) in a primer-template structure mimicking the DNA replication fork. This inhibition is reduced when the damage is located near the primer-template junction. Contrarily, RPA moderately stimulates wild-type NEIL1 but not the CDelta78 mutant when 5-OHU is located within the duplex region. While NEIL1 is inhibited by both RPA and Escherichia coli single-strand DNA binding protein, only inhibition by RPA is relieved by PCNA. These results showing modulation of NEIL1's activity on single-stranded DNA substrate by RPA and PCNA support NEIL1's involvement in repairing the replicating genome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular bases of cellular senescence: Hayflick phenomenon 50 years later

    Patrycja Sosińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal human somatic cells have strictly limited proliferative capacity and reach a state of senescence when it becomes exhausted. It is believed that senescence is a response to extensive and irreparable DNA injury, localized in telomeric and/or non-telomeric regions of the genome. Main cause of this damage is oxidative stress, increasing due to deteriorated function of mitochondria. Senescent cells accumulate in tissues during aging, which is causatively linked with the development of various pathologies in elderly individuals, including cancer. This paper, prepared exactly 50 years after Leonard Hayflick’s discovery of the relationship between cellular senescence and organismal aging is aimed at presenting the current knowledge about molecular determinants of senescence, with particular emphasis paid to the role of oxidative stress, effectors of senescence at the level of cell cycle, markers of this phenomenon, and the effect of senescent cells on the development of certain age-related diseases.

  15. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    Craig, William W [Pittsburg, CA; Labov, Simon E [Berkeley, CA

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  16. Production and properties of bronze based cellular materials

    Strobl, S.; Danninger, H.

    2001-01-01

    For production of lightweight components, cellular materials offer attractive potential. Here, manufacturing of sintered bodies from bronze hollow spheres is described. The process starts with fabrication of hollow copper particles by cementation of Cu on iron particles. The still fragile Cu shells are consolidated by coating with Sn and subsequent gravity sintering. The resulting specimens exhibit a closed cell bronze structure with rather consistent morphology and cell wall thickness. The apparent density may range between 1.5 and 3.0 gcm -3 and can be controlled by variation of particle size and wall thickness. The mechanical behavior of the structures esp. during compressive loading is described and related to the microstructural parameters. (author)

  17. An Asynchronous Cellular Automata-Based Adaptive Illumination Facility

    Bandini, Stefania; Bonomi, Andrea; Vizzari, Giuseppe; Acconci, Vito

    The term Ambient Intelligence refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people; in the described scenario the environment itself is endowed with a set of sensors (to perceive humans or other physical entities such as dogs, bicycles, etc.), interacting with a set of actuators (lights) that choose their actions (i.e. state of illumination) in an attempt improve the overall experience of these users. The model for the interaction and action of sensors and actuators is an asynchronous Cellular Automata (CA) with memory, supporting a self-organization of the system as a response to the presence and movements of people inside it. The paper will introduce the model, as well as an ad hoc user interface for the specification of the relevant parameters of the CA transition rule that determines the overall system behaviour.

  18. A novel role for Gadd45α in base excision repair: Modulation of APE1 activity by the direct interaction of Gadd45α with PCNA

    Kim, Hye Lim; Kim, Sang Uk; Seo, Young Rok

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Emerging critical role for Gadd45α in modulating BER activity. ► Identifying specific PCNA binding site on Gadd45α protein. ► Regulating APE1 activity through interaction between Gadd45α and PCNA. ► Suggesting potential role of Gadd45α–PCNA binding in pancreatic carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: The growth arrest and DNA damage inducible, alpha (Gadd45α) protein regulates DNA repair by interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Our previous study suggested a potential role for Gadd45α in the base excision repair (BER) pathway by affecting apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) protein in addition to its accepted role in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here, we investigated whether the interaction of Gadd45α with PCNA affects APE1 activity. To address this issue, we used a siRNA directed to Gadd45α and a form of Gadd45α with a mutation to the predicted site of PCNA binding. There was a reduction of APE1 activity in cells transfected with the Gadd45α siRNA. Furthermore, the interaction of Gadd45α with PCNA and APE1 was lower in cells transfected with mutant Gadd45α compared with cells transfected with wild-type Gadd45α. Indeed, we observed that the APE1 activity in the Gadd45α-interacting complex was significantly lower in cells that overexpress mutant Gadd45α compared with cells that overexpress wild-type Gadd45α. We conclude that the PCNA binding site on Gadd45α plays a critical role in modulating the interaction with PCNA and APE1, affecting BER activity. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which BER activity is modulated, although the interaction of Gadd45α with APE1 needs to be clarified

  19. Value of histopathologic analysis of subcutis excisions by general practitioners

    Verweij Wim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only around 60% of skin lesions excised by GPs are referred to a pathologist. Clinical diagnoses of skin excisions by GPs may not be very accurate. Subcutis excisions are rarely done by GPs, and there is hence little information in the literature on the histopathological yield of subcutis excisions by GPs with regard to malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of histopathological investigation of a relatively large group of subcutis excisions by GPs, with special emphasis on discrepancies between clinical and histopathological diagnoses of malignancy. Methods We investigated a series of 90 subcutis excisions, which was derived from a database of consecutive GP submissions from the years 1999–2000 where in the same time period 4595 skin excisions were performed by the same group of GPs. This underlines the apparent reluctance of GPs to perform subcutis excisions. Results The final diagnosis was benign in 88 cases (97.8% and malignant in 2 cases (2.2%. Seven cases had no clinical diagnosis, all of which were benign. Of the 83 clinically benign cases, 81 (97.6% were indeed benign and 2 (2.4% were malignant: one Merkel cell carcinoma and one dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. The former was clinically thought to be a lipoma, and the latter a trichilemmal cyst. The dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans presented at the age of 27, and the Merkel cell carcinoma at the age of 60. Both were incompletely removed and required re-excision by a surgical oncologist. Conclusion Histopathological investigation of subcutis excisions by GPs yields unexpected and rare malignancies in about 2% of cases that may initially be excised inadequately. Based on these data, and because of the relatively rareness of these type of excisions, it could be argued that it may be worthwhile to have all subcutis excisions by GPs routinely investigated by histopathology.

  20. The cellular bases of antibody responses during dengue virus infection

    Juan Carlos Yam-Puc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause from an asymptomatic disease to mild undifferentiated fever, classical dengue, and severe dengue. Neutralizing memory antibody (Ab responses are one of the most important mechanisms that counteract reinfections and are therefore the main aim of vaccination. However, it has also been proposed that in dengue, some of these class-switched (IgG memory Abs might worsen the disease. Although these memory Abs derive from B cells by T-cell dependent processes, we know rather little about the (acute, chronic or memory B cell responses and the complex cellular mechanisms generating these Abs during DENV infections.This review aims to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective of the B cell responses during DENV infection, starting since the very early events like the cutaneous DENV entrance and the arrival into draining lymph nodes, to the putative B cell activation, proliferation and germinal centers (GCs formation (the source of affinity-matured class-switched memory Abs, till the outcome of GC reactions such as the generation of plasmablasts, Ab-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. We discuss topics very poorly explored such as the possibility of B cell infection by DENV or even activation-induced B cell death. The current information about the nature of the Ab responses to DENV is also illustrated.

  1. Cellular Model of Atherogenesis Based on Pluripotent Vascular Wall Pericytes.

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes are pluripotent cells that can be found in the vascular wall of both microvessels and large arteries and veins. They have distinct morphology with long branching processes and form numerous contacts with each other and with endothelial cells, organizing the vascular wall cells into a three-dimensional network. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that pericytes may play a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular disorders, including atherosclerosis. Macrovascular pericytes are able to accumulate lipids and contribute to growth and vascularization of the atherosclerotic plaque. Moreover, they participate in the local inflammatory process and thrombosis, which can lead to fatal consequences. At the same time, pericytes can represent a useful model for studying the atherosclerotic process and for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. In particular, they are suitable for testing various substances' potential for decreasing lipid accumulation induced by the incubation of cells with atherogenic low-density lipoprotein. In this review we will discuss the application of cellular models for studying atherosclerosis and provide several examples of successful application of these models to drug research.

  2. Base excision repair efficiency and mechanism in nuclear extracts are influenced by the ratio between volume of nuclear extraction buffer and nuclei—Implications for comparative studies

    Akbari, Mansour; Krokan, Hans E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine effect of volume of extraction buffer relative to volume of isolated nuclei on repair activity of nuclear extract. • Base excision repair activity of nuclear extracts prepared from the same batch and number of nuclei varies inversely with the volume of nuclear extraction buffer. • Effect of the volume of extraction buffer on BER activity of nuclear extracts can only be partially reversed after concentration of the more diluted extract by ultrafiltration. - Abstract: The base excision repair (BER) pathway corrects many different DNA base lesions and is important for genomic stability. The mechanism of BER cannot easily be investigated in intact cells and therefore in vitro methods that reflect the in vivo processes are in high demand. Reconstitution of BER using purified proteins essentially mirror properties of the proteins used, and does not necessarily reflect the mechanism as it occurs in the cell. Nuclear extracts from cultured cells have the capacity to carry out complete BER and can give important information on the mechanism. Furthermore, candidate proteins in extracts can be inhibited or depleted in a controlled way, making defined extracts an important source for mechanistic studies. The major drawback is that there is no standardized method of preparing nuclear extract for BER studies, and it does not appear to be a topic given much attention. Here we have examined BER activity of nuclear cell extracts from HeLa cells, using as substrate a circular DNA molecule with either uracil or an AP-site in a defined position. We show that BER activity of nuclear extracts from the same batch of cells varies inversely with the volume of nuclear extraction buffer relative to nuclei volume, in spite of identical protein concentrations in the BER assay mixture. Surprisingly, the uracil–DNA glycosylase activity (mainly UNG2), but not amount of UNG2, also correlated negatively with the volume of extraction buffer. These studies demonstrate

  3. Glider-based computing in reaction-diffusion hexagonal cellular automata

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Wuensche, Andrew; De Lacy Costello, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    A three-state hexagonal cellular automaton, discovered in [Wuensche A. Glider dynamics in 3-value hexagonal cellular automata: the beehive rule. Int J Unconvention Comput, in press], presents a conceptual discrete model of a reaction-diffusion system with inhibitor and activator reagents. The automaton model of reaction-diffusion exhibits mobile localized patterns (gliders) in its space-time dynamics. We show how to implement the basic computational operations with these mobile localizations, and thus demonstrate collision-based logical universality of the hexagonal reaction-diffusion cellular automaton

  4. Cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone significantly increase the risk for spontaneous preterm birth: a population-based cohort study.

    Jančar, Nina; Mihevc Ponikvar, Barbara; Tomšič, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) with spontaneous preterm birth in a large 10-year national sample. We wanted to explore further the association of these procedures with preterm birth according to gestation. We conducted a population based retrospective cohort study, using data from national Medical Birth Registry. The study population consisted of all women giving birth to singletons in the period 2003-2012 in Slovenia, excluding all induced labors and elective cesarean sections before 37 weeks of gestation (N=192730). We compared the prevalence of spontaneous preterm births (before 28 weeks, before 32 weeks, before 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation) in women with cold-knife conisation or LLETZ compared to women without history of conisation, calculating odds ratios (OR), adjusted for potential confounders. Chi-square test was used for descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) with two-sided probability (p) values. A total of 8420 (4.4%) women had a preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation, 2250 (1.2%) before 34 weeks of gestation, 1333 (0.7%) before 32 weeks of gestation and 603 (0.3%) before 28 weeks of gestation. A total of 4580 (2.4%) women had some type of conisation in their medical history: 2083 (1.1%) had cold-knife conisation and 2498 (1.3%) had LLETZ. In women with history of cold-knife conisation, the adjusted OR for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation was 3.13 (95% CI; 2.74-3.57) and for preterm birth before 28 weeks of gestation 5.96 (95% CI; 4.3-8.3). In women with history of LLETZ, the adjusted OR was 1.95 (95% CI; 1.68-2.25) and 2.88 (95% CI; 1.87-4.43), respectively. Women with cervical excision procedure of any kind have significantly increased odds for preterm birth, especially for preterm birth before 28

  5. Bypass of a 5',8-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleoside by DNA polymerase β during DNA replication and base excision repair leads to nucleotide misinsertions and DNA strand breaks.

    Jiang, Zhongliang; Xu, Meng; Lai, Yanhao; Laverde, Eduardo E; Terzidis, Michael A; Masi, Annalisa; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Liu, Yuan

    2015-09-01

    5',8-Cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleosides including 5',8-cyclo-dA (cdA) and 5',8-cyclo-dG (cdG) are induced by hydroxyl radicals resulting from oxidative stress such as ionizing radiation. 5',8-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleoside lesions are repaired by nucleotide excision repair with low efficiency, thereby leading to their accumulation in the human genome and lesion bypass by DNA polymerases during DNA replication and base excision repair (BER). In this study, for the first time, we discovered that DNA polymerase β (pol β) efficiently bypassed a 5'R-cdA, but inefficiently bypassed a 5'S-cdA during DNA replication and BER. We found that cell extracts from pol β wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited significant DNA synthesis activity in bypassing a cdA lesion located in replication and BER intermediates. However, pol β knock-out cell extracts exhibited little DNA synthesis to bypass the lesion. This indicates that pol β plays an important role in bypassing a cdA lesion during DNA replication and BER. Furthermore, we demonstrated that pol β inserted both a correct and incorrect nucleotide to bypass a cdA at a low concentration. Nucleotide misinsertion was significantly stimulated by a high concentration of pol β, indicating a mutagenic effect induced by pol β lesion bypass synthesis of a 5',8-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleoside. Moreover, we found that bypass of a 5'S-cdA by pol β generated an intermediate that failed to be extended by pol β, resulting in accumulation of single-strand DNA breaks. Our study provides the first evidence that pol β plays an important role in bypassing a 5',8-cyclo-dA during DNA replication and repair, as well as new insight into mutagenic effects and genome instability resulting from pol β bypassing of a cdA lesion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Is the Oxidative DNA Damage Level of Human Lymphocyte Correlated with the Antioxidant Capacity of Serum or the Base Excision Repair Activity of Lymphocyte?

    Yi-Chih Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A random screening of human blood samples from 24 individuals of nonsmoker was conducted to examine the correlation between the oxidative DNA damage level of lymphocytes and the antioxidant capacity of serum or the base excision repair (BER activity of lymphocytes. The oxidative DNA damage level was measured with comet assay containing Fpg/Endo III cleavage, and the BER activity was estimated with a modified comet assay including nuclear extract of lymphocytes for enzymatic cleavage. Antioxidant capacity was determined with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. We found that though the endogenous DNA oxidation levels varied among the individuals, each individual level appeared to be steady for at least 1 month. Our results indicate that the oxidative DNA damage level is insignificantly or weakly correlated with antioxidant capacity or BER activity, respectively. However, lymphocytes from carriers of Helicobacter pylori (HP or Hepatitis B virus (HBV tend to give higher levels of oxidative DNA damage (P<0.05. Though sera of this group of individuals show no particular tendency with reduced antioxidant capacity, the respective BER activities of lymphocytes are lower in average (P<0.05. Thus, reduction of repair activity may be associated with the genotoxic effect of HP or HBV infection.

  7. Demographics and Outcomes of Stage I-II Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery Compared with Wide Local Excision in the National Cancer Data Base.

    Singh, Babu; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Truong, Minh Tam; Sahni, Debjani

    2018-02-03

    The optimal surgical approach (wide local excision (WLE) vs. Mohs micrographic surgery (MOHS)) for treating Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is yet to be determined. To compare survival outcomes in patients with early stage MCC treated with MOHS versus WLE. A retrospective review of all cases in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of MCC of clinical Stage I-II MCC treated with WLE or MOHS was performed. 1,795 cases of Stage I-II MCC were identified who underwent WLE (N=1,685) or MOHS (N=110). There was no difference in residual tumor on surgical margins between the two treatment groups (p=0.588). On multivariate analysis, there was no difference in overall survival between the treatment modalities (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.72-1.45, p=0.897). There was no difference in overall survival between the two groups on propensity score matched analysis. Disease specific survival was not reported as this data in not available in the NCDB. MOHS appears to be as effective as WLE in treating early stage MCC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Localization-based super-resolution imaging of cellular structures.

    Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Waterman, Clare M

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy allows direct visualization of fluorescently tagged proteins within cells. However, the spatial resolution of conventional fluorescence microscopes is limited by diffraction to ~250 nm, prompting the development of super-resolution microscopy which offers resolution approaching the scale of single proteins, i.e., ~20 nm. Here, we describe protocols for single molecule localization-based super-resolution imaging, using focal adhesion proteins as an example and employing either photoswitchable fluorophores or photoactivatable fluorescent proteins. These protocols should also be easily adaptable to imaging a broad array of macromolecular assemblies in cells whose components can be fluorescently tagged and assemble into high density structures.

  9. The Mutyh base excision repair gene influences the inflammatory response in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis.

    Ida Casorelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mutyh DNA glycosylase is involved in the repair of oxidized DNA bases. Mutations in the human MUTYH gene are responsible for colorectal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis. Since defective DNA repair genes might contribute to the increased cancer risk associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, we compared the inflammatory response of wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The severity of colitis, changes in expression of genes involved in DNA repair and inflammation, DNA 8-oxoguanine levels and microsatellite instability were analysed in colon of mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS. The Mutyh(-/- phenotype was associated with a significant accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in colon DNA of treated mice. A single DSS cycle induced severe acute ulcerative colitis in wild-type mice, whereas lesions were modest in Mutyh(-/- mice, and this was associated with moderate variations in the expression of several cytokines. Eight DSS cycles caused chronic colitis in both wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice. Lymphoid hyperplasia and a significant reduction in Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells were observed only in Mutyh(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that, in this model of ulcerative colitis, Mutyh plays a major role in maintaining intestinal integrity by affecting the inflammatory response.

  10. Polymorphisms in RAI and in genes of nucleotide and base excision repair are not associated with risk of testicular cancer.

    Laska, Magdalena J; Nexø, Bjørn A; Vistisen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla

    2005-07-28

    Testicular cancer has been suggested to be primed in utero and there is familiar occurrence, particularly brothers and sons of men with testicular cancer have increased risk. Although no specific causative genotoxic agents have been identified, variations in DNA repair capacity could be associated with the risk of testicular cancer. A case-control study of 184 testicular cancer cases and 194 population-based controls living in the Copenhagen Greater Area in Denmark was performed. We found that neither polymorphisms in several DNA repair genes nor alleles of several polymorphisms in the chromosomal of region 19q13.2-3, encompassing the genes ASE, ERCC1, RAI and XPD, were associated with risk of testicular cancer in Danish patients. This is in contrast to other cancers, where we reported strong associations between polymorphisms in ERCC1, ASE and RAI and occurrence of basal cell carcinoma, breast cancer and lung. To our knowledge this is the first study of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of testicular cancer.

  11. Individual Subjective Initiative Merge Model Based on Cellular Automaton

    Yin-Jie Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The merge control models proposed for work zones are classified into two types (Hard Control Merge (HCM model and Soft Control Merge (SCM model according to their own control intensity and are compared with a new model, called Individual Subjective Initiative Merge (ISIM model, which is based on the linear lane-changing probability strategy in the merging area. The attention of this paper is paid to the positive impact of the individual subjective initiative for the whole traffic system. Three models (ISIM, HCM, and SCM are established and compared with each other by two order parameters, that is, system output and average vehicle travel time. Finally, numerical results show that both ISIM and SCM perform better than HCM. Compared with SCM, the output of ISIM is 20 vehicles per hour higher under the symmetric input condition and is more stable under the asymmetric input condition. Meanwhile, the average travel time of ISIM is 2000 time steps less under the oversaturated input condition.

  12. Biomedical Platforms Based on Composite Nanomaterials and Cellular Toxicity

    Bellucci, Stefano; Bergamaschi, A.; Bottini, M.; Magrini, A.; Mustelin, T.

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes possess unique chemical, physical, optical, and magnetic properties, which make them suitable for many uses in industrial products and in the field of nanotechnology, including nanomedicine. We describe fluorescent nanocomposites for use in biosensors or nanoelectronics. Then we describe recent results on the issue of cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes obtained in our labs. Silica nanoparticles have been widely used for biosensing and catalytic applications due to their large surface area-to-volume ratio, straightforward manufacture, and the compatibility of silica chemistry with covalent coupling of biomolecules. Carbon nanotubes-composite materials, such as those based on Carbon nanotubes bound to nanoparticles, are suitable, in order to tailor Carbon nanotubes properties for specific applications. We present a tunable synthesis of Multi Wall Carbon nanotubes-Silica nanoparticles. The control of the nanotube morphology and the bead size, coupled with the versatility of silica chemistry, makes these structures an excellent platform for the development of biosensors (optical, magnetic and catalytic applications). We describe the construction and characterization of supramolecular nanostructures consisting of ruthenium-complex luminophores, directly grafted onto short oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes or physically entrapped in silica nanobeads, which had been covalently linked to short oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes or hydrophobically adsorbed onto full-length multi-walled carbon nanotubes. These structures have been evaluated as potential electron-acceptor complexes for use in the fabrication of photovoltaic devices, and for their properties as fluorescent nanocomposites for use in biosensors or nanoelectronics. Finally, we compare the toxicity of pristine and oxidized Multi Walled Carbon nanotubes on human T cells - which would be among the first exposed cell types upon intravenous administration of Carbon nanotubes in therapeutic

  13. Base excision repair of chemotherapeutically-induced alkylated DNA damage predominantly causes contractions of expanded GAA repeats associated with Friedreich's ataxia.

    Yanhao Lai

    Full Text Available Expansion of GAA·TTC repeats within the first intron of the frataxin gene is the cause of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA, an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder. However, no effective treatment for the disease has been developed as yet. In this study, we explored a possibility of shortening expanded GAA repeats associated with FRDA through chemotherapeutically-induced DNA base lesions and subsequent base excision repair (BER. We provide the first evidence that alkylated DNA damage induced by temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic DNA damaging agent can induce massive GAA repeat contractions/deletions, but only limited expansions in FRDA patient lymphoblasts. We showed that temozolomide-induced GAA repeat instability was mediated by BER. Further characterization of BER of an abasic site in the context of (GAA20 repeats indicates that the lesion mainly resulted in a large deletion of 8 repeats along with small expansions. This was because temozolomide-induced single-stranded breaks initially led to DNA slippage and the formation of a small GAA repeat loop in the upstream region of the damaged strand and a small TTC loop on the template strand. This allowed limited pol β DNA synthesis and the formation of a short 5'-GAA repeat flap that was cleaved by FEN1, thereby leading to small repeat expansions. At a later stage of BER, the small template loop expanded into a large template loop that resulted in the formation of a long 5'-GAA repeat flap. Pol β then performed limited DNA synthesis to bypass the loop, and FEN1 removed the long repeat flap ultimately causing a large repeat deletion. Our study indicates that chemotherapeutically-induced alkylated DNA damage can induce large contractions/deletions of expanded GAA repeats through BER in FRDA patient cells. This further suggests the potential of developing chemotherapeutic alkylating agents to shorten expanded GAA repeats for treatment of FRDA.

  14. Polymorphisms in base excision repair genes as colorectal cancer risk factors and modifiers of the effect of diets high in red meat.

    Brevik, Asgeir; Joshi, Amit D; Corral, Román; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Le Marchand, Loïc; Baron, John A; Martinez, Maria Elena; Haile, Robert W; Ahnen, Dennis J; Sandler, Robert S; Lance, Peter; Stern, Mariana C

    2010-12-01

    A diet high in red meat is an established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factor. Carcinogens generated during meat cooking have been implicated as causal agents and can induce oxidative DNA damage, which elicits repair by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Using a family-based study, we investigated the role of polymorphisms in 4 BER genes (APEX1 Gln51His, Asp148Glu; OGG1 Ser236Cys; PARP Val742Ala; and XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln) as potential CRC risk factors and modifiers of the association between diets high in red meat or poultry and CRC risk. We tested for gene-environment interactions using case-only analyses (n = 577) and compared statistically significant results with those obtained using case-unaffected sibling comparisons (n = 307 sibships). Carriers of the APEX1 codon 51 Gln/His genotype had a reduced CRC risk compared with carriers of the Gln/Gln genotype (odds ratio (OR) = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.03-0.69, P = 0.015). The association between higher red meat intake (>3 servings per week) and CRC was modified by the PARP Val762Ala single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; case-only interaction P = 0.026). This SNP also modified the association between higher intake of high-temperature cooked red meat (case-only interaction P = 0.0009). We report evidence that the BER pathway PARP gene modifies the association of diets high in red meat cooked at high temperatures with risk of CRC. Our findings suggest a contribution to colorectal carcinogenesis of free radical damage as one of the possible harmful effects of a diet high in red meat. ©2010 AACR.

  15. Multidirectional Vector Excision Leads to Better Outcomes than Traditional Elliptical Excision of Facial Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

    Seung Il Oh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The elliptical excision is the standard method of removing benign skin lesions,such as congenital melanocytic nevi. This technique allows for primary closure, with little to nodog-ear deformity, but may sacrifice normal tissue adjacent to the lesion, resulting in scarswhich are unnecessarily long. This study was designed to compare the predicted results ofelliptical excision with those resulting from our excision technique.Methods Eighty-two patients with congenital melanocytic nevus on the face were prospectivelystudied. Each lesion was examined and an optimal ellipse was designed and marked onthe skin. After an incision on one side of the nevus margin, subcutaneous undermining wasperformed in the appropriate direction. The skin flap was pulled up and approximated alongseveral vectors to minimize the occurrence of dog-ear deformity.Results Overall, the final wound length was 21.1% shorter than that achieved by ellipticalexcision. Only 8.5% of the patients required dog-ear repair. There was no significant distortionof critical facial structures. All of the scars were deemed aesthetically acceptable based ontheir Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale scores.Conclusions When compared to elliptical excision, our technique appears to minimize dogeardeformity and decrease the final wound length. This technique should be considered analternative method for excision of facial nevi.

  16. Proteins of nucleotide and base excision repair pathways interact in mitochondria to protect from loss of subcutaneous fat, a hallmark of aging

    Y. Kamenisch (York); M.I. Fousteri (Maria); J. Knoch (Jennifer); A.K. Von Thaler (Anna Katherina); B. Fehrenbacher (Birgit); H. Kato (Hiroki); T. Becker (Tim); M.E.T. Dollé (Martijn); R. Kuiper (Ruud); M. Majora (Marc); M. Schaller (Martin); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); H. van Steeg (Harry); M. Röcken (Martin); D. Rapaport (Doron); J. Krutmann (Jean); L.H.F. Mullenders (Leon); M. Berneburg (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDefects in the DNA repair mechanism nucleotide excision repair (NER) may lead to tumors in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) or to premature aging with loss of subcutaneous fat in Cockayne syndrome (CS). Mutations of mitochondrial (mt)DNA play a role in aging, but a link between the

  17. DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Ana Osorio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase, and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2 gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03-1.16, p = 2.7 × 10(-3 for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 4.8 × 10(-3. DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.

  18. Dideoxynucleoside triphosphate-sensitive DNA polymerase from rice is involved in base excision repair and immunologically similar to mammalian DNA pol beta.

    Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Bakshi, Sankar; Mokkapati, Sanath K; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2004-07-16

    A single polypeptide with ddNTP-sensitive DNA polymerase activity was purified to near homogeneity from the shoot tips of rice seedlings and analysis of the preparations by SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining showed a polypeptide of 67 kDa size. The DNA polymerase activity was found to be inhibitory by ddNTP in both in vitro DNA polymerase activity assay and activity gel analysis. Aphidicolin, an inhibitor of other types of DNA polymerases, had no effect on plant enzyme. The 67 kDa rice DNA polymerase was found to be recognized by the polyclonal antibody (purified IgG) made against rat DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) both in solution and also on Western blot. The recognition was found to be very specific as the activity of Klenow enzyme was unaffected by the antibody. The ability of rice nuclear extract to correct G:U mismatch of oligo-duplex was observed when oligo-duplex with 32P-labeled lower strand containing U (at 22nd position) was used as substrate. Differential appearance of bands at 21-mer, 22-mer, and 51-mer position in presence of dCTP was visible only with G:U mismatch oligo-duplex, but not with G:C oligo-duplex. While ddCTP or polyclonal antibody against rat-DNA pol beta inhibits base excision repair (BER), aphidicolin had no effect. These results for the first time clearly demonstrate the ability of rice nuclear extract to run BER and the involvement of ddNTP-sensitive pol beta type DNA polymerase. Immunological similarity of the ddNTP-sensitive DNA polymerase beta of rice and rat and its involvement in BER revealed the conservation of structure and function of ddNTP-sensitive DNA pol beta in plant and animal.

  19. Cell Based GIS as Cellular Automata for Disaster Spreading Predictions and Required Data Systems

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for prediction and simulation based on the Cell Based Geographic Information System(GIS as Cellular Automata (CA is proposed together with required data systems, in particular metasearch engine usage in an unified way. It is confirmed that the proposed cell based GIS as CA has flexible usage of the attribute information that is attached to the cell in concert with location information and does work for disaster spreading simulation and prediction.

  20. Chaos Control and Synchronization of Cellular Neural Network with Delays Based on OPNCL Control

    Qian, Tang; Xing-Yuan, Wang

    2010-01-01

    The problem of chaos control and complete synchronization of cellular neural network with delays is studied. Based on the open plus nonlinear closed loop (OPNCL) method, the control scheme and synchronization scheme are designed. Both the schemes can achieve the chaos control and complete synchronization of chaotic neural network respectively, and their validity is further verified by numerical simulation experiments. (general)

  1. Solar PV powered mobile cellular base station: Models and use cases in South Africa

    Aderemi, BA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The huge costs of operating a mobile cellular base station, and the negative impact of greenhouse gasses on the environment have made the solar PV renewable energy source a sought after. In addition to cost and environmental factor, abundant supply...

  2. Biomimetic synthesis of cellular SiC based ceramics from plant ...

    Unknown

    SiC based materials so derived can be used in structural applications and in designing high temperature filters and catalyst supports. Keywords. Biomimetic synthesis; carbonaceous biopreform; biomorphic Si–SiC ceramic composites; porous cellular SiC ceramics. 1. Introduction. In recent years, there has been tremendous ...

  3. Cellular self-assembly and biomaterials-based organoid models of development and diseases.

    Shah, Shivem B; Singh, Ankur

    2017-04-15

    Organogenesis and morphogenesis have informed our understanding of physiology, pathophysiology, and avenues to create new curative and regenerative therapies. Thus far, this understanding has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically relevant yet accessible model that affords biological control. Recently, three-dimensional ex vivo cellular cultures created through cellular self-assembly under natural extracellular matrix cues or through biomaterial-based directed assembly have been shown to physically resemble and recapture some functionality of target organs. These "organoids" have garnered momentum for their applications in modeling human development and disease, drug screening, and future therapy design or even organ replacement. This review first discusses the self-organizing organoids as materials with emergent properties and their advantages and limitations. We subsequently describe biomaterials-based strategies used to afford more control of the organoid's microenvironment and ensuing cellular composition and organization. In this review, we also offer our perspective on how multifunctional biomaterials with precise spatial and temporal control could ultimately bridge the gap between in vitro organoid platforms and their in vivo counterparts. Several notable reviews have highlighted PSC-derived organoids and 3D aggregates, including embryoid bodies, from a development and cellular assembly perspective. The focus of this review is to highlight the materials-based approaches that cells, including PSCs and others, adopt for self-assembly and the controlled development of complex tissues, such as that of the brain, gut, and immune system. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling and Experimental Study of Soft Error Propagation Based on Cellular Automaton

    He, Wei; Wang, Yueke; Xing, Kefei; Yang, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to estimate SEE soft error performance of complex electronic systems, a soft error propagation model based on cellular automaton is proposed and an estimation methodology based on circuit partitioning and error propagation is presented. Simulations indicate that different fault grade jamming and different coupling factors between cells are the main parameters influencing the vulnerability of the system. Accelerated radiation experiments have been developed to determine the main paramet...

  5. Analysis And Augmentation Of Timing Advance Based Geolocation In Lte Cellular Networks

    2016-12-01

    measurements to validate TA-based positioning approaches in LTE . Their approach did not, however, focus on characterizing the TA. Rather, similar to...UE will measure the time difference of arrival of the LTE Positioning Reference Signal (PRS) from multiple eNBs. This information is then sent to a...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA DISSERTATION ANALYSIS AND AUGMENTATION OF TIMING ADVANCE-BASED GEOLOCATION IN LTE CELLULAR NETWORKS by

  6. Modeling cell adhesion and proliferation: a cellular-automata based approach.

    Vivas, J; Garzón-Alvarado, D; Cerrolaza, M

    Cell adhesion is a process that involves the interaction between the cell membrane and another surface, either a cell or a substrate. Unlike experimental tests, computer models can simulate processes and study the result of experiments in a shorter time and lower costs. One of the tools used to simulate biological processes is the cellular automata, which is a dynamic system that is discrete both in space and time. This work describes a computer model based on cellular automata for the adhesion process and cell proliferation to predict the behavior of a cell population in suspension and adhered to a substrate. The values of the simulated system were obtained through experimental tests on fibroblast monolayer cultures. The results allow us to estimate the cells settling time in culture as well as the adhesion and proliferation time. The change in the cells morphology as the adhesion over the contact surface progress was also observed. The formation of the initial link between cell and the substrate of the adhesion was observed after 100 min where the cell on the substrate retains its spherical morphology during the simulation. The cellular automata model developed is, however, a simplified representation of the steps in the adhesion process and the subsequent proliferation. A combined framework of experimental and computational simulation based on cellular automata was proposed to represent the fibroblast adhesion on substrates and changes in a macro-scale observed in the cell during the adhesion process. The approach showed to be simple and efficient.

  7. Correlation between base-excision repair gene polymorphisms and levels of in-vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Hongping Yu

    Full Text Available In vitro benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral lymphocytes have been shown to be a phenotypic biomarker of individual's DNA repair phenotype that is associated with cancer risk. In this study, we explored associations between genotypes of base-excision repair genes (PARP1 Val762Ala, APEX1 Asp148Glu, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln and in vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes in 706 cancer-free non-Hispanic white subjects. We found that levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts were significantly higher in ever smokers than in never smokers and that individuals with the Glu variant genotypes (i.e., Asp/Glu and Glu/Glu exhibited lower levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts than did individuals with the common Asp/Asp homozygous genotype (median RAL levels: 32.0 for Asp/Asp, 27.0 for Asp/Glu, and 17.0 for Glu/Glu, respectively; P(trend = 0.030. Further stratified analysis showed that compared with individuals with the common APEX1-148 homozygous Asp/Asp genotype, individuals with the APEX1-148Asp/Glu genotype or the Glu/Glu genotype had a lower risk of having higher-level adducts (adjusted OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98 and adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26-0.86, respectively; P(trend = 0.012 among smokers. Such an effect was not observed in non-smokers. However, there was no significant interaction between the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and smoking exposure in this study population (P = 0.512. Additional genotype-phenotype analysis found that the APEX1-148Glu allele had significantly increased expression of APEX1 mRNA in 270 Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, which is likely associated with more active repair activity. Our findings suggest that the functional APEX1-148Glu allele is associated with reduced risk of having high levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts mediated with high levels of mRNA expression.

  8. Transvaginal sling excision: tips and tricks.

    Clifton, Marisa M; Goldman, Howard B

    2017-01-01

    Complications of synthetic midurethral sling surgery include bladder outlet obstruction, mesh extrusion, and vaginal pain. A treatment of these complications is transvaginal mesh removal. The objectives of this video are to present cases of complications after sling placement and describe techniques to help with successful sling removal. Three patients are presented in this video. One experienced urinary hesitancy and was found to have bladder outlet obstruction on urodynamic study. The second patient presented to the clinic with diminished force of stream and significant dyspareunia. The last patient presented with mesh extrusion. After discussion of management options, all three patients wished to pursue transvaginal sling excision. All patients had successful removal of a portion of their synthetic midurethral sling. This video presents techniques to aide with dissection, mesh excision and prevention of further mesh complications. These include using an individualized surgical technique based on patient presentation and surgeon expertise, planning surgical incisions based on where mesh can be identified or palpated, using a cystoscope sheath or urethral dilator to identify any bladder outlet obstruction, and using a knife blade to identify mesh from surrounding tissue. Sling excision can be successfully performed with careful surgical technique and dissection.

  9. On the effectiveness of single and multiple base station sleep modes in cellular networks

    Marsan, Marco Ajmone; Chiaraviglio, Luca; Ciullo, Delia; Meo, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study base station sleep modes that, by reducing power consumption in periods of low traffic, improve the energy efficiency of cellular access networks. We assume that when some base stations enter sleep mode, radio coverage and service provisioning are provided by the base stations that remain active, so as to guarantee that service is available over the whole area at all times. This may be an optimistic assumption in the case of the sparse base station layouts typical of ru...

  10. Multifunctional Cellular Materials Based on 2D Nanomaterials: Prospects and Challenges.

    Qiu, Ling; He, Zijun; Li, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in emerging 2D nanomaterial-based cellular materials (2D-CMs) open up new opportunities for the development of next generation cellular solids with exceptional properties. Herein, an overview of the current research status of 2D-CMs is provided and their future opportunities are highlighted. First, the unique features of 2D nanomaterials are introduced to illustrate why these nanoscale building blocks are promising for the development of novel cellular materials and what the new features of 2D nanoscale building blocks can offer when compared to their 0D and 1D counterparts. An in-depth discussion on the structure-property relationships of 2D-CMs is then provided, and the remarkable functions that can be achieved by engineering their cellular architecture are highlighted. Additionally, the use of 2D-CMs to tackle key challenges in different practical applications is demonstrated. In conclusion, a personal perspective on the challenges and future research directions of 2D-CMs is given. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. An agent-based model of cellular dynamics and circadian variability in human endotoxemia.

    Tung T Nguyen

    Full Text Available As cellular variability and circadian rhythmicity play critical roles in immune and inflammatory responses, we present in this study an agent-based model of human endotoxemia to examine the interplay between circadian controls, cellular variability and stochastic dynamics of inflammatory cytokines. The model is qualitatively validated by its ability to reproduce circadian dynamics of inflammatory mediators and critical inflammatory responses after endotoxin administration in vivo. Novel computational concepts are proposed to characterize the cellular variability and synchronization of inflammatory cytokines in a population of heterogeneous leukocytes. Our results suggest that there is a decrease in cell-to-cell variability of inflammatory cytokines while their synchronization is increased after endotoxin challenge. Model parameters that are responsible for IκB production stimulated by NFκB activation and for the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines have large impacts on system behaviors. Additionally, examining time-dependent systemic responses revealed that the system is least vulnerable to endotoxin in the early morning and most vulnerable around midnight. Although much remains to be explored, proposed computational concepts and the model we have pioneered will provide important insights for future investigations and extensions, especially for single-cell studies to discover how cellular variability contributes to clinical implications.

  12. High performance cellular level agent-based simulation with FLAME for the GPU.

    Richmond, Paul; Walker, Dawn; Coakley, Simon; Romano, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Driven by the availability of experimental data and ability to simulate a biological scale which is of immediate interest, the cellular scale is fast emerging as an ideal candidate for middle-out modelling. As with 'bottom-up' simulation approaches, cellular level simulations demand a high degree of computational power, which in large-scale simulations can only be achieved through parallel computing. The flexible large-scale agent modelling environment (FLAME) is a template driven framework for agent-based modelling (ABM) on parallel architectures ideally suited to the simulation of cellular systems. It is available for both high performance computing clusters (www.flame.ac.uk) and GPU hardware (www.flamegpu.com) and uses a formal specification technique that acts as a universal modelling format. This not only creates an abstraction from the underlying hardware architectures, but avoids the steep learning curve associated with programming them. In benchmarking tests and simulations of advanced cellular systems, FLAME GPU has reported massive improvement in performance over more traditional ABM frameworks. This allows the time spent in the development and testing stages of modelling to be drastically reduced and creates the possibility of real-time visualisation for simple visual face-validation.

  13. Dual-Level Game-Based Energy Efficiency and Fairness for Green Cellular Networks

    Sungwook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, cellular networks have revolutionized the way of next generation communication networks. However, due to the global climate change, reducing the energy consumption of cellular infrastructures is an important and urgent problem. In this study, we propose a novel two-level cooperative game framework for improving the energy efficiency and fairness in cellular networks. For the energy efficiency, base stations (BSs constantly monitor the current traffic load and cooperate with each other to maximize the energy saving. For the energy fairness, renewable energy can be shared dynamically while ensuring the fairness among BSs. To achieve an excellent cellular network performance, the concepts of the Raiffa Bargaining Solution and Jain’s fairness are extended and practically applied to our dual-level cooperative game model. Through system level simulations, the proposed scheme is evaluated and compared with other existing schemes. The simulation results show that our two-level game approach outperforms the existing schemes in providing a better fair-efficient system performance.

  14. Excellent approach to modeling urban expansion by fuzzy cellular automata: agent base model

    Khajavigodellou, Yousef; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Mohammed, Abdulrazak A. S.; Chapi, Kamran

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the interaction between humans and their environment is the one of important challenges in the world. Landuse/ cover change (LUCC) is a complex process that includes actors and factors at different social and spatial levels. The complexity and dynamics of urban systems make the applicable practice of urban modeling very difficult. With the increased computational power and the greater availability of spatial data, micro-simulation such as the agent based and cellular automata simulation methods, has been developed by geographers, planners, and scholars, and it has shown great potential for representing and simulating the complexity of the dynamic processes involved in urban growth and land use change. This paper presents Fuzzy Cellular Automata in Geospatial Information System and remote Sensing to simulated and predicted urban expansion pattern. These FCA-based dynamic spatial urban models provide an improved ability to forecast and assess future urban growth and to create planning scenarios, allowing us to explore the potential impacts of simulations that correspond to urban planning and management policies. A fuzzy inference guided cellular automata approach. Semantic or linguistic knowledge on Land use change is expressed as fuzzy rules, based on which fuzzy inference is applied to determine the urban development potential for each pixel. The model integrates an ABM (agent-based model) and FCA (Fuzzy Cellular Automata) to investigate a complex decision-making process and future urban dynamic processes. Based on this model rapid development and green land protection under the influences of the behaviors and decision modes of regional authority agents, real estate developer agents, resident agents and non- resident agents and their interactions have been applied to predict the future development patterns of the Erbil metropolitan region.

  15. Cancer physics: diagnostics based on damped cellular elastoelectrical vibrations in microtubules.

    Pokorný, Jiří; Vedruccio, Clarbruno; Cifra, Michal; Kučera, Ondřej

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a proposed biophysical mechanism of a novel diagnostic method for cancer detection developed recently by Vedruccio. The diagnostic method is based on frequency selective absorption of electromagnetic waves by malignant tumors. Cancer is connected with mitochondrial malfunction (the Warburg effect) suggesting disrupted physical mechanisms. In addition to decreased energy conversion and nonutilized energy efflux, mitochondrial malfunction is accompanied by other negative effects in the cell. Diminished proton space charge layer and the static electric field around the outer membrane result in a lowered ordering level of cellular water and increased damping of microtubule-based cellular elastoelectrical vibration states. These changes manifest themselves in a dip in the amplitude of the signal with the fundamental frequency of the nonlinear microwave oscillator-the core of the diagnostic device-when coupled to the investigated cancerous tissue via the near-field. The dip is not present in the case of healthy tissue.

  16. Opinion evolution based on cellular automata rules in small world networks

    Shi, Xiao-Ming; Shi, Lun; Zhang, Jie-Fang

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we apply cellular automata rules, which can be given by a truth table, to human memory. We design each memory as a tracking survey mode that keeps the most recent three opinions. Each cellular automata rule, as a personal mechanism, gives the final ruling in one time period based on the data stored in one's memory. The key focus of the paper is to research the evolution of people's attitudes to the same question. Based on a great deal of empirical observations from computer simulations, all the rules can be classified into 20 groups. We highlight the fact that the phenomenon shown by some rules belonging to the same group will be altered within several steps by other rules in different groups. It is truly amazing that, compared with the last hundreds of presidential voting in America, the eras of important events in America's history coincide with the simulation results obtained by our model.

  17. Integrated Circuit-Based Biofabrication with Common Biomaterials for Probing Cellular Biomechanics.

    Sung, Chun-Yen; Yang, Chung-Yao; Yeh, J Andrew; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in bioengineering have enabled the development of biomedical tools with modifiable surface features (small-scale architecture) to mimic extracellular matrices and aid in the development of well-controlled platforms that allow for the application of mechanical stimulation for studying cellular biomechanics. An overview of recent developments in common biomaterials that can be manufactured using integrated circuit-based biofabrication is presented. Integrated circuit-based biofabrication possesses advantages including mass and diverse production capacities for fabricating in vitro biomedical devices. This review highlights the use of common biomaterials that have been most frequently used to study cellular biomechanics. In addition, the influence of various small-scale characteristics on common biomaterial surfaces for a range of different cell types is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A bead-based western for high-throughput cellular signal transduction analyses

    Treindl, Fridolin; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Beiter, Yvonne; Schultz, Silke; Döttinger, Anette; Staebler, Annette; Joos, Thomas O.; Kling, Simon; Poetz, Oliver; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans; Kuster, Bernhard; Templin, Markus F.

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting cellular signalling requires the analysis of large number of proteins. The DigiWest approach we describe here transfers the western blot to a bead-based microarray platform. By combining gel-based protein separation with immobilization on microspheres, hundreds of replicas of the initial blot are created, thus enabling the comprehensive analysis of limited material, such as cells collected by laser capture microdissection, and extending traditional western blotting to reach proteomic scales. The combination of molecular weight resolution, sensitivity and signal linearity on an automated platform enables the rapid quantification of hundreds of specific proteins and protein modifications in complex samples. This high-throughput western blot approach allowed us to identify and characterize alterations in cellular signal transduction that occur during the development of resistance to the kinase inhibitor Lapatinib, revealing major changes in the activation state of Ephrin-mediated signalling and a central role for p53-controlled processes. PMID:27659302

  19. a Predator-Prey Model Based on the Fully Parallel Cellular Automata

    He, Mingfeng; Ruan, Hongbo; Yu, Changliang

    We presented a predator-prey lattice model containing moveable wolves and sheep, which are characterized by Penna double bit strings. Sexual reproduction and child-care strategies are considered. To implement this model in an efficient way, we build a fully parallel Cellular Automata based on a new definition of the neighborhood. We show the roles played by the initial densities of the populations, the mutation rate and the linear size of the lattice in the evolution of this model.

  20. Structure and properties of porous films based on aliphatic copolyamide developed for cellular technologies

    Dobrovol`skaya, I.P.; Popryadukhin, P.V.; Yudin, V. E.; Ivankova, E.M.; Elokhovskiy, V.Y.; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Balík, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2015), article number 46 ISSN 0957-4530 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : porous film * aliphatic copolyamide * structure * properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.272, year: 2015 http://www.stem-art.com/Library/Science/Structure%20and%20properties%20of%20porous%20films%20based%20on%20aliphatic%20copolyamide%20developed%20for%20cellular%20technologies.pdf

  1. A new method of machine vision reprocessing based on cellular neural networks

    Jianhua, W.; Liping, Z.; Fenfang, Z.; Guojian, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposed a method of image preprocessing in machine vision based on Cellular Neural Network (CNN). CNN is introduced to design image smoothing, image recovering, image boundary detecting and other image preprocessing problems. The proposed methods are so simple that the speed of algorithms are increased greatly to suit the needs of real-time image processing. The experimental results show a satisfactory reply

  2. Antiproliferative Activity and Cellular Uptake of Evodiamine and Rutaecarpine Based on 3D Tumor Models

    Hui Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evodiamine (EVO and rutaecarpine (RUT are promising anti-tumor drug candidates. The evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity and cellular uptake of EVO and RUT in 3D multicellular spheroids of cancer cells would better recapitulate the native situation and thus better reflect an in vivo response to the treatment. Herein, we employed the 3D culture of MCF-7 and SMMC-7721 cells based on hanging drop method and evaluated the anti-proliferative activity and cellular uptake of EVO and RUT in 3D multicellular spheroids, and compared the results with those obtained from 2D monolayers. The drugs’ IC50 values were significantly increased from the range of 6.4–44.1 μM in 2D monolayers to 21.8–138.0 μM in 3D multicellular spheroids, which may be due to enhanced mass barrier and reduced drug penetration in 3D models. The fluorescence of EVO and RUT was measured via fluorescence spectroscopy and the cellular uptake of both drugs was characterized in 2D tumor models. The results showed that the cellular uptake concentrations of RUT increased with increasing drug concentrations. However, the EVO concentrations uptaken by the cells showed only a small change with increasing drug concentrations, which may be due to the different solubility of EVO and Rut in solvents. Overall, this study provided a new vision of the anti-tumor activity of EVO and RUT via 3D multicellular spheroids and cellular uptake through the fluorescence of compounds.

  3. A Geometrical-Based Model for Cochannel Interference Analysis and Capacity Estimation of CDMA Cellular Systems

    Konstantinos B. Baltzis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption in cellular communications is the circular-cell approximation. In this paper, an alternative analysis based on the hexagonal shape of the cells is presented. A geometrical-based stochastic model is proposed to describe the angle of arrival of the interfering signals in the reverse link of a cellular system. Explicit closed form expressions are derived, and simulations performed exhibit the characteristics and validate the accuracy of the proposed model. Applications in the capacity estimation of WCDMA cellular networks are presented. Dependence of system capacity of the sectorization of the cells and the base station antenna radiation pattern is explored. Comparisons with data in literature validate the accuracy of the proposed model. The degree of error of the hexagonal and the circular-cell approaches has been investigated indicating the validity of the proposed model. Results have also shown that, in many cases, the two approaches give similar results when the radius of the circle equals to the hexagon inradius. A brief discussion on how the proposed technique may be applied to broadband access networks is finally made.

  4. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  5. Nuclear translocation contributes to regulation of DNA excision repair activities

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Lützen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    for regulation of nuclear import that is necessary for proper localization of the repair proteins. This review summarizes the current knowledge on nuclear import mechanisms of DNA excision repair proteins and provides a model that categorizes the import by different mechanisms, including classical nuclear import......DNA mutations are circumvented by dedicated specialized excision repair systems, such as the base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways. Although the individual repair pathways have distinct roles in suppressing changes in the nuclear DNA......, it is evident that proteins from the different DNA repair pathways interact [Y. Wang, D. Cortez, P. Yazdi, N. Neff, S.J. Elledge, J. Qin, BASC, a super complex of BRCA1-associated proteins involved in the recognition and repair of aberrant DNA structures, Genes Dev. 14 (2000) 927-939; M. Christmann, M...

  6. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Milad Bagherian Khosroshahy

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts. Keywords: Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA, Majority gate, Random access memory (RAM, Energy efficiency

  7. PV-Powered CoMP-Based Green Cellular Networks with a Standby Grid Supply

    Abu Jahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel framework for PV-powered cellular networks with a standby grid supply and an essential energy management technique for achieving envisaged green networks. The proposal considers an emerging cellular network architecture employing two types of coordinated multipoint (CoMP transmission techniques for serving the subscribers. Under the proposed framework, each base station (BS is powered by an individual PV solar energy module having an independent storage device. BSs are also connected to the conventional grid supply for meeting additional energy demand. We also propose a dynamic inter-BS solar energy sharing policy through a transmission line for further greening the proposed network by minimizing the consumption from the grid supply. An extensive simulation-based study in the downlink of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE cellular system is carried out for evaluating the energy efficiency performance of the proposed framework. System performance is also investigated for identifying the impact of various system parameters including storage factor, storage capacity, solar generation capacity, transmission line loss, and different CoMP techniques.

  8. Exploiting the Capture Effect to Enhance RACH Performance in Cellular-Based M2M Communications

    Jonghun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellular-based machine-to-machine (M2M communication is expected to facilitate services for the Internet of Things (IoT. However, because cellular networks are designed for human users, they have some limitations. Random access channel (RACH congestion caused by massive access from M2M devices is one of the biggest factors hindering cellular-based M2M services because the RACH congestion causes random access (RA throughput degradation and connection failures to the devices. In this paper, we show the possibility exploiting the capture effects, which have been known to have a positive impact on the wireless network system, on RA procedure for improving the RA performance of M2M devices. For this purpose, we analyze an RA procedure using a capture model. Through this analysis, we examine the effects of capture on RA performance and propose an Msg3 power-ramping (Msg3 PR scheme to increase the capture probability (thereby increasing the RA success probability even when severe RACH congestion problem occurs. The proposed analysis models are validated using simulations. The results show that the proposed scheme, with proper parameters, further improves the RA throughput and reduces the connection failure probability, by slightly increasing the energy consumption. Finally, we demonstrate the effects of coexistence with other RA-related schemes through simulation results.

  9. A computational and cellular solids approach to the stiffness-based design of bone scaffolds.

    Norato, J A; Wagoner Johnson, A J

    2011-09-01

    We derive a cellular solids approach to the design of bone scaffolds for stiffness and pore size. Specifically, we focus on scaffolds made of stacked, alternating, orthogonal layers of hydroxyapatite rods, such as those obtained via micro-robotic deposition, and aim to determine the rod diameter, spacing and overlap required to obtain specified elastic moduli and pore size. To validate and calibrate the cellular solids model, we employ a finite element model and determine the effective scaffold moduli via numerical homogenization. In order to perform an efficient, automated execution of the numerical studies, we employ a geometry projection method so that analyses corresponding to different scaffold dimensions can be performed on a fixed, non-conforming mesh. Based on the developed model, we provide design charts to aid in the selection of rod diameter, spacing and overlap to be used in the robotic deposition to attain desired elastic moduli and pore size.

  10. An authenticated image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps and memory cellular automata

    Bakhshandeh, Atieh; Eslami, Ziba

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces a new image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps, cellular automata and permutation-diffusion architecture. In the permutation phase, a piecewise linear chaotic map is utilized to confuse the plain-image and in the diffusion phase, we employ the Logistic map as well as a reversible memory cellular automata to obtain an efficient and secure cryptosystem. The proposed method admits advantages such as highly secure diffusion mechanism, computational efficiency and ease of implementation. A novel property of the proposed scheme is its authentication ability which can detect whether the image is tampered during the transmission or not. This is particularly important in applications where image data or part of it contains highly sensitive information. Results of various analyses manifest high security of this new method and its capability for practical image encryption.

  11. Simulations of fluid flow through porous media based on cellular automata and non-linear dynamics

    Paulson, K V

    1992-05-15

    A study is being carried out to apply cellular automata and non-linear dynamics in the construction of efficient and accurate computer simulations of multiphase fluid flow through porous media, with the objective of application to reservoir modelling for hydrocarbon recovery. An algorithm based on Boolean operations has been developed which transforms a PC clone into a highly efficient vector processor capable of cellular automata simulation of single fluid flow through two-dimensional rock matrix models of varying porosities. Macroscopic flow patterns have been established through spatial and temporal averaging with no floating point operations. Permeabilities of the different models have been calculated. Hardware allows the algorithm to function on dual processors on a PC platform using a video recording and editing facility. Very encouraging results have been obtained. 4 figs.

  12. Single-cell-based system to monitor carrier driven cellular auxin homeostasis

    2013-01-01

    Background Abundance and distribution of the plant hormone auxin play important roles in plant development. Besides other metabolic processes, various auxin carriers control the cellular level of active auxin and, hence, are major regulators of cellular auxin homeostasis. Despite the developmental importance of auxin transporters, a simple medium-to-high throughput approach to assess carrier activities is still missing. Here we show that carrier driven depletion of cellular auxin correlates with reduced nuclear auxin signaling in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cell cultures. Results We developed an easy to use transient single-cell-based system to detect carrier activity. We use the relative changes in signaling output of the auxin responsive promoter element DR5 to indirectly visualize auxin carrier activity. The feasibility of the transient approach was demonstrated by pharmacological and genetic interference with auxin signaling and transport. As a proof of concept, we provide visual evidence that the prominent auxin transport proteins PIN-FORMED (PIN)2 and PIN5 regulate cellular auxin homeostasis at the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), respectively. Our data suggest that PIN2 and PIN5 have different sensitivities to the auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Also the putative PIN-LIKES (PILS) auxin carrier activity at the ER is insensitive to NPA in our system, indicating that NPA blocks intercellular, but not intracellular auxin transport. Conclusions This single-cell-based system is a useful tool by which the activity of putative auxin carriers, such as PINs, PILS and WALLS ARE THIN1 (WAT1), can be indirectly visualized in a medium-to-high throughput manner. Moreover, our single cell system might be useful to investigate also other hormonal signaling pathways, such as cytokinin. PMID:23379388

  13. The formation of double-strand breaks at multiply damaged sites is driven by the kinetics of excision/incision at base damage in eukaryotic cells

    Kozmin, S.G.; Sedletska, Y.; Reynaud-Angelin, A.; Sage, E.; Kozmin, S.G.; Sedletska, Y.; Reynaud-Angelin, A.; Sage, E.; Gasparutto, D.

    2009-01-01

    It has been stipulated that repair of clustered DNA lesions may be compromised, possibly leading to the formation of double-strand breaks (DSB) and, thus, to deleterious events. Using a variety of model multiply damaged sites (MDS), we investigated parameters that govern the formation of DSB during the processing of MDS. Duplexes carrying MDS were inserted into replicative or integrative vectors, and used to transform yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Formation of DSB was assessed by a relevant plasmid survival assay. Kinetics of excision/incision and DSB formation at MDS was explored using yeast cell extracts. We show that MDS composed of two uracils or abasic sites, were rapidly incised and readily converted into DSB in yeast cells. In marked contrast, none of the MDS carrying opposed oG and hU separated by 38 bp gave rise to DSB, despite the fact that some of them contained preexisting single-strand break (a 1-nt gap). Interestingly, the absence of DSB formation in this case correlated with slow excision/incision rates of lesions. We propose that the kinetics of the initial repair steps at MDS is a major parameter that direct towards the conversion of MDS into DSB. Data provides clues to the biological consequences of MDS in eukaryotic cells. (authors)

  14. Modeling and Experimental Study of Soft Error Propagation Based on Cellular Automaton

    Wei He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to estimate SEE soft error performance of complex electronic systems, a soft error propagation model based on cellular automaton is proposed and an estimation methodology based on circuit partitioning and error propagation is presented. Simulations indicate that different fault grade jamming and different coupling factors between cells are the main parameters influencing the vulnerability of the system. Accelerated radiation experiments have been developed to determine the main parameters for raw soft error vulnerability of the module and coupling factors. Results indicate that the proposed method is feasible.

  15. A TetR family transcriptional factor directly regulates the expression of a 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase and physically interacts with the enzyme to stimulate its base excision activity in Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Cheng; He, Zheng-Guo

    2014-03-28

    3-Methyladenine DNA glycosylase recognizes and excises a wide range of damaged bases and thus plays a critical role in base excision repair. However, knowledge on the regulation of DNA glycosylase in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is limited. In this study, we successfully characterized a TetR family transcriptional factor from Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), namely BCG0878c, which directly regulates the expression of 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (designated as MbAAG) and influences the base excision activity of this glycosylase at the post-translational level. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNase I footprinting experiments, we identified two conserved motifs within the upstream region of mbaag specifically recognized by BCG0878c. Significant down-regulation of mbaag was observed in BCG0878c-overexpressed M. bovis BCG strains. By contrast, about 12-fold up-regulation of mbaag expression was found in bcg0878c-deleted mutant M. bovis BCG strains. β-Galactosidase activity assays also confirmed these results. Thus, BCG0878c can function as a negative regulator of mbaag expression. In addition, the regulator was shown to physically interact with MbAAG to enhance the ability of the glycosylase to bind damaged DNA. Interaction between the two proteins was further found to facilitate AAG-catalyzed removal of hypoxanthine from DNA. These results indicate that a TetR family protein can dually regulate the function of 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase in M. bovis BCG both at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. These findings enhance our understanding of the expression and regulation of AAG in mycobacteria.

  16. Reflective type objective based spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography for high-sensitive structural and functional imaging of cochlear microstructures through intact bone of an excised guinea pig cochlea

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2013-03-01

    Most of the optical coherence tomographic (OCT) systems for high resolution imaging of biological specimens are based on refractive type microscope objectives, which are optimized for specific wave length of the optical source. In this study, we present the feasibility of using commercially available reflective type objective for high sensitive and high resolution structural and functional imaging of cochlear microstructures of an excised guinea pig through intact temporal bone. Unlike conventional refractive type microscopic objective, reflective objective are free from chromatic aberrations due to their all-reflecting nature and can support a broadband of spectrum with very high light collection efficiency.

  17. A new optimization method based on cellular automata for VVER-1000 nuclear reactor loading pattern

    Fadaei, Amir Hosein; Setayeshi, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new and innovative optimization technique, which uses cellular automata for solving multi-objective optimization problems. Due to its ability in simulating the local information while taking neighboring effects into account, the cellular automata technique is a powerful tool for optimization. The fuel-loading pattern in nuclear reactor cores is a major optimization problem. Due to the immensity of the search space in fuel management optimization problems, finding the optimum solution requires a huge amount of calculations in the classical method. The cellular automata models, based on local information, can reduce the computations significantly. In this study, reducing the power peaking factor, while increasing the initial excess reactivity inside the reactor core of VVER-1000, which are two apparently contradictory objectives, are considered as the objective functions. The result is an optimum configuration, which is in agreement with the pattern proposed by the designer. In order to gain confidence in the reliability of this method, the aforementioned problem was also solved using neural network and simulated annealing, and the results and procedures were compared.

  18. An Optimized Three-Level Design of Decoder Based on Nanoscale Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

    Seyedi, Saeid; Navimipour, Nima Jafari

    2018-03-01

    Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) has been potentially considered as a supersede to Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) because of its inherent advantages. Many QCA-based logic circuits with smaller feature size, improved operating frequency, and lower power consumption than CMOS have been offered. This technology works based on electron relations inside quantum-dots. Due to the importance of designing an optimized decoder in any digital circuit, in this paper, we design, implement and simulate a new 2-to-4 decoder based on QCA with low delay, area, and complexity. The logic functionality of the 2-to-4 decoder is verified using the QCADesigner tool. The results have shown that the proposed QCA-based decoder has high performance in terms of a number of cells, covered area, and time delay. Due to the lower clock pulse frequency, the proposed 2-to-4 decoder is helpful for building QCA-based sequential digital circuits with high performance.

  19. Base Station Ordering for Emergency Call Localization in Ultra-dense Cellular Networks

    Elsawy, Hesham

    2017-10-04

    This paper proposes the base station ordering localization technique (BoLT) for emergency call localization in cellular networks. Exploiting the foreseen ultra-densification of the next-generation (5G and beyond) cellular networks, we utilize higher-order Voronoi tessellations to provide ubiquitous localization services that are in compliance to the public safety standards in cellular networks. The proposed localization algorithm runs at the base stations (BSs) and requires minimal operation from agents (i.e., mobile users). Particularly, BoLT requires each agent to feedback a neighbor cell list (NCL) that contains the order of neighboring BSs based on the received signal power in the pilots sent from these BSs. Moreover, this paper utilizes stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mathematical model to assess the performance of BoLT in a general network setting. The goal of this paper is to answer the following two fundamental questions: i) how many BSs should be ordered and reported by the agent to achieve a desirable localization accuracy? and ii) what is the localization error probability given that the pilot signals are subject to shadowing? Assuming that the BSs are deployed according to a Poisson point process (PPP), we answer these two questions via characterizing the tradeoff between the area of location region (ALR) and the localization error probability in terms of the number of BSs ordered by the agent. The results show that reporting the order of six neighboring BSs is sufficient to localize the agent within 10% of the cell area. Increasing the number of reported BSs to ten confines the location region to 1% of the cell area. This would translate to the range of a few meters to decimeters in the foreseen ultra-dense 5G networks.

  20. One-electron oxidation reactions of purine and pyrimidine bases in cellular DNA.

    Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard; Shafirovich, Vladimir; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this survey is to critically review the available information on one-electron oxidation reactions of nucleobases in cellular DNA with emphasis on damage induced through the transient generation of purine and pyrimidine radical cations. Since the indirect effect of ionizing radiation mediated by hydroxyl radical is predominant in cells, efforts have been made to selectively ionize bases using suitable one-electron oxidants that consist among others of high intensity UVC laser pulses. Thus, the main oxidation product in cellular DNA was found to be 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine as a result of direct bi-photonic ionization of guanine bases and indirect formation of guanine radical cations through hole transfer reactions from other base radical cations. The formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and other purine and pyrimidine degradation products was rationalized in terms of the initial generation of related radical cations followed by either hydration or deprotonation reactions in agreement with mechanistic pathways inferred from detailed mechanistic studies. The guanine radical cation has been shown to be implicated in three other nucleophilic additions that give rise to DNA-protein and DNA-DNA cross-links in model systems. Evidence was recently provided for the occurrence of these three reactions in cellular DNA. There is growing evidence that one-electron oxidation reactions of nucleobases whose mechanisms have been characterized in model studies involving aqueous solutions take place in a similar way in cells. It may also be pointed out that the above cross-linked lesions are only produced from the guanine radical cation and may be considered as diagnostic products of the direct effect of ionizing radiation.

  1. Telomerase activity and cellular aging might be positively modified by a yoga-based lifestyle intervention.

    Kumar, Shiv Basant; Yadav, Rashmi; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Tolahunase, Madhuri; Dada, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies showed that a brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention was efficacious in reducing levels of oxidative stress and cellular aging in obese men. The objective of this case report was to assess the efficacy of this intervention in reducing the levels of biochemical markers of cellular ageing, oxidative stress, and inflammation at baseline (day 0), at the end of active intervention (day 10), and follow-up at day 90. Single case report from a prospective ongoing study with pre-post design assessing the level of various markers of cellular aging. Integral Health Clinic, an outpatient facility conducting meditation and yoga-based lifestyle intervention programs for management of chronic diseases. A 31-year-old man with class I obesity (body-mass index, 29.5 kg/m(2)) who presented to the medicine outpatient department at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, with a history of fatigue, difficulty losing weight, and lack of motivation. He noted a marked decrease in his energy level, particularly in the afternoon. A pretested intervention program included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), stress management, group discussions, lectures, and individualized advice. From baseline (day 0) to day 90, the activity of telomerase and levels of β-endorphins, plasma cortisol, and interleukin-6 increased, and a sustained reduction in oxidative stress markers, such as reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine levels. Adopting yoga/meditation-based lifestyle modification causes reversal of markers of aging, mainly oxidative stress, telomerase activity, and oxidative DNA damage. This may not only delay aging and prolong a youthful healthy life but also delay or prevent onset of several lifestyle-related diseases, of which oxidative stress and inflammation are the chief cause. This report suggests this simple lifestyle intervention may be therapeutic for oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress.

  2. Base Station Ordering for Emergency Call Localization in Ultra-dense Cellular Networks

    Elsawy, Hesham; Dai, Wenhan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Win, Moe Z.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the base station ordering localization technique (BoLT) for emergency call localization in cellular networks. Exploiting the foreseen ultra-densification of the next-generation (5G and beyond) cellular networks, we utilize higher-order Voronoi tessellations to provide ubiquitous localization services that are in compliance to the public safety standards in cellular networks. The proposed localization algorithm runs at the base stations (BSs) and requires minimal operation from agents (i.e., mobile users). Particularly, BoLT requires each agent to feedback a neighbor cell list (NCL) that contains the order of neighboring BSs based on the received signal power in the pilots sent from these BSs. Moreover, this paper utilizes stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mathematical model to assess the performance of BoLT in a general network setting. The goal of this paper is to answer the following two fundamental questions: i) how many BSs should be ordered and reported by the agent to achieve a desirable localization accuracy? and ii) what is the localization error probability given that the pilot signals are subject to shadowing? Assuming that the BSs are deployed according to a Poisson point process (PPP), we answer these two questions via characterizing the tradeoff between the area of location region (ALR) and the localization error probability in terms of the number of BSs ordered by the agent. The results show that reporting the order of six neighboring BSs is sufficient to localize the agent within 10% of the cell area. Increasing the number of reported BSs to ten confines the location region to 1% of the cell area. This would translate to the range of a few meters to decimeters in the foreseen ultra-dense 5G networks.

  3. Lumbar disc excision through fenestration

    Sangwan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lumbar disc herniation often causes sciatica. Many different techniques have been advocated with the aim of least possible damage to other structures while dealing with prolapsed disc surgically in the properly selected and indicated cases. Methods : Twenty six patients with clinical symptoms and signs of prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc having radiological correlation by MRI study were subjected to disc excision by interlaminar fenestration method. Results : The assessment at follow-up showed excellent results in 17 patients, good in 6 patients, fair in 2 patients and poor in 1 patient. The mean preoperative and postoperative Visual Analogue Scores were 9.34 ±0.84 and 2.19 ±0.84 on scale of 0-10 respectively. These were statistically significant (p value< 0.001, paired t test. No significant complications were recorded. Conclusion : Procedures of interlaminar fenestration and open disc excision under direct vision offers sufficient adequate exposure for lumbar disc excision with a smaller incision, lesser morbidity, shorter convalescence, early return to work and comparable overall results in the centers where recent laser and endoscopy facilities are not available.

  4. The Design of Fault Tolerant Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Logic

    Armstrong, C. Duane; Humphreys, William M.; Fijany, Amir

    2002-01-01

    As transistor geometries are reduced, quantum effects begin to dominate device performance. At some point, transistors cease to have the properties that make them useful computational components. New computing elements must be developed in order to keep pace with Moore s Law. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) represent an alternative paradigm to transistor-based logic. QCA architectures that are robust to manufacturing tolerances and defects must be developed. We are developing software that allows the exploration of fault tolerant QCA gate architectures by automating the specification, simulation, analysis and documentation processes.

  5. One-way hash function based on hyper-chaotic cellular neural network

    Yang Qunting; Gao Tiegang

    2008-01-01

    The design of an efficient one-way hash function with good performance is a hot spot in modern cryptography researches. In this paper, a hash function construction method based on cell neural network with hyper-chaos characteristics is proposed. First, the chaos sequence is gotten by iterating cellular neural network with Runge–Kutta algorithm, and then the chaos sequence is iterated with the message. The hash code is obtained through the corresponding transform of the latter chaos sequence. Simulation and analysis demonstrate that the new method has the merit of convenience, high sensitivity to initial values, good hash performance, especially the strong stability. (general)

  6. The FPGA realization of the general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions: Performance and effectiveness

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author considers hardware implementation of the GRACE-H family general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions. VHDL is used as a language and Altera FPGA as a platform for hardware implementation. Performance and effectiveness of the FPGA implementations of GRACE-H hash functions were compared with Keccak (SHA-3, SHA-256, BLAKE, Groestl, JH, Skein hash functions. According to the performed tests, performance of the hardware implementation of GRACE-H family hash functions significantly (up to 12 times exceeded performance of the hardware implementation of previously known hash functions, and effectiveness of that hardware implementation was also better (up to 4 times.

  7. Phase transitions enable computational universality in neuristor-based cellular automata

    Pickett, Matthew D; Stanley Williams, R

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that Mott memristors, two-terminal devices that exhibit threshold switching via an insulator to conductor phase transition, can serve as the active components necessary to build a neuristor, a biomimetic threshold spiking device. Here we extend those results to demonstrate, in simulation, neuristor-based circuits capable of performing general Boolean logic operations. We additionally show that these components can be used to construct a one-dimensional cellular automaton, rule 137, previously proven to be universal. This proof-of-principle shows that localized phase transitions can perform spiking computation, which is of particular interest for neuromorphic hardware. (paper)

  8. Electromagnetic fields from base stations for cellular mobile telephones. Measurements around base stations in the Oslo area

    Hannevik, Merete

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of radio frequent radiation from base station antennas for cellular mobile telephony have been performed. Measurements were performed inside the buildings in the area just behind or below antennas mounted on the wall or rooftop on buildings and on the ground below tower-mounted antennas. Except from the area 2-3 meters just in front of the antennas the electrical field levels were well below the international guidelines. (Author)

  9. Graph Cellular Automata with Relation-Based Neighbourhoods of Cells for Complex Systems Modelling: A Case of Traffic Simulation

    Krzysztof Małecki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A complex system is a set of mutually interacting elements for which it is possible to construct a mathematical model. This article focuses on the cellular automata theory and the graph theory in order to compare various types of cellular automata and to analyse applications of graph structures together with cellular automata. It proposes a graph cellular automaton with a variable configuration of cells and relation-based neighbourhoods (r–GCA. The developed mechanism enables modelling of phenomena found in complex systems (e.g., transport networks, urban logistics, social networks taking into account the interaction between the existing objects. As an implementation example, modelling of moving vehicles has been made and r–GCA was compared to the other cellular automata models simulating the road traffic and used in the computer simulation process.

  10. Archaeal DNA Polymerase-B as a DNA Template Guardian: Links between Polymerases and Base/Alternative Excision Repair Enzymes in Handling the Deaminated Bases Uracil and Hypoxanthine

    Javier Abellón-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Archaea repair of uracil and hypoxanthine, which arise by deamination of cytosine and adenine, respectively, is initiated by three enzymes: Uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UDG, which recognises uracil; Endonuclease V (EndoV, which recognises hypoxanthine; and Endonuclease Q (EndoQ, (which recognises both uracil and hypoxanthine. Two archaeal DNA polymerases, Pol-B and Pol-D, are inhibited by deaminated bases in template strands, a feature unique to this domain. Thus the three repair enzymes and the two polymerases show overlapping specificity for uracil and hypoxanthine. Here it is demonstrated that binding of Pol-D to primer-templates containing deaminated bases inhibits the activity of UDG, EndoV, and EndoQ. Similarly Pol-B almost completely turns off EndoQ, extending earlier work that demonstrated that Pol-B reduces catalysis by UDG and EndoV. Pol-B was observed to be a more potent inhibitor of the enzymes compared to Pol-D. Although Pol-D is directly inhibited by template strand uracil, the presence of Pol-B further suppresses any residual activity of Pol-D, to near-zero levels. The results are compatible with Pol-D acting as the replicative polymerase and Pol-B functioning primarily as a guardian preventing deaminated base-induced DNA mutations.

  11. Removal of oxygen free-radical-induced 5′,8-purine cyclodeoxynucleosides from DNA by the nucleotide excision-repair pathway in human cells

    Kuraoka, Isao; Bender, Christina; Romieu, Anthony; Cadet, Jean; Wood, Richard D.; Lindahl, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    Exposure of cellular DNA to reactive oxygen species generates several classes of base lesions, many of which are removed by the base excision-repair pathway. However, the lesions include purine cyclodeoxynucleoside formation by intramolecular crosslinking between the C-8 position of adenine or guanine and the 5′ position of 2-deoxyribose. This distorting form of DNA damage, in which the purine is attached by two covalent bonds to the sugar-phosphate backbone, occurs as distinct diastereoisomers. It was observed here that both diastereoisomers block primer extension by mammalian and microbial replicative DNA polymerases, using DNA with a site-specific purine cyclodeoxynucleoside residue as template, and consequently appear to be cytotoxic lesions. Plasmid DNA containing either the 5′R or 5′S form of 5′,8-cyclo-2-deoxyadenosine was a substrate for the human nucleotide excision-repair enzyme complex. The R diastereoisomer was more efficiently repaired than the S isomer. No correction of the lesion by direct damage reversal or base excision repair was detected. Dual incision around the lesion depended on the core nucleotide excision-repair protein XPA. In contrast to several other types of oxidative DNA damage, purine cyclodeoxynucleosides are chemically stable and would be expected to accumulate at a slow rate over many years in the DNA of nonregenerating cells from xeroderma pigmentosum patients. High levels of this form of DNA damage might explain the progressive neurodegeneration seen in XPA individuals. PMID:10759556

  12. High-performance, polymer-based direct cellular interfaces for electrical stimulation and recording

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Nara; Kim, Youngseok; Baik, Min-Seo; Yoo, Minsu; Kim, Dongyoon; Lee, Won-June; Kang, Dong-Hee; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Kwanghee; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2018-04-01

    Due to the trade-off between their electrical/electrochemical performance and underwater stability, realizing polymer-based, high-performance direct cellular interfaces for electrical stimulation and recording has been very challenging. Herein, we developed transparent and conductive direct cellular interfaces based on a water-stable, high-performance poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) film via solvent-assisted crystallization. The crystallized PEDOT:PSS on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate exhibited excellent electrical/electrochemical/optical characteristics, long-term underwater stability without film dissolution/delamination, and good viability for primarily cultured cardiomyocytes and neurons over several weeks. Furthermore, the highly crystallized, nanofibrillar PEDOT:PSS networks enabled dramatically enlarged surface areas and electrochemical activities, which were successfully employed to modulate cardiomyocyte beating via direct electrical stimulation. Finally, the high-performance PEDOT:PSS layer was seamlessly incorporated into transparent microelectrode arrays for efficient, real-time recording of cardiomyocyte action potentials with a high signal fidelity. All these results demonstrate the strong potential of crystallized PEDOT:PSS as a crucial component for a variety of versatile bioelectronic interfaces.

  13. Vehicle Speed Estimation and Forecasting Methods Based on Cellular Floating Vehicle Data

    Wei-Kuang Lai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic information estimation and forecasting methods based on cellular floating vehicle data (CFVD are proposed to analyze the signals (e.g., handovers (HOs, call arrivals (CAs, normal location updates (NLUs and periodic location updates (PLUs from cellular networks. For traffic information estimation, analytic models are proposed to estimate the traffic flow in accordance with the amounts of HOs and NLUs and to estimate the traffic density in accordance with the amounts of CAs and PLUs. Then, the vehicle speeds can be estimated in accordance with the estimated traffic flows and estimated traffic densities. For vehicle speed forecasting, a back-propagation neural network algorithm is considered to predict the future vehicle speed in accordance with the current traffic information (i.e., the estimated vehicle speeds from CFVD. In the experimental environment, this study adopted the practical traffic information (i.e., traffic flow and vehicle speed from Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau as the input characteristics of the traffic simulation program and referred to the mobile station (MS communication behaviors from Chunghwa Telecom to simulate the traffic information and communication records. The experimental results illustrated that the average accuracy of the vehicle speed forecasting method is 95.72%. Therefore, the proposed methods based on CFVD are suitable for an intelligent transportation system.

  14. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Khosroshahy, Milad Bagherian; Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Navi, Keivan; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM) cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts.

  15. Convergence and attractivity of memristor-based cellular neural networks with time delays.

    Qin, Sitian; Wang, Jun; Xue, Xiaoping

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents theoretical results on the convergence and attractivity of memristor-based cellular neural networks (MCNNs) with time delays. Based on a realistic memristor model, an MCNN is modeled using a differential inclusion. The essential boundedness of its global solutions is proven. The state of MCNNs is further proven to be convergent to a critical-point set located in saturated region of the activation function, when the initial state locates in a saturated region. It is shown that the state convergence time period is finite and can be quantitatively estimated using given parameters. Furthermore, the positive invariance and attractivity of state in non-saturated regions are also proven. The simulation results of several numerical examples are provided to substantiate the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating a Novel Cellular Automata-Based Distributed Power Management Approach for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Adabi, Sepideh; Adabi, Sahar; Rezaee, Ali

    According to the traditional definition of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), static sensors have limited the feasibility of WSNs in some kind of approaches, so the mobility was introduced in WSN. Mobile nodes in a WSN come equipped with battery and from the point of deployment, this battery reserve becomes a valuable resource since it cannot be replenished. Hence, maximizing the network lifetime by minimizing the energy is an important challenge in Mobile WSN. Energy conservation can be accomplished by different approaches. In this paper, we presented an energy conservation solution based on Cellular Automata. The main objective of this solution is based on dynamically adjusting the transmission range and switching between operational states of the sensor nodes.

  17. Global detection of live virtual machine migration based on cellular neural networks.

    Xie, Kang; Yang, Yixian; Zhang, Ling; Jing, Maohua; Xin, Yang; Li, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of operation monitoring of large scale, autoscaling, and heterogeneous virtual resources in the existing cloud computing, a new method of live virtual machine (VM) migration detection algorithm based on the cellular neural networks (CNNs), is presented. Through analyzing the detection process, the parameter relationship of CNN is mapped as an optimization problem, in which improved particle swarm optimization algorithm based on bubble sort is used to solve the problem. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can display the VM migration processing intuitively. Compared with the best fit heuristic algorithm, this approach reduces the processing time, and emerging evidence has indicated that this new approach is affordable to parallelism and analog very large scale integration (VLSI) implementation allowing the VM migration detection to be performed better.

  18. Cellular Neural Network-Based Methods for Distributed Network Intrusion Detection

    Kang Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the problems of current distributed architecture intrusion detection systems (DIDS, a new online distributed intrusion detection model based on cellular neural network (CNN was proposed, in which discrete-time CNN (DTCNN was used as weak classifier in each local node and state-controlled CNN (SCCNN was used as global detection method, respectively. We further proposed a new method for design template parameters of SCCNN via solving Linear Matrix Inequality. Experimental results based on KDD CUP 99 dataset show its feasibility and effectiveness. Emerging evidence has indicated that this new approach is affordable to parallelism and analog very large scale integration (VLSI implementation which allows the distributed intrusion detection to be performed better.

  19. Global Detection of Live Virtual Machine Migration Based on Cellular Neural Networks

    Kang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the demands of operation monitoring of large scale, autoscaling, and heterogeneous virtual resources in the existing cloud computing, a new method of live virtual machine (VM migration detection algorithm based on the cellular neural networks (CNNs, is presented. Through analyzing the detection process, the parameter relationship of CNN is mapped as an optimization problem, in which improved particle swarm optimization algorithm based on bubble sort is used to solve the problem. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can display the VM migration processing intuitively. Compared with the best fit heuristic algorithm, this approach reduces the processing time, and emerging evidence has indicated that this new approach is affordable to parallelism and analog very large scale integration (VLSI implementation allowing the VM migration detection to be performed better.

  20. Cellular targets for improved manufacturing of virus-based biopharmaceuticals in animal cells.

    Rodrigues, Ana F; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Coroadinha, Ana S

    2014-12-01

    The past decade witnessed the entry into the market of new virus-based biopharmaceuticals produced in animal cells such as oncolytic vectors, virus-like particle vaccines, and gene transfer vectors. Therefore, increased attention and investment to optimize cell culture processes towards enhanced manufacturing of these bioproducts is anticipated. Herein, we review key findings on virus-host interactions that have been explored in cell culture optimization. Approaches supporting improved productivity or quality of vector preparations are discussed, mainly focusing on medium design and genetic manipulation. This review provides an integrated outline for current and future efforts in exploring cellular targets for the optimization of cell culture manufacturing of virus-based biopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Image Encryption Scheme Based on Balanced Two-Dimensional Cellular Automata

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular automata (CA are simple models of computation which exhibit fascinatingly complex behavior. Due to the universality of CA model, it has been widely applied in traditional cryptography and image processing. The aim of this paper is to present a new image encryption scheme based on balanced two-dimensional cellular automata. In this scheme, a random image with the same size of the plain image to be encrypted is first generated by a pseudo-random number generator with a seed. Then, the random image is evoluted alternately with two balanced two-dimensional CA rules. At last, the cipher image is obtained by operating bitwise XOR on the final evolution image and the plain image. This proposed scheme possesses some advantages such as very large key space, high randomness, complex cryptographic structure, and pretty fast encryption/decryption speed. Simulation results obtained from some classical images at the USC-SIPI database demonstrate the strong performance of the proposed image encryption scheme.

  2. Dengue fever spreading based on probabilistic cellular automata with two lattices

    Pereira, F. M. M.; Schimit, P. H. T.

    2018-06-01

    Modeling and simulation of mosquito-borne diseases have gained attention due to a growing incidence in tropical countries in the past few years. Here, we study the dengue spreading in a population modeled by cellular automata, where there are two lattices to model the human-mosquitointeraction: one lattice for human individuals, and one lattice for mosquitoes in order to enable different dynamics in populations. The disease considered is the dengue fever with one, two or three different serotypes coexisting in population. Although many regions exhibit the incidence of only one serotype, here we set a complete framework to also study the occurrence of two and three serotypes at the same time in a population. Furthermore, the flexibility of the model allows its use to other mosquito-borne diseases, like chikungunya, yellow fever and malaria. An approximation of the cellular automata is proposed in terms of ordinary differential equations; the spreading of mosquitoes is studied and the influence of some model parameters are analyzed with numerical simulations. Finally, a method to combat dengue spreading is simulated based on a reduction of mosquito birth and mosquito bites in population.

  3. Computational Modeling of Proteins based on Cellular Automata: A Method of HP Folding Approximation.

    Madain, Alia; Abu Dalhoum, Abdel Latif; Sleit, Azzam

    2018-06-01

    The design of a protein folding approximation algorithm is not straightforward even when a simplified model is used. The folding problem is a combinatorial problem, where approximation and heuristic algorithms are usually used to find near optimal folds of proteins primary structures. Approximation algorithms provide guarantees on the distance to the optimal solution. The folding approximation approach proposed here depends on two-dimensional cellular automata to fold proteins presented in a well-studied simplified model called the hydrophobic-hydrophilic model. Cellular automata are discrete computational models that rely on local rules to produce some overall global behavior. One-third and one-fourth approximation algorithms choose a subset of the hydrophobic amino acids to form H-H contacts. Those algorithms start with finding a point to fold the protein sequence into two sides where one side ignores H's at even positions and the other side ignores H's at odd positions. In addition, blocks or groups of amino acids fold the same way according to a predefined normal form. We intend to improve approximation algorithms by considering all hydrophobic amino acids and folding based on the local neighborhood instead of using normal forms. The CA does not assume a fixed folding point. The proposed approach guarantees one half approximation minus the H-H endpoints. This lower bound guaranteed applies to short sequences only. This is proved as the core and the folds of the protein will have two identical sides for all short sequences.

  4. Cellular Phone-Based Image Acquisition and Quantitative Ratiometric Method for Detecting Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine for Biological and Forensic Applications

    Cadle, Brian A.; Rasmus, Kristin C.; Varela, Juan A.; Leverich, Leah S.; O’Neill, Casey E.; Bachtell, Ryan K.; Cooper, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA) is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (~ $1 USD/each) immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is descri...

  5. Data Portal for the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program: integrated access to diverse large-scale cellular perturbation response data

    Koleti, Amar; Terryn, Raymond; Stathias, Vasileios; Chung, Caty; Cooper, Daniel J; Turner, John P; Vidović, Dušica; Forlin, Michele; Kelley, Tanya T; D’Urso, Alessandro; Allen, Bryce K; Torre, Denis; Jagodnik, Kathleen M; Wang, Lily; Jenkins, Sherry L; Mader, Christopher; Niu, Wen; Fazel, Mehdi; Mahi, Naim; Pilarczyk, Marcin; Clark, Nicholas; Shamsaei, Behrouz; Meller, Jarek; Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Reichard, John; Medvedovic, Mario; Ma’ayan, Avi; Pillai, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program is a national consortium funded by the NIH to generate a diverse and extensive reference library of cell-based perturbation-response signatures, along with novel data analytics tools to improve our understanding of human diseases at the systems level. In contrast to other large-scale data generation efforts, LINCS Data and Signature Generation Centers (DSGCs) employ a wide range of assay technologies cataloging diverse cellular responses. Integration of, and unified access to LINCS data has therefore been particularly challenging. The Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) LINCS Data Coordination and Integration Center (DCIC) has developed data standards specifications, data processing pipelines, and a suite of end-user software tools to integrate and annotate LINCS-generated data, to make LINCS signatures searchable and usable for different types of users. Here, we describe the LINCS Data Portal (LDP) (http://lincsportal.ccs.miami.edu/), a unified web interface to access datasets generated by the LINCS DSGCs, and its underlying database, LINCS Data Registry (LDR). LINCS data served on the LDP contains extensive metadata and curated annotations. We highlight the features of the LDP user interface that is designed to enable search, browsing, exploration, download and analysis of LINCS data and related curated content. PMID:29140462

  6. Uracil excision repair in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell-free extracts.

    Kumar, Pradeep; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Varshney, Umesh

    2011-05-01

    Uracil excision repair is ubiquitous in all domains of life and initiated by uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs) which excise the promutagenic base, uracil, from DNA to leave behind an abasic site (AP-site). Repair of the resulting AP-sites requires an AP-endonuclease, a DNA polymerase, and a DNA ligase whose combined activities result in either short-patch or long-patch repair. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, has an increased risk of accumulating uracils because of its G + C-rich genome, and its niche inside host macrophages where it is exposed to reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, two major causes of cytosine deamination (to uracil) in DNA. In vitro assays to study DNA repair in this important human pathogen are limited. To study uracil excision repair in mycobacteria, we have established assay conditions using cell-free extracts of M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis (a fast-growing mycobacterium) and oligomer or plasmid DNA substrates. We show that in mycobacteria, uracil excision repair is completed primarily via long-patch repair. In addition, we show that M. tuberculosis UdgB, a newly characterized family 5 UDG, substitutes for the highly conserved family 1 UDG, Ung, thereby suggesting that UdgB might function as backup enzyme for uracil excision repair in mycobacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cellular automata-based artificial life system of horizontal gene transfer

    Ji-xin Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutation and natural selection is the core of Darwin's idea about evolution. Many algorithms and models are based on this idea. However, in the evolution of prokaryotes, more and more researches have indicated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT would be much more important and universal than the authors had imagined. Owing to this mechanism, the prokaryotes not only become adaptable in nearly any environment on Earth, but also form a global genetic bank and a super communication network with all the genes of the prokaryotic world. Under this background, they present a novel cellular automata model general gene transfer to simulate and study the vertical gene transfer and HGT in the prokaryotes. At the same time, they use Schrodinger's life theory to formulate some evaluation indices and to discuss the intelligence and cognition of prokaryotes which is derived from HGT.

  8. A novel root-index based prioritized random access scheme for 5G cellular networks

    Taehoon Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellular networks will play an important role in realizing the newly emerging Internet-of-Everything (IoE. One of the challenging issues is to support the quality of service (QoS during the access phase, while accommodating a massive number of machine nodes. In this paper, we show a new paradigm of multiple access priorities in random access (RA procedure and propose a novel root-index based prioritized random access (RIPRA scheme that implicitly embeds the access priority in the root index of the RA preambles. The performance evaluation shows that the proposed RIPRA scheme can successfully support differentiated performance for different access priority levels, even though there exist a massive number of machine nodes.

  9. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells

    Dongdong Su

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM.

  10. Characterizing emergent properties of immunological systems with multi-cellular rule-based computational modeling.

    Chavali, Arvind K; Gianchandani, Erwin P; Tung, Kenneth S; Lawrence, Michael B; Peirce, Shayn M; Papin, Jason A

    2008-12-01

    The immune system is comprised of numerous components that interact with one another to give rise to phenotypic behaviors that are sometimes unexpected. Agent-based modeling (ABM) and cellular automata (CA) belong to a class of discrete mathematical approaches in which autonomous entities detect local information and act over time according to logical rules. The power of this approach lies in the emergence of behavior that arises from interactions between agents, which would otherwise be impossible to know a priori. Recent work exploring the immune system with ABM and CA has revealed novel insights into immunological processes. Here, we summarize these applications to immunology and, particularly, how ABM can help formulate hypotheses that might drive further experimental investigations of disease mechanisms.

  11. A federation of simulations based on cellular automata in cyber-physical systems

    Hoang Van Tran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In cyber-physical system (CPS, cooperation between a variety of computational and physical elements usually poses difficulties to current modelling and simulation tools. Although much research has proposed to address those challenges, most solutions do not completely cover uncertain interactions in CPS. In this paper, we present a new approach to federate simulations for CPS. A federation is a combination of, and coordination between simulations upon a standard of communication. In addition, a mixed simulation is defined as several parallel simulations federated in a common time progress. Such simulations run on the models of physical systems, which are built based on cellular automata theory. The experimental results are performed on a federation of three simulations of forest fire spread, river pollution diffusion and wireless sensor network. The obtained results can be utilized to observe and predict the behaviours of physical systems in their interactions.

  12. Structure-based analysis of CysZ-mediated cellular uptake of sulfate

    Assur Sanghai, Zahra; Liu, Qun; Clarke, Oliver B; Belcher-Dufrisne, Meagan; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Giese, M Hunter; Leal-Pinto, Edgar; Kloss, Brian; Tabuso, Shantelle; Love, James; Punta, Marco; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Rost, Burkhard; Logothetis, Diomedes; Quick, Matthias; Hendrickson, Wayne A

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur, most abundantly found in the environment as sulfate (SO42-), is an essential element in metabolites required by all living cells, including amino acids, co-factors and vitamins. However, current understanding of the cellular delivery of SO42- at the molecular level is limited. CysZ has been described as a SO42- permease, but its sequence family is without known structural precedent. Based on crystallographic structure information, SO42- binding and flux experiments, we provide insight into the molecular mechanism of CysZ-mediated translocation of SO42- across membranes. CysZ structures from three different bacterial species display a hitherto unknown fold and have subunits organized with inverted transmembrane topology. CysZ from Pseudomonas denitrificans assembles as a trimer of antiparallel dimers and the CysZ structures from two other species recapitulate dimers from this assembly. Mutational studies highlight the functional relevance of conserved CysZ residues. PMID:29792261

  13. Operational and biological effects zones from base stations of cellular telephony

    Geronikolou, St. A., E-mail: sgeronik@bioacademy.gr [Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens, Athens (Greece); Zimeras, S., E-mail: zimste@aegean.gr [University of the Aegean, Karlovassi, Samos (Greece); Tsitomeneas, S. Th., E-mail: stsit@teipir.gr [Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Aigaleo (Greece)

    2016-03-25

    The possible environmental impacts of cellular base stations are operational and biological. The operational effects comprise Εlectro-Μagnetic Interference (EMI), lightning alterations and aesthetic degradation. Both thermal and non-thermal biological effects depend on the absorption of UHF radiofrequencies used. We measured, calculated and estimated the impact zones. The results are: (a) The lightning lethal zone equal to the antenna height, (b) the EMI impact in a zone up to 40m and (c) the ICNIRP’s limits exceed to a zone of 8∼20m into the antenna’s radiation pattern (for 2G GSM and 3G UMTS station). Finally we conclude the adverse effects must not expected in a zone of more than 150m from the radiated antenna, whereas, there is possibility of stochastic effects in intermediate distances (20/40-150m).

  14. Throughput of Cellular Systems with Conferencing Mobiles and Cooperative Base Stations

    Somekh O

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an enhancement to multicell processing for the uplink of a cellular system, whereby the mobile stations are allowed to exchange messages on orthogonal channels of fixed capacity (conferencing. Both conferencing among mobile stations in different cells and in the same cell (inter- and intracell conferencing, resp. are studied. For both cases, it is shown that a rate-splitting transmission strategy, where part of the message is exchanged on the conferencing channels and then transmitted cooperatively to the base stations, is capacity achieving for sufficiently large conferencing capacity. In case of intercell conferencing, this strategy performs convolutional pre-equalization of the signal encoding the common messages in the spatial domain, where the number of taps of the finite-impulse response equalizer depends on the number of conferencing rounds. Analysis in the low signal-to-noise ratio regime and numerical results validate the advantages of conferencing as a complementary technology to multicell processing.

  15. 3D simulation of friction stir welding based on movable cellular automaton method

    Eremina, Galina M.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is devoted to a 3D computer simulation of the peculiarities of material flow taking place in friction stir welding (FSW). The simulation was performed by the movable cellular automaton (MCA) method, which is a representative of particle methods in mechanics. Commonly, the flow of material in FSW is simulated based on computational fluid mechanics, assuming the material as continuum and ignoring its structure. The MCA method considers a material as an ensemble of bonded particles. The rupture of interparticle bonds and the formation of new bonds enable simulations of crack nucleation and healing as well as mas mixing and microwelding. The simulation results showed that using pins of simple shape (cylinder, cone, and pyramid) without a shoulder results in small displacements of plasticized material in workpiece thickness directions. Nevertheless, the optimal ratio of longitudinal velocity to rotational speed makes it possible to transport the welded material around the pin several times and to produce a joint of good quality.

  16. Harnessing cellular differentiation to improve ALA-based photodynamic therapy in an artificial skin model

    Maytin, Edward; Anand, Sanjay; Sato, Nobuyuki; Mack, Judith; Ortel, Bernhard

    2005-04-01

    During ALA-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), a pro-drug (aminolevulinic acid; ALA) is taken up by tumor cells and metabolically converted to a photosensitizing intermediate (protoporphyrin IX; PpIX). ALA-based PDT, while an emerging treatment modality, remains suboptimal for most cancers (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma of the skin). Many treatment failures may be largely due to insufficient conversion of ALA to PpIX within cells. We discovered a novel way to increase the conversion of ALA to PpIX, by administering agents that can drive terminal differentiation (i.e., accelerate cellular maturation). Terminally-differentiated epithelial cells show higher levels of intracellular PpIX, apparently via increased levels of a rate-limiting enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO). To study these mechanisms in a three-dimensional tissue, we developed an organotypic model that mimics true epidermal physiology in a majority of respects. A line of rat epidermal keratinocytes (REKs), when grown in raft cultures, displays all the features of a fully-differentiated epidermis. Addition of ALA to the culture medium results in ALA uptake and PpIX synthesis, with subsequent death of keratinocytes upon exposure to blue light. Using this model, we can manipulate cellular differentiation via three different approaches. (1) Vitamin D, a hormone that enhances keratinocyte differentiation; (2) Hoxb13, a nuclear transcription factor that affects the genetically-controlled differentiation program of stratifying cells (3) Hyaluronan, an abundant extracellular matrix molecule that regulates epidermal differentiation. Because the raft cultures contain only a single cell type (no blood, fibroblasts, etc.) the effects of terminal differentiation upon CPO, PpIX, and keratinocyte cell death can be specifically defined.

  17. Hybrid Off-Grid SPV/WTG Power System for Remote Cellular Base Stations Towards Green and Sustainable Cellular Networks in South Korea

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the sustainability of power resources and environmental conditions for telecommunication base stations (BSs at off-grid sites. Accordingly, this study examined the feasibility of using a hybrid solar photovoltaic (SPV/wind turbine generator (WTG system to feed the remote Long Term Evolution-macro base stations at off-grid sites of South Korea the energy necessary to minimise both the operational expenditure and greenhouse gas emissions. Three key aspects have been discussed: (i optimal system architecture; (ii energy yield analysis; and (iii economic analysis. In addition, this study compares the feasibility of using a hybrid SPV/WTG system vs. a diesel generator. The simulation results show that by applying the proposed SPV/WTG system scheme to the cellular system, the total operational expenditure can be up to 48.52% more efficient and sustainability can be ensured with better planning by providing cleaner energy.

  18. Functional Polymorphisms of Base Excision Repair Genes XRCC1 and APEX1 Predict Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation Therapy

    Yin Ming; Liao Zhongxing; Liu Zhensheng; Wang, Li-E; Gomez, Daniel; Komaki, Ritsuko; Wei Qingyi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of base-excision repair genes are predictors of radiation treatment-related pneumonitis (RP), we investigated associations between functional SNPs of ADPRT, APEX1, and XRCC1 and RP development. Methods and Materials: We genotyped SNPs of ADPRT (rs1136410 [V762A]), XRCC1 (rs1799782 [R194W], rs25489 [R280H], and rs25487 [Q399R]), and APEX1 (rs1130409 [D148E]) in 165 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received definitive chemoradiation therapy. Results were assessed by both Logistic and Cox regression models for RP risk. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated for the cumulative RP probability by the genotypes. Results: We found that SNPs of XRCC1 Q399R and APEX1 D148E each had a significant effect on the development of Grade ≥2 RP (XRCC1: AA vs. GG, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.97; APEX1: GG vs. TT, adjusted HR = 3.61, 95% CI, 1.64-7.93) in an allele-dose response manner (Trend tests: p = 0.040 and 0.001, respectively). The number of the combined protective XRCC1 A and APEX1 T alleles (from 0 to 4) also showed a significant trend of predicting RP risk (p = 0.001). Conclusions: SNPs of the base-excision repair genes may be biomarkers for susceptibility to RP. Larger prospective studies are needed to validate our findings.

  19. A Utility-Based Downlink Radio Resource Allocation for Multiservice Cellular DS-CDMA Networks

    Mahdi Shabany

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel framework is proposed to model downlink resource allocation problem in multiservice direct-sequence code division multiple-access (DS-CDMA cellular networks. This framework is based on a defined utility function, which leads to utilizing the network resources in a more efficient way. This utility function quantifies the degree of utilization of resources. As a matter of fact, using the defined utility function, users' channel fluctuations and their delay constraints along with the load conditions of all BSs are all taken into consideration. Unlike previous works, we solve the problem with the general objective of maximizing the total network utility instead of maximizing the achieved utility of each base station (BS. It is shown that this problem is equivalent to finding the optimum BS assignment throughout the network, which is mapped to a multidimensional multiple-choice knapsack problem (MMKP. Since MMKP is NP-hard, a polynomial-time suboptimal algorithm is then proposed to develop an efficient base-station assignment. Simulation results indicate a significant performance improvement in terms of achieved utility and packet drop ratio.

  20. Fuzzy Case-Based Reasoning in Product Style Acquisition Incorporating Valence-Arousal-Based Emotional Cellular Model

    Fuqian Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional cellular (EC, proposed in our previous works, is a kind of semantic cell that contains kernel and shell and the kernel is formalized by a triple- L = , where P denotes a typical set of positive examples relative to word-L, d is a pseudodistance measure on emotional two-dimensional space: valence-arousal, and δ is a probability density function on positive real number field. The basic idea of EC model is to assume that the neighborhood radius of each semantic concept is uncertain, and this uncertainty will be measured by one-dimensional density function δ. In this paper, product form features were evaluated by using ECs and to establish the product style database, fuzzy case based reasoning (FCBR model under a defined similarity measurement based on fuzzy nearest neighbors (FNN incorporating EC was applied to extract product styles. A mathematical formalized inference system for product style was also proposed, and it also includes uncertainty measurement tool emotional cellular. A case study of style acquisition of mobile phones illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  1. Frequency domain analysis of the lightning current distribution to ground at the transmission line tower with cellular phone base station

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cellular phone base stations are often placed in the poles of power transmission lines. We consider the case when such base stations are powered from the low-voltage network. Of special concern is the current that might be led through the cable metallic shields to other customers' premises in case

  2. Retroperitoneal Cellular Angiofibroma: A Rare Gynecological Entity

    Ana Brandão

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellular angiofibroma is a mesenchymal tumor, described in 1997, without gender preference, that usually appears at age 40. The vulvovaginal area is the most common site in women, mimicking vulvar benign tumors, like Bartholin gland cyst. However, there are a few described cases of a deep or extra-pelvic angiofibroma. Excision is the treatment of choice and the recurrence rate appears to be low. We present the case of a woman with a heterogeneous tumor in the right adnexial region. At the surgery, a retroperitoneal tumor was excised and the histopathological tissue analysis revealed a cellular angiofibroma.

  3. Principles of Periocular Reconstruction following Excision of Cutaneous Malignancy

    Hayano, S. M.; Whipple, K. M.; Korn, B. S.; Kikkawa, D. O.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of periocular defects following excision of cutaneous malignancy can present difficulties for oculofacial and reconstructive surgeons. The intricate anatomy of the eyelids and face requires precise restoration in order to avoid postoperative functional anesthetic concerns. Various reconstructive procedures based on common principles, location and size of the defect, can be applied to achieve restoration with the best possible functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  4. Nucleotide Excision Repair Lesion-Recognition Protein Rad4 Captures a Pre-Flipped Partner Base in a Benzo[a]pyrene-Derived DNA Lesion: How Structure Impacts the Binding Pathway.

    Mu, Hong; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Min, Jung-Hyun; Zhang, Yingkai; Broyde, Suse

    2017-06-19

    The xeroderma pigmentosum C protein complex (XPC) recognizes a variety of environmentally induced DNA lesions and is the key in initiating their repair by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. When bound to a lesion, XPC flips two nucleotide pairs that include the lesion out of the DNA duplex, yielding a productively bound complex that can lead to successful lesion excision. Interestingly, the efficiencies of NER vary greatly among different lesions, influencing their toxicity and mutagenicity in cells. Though differences in XPC binding may influence NER efficiency, it is not understood whether XPC utilizes different mechanisms to achieve productive binding with different lesions. Here, we investigated the well-repaired 10R-(+)-cis-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-N 2 -dG (cis-B[a]P-dG) DNA adduct in a duplex containing normal partner C opposite the lesion. This adduct is derived from the environmental pro-carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene and is likely to be encountered by NER in the cell. We have extensively investigated its binding to the yeast XPC orthologue, Rad4, using umbrella sampling with restrained molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. The NMR solution structure of this lesion in duplex DNA has shown that the dC complementary to the adducted dG is flipped out of the DNA duplex in the absence of XPC. However, it is not known whether the "pre-flipped" base would play a role in its recognition by XPC. Our results show that Rad4 first captures the displaced dC, which is followed by a tightly coupled lesion-extruding pathway for productive binding. This binding path differs significantly from the one deduced for the small cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer lesion opposite mismatched thymines [ Mu , H. , ( 2015 ) Biochemistry , 54 ( 34 ), 5263 - 7 ]. The possibility of multiple paths that lead to productive binding to XPC is consistent with the versatile lesion recognition by XPC that is required for successful NER.

  5. Simulation of Microstructure during Laser Rapid Forming Solidification Based on Cellular Automaton

    Zhi-jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grain microstructure of molten pool during the solidification of TC4 titanium alloy in the single point laser cladding was investigated based on the CAFE model which is the cellular automaton (CA coupled with the finite element (FE method. The correct temperature field is the prerequisite for simulating the grain microstructure during the solidification of the molten pool. The model solves the energy equation by the FE method to simulate the temperature distribution in the molten pool of the single point laser cladding. Based on the temperature field, the solidification microstructure of the molten pool is also simulated with the CAFE method. The results show that the maximum temperature in the molten pool increases with the laser power and the scanning rate. The laser power has a larger influence on the temperature distribution of the molten pool than the scanning rate. During the solidification of the molten pool, the heat at the bottom of the molten pool transfers faster than that at the top of the molten pool. The grains rapidly grow into the molten pool, and then the columnar crystals are formed. This study has a very important significance for improving the quality of the structure parts manufactured through the laser cladding forming.

  6. A Nanoflare-Based Cellular Automaton Model and the Observed Properties of the Coronal Plasma

    Lopez-Fuentes, Marcelo; Klimchuk, James Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We use the cellular automaton model described in Lopez Fuentes and Klimchuk to study the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model, based on the idea of a critical misalignment angle in tangled magnetic fields, produces nanoflares of varying frequency with respect to the plasma cooling time. We compare the results of the model with active region (AR) observations obtained with the Hinode/XRT and SDOAIA instruments. The comparison is based on the statistical properties of synthetic and observed loop light curves. Our results show that the model reproduces the main observational characteristics of the evolution of the plasma in AR coronal loops. The typical intensity fluctuations have amplitudes of 10 percent - 15 percent both for the model and the observations. The sign of the skewness of the intensity distributions indicates the presence of cooling plasma in the loops. We also study the emission measure (EM) distribution predicted by the model and obtain slopes in log(EM) versus log(T) between 2.7 and 4.3, in agreement with published observational values.

  7. Performance Analysis of 3D Massive MIMO Cellular Systems with Collaborative Base Station

    Xingwang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive MIMO have drawn considerable attention as they enable significant capacity and coverage improvement in wireless cellular network. However, pilot contamination is a great challenge in massive MIMO systems. Under this circumstance, cooperation and three-dimensional (3D MIMO are emerging technologies to eliminate the pilot contamination and to enhance the performance relative to the traditional interference-limited implementations. Motivated by this, we investigate the achievable sum rate performance of MIMO systems in the uplink employing cooperative base station (BS and 3D MIMO systems. In our model, we consider the effects of both large-scale and small-scale fading, as well as the spatial correlation and indoor-to-outdoor high-rise propagation environment. In particular, we investigate the cooperative communication model based on 3D MIMO and propose a closed-form lower bound on the sum rate. Utilizing this bound, we pursue a “large-system” analysis and provide the asymptotic expression when the number of antennas at the BS grows large, and when the numbers of antennas at transceiver grow large with a fixed ratio. We demonstrate that the lower bound is very tight and becomes exact in the massive MIMO system limits. Finally, under the sum rate maximization condition, we derive the optimal number of UTs to be served.

  8. Cellular bases of radiation-induced residual insufficiency in the haematopoietic system

    Wangenheim, K.H. v.; Peterson, H.P.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Following radiation exposure, man's survival and further well-being largely depends on the degree of damage to his heamatopietic system. Stem cells are particualarly sensitive to radiation. Over and beyond acute radiation damge, residual radiation damage is of significance since it reduces the performance of the haematopietic system and enhances the risk of leukaemia. Knowledge concerning cellular bases may be important for preventive and therapeutic measures. The measurement method presented is based on the fact that stem cells from transfused bone marrow will settle in the spleen of highly irradiated mice and be able to reconstruct the haematopietic system. Initally individual colonies can be observed which originate from a single stem cell and the proliferation of its descendants. Counting these colonies will give the number of stem cells. The reduction of the proliferation factor measured in the stem-cell quality test apparently is not due to a shift in the age structure of the stem cell compartment but to a damage which is located within a more or less substantial proportion of the stem cells themselves. This damage is the cause of stem cell descendant growth retarded on an average. It is probable that recovery observed after irradiation is brought about by less-damaged or undamaged stem cells replacing damaged ones. Initial results point to the fact that this replacement can be influenced by treatment after irradiation. (orig./MG) [de

  9. A NANOFLARE-BASED CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL AND THE OBSERVED PROPERTIES OF THE CORONAL PLASMA

    Fuentes, Marcelo López [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Klimchuk, James A., E-mail: lopezf@iafe.uba.ar [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-09-10

    We use the cellular automaton model described in López Fuentes and Klimchuk to study the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model, based on the idea of a critical misalignment angle in tangled magnetic fields, produces nanoflares of varying frequency with respect to the plasma cooling time. We compare the results of the model with active region (AR) observations obtained with the Hinode /XRT and SDO /AIA instruments. The comparison is based on the statistical properties of synthetic and observed loop light curves. Our results show that the model reproduces the main observational characteristics of the evolution of the plasma in AR coronal loops. The typical intensity fluctuations have amplitudes of 10%–15% both for the model and the observations. The sign of the skewness of the intensity distributions indicates the presence of cooling plasma in the loops. We also study the emission measure (EM) distribution predicted by the model and obtain slopes in log(EM) versus log(T) between 2.7 and 4.3, in agreement with published observational values.

  10. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Capasso, Ilaria; Caputo, Domenico; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a "meringue" type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (˜500 Kg/m3) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the "meringue" approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  11. Autonomously Implemented Versatile Path Planning for Mobile Robots Based on Cellular Automata and Ant Colony

    Adel Akbarimajd

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A path planning method for mobile robots based on two dimensional cellular automata is proposed. The method can be applied for environments with both concave and convex obstacles. It is also appropriate for multi-robot problems as well as dynamic environments. In order to develop the planning method, environment of the robot is decomposed to a rectangular grid and the automata is defined with four states including Robot cell, Free cell, Goal cell and Obstacle cell. Evolution rules of automata are proposed in order to direct the robot toward its goal. CA based path planner method is afterwards modified by a colony technique to be applicable for concave obstacles. Then a layered architecture is proposed to autonomously implement the planning algorithm. The architecture employs an abstraction approach which makes the complexity manageable. An important feature of the architecture is internal artifacts that have some beliefs about the world. Most actions of the robot are planned and performed with respect to these artifacts.

  12. A Dual Microscopy-Based Assay To Assess Listeria monocytogenes Cellular Entry and Vacuolar Escape.

    Quereda, Juan J; Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Balestrino, Damien; Bobard, Alexandre; Danckaert, Anne; Aulner, Nathalie; Shorte, Spencer; Enninga, Jost; Cossart, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium and a facultative intracellular pathogen that invades mammalian cells, disrupts its internalization vacuole, and proliferates in the host cell cytoplasm. Here, we describe a novel image-based microscopy assay that allows discrimination between cellular entry and vacuolar escape, enabling high-content screening to identify factors specifically involved in these two steps. We first generated L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua strains expressing a β-lactamase covalently attached to the bacterial cell wall. These strains were then incubated with HeLa cells containing the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe CCF4 in their cytoplasm. The CCF4 probe was cleaved by the bacterial surface β-lactamase only in cells inoculated with L. monocytogenes but not those inoculated with L. innocua, thereby demonstrating bacterial access to the host cytoplasm. Subsequently, we performed differential immunofluorescence staining to distinguish extracellular versus total bacterial populations in samples that were also analyzed by the FRET-based assay. With this two-step analysis, bacterial entry can be distinguished from vacuolar rupture in a single experiment. Our novel approach represents a powerful tool for identifying factors that determine the intracellular niche of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Feasibility study of transanal total mesorectal excision

    Velthuis, S.; Boezem, P.B. van den; Peet, D.L. van der; Cuesta, M.A.; Sietses, C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancers is a safe alternative to open surgery. The conversion rate to open surgery remains fairly constant but is associated with increased morbidity. A new approach to the surgical excision of rectal cancer is transanal total mesorectal excision

  14. Studies on the DNA-excision repair in lymphocytes of patients with recurrent Herpes simplex

    Fanta, D.; Topaloglou, A.; Altmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of the semiconservatrive DNA replication and the excision repair in lymphocytes of patients with recurrent herpes simplex showed defects that could lead to mutations in the DNA with following lower immuncompetence and possibility for activation of already present oncogenic virus formations within the cellular DNA

  15. A Cellular Automata-Based Simulation Tool for Real Fire Accident Prevention

    Jacek M. Czerniak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many serious real-life problems could be simulated using cellular automata theory. There were a lot of fires in public places which kill many people. Proposed method, called Cellular Automata Evaluation (CAEva in short, is using cellular automata theory and could be used for checking buildings conditions for fire accident. The tests performed on real accident showed that an appropriately configured program allows obtaining a realistic simulation of human evacuation. The authors analyze some real accidents and proved that CAEva method appears as a very promising solution, especially in the cases of building renovations or temporary unavailability of escape routes.

  16. New multifunctional lightweight materials based on cellular metals - manufacturing, properties and applications

    Stephani, Guenter; Quadbeck, Peter; Andersen, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Cellular metallic materials are a new class of materials which have been the focus of numerous scientific studies over the past few years. The increasing interest in cellular metals is due to the fact that the introduction of pores into the materials significantly lowers the density. These highly porous materials also possess combinations of properties which are not possible to achieve with other materials. Besides the drastic weight and material savings that arise from the cell structure, there are also other application-specific benefits such as noise and energy absorption, heat insulation, mechanical damping, filtration effects and also catalytic properties. Cellular metallic materials are hence multi-functional lightweight materials.

  17. Cellular Automata Based Modeling for Evaluating Different Bus Stop Designs in China

    Haoyang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate mixed traffic flow composed of motor vehicles and bicycles near bus stops. Three typical types of bus stops which are common in China are considered in the model, including two types of curbside bus stops and one type of bus bay stops. Passenger transport capacity of three types of bus stops, which is applied to evaluate the bus stop design, is calculated based on the corresponding traffic flow rate. According to the simulation results, the flow rates of both motor vehicles and bicycles exhibit phase transition from free flow to the saturation one at the critical point. The results also show that the larger the interaction between motor vehicle and bicycle flow is near curbside bus stops, the more the value of saturated flows drops. Curbside bus stops are more suitable when the conflicts between two flows are small and the inflow rate of motor vehicles is low. On the contrary, bus bay stops should be applied due to their ability to reduce traffic conflicts. Findings of this study can provide useful suggestions on bus stop selection considering different inflow rate of motor vehicles and bicycles simultaneously.

  18. Multi-stability and variable stiffness of cellular solids designed based on origami patterns

    Sengupta, Sattam; Li, Suyi

    2017-04-01

    The application of origami-inspired designs to engineered structures and materials has been a subject of much research efforts. These structures and materials, whose mechanical properties are directly related to the geometry of folding, are capable of achieving a host of unique adaptive functions. In this study, we investigate a three-dimensional multistability and variable stiffness function of a cellular solid based on the Miura-Ori folding pattern. The unit cell of such a solid, consisting of two stacked Miura-Ori sheets, can be elastically bistable due to the nonlinear relationship between rigid-folding deformation and crease material bending. Such a bistability possesses an unorthodox property: the critical, unstable configuration lies on the same side of two stable ones, so that two different force-deformation curves co-exist within the same range of deformation. By exploiting such unique stability properties, we can achieve a programmable stiffness change between the two elastically stable states, and the stiffness differences can be prescribed by tailoring the crease patterns of the cell. This paper presents a comprehensive parametric study revealing the correlations between such variable stiffness and various design parameters. The unique properties stemming from the bistability and design of such a unit cell can be advanced further by assembling them into a solid which can be capable of shape morphing and programmable mechanical properties.

  19. Multiscale Simulation of Porous Ceramics Based on Movable Cellular Automaton Method

    Smolin, A.; Smolin, I.; Eremina, G.; Smolina, I.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents a model for simulating mechanical behaviour of multiscale porous ceramics based on movable cellular automaton method, which is a novel particle method in computational mechanics of solid. The initial scale of the proposed approach corresponds to the characteristic size of the smallest pores in the ceramics. At this scale, we model uniaxial compression of several representative samples with an explicit account of pores of the same size but with the random unique position in space. As a result, we get the average values of Young’s modulus and strength, as well as the parameters of the Weibull distribution of these properties at the current scale level. These data allow us to describe the material behaviour at the next scale level were only the larger pores are considered explicitly, while the influence of small pores is included via the effective properties determined at the previous scale level. If the pore size distribution function of the material has N maxima we need to perform computations for N - 1 levels in order to get the properties from the lowest scale up to the macroscale step by step. The proposed approach was applied to modelling zirconia ceramics with bimodal pore size distribution. The obtained results show correct behaviour of the model sample at the macroscale.

  20. Switched-based interference reduction scheme for open-access overlaid cellular networks

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2012-06-01

    Femtocells have been proposed to enhance the spatial coverage and system capacity of existing cellular networks. However, this technology may result in significant performance loss due to the increase in co-channel interference, particularly when coordination between access points is infeasible. This paper targets interference management in such overlaid networks. It is assumed that the femtocells employ the open-access strategy to reduce cross-tier interference, and can share resources concurrently. It is also assumed that each end user (EU) can access one channel at a time, and transfer limited feedback. To reduce the effect of co-tier interference in the absence of the desired EU channel state information (CSI) at the serving access point as well as coordination between active access points, a switched scheme based on the interference levels associated with available channels is proposed. Through the analysis, the scheme modes of operation in under-loaded and over-loaded channels are studied, from which the statistics of the resulting interference power are quantified. The impact of the proposed scheme on the received desired power is thoroughly discussed. In addition, the effect of the switching threshold on the achieved performance of the desired EU is investigated. The results clarify that the proposed scheme can improve the performance while reducing the number of examined channels and feedback load. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. An empirical Bayesian approach for model-based inference of cellular signaling networks

    Klinke David J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common challenge in systems biology is to infer mechanistic descriptions of biological process given limited observations of a biological system. Mathematical models are frequently used to represent a belief about the causal relationships among proteins within a signaling network. Bayesian methods provide an attractive framework for inferring the validity of those beliefs in the context of the available data. However, efficient sampling of high-dimensional parameter space and appropriate convergence criteria provide barriers for implementing an empirical Bayesian approach. The objective of this study was to apply an Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo technique to a typical study of cellular signaling pathways. Results As an illustrative example, a kinetic model for the early signaling events associated with the epidermal growth factor (EGF signaling network was calibrated against dynamic measurements observed in primary rat hepatocytes. A convergence criterion, based upon the Gelman-Rubin potential scale reduction factor, was applied to the model predictions. The posterior distributions of the parameters exhibited complicated structure, including significant covariance between specific parameters and a broad range of variance among the parameters. The model predictions, in contrast, were narrowly distributed and were used to identify areas of agreement among a collection of experimental studies. Conclusion In summary, an empirical Bayesian approach was developed for inferring the confidence that one can place in a particular model that describes signal transduction mechanisms and for inferring inconsistencies in experimental measurements.

  2. Phase transitions and hysteresis in a cellular automata-based model of opinion formation

    Kacperski, K.; Holyst, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    A particular case of a cellular automata-based model of two-state opinion formation in social groups with a strong leader is studied. We consider a 2D Euclidian geometry of open-quotes social spaceclose quotes and mutual interactions ∝ 1/r n . The model shows an interesting dynamics which can be analytically calculated. There are two stable states of the system: a cluster around the leader and unification. Unstable clusters may also appear. A variation in parameters such as the leader's strength or the open-quotes social temperatureclose quotes can change the size of a cluster or, when they reach some critical values, make the system jump into another state. For a certain range of parameters the system exhibits bistability and hysteresis phenomena. We obtained explicit formulas for the cluster size, critical values, make the system jump into another state. For a certain range of parameters the system exhibits bistability and hysteresis phenomena. We obtained explicit formulas for the cluster size, critical leader's strength, and critical open-quotes social temperature.close quotes These analytical results are verified by computer simulations

  3. A universal concept based on cellular neural networks for ultrafast and flexible solving of differential equations.

    Chedjou, Jean Chamberlain; Kyamakya, Kyandoghere

    2015-04-01

    This paper develops and validates a comprehensive and universally applicable computational concept for solving nonlinear differential equations (NDEs) through a neurocomputing concept based on cellular neural networks (CNNs). High-precision, stability, convergence, and lowest-possible memory requirements are ensured by the CNN processor architecture. A significant challenge solved in this paper is that all these cited computing features are ensured in all system-states (regular or chaotic ones) and in all bifurcation conditions that may be experienced by NDEs.One particular quintessence of this paper is to develop and demonstrate a solver concept that shows and ensures that CNN processors (realized either in hardware or in software) are universal solvers of NDE models. The solving logic or algorithm of given NDEs (possible examples are: Duffing, Mathieu, Van der Pol, Jerk, Chua, Rössler, Lorenz, Burgers, and the transport equations) through a CNN processor system is provided by a set of templates that are computed by our comprehensive templates calculation technique that we call nonlinear adaptive optimization. This paper is therefore a significant contribution and represents a cutting-edge real-time computational engineering approach, especially while considering the various scientific and engineering applications of this ultrafast, energy-and-memory-efficient, and high-precise NDE solver concept. For illustration purposes, three NDE models are demonstratively solved, and related CNN templates are derived and used: the periodically excited Duffing equation, the Mathieu equation, and the transport equation.

  4. Delivery of paclitaxel across cellular barriers using a dendrimer-based nanocarrier.

    Teow, Huey Minn; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Najlah, Mohammad; Yusof, Siti R; Abbott, N Joan; D'Emanuele, Antony

    2013-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a third-generation (G3) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-based carrier to enhance the permeability of paclitaxel (pac) and to overcome cellular barriers. G3 dendrimers were surface modified with lauryl chains (L) and conjugated with paclitaxel (pac) via a glutaric anhydride (glu) linker, followed by labeling with FITC. Biological evaluation of the dendrimer and conjugates was conducted using the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) and primary cultured porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs). LDH assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the dendrimer and conjugates. Cytotoxicity studies showed that the conjugation of lauryl chains and paclitaxel on G3 dendrimer significantly (pdendrimer-drug conjugates demonstrated an increase in the apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) in both apical to basolateral A→B and basolateral to apical B→A directions across both cell monolayers compared to unmodified G3 and free drug. The B→A P(app) of paclitaxel was significantly (ptransporter system in both cell models. L6-G3-glu-pac conjugate had approximately 12-fold greater permeability across both cell monolayers than that of paclitaxel alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Land use change modeling through scenario-based cellular automata Markov: improving spatial forecasting.

    Jahanishakib, Fatemeh; Mirkarimi, Seyed Hamed; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul; Poodat, Fatemeh

    2018-05-08

    Efficient land use management requires awareness of past changes, present actions, and plans for future developments. Part of these requirements is achieved using scenarios that describe a future situation and the course of changes. This research aims to link scenario results with spatially explicit and quantitative forecasting of land use development. To develop land use scenarios, SMIC PROB-EXPERT and MORPHOL methods were used. It revealed eight scenarios as the most probable. To apply the scenarios, we considered population growth rate and used a cellular automata-Markov chain (CA-MC) model to implement the quantified changes described by each scenario. For each scenario, a set of landscape metrics was used to assess the ecological integrity of land use classes in terms of fragmentation and structural connectivity. The approach enabled us to develop spatial scenarios of land use change and detect their differences for choosing the most integrated landscape pattern in terms of landscape metrics. Finally, the comparison between paired forecasted scenarios based on landscape metrics indicates that scenarios 1-1, 2-2, 3-2, and 4-1 have a more suitable integrity. The proposed methodology for developing spatial scenarios helps executive managers to create scenarios with many repetitions and customize spatial patterns in real world applications and policies.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Polarization in Internet Group Opinions Based on Cellular Automata

    Yaofeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot events on Internet always attract many people who usually form one or several opinion camps through discussion. For the problem of polarization in Internet group opinions, we propose a new model based on Cellular Automata by considering neighbors, opinion leaders, and external influences. Simulation results show the following: (1 It is easy to form the polarization for both continuous opinions and discrete opinions when we only consider neighbors influence, and continuous opinions are more effective in speeding the polarization of group. (2 Coevolution mechanism takes more time to make the system stable, and the global coupling mechanism leads the system to consensus. (3 Opinion leaders play an important role in the development of consensus in Internet group opinions. However, both taking the opinion leaders as zealots and taking some randomly selected individuals as zealots are not conductive to the consensus. (4 Double opinion leaders with consistent opinions will accelerate the formation of group consensus, but the opposite opinions will lead to group polarization. (5 Only small external influences can change the evolutionary direction of Internet group opinions.

  7. Safety impacts of red light cameras at signalized intersections based on cellular automata models.

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D; Lum, K M

    2015-01-01

    This study applies a simulation technique to evaluate the hypothesis that red light cameras (RLCs) exert important effects on accident risks. Conflict occurrences are generated by simulation and compared at intersections with and without RLCs to assess the impact of RLCs on several conflict types under various traffic conditions. Conflict occurrences are generated through simulating vehicular interactions based on an improved cellular automata (CA) model. The CA model is calibrated and validated against field observations at approaches with and without RLCs. Simulation experiments are conducted for RLC and non-RLC intersections with different geometric layouts and traffic demands to generate conflict occurrences that are analyzed to evaluate the hypothesis that RLCs exert important effects on road safety. The comparison of simulated conflict occurrences show favorable safety impacts of RLCs on crossing conflicts and unfavorable impacts for rear-end conflicts during red/amber phases. Corroborative results are found from broad analysis of accident occurrence. RLCs are found to have a mixed effect on accident risk at signalized intersections: crossing collisions are reduced, whereas rear-end collisions may increase. The specially developed CA model is found to be a feasible safety assessment tool.

  8. Cellular aging (the Hayflick limit) and species longevity: a unification model based on clonal succession.

    Juckett, D A

    1987-03-01

    A model is presented which proposes a specific cause-and-effect relationship between a limited cell division potential and the maximum lifespan of humans and other mammals. It is based on the clonal succession hypothesis of Kay which states that continually replicating cell beds (e.g. bone marrow, intestinal crypts, epidermis) could be composed of cells with short, well-defined division potentials. In this model, the cells of these beds are proposed to exist in an ordered hierarchy which establishes a specific sequence for cell divisions throughout the organism's lifespan. The depletion of division potential at all hierarchical levels leads to a loss of bed function and sets an intrinsic limit to species longevity. A specific hierarchy for cell proliferation is defined which allows the calculation of time to bed depletion and, ultimately, to organism mortality. The model allows the existence of a small number (n) of critical cell beds within the organism and defines organism death as the inability of any one of these beds to produce cells. The model is consistent with all major observations related to cellular and organismic aging. In particular, it links the PDLs (population doubling limit) observed for various species to their mean lifespan; it explains the slow decline in PDL as a function of age of the donor; it establishes a thermodynamically stable maximum lifespan for a disease-free population; and it can explain why tissue transplants outlive donors or hosts.

  9. The association between systemic inflammatory cellular levels and lung function: a population-based study.

    Tricia McKeever

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower lung function is associated with an elevated systemic white cell count in men. However, these observations have not been demonstrated in a representative population that includes females and may be susceptible to confounding by recent airway infections or recent cigarette smoking. We tested the hypothesis that lung function is inversely associated with systemic white cell count in a population-based study. METHODS: The study population consisted adults aged 17-90+ years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not report a recent cough, cold or acute illness in a non-smoking and smoking population. RESULTS: In non-smoking adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FEV(1 125.3 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -163.1 to -87.5. Adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FVC 151.1 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -195.0 to -107.2. Similar associations were observed for granulocytes, mononuclear cells and lymphocytes. In current smokers, similar smaller associations observed for total white cell count, granulocytes and mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic cellular inflammation levels are inversely associated with lung function in a population of both non-smokers and smokers without acute illnesses. This may contribute to the increased mortality observed in individuals with a higher baseline white cell count.

  10. Optimization of spectral printer modeling based on a modified cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer model.

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiaoxia; Xie, Dehong

    2014-06-01

    The study presented here optimizes several steps in the spectral printer modeling workflow based on a cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer (CYNSN) model. First, a printer subdividing method was developed that reduces the number of sub-models while maintaining the maximum device gamut. Second, the forward spectral prediction accuracy of the CYNSN model for each subspace of the printer was improved using back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) estimated n values. Third, a sequential gamut judging method, which clearly reduced the complexity of the optimal sub-model and cell searching process during printer backward modeling, was proposed. After that, we further modified the use of the modeling color metric and comprehensively improved the spectral and perceptual accuracy of the spectral printer model. The experimental results show that the proposed optimization approaches provide obvious improvements in aspects of the modeling accuracy or efficiency for each of the corresponding steps, and an overall improvement of the optimized spectral printer modeling workflow was also demonstrated.

  11. New second-order difference algorithm for image segmentation based on cellular neural networks (CNNs)

    Meng, Shukai; Mo, Yu L.

    2001-09-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important operations in many image analysis problems, which is the process that subdivides an image into its constituents and extracts those parts of interest. In this paper, we present a new second order difference gray-scale image segmentation algorithm based on cellular neural networks. A 3x3 CNN cloning template is applied, which can make smooth processing and has a good ability to deal with the conflict between the capability of noise resistance and the edge detection of complex shapes. We use second order difference operator to calculate the coefficients of the control template, which are not constant but rather depend on the input gray-scale values. It is similar to Contour Extraction CNN in construction, but there are some different in algorithm. The result of experiment shows that the second order difference CNN has a good capability in edge detection. It is better than Contour Extraction CNN in detail detection and more effective than the Laplacian of Gauss (LOG) algorithm.

  12. Simulation of electrochemical processes in cardiac tissue based on cellular automaton

    Avdeev, S A; Bogatov, N M

    2014-01-01

    A new class of cellular automata using special accumulative function for nonuniformity distribution is presented. Usage of this automata type for simulation of excitable media applied to electrochemical processes in human cardiac tissue is shown

  13. Impact of cigarette taxation policy on excise revenues and cigarette consumption in Uzbekistan

    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uzbekistan ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which states that price and tax measures are an effective means of reducing tobacco consumption. We aimed to explore the effect of taxation policies on revenues and cigarette consumption. METHODS: Data on tax rates, revenues, cigarette sales were taken from national reports. To forecast potential revenues, a scenario analysis was performed. RESULTS: In 1991-2004, ad valorem excise system was in place in Uzbekistan, which was later replaced by the specific excise system. In 1997-2011, the nominal average excise has increased by a factor of twenty, but in real terms, after a sharp increase in 1999, average excise declined annually and increased only in 2010-2011. Annual cigarette sales per capita of adult population in 1999-2007 constituted 17-25 cigarette packs, while in 2008-2011 it increased to 30-37 packs. Four scenarios of excise tax increases in 2012 were developed: one actual scenario based on the rates effective in Uzbekistan in 2012, and three hypothetical ones anticipating excise rates increase by 1.5, 2 and 3-fold. With actual excise increase in 2012, the inflation-adjusted budget revenues would grow by 5%, and with three hypothetical - by 17%, 35% and 66% respectively, despite the decline of tax-paid cigarette sales. CONCLUSION: Stabilization or reduction in cigarette excises in Uzbekistan in 2002-2008 led to a decline in real excise revenues and the growth of cigarette sales. In 1999 and 2010-2011, excises were significantly increased and the real revenues have risen, despite the decline in cigarette sales. As cigarette prices are low, the illegal outflow of cigarettes from Uzbekistan apparently exceeds the illegal inflow. A significant increase in cigarette excise (1.5-3 fold can both increase budget revenues and reduce cigarette consumption, with greater increase yielding more benefits.

  14. Cellular fibroadenoma on Core needle biopsy: management recommendations for the radiologist.

    Edwards, Teresa; Jaffer, Shabnam; Szabo, Janet R; Sonnenblick, Emily B; Margolies, Laurie R

    2016-01-01

    Cellular fibroadenomas (CFA) are difficult to distinguish from phyllodes tumor (PT) at biopsy. This study's purpose was to determine what CFA characteristics were associated with recommendations to follow-up or excise and if the current algorithm was correct. Databases from 2002 to 2014 were reviewed. Mass characteristics and post biopsy recommendations were recorded. 81 CFAs were diagnosed; 19 cellular and 62 with slightly cellular stroma. 21 masses were surgically excised with 2 PTs diagnosed. Larger mass size and increased histologic cellularity were associated with excision recommendation, but only clinical growth was associated with PT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellular Angiofibroma of the Nasopharynx.

    Erdur, Zülküf Burak; Yener, Haydar Murat; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Karaaltin, Ayşegül Batioğlu; Inan, Hakki Caner; Alaskarov, Elvin; Gozen, Emine Deniz

    2017-11-01

    Angiofibroma is a common tumor of the nasopharynx region but cellular type is extremely rare in head and neck. A 13-year-old boy presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for 6 months. According to the clinical symptoms and imaging studies juvenile angiofibroma was suspected. Following angiographic embolization total excision of the lesion by midfacial degloving approach was performed. Histological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of staghorn blood vessels and irregular fibrous stroma. Stellate fibroblasts with small pyknotic to large vesicular nuclei were seen in a highly cellular stroma. These findings identified cellular angiofibroma mimicking juvenile angiofibroma. This article is about a very rare patient of cellular angiofibroma of nasopharynx.

  16. A cellular automata model for traffic flow based on kinetics theory, vehicles capabilities and driver reactions

    Guzmán, H. A.; Lárraga, M. E.; Alvarez-Icaza, L.; Carvajal, J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a reliable cellular automata model oriented to faithfully reproduce deceleration and acceleration according to realistic reactions of drivers, when vehicles with different deceleration capabilities are considered is presented. The model focuses on describing complex traffic phenomena by coding in its rules the basic mechanisms of drivers behavior, vehicles capabilities and kinetics, while preserving simplicity. In particular, vehiclés kinetics is based on uniform accelerated motion, rather than in impulsive accelerated motion as in most existing CA models. Thus, the proposed model calculates in an analytic way three safe preserving distances to determine the best action a follower vehicle can take under a worst case scenario. Besides, the prediction analysis guarantees that under the proper assumptions, collision between vehicles may not happen at any future time. Simulations results indicate that all interactions of heterogeneous vehicles (i.e., car-truck, truck-car, car-car and truck-truck) are properly reproduced by the model. In addition, the model overcomes one of the major limitations of CA models for traffic modeling: the inability to perform smooth approach to slower or stopped vehicles. Moreover, the model is also capable of reproducing most empirical findings including the backward speed of the downstream front of the traffic jam, and different congested traffic patterns induced by a system with open boundary conditions with an on-ramp. Like most CA models, integer values are used to make the model run faster, which makes the proposed model suitable for real time traffic simulation of large networks.

  17. A child with xeroderma pigmentosum for excision of basal cell carcinoma

    Sridevi M Mulimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is characterized by hypersensitivity to sunlight, ocular involvement, and progressive neurological complications. These manifestations are due to a cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation leading to a defect in repair of DNA by the process of nucleotide excision repair. Basal cell carcinoma which is rare in children can occur with XP. Though the XP induced changes are predominately dermatologic, pose several challenges in anaesthetic management. Hence, we are reporting a 9-year-old child with XP scheduled for excision of basal cell carcinoma under general anaesthesia.

  18. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  19. Investigating the effects of ABC transporter-based acquired drug resistance mechanisms at the cellular and tissue scale.

    Liu, Cong; Krishnan, J; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we systematically investigate the effects of acquired drug resistance at the cellular and tissue scale, with a specific focus on ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-based mechanisms and contrast this with other representative intracellular resistance mechanisms. This is done by developing in silico models wherein the drug resistance mechanism is overlaid on a coarse-grained description of apoptosis; these cellular models are coupled with interstitial drug transport, allowing for a transparent examination of the effect of acquired drug resistances at the tissue level. While ABC transporter-mediated resistance mechanisms counteract drug effect at the cellular level, its tissue-level effect is more complicated, revealing unexpected trends in tissue response as drug stimuli are systematically varied. Qualitatively different behaviour is observed in other drug resistance mechanisms. Overall the paper (i) provides insight into the tissue level functioning of a particular resistance mechanism, (ii) shows that this is very different from other resistance mechanisms of an apparently similar type, and (iii) demonstrates a concrete instance of how the functioning of a negative feedback based cellular adaptive mechanism can have unexpected higher scale effects.

  20. Research of the method of pseudo-random number generation based on asynchronous cellular automata with several active cells

    Bilan Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.

  1. Obturator foramen dissection for excision of symptomatic transobturator mesh.

    Reynolds, W Stuart; Kit, Laura Chang; Kaufman, Melissa R; Karram, Mickey; Bales, Gregory T; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2012-05-01

    Groin pain after transobturator synthetic mesh placement can be recalcitrant to conservative therapy and ultimately requires surgical excision. We describe our experiences with and technique of obturator foramen dissection for mesh excision. The records of 8 patients treated from 2005 to 2010, were reviewed. Obturator dissection was performed via a lateral groin incision over the inferior pubic ramus at the level of the obturator foramen, typically in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. Five patients had transobturator mid urethral sling surgery for stress urinary incontinence, 2 had mid urethral sling and trocar based anterior vaginal wall mesh kits with transobturator passage of mesh arms for stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse, and 1 had an anterior vaginal wall mesh kit for pelvic organ prolapse. Patients had 0 to 2 prior transvaginal mesh excisions before obturator surgery. All patients presented with intractable pain in the area of the obturator foramen and/or medial groin for which conservative treatment measures had failed. Six patients underwent concurrent vaginal and obturator dissection and 2 underwent obturator dissection alone. In all cases residual mesh (3 to 11 cm) was identified and excised from the obturator foramen. Mesh was closely associated to or traversing the adductor longus muscle and tendon with significant fibrous reaction in all cases. Postoperatively 5 patients were cured of pain and/or infection, and 3 reported no or some improvement at a mean followup of 6 months (range 1 to 12). Our experience suggests that surgical excision of residual mesh can alleviate many of the symptoms in many patients. In all cases mesh remnants were identified and removed, and typically involved neuromuscular structures adjacent to the obturator foramen. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of proposed countermeasures for dilemma zone at signalized intersections based on cellular automata simulations.

    Wu, Yina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Ding, Yaoxian; Jia, Bin; Shi, Qi; Yan, Xuedong

    2018-07-01

    The Type II dilemma zone describes the road segment to a signalized intersection where drivers have difficulties to decide either stop or go at the onset of yellow signal. Such phenomenon can result in an increased crash risk at signalized intersections. Different types of warning systems have been proposed to help drivers make decisions. Although the warning systems help to improve drivers' behavior, they also have several disadvantages such as increasing rear-end crashes or red-light running (RLR) violations. In this study, a new warning system called pavement marking with auxiliary countermeasure (PMAIC) is proposed to reduce the dilemma zone and enhance the traffic safety at signalized intersections. The proposed warning system integrates the pavement marking and flashing yellow system which can provide drivers with better suggestions about stop/go decisions based on their arriving time and speed. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed warning system, this paper presents a cellular automata (CA) simulation study. The CA simulations are conducted for four different scenarios in total, including the typical intersection without warning system, the intersection with flashing green countermeasure, the intersection with pavement marking, and the intersection with the PMAIC warning system. Before the specific CA simulation analysis, a logistic regression model is calibrated based on field video data to predict drivers' general stop/go decisions. Also, the rules of vehicle movements in the CA models under the influence by different warning systems are proposed. The proxy indicators of rear-end crash and potential RLR violations were estimated and used to evaluate safety levels for the different scenarios. The simulation results showed that the PMAIC countermeasure consistently offered best performance to reduce rear-end crash and RLR violation. Meanwhile, the results indicate that the flashing-green countermeasure could not effectively reduce either rear

  3. [Risk-oriented model of the control of the level of electric magnetic fields of base stations of cellular communications].

    Lutsenko, L A; Tulakin, A V; Egorova, A M; Mikhailova, O M; Gvozdeva, L L; Chigryay, E K

    The purpose of this study was to give the description of harmful effects of the impact of electromagnetic radiations from base stations of cellular communication as the most common sources of radio frequencies of electromagnetic fields in the environment. The highest values of the energy flux density were measured on the roofs of houses where antennas are installed - more than 10 pW/cm. The lowest values were recorded in inside premises with expositions of 0.1-1 pW/cm. In the close location of the railway station to the base stations of the cellular communication there was seen a cumulative effect. There are proposed both new safe hygienic approaches to the control for the safety of the work of base station and protective measures.

  4. Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Validation of Nanoemulsion-Based Drug Transport across Cellular Barriers.

    Kadakia, Ekta; Shah, Lipa; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2017-07-01

    Nanoemulsions have shown potential in delivering drug across epithelial and endothelial cell barriers, which express efflux transporters. However, their transport mechanisms are not entirely understood. Our goal was to investigate the cellular permeability of nanoemulsion-encapsulated drugs and apply mathematical modeling to elucidate transport mechanisms and sensitive nanoemulsion attributes. Transport studies were performed in Caco-2 cells, using fish oil nanoemulsions and a model substrate, rhodamine-123. Permeability data was modeled using a semi-mechanistic approach, capturing the following cellular processes: endocytotic uptake of the nanoemulsion, release of rhodamine-123 from the nanoemulsion, efflux and passive permeability of rhodamine-123 in aqueous solution. Nanoemulsions not only improved the permeability of rhodamine-123, but were also less sensitive to efflux transporters. The model captured bidirectional permeability results and identified sensitive processes, such as the release of the nanoemulsion-encapsulated drug and cellular uptake of the nanoemulsion. Mathematical description of cellular processes, improved our understanding of transport mechanisms, such as nanoemulsions don't inhibit efflux to improve drug permeability. Instead, their endocytotic uptake, results in higher intracellular drug concentrations, thereby increasing the concentration gradient and transcellular permeability across biological barriers. Modeling results indicated optimizing nanoemulsion attributes like the droplet size and intracellular drug release rate, may further improve drug permeability.

  5. A Cellular Automata-based Model for Simulating Restitution Property in a Single Heart Cell.

    Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojjat; Pourhasanzade, Fateme

    2011-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation is the cause of the most sudden mortalities. Restitution is one of the specific properties of ventricular cell. The recent findings have clearly proved the correlation between the slope of restitution curve with ventricular fibrillation. This; therefore, mandates the modeling of cellular restitution to gain high importance. A cellular automaton is a powerful tool for simulating complex phenomena in a simple language. A cellular automaton is a lattice of cells where the behavior of each cell is determined by the behavior of its neighboring cells as well as the automata rule. In this paper, a simple model is depicted for the simulation of the property of restitution in a single cardiac cell using cellular automata. At first, two state variables; action potential and recovery are introduced in the automata model. In second, automata rule is determined and then recovery variable is defined in such a way so that the restitution is developed. In order to evaluate the proposed model, the generated restitution curve in our study is compared with the restitution curves from the experimental findings of valid sources. Our findings indicate that the presented model is not only capable of simulating restitution in cardiac cell, but also possesses the capability of regulating the restitution curve.

  6. pH-Responsive Micelle-Based Cytoplasmic Delivery System for Induction of Cellular Immunity

    Eiji Yuba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Cytoplasmic delivery of antigens is crucial for the induction of cellular immunity, which is an important immune response for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. To date, fusogenic protein-incorporated liposomes and pH-responsive polymer-modified liposomes have been used to achieve cytoplasmic delivery of antigen via membrane rupture or fusion with endosomes. However, a more versatile cytoplasmic delivery system is desired for practical use. For this study, we developed pH-responsive micelles composed of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC and deoxycholic acid and investigated their cytoplasmic delivery performance and immunity-inducing capability. (2 Methods: Interaction of micelles with fluorescence dye-loaded liposomes, intracellular distribution of micelles, and antigenic proteins were observed. Finally, antigen-specific cellular immune response was evaluated in vivo using ELIspot assay. (3 Results: Micelles induced leakage of contents from liposomes via lipid mixing at low pH. Micelles were taken up by dendritic cells mainly via macropinocytosis and delivered ovalbumin (OVA into the cytosol. After intradermal injection of micelles and OVA, OVA-specific cellular immunity was induced in the spleen. (4 Conclusions: pH-responsive micelles composed of DLPC and deoxycholic acid are promising as enhancers of cytosol delivery of antigens and the induction capability of cellular immunity for the treatment of cancer immunotherapy and infectious diseases.

  7. Treatment Analysis in a Cancer Stem Cell Context Using a Tumor Growth Model Based on Cellular Automata.

    Monteagudo, Ángel; Santos, José

    2015-01-01

    Cancer can be viewed as an emergent behavior in terms of complex system theory and artificial life, Cellular Automata (CA) being the tool most used for studying and characterizing the emergent behavior. Different approaches with CA models were used to model cancer growth. The use of the abstract model of acquired cancer hallmarks permits the direct modeling at cellular level, where a cellular automaton defines the mitotic and apoptotic behavior of cells, and allows for an analysis of different dynamics of the cellular system depending on the presence of the different hallmarks. A CA model based on the presence of hallmarks in the cells, which includes a simulation of the behavior of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) and their implications for the resultant growth behavior of the multicellular system, was employed. This modeling of cancer growth, in the avascular phase, was employed to analyze the effect of cancer treatments in a cancer stem cell context. The model clearly explains why, after treatment against non-stem cancer cells, the regrowth capability of CSCs generates a faster regrowth of tumor behavior, and also shows that a continuous low-intensity treatment does not favor CSC proliferation and differentiation, thereby allowing an unproblematic control of future tumor regrowth. The analysis performed indicates that, contrary to the current attempts at CSC control, trying to make CSC proliferation more difficult is an important point to consider, especially in the immediate period after a standard treatment for controlling non-stem cancer cell proliferation.

  8. Treatment Analysis in a Cancer Stem Cell Context Using a Tumor Growth Model Based on Cellular Automata.

    Ángel Monteagudo

    Full Text Available Cancer can be viewed as an emergent behavior in terms of complex system theory and artificial life, Cellular Automata (CA being the tool most used for studying and characterizing the emergent behavior. Different approaches with CA models were used to model cancer growth. The use of the abstract model of acquired cancer hallmarks permits the direct modeling at cellular level, where a cellular automaton defines the mitotic and apoptotic behavior of cells, and allows for an analysis of different dynamics of the cellular system depending on the presence of the different hallmarks. A CA model based on the presence of hallmarks in the cells, which includes a simulation of the behavior of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC and their implications for the resultant growth behavior of the multicellular system, was employed. This modeling of cancer growth, in the avascular phase, was employed to analyze the effect of cancer treatments in a cancer stem cell context. The model clearly explains why, after treatment against non-stem cancer cells, the regrowth capability of CSCs generates a faster regrowth of tumor behavior, and also shows that a continuous low-intensity treatment does not favor CSC proliferation and differentiation, thereby allowing an unproblematic control of future tumor regrowth. The analysis performed indicates that, contrary to the current attempts at CSC control, trying to make CSC proliferation more difficult is an important point to consider, especially in the immediate period after a standard treatment for controlling non-stem cancer cell proliferation.

  9. Spatio-temporal analysis of brain electrical activity in epilepsy based on cellular nonlinear networks

    Gollas, Frank; Tetzlaff, Ronald

    2009-05-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic disorder of the nervous system. Generally, epileptic seizures appear without foregoing sign or warning. The problem of detecting a possible pre-seizure state in epilepsy from EEG signals has been addressed by many authors over the past decades. Different approaches of time series analysis of brain electrical activity already are providing valuable insights into the underlying complex dynamics. But the main goal the identification of an impending epileptic seizure with a sufficient specificity and reliability, has not been achieved up to now. An algorithm for a reliable, automated prediction of epileptic seizures would enable the realization of implantable seizure warning devices, which could provide valuable information to the patient and time/event specific drug delivery or possibly a direct electrical nerve stimulation. Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are promising candidates for future seizure warning devices. CNN are characterized by local couplings of comparatively simple dynamical systems. With this property these networks are well suited to be realized as highly parallel, analog computer chips. Today available CNN hardware realizations exhibit a processing speed in the range of TeraOps combined with low power consumption. In this contribution new algorithms based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN are considered in order to analyze intracranial EEG signals and thus taking into account mutual dependencies between neighboring regions of the brain. In an identification procedure Reaction-Diffusion CNN (RD-CNN) are determined for short segments of brain electrical activity, by means of a supervised parameter optimization. RD-CNN are deduced from Reaction-Diffusion Systems, which usually are applied to investigate complex phenomena like nonlinear wave propagation or pattern formation. The Local Activity Theory provides a necessary condition for emergent behavior in RD-CNN. In comparison linear spatio

  10. Stair evacuation simulation based on cellular automata considering evacuees’ walk preferences

    Ding Ning; Luh, Peter B.; Zhang Hui; Chen Tao

    2015-01-01

    As a physical model, the cellular automata (CA) model is widely used in many areas, such as stair evacuation. However, existing CA models do not consider evacuees’ walk preferences nor psychological status, and the structure of the basic model is unapplicable for the stair structure. This paper is to improve the stair evacuation simulation by addressing these issues, and a new cellular automata model is established. Several evacuees’ walk preference and how evacuee’s psychology influences their behaviors are introduced into this model. Evacuees’ speeds will be influenced by these features. To validate this simulation, two fire drills held in two high-rise buildings are video-recorded. It is found that the simulation results are similar to the fire drill results. The structure of this model is simple, and it is easy to further develop and utilize in different buildings with various kinds of occupants. (paper)

  11. A new model for anaerobic processes of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors based on cellular automata

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    characteristics and lead to different reactor behaviour. A dynamic mathematical model has been developed for the anaerobic digestion of a glucose based synthetic wastewater in UASB reactors. Cellular automata (CA) theory has been applied to simulate the granule development process. The model takes...... into consideration that granule diameter and granule microbial composition are functions of the reactor operational parameters and is capable of predicting the UASB performance and the layer structure of the granules....

  12. Pyrrolo-dC modified duplex DNA as a novel probe for the sensitive assay of base excision repair enzyme activity.

    Lee, Chang Yeol; Park, Ki Soo; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2017-12-15

    We develop a novel approach to determine formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) activity by taking advantage of the unique fluorescence property of pyrrolo-dC (PdC) positioned opposite to 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in duplex DNA. In its initial state, PdC in duplex DNA undergoes the efficient stacking and collisional quenching interactions, showing the low fluorescence signal. In contrast, the presence of Fpg, which specifically removes 8-oxoG and incises resulting apurinic (AP) site, transforms duplex DNA into single-stranded (ss) DNAs. As a result, the intrinsic fluorescence signal of PdC in ssDNA is recovered to exhibit the significantly enhanced fluorescence signal. Based on this Fpg-dependent fluorescence response of PdC, we could reliably determine Fpg activity down to 1.25U/ml with a linear response from 0 to 50U/ml. In addition, the diagnostic capability of this strategy was successfully demonstrated by reliably assaying Fpg activity in human blood serum, showing its great potential in the practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Neural Network based Approach for Predicting Customer Churn in Cellular Network Services

    Sharma, Anuj; Panigrahi, Dr. Prabin Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Marketing literature states that it is more costly to engage a new customer than to retain an existing loyal customer. Churn prediction models are developed by academics and practitioners to effectively manage and control customer churn in order to retain existing customers. As churn management is an important activity for companies to retain loyal customers, the ability to correctly predict customer churn is necessary. As the cellular network services market becoming more competitive, custom...

  14. Cancer physics: diagnostics based on damped cellular elastoelectrical vibrations in microtubules

    Pokorný, Jiří; Vedruccio, C.; Cifra, Michal; Kučera, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 6 (2011), s. 747-759 ISSN 0175-7571 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649; GA ČR GPP102/10/P454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : cancer   * cellular biophysics     * bioelectric phenomena     Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2011

  15. Behind the NAT – A Measurement Based Evaluation of Cellular Service Quality

    Kaup, Fabian; Michelinakis, Foivos; Bui, Nicola; Widmer, Joerg; Wac, Katarzyna; Hausheer, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract—Mobile applications such as VoIP, (live) gaming, or video streaming have diverse QoS requirements ranging from low delay to high throughput. The optimization of the network quality experienced by end-users requires detailed knowledge of the expected network performance. Also, the achieved service quality is affected by a number of factors, including network operator and available technologies. However, most studies focusing on measuring the cellular network do not consider the perfor...

  16. Principles of Periocular Reconstruction following Excision of Cutaneous Malignancy

    Scott M. Hayano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of periocular defects following excision of cutaneous malignancy can present difficulties for oculofacial and reconstructive surgeons. The intricate anatomy of the eyelids and face requires precise restoration in order to avoid postoperative functional anesthetic concerns. Various reconstructive procedures based on common principles, location and size of the defect, can be applied to achieve restoration with the best possible functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  17. European Union Harmonized Excise Taxation : Occasional Importation Process

    Tanhua, Taina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written with the intent to compile the information related to occasional importation process and European Union harmonized taxation into a single package. The process is based on European Union legislation and the aim of it is to unify the taxation within the internal market area. The national excise duties are not part of the occasional importation process but are partly linked to it. The first part of the thesis discusses the occasional importation of goods subject to ha...

  18. Comparison of home and away-from-home physical activity using accelerometers and cellular network-based tracking devices.

    Ramulu, Pradeep Y; Chan, Emilie S; Loyd, Tara L; Ferrucci, Luigi; Friedman, David S

    2012-08-01

    Measuring physical at home and away from home is essential for assessing health and well-being, and could help design interventions to increase physical activity. Here, we describe how physical activity at home and away from home can be quantified by combining information from cellular network-based tracking devices and accelerometers. Thirty-five working adults wore a cellular network-based tracking device and an accelerometer for 6 consecutive days and logged their travel away from home. Performance of the tracking device was determined using the travel log for reference. Tracking device and accelerometer data were merged to compare physical activity at home and away from home. The tracking device detected 98.6% of all away-from-home excursions, accurately measured time away from home and demonstrated few prolonged signal drop-out periods. Most physical activity took place away from home on weekdays, but not on weekends. Subjects were more physically active per unit of time while away from home, particularly on weekends. Cellular network-based tracking devices represent an alternative to global positioning systems for tracking location, and provide information easily integrated with accelerometers to determine where physical activity takes place. Promoting greater time spent away from home may increase physical activity.

  19. Simulation Based Optimization of Complex Monolithic Composite Structures Using Cellular Core Technology

    Hickmott, Curtis W.

    Cellular core tooling is a new technology which has the capability to manufacture complex integrated monolithic composite structures. This novel tooling method utilizes thermoplastic cellular cores as inner tooling. The semi-rigid nature of the cellular cores makes them convenient for lay-up, and under autoclave temperature and pressure they soften and expand providing uniform compaction on all surfaces including internal features such as ribs and spar tubes. This process has the capability of developing fully optimized aerospace structures by reducing or eliminating assembly using fasteners or bonded joints. The technology is studied in the context of evaluating its capabilities, advantages, and limitations in developing high quality structures. The complex nature of these parts has led to development of a model using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software Abaqus and the plug-in COMPRO Common Component Architecture (CCA) provided by Convergent Manufacturing Technologies. This model utilizes a "virtual autoclave" technique to simulate temperature profiles, resin flow paths, and ultimately deformation from residual stress. A model has been developed simulating the temperature profile during curing of composite parts made with the cellular core technology. While modeling of composites has been performed in the past, this project will look to take this existing knowledge and apply it to this new manufacturing method capable of building more complex parts and develop a model designed specifically for building large, complex components with a high degree of accuracy. The model development has been carried out in conjunction with experimental validation. A double box beam structure was chosen for analysis to determine the effects of the technology on internal ribs and joints. Double box beams were manufactured and sectioned into T-joints for characterization. Mechanical behavior of T-joints was performed using the T-joint pull-off test and compared to traditional

  20. 1024-Pixel CMOS Multimodality Joint Cellular Sensor/Stimulator Array for Real-Time Holistic Cellular Characterization and Cell-Based Drug Screening.

    Park, Jong Seok; Aziz, Moez Karim; Li, Sensen; Chi, Taiyun; Grijalva, Sandra Ivonne; Sung, Jung Hoon; Cho, Hee Cheol; Wang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated CMOS multimodality joint sensor/stimulator array with 1024 pixels for real-time holistic cellular characterization and drug screening. The proposed system consists of four pixel groups and four parallel signal-conditioning blocks. Every pixel group contains 16 × 16 pixels, and each pixel includes one gold-plated electrode, four photodiodes, and in-pixel circuits, within a pixel footprint. Each pixel supports real-time extracellular potential recording, optical detection, charge-balanced biphasic current stimulation, and cellular impedance measurement for the same cellular sample. The proposed system is fabricated in a standard 130-nm CMOS process. Rat cardiomyocytes are successfully cultured on-chip. Measured high-resolution optical opacity images, extracellular potential recordings, biphasic current stimulations, and cellular impedance images demonstrate the unique advantages of the system for holistic cell characterization and drug screening. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the use of optical detection on the on-chip cultured cardiomyocytes to real-time track their cyclic beating pattern and beating rate.

  1. Assessing cellular toxicities in fibroblasts upon exposure to lipid-based nanoparticles: a high content analysis approach

    Solmesky, Leonardo J.; Shuman, Michal; Goldsmith, Meir; Weil, Miguel; Peer, Dan

    2011-12-01

    Lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) are widely used for the delivery of drugs and nucleic acids. Although most of them are considered safe, there is confusing evidence in the literature regarding their potential cellular toxicities. Moreover, little is known about the recovery process cells undergo after a cytotoxic insult. We have previously studied the systemic effects of common LNPs with different surface charge (cationic, anionic, neutral) and revealed that positively charged LNPs ((+)LNPs) activate pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce interferon response by acting as an agonist of Toll-like receptor 4 on immune cells. In this study, we focused on the response of human fibroblasts exposed to LNPs and their cellular recovery process. To this end, we used image-based high content analysis (HCA). Using this strategy, we were able to show simultaneously, in several intracellular parameters, that fibroblasts can recover from the cytotoxic effects of (+)LNPs. The use of HCA opens new avenues in understanding cellular response and nanotoxicity and may become a valuable tool for screening safe materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  2. Assessing cellular toxicities in fibroblasts upon exposure to lipid-based nanoparticles: a high content analysis approach

    Solmesky, Leonardo J; Weil, Miguel; Shuman, Michal; Goldsmith, Meir; Peer, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) are widely used for the delivery of drugs and nucleic acids. Although most of them are considered safe, there is confusing evidence in the literature regarding their potential cellular toxicities. Moreover, little is known about the recovery process cells undergo after a cytotoxic insult. We have previously studied the systemic effects of common LNPs with different surface charge (cationic, anionic, neutral) and revealed that positively charged LNPs ((+)LNPs) activate pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce interferon response by acting as an agonist of Toll-like receptor 4 on immune cells. In this study, we focused on the response of human fibroblasts exposed to LNPs and their cellular recovery process. To this end, we used image-based high content analysis (HCA). Using this strategy, we were able to show simultaneously, in several intracellular parameters, that fibroblasts can recover from the cytotoxic effects of (+)LNPs. The use of HCA opens new avenues in understanding cellular response and nanotoxicity and may become a valuable tool for screening safe materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Cellular/WLAN Systems with Integrated Service-Based Vertical Handoff Schemes

    Xia, Weiwei; Shen, Lianfeng

    We propose two vertical handoff schemes for cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) integration: integrated service-based handoff (ISH) and integrated service-based handoff with queue capabilities (ISHQ). Compared with existing handoff schemes in integrated cellular/WLAN networks, the proposed schemes consider a more comprehensive set of system characteristics such as different features of voice and data services, dynamic information about the admitted calls, user mobility and vertical handoffs in two directions. The code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular network and IEEE 802.11e WLAN are taken into account in the proposed schemes. We model the integrated networks by using multi-dimensional Markov chains and the major performance measures are derived for voice and data services. The important system parameters such as thresholds to prioritize handoff voice calls and queue sizes are optimized. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed ISHQ scheme can maximize the utilization of overall bandwidth resources with the best quality of service (QoS) provisioning for voice and data services.

  4. The Development of Design Tools for Fault Tolerant Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Logic

    Armstrong, Curtis D.; Humphreys, William M.

    2003-01-01

    We are developing software to explore the fault tolerance of quantum dot cellular automata gate architectures in the presence of manufacturing variations and device defects. The Topology Optimization Methodology using Applied Statistics (TOMAS) framework extends the capabilities of the A Quantum Interconnected Network Array Simulator (AQUINAS) by adding front-end and back-end software and creating an environment that integrates all of these components. The front-end tools establish all simulation parameters, configure the simulation system, automate the Monte Carlo generation of simulation files, and execute the simulation of these files. The back-end tools perform automated data parsing, statistical analysis and report generation.

  5. Real-time reporting and internet-accessible cellular based coastal sea level gauge

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Mehra, P.; Dabholkar, N.; Parab, A.; Gouveia, A.D.; Tengali, S.

    as on the receiving- side. This adds to the hardware cost as well as software overheads on the receiving- side to check the data integrity for transmission errors. The main benefit of cellular connectivity with GPRS technology is that it utilizes radio resources only...-level data communication systems for the benefit the coastal communities and the local administrators (Joseph and Prabhudesai, 2005). Further, real-time sea-level data would form an important input to storm-surge predictive models and warning systems. Given...

  6. Development of a Ni-based superalloy with cellular structure and interconnected micro porosity

    Bernabe, A.; Lopez, E.; Gil-Sevillano, J.

    1998-01-01

    A cellular metallic material with interconnected porosity of controlled size of an order of 10 μm has been developed by electrochemical dissolution of tungsten grains in a W-Ni-Fe heavy alloy. The nickel superalloy with sponge structure and high surface/volume ratio can also be processed recycling chips from heavy metal machining (Patent number p9700191, 1997). Applications for the new materials could be found as support for catalysts, high temperature filters for corrosive fluids, burners, etc. (Author) 10 refs

  7. Effect of Water Flows on Ship Traffic in Narrow Water Channels Based on Cellular Automata

    Hu Hongtao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In narrow water channels, ship traffic may be affected by water flows and ship interactions. Studying their effects can help maritime authorities to establish appropriate management strategies. In this study, a two-lane cellular automation model is proposed. Further, the behavior of ship traffic is analyzed by setting different water flow velocities and considering ship interactions. Numerical experiment results show that the ship traffic density-flux relation is significantly different from the results obtained by classical models. Furthermore, due to ship interactions, the ship lane-change rate is influenced by the water flow to a certain degree.

  8. Behind the NAT??? A measurement based evaluation of cellular service quality

    Kaup, F.; Michelinakis, F.; Bui, N.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile applications such as VoIP, (live) gaming, or video streaming have diverse QoS requirements ranging from low delay to high throughput. The optimization of the network quality experienced by end-users requires detailed knowledge of the expected network performance. Also, the achieved service...... quality is affected by a number of factors, including network operator and available technologies. However, most studies focusing on measuring the cellular network do not consider the performance implications of network configuration and management. To this end, this paper reports about an extensive data...

  9. Ulnar nerve entrapment complicating radial head excision

    Kevin Parfait Bienvenu Bouhelo-Pam

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mechanisms are involved in ischemia or mechanical compression of ulnar nerve at the elbow. Presentation of case: We hereby present the case of a road accident victim, who received a radial head excision for an isolated fracture of the radial head and complicated by onset of cubital tunnel syndrome. This outcome could be the consequence of an iatrogenic valgus of the elbow due to excision of the radial head. Hitherto the surgical treatment of choice it is gradually been abandoned due to development of radial head implant arthroplasty. However, this management option is still being performed in some rural centers with low resources. Discussion: The radial head plays an important role in the stability of the elbow and his iatrogenic deformity can be complicated by cubital tunnel syndrome. Conclusion: An ulnar nerve release was performed with favorable outcome. Keywords: Cubital tunnel syndrome, Peripheral nerve palsy, Radial head excision, Elbow valgus

  10. Elliptical excisions: variations and the eccentric parallelogram.

    Goldberg, Leonard H; Alam, Murad

    2004-02-01

    The elliptical (fusiform) excision is a basic tool of cutaneous surgery. To assess the design, functionality, ease of construction, and aesthetic outcomes of the ellipse. A systematic review of elliptical designs and their site-specific benefits and limitations. In particular, we consider the (1). context of prevailing relaxed skin tension lines and tissue laxity; and (2). removal of the smallest possible amount of tissue around the lesion and in the "dog-ears." Attention is focused on intuitive methods that can be reproducibly planned and executed. Elliptical variations are easily designed and can be adapted to many situations. The eccentric parallelogram excision is offered as a new technique that minimizes notching and focal tension in the center of an elliptical closure. Conclusion The elliptical (fusiform) excision is an efficient, elegant, and versatile technique that will remain a mainstay of the cutaneous surgical armamentarium.

  11. Cellular gravity

    F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on

  12. Cellular Mechanisms of Liver Regeneration and Cell-Based Therapies of Liver Diseases

    Irina V. Kholodenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of regenerative medicine offers innovative methods of cell therapy and tissue/organ engineering as a novel approach to liver disease treatment. The ultimate scientific foundation of both cell therapy of liver diseases and liver tissue and organ engineering is delivered by the in-depth studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration. The cellular mechanisms of the homeostatic and injury-induced liver regeneration are unique. Restoration of the mass of liver parenchyma is achieved by compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the differentiated parenchymal cells, hepatocytes, while expansion and differentiation of the resident stem/progenitor cells play a minor or negligible role. Participation of blood-borne cells of the bone marrow origin in liver parenchyma regeneration has been proven but does not exceed 1-2% of newly formed hepatocytes. Liver regeneration is activated spontaneously after injury and can be further stimulated by cell therapy with hepatocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, or mesenchymal stem cells. Further studies aimed at improving the outcomes of cell therapy of liver diseases are underway. In case of liver failure, transplantation of engineered liver can become the best option in the foreseeable future. Engineering of a transplantable liver or its major part is an enormous challenge, but rapid progress in induced pluripotency, tissue engineering, and bioprinting research shows that it may be doable.

  13. Study on Parameter Optimization Design of Drum Brake Based on Hybrid Cellular Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Yi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the significant role the brake plays in ensuring the fast and safe running of vehicles, and since the present parameter optimization design models of brake are far from the practical application, this paper proposes a multiobjective optimization model of drum brake, aiming at maximizing the braking efficiency and minimizing the volume and temperature rise of drum brake. As the commonly used optimization algorithms are of some deficiency, we present a differential evolution cellular multiobjective genetic algorithm (DECell by introducing differential evolution strategy into the canonical cellular genetic algorithm for tackling this problem. For DECell, the gained Pareto front could be as close as possible to the exact Pareto front, and also the diversity of nondominated individuals could be better maintained. The experiments on the test functions reveal that DECell is of good performance in solving high-dimension nonlinear multiobjective problems. And the results of optimizing the new brake model indicate that DECell obviously outperforms the compared popular algorithm NSGA-II concerning the number of obtained brake design parameter sets, the speed, and stability for finding them.

  14. Train flow chaos analysis based on an improved cellular automata model

    Meng, Xuelei; Xiang, Wanli; Jia, Limin; Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To control the chaos in the railway traffic flow and offer valuable information for the dispatchers of the railway system, an improved cellular model is presented to detect and analyze the chaos in the traffic flow. We first introduce the working mechanism of moving block system, analyzing the train flow movement characteristics. Then we improve the cellular model on the evolution rules to adjust the train flow movement. We give the train operation steps from three cases: the trains running on a railway section, a train will arrive in a station and a train will departure from a station. We simulate 4 trains to run on a high speed section fixed with moving block system and record the distances between the neighbor trains and draw the Poincare section to analyze the chaos in the train operation. It is concluded that there is not only chaos but order in the train operation system with moving blocking system and they can interconvert to each other. The findings have the potential value in train dispatching system construction and offer supporting information for the daily dispatching work.

  15. Accurate DNA assembly and genome engineering with optimized uracil excision cloning

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Seppala, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Simple and reliable DNA editing by uracil excision (a.k.a. USER cloning) has been described by several research groups, but the optimal design of cohesive DNA ends for multigene assembly remains elusive. Here, we use two model constructs based on expression of gfp and a four-gene pathway that pro......Simple and reliable DNA editing by uracil excision (a.k.a. USER cloning) has been described by several research groups, but the optimal design of cohesive DNA ends for multigene assembly remains elusive. Here, we use two model constructs based on expression of gfp and a four-gene pathway...... that produces β-carotene to optimize assembly junctions and the uracil excision protocol. By combining uracil excision cloning with a genomic integration technology, we demonstrate that up to six DNA fragments can be assembled in a one-tube reaction for direct genome integration with high accuracy, greatly...... facilitating the advanced engineering of robust cell factories....

  16. Recombinant methods for screening human DNA excision repair proficiency

    Athas, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A method for measuring DNA excision repair in response to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage has been developed, validated, and field-tested in cultured human lymphocytes. The methodology is amenable to population-based screening and should facilitate future epidemiologic studies seeking to investigate associations between excision repair proficiency and cancer susceptibility. The impetus for such endeavors derives from the belief that the high incidence of skin cancer in the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primarily is a result of the reduced capacity of patients cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. For assay, UV-irradiated non-replicating recombinant plasmid DNA harboring a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) indicator gene is introduced into lymphocytes using DEAE-dextran short-term transfection conditions. Exposure to UV induces transcriptionally-inactivating DNA photoproducts in the plasmid DNA which inactivate CAT gene expression. Excision repair of the damaged CAT gene is monitored indirectly as a function of reactivated CAT enzyme activity following a 40 hour repair/expression incubation period

  17. Fast Deploy Radiation Monitoring Array Emergency Solution Based on GPS and Cellular Network

    Vax, E.; Broide, A.; Manor, A.; Marcus, E.; Seif, R.; Nir, J.; Kadmon, Y.; Sattinger, D.; Levinson, S.; Tal, N.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation monitoring of a possible contaminating source is highly important for safety and risk analysis. Since the monitoring must cover the whole contaminated area, the standard solution is to scatter an array of numerous fixed detectors in advance. The Fast Deploy Radiation Monitoring Array (FDRMA) is a solution that does not require coverage of the entire area. The FDRMA is a compact, world wide applicative, seamless and novel solution, designed for emergency cases. The system consists of GPS and IP cellular network, which make it mobile and therefore suitable for global use. The most significant advantage of the FDRMA system is minimizing the exposure time of the monitoring teams, while maintaining flexibility of the deployment area, as opposed to the Vehicle Monitoring System (VMS) [1] or the standard solution mentioned above. A detailed description of the proposed FDRMA system and its comparison to a fixed detectors' array is presented in this work

  18. MEMS-based thermally-actuated image stabilizer for cellular phone camera

    Lin, Chun-Ying; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2012-01-01

    This work develops an image stabilizer (IS) that is fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology and is designed to counteract the vibrations when human using cellular phone cameras. The proposed IS has dimensions of 8.8 × 8.8 × 0.3 mm 3 and is strong enough to suspend an image sensor. The processes that is utilized to fabricate the IS includes inductive coupled plasma (ICP) processes, reactive ion etching (RIE) processes and the flip-chip bonding method. The IS is designed to enable the electrical signals from the suspended image sensor to be successfully emitted out using signal output beams, and the maximum actuating distance of the stage exceeds 24.835 µm when the driving current is 155 mA. Depending on integration of MEMS device and designed controller, the proposed IS can decrease the hand tremor by 72.5%. (paper)

  19. Sensitivity-Enhanced Wearable Active Voiceprint Sensor Based on Cellular Polypropylene Piezoelectret.

    Li, Wenbo; Zhao, Sheng; Wu, Nan; Zhong, Junwen; Wang, Bo; Lin, Shizhe; Chen, Shuwen; Yuan, Fang; Jiang, Hulin; Xiao, Yongjun; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2017-07-19

    Wearable active sensors have extensive applications in mobile biosensing and human-machine interaction but require good flexibility, high sensitivity, excellent stability, and self-powered feature. In this work, cellular polypropylene (PP) piezoelectret was chosen as the core material of a sensitivity-enhanced wearable active voiceprint sensor (SWAVS) to realize voiceprint recognition. By virtue of the dipole orientation control method, the air layers in the piezoelectret were efficiently utilized, and the current sensitivity was enhanced (from 1.98 pA/Hz to 5.81 pA/Hz at 115 dB). The SWAVS exhibited the superiorities of high sensitivity, accurate frequency response, and excellent stability. The voiceprint recognition system could make correct reactions to human voices by judging both the password and speaker. This study presented a voiceprint sensor with potential applications in noncontact biometric recognition and safety guarantee systems, promoting the progress of wearable sensor networks.

  20. High Severity Wildfire Effect On Rainfall Infiltration And Runoff: A Cellular Automata Based Simulation

    Vergara-Blanco, J. E.; Leboeuf-Pasquier, J.; Benavides-Solorio, J. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    A simulation software that reproduces rainfall infiltration and runoff for a storm event in a particular forest area is presented. A cellular automaton is utilized to represent space and time. On the time scale, the simulation is composed by a sequence of discrete time steps. On the space scale, the simulation is composed of forest surface cells. The software takes into consideration rain intensity and length, individual forest cell soil absorption capacity evolution, and surface angle of inclination. The software is developed with the C++ programming language. The simulation is executed on a 100 ha area within La Primavera Forest in Jalisco, Mexico. Real soil texture for unburned terrain and high severity wildfire affected terrain is employed to recreate the specific infiltration profile. Historical rainfall data of a 92 minute event is used. The Horton infiltration equation is utilized for infiltration capacity calculation. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is employed to reproduce the surface topography. The DEM is displayed with a 3D mesh graph where individual surface cells can be observed. The plot colouring renders water content development at the cell level throughout the storm event. The simulation shows that the cumulative infiltration and runoff which take place at the surface cell level depend on the specific storm intensity, fluctuation and length, overall terrain topography, cell slope, and soil texture. Rainfall cumulative infiltration for unburned and high severity wildfire terrain are compared: unburned terrain exhibits a significantly higher amount of rainfall infiltration.It is concluded that a cellular automaton can be utilized with a C++ program to reproduce rainfall infiltration and runoff under diverse soil texture, topographic and rainfall conditions in a forest setting. This simulation is geared for an optimization program to pinpoint the locations of a series of forest land remediation efforts to support reforestation or to minimize runoff.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Intra Urban Growth Modeling using socio economic agents by combining cellular automata model with agent based model

    Singh, V. K.; Jha, A. K.; Gupta, K.; Srivastav, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that there is a significant improvement in the urban land use dynamics through modeling at finer spatial resolutions. Geo-computational models such as cellular automata and agent based model have given evident proof regarding the quantification of the urban growth pattern with urban boundary. In recent studies, socio- economic factors such as demography, education rate, household density, parcel price of the current year, distance to road, school, hospital, commercial centers and police station are considered to the major factors influencing the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) pattern of the city. These factors have unidirectional approach to land use pattern which makes it difficult to analyze the spatial aspects of model results both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this study, cellular automata model is combined with generic model known as Agent Based Model to evaluate the impact of socio economic factors on land use pattern. For this purpose, Dehradun an Indian city is selected as a case study. Socio economic factors were collected from field survey, Census of India, Directorate of economic census, Uttarakhand, India. A 3X3 simulating window is used to consider the impact on LULC. Cellular automata model results are examined for the identification of hot spot areas within the urban area and agent based model will be using logistic based regression approach where it will identify the correlation between each factor on LULC and classify the available area into low density, medium density, high density residential or commercial area. In the modeling phase, transition rule, neighborhood effect, cell change factors are used to improve the representation of built-up classes. Significant improvement is observed in the built-up classes from 84 % to 89 %. However after incorporating agent based model with cellular automata model the accuracy improved from 89 % to 94 % in 3 classes of urban i.e. low density, medium density and commercial classes

  2. Lower Lip Reconstruction after Wide Excision of a Malignancy with Barrel-Shaped Excision or the Webster Modification of the Bernard Operation

    Hyung Joon Seo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBecause there are numerous methods for reconstruction of the lower lip, it is not easy to choose the optimal method. In choosing the surgical method for lower lip reconstruction, we obtained acceptable outcomes based on our treatment strategy, which included either a barrel-shaped excision or the Webster modification of the Bernard operation. We report on the surgical outcomes based on our treatment strategy.MethodsThis study included 26 patients who underwent lower lip reconstructive surgery from September 1996 to September 2010. The operation was done using either a barrel-shaped excision or the Webster modification, considering the location of the defect, the size of the defect, and the amount of residual tissue on the lateral side of the vermilion after excision.ResultsIn our series, 3 patients underwent a single barrel-shaped excision, and nine patients underwent a double barrel-shaped excision. In addition, the unilateral Webster modification was performed on in 6 patients, and there were eight cases of bilateral Webster modification. All of the patients except one were satisfied with the postoperative shape of the lip. In one case both recurrence and dehiscence occurred. One patient had a good postoperative lip shape, but had difficulty wearing a denture, and also underwent commissuroplasty. Furthermore, there were two patients who complained of drooling, and 4 with paresthesia.ConclusionsA soft tissue defect resulting from wide excision of a lower lip malignancy can be successfully reconstructed using only one of two surgical methods: the barrel-shaped excision or the Webster modification of the Bernard operation.

  3. Robotic Extramucosal Excision of Bladder Wall Leiomyoma

    Khalid E. Al-Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple case reports and reviews have been described in the literature for bladder wall leiomyoma resection via different approaches. The minimally invasive partial cystectomy remains the most widely accepted technique; however, case reports for enucleation of bladder wall leiomyoma have also been described. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the robotic extramucosal excision of a bladder wall leiomyoma, without cystotomy, but with complete removal of the muscular layer. Materials and Methods: A 35-year old male present with lower urinary tract symptoms and imaging showed bladder wall mass with histopathology showed leiomyoma. The patient consented for mass excision with the possibility of a partial cystectomy. The patient was placed in the supine, 30-degree Trendelenburg position during the procedure. A total of 4 ports were inserted. A 3-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system was docked, and the arms were connected. Extramucosal excision was accomplished without cystotomy and muscle approximation was achieved by 2 0 Vicryle. Result: The operative time was 90 minutes, blood loss of approximately 50mL and the patient was discharged after 72 hours with no immediate complications and a 6 months follow-up showed no recurrence. Conclusion: Such a technique results in complete excision of the tumor, without cystotomy, and also maintains an intact mucosa. These steps, in addition to decreasing the risk of local recurrence, also shorten the period of postoperative catheterization and hospitalization.

  4. Uracil Excision for Assembly of Complex Pathways

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2015-01-01

    Despite decreasing prices on synthetic DNA constructs, higher-order assembly of PCR-generated DNA continues to be an important exercise in molecular and synthetic biology. Simplicity and robustness are attractive features met by the uracil excision DNA assembly method, which is one of the most in...

  5. On pitch jumps between chest and falsetto registers in voice : Data from living and excised human larynges

    Svec, JG; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    The paper offers a new concept of studying abrupt chest-falsetto register transitions Clumps) based on the theory of nonlinear dynamics. The jumps were studied in an excised human larynx and in three living subjects tone female and two male). Data from the excised larynx revealed that a small and

  6. Novel organization of genes involved in prophage excision identified in the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1

    Breuner, Anne; Brøndsted, Lone; Hammer, Karin

    1999-01-01

    of genetic material based upon the upp gene (encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase) was designed, since upp mutants are resistant to fluorouracil. By using this system, frequencies of excision on the order of 10(-5) per cell could easily be measured. The described selection principle may be of general...... use for many organisms and also for types of deletion events other than excision....

  7. Recycling of inorganic waste in monolithic and cellular glass-based materials for structural and functional applications.

    Rincón, Acacio; Marangoni, Mauro; Cetin, Suna; Bernardo, Enrico

    2016-07-01

    The stabilization of inorganic waste of various nature and origin, in glasses, has been a key strategy for environmental protection for the last decades. When properly formulated, glasses may retain many inorganic contaminants permanently, but it must be acknowledged that some criticism remains, mainly concerning costs and energy use. As a consequence, the sustainability of vitrification largely relies on the conversion of waste glasses into new, usable and marketable glass-based materials, in the form of monolithic and cellular glass-ceramics. The effective conversion in turn depends on the simultaneous control of both starting materials and manufacturing processes. While silica-rich waste favours the obtainment of glass, iron-rich wastes affect the functionalities, influencing the porosity in cellular glass-based materials as well as catalytic, magnetic, optical and electrical properties. Engineered formulations may lead to important reductions of processing times and temperatures, in the transformation of waste-derived glasses into glass-ceramics, or even bring interesting shortcuts. Direct sintering of wastes, combined with recycled glasses, as an example, has been proven as a valid low-cost alternative for glass-ceramic manufacturing, for wastes with limited hazardousness. The present paper is aimed at providing an up-to-date overview of the correlation between formulations, manufacturing technologies and properties of most recent waste-derived, glass-based materials. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Recycling of inorganic waste in monolithic and cellular glass‐based materials for structural and functional applications

    Rincón, Acacio; Marangoni, Mauro; Cetin, Suna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The stabilization of inorganic waste of various nature and origin, in glasses, has been a key strategy for environmental protection for the last decades. When properly formulated, glasses may retain many inorganic contaminants permanently, but it must be acknowledged that some criticism remains, mainly concerning costs and energy use. As a consequence, the sustainability of vitrification largely relies on the conversion of waste glasses into new, usable and marketable glass‐based materials, in the form of monolithic and cellular glass‐ceramics. The effective conversion in turn depends on the simultaneous control of both starting materials and manufacturing processes. While silica‐rich waste favours the obtainment of glass, iron‐rich wastes affect the functionalities, influencing the porosity in cellular glass‐based materials as well as catalytic, magnetic, optical and electrical properties. Engineered formulations may lead to important reductions of processing times and temperatures, in the transformation of waste‐derived glasses into glass‐ceramics, or even bring interesting shortcuts. Direct sintering of wastes, combined with recycled glasses, as an example, has been proven as a valid low‐cost alternative for glass‐ceramic manufacturing, for wastes with limited hazardousness. The present paper is aimed at providing an up‐to‐date overview of the correlation between formulations, manufacturing technologies and properties of most recent waste‐derived, glass‐based materials. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27818564

  9. Designing Nanoscale Counter Using Reversible Gate Based on Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

    Moharrami, Elham; Navimipour, Nima Jafari

    2018-04-01

    Some new technologies such as Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is suggested to solve the physical limits of the Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The QCA as one of the novel technologies at nanoscale has potential applications in future computers. This technology has some advantages such as minimal size, high speed, low latency, and low power consumption. As a result, it is used for creating all varieties of memory. Counter circuits as one of the important circuits in the digital systems are composed of some latches, which are connected to each other in series and actually they count input pulses in the circuit. On the other hand, the reversible computations are very important because of their ability in reducing energy in nanometer circuits. Improving the energy efficiency, increasing the speed of nanometer circuits, increasing the portability of system, making smaller components of the circuit in a nuclear size and reducing the power consumption are considered as the usage of reversible logic. Therefore, this paper aims to design a two-bit reversible counter that is optimized on the basis of QCA using an improved reversible gate. The proposed reversible structure of 2-bit counter can be increased to 3-bit, 4-bit and more. The advantages of the proposed design have been shown using QCADesigner in terms of the delay in comparison with previous circuits.

  10. Dynamic crushing of uniform and density graded cellular structures based on the circle arc model

    Jianjun Zhang

    Full Text Available AbstractA new circle-arc model was established to present the cellular structure. Dynamic response of models with density gradients under constant velocities is investigated by employing Ls-dyna 971. Compared with the uniform models, the quasi-static plateau stress of different layers seems a significant parameter correlated with the deformation mode except for inertia effect when the density gradient is introduced. The impact velocity becomes much more vital on the deformation of the unit cell than the density gradient. The stress at both the impact and stationary sides is investigated in details. Furthermore, the stress-strain curve is compared with the modified shock wave theory. The density gradient does have some remarkable influence on the energy absorption capability, and a certain density gradient is not always beneficial to the energy absorption. Irrespective of the impact velocity, there seems always a critical strain where the energy absorbed by all these specimens could approximate to nearly the same value. So the critical strain-velocity curve is plotted and gives the beneficial area for energy absorption pertinent to density gradients and impact velocity.

  11. A new cellular automaton for signal controlled traffic flow based on driving behaviors

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Yan-Yan

    2015-03-01

    The complexity of signal controlled traffic largely stems from the various driving behaviors developed in response to the traffic signal. However, the existing models take a few driving behaviors into account and consequently the traffic dynamics has not been completely explored. Therefore, a new cellular automaton model, which incorporates the driving behaviors typically manifesting during the different stages when the vehicles are moving toward a traffic light, is proposed in this paper. Numerical simulations have demonstrated that the proposed model can produce the spontaneous traffic breakdown and the dissolution of the over-saturated traffic phenomena. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the slow-to-start behavior and the inch-forward behavior can foster the traffic breakdown. Particularly, it has been discovered that the over-saturated traffic can be revised to be an under-saturated state when the slow-down behavior is activated after the spontaneous breakdown. Finally, the contributions of the driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown have been examined. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grand No. 2012CB723303) and the Beijing Committee of Science and Technology, China (Grand No. Z1211000003120100).

  12. Finite element analysis of the mechanical properties of cellular aluminium based on micro-computed tomography

    Veyhl, C.; Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.; Fiedler, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Elastic and plastic anisotropy is observed for both materials → Both show qualitatively similar characteristics with quantitative differences → Distinctly higher mechanical properties for closed-cell foam → The 'big' and 'small' models show good agreement for the closed-cell foam. - Abstract: In the present paper, the macroscopic mechanical properties of open-cell M-Pore sponge (porosity of 91-93%) and closed-cell Alporas foam (porosity of 80-86%) are investigated. The complex geometry of these cellular materials is scanned by micro-computed tomography and used in finite element (FE) analysis. The mechanical properties are determined by uni-axial compression simulations in three perpendicular directions (x-, y- and z-direction). M-Pore and Alporas exhibit the same qualitative mechanical characteristics but with quantitative differences. In both cases, strong anisotropy is observed for Young's modulus and the 0.002 offset yield stress. Furthermore, for the investigated relative density range a linear dependence between relative density and mechanical properties is found. Finally, a distinctly higher Young's modulus and 0.002 offset yield stress is observed for Alporas.

  13. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Xian-sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two of the typical methods used at present to study the traffic congestion propagation properties. The latter was more widespread as it is more consistent with the actual traffic flow and more visual than the former. In this paper, an improved cellular automata (CA model was presented to analyze traffic congestion propagation properties and to evaluate control strategies. In order to apply them to urban traffic flow simulation, the CA models have been improved and expanded on. Computer simulations were built for congestion not only extending to the upstream intersection, but also the upstream intersection and the entire road network, respectively. Congestion propagation characteristics after road traffic accidents were obtained, and controls of different severities and durations were analyzed. The results provide the theoretical foundation and practical means for the control of congestion.

  14. A cellular automata based FPGA realization of a new metaheuristic bat-inspired algorithm

    Progias, Pavlos; Amanatiadis, Angelos A.; Spataro, William; Trunfio, Giuseppe A.; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch.

    2016-10-01

    Optimization algorithms are often inspired by processes occuring in nature, such as animal behavioral patterns. The main concern with implementing such algorithms in software is the large amounts of processing power they require. In contrast to software code, that can only perform calculations in a serial manner, an implementation in hardware, exploiting the inherent parallelism of single-purpose processors, can prove to be much more efficient both in speed and energy consumption. Furthermore, the use of Cellular Automata (CA) in such an implementation would be efficient both as a model for natural processes, as well as a computational paradigm implemented well on hardware. In this paper, we propose a VHDL implementation of a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the echolocation behavior of bats. More specifically, the CA model is inspired by the metaheuristic algorithm proposed earlier in the literature, which could be considered at least as efficient than other existing optimization algorithms. The function of the FPGA implementation of our algorithm is explained in full detail and results of our simulations are also demonstrated.

  15. The cellular and molecular bases of leptin and ghrelin resistance in obesity.

    Cui, Huxing; López, Miguel; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2017-06-01

    Obesity, a major risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer, arises from a chronic positive energy balance that is often due to unlimited access to food and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the background of a genetic and epigenetic vulnerability. Our understanding of the humoral and neuronal systems that mediate the control of energy homeostasis has improved dramatically in the past few decades. However, our ability to develop effective strategies to slow the current epidemic of obesity has been hampered, largely owing to the limited knowledge of the mechanisms underlying resistance to the action of metabolic hormones such as leptin and ghrelin. The development of resistance to leptin and ghrelin, hormones that are crucial for the neuroendocrine control of energy homeostasis, is a hallmark of obesity. Intensive research over the past several years has yielded tremendous progress in our understanding of the cellular pathways that disrupt the action of leptin and ghrelin. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance to leptin and ghrelin and how they can be exploited as targets for pharmacological management of obesity.

  16. Free-radical sensing by using naphthalimide based mesoporous silica (MCM-41) nanoparticles: A combined fluorescence and cellular imaging study

    Jha, Gaurav; Roy, Subhasis; Sahu, Prabhat Kumar; Banerjee, Somnath; Anoop, N.; Rahaman, Abdur; Sarkar, Moloy

    2018-01-01

    Keeping in mind the advantages of material-based systems over simple molecule-based systems, we have designed and developed three inorganic-organic hybrid systems by anchoring 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives to mesoporous silica nanoparticles for detection of free radicals. Prior to photophysical study, systems are characterized by spectroscopic, microscopic and thermo-gravimetric techniques. Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence studies demonstrate that the hydrazine based system is senstive towards detection of various free radicals. Cellular imaging study reveals cell permeability and toxicity study demonstrates the non-toxic nature of the material. These studies have suggested that present system has the potential to be used in various biological applications.

  17. Radio Capacity Estimation for Millimeter Wave 5G Cellular Networks Using Narrow Beamwidth Antennas at the Base Stations

    AlMuthanna Turki Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents radio frequency (RF capacity estimation for millimeter wave (mm-wave based fifth-generation (5G cellular networks using field-level simulations. It is shown that, by reducing antenna beamwidth from 65° to 30°, we can enhance the capacity of mm-wave cellular networks roughly by 3.0 times at a distance of 220 m from the base station (BS. This enhancement is far much higher than the corresponding enhancement of 1.2 times observed for 900 MHz and 2.6 GHz microwave networks at the same distance from the BS. Thus the use of narrow beamwidth transmitting antennas has more pronounced benefits in mm-wave networks. Deployment trials performed on an LTE TDD site operating on 2.6 GHz show that 6-sector site with 27° antenna beamwidth enhances the quality of service (QoS roughly by 40% and more than doubles the overall BS throughput (while enhancing the per sector throughput 1.1 times on average compared to a 3-sector site using 65° antenna beamwidth. This agrees well with our capacity simulations. Since mm-wave 5G networks will use arbitrary number of beams, with beamwidth much less than 30°, the capacity enhancement expected in 5G system when using narrow beamwidth antennas would be much more than three times observed in our simulations.

  18. Circumareolar Incision‑subdermal Tunneling Dissection for Excision ...

    2017 Nigerian Journal of Surgery | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Excision of ... This is a report of excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast using a ... Agodirin, et al. .... the breast: The Ribeiro technique modified by Rezai.

  19. Computational Cellular Dynamics Based on the Chemical Master Equation: A Challenge for Understanding Complexity.

    Liang, Jie; Qian, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Modern molecular biology has always been a great source of inspiration for computational science. Half a century ago, the challenge from understanding macromolecular dynamics has led the way for computations to be part of the tool set to study molecular biology. Twenty-five years ago, the demand from genome science has inspired an entire generation of computer scientists with an interest in discrete mathematics to join the field that is now called bioinformatics. In this paper, we shall lay out a new mathematical theory for dynamics of biochemical reaction systems in a small volume (i.e., mesoscopic) in terms of a stochastic, discrete-state continuous-time formulation, called the chemical master equation (CME). Similar to the wavefunction in quantum mechanics, the dynamically changing probability landscape associated with the state space provides a fundamental characterization of the biochemical reaction system. The stochastic trajectories of the dynamics are best known through the simulations using the Gillespie algorithm. In contrast to the Metropolis algorithm, this Monte Carlo sampling technique does not follow a process with detailed balance. We shall show several examples how CMEs are used to model cellular biochemical systems. We shall also illustrate the computational challenges involved: multiscale phenomena, the interplay between stochasticity and nonlinearity, and how macroscopic determinism arises from mesoscopic dynamics. We point out recent advances in computing solutions to the CME, including exact solution of the steady state landscape and stochastic differential equations that offer alternatives to the Gilespie algorithm. We argue that the CME is an ideal system from which one can learn to understand "complex behavior" and complexity theory, and from which important biological insight can be gained.

  20. Is surgical excision necessary for the treatment of Granulomatous lobular mastitis?

    Shin, Young Duck; Park, Sung Su; Song, Young Jin; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2017-07-24

    We aimed to investigate the role of surgical excision in treating granulomatous lobular mastitis. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis treated from March 2008 to March 2014. We analyzed clinical features and therapeutic modalities and compared the patient outcomes based on treatment. During the study period, a total of 34 patients were diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis and treated. Initial treatments included wide excision (18), oral steroids after incision and drainage (14), and antibiotic therapy (2). The patients receiving only antibiotic therapy showed no improvement after 1 month and wide excision was then performed. Wide excision resulted in nine case of delayed wound healing with fistula. These patients were treated with oral steroids for 1.5-5 months, with subsequent improvement. Overall, 11 out of 20 patients who had underwent wide excision showed improvement without additional treatment. Fourteen patients who had initially received oral steroids for 1 to 6 months (average, 2.8 months) after incision and drainage showed complete remission. During the median follow-up period with 45.5 months (range, 22-98 months), six patients (17.6%) experienced recurrence. Wide excision group experienced recurrence in five (25%) and steroid and drainage group experienced recurrence in one (7.1%). All six recurrences responded to additional steroid therapy for average 3.5 months. Most wide excision group left extensive breast scarring with deformation that was not in steroid and drainage group. Wide excision resulted high recurrence than steroid and drainage group and left extensive scarring. Steroid therapy with or without abscess drainage may be the first choice of treatment for majority cases with granulomatous lobular mastitis.

  1. 29 CFR 779.264 - Excise taxes separately stated.

    2010-07-01

    ... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.264 Excise taxes separately stated. A tax is separately stated where it clearly... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes separately stated. 779.264 Section 779.264...

  2. 75 FR 9359 - Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax

    2010-03-02

    ... Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... substitution drawback claim for internal revenue excise tax paid on imported merchandise in situations where no excise tax was paid upon the substituted merchandise or where the substituted merchandise is the subject...

  3. Finite-time stability and synchronization of memristor-based fractional-order fuzzy cellular neural networks

    Zheng, Mingwen; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Xiao, Jinghua; Yang, Yixian; Zhang, Yanping; Zhao, Hui

    2018-06-01

    This paper mainly studies the finite-time stability and synchronization problems of memristor-based fractional-order fuzzy cellular neural network (MFFCNN). Firstly, we discuss the existence and uniqueness of the Filippov solution of the MFFCNN according to the Banach fixed point theorem and give a sufficient condition for the existence and uniqueness of the solution. Secondly, a sufficient condition to ensure the finite-time stability of the MFFCNN is obtained based on the definition of finite-time stability of the MFFCNN and Gronwall-Bellman inequality. Thirdly, by designing a simple linear feedback controller, the finite-time synchronization criterion for drive-response MFFCNN systems is derived according to the definition of finite-time synchronization. These sufficient conditions are easy to verify. Finally, two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  4. Crash energy management on the base of Movable cellular automata method

    Psakhie, Serguei; Dmitriev, Andrei; Shilko, Evgueni; Tatarintsev, Evgueni; Korostelev, Serguei

    2001-06-01

    One of the main problems of materials science is increasing of structure's viability under dynamic loading. In general, a solution is the management of transformation of the energy of loading to the energy of destroying of the least important parts and details of the structure. It has to be noted that similar problem also exists in materials science, since a majority of modern materials are heterogeneous and have a complex internal structure. To optimize this structure for working under dynamic loading it is necessary to take into account the redistribution of elastic energy including phase transformation, generation and accumulation of micro-damages, etc. As far as real experiments on destroying the complex objects are sufficiently expensive and getting of detailed information is often associates with essential difficulties, the methods of computer modeling are used in solving the similar problems. As a rule, these are the methods of continuum mechanics. Although essential achievements have been obtained on the basis of these methods the continuum approach has several limitations, connected first of all with the possibility of description of generation of damages, formation and development of cracks and mass mixing effects. These problems may be solved on the basis of the Movable Cellular Automata (MCA) method, which has been successfully used for modeling fracture of the different material and structures In the paper behavior and peculiarities of failure of complex structures and materials under dynamic loading are studied on the basis of computer modeling. The results shown that sometimes even small changes of the internal structure leads to the significant increasing of the viability of the complex structures and materials. It is due to the elastic energy flux change over during the dynamical loading. This effect may be explained by the fact that elastic energy fluxes define the current stress concentration. Namely, because the area of inclusions are subjected

  5. Symptomatic pancreatic heterotopia treated by local excision.

    De Friend, D J; Saa-Gandi, F W; Humphrey, C S; Foster, D N

    1991-01-01

    Non-ulcer dyspepsia is a continuing problem and in many cases a precise cause is never identified. We present five patients with an allegedly uncommon condition--pancreatic heterotopia. They were managed by local excision of the tumour and after a mean (range) follow up of 42 (9-80) months all remain free of the original symptoms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2013433

  6. An Asynchronous Recurrent Network of Cellular Automaton-Based Neurons and Its Reproduction of Spiking Neural Network Activities.

    Matsubara, Takashi; Torikai, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Modeling and implementation approaches for the reproduction of input-output relationships in biological nervous tissues contribute to the development of engineering and clinical applications. However, because of high nonlinearity, the traditional modeling and implementation approaches encounter difficulties in terms of generalization ability (i.e., performance when reproducing an unknown data set) and computational resources (i.e., computation time and circuit elements). To overcome these difficulties, asynchronous cellular automaton-based neuron (ACAN) models, which are described as special kinds of cellular automata that can be implemented as small asynchronous sequential logic circuits have been proposed. This paper presents a novel type of such ACAN and a theoretical analysis of its excitability. This paper also presents a novel network of such neurons, which can mimic input-output relationships of biological and nonlinear ordinary differential equation model neural networks. Numerical analyses confirm that the presented network has a higher generalization ability than other major modeling and implementation approaches. In addition, Field-Programmable Gate Array-implementations confirm that the presented network requires lower computational resources.

  7. Relativistic hydrodynamic evolutions with black hole excision

    Duez, Matthew D.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Yo, H.-J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a numerical code designed to study astrophysical phenomena involving dynamical spacetimes containing black holes in the presence of relativistic hydrodynamic matter. We present evolutions of the collapse of a fluid star from the onset of collapse to the settling of the resulting black hole to a final stationary state. In order to evolve stably after the black hole forms, we excise a region inside the hole before a singularity is encountered. This excision region is introduced after the appearance of an apparent horizon, but while a significant amount of matter remains outside the hole. We test our code by evolving accurately a vacuum Schwarzschild black hole, a relativistic Bondi accretion flow onto a black hole, Oppenheimer-Snyder dust collapse, and the collapse of nonrotating and rotating stars. These systems are tracked reliably for hundreds of M following excision, where M is the mass of the black hole. We perform these tests both in axisymmetry and in full 3+1 dimensions. We then apply our code to study the effect of the stellar spin parameter J/M 2 on the final outcome of gravitational collapse of rapidly rotating n=1 polytropes. We find that a black hole forms only if J/M 2 2 >1, the collapsing star forms a torus which fragments into nonaxisymmetric clumps, capable of generating appreciable 'splash' gravitational radiation

  8. Pisiform excision for pisotriquetral instability and arthritis.

    Campion, Heather; Goad, Andrea; Rayan, Ghazi; Porembski, Margaret

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate wrist strength and kinematics after pisiform excision and preservation of its soft tissue confluence for pisotriquetral instability and arthritis. We evaluated 12 patients, (14 wrists) subjectively and objectively an average of 7.5 years after pisiform excision. Three additional patients were interviewed by phone. Subjective evaluation included inquiry about pain and satisfaction with the treatment. Objective testing included measuring wrist flexion and extension range of motion, grip strength, and static and dynamic flexion and ulnar deviation strengths of the operative hand compared with the nonsurgical normal hand. Four patients had concomitant ulnar nerve decompression at the wrist. All patients were satisfied with the outcome. Wrist flexion averaged 99% and wrist extension averaged 95% of the nonsurgical hand. Mean grip strength of the operative hand was 90% of the nonsurgical hand. Mean static flexion strength of the operative hand was 94% of the nonsurgical hand, whereas mean dynamic flexion strength was 113%. Mean static ulnar deviation strength of the operative hand was 87% of the nonsurgical hand. The mean dynamic ulnar deviation strength of the operative hand was 103% of the nonsurgical hand. Soft tissue confluence-preserving pisiform excision relieved pain and retained wrist motion and static and dynamic strength. Associated ulnar nerve compression was a confounding factor that may have affected outcomes. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum: unresponsive to oral retinoid and successfully treated with wide local excision.

    Kapildev Das

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 65-year-old male presenting with a large plaque with a rolled-out interrupted margin, atrophic center, and island of normal skin over the left arm. It grew peripherally with central healing, and there was a history of recurrence after inadequate excision. Investigations ruled out other clin­ical mimickers; namely, squamous cell carcinoma, lupus vulgaris, botryomycosis, and blastomycosis-like pyoderma. Histopathological sections showed irregularly shaped craters filled with keratin and epithelial pearl but no evidence of granuloma or cellular atypia. Clinico­pathological correlation proved the lesion to be keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum (KCM, a rare variant of keratoacanthoma, which spreads centrifugally, attains a huge size, and never involutes spontaneously. Treatment of KCM has been a problem always and, in our case, systemic retinoid (acitretin for three months proved ineffective. The patient also had a history of recurrence following surgical intervention previously, necessitating wide excision to achieve complete clearance of tumor cells. Hence, after failure of retinoid therapy, the decision of excision with a 1-centimeter margin was taken and the large defect was closed by a split thickness skin graft. The graft uptake was satisfactory, and the patient is being followed-up presently and shows no signs of recurrence after six months, highlighting wide local excision as a useful treatment option.

  10. Pattern-oriented Agent-based Monte Carlo simulation of Cellular Redox Environment

    Tang, Jiaowei; Holcombe, Mike; Boonen, Harrie C.M.

    /CYSS) and mitochondrial redox couples. Evidence suggests that both intracellular and extracellular redox can affect overall cell redox state. How redox is communicated between extracellular and intracellular environments is still a matter of debate. Some researchers conclude based on experimental data...... cells. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects, 2008. 1780(11): p. 1271-1290. 5. Jones, D.P., Redox sensing: orthogonal control in cell cycle and apoptosis signalling. J Intern Med, 2010. 268(5): p. 432-48. 6. Pogson, M., et al., Formal agent-based modelling of intracellular chemical interactions...

  11. Iris segmentation using an edge detector based on fuzzy sets theory and cellular learning automata.

    Ghanizadeh, Afshin; Abarghouei, Amir Atapour; Sinaie, Saman; Saad, Puteh; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam

    2011-07-01

    Iris-based biometric systems identify individuals based on the characteristics of their iris, since they are proven to remain unique for a long time. An iris recognition system includes four phases, the most important of which is preprocessing in which the iris segmentation is performed. The accuracy of an iris biometric system critically depends on the segmentation system. In this paper, an iris segmentation system using edge detection techniques and Hough transforms is presented. The newly proposed edge detection system enhances the performance of the segmentation in a way that it performs much more efficiently than the other conventional iris segmentation methods.

  12. Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: A review of the studies

    Bortkiewicz, A.; Szyjkowska, A.; Gadzicka, E.; Zmyslony, M.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phone base stations evokes much interest in view of the fact that people living in their vicinity are fated to continuous exposure to EMF. None of the studies carried out throughout the world have revealed excessive values of standards adopted by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints. (author)

  13. Analyzing the Influence of Mobile Phone Use of Drivers on Traffic Flow Based on an Improved Cellular Automaton Model

    Yao Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the influence of drivers’ behavior of phone use while driving on traffic flow, including both traffic efficiency and traffic safety. An improved cellular automaton model was proposed to simulate traffic flow with distracted drivers based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. The driving characters of drivers using a phone were first discussed and a value representing the probability to use a phone while driving was put into the CA model. Simulation results showed that traffic flow rate was significantly reduced if some drivers used a phone compared to no phone use. The flow rate and velocity decreased as the proportion of drivers using a phone increased. While, under low density, the risk of traffic decreased first and then increased as the distracted drivers increased, the distracted behavior of drivers, like using a phone, could reduce the flow rate by 5 percent according to the simulation.

  14. Cell Identification based on Received Signal Strength Fingerprints: Concept and Application towards Energy Saving in Cellular Networks

    Elke Roth-Mandutz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of small cells aimed at off-loading data traffic from macrocells in heterogeneous networks has resulted in a drastic increase in energy consumption in cellular networks. Energy consumption can be optimized in a selforganized way by adapting the number of active cells in response to the current traffic demand. In this paper we concentrate on the complex problem of how to identify small cells to be reactivated in situations where multiple cells are concurrently inactive. Solely based on the received signal strength, we present cell-specific patterns for the generation of unique cell fingerprints. The cell fingerprints of the deactivated cells are matched with measurements from a high data rate demanding mobile device to identify the most appropriate candidate. Our scheme results in a matching success rate of up to 100% to identify the best cell depending on the number of cells to be activated.

  15. Computer simulation of 2D grain growth using a cellular automata model based on the lowest energy principle

    He Yizhu; Ding Hanlin; Liu Liufa; Shin, Keesam

    2006-01-01

    The morphology, topology and kinetics of normal grain growth in two-dimension were studied by computer simulation using a cellular automata (Canada) model based on the lowest energy principle. The thermodynamic energy that follows Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics has been introduced into this model for the calculation of energy change. The transition that can reduce the system energy to the lowest level is chosen to occur when there is more than one possible transition direction. The simulation results show that the kinetics of normal grain growth follows the Burke equation with the growth exponent m = 2. The analysis of topology further indicates that normal grain growth can be simulated fairly well by the present CA model. The vanishing of grains with different number of sides is discussed in the simulation

  16. High resolution light-sheet based high-throughput imaging cytometry system enables visualization of intra-cellular organelles

    Regmi, Raju; Mohan, Kavya; Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2014-09-01

    Visualization of intracellular organelles is achieved using a newly developed high throughput imaging cytometry system. This system interrogates the microfluidic channel using a sheet of light rather than the existing point-based scanning techniques. The advantages of the developed system are many, including, single-shot scanning of specimens flowing through the microfluidic channel at flow rate ranging from micro- to nano- lit./min. Moreover, this opens-up in-vivo imaging of sub-cellular structures and simultaneous cell counting in an imaging cytometry system. We recorded a maximum count of 2400 cells/min at a flow-rate of 700 nl/min, and simultaneous visualization of fluorescently-labeled mitochondrial network in HeLa cells during flow. The developed imaging cytometry system may find immediate application in biotechnology, fluorescence microscopy and nano-medicine.

  17. Value-Chain Engineering of a Tower-Top Cellular Base Station System

    Cooper, Tim; Farrell, Ronan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a value chain analysis of mobile `phone basestations, with a focus on possible antenna based tower-top electronics. Through this analysis we are able to present a number of possible architectural solutions and provide guidance on performance and reliability criterion

  18. Location service for wireless network using improved RSS-based cellular localisation

    Fayaz, Sara; Sarrafian, Sara

    2014-06-01

    Value-added services, especially in mobile environments, have recently become the key component of making more profit and attracting more subscribers. One of the most commonly used such service is location-based advertiser services. The main issue which should be considered in providing such services is determining the position of the mobile terminals precisely. In this paper, one pattern recognition localisation method based on the signal strength appropriated for implementing a location-based service is presented. The main aim is to introduce some practical solutions to decrease error and computational load and also eliminate the necessity of updating the database. Practical results illustrate high accuracy of this technique and its suitability to apply in such services. The mean error declines to 9.7 m and mean error corresponding to CDF = 67% and CDF = 95% are less than 11 m and 23 m, respectively. We also present a location-based advertising service, in which the customer's interests and local time are considered, in order to enhance the efficiency and individualism of this service.

  19. Research on the comparison of extension mechanism of cellular automaton based on hexagon grid and rectangular grid

    Zhai, Xiaofang; Zhu, Xinyan; Xiao, Zhifeng; Weng, Jie

    2009-10-01

    Historically, cellular automata (CA) is a discrete dynamical mathematical structure defined on spatial grid. Research on cellular automata system (CAS) has focused on rule sets and initial condition and has not discussed its adjacency. Thus, the main focus of our study is the effect of adjacency on CA behavior. This paper is to compare rectangular grids with hexagonal grids on their characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. They have great influence on modeling effects and other applications including the role of nearest neighborhood in experimental design. Our researches present that rectangular and hexagonal grids have different characteristics. They are adapted to distinct aspects, and the regular rectangular or square grid is used more often than the hexagonal grid. But their relative merits have not been widely discussed. The rectangular grid is generally preferred because of its symmetry, especially in orthogonal co-ordinate system and the frequent use of raster from Geographic Information System (GIS). However, in terms of complex terrain, uncertain and multidirectional region, we have preferred hexagonal grids and methods to facilitate and simplify the problem. Hexagonal grids can overcome directional warp and have some unique characteristics. For example, hexagonal grids have a simpler and more symmetric nearest neighborhood, which avoids the ambiguities of the rectangular grids. Movement paths or connectivity, the most compact arrangement of pixels, make hexagonal appear great dominance in the process of modeling and analysis. The selection of an appropriate grid should be based on the requirements and objectives of the application. We use rectangular and hexagonal grids respectively for developing city model. At the same time we make use of remote sensing images and acquire 2002 and 2005 land state of Wuhan. On the base of city land state in 2002, we make use of CA to simulate reasonable form of city in 2005. Hereby, these results provide a proof of

  20. Energy Savings in Cellular Networks Based on Space-Time Structure of Traffic Loads

    Sun, Jingbo; Wang, Yue; Yuan, Jian; Shan, Xiuming

    Since most of energy consumed by the telecommunication infrastructure is due to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS), switching off BTSs when traffic load is low has been recognized as an effective way of saving energy. In this letter, an energy saving scheme is proposed to minimize the number of active BTSs based on the space-time structure of traffic loads as determined by principal component analysis. Compared to existing methods, our approach models traffic loads more accurately, and has a much smaller input size. As it is implemented in an off-line manner, our scheme also avoids excessive communications and computing overheads. Simulation results show that the proposed method has a comparable performance in energy savings.

  1. Exploring Cellular Targets of Vanillin Based on Morphological Changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Suga, Yohei

    2011-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major phenolic compounds degraded from lignin. It is considered as a problematic byproduct of bioethanol production from lignocelluloses since it inhibits yeast growth and fermentation. However, detailed inhibitory mechanisms of vanillin are still unknown. In this study, I investigated intercellular targets of vanillin based on the image profiling method to infer the drug targets developed recently (Ohnuki et al., 2010). Using this method, I revealed that the morphology...

  2. Interactions between bio-tribocorrosion phenomena and cellular response of titanium-based femoral stems

    Runa, Maria João Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    PhD thesis in Biomedical Engineering In orthopedics, the loosening/failure of the femoral stem of hip implants is a major concern. In uncemented Ti-based implants, the tribochemical reactions occurring at the implant/bone interface due to micromotion are known to contribute to these failures. However, the bio-tribocorrosion behavior of metallic materials and related mechanisms, induced by relative movements in a biological environment, is a complex process, largely unknown at p...

  3. Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas

    Cándido Caballero-Gil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces.

  4. Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas †

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces. PMID:27854282

  5. Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas.

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel

    2016-11-15

    This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces.

  6. Descriptive Study of Patients Receiving Excision and Radiotherapy for Keloids

    Speranza, Giovanna; Sultanem, Khalil M.D.; Muanza, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To review and describe our institution's outcomes in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy after keloid excision. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study. Patients who received radiotherapy between July 1994 and January 2004 after keloid excision were identified. A questionnaire was mailed regarding sociodemographic factors, early and late radiation toxicities, the need for additional therapy, and satisfaction level. All patients had received a total of 15 Gy in three daily 5-Gy fractions. Treatment started within 24 h after surgery and was delivered on a Siemens orthovoltage machine. The data were analyzed using the STATA statistical package. Results: A total of 234 patients were approached. The response rate was 41%, and 75% were female. The mean age was 36.5 years (range, 16-69 years). The patients were mainly of European (53.1%) or African (19.8%) descent. For early toxicity outcomes, 54.2% reported skin redness and 24% reported skin peeling. For late toxicity outcomes, 27% reported telangiectasia and 62% reported permanent skin color changes. No association was found with gender, skin color, or age for the late toxicity outcomes. Of the patients responding, 14.6% required adjuvant treatment. On a visual scale of 1-10 for the satisfaction level, 60% reported a satisfaction level of ≥8. Telangiectasia was the most significant predictor of a low satisfaction level (≤3, p < 0.005). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that orthovoltage-based radiotherapy after surgical excision for keloids is a good method for the prevention of relapse. It is well tolerated, causes little toxicity, and leads to a high patient satisfaction level

  7. Incidental intraductal papillomas (breast diagnosed on needle core biopsy do not need to be excised.

    Jaffer, Shabnam; Bleiweiss, Ira J; Nagi, Chandandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most authors recommend excision of intraductal papillomas diagnosed on core needle biopsy. This leads to the question of whether or not excision is necessary for incidental intraductal papillomas on core needle biopsy as opposed to those corresponding to imaging findings. Using the pathology computerized data base we retrospectively identified 46 incidental intraductal papillomas diagnosed on core needle biopsy from 1/2000 to 12/2008. Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic information was gathered and correlated. All core needle biopsies were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of incidental intraductal papillomas, and excision specimens reviewed when available. Of the 46 patients, follow-up information was available in only 38. The age of the patients ranged from 39 to 82 years (mean = 48 years). Most incidental intraductal papillomas were diagnosed by mammotome core needle biopsy (36 cases). A total of 33 cases were performed for calcifications with the following indications: clustered = 21, new = 4, pleomorphic = 3, increasing = 3, indeterminant = 2. The correlating diagnoses included the following: fibrocystic changes with calcium phosphate = 18 or calcium oxalate = 10, fibroadenoma with calcifications = 5. The three masses were: two cases of cystic papillary apocrine metaplasia (I Ultrasound and 1 MRI) and 1 fibroadenoma (Ultrasound). In all cases, the intraductal papillomas were ≤0.2 cm, were not associated with calcifications, and were incidental to them or the underlying mass. A total of 14 patients underwent excision, whereas the remaining 24 have remained radiologically stable for over 12 months. The excision specimen findings were: fibrocystic changes = 8 and intraductal papilloma = 6. With the exception of one case, all the intraductal papilloma remained incidental to imaging findings. In this solitary case, the calcifications were described as pleomorphic and corresponded to fibrocystic changes calcifications on core needle

  8. Cellular Trojan horse based polymer nanoreactors with light-sensitive activity.

    Baumann, Patric; Spulber, Mariana; Dinu, Ionel Adrian; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2014-08-07

    Stimulus-sensitive systems at the nanoscale represent ideal candidates for improving therapeutic and diagnostic approaches by producing rapid responses to the presence of specific molecules or conditions either by changing properties or by acting "on demand". Here we introduce an optimized light-sensitive nanoreactor based on encapsulation of a photosensitizer inside polymer vesicles to serve as an efficient source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) "on demand". Two types of amphiphilic block copolymers, poly(2-methyloxazoline)-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-block-poly(2-methyloxazoline), PMOXA-PDMS-PMOXA, and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-block-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone), PNVP-PDMS-PNVP, were used to encapsulate Rose Bengal-bovine serum albumin (RB-BSA) inside the cavity of vesicles. The difference of copolymers molecular properties (hydrophobic to hydrophilic ratio, different chemical nature of the hydrophilic block) influenced the encapsulation ability, and uptake by cells, allowing therefore a selection of the most efficient polymer system. Nanoreactors were optimized in terms of (i) size, (ii) stability, and (iii) encapsulation efficiency based on a combination of light scattering, TEM, and UV-vis spectroscopy. By illumination, encapsulated RB-BSA conjugates generated in situ ROS, which diffused through the polymer membrane to the environment of the vesicles, as proved by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Optimum illumination conditions were obtained based on the effect of the illumination time on the amount of ROS produced in situ by the encapsulated RB-BSA conjugates. ROS diffusion monitored by ESR was dependent on the molecular weight of copolymer that influences the thickness of the polymer membrane. Upon uptake into HeLa cells our nontoxic nanoreactors acted as a Trojan horse: they produced illumination-controlled ROS in sufficient amounts to induce cell death under photodynamic therapy (PDT) conditions. Straightforward

  9. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    Paul Savory; Robert Williams

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part.  This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop.  This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members.  The simulation model generates detai...

  10. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    Savory, Paul

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part. This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop. This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members. The simulation model generates detailed Bills of Ac...

  11. Cellular metabolism

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Walters, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: chromatin structure; the use of circular synthetic polydeoxynucleotides as substrates for the study of DNA repair enzymes; human cellular kinetic response following exposure to DNA-interactive compounds; histone phosphorylation and chromatin structure in cell proliferation; photoaddition products induced in chromatin by uv light; pollutants and genetic information transfer; altered RNA metabolism as a function of cadmium accumulation and intracellular distribution in cultured cells; and thymidylate chromophore destruction by water free radicals

  12. A Dynamic Programming Approach for Base Station Sleeping in Cellular Networks

    Gong, Jie; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    The energy consumption of the information and communication technology (ICT) industry, which has become a serious problem, is mostly due to the network infrastructure rather than the mobile terminals. In this paper, we focus on reducing the energy consumption of base stations (BSs) by adjusting their working modes (active or sleep). Specifically, the objective is to minimize the energy consumption while satisfying quality of service (QoS, e.g., blocking probability) requirement and, at the same time, avoiding frequent mode switching to reduce signaling and delay overhead. The problem is modeled as a dynamic programming (DP) problem, which is NP-hard in general. Based on cooperation among neighboring BSs, a low-complexity algorithm is proposed to reduce the size of state space as well as that of action space. Simulations demonstrate that, with the proposed algorithm, the active BS pattern well meets the time variation and the non-uniform spatial distribution of system traffic. Moreover, the tradeoff between the energy saving from BS sleeping and the cost of switching is well balanced by the proposed scheme.

  13. Differential pathway control in nucleotide excision repair

    G.J.C. van Belle (Gijsbert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The stability and integrity of the genome is crucial for all cellular life on earth. This integrity is continuously challenged by internal and external genotoxic agents. These agents cause DNA damages which interfere with important cellular processes like replication of

  14. Cellular MR Imaging

    Michel Modo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular MR imaging is a young field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. In order to provide a different signal intensity of the targeted cell, they are either labeled with MR contrast agents in vivo or prelabeled in vitro. Either (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide [(USPIO] particles or (polymeric paramagnetic chelates can be used for this purpose. For in vivo cellular labeling, Gd3+- and Mn2+- chelates have mainly been used for targeted hepatobiliary imaging, and (USPIO-based cellular imaging has been focused on imaging of macrophage activity. Several of these magneto-pharmaceuticals have been FDA-approved or are in late-phase clinical trials. As for prelabeling of cells in vitro, a challenge has been to induce a sufficient uptake of contrast agents into nonphagocytic cells, without affecting normal cellular function. It appears that this issue has now largely been resolved, leading to an active research on monitoring the cellular biodistribution in vivo following transplantation or transfusion of these cells, including cell migration and trafficking. New applications of cellular MR imaging will be directed, for instance, towards our understanding of hematopoietic (immune cell trafficking and of novel guided (stem cell-based therapies aimed to be translated to the clinic in the future.

  15. Quantitative phase microscopy for cellular dynamics based on transport of intensity equation.

    Li, Ying; Di, Jianglei; Ma, Chaojie; Zhang, Jiwei; Zhong, Jinzhan; Wang, Kaiqiang; Xi, Teli; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-01-08

    We demonstrate a simple method for quantitative phase imaging of tiny transparent objects such as living cells based on the transport of intensity equation. The experiments are performed using an inverted bright field microscope upgraded with a flipping imaging module, which enables to simultaneously create two laterally separated images with unequal defocus distances. This add-on module does not include any lenses or gratings and is cost-effective and easy-to-alignment. The validity of this method is confirmed by the measurement of microlens array and human osteoblastic cells in culture, indicating its potential in the applications of dynamically measuring living cells and other transparent specimens in a quantitative, non-invasive and label-free manner.

  16. A multiplexable TALE-based binary expression system for in vivo cellular interaction studies.

    Toegel, Markus; Azzam, Ghows; Lee, Eunice Y; Knapp, David J H F; Tan, Ying; Fa, Ming; Fulga, Tudor A

    2017-11-21

    Binary expression systems have revolutionised genetic research by enabling delivery of loss-of-function and gain-of-function transgenes with precise spatial-temporal resolution in vivo. However, at present, each existing platform relies on a defined exogenous transcription activator capable of binding a unique recognition sequence. Consequently, none of these technologies alone can be used to simultaneously target different tissues or cell types in the same organism. Here, we report a modular system based on programmable transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins, which enables parallel expression of multiple transgenes in spatially distinct tissues in vivo. Using endogenous enhancers coupled to TALE drivers, we demonstrate multiplexed orthogonal activation of several transgenes carrying cognate variable activating sequences (VAS) in distinct neighbouring cell types of the Drosophila central nervous system. Since the number of combinatorial TALE-VAS pairs is virtually unlimited, this platform provides an experimental framework for highly complex genetic manipulation studies in vivo.

  17. Evaluation of adamantane hydroxamates as botulinum neurotoxin inhibitors: synthesis, crystallography, modeling, kinetic and cellular based studies.

    Šilhár, Peter; Silvaggi, Nicholas R; Pellett, Sabine; Čapková, Kateřina; Johnson, Eric A; Allen, Karen N; Janda, Kim D

    2013-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most lethal biotoxins known to mankind and are responsible for the neuroparalytic disease botulism. Current treatments for botulinum poisoning are all protein based and thus have a limited window of treatment opportunity. Inhibition of the BoNT light chain protease (LC) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of botulism as it may provide an effective post exposure remedy. Using a combination of crystallographic and modeling studies a series of hydroxamates derived from 1-adamantylacetohydroxamic acid (3a) were prepared. From this group of compounds, an improved potency of about 17-fold was observed for two derivatives. Detailed mechanistic studies on these structures revealed a competitive inhibition model, with a K(i)=27 nM, which makes these compounds some of the most potent small molecule, non-peptidic BoNT/A LC inhibitors reported to date. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  19. The spectrum of skin biopsies and excisions in a pediatric skin center.

    Theiler, Martin; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Kerl, Katrin; Weibel, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the spectrum of pediatric skin disorders requiring biopsy/excision, their indication, impact on further management, and the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. We aimed to address these questions in the patient population seen at our Swiss University referral center for Pediatric Dermatology and Plastic Surgery. All skin biopsies/excisions performed in patients aged ≤ 16 years over a period of 2 years were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 506 samples were included. The majority of biopsies/excisions (n = 413, 82%) was performed for tumors, cysts, and hamartomas and 18% for other skin conditions. Malignant tumors were found in 12 samples (2%) from four patients. In 121 (24%) patients, the histopathology had an important impact on patient management. In 80 (16%) cases, the pathology did not match with the clinical diagnosis. In 382 (75%) cases, excision was the treatment of choice. Of these, the indication for surgery was based on patient's request in 181 (47%) cases. Surgical interventions for pediatric skin disorders are performed for diagnostic and therapeutic reasons. In this cohort, histopathology was essential for treatment in one quarter of cases. Skin tumors, cysts, and hamartomas often require excision during childhood, with families' request and esthetic considerations playing an important role. What is Known: • The spectrum of pediatric skin conditions has been studied in outpatient, inpatient, and emergency settings. • In contrast, no data exist on the spectrum of pediatric skin disorders undergoing biopsy/excision specifically. What is New: • We analyze biopsies/excisions in children, focusing on diagnosis, indication, and impact on patient management. • Surgical interventions for skin disorders in children are often performed for tumors and hamartomas with esthetic considerations playing a relevant role. If used for diagnostic purposes, they are often performed to confirm or rule out severe skin disease.

  20. An effective approach of lesion segmentation within the breast ultrasound image based on the cellular automata principle.

    Liu, Yan; Cheng, H D; Huang, Jianhua; Zhang, Yingtao; Tang, Xianglong

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a novel lesion segmentation within breast ultrasound (BUS) image based on the cellular automata principle is proposed. Its energy transition function is formulated based on global image information difference and local image information difference using different energy transfer strategies. First, an energy decrease strategy is used for modeling the spatial relation information of pixels. For modeling global image information difference, a seed information comparison function is developed using an energy preserve strategy. Then, a texture information comparison function is proposed for considering local image difference in different regions, which is helpful for handling blurry boundaries. Moreover, two neighborhood systems (von Neumann and Moore neighborhood systems) are integrated as the evolution environment, and a similarity-based criterion is used for suppressing noise and reducing computation complexity. The proposed method was applied to 205 clinical BUS images for studying its characteristic and functionality, and several overlapping area error metrics and statistical evaluation methods are utilized for evaluating its performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can handle BUS images with blurry boundaries and low contrast well and can segment breast lesions accurately and effectively.

  1. Dynamic Resource Management in MC-CDMA Based Cellular Wireless Networks

    Bala Jeevitha Vani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the multimedia and Internet services today are asymmetric in nature, and require high data rate support. Allocating equal band width in both uplink and downlink is not prudent solution, as most of the time user requirement is more either in uplink or downlink. The Multi Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA system with time division duplex mode can easily met this requirement by dynamically declaring traffic direction in TDD slot, and adaptively allocating the sub channels. In this paper, we propose a adaptive slot and sub carrier allocation algorithm, that can be independently implemented in each cell of mobile communication network. Our analytical model is generalization of two cell concept to represent a multi cell model. Based on two cell concept four cases of interference pattern has been considered and simulated separately in presence of Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN and Rayleigh Channel. The simulated result suggests the requirement of approximately 9dB of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR to maintain Bit Error Rate below 10-3. We also analyze the average delay incurred by the proposed algorithm in allocating resources.

  2. A new rhodamine B based fluorometric chemodosimeter for Cu2+ ion in aqueous and cellular media

    Kempahanumakkagaari, Suresh Kumar; Thippeswamy, Ramakrishnappa; Malingappa, Pandurangappa

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and selective fluorescent chemo dosimeter rhodamine B phenyl hydrazide (RBPH) for Cu 2+ was proposed. This probe is non fluorescent and colorless but exhibits fluorescent enhancement at 580 nm and displayed color change from colorless to pink for Cu 2+ in the pH range 1–6. Fluorescence microscope experimental results reveals that this chemo sensor is cell permeable and can be used for fluorescence imaging of Cu 2+ ions in living cells. This probe can detect Cu 2+ with good linear relationships from 10 to 100 nM with r=0.99971 then limit of detection was found to be 0.015 nM with ±0.91% RSD at 10 nM concentrations. -- Highlights: • The new sensitive, highly selective fluorescent chemodosimeter for Cu 2+ based on spirolactam ring opening process has been proposed. • The probe posse’s excellent cell permeability and it has been applied for fluorescence imaging of Cu 2+ ions in MCF-7 cell lines. • The protocol has been successfully applied for copper determination in blood and urine samples

  3. GIS Based System for Post-Earthquake Crisis Managment Using Cellular Network

    Raeesi, M.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters. Earthquakes happen mainly near the edges of tectonic plates, but they may happen just about anywhere. Earthquakes cannot be predicted. Quick response after disasters, like earthquake, decreases loss of life and costs. Massive earthquakes often cause structures to collapse, trapping victims under dense rubble for long periods of time. After the earthquake and destroyed some areas, several teams are sent to find the location of the destroyed areas. The search and rescue phase usually is maintained for many days. Time reduction for surviving people is very important. A Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used for decreasing response time and management in critical situations. Position estimation in short period of time time is important. This paper proposes a GIS based system for post-earthquake disaster management solution. This system relies on several mobile positioning methods such as cell-ID and TA method, signal strength method, angel of arrival method, time of arrival method and time difference of arrival method. For quick positioning, the system can be helped by any person who has a mobile device. After positioning and specifying the critical points, the points are sent to a central site for managing the procedure of quick response for helping. This solution establishes a quick way to manage the post-earthquake crisis.

  4. GIS BASED SYSTEM FOR POST-EARTHQUAKE CRISIS MANAGMENT USING CELLULAR NETWORK

    M. Raeesi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters. Earthquakes happen mainly near the edges of tectonic plates, but they may happen just about anywhere. Earthquakes cannot be predicted. Quick response after disasters, like earthquake, decreases loss of life and costs. Massive earthquakes often cause structures to collapse, trapping victims under dense rubble for long periods of time. After the earthquake and destroyed some areas, several teams are sent to find the location of the destroyed areas. The search and rescue phase usually is maintained for many days. Time reduction for surviving people is very important. A Geographical Information System (GIS can be used for decreasing response time and management in critical situations. Position estimation in short period of time time is important. This paper proposes a GIS based system for post–earthquake disaster management solution. This system relies on several mobile positioning methods such as cell-ID and TA method, signal strength method, angel of arrival method, time of arrival method and time difference of arrival method. For quick positioning, the system can be helped by any person who has a mobile device. After positioning and specifying the critical points, the points are sent to a central site for managing the procedure of quick response for helping. This solution establishes a quick way to manage the post–earthquake crisis.

  5. Digital Morphing Wing: Active Wing Shaping Concept Using Composite Lattice-Based Cellular Structures.

    Jenett, Benjamin; Calisch, Sam; Cellucci, Daniel; Cramer, Nick; Gershenfeld, Neil; Swei, Sean; Cheung, Kenneth C

    2017-03-01

    We describe an approach for the discrete and reversible assembly of tunable and actively deformable structures using modular building block parts for robotic applications. The primary technical challenge addressed by this work is the use of this method to design and fabricate low density, highly compliant robotic structures with spatially tuned stiffness. This approach offers a number of potential advantages over more conventional methods for constructing compliant robots. The discrete assembly reduces manufacturing complexity, as relatively simple parts can be batch-produced and joined to make complex structures. Global mechanical properties can be tuned based on sub-part ordering and geometry, because local stiffness and density can be independently set to a wide range of values and varied spatially. The structure's intrinsic modularity can significantly simplify analysis and simulation. Simple analytical models for the behavior of each building block type can be calibrated with empirical testing and synthesized into a highly accurate and computationally efficient model of the full compliant system. As a case study, we describe a modular and reversibly assembled wing that performs continuous span-wise twist deformation. It exhibits high performance aerodynamic characteristics, is lightweight and simple to fabricate and repair. The wing is constructed from discrete lattice elements, wherein the geometric and mechanical attributes of the building blocks determine the global mechanical properties of the wing. We describe the mechanical design and structural performance of the digital morphing wing, including their relationship to wind tunnel tests that suggest the ability to increase roll efficiency compared to a conventional rigid aileron system. We focus here on describing the approach to design, modeling, and construction as a generalizable approach for robotics that require very lightweight, tunable, and actively deformable structures.

  6. Cellular interactions of a lipid-based nanocarrier model with human keratinocytes: Unravelling transport mechanisms.

    Silva, Elisabete; Barreiros, Luísa; Segundo, Marcela A; Costa Lima, Sofia A; Reis, Salette

    2017-04-15

    delivery. However these nanocarriers' interactions with epidermal epithelial barrier are yet unknown. Unveiling the mechanisms involved in NLCs transport across the epidermal epithelial monolayers will contribute with valuable information to achieve enhanced skin permeability, superior bioavailability and consequently improved therapeutic effect. With our present work we could certainly provide researchers and clinicians guidance for the design of optimized transdermal delivery systems, based on the nanomaterials and biological interactions. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A mutant Pfu DNA polymerase designed for advanced uracil-excision DNA engineering.

    Nørholm, Morten H H

    2010-03-16

    The combined use of restriction enzymes with PCR has revolutionized molecular cloning, but is inherently restricted by the content of the manipulated DNA sequences. Uracil-excision based cloning is ligase and sequence independent and allows seamless fusion of multiple DNA sequences in simple one-tube reactions, with higher accuracy than overlapping PCR. Here, the addition of a highly efficient DNA polymerase and a low-background-, large-insertion- compatible site-directed mutagenesis protocol is described, largely expanding the versatility of uracil-excision DNA engineering. The different uracil-excision based molecular tools that have been developed in an open-source fashion, constitute a comprehensive, yet simple and inexpensive toolkit for any need in molecular cloning.

  8. Implication of SUMO E3 ligases in nucleotide excision repair.

    Tsuge, Maasa; Kaneoka, Hidenori; Masuda, Yusuke; Ito, Hiroki; Miyake, Katsuhide; Iijima, Shinji

    2015-08-01

    Post-translational modifications alter protein function to mediate complex hierarchical regulatory processes that are crucial to eukaryotic cellular function. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is an important post-translational modification that affects transcriptional regulation, nuclear localization, and the maintenance of genome stability. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a very versatile DNA repair system that is essential for protection against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The deficiencies in NER function remarkably increase the risk of skin cancer. Recent studies have shown that several NER factors are SUMOylated, which influences repair efficiency. However, how SUMOylation modulates NER has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we performed RNAi knockdown of SUMO E3 ligases and found that, in addition to PIASy, the polycomb protein Pc2 affected the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. PIAS1 affected both the removal of 6-4 pyrimidine pyrimidone photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, whereas other SUMO E3 ligases did not affect the removal of either UV lesion.

  9. A NEW DISCRETE HARTLEY TRANSFORM PRECODING BASED INTERLEAVED-OFDMA UPLINK SYSTEM WITH REDUCED PAPR FOR 4G CELLULAR NETWORKS

    VARUN JEOTI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR reduction is one of the major challenges in orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA systems since last decades. High PAPR increases the complexity of analogue-to-digital (A/D and digital-to-analogue (D/A convertors and also reduces the efficiency of RF high-power-amplifier (HPA. In this paper, we present a new Discrete- Hartley transform (DHT precoding based interleaved-OFDMA uplink system for PAPR reduction in the upcoming 4G cellular networks. Extensive computer simulations have been performed to analyze the PAPR of the proposed system with root-raised-cosine (RRC pulse shaping. We also compare simulation results of the proposed system with the conventional interleaved-OFDMA uplink systems and the Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT precoding based interleaved-OFDMA uplink systems. It is concluded from the computer simulations that the proposed system has low PAPR as compared to the conventional interleaved-OFDMA uplink systems and the WHT precoded interleaved-OFDMA uplink systems.

  10. Phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers based on dual vegetable actives involved in the prevention of cellular damage.

    Istrati, D; Lacatusu, I; Bordei, N; Badea, G; Oprea, O; Stefan, L M; Stan, R; Badea, N; Meghea, A

    2016-07-01

    The growing scientific interest in exploitation of vegetable bioactives has raised a number of questions regarding their imminent presence in pharmaceutical formulations. This study intends to demonstrate that a dual combination between vegetable oil (e.g. thistle oil, safflower oil, sea buckthorn oil) and a carrot extract represents an optimal approach to formulate safe carrier systems that manifest cell regeneration effect and promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Inclusion of both natural actives into lipid carriers imparted a strong negative charge on the nanocarrier surface (up to -45mV) and displayed average sizes of 70nm to 140nm. The entrapment efficiency of carrot extract into nanostructured carriers ranged between 78.3 and 88.3%. The in vitro release study has demonstrated that the entrapment of the extract represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. Besides the excellent antioxidant properties (e.g. scavenging up to 98% of the free oxygen radicals), the results of cellular integrity (e.g. cell viability of 133%) recommend these nanocarriers based on dual carrot extract-bioactive oil as a promising trend for the treatment of certain disorders in which oxidative stress plays a prominent role. In addition, the lipid nanocarriers based on safflower oil and sea buckthorn oil demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS induced THP-1 macrophages, by inhibiting the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A similarity score-based two-phase heuristic approach to solve the dynamic cellular facility layout for manufacturing systems

    Kumar, Ravi; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2017-11-01

    The dynamic cellular facility layout problem (DCFLP) is a well-known NP-hard problem. It has been estimated that the efficient design of DCFLP reduces the manufacturing cost of products by maintaining the minimum material flow among all machines in all cells, as the material flow contributes around 10-30% of the total product cost. However, being NP hard, solving the DCFLP optimally is very difficult in reasonable time. Therefore, this article proposes a novel similarity score-based two-phase heuristic approach to solve the DCFLP optimally considering multiple products in multiple times to be manufactured in the manufacturing layout. In the first phase of the proposed heuristic, a machine-cell cluster is created based on similarity scores between machines. This is provided as an input to the second phase to minimize inter/intracell material handling costs and rearrangement costs over the entire planning period. The solution methodology of the proposed approach is demonstrated. To show the efficiency of the two-phase heuristic approach, 21 instances are generated and solved using the optimization software package LINGO. The results show that the proposed approach can optimally solve the DCFLP in reasonable time.

  12. Frequency Resource Sharing and Allocation Scheme Based on Coalition Formation Game in Hybrid D2D-Cellular Network

    Qing Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed cooperation scheme on frequency resource sharing is proposed to improve the quality of service (QoS in device-to-device (D2D communications underlaying cellular networks. Specifically, we formulate the resource allocation problem as a coalition formation game with transferable utility, in which all users have the incentive to cooperate with some others and form a competitive group to maximize the probability of obtaining their favorite spectrum resources. Taking the cost for coalition formation into account, such as the path loss for data sharing, we prove that the core of the proposed game is empty, which shows the impossibility of grand coalition. Hence, we propose a distributed merge-and-split based coalition formation algorithm based on a new defined Max-Coalition order to effectively solve the coalition game. Compared with the exhaustive search, our algorithm has much lower computer complexity. In addition, we prove that stability and convergence of the proposed algorithm using the concept of a defection function. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves a suboptimal performance in terms of network sum rate compared with the centralized optimal resource allocation scheme obtained via exhaustive search.

  13. Discrimination of liver cancer in cellular level based on backscatter micro-spectrum with PCA algorithm and BP neural network

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Gan; Dong, Xiaona

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of the primary liver cancer are very high and its postoperative metastasis and recurrence have become important factors to the prognosis of patients. Circulating tumor cells (CTC), as a new tumor marker, play important roles in the early diagnosis and individualized treatment. This paper presents an effective method to distinguish liver cancer based on the cellular scattering spectrum, which is a non-fluorescence technique based on the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. Combining the principal component analysis (PCA) with back propagation (BP) neural network were utilized to establish an automatic recognition model for backscatter spectrum of the liver cancer cells from blood cell. PCA was applied to reduce the dimension of the scattering spectral data which obtained by the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. After dimensionality reduction by PCA, a neural network pattern recognition model with 2 input layer nodes, 11 hidden layer nodes, 3 output nodes was established. We trained the network with 66 samples and also tested it. Results showed that the recognition rate of the three types of cells is more than 90%, the relative standard deviation is only 2.36%. The experimental results showed that the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer combining with the algorithm of PCA and BP neural network can automatically identify the liver cancer cell from the blood cells. This will provide a better tool for investigating the metastasis of liver cancers in vivo, the biology metabolic characteristics of liver cancers and drug transportation. Additionally, it is obviously referential in practical application.

  14. Surgical excision of eroded mesh after prior abdominal sacrocolpopexy.

    South, Mary M T; Foster, Raymond T; Webster, George D; Weidner, Alison C; Amundsen, Cindy L

    2007-12-01

    We previously described an endoscopic-assisted transvaginal mesh excision technique. This study compares surgical outcomes after transvaginal mesh excision vs endoscopic-assisted transvaginal mesh excision. In addition, we reviewed our postoperative outcomes with excision via laparotomy. This was an inclusive retrospective analysis of patients presenting to our institution from 1997 to 2006 for surgical management of vaginal erosion of permanent mesh after sacrocolpopexy. Three techniques were utilized: transvaginal, endoscopic-assisted transvaginal, and laparotomy. For the patients undergoing transvaginal excision, data recorded included number and type of excisions performed, number of prior excisions performed at outside facilities, intraoperative and postoperative complications (including blood transfusions, pelvic abscess, or bowel complications), use of postoperative antibiotics, persistent symptoms of vaginal bleeding and discharge at follow-up, and demographic characteristics. The intraoperative and postoperative complications and the postoperative symptoms were recorded for the laparotomy cases. Thirty-one patients underwent transvaginal mesh excision during this time period: 17 endoscopic-assisted transvaginal and 14 transvaginal without endoscope assistance. In addition, a total of 7 patients underwent abdominal excision via laparotomy. Comparison of the 2 vaginal methods revealed no difference in the demographics or success rate, with success defined as no symptoms at follow-up. Endoscopic-assisted transvaginal excision was successful in 7 of 17 patients and transvaginal without endoscopic assistance in 9 of 13 patients (1 patient excluded for lack of follow-up data) for a total vaginal success rate of 53.3%. No intraoperative and only minor postoperative complications occurred with either vaginal method. Three patients underwent 3 vaginal attempts to achieve complete symptom resolution. The average follow-up time for the entire vaginal group was 14

  15. Phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers based on dual vegetable actives involved in the prevention of cellular damage

    Istrati, D.; Lacatusu, I.; Bordei, N.; Badea, G.; Oprea, O.; Stefan, L.M.; Stan, R.; Badea, N.; Meghea, A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing scientific interest in exploitation of vegetable bioactives has raised a number of questions regarding their imminent presence in pharmaceutical formulations. This study intends to demonstrate that a dual combination between vegetable oil (e.g. thistle oil, safflower oil, sea buckthorn oil) and a carrot extract represents an optimal approach to formulate safe carrier systems that manifest cell regeneration effect and promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Inclusion of both natural actives into lipid carriers imparted a strong negative charge on the nanocarrier surface (up to − 45 mV) and displayed average sizes of 70 nm to 140 nm. The entrapment efficiency of carrot extract into nanostructured carriers ranged between 78.3 and 88.3%. The in vitro release study has demonstrated that the entrapment of the extract represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. Besides the excellent antioxidant properties (e.g. scavenging up to 98% of the free oxygen radicals), the results of cellular integrity (e.g. cell viability of 133%) recommend these nanocarriers based on dual carrot extract–bioactive oil as a promising trend for the treatment of certain disorders in which oxidative stress plays a prominent role. In addition, the lipid nanocarriers based on safflower oil and sea buckthorn oil demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS induced THP-1 macrophages, by inhibiting the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Highlights: • Safety phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers (NLC) based on two kinds of bioactives • Carrot extract incorporation into nanostructured carriers ranged from 78 to 88.3%. • High antioxidant activity of NLC by scavenging up to 98% free oxygen radicals • Extract entrapment represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. • Remarkable regenerative effect of L929 cell, with a proliferation of 133.4%

  16. Phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers based on dual vegetable actives involved in the prevention of cellular damage

    Istrati, D.; Lacatusu, I.; Bordei, N.; Badea, G.; Oprea, O. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Stefan, L.M. [National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, Splaiul Independentei Street No. 296, 060031 Bucharest (Romania); Stan, R. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Badea, N., E-mail: nicoleta.badea@gmail.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Meghea, A. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-07-01

    The growing scientific interest in exploitation of vegetable bioactives has raised a number of questions regarding their imminent presence in pharmaceutical formulations. This study intends to demonstrate that a dual combination between vegetable oil (e.g. thistle oil, safflower oil, sea buckthorn oil) and a carrot extract represents an optimal approach to formulate safe carrier systems that manifest cell regeneration effect and promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Inclusion of both natural actives into lipid carriers imparted a strong negative charge on the nanocarrier surface (up to − 45 mV) and displayed average sizes of 70 nm to 140 nm. The entrapment efficiency of carrot extract into nanostructured carriers ranged between 78.3 and 88.3%. The in vitro release study has demonstrated that the entrapment of the extract represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. Besides the excellent antioxidant properties (e.g. scavenging up to 98% of the free oxygen radicals), the results of cellular integrity (e.g. cell viability of 133%) recommend these nanocarriers based on dual carrot extract–bioactive oil as a promising trend for the treatment of certain disorders in which oxidative stress plays a prominent role. In addition, the lipid nanocarriers based on safflower oil and sea buckthorn oil demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS induced THP-1 macrophages, by inhibiting the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Highlights: • Safety phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers (NLC) based on two kinds of bioactives • Carrot extract incorporation into nanostructured carriers ranged from 78 to 88.3%. • High antioxidant activity of NLC by scavenging up to 98% free oxygen radicals • Extract entrapment represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. • Remarkable regenerative effect of L929 cell, with a proliferation of 133.4%.

  17. Cellular attachment and differentiation on titania nanotubes exposed to air- or nitrogen-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Hye Yeon Seo

    Full Text Available The surface topography and chemistry of titanium implants are important factors for successful osseointegration. However, chemical modification of an implant surface using currently available methods often results in the disruption of topographical features and the loss of beneficial effects during the shelf life of the implant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the recently highlighted portable non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ, elicited from one of two different gas sources (nitrogen and air, to TiO2 nanotube surfaces to further improve their osteogenic properties while preserving the topographical morphology. The surface treatment was performed before implantation to avoid age-related decay. The surface chemistry and morphology of the TiO2 nanotube surfaces before and after the NTAPPJ treatment were determined using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a surface profiler, a contact angle goniometer, and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The MC3T3-E1 cell viability, attachment and morphology were confirmed using calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining, and analysis of gene expression using rat mesenchymal stem cells was performed using a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that both portable nitrogen- and air-based NTAPPJ could be used on TiO2 nanotube surfaces easily and without topographical disruption. NTAPPJ resulted in a significant increase in the hydrophilicity of the surfaces as well as changes in the surface chemistry, which consequently increased the cell viability, attachment and differentiation compared with the control samples. The nitrogen-based NTAPPJ treatment group exhibited a higher osteogenic gene expression level than the air-based NTAPPJ treatment group due to the lower atomic percentage of carbon on the surface that resulted from treatment. It was concluded that NTAPPJ treatment of TiO2 nanotube surfaces results in an increase in

  18. [Transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer - just a fashion trend?].

    Kala, Z; Skrovina, M; Procházka, V; Grolich, T; Klos, K

    2014-12-01

    Transanal total mesorectal excision performed using equipment for transanal minimally invasive surgery is an innovative surgical technique introduced to facilitate this procedure and to reach better oncosurgical outcomes in patients with low rectal cancer. This article presents a brief summary of guidelines for treatment of patients with low rectal carcinoma. Up-to-date information about the principles of this new method, its modifications and contemporary indications is presented. Based on their own experience and literature resources, the authors inform about the advantages, limitations and unresolved issues of minimally invasive transanal mesorectal excision.

  19. Liposome-based DNA carriers may induce cellular stress response and change gene expression pattern in transfected cells

    2011-01-01

    Background During functional studies on the rat stress-inducible Hspa1b (hsp70.1) gene we noticed that some liposome-based DNA carriers, which are used for transfection, induce its promoter activity. This observation concerned commercial liposome formulations (LA), Lipofectin and Lipofectamine 2000. This work was aimed to understand better the mechanism of this phenomenon and its potential biological and practical consequences. Results We found that a reporter gene driven by Hspa1b promoter is activated both in the case of transient transfections and in the stably transfected cells treated with LA. Using several deletion clones containing different fragments of Hspa1b promoter, we found that the regulatory elements responsible for most efficient LA-driven inducibility were located between nucleotides -269 and +85, relative to the transcription start site. Further studies showed that the induction mechanism was independent of the classical HSE-HSF interaction that is responsible for gene activation during heat stress. Using DNA microarrays we also detected significant activation of the endogenous Hspa1b gene in cells treated with Lipofectamine 2000. Several other stress genes were also induced, along with numerous genes involved in cellular metabolism, cell cycle control and pro-apoptotic pathways. Conclusions Our observations suggest that i) some cationic liposomes may not be suitable for functional studies on hsp promoters, ii) lipofection may cause unintended changes in global gene expression in the transfected cells. PMID:21663599

  20. Liposome-based DNA carriers may induce cellular stress response and change gene expression pattern in transfected cells

    Lisowska Katarzyna Marta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During functional studies on the rat stress-inducible Hspa1b (hsp70.1 gene we noticed that some liposome-based DNA carriers, which are used for transfection, induce its promoter activity. This observation concerned commercial liposome formulations (LA, Lipofectin and Lipofectamine 2000. This work was aimed to understand better the mechanism of this phenomenon and its potential biological and practical consequences. Results We found that a reporter gene driven by Hspa1b promoter is activated both in the case of transient transfections and in the stably transfected cells treated with LA. Using several deletion clones containing different fragments of Hspa1b promoter, we found that the regulatory elements responsible for most efficient LA-driven inducibility were located between nucleotides -269 and +85, relative to the transcription start site. Further studies showed that the induction mechanism was independent of the classical HSE-HSF interaction that is responsible for gene activation during heat stress. Using DNA microarrays we also detected significant activation of the endogenous Hspa1b gene in cells treated with Lipofectamine 2000. Several other stress genes were also induced, along with numerous genes involved in cellular metabolism, cell cycle control and pro-apoptotic pathways. Conclusions Our observations suggest that i some cationic liposomes may not be suitable for functional studies on hsp promoters, ii lipofection may cause unintended changes in global gene expression in the transfected cells.

  1. Cellular and Circuitry Bases of Autism: Lessons Learned from the Temporospatial Manipulation of Autism Genes in the Brain

    Samuel W.Hulbert; Yong-hui Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying mutations that cause Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue to be valuable for determining the molecular underpinnings of the disorders.Recently,researchers have taken advantage of such models combined with Cre-loxP and similar systems to manipulate gene expression over space and time.Thus,a clearer picture is starting to emerge of the cell types,circuits,brain regions,and developmental time periods underlying ASDs.ASD-causing mutations have been restricted to or rescued specifically in excitatory or inhibitory neurons,different neurotransmitter systems,and cells specific to the forebrain or cerebellum.In addition,mutations have been induced or corrected in adult mice,providing some evidence for the plasticity and reversibility of core ASD symptoms.The limited availability of Cre lines that are highly specific to certain cell types or time periods provides a challenge to determining the cellular and circuitry bases of autism,but other technological advances may eventually overcome this obstacle.

  2. Simulating the conversion of rural settlements to town land based on multi-agent systems and cellular automata.

    Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.

  3. Green Networking in Cellular HetNets: A Unified Radio Resource Management Framework with Base Station ON/OFF Switching

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2016-12-07

    In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency in cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is investigated using radio resource and power management combined with the base station (BS) ON/OFF switching. The objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of each connected user. We consider the case of co-existing macrocell BS, small cell BSs, and private femtocell access points (FAPs). Three different network scenarios are investigated, depending on the status of the FAPs, i.e., HetNets without FAPs, HetNets with closed FAPs, and HetNets with semi-closed FAPs. A unified framework is proposed to simultaneously allocate spectrum resources to users in an energy efficient manner and switch off redundant small cell BSs. The high complexity dual decomposition technique is employed to achieve optimal solutions for the problem. A low complexity iterative algorithm is also proposed and its performances are compared to those of the optimal technique. The particularly interesting case of semi-closed FAPs, in which the FAPs accept to serve external users, achieves the highest energy efficiency due to increased degrees of freedom. In this paper, a cooperation scheme between FAPs and mobile operator is also investigated. The incentives for FAPs, e.g., renewable energy sharing and roaming prices, enabling cooperation are discussed to be considered as a useful guideline for inter-operator agreements.

  4. Simulating the Conversion of Rural Settlements to Town Land Based on Multi-Agent Systems and Cellular Automata

    Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans. PMID:24244472

  5. Mannosylated Chitosan Nanoparticles Based Macrophage-Targeting Gene Delivery System Enhanced Cellular Uptake and Improved Transfection Efficiency.

    Peng, Yixing; Yao, Wenjun; Wang, Bo; Zong, Li

    2015-04-01

    Gene transfer mediated by mannosylated chitosan (MCS) is a safe and promising approach for gene and vaccine delivery. MCS nanoparticles based gene delivery system showed high in vivo delivery efficiency and elicited strong immune responses in mice. However, little knowledge about the cell binding, transfection efficiency and intracellular trafficking of MCS nanoparticles had been acquired. In this study, using gastrin-releasing peptide as a model plasmid (pGRP), the binding of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles to macrophages and the intracellular trafficking of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles in macrophages were investigated. MCS-mediated transfection efficiency in macrophages was also evaluated using pGL-3 as a reporter gene. The results showed that the binding and transfection efficiency of MCS nanoparticles in macrophages was higher than that of CS, which was attributed to the interaction between mannose ligands in MCS and mannose receptors on the surface of macrophages. Observation with a confocal laser scanning microscope indicated the cellular uptake of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles were more than that of CS/pGRP nanoparticles in macrophages. MCS/pGRP nanoparticles were taken up by macrophages and most of them were entrapped in endosomal/lysosomal compartments. After the nanoparticles escaping from endosomal/lysosomal compartments, naked pGRP entered the nucleus, and a few MCS might enter the nucleus in terms of nanoparticles. Overall, MCS has the potential to be an excellent macrophage-targeting gene delivery carrier.

  6. Application of TALE-Based Approach for Dissecting Functional MicroRNA-302/367 in Cellular Reprogramming.

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Wu, Wen-Shu

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small 18-24 nt single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules involved in many biological processes, including stemness maintenance and cellular reprogramming. Current methods used in loss-of-function studies of microRNAs have several limitations. Here, we describe a new approach for dissecting miR-302/367 functions by transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), which are natural effector proteins secreted by Xanthomonas and Ralstonia bacteria. Knockdown of the miR-302/367 cluster uses the Kruppel-associated box repressor domain fused with specific TALEs designed to bind the miR-302/367 cluster promoter. Knockout of the miR-302/367 cluster uses two pairs of TALE nucleases (TALENs) to delete the miR-302/367 cluster in human primary cells. Together, both TALE-based transcriptional repressor and TALENs are two promising approaches for loss-of-function studies of microRNA cluster in human primary cells.

  7. Green Networking in Cellular HetNets: A Unified Radio Resource Management Framework with Base Station ON/OFF Switching

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Alsharoa, Ahmad; Yaacoub, Elias; Kadri, Abdullah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency in cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is investigated using radio resource and power management combined with the base station (BS) ON/OFF switching. The objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of each connected user. We consider the case of co-existing macrocell BS, small cell BSs, and private femtocell access points (FAPs). Three different network scenarios are investigated, depending on the status of the FAPs, i.e., HetNets without FAPs, HetNets with closed FAPs, and HetNets with semi-closed FAPs. A unified framework is proposed to simultaneously allocate spectrum resources to users in an energy efficient manner and switch off redundant small cell BSs. The high complexity dual decomposition technique is employed to achieve optimal solutions for the problem. A low complexity iterative algorithm is also proposed and its performances are compared to those of the optimal technique. The particularly interesting case of semi-closed FAPs, in which the FAPs accept to serve external users, achieves the highest energy efficiency due to increased degrees of freedom. In this paper, a cooperation scheme between FAPs and mobile operator is also investigated. The incentives for FAPs, e.g., renewable energy sharing and roaming prices, enabling cooperation are discussed to be considered as a useful guideline for inter-operator agreements.

  8. Spatiotemporal Simulation of Tourist Town Growth Based on the Cellular Automata Model: The Case of Sanpo Town in Hebei Province

    Jun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal simulation of tourist town growth is important for research on land use/cover change under the influence of urbanization. Many scholars have shown great interest in the unique pattern of driving urban development with tourism development. Based on the cellular automata (CA model, we simulated and predicted the spatiotemporal growth of Sanpo town in Hebei Province, using the tourism urbanization growth model. Results showed that (1 average annual growth rate of the entire region was 1.5 Ha2 per year from 2005 to 2010, 4 Ha2 per year from 2010 to 2015, and 2.5 Ha2 per year from 2015 to 2020; (2 urban growth rate increased yearly, with regional differences, and had a high degree of correlation with the Euclidean distance of town center, traffic route, attractions, and other factors; (3 Gougezhuang, an important village center in the west of the town, demonstrated traffic advantages and increased growth rate since 2010; (4 Magezhuang village has the largest population in the region, so economic advantages have driven the development of rural urbanization. It showed that CA had high reliability in simulating the spatiotemporal evolution of tourist town, which assists the study of spatiotemporal growth under urbanization and rational protection of tourism resources.

  9. Targeted PEG-based bioconjugates enhance the cellular uptake and transport of a HIV-1 TAT nonapeptide.

    Ramanathan, S; Qiu, B; Pooyan, S; Zhang, G; Stein, S; Leibowitz, M J; Sinko, P J

    2001-12-13

    We previously described the enhanced cell uptake and transport of R.I-K(biotin)-Tat9, a large ( approximately 1500 Da) peptidic inhibitor of HIV-1 Tat protein, via SMVT, the intestinal biotin transporter. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting biotinylated PEG-based conjugates to SMVT in order to enhance cell uptake and transport of Tat9. The 29 kDa peptide-loaded bioconjugate (PEG:(R.I-Cys-K(biotin)-Tat9)8) used in these studies contained eight copies of R.I-K(biotin)-Tat9 appended to PEG by means of a cysteine linkage. The absorptive transport of biotin-PEG-3400 (0.6-100 microM) and the bioconjugate (0.1-30 microM) was studied using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Inhibition of biotin-PEG-3400 by positive controls (biotin, biocytin, and desthiobiotin) was also determined. Uptake of these two compounds was also determined in CHO cells transfected with human SMVT (CHO/hSMVT) and control cells (CHO/pSPORT) over the concentration ranges of 0.05-12.5 microM and 0.003-30 microM, respectively. Nonbiotinylated forms of these two compounds, PEG-3350 and PEG:(R.I-Cys-K-Tat9)8, were used in the control studies. Biotin-PEG-3400 transport was found to be concentration-dependent and saturable in Caco-2 cells (K(m)=6.61 microM) and CHO/hSMVT cells (K(m)=1.26 microM). Transport/uptake was significantly inhibited by positive control substrates of SMVT. PEG:(R.I-Cys-K(biotin)Tat9)8 also showed saturable transport kinetics in Caco-2 cells (K(m)=6.13 microM) and CHO/hSMVT cells (K(m)=8.19 microM). Maximal uptake in molar equivalents of R.I-Cys-K(biotin)Tat9 was 5.7 times greater using the conjugate versus the biotinylated peptide alone. Transport of the nonbiotinylated forms was significantly lower (PPEG-3400 and PEG:(R.I-Cys-K(biotin)Tat9)8 interact with human SMVT to enhance the cellular uptake and transport of these larger molecules and that targeted bioconjugates may have potential for enhancing the cellular uptake and transport of small peptide

  10. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    Emin, David, E-mail: emin@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Akhtari, Massoud [Semple Institutes for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ellingson, B. M. [Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mathern, G. W. [Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm.

  11. Trans-sphenoidal excision of craniopharyngiomas.

    Nagpal R

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas have been by and large excised by the transcranial route. Since 1982, 11 patients have been operated by the traus-sphensidal route in the department. The clinical features with which they were presented, diagnostic investigations, details of surgical procedures and follow-up analysis is being presented here. A retrospective study of radiological investigation was done to determine the features that help decide the choice of surgical approach to these lesions. Only lesions that were primarily intrasellar, cystic and those that expanded the sella could be treated by the trans-sphenoidal route. Associated suprasellar extensions could also be removed. Predominantly calcified or firm, fleshy tumours lent themselves poorly to removal by the trans-sphenoidal route.

  12. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair through ubiquitination

    Jia Li; Audesh Bhat; Wei Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the most versatile DNA-repair pathway in all organisms.While bacteria require only three proteins to complete the incision step of NER,eukaryotes employ about 30 proteins to complete the same step.Here we summarize recent studies demonstrating that ubiquitination,a post-translational modification,plays critical roles in regulating the NER activity either dependent on or independent of ubiquitin-proteolysis.Several NER components have been shown as targets of ubiquitination while others are actively involved in the ubiquitination process.We argue through this analysis that ubiquitination serves to coordinate various steps of NER and meanwhile connect NER with other related pathways to achieve the efficient global DNA-damage response.

  13. Piezosurgery for Excision of Large Osteoid Osteoma.

    Gadre, Pushkar; Singh, Divya; Gadre, Kiran; Khan, Imran

    2016-10-01

    Osteoid osteoma, a rare benign osteoblastic tumor first described by Jaffe in 1935, is characterized as a small but painful lesion that mostly affects younger people. Usually benign and harmless, osteomas are removed for pain or esthetic reasons.Piezoelectric surgery is also increasingly being used effectively in major and minor osseous oral and maxillofacial surgeries, in delicate areas. It is used regularly for various procedures, including sinus lift procedures, bone graft harvesting, osteogenic distraction, ridge expansion, inferior alveolar nerve decompression and lateralization, cyst removal, dental extraction, and impacted tooth removal.The following report presents a patient of intraoral excision of a large osteoid osteoma from lingual aspect of mandibular lower border in the body region using piezoelectric surgery.

  14. On the spatial dynamics and oscillatory behavior of a predator-prey model based on cellular automata and local particle swarm optimization.

    Molina, Mario Martínez; Moreno-Armendáriz, Marco A; Carlos Seck Tuoh Mora, Juan

    2013-11-07

    A two-dimensional lattice model based on Cellular Automata theory and swarm intelligence is used to study the spatial and population dynamics of a theoretical ecosystem. It is found that the social interactions among predators provoke the formation of clusters, and that by increasing the mobility of predators the model enters into an oscillatory behavior. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellular automata-based forecasting of the impact of accidental fire and toxic dispersion in process industries

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Abbasi, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc. - qualitative as well as quantitative - depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies

  16. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris [Division of Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Goldin, Robert [Centre for Pathology, Imperial College London, St Mary' s Campus, London (United Kingdom); O' Kelly, P S [TeraView Ltd, Platinum Building, St John' s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS (United Kingdom); Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma, E-mail: c.reid@medphys.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-21

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  17. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P; Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris; Goldin, Robert; O'Kelly, P S; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2011-01-01

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  18. Awake craniotomy for excision of arteriovenous malformations? A qualitative comparison study with stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Chan, David Yuen Chung; Chan, Danny Tat Ming; Zhu, Cannon Xian Lun; Kan, Patricia Kwok Yee; Ng, Amelia Yikjin; Hsieh, Yi-Pin Sonia; Abrigo, Jill; Poon, Wai Sang; Wong, George Kwok Chu

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) located at the eloquent area has been a challenge. Awake brain mapping allows identification of a non-eloquent gyrus for intervention and can potentially facilitate resection with preservation of functions. An alternative treatment option is stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The objective of this study was to perform a qualitative comparison of the treatment outcome of awake AVM excision versus SRS. We conducted a 13-year retrospective review of AVM excision under awake craniotomy performed at Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, from 2003 to 2016. Patients' presentation, Spetzler-Martin (SM) grading, rate of obliteration and complication were reviewed and analyzed with the modified radiosurgery-based AVM score (RS score). Six patients had excision of AVM under awake mapping during this period of time. Two were SM Grade II and four were SM Grade III. Five located at the peri-rolandic region while one at the temporal language area. None had failed mapping. Five out of six achieved complete obliteration (83.3%). Qualitative comparative analysis had revealed better treatment outcome with awake AVM excision as compared to SRS with the obliteration rate of 100% versus 96% for RS score ≤1.00, 100% versus 78% for RS score 1.01-1.50, and 66% versus 50% for RS score >2.00 respectively. In conclusion, awake mapping and excision of AVMs at the eloquent area is feasible. Qualitative comparative analysis had revealed higher obliteration rate with awake AVM excision as compared to SRS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Excision technique in constrained formulations of Einstein equations: collapse scenario

    Cordero-Carrión, I; Vasset, N; Novak, J; Jaramillo, J L

    2015-01-01

    We present a new excision technique used in constrained formulations of Einstein equations to deal with black hole in numerical simulations. We show the applicability of this scheme in several scenarios. In particular, we present the dynamical evolution of the collapse of a neutron star to a black hole, using the CoCoNuT code and this excision technique. (paper)

  20. Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax ...

    Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax in the Philippines. A proposed law in the Philippines to increase the excise tax on tobacco by 215% will likely have implications for tobacco control and consumption, and public health, not just for that country but for the region. Although half of deaths due to ...

  1. Circumareolar Incision‑subdermal Tunneling Dissection for Excision ...

    Excision of multiple fibroadenomas (MF) in separate breast quadrants presents difficulties of number and location of incision(s) and extent of tissue dissection and may be associated with more complications and poorer cosmetic outcome. This is a report of excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast using a ...

  2. Effects of burn wound excision on bacterial colonization and invasion

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    Rates of survival after thermal injury have improved in the past two decades, and rates of wound infections and sepsis have decreased during the same period. Early excision has been advocated as one of the major factors, but its safety and efficacy and the exact timing of burn excision are still

  3. P element excision in drosophila melanogaster and related drosophilids

    The frequency of P element excision and the structure of the resulting excision products were determined in three drosophilid species, Drosophila melanogaster, D. virilis, and Chymomyza procnemis. A transient P element mobility assay was conducted in the cells of developing insect embryos, but unlik...

  4. Cellular phone-based image acquisition and quantitative ratiometric method for detecting cocaine and benzoylecgonine for biological and forensic applications.

    Cadle, Brian A; Rasmus, Kristin C; Varela, Juan A; Leverich, Leah S; O'Neill, Casey E; Bachtell, Ryan K; Cooper, Donald C

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA) is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (∼ $1 USD/each) immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is described whereby a central computer server and freely available IMAGEJ image analysis software records and analyzes the incoming image data with time-stamp and geo-tag information and performs the QRPDA using custom JAVA based macros (http://www.neurocloud.org). To demonstrate QRPDA we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine. Images from standardized samples were acquired using several devices, including a mobile phone camera, web cam, and scanner. We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-cocaine/benzoylecgonine (COC/BE) antibody test strips in response to three different series of cocaine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 300 ng/ml and BE concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.1 ng/ml. This data was then used to create standard curves to allow quantification of COC/BE in biological samples. Across all devices, QRPDA quantification of COC and BE proved to be a sensitive, economical, and faster alternative to more costly methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, or high pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was determined to be between 0.1 and 5 ng/ml. To simulate conditions in the field, QRPDA was found to be robust under a variety of image acquisition and testing conditions that varied temperature, lighting, resolution, magnification and concentrations of biological fluid in a sample. To

  5. Cellular Phone-Based Image Acquisition and Quantitative Ratiometric Method for Detecting Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine for Biological and Forensic Applications

    Brian A. Cadle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (~ $1 USD/each immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is described whereby a central computer server and freely available IMAGEJ image analysis software records and analyzes the incoming image data with time-stamp and geo-tag information and performs the QRPDA using custom JAVA based macros ( http://www.neurocloud.org . To demonstrate QRPDA we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine. Images from standardized samples were acquired using several devices, including a mobile phone camera, web cam, and scanner. We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-cocaine/benzoylecgonine (COC/BE antibody test strips in response to three different series of cocaine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 300 ng/ml and BE concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.1 ng/ml. This data was then used to create standard curves to allow quantification of COC/BE in biological samples. Across all devices, QRPDA quantification of COC and BE proved to be a sensitive, economical, and faster alternative to more costly methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, or high pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was determined to be between 0.1 and 5 ng/ml. To simulate conditions in the field, QRPDA was found to be robust under a variety of image acquisition and testing conditions that varied temperature, lighting, resolution, magnification and concentrations of biological fluid

  6. Microstructure and in vitro cellular response to novel soy protein-based porous structures for tissue regeneration applications.

    Olami, Hilla; Zilberman, Meital

    2016-02-01

    Interest in the development of new bioresorbable structures for various tissue engineering applications is on the rise. In the current study, we developed and studied novel soy protein-based porous blends as potential new scaffolds for such applications. Soy protein has several advantages over the various types of natural proteins employed for biomedical applications due to its low price, non-animal origin and relatively long storage time and stability. In the present study, blends of soy protein with other polymers (gelatin, pectin and alginate) were added and chemically cross-linked using the cross-linking agents carbodiimide or glyoxal, and the porous structure was obtained through lyophilization. The resulting blend porous structures were characterized using environmental scanning microscopy, and the cytotoxicity of these scaffolds was examined in vitro. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was also evaluated in vitro by seeding and culturing human fibroblasts on these scaffolds. Cell growth morphology and adhesion were examined histologically. The results show that these blends can be assembled into porous three-dimensional structures by combining chemical cross-linking with freeze-drying. The achieved blend structures combine suitable porosity with a large pore size (100-300 µm). The pore structure in the soy-alginate scaffolds possesses adequate interconnectivity compared to that of the soy-gelatin scaffolds. However, porous structure was not observed for the soy-pectin blend, which presented a different structure with significantly lower porosities than all other groups. The in vitro evaluation of these porous soy blends demonstrated that soy-alginate blends are advantageous over soy-gelatin blends and exhibited adequate cytocompatibility along with better cell infiltration and stability. These soy protein scaffolds may be potentially useful as a cellular/acellular platform for skin regeneration applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Dual CRISPR-Cas9 Cleavage Mediated Gene Excision and Targeted Integration in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Gao, Difeng; Smith, Spencer; Spagnuolo, Michael; Rodriguez, Gabriel; Blenner, Mark

    2018-05-29

    CRISPR-Cas9 technology has been successfully applied in Yarrowia lipolytica for targeted genomic editing including gene disruption and integration; however, disruptions by existing methods typically result from small frameshift mutations caused by indels within the coding region, which usually resulted in unnatural protein. In this study, a dual cleavage strategy directed by paired sgRNAs is developed for gene knockout. This method allows fast and robust gene excision, demonstrated on six genes of interest. The targeted regions for excision vary in length from 0.3 kb up to 3.5 kb and contain both non-coding and coding regions. The majority of the gene excisions are repaired by perfect nonhomologous end-joining without indel. Based on this dual cleavage system, two targeted markerless integration methods are developed by providing repair templates. While both strategies are effective, homology mediated end joining (HMEJ) based method are twice as efficient as homology recombination (HR) based method. In both cases, dual cleavage leads to similar or improved gene integration efficiencies compared to gene excision without integration. This dual cleavage strategy will be useful for not only generating more predictable and robust gene knockout, but also for efficient targeted markerless integration, and simultaneous knockout and integration in Y. lipolytica. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Interference Excision in Spread Spectrum Communications Using Adaptive Positive Time-Frequency Analysis

    Krishnan Sridhar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel algorithm to excise single and multicomponent chirp-like interferences in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS communications. The excision algorithm consists of two stages: adaptive signal decomposition stage and directional element detection stage based on the Hough-Radon transform (HRT. Initially, the received spread spectrum signal is decomposed into its time-frequency (TF functions using an adaptive signal decomposition algorithm, and the resulting TF functions are mapped onto the TF plane. We then use a line detection algorithm based on the HRT that operates on the image of the TF plane and detects energy varying directional elements that satisfy a parametric constraint. Interference is modeled by reconstructing the corresponding TF functions detected by the HRT, and subtracted from the received signal. The proposed technique has two main advantages: (i it localizes the interferences on the TF plane with no cross-terms, thus facilitating simple filtering techniques based on thresholding of the TF functions, and is an efficient way to excise the interference; (ii it can be used for the detection of any directional interferences that can be parameterized. Simulation results with synthetic models have shown successful performance with linear and quadratic chirp interferences for single and multicomponent interference cases. The proposed method excises the interference even under very low SNR conditions of  dB, and the technique could be easily extended to any interferences that could be represented by a parametric equation in the TF plane.

  9. Cellular dosimetry

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  10. Cellular Angiofibroma of Oral Mucosa: Report of Two Cases

    2009-01-01

    Cellular angiofibroma is a benign vascular neoplasm that typically arises in the vulva, perineal, and paratesticular region. Microscopically the lesions exhibit multiple small, non-dilated capillary channels, many of which contain erythrocytes. The endothelial lining cells are prominent, with monomorphic oval nuclei. Interposed among the vessels are both delicate and mature collagen fibers with fibroblastic hypercellularity that is variable in older lesions where sclerosis is prominent. The lesions usually do not recur following simple excision. Recent evidence indicates that cellular angiofibromas may be cytogenetically related to spindle cell lipoma. This represents the first reported instances of cellular angiofibroma in the oral cavity. PMID:19644547

  11. 76 FR 52862 - Time for Payment of Certain Excise Taxes, and Quarterly Excise Tax Payments for Small Alcohol...

    2011-08-24

    ... 40 Cigars and cigarettes, Claims, Electronic fund transfers, Excise taxes, Labeling, Packaging and... that are not required to pay taxes through electronic funds transfer (EFT), this first payment period..., Electronic funds transfers, Excise taxes, Exports, Food additives, Fruit juices, Labeling, Liquors, Packaging...

  12. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  13. Bioprinting-Based High-Throughput Fabrication of Three-Dimensional MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cellular Spheroids

    Kai Ling

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular spheroids serving as three-dimensional (3D in vitro tissue models have attracted increasing interest for pathological study and drug-screening applications. Various methods, including microwells in particular, have been developed for engineering cellular spheroids. However, these methods usually suffer from either destructive molding operations or cell loss and non-uniform cell distribution among the wells due to two-step molding and cell seeding. We have developed a facile method that utilizes cell-embedded hydrogel arrays as templates for concave well fabrication and in situ MCF-7 cellular spheroid formation on a chip. A custom-built bioprinting system was applied for the fabrication of sacrificial gelatin arrays and sequentially concave wells in a high-throughput, flexible, and controlled manner. The ability to achieve in situ cell seeding for cellular spheroid construction was demonstrated with the advantage of uniform cell seeding and the potential for programmed fabrication of tissue models on chips. The developed method holds great potential for applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug screening.

  14. Metabolic modulation of mammalian DNA excision repair

    Schrader, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    First, ultraviolet light (UVL)- and dimethylsulfate (DMS)-induced excision repair was examined in quiescent and lectin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes. Upon mitogenic stimulation, UVL-induced repair increased by a factor of 2 to 3, and reached this maximum 2 days before the onset of DNA replication. However, DMS-induced repair increased sevenfold in parallel with DNA replication. Repair patch sizes were smaller for DMS-induced damage reflecting patches of 7 nucleotides in quiescent lymphocytes compared to 20 nucleotides induced by UVL. The patch size increased during lymphocyte stimulation until one day prior to the peak of DNA replication when patch sizes of 45 and 35 nucleotides were produced in response to UVL- and DMS-induced damage, respectively. At the peak of DNA replication, the patch sizes were equal for both damaging agents at 34 nucleotides. In the second study, a small amount of repair replication was observed in undamaged quiescent and concanavalin A-stimulated bovine lymphocytes as well as in human T98G glioblastoma cells. Repair incorporation doubled in the presence of hydroxyurea. Thirdly, the enhanced repair replication induced by the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide, (3-AB), could not be correlated either with an increased rate of repair in the presence of 3-AB or with the use of hydroxyurea in the repair protocol. Finally, treatment of unstimulated lymphocytes with hyperthermia was accompanied by decreased repair replication while the repair patches remained constant at 20 nucleotides.

  15. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions.

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis.

  16. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    Elif Ersoy Callıoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented.

  17. Nasal encephalocele: endoscopic excision with anesthetic consideration.

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; El-Bosraty, Hussam; Qotb, Mohamed; El-Hamamsy, Mostafa; El-Sonbaty, Mohamed; Abdel-Badie, Hazem; Zynabdeen, Mustapha

    2010-08-01

    Nasal encephalocele may presents as a nasal mass, its treatment is surgical and it should be done early in life. When removal is indicated, there are multiple surgical approaches; including lateral rhinotomy, a transnasal approach and a coronal flap approach. However, the treatment of a basal intranasal encephalocele using transnasal endoscopic approach could obviates the possible morbidity associated with other approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic removal of intranasal encephalocele, also to document the role of anesthetist in the operative and postoperative periods. Nine cases with nasal encephalocele were included in this study; CT and/or MRI were used in their examination. The lesions were removed via transnasal endoscopic approach. Preoperative evaluation, intervention and postoperative follow-up were presented with discussion of anesthesia used for those children. The lesions of all patients were removed successfully with no recurrence through the follow-up period of at least 21 months. No cases showed morbidity or mortality intra- or post-operatively. Endoscopic excision of intranasal encephalocele is an effective method with high success rate. Anesthetist plays an important role in the operative and postoperative period, even during the endoscopic follow up; sedation of the children is usually needed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Uptake of benzyladenine by excised watermelon cotyledons.

    Lampugnani, M G; Fantelli, R; Longo, G P; Longo, C P; Rossi, G

    1981-07-01

    The uptake of 8-[(14)C]N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) was studied in excised watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons 24 hours after the start of imbibition. The passive nature of this uptake is suggested by the following evidence: (a) no sign of saturation on increasing external concentration of BA; (b) no decrease in uptake under conditions that inhibit ATP synthesis; (c) no change in amount of radioactivity absorbed when cotyledons are frozen and thawed before the uptake test. About two-thirds of the radioactivity taken up is released after 12 hours of washing. If the washing is performed at 2 C very little radioactivity is released.There seems to be a correlation between the level of radioactivity (i.e. of BA + derivatives) present in the cotyledons and the magnitude of hormonal responses that are observed four days after uptake. This relationship holds regardless of whether a given level of radioactivity has been reached after a short period of uptake or after a long period of uptake followed by washing.

  19. The Strategy of Excise Taxation of Tobacco Products in Ukraine

    Pasichnyi Mykola D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing and improving approaches to the development of a strategy of excise tax policy in Ukraine, taking into account the foreign experience of harmonizing tax legislation in this sphere. An analysis of the implementation of the EU directives on the regulation of the minimum excise tax liability for the payment of excise taxes on tobacco products in the countries with transformational economies has been carried out. It has been found that, in cases of excessive tax pressure, the equilibrium of the market is disrupted, its shadow component is growing, and the overall economic efficiency level decreases. It has been determined that for the period of 2007-2016 the availability index for cigarettes in Ukraine decreased 2,3 times, which in some way demotivated their consumption. However, the change in the approach of calculation of ad valorem rate for the excise tax and introduction of the excise tax on the sub-excise goods sold by the retailers led to manipulative actions by the major actors in the market concerning the price of cigarettes, which impacted both the increase in the availability of cigarettes in 2016 and the decline in budget revenues. Regulation of the minimum excise duty is the most effective instrument of fiscal policy to achieve goals in the area of limitation of smoking.

  20. Laparoscopic excision of a newborn rectal duplication cyst.

    Hartin, Charles W; Lau, Stanley T; Escobar, Mauricio A; Glick, Philip L

    2008-08-01

    Congenital rectal duplication cyst is a rare entity treated with surgical excision. Without treatment, a rectal duplication cyst may cause a variety of complications, most notably, transforming into a malignancy. We report on a 7-week-old girl who was found to have a rectal duplication cyst. The rectal duplication cyst was successfully excised laparoscopically. Rectal duplication cysts are rare alimentary tract anomalies generally discovered during childhood. Complications include symptoms arising from the cyst and the possibility of malignant degeneration. They are typically managed by surgical excision.

  1. Global-genome Nucleotide Excision Repair Controlled by Ubiquitin/Sumo Modifiers

    Peter eRuethemann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Global-genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER prevents genome instability by excising a wide range of structurally unrelated DNA base adducts and crosslinks induced by chemical carcinogens, ultraviolet (UV radiation or intracellular metabolic by-products. As a versatile damage sensor, xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC protein initiates this generic defense reaction by locating the damage and recruiting the subunits of a large lesion demarcation complex that, in turn, triggers the excision of aberrant DNA by endonucleases. In the very special case of a DNA repair response to UV radiation, the function of this XPC initiator is tightly controlled by the dual action of cullin-type CRL4DDB2 and sumo-targeted RNF111 ubiquitin ligases. This twofold protein ubiquitination system promotes GG-NER reactions by spatially and temporally regulating the interaction of XPC protein with damaged DNA across the nucleosome landscape of chromatin. In the absence of either CRL4DDB2 or RNF111, the DNA excision repair of UV lesions is inefficient, indicating that these two ubiquitin ligases play a critical role in mitigating the adverse biological effects of UV light in the exposed skin.

  2. Minimally invasive endoscope-assisted trans-oral excision of huge parapharyngeal space tumors.

    Li, Shang-Yi; Hsu, Ching-Hui; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-04-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare head and neck neoplasms, and most are benign lesions. Complete excision of these tumors is difficult because of the complexity of the surrounding anatomic structures. The algorithm for excision of these tumors is typically based on the tumor's characteristics; excision is performed via approaches such as the trans-oral route, the trans-cervical route, and even a combination of the trans-parotid route and mandibulotomy. However, each of these approaches is associated with some complications. Endoscope-assisted minimally invasive surgery is being increasingly employed for surgeries in the head and neck regions. It has the advantage of leaving no facial scars, and ensures better patient comfort after the operation. Here, we report the use of endoscope-assisted trans-oral surgery for excision of parapharyngeal space tumors. The technique yields an excellent outcome and should be a feasible, safe, and economic method for these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Algorithm for cellular reprogramming.

    Ronquist, Scott; Patterson, Geoff; Muir, Lindsey A; Lindsly, Stephen; Chen, Haiming; Brown, Markus; Wicha, Max S; Bloch, Anthony; Brockett, Roger; Rajapakse, Indika

    2017-11-07

    The day we understand the time evolution of subcellular events at a level of detail comparable to physical systems governed by Newton's laws of motion seems far away. Even so, quantitative approaches to cellular dynamics add to our understanding of cell biology. With data-guided frameworks we can develop better predictions about, and methods for, control over specific biological processes and system-wide cell behavior. Here we describe an approach for optimizing the use of transcription factors (TFs) in cellular reprogramming, based on a device commonly used in optimal control. We construct an approximate model for the natural evolution of a cell-cycle-synchronized population of human fibroblasts, based on data obtained by sampling the expression of 22,083 genes at several time points during the cell cycle. To arrive at a model of moderate complexity, we cluster gene expression based on division of the genome into topologically associating domains (TADs) and then model the dynamics of TAD expression levels. Based on this dynamical model and additional data, such as known TF binding sites and activity, we develop a methodology for identifying the top TF candidates for a specific cellular reprogramming task. Our data-guided methodology identifies a number of TFs previously validated for reprogramming and/or natural differentiation and predicts some potentially useful combinations of TFs. Our findings highlight the immense potential of dynamical models, mathematics, and data-guided methodologies for improving strategies for control over biological processes. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. [Simulation of urban ecological security pattern based on cellular automata: a case of Dongguan City, Guangdong Province of South China].

    Yang, Qing-Sheng; Qiao, Ji-Gang; Ai, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Taking the Dongguan City with rapid urbanization as a case, and selecting landscape ecological security level as evaluation criterion, the urbanization cellular number of 1 km x 1 km ecological security cells was obtained, and imbedded into the transition rules of cellular automata (CA) as the restraint term to control urban development, establish ecological security urban CA, and simulate ecological security urban development pattern. The results showed the integrated landscape ecological security index of the City decreased from 0.497 in 1998 to 0.395 in 2005, indicating that the ecological security at landscape scale was decreased. The CA-simulated integrated ecological security index of the City in 2005 was increased from the measured 0.395 to 0.479, showing that the simulated urban landscape ecological pressure from human became lesser, ecological security became better, and integrated landscape ecological security became higher. CA could be used as an effective tool in researching urban ecological security.

  5. Nucleotide excision repair in differentiated cells

    Wees, Caroline van der [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Jansen, Jacob [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Vrieling, Harry [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Laarse, Arnoud van der [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Zeeland, Albert van [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Mullenders, Leon [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: l.mullenders@lumc.nl

    2007-01-03

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the principal pathway for the removal of a wide range of DNA helix-distorting lesions and operates via two NER subpathways, i.e. global genome repair (GGR) and transcription-coupled repair (TCR). Although detailed information is available on expression and efficiency of NER in established mammalian cell lines, little is known about the expression of NER pathways in (terminally) differentiated cells. The majority of studies in differentiated cells have focused on repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 6-4-photoproducts (6-4PP) because of the high frequency of photolesions at low level of toxicity and availability of sensitive technologies to determine photolesions in defined regions of the genome. The picture that emerges from these studies is blurred and rather complex. Fibroblasts and terminally differentiated myocytes of the rat heart display equally efficient GGR of 6-4PP but poor repair of CPD due to the absence of p48 expression. This repair phenotype is clearly different from human terminal differentiated neurons. Furthermore, both cell types were found to carry out TCR of CPD, thus mimicking the repair phenotype of established rodent cell lines. In contrast, in intact rat spermatogenic cells repair was very inefficient at the genome overall level and in transcriptionally active genes indicating that GGR and TCR are non-functional. Also, non-differentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells exhibit low levels of NER after UV irradiation. However, the mechanisms that lead to low NER activity are clearly different: in differentiated spermatogenic cells differences in chromatin compaction and sequestering of NER proteins may underlie the lack of NER activity in pre-meiotic cells, whereas in non-differentiated ES cells NER is impaired by a strong apoptotic response.

  6. DNA excision repair in permeable human fibroblasts

    Kaufmann, W.K.; Bodell, W.J.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    U.v. irradiation of confluent human fibroblasts activated DNA repair, aspects of which were characterized in the cells after they were permeabilized. Incubation of intact cells for 20 min between irradiation and harvesting was necessary to obtain a maximum rate of reparative DNA synthesis. Cells harvested immediately after irradiation before repair was initiated displayed only a small stimulation of DNA synthesis, indicating that permeable cells have a reduced capacity to recognize pyrimidine dimers and activate repair. The distribution of sizes of DNA strands labeled during 10 min of reparative DNA synthesis resembled that of parental DNA. However, during a 60-min incubation of permeable cells at 37 degrees C, parental DNA and DNA labeled by reparative DNA synthesis were both cleaved to smaller sizes. Cleavage also occurred in unirradiated cells, indicating that endogenous nuclease was active during incubation. Repair patches synthesized in permeable cells displayed increased sensitivity to digestion by micrococcal nuclease. However, the change in sensitivity during a chase with unlabeled DNA precursors was small, suggesting that reassembly of nucleosome structure at sites of repair was impaired. To examine whether this deficiency was due to a preponderance of incomplete or unligated repair patches, 3H-labeled (repaired) DNA was purified, then digested with exonuclease III and nuclease S1 to probe for free 3' ends and single-stranded regions. About 85% of the [3H]DNA synthesized during a 10-min pulse resisted digestion, suggesting that a major fraction of the repair patches that were filled were also ligated. U.v. light-activated DNA synthesis in permeable cells, therefore, appears to represent the continuation of reparative gap-filling at sites of excision repair activated within intact cells. Gap-filling and ligation were comparatively efficient processes in permeable cells

  7. Systems Biology-Based Investigation of Cellular Antiviral Drug Targets Identified by Gene-Trap Insertional Mutagenesis.

    Feixiong Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses require host cellular factors for successful replication. A comprehensive systems-level investigation of the virus-host interactome is critical for understanding the roles of host factors with the end goal of discovering new druggable antiviral targets. Gene-trap insertional mutagenesis is a high-throughput forward genetics approach to randomly disrupt (trap host genes and discover host genes that are essential for viral replication, but not for host cell survival. In this study, we used libraries of randomly mutagenized cells to discover cellular genes that are essential for the replication of 10 distinct cytotoxic mammalian viruses, 1 gram-negative bacterium, and 5 toxins. We herein reported 712 candidate cellular genes, characterizing distinct topological network and evolutionary signatures, and occupying central hubs in the human interactome. Cell cycle phase-specific network analysis showed that host cell cycle programs played critical roles during viral replication (e.g. MYC and TAF4 regulating G0/1 phase. Moreover, the viral perturbation of host cellular networks reflected disease etiology in that host genes (e.g. CTCF, RHOA, and CDKN1B identified were frequently essential and significantly associated with Mendelian and orphan diseases, or somatic mutations in cancer. Computational drug repositioning framework via incorporating drug-gene signatures from the Connectivity Map into the virus-host interactome identified 110 putative druggable antiviral targets and prioritized several existing drugs (e.g. ajmaline that may be potential for antiviral indication (e.g. anti-Ebola. In summary, this work provides a powerful methodology with a tight integration of gene-trap insertional mutagenesis testing and systems biology to identify new antiviral targets and drugs for the development of broadly acting and targeted clinical antiviral therapeutics.

  8. A cardiac electrical activity model based on a cellular automata system in comparison with neural network model.

    Khan, Muhammad Sadiq Ali; Yousuf, Sidrah

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac Electrical Activity is commonly distributed into three dimensions of Cardiac Tissue (Myocardium) and evolves with duration of time. The indicator of heart diseases can occur randomly at any time of a day. Heart rate, conduction and each electrical activity during cardiac cycle should be monitor non-invasively for the assessment of "Action Potential" (regular) and "Arrhythmia" (irregular) rhythms. Many heart diseases can easily be examined through Automata model like Cellular Automata concepts. This paper deals with the different states of cardiac rhythms using cellular automata with the comparison of neural network also provides fast and highly effective stimulation for the contraction of cardiac muscles on the Atria in the result of genesis of electrical spark or wave. The specific formulated model named as "States of automaton Proposed Model for CEA (Cardiac Electrical Activity)" by using Cellular Automata Methodology is commonly shows the three states of cardiac tissues conduction phenomena (i) Resting (Relax and Excitable state), (ii) ARP (Excited but Absolutely refractory Phase i.e. Excited but not able to excite neighboring cells) (iii) RRP (Excited but Relatively Refractory Phase i.e. Excited and able to excite neighboring cells). The result indicates most efficient modeling with few burden of computation and it is Action Potential during the pumping of blood in cardiac cycle.

  9. Assessment of cellular estrogenic activity based on estrogen receptor-mediated reduction of soluble-form catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT expression in an ELISA-based system.

    Philip Wing-Lok Ho

    Full Text Available Xenoestrogens are either natural or synthetic compounds that mimic the effects of endogenous estrogen. These compounds, such as bisphenol-A (BPA, and phthalates, are commonly found in plastic wares. Exposure to these compounds poses major risk to human health because of the potential to cause endocrine disruption. There is huge demand for a wide range of chemicals to be assessed for such potential for the sake of public health. Classical in vivo assays for endocrine disruption are comprehensive but time-consuming and require sacrifice of experimental animals. Simple preliminary in vitro screening assays can reduce the time and expense involved. We previously demonstrated that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen via estrogen receptor (ER. Therefore, detecting corresponding changes of COMT expression in estrogen-responsive cells may be a useful method to estimate estrogenic effects of various compounds. We developed a novel cell-based ELISA to evaluate cellular response to estrogenicity by reduction of soluble-COMT expression in ER-positive MCF-7 cells exposed to estrogenic compounds. In contrast to various existing methods that only detect bioactivity, this method elucidates direct physiological effect in a living cell in response to a compound. We validated our assay using three well-characterized estrogenic plasticizers - BPA, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP. Cells were exposed to either these plasticizers or 17β-estradiol (E2 in estrogen-depleted medium with or without an ER-antagonist, ICI 182,780, and COMT expression assayed. Exposure to each of these plasticizers (10(-9-10(-7M dose-dependently reduced COMT expression (p<0.05, which was blocked by ICI 182,780. Reduction of COMT expression was readily detectable in cells exposed to picomolar level of E2, comparable to other in vitro assays of similar sensitivity. To satisfy the demand for in vitro assays targeting different

  10. Cellularized Cellular Solids via Freeze-Casting.

    Christoph, Sarah; Kwiatoszynski, Julien; Coradin, Thibaud; Fernandes, Francisco M

    2016-02-01

    The elaboration of metabolically active cell-containing materials is a decisive step toward the successful application of cell based technologies. The present work unveils a new process allowing to simultaneously encapsulate living cells and shaping cell-containing materials into solid-state macroporous foams with precisely controlled morphology. Our strategy is based on freeze casting, an ice templating materials processing technique that has recently emerged for the structuration of colloids into macroporous materials. Our results indicate that it is possible to combine the precise structuration of the materials with cellular metabolic activity for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of cordycepin(3'-deoxyadenosine) on excision repair of 5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine-type products from the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans

    Patil, M.S.; Tundo, V.J.; Locher, S.E.; Hariharan, P.V.

    1983-01-01

    Cordycepin(3'-deoxyadenosine), a nucleoside analog, has been shown to enhance radiation-induced cell killing. In an effort to elucidate the possible mechanism for enhancement of cell killing, the effect of cordycepin on the excision repair of radiation-induced 5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine-type (t') products from the DNA of wild type Micrococcus radiodurans was investigated. The capacity of M. radiodurans to excise nondimeric (t') products from its DNA was significantly impaired after cordycepin treatment. The results suggest that the increased radiation sensitivity of cordycepin-treated cells could be due to alterations in cellular processes that repair DNA damage

  12. Technique for laparoscopic autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision.

    Breukink, S O; Pierie, J P E N; Hoff, C; Wiggers, T; Meijerink, W J H J

    2006-05-01

    With the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME) for treatment of rectal cancer, the prognosis of patients with rectal cancer is improved. With this better prognosis, there is a growing awareness about the quality of life of patients after rectal carcinoma. Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) for rectal cancer offers several advantages in comparison with open total mesorectal excision (OTME), including greater patient comfort and an earlier return to daily activities while preserving the oncologic radicality of the procedure. Moreover, laparoscopy allows good exposure of the pelvic cavity because of magnification and good illumination. The laparoscope seems to facilitate pelvic dissection including identification and preservation of critical structures such as the autonomic nervous system. The technique for laparoscopic autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision is reported. A three- or four-port technique is used. Vascular ligation, sharp mesorectal dissection and identification and preservation of the autonomic pelvic nerves are described.

  13. Development of excise on automotive fuels in the neighbouring countries

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Janse, P.

    1994-04-01

    The political options for the Netherlands to implement the pricing policy for road traffic by means of an increase of excise, as formulated in the Second Transport Structure Plan (SVV-2), are limited by the excise level in neighbouring countries. Therefore, a study on the title subject has been carried out. First, an overview is given of the historical development of sales prices since 1980 for Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and France with special attention for the large price differences. Next, insight into the effects of a price difference at the borders is given. Subsequently the development in the policy of the European Union with regard to harmonization of excise tariffs is discussed. Environmental organizations in Belgium and Luxembourg were contacted to learn about the expected development of excises in those countries. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 4 appendices, 10 refs

  14. Impacts of restructuring tabacco excise tax in the Philippines

    A recently approved law restructuring tobacco taxes in the. Philippines includes a steep increase in the excise tax (the tax paid by producers which ... part of Canada's International Development Research Centre. (IDRC), a Canadian Crown ...

  15. Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision ...

    Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision histology results in sarcoma: Experience at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. KG Panda, MJ Hale, D Kruger, TE Luvhengo ...

  16. Excision of Mucocele Using Diode Laser in Lower Lip

    Subramaniam Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoceles are nonneoplastic cystic lesions of major and minor salivary glands which result from the accumulation of mucus. These lesions are most commonly seen in children. Though usually these lesions can be treated by local surgical excision, in our case, to avoid intraoperative surgical complications like bleeding and edema and to enable better healing, excision was done using a diode laser in the wavelength of 940 nm.

  17. Determining Factors for Fast Corneal Sensitivity Recovery After Pterygium Excision

    Julio Morán, Gemma; Campos, Pamela; Pujol Vives, Pere; Munguia, Aitana; Mas Aixalà, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To establish determining factors for fast corneal sensitivity (CS) recovery after pterygium excision. Methods: Thirty-two eyes of 14 males and 18 females with primary nasal pterygium were recruited. Differences in CS (in the 4 quadrants and the center using a Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometer), pterygium corneal area (PCA), tear osmolarity, tear break-up time, Schirmer test, and ocular symptoms were analyzed before and 1 month after lesion excision. The relationship between CS recovery...

  18. The Bacillus anthracis chromosome contains four conserved, excision-proficient, putative prophages

    Sozhamannan Shanmuga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus anthracis is considered to be a recently emerged clone within the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. The B. anthracis genome sequence contains four putative lambdoid prophages. We undertook this study in order to understand whether the four prophages are unique to B. anthracis and whether they produce active phages. Results More than 300 geographically and temporally divergent isolates of B. anthracis and its near neighbors were screened by PCR for the presence of specific DNA sequences from each prophage region. Every isolate of B. anthracis screened by PCR was found to produce all four phage-specific amplicons whereas none of the non-B. anthracis isolates, produced more than one phage-specific amplicon. Excision of prophages could be detected by a PCR based assay for attP sites on extra-chromosomal phage circles and for attB sites on phage-excised chromosomes. SYBR-green real-time PCR assays indicated that prophage excision occurs at very low frequencies (2 × 10-5 - 8 × 10-8/cell. Induction with mitomycin C increased the frequency of excision of one of the prophages by approximately 250 fold. All four prophages appear to be defective since, mitomycin C induced culture did not release any viable phage particle or lyse the cells or reveal any phage particle under electron microscopic examination. Conclusion The retention of all four putative prophage regions across all tested strains of B. anthracis is further evidence of the very recent emergence of this lineage and the prophage regions may be useful for differentiating the B. anthracis chromosome from that of its neighbors. All four prophages can excise at low frequencies, but are apparently defective in phage production.

  19. The Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures NIH Program: System-Level Cataloging of Human Cells Response to Perturbations.

    Keenan, Alexandra B; Jenkins, Sherry L; Jagodnik, Kathleen M; Koplev, Simon; He, Edward; Torre, Denis; Wang, Zichen; Dohlman, Anders B; Silverstein, Moshe C; Lachmann, Alexander; Kuleshov, Maxim V; Ma'ayan, Avi; Stathias, Vasileios; Terryn, Raymond; Cooper, Daniel; Forlin, Michele; Koleti, Amar; Vidovic, Dusica; Chung, Caty; Schürer, Stephan C; Vasiliauskas, Jouzas; Pilarczyk, Marcin; Shamsaei, Behrouz; Fazel, Mehdi; Ren, Yan; Niu, Wen; Clark, Nicholas A; White, Shana; Mahi, Naim; Zhang, Lixia; Kouril, Michal; Reichard, John F; Sivaganesan, Siva; Medvedovic, Mario; Meller, Jaroslaw; Koch, Rick J; Birtwistle, Marc R; Iyengar, Ravi; Sobie, Eric A; Azeloglu, Evren U; Kaye, Julia; Osterloh, Jeannette; Haston, Kelly; Kalra, Jaslin; Finkbiener, Steve; Li, Jonathan; Milani, Pamela; Adam, Miriam; Escalante-Chong, Renan; Sachs, Karen; Lenail, Alex; Ramamoorthy, Divya; Fraenkel, Ernest; Daigle, Gavin; Hussain, Uzma; Coye, Alyssa; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Sareen, Dhruv; Ornelas, Loren; Banuelos, Maria; Mandefro, Berhan; Ho, Ritchie; Svendsen, Clive N; Lim, Ryan G; Stocksdale, Jennifer; Casale, Malcolm S; Thompson, Terri G; Wu, Jie; Thompson, Leslie M; Dardov, Victoria; Venkatraman, Vidya; Matlock, Andrea; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Jaffe, Jacob D; Papanastasiou, Malvina; Subramanian, Aravind; Golub, Todd R; Erickson, Sean D; Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad; Hafner, Marc; Gray, Nathanael S; Lin, Jia-Ren; Mills, Caitlin E; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Niepel, Mario; Shamu, Caroline E; Williams, Elizabeth H; Wrobel, David; Sorger, Peter K; Heiser, Laura M; Gray, Joe W; Korkola, James E; Mills, Gordon B; LaBarge, Mark; Feiler, Heidi S; Dane, Mark A; Bucher, Elmar; Nederlof, Michel; Sudar, Damir; Gross, Sean; Kilburn, David F; Smith, Rebecca; Devlin, Kaylyn; Margolis, Ron; Derr, Leslie; Lee, Albert; Pillai, Ajay

    2018-01-24

    The Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) is an NIH Common Fund program that catalogs how human cells globally respond to chemical, genetic, and disease perturbations. Resources generated by LINCS include experimental and computational methods, visualization tools, molecular and imaging data, and signatures. By assembling an integrated picture of the range of responses of human cells exposed to many perturbations, the LINCS program aims to better understand human disease and to advance the development of new therapies. Perturbations under study include drugs, genetic perturbations, tissue micro-environments, antibodies, and disease-causing mutations. Responses to perturbations are measured by transcript profiling, mass spectrometry, cell imaging, and biochemical methods, among other assays. The LINCS program focuses on cellular physiology shared among tissues and cell types relevant to an array of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. This Perspective describes LINCS technologies, datasets, tools, and approaches to data accessibility and reusability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  1. Probabilistic cellular automata.

    Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-09-01

    Cellular automata are binary lattices used for modeling complex dynamical systems. The automaton evolves iteratively from one configuration to another, using some local transition rule based on the number of ones in the neighborhood of each cell. With respect to the number of cells allowed to change per iteration, we speak of either synchronous or asynchronous automata. If randomness is involved to some degree in the transition rule, we speak of probabilistic automata, otherwise they are called deterministic. With either type of cellular automaton we are dealing with, the main theoretical challenge stays the same: starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, predict (with highest accuracy) the end configuration. If the automaton is deterministic, the outcome simplifies to one of two configurations, all zeros or all ones. If the automaton is probabilistic, the whole process is modeled by a finite homogeneous Markov chain, and the outcome is the corresponding stationary distribution. Based on our previous results for the asynchronous case-connecting the probability of a configuration in the stationary distribution to its number of zero-one borders-the article offers both numerical and theoretical insight into the long-term behavior of synchronous cellular automata.

  2. Cellular imaging using biocompatible dendrimer-functionalized graphene oxide-based fluorescent probe anchored with magnetic nanoparticles

    Wate, Prateek S; Banerjee, Shashwat S; Mascarenhas, Russel R; Zope, Khushbu R; Khandare, Jayant; Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Misra, R Devesh K

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel multicomponent graphene nanostructured system that is biocompatible, and has strong NIR optical absorbance and superparamagnetic properties. The fabrication of the multicomponent nanostructure system involves the covalent attachment of 3 components; Fe 3 O 4 (Fe) nanoparticles, PAMAM-G4-NH 2 (G4) dendrimer and Cy5 (Cy) on a graphene oxide (GO) surface to synthesize a biologically relevant multifunctional system. The resultant GO-G4-Fe-Cy nanosystem exhibits high dispersion in an aqueous medium, and is magnetically responsive and fluorescent. In vitro experiments provide a clear indication of successful uptake of the GO-G4-Fe-Cy nanosystem by MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and it is seen to behave as a bright and stable fluorescent marker. The study also reveals varied cellular distribution kinetics profile for the GO nanostructured system compared to free Cy. Furthermore, the newly developed GO nanostructured system is observed to be non-toxic to MDA-MB-231 cell growth, in striking contrast to free G4 dendrimer and GO-G4 conjugate. The GO-G4-Fe-Cy nanostructured system characterized by multifunctionality suggests the merits of graphene for cellular bioimaging and the delivery of bioactives. (paper)

  3. Look-Ahead Strategies Based on Store-Carry and Forward Relaying for Energy Efficient Cellular Communications

    Panayiotis Kolios

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing availability of Internet type services on mobile devices and the attractive flat rate all-you-can-eat billing system, cellular telecommunication networks are experiencing a tremendous growth in data usage demand. However, there are increasing concerns that current network deployment trends (including more efficient radio access techniques and increased spectrum allocation strategies, will be unable to support the increased Internet traffic in a sustainable way. The delay tolerant nature of mobile Internet traffic allows for a large degree of flexibility in optimizing network performance to meet different design objectives and it’s a feature that has mostly gone unexplored by the research community. In this paper, we introduce a novel message forwarding mechanism in cellular networks that benefits from the inherent delay tolerance of Internet type services to provide flexible and adjustable forwarding strategies for efficient network operation while guaranteeing timely deliveries. By capitalizing on the elasticity of message delivery deadlines and the actual mobility of nodes inside the cell, considerable performance gains can be achieved by physically propagating information messages within the network.

  4. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  5. 29 CFR 779.262 - Excise taxes at the retail level.

    2010-07-01

    ... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.262 Excise taxes at the retail level. (a) Federal excise taxes are imposed at... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes at the retail level. 779.262 Section 779.262...

  6. Is surgical excision necessary for the treatment of Granulomatous lobular mastitis?

    Shin, Young Duck; Park, Sung Su; Song, Young Jin; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the role of surgical excision in treating granulomatous lobular mastitis. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis treated from March 2008 to March 2014. We analyzed clinical features and therapeutic modalities and compared the patient outcomes based on treatment. Results During the study period, a total of 34 patients were diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis and treated. Initial treatments i...

  7. A novel multiplexer-based structure for random access memory cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Naji Asfestani, Mazaher; Rasouli Heikalabad, Saeed

    2017-09-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a new technology in scale of nano and perfect replacement for CMOS circuits in the future. Memory is one of the basic components in any digital system, so designing the random access memory (RAM) with high speed and optimal in QCA is important. In this paper, by employing the structure of multiplexer, a novel RAM cell architecture is proposed. The proposed architecture is implemented without the coplanar crossover approach. The proposed architecture is simulated using the QCADesigner version 2.0.3 and QCAPro. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed QCA RAM architecture has the best performance in terms of delay, circuit complexity, area, cell count and energy consumption in comparison with other QCA RAM architectures.

  8. Towards modeling of random lasing in dye doped bio-organic based systems: ray-tracing and cellular automaton analysis

    Mitus, A. C.; Stopa, P.; Zaklukiewicz, W.; Pawlik, G.; Mysliwiec, J.; Kajzar, F.; Rau, I.

    2015-08-01

    One of many photonic applications of biopolymers as functional materials is random lasing resulting from an incorporation of highly luminescent dyes into biopolymeric matrix, which leads to a random but coherent light scattering in amplifying medium. In spite of numerous theoretical and experimental studies the origin of the coherence is still not clear and various scenarios are discussed. In particular, inhomogeneity of biopolymeric layers can hypothetically promote the feedback in the scattering of the emitted light resulting in coherent and incoherent random lasing. In this paper we analyze the light scattering in a model system of scattering centers of circular shapes and various dimensions using ray-tracing techniques. In the second part, which has mostly a tutorial character, we present the approach to the study of random lasing using a cellular automaton model of Wiersma et al.

  9. Germline excision of transgenes in Aedes aegypti by homing endonucleases.

    Aryan, Azadeh; Anderson, Michelle A E; Myles, Kevin M; Adelman, Zach N

    2013-01-01

    Aedes (Ae.) aegypti is the primary vector for dengue viruses (serotypes1-4) and chikungunya virus. Homing endonucleases (HEs) are ancient selfish elements that catalyze double-stranded DNA breaks (DSB) in a highly specific manner. In this report, we show that the HEs Y2-I-AniI, I-CreI and I-SceI are all capable of catalyzing the excision of genomic segments from the Ae. aegypti genome in a heritable manner. Y2-I-AniI demonstrated the highest efficiency at two independent genomic targets, with 20-40% of Y2-I-AniI-treated individuals producing offspring that had lost the target transgene. HE-induced DSBs were found to be repaired via the single-strand annealing (SSA) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways in a manner dependent on the availability of direct repeat sequences in the transgene. These results support the development of HE-based gene editing and gene drive strategies in Ae. aegypti, and confirm the utility of HEs in the manipulation and modification of transgenes in this important vector.

  10. Cellular interaction of a layer-by-layer based drug delivery system depending on material properties and cell types.

    Brueckner, Mandy; Jankuhn, Steffen; Jülke, Eva-Maria; Reibetanz, Uta

    2018-01-01

    Drug delivery systems (DDS) and their interaction with cells are a controversial topic in the development of therapeutic concepts and approaches. On one hand, DDS are very useful for protected and targeted transport of defined dosages of active agents. On the other hand, their physicochemical properties such as material, size, shape, charge, or stiffness have a huge impact on cellular uptake and intracellular processing. Additionally, even identical DDS can undergo a completely diverse interaction with different cell types. However, quite often in in vitro DDS/cell interaction experiments, those aspects are not considered and DDS and cells are randomly chosen. Hence, our investigations provide an insight into layer-by-layer designed microcarriers with modifications of only some of the most important parameters (surface charge, stiffness, and applied microcarrier/cell ratio) and their influence on cellular uptake and viability. We also considered the interaction of these differently equipped DDS with several cell types and investigated professional phagocytes (neutrophil granulocytes; macrophages) as well as non-professional phagocytes (epithelial cells) under comparable conditions. We found that even small modifications such as layer-by-layer (LbL)-microcarriers with positive or negative surface charge, or LbL-microcarriers with solid core or as hollow capsules but equipped with the same surface properties, show significant differences in interaction and viability, and several cell types react very differently to the offered DDS. As a consequence, the properties of the DDS have to be carefully chosen with respect to the addressed cell type with the aim to efficiently transport a desired agent.

  11. Developing the conceptual instructional design with inquiry-based instruction model of secondary students at the 10th grade level on digestion system and cellular degradation issue

    Rotjanakunnatam, Boonthida; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research study was to develop the conceptual instructional design with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model (IBIM) of secondary students at the 10th grade level on Digestion System and Cellular Degradation issue using both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients were designed instructional model with a sample size of 45 secondary students at the 10th Grade level. Data were collected by asking students to do a questionnaire pre and post learning processes. The questionnaire consists of two main parts that composed of students' perception questionnaire and the questionnaire that asked the question answer concept for the selected questionnaire. The 10-item Conceptual Thinking Test (CTT) was assessed students' conceptual thinking evaluation that it was covered in two main concepts, namely; Oxygen degradation nutrients and degradation nutrients without oxygen. The data by classifying students' answers into 5 groups and measuring them in frequency and a percentage of students' performances of their learning pre and post activities with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model were analyzed as a tutorial. The results of this research found that: After the learning activities with the IBIM, most students developed concepts of both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients in the correct, complete and correct concept, and there are a number of students who have conceptual ideas in the wrong concept, and no concept was clearly reduced. However, the results are still found that; some students have some misconceptions, such as; the concept of direction of electron motion and formation of the ATP of bioactivities of life. This cause may come from the nature of the content, the complexity, the continuity, the movement, and the time constraints only in the classroom. Based on this research, it is suggested that some students may take some time, and the limited time in the classroom to their learning activity with content creation content binding and

  12. A Giant Vulvar Mass: A Case Study of Cellular Angiofibroma

    Aydın, Ümit; Terzi, Hasan; Turkay, Ünal; Eruyar, Ahmet Tuğrul; Kale, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Cellular angiofibroma is a mesenchymal tumor that affects both genders. Nucci et al. first described it in 1997. Cellular angiofibroma is generally a small and asymptomatic mass that primarily arises in the vulvar-vaginal region, although rare cases have been reported in the pelvic and extrapelvic regions. It affects women most often during the fifth decade of life. The treatment requires simple local excision due to low local recurrence and no chance of metastasization. The current study presents a case of angiofibroma in the vulvar region that measured approximately 20 cm. PMID:27293929

  13. A Giant Vulvar Mass: A Case Study of Cellular Angiofibroma

    Ümit Aydın

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular angiofibroma is a mesenchymal tumor that affects both genders. Nucci et al. first described it in 1997. Cellular angiofibroma is generally a small and asymptomatic mass that primarily arises in the vulvar-vaginal region, although rare cases have been reported in the pelvic and extrapelvic regions. It affects women most often during the fifth decade of life. The treatment requires simple local excision due to low local recurrence and no chance of metastasization. The current study presents a case of angiofibroma in the vulvar region that measured approximately 20 cm.

  14. Interference Excision in Spread Spectrum Communications Using Adaptive Positive Time-Frequency Analysis

    Sridhar Krishnan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel algorithm to excise single and multicomponent chirp-like interferences in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS communications. The excision algorithm consists of two stages: adaptive signal decomposition stage and directional element detection stage based on the Hough-Radon transform (HRT. Initially, the received spread spectrum signal is decomposed into its time-frequency (TF functions using an adaptive signal decomposition algorithm, and the resulting TF functions are mapped onto the TF plane. We then use a line detection algorithm based on the HRT that operates on the image of the TF plane and detects energy varying directional elements that satisfy a parametric constraint. Interference is modeled by reconstructing the corresponding TF functions detected by the HRT, and subtracted from the received signal. The proposed technique has two main advantages: (i it localizes the interferences on the TF plane with no cross-terms, thus facilitating simple filtering techniques based on thresholding of the TF functions, and is an efficient way to excise the interference; (ii it can be used for the detection of any directional interferences that can be parameterized. Simulation results with synthetic models have shown successful performance with linear and quadratic chirp interferences for single and multicomponent interference cases. The proposed method excises the interference even under very low SNR conditions of −10 dB, and the technique could be easily extended to any interferences that could be represented by a parametric equation in the TF plane.

  15. Resveratrol mediated cell death in cigarette smoke transformed breast epithelial cells is through induction of p21Waf1/Cip1 and inhibition of long patch base excision repair pathway

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Siddharth, Sumit [Cancer Biology Division, KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Campus-11, Patia, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751024 (India); Choudhuri, Tathagata [Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751023 (India); Department of Biotechnology, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, West Bengal (India); Kundu, Chanakya Nath, E-mail: cnkundu@gmail.com [Cancer Biology Division, KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Campus-11, Patia, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751024 (India)

    2014-03-15

    Cigarette smoking is a key factor for the development and progression of different cancers including mammary tumor in women. Resveratrol (Res) is a promising natural chemotherapeutic agent that regulates many cellular targets including p21, a cip/kip family of cyclin kinase inhibitors involved in DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and blocking of DNA replication and repair. We have recently shown that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from commercially available Indian cigarette can cause neoplastic transformation of normal breast epithelial MCF-10A cell. Here we studied the mechanism of Res mediated apoptosis in CSC transformed (MCF-10A-Tr) cells in vitro and in vivo. Res mediated apoptosis in MCF-10A-Tr cells was a p21 dependent event. It increased the p21 protein expression in MCF-10A-Tr cells and MCF-10A-Tr cells-mediated tumors in xenograft mice. Res treatment reduced the tumor size(s) and expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. PI3K, AKT, NFκB) in solid tumor. The expressions of cell cycle regulatory (Cyclins, CDC-2, CDC-6, etc.), BER associated (Pol-β, Pol-δ, Pol-ε, Pol-η, RPA, Fen-1, DNA-Ligase-I, etc.) proteins and LP-BER activity decreased in MCF-10A-Tr cells but remain significantly unaltered in isogenic p21 null MCF-10A-Tr cells after Res treatment. Interestingly, no significant changes were noted in SP-BER activity in both the cell lines after Res exposure. Finally, it was observed that increased p21 blocks the LP-BER in MCF-10A-Tr cells by increasing its interaction with PCNA via competing with Fen-1 after Res treatment. Thus, Res caused apoptosis in CSC-induced cancer cells by reduction of LP-BER activity and this phenomenon largely depends on p21. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (Res) caused reduction of MCF-10A-Tr cell growth by inducing apoptosis. • Res caused cell cycle arrest and DNA damage in p21 dependent manner. • Res mediated LP-BER reduction in MCF-10A-Tr cells was a p21 dependent phenomenon. • Res inhibits BER and PI

  16. Resveratrol mediated cell death in cigarette smoke transformed breast epithelial cells is through induction of p21Waf1/Cip1 and inhibition of long patch base excision repair pathway

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Siddharth, Sumit; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a key factor for the development and progression of different cancers including mammary tumor in women. Resveratrol (Res) is a promising natural chemotherapeutic agent that regulates many cellular targets including p21, a cip/kip family of cyclin kinase inhibitors involved in DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and blocking of DNA replication and repair. We have recently shown that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from commercially available Indian cigarette can cause neoplastic transformation of normal breast epithelial MCF-10A cell. Here we studied the mechanism of Res mediated apoptosis in CSC transformed (MCF-10A-Tr) cells in vitro and in vivo. Res mediated apoptosis in MCF-10A-Tr cells was a p21 dependent event. It increased the p21 protein expression in MCF-10A-Tr cells and MCF-10A-Tr cells-mediated tumors in xenograft mice. Res treatment reduced the tumor size(s) and expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. PI3K, AKT, NFκB) in solid tumor. The expressions of cell cycle regulatory (Cyclins, CDC-2, CDC-6, etc.), BER associated (Pol-β, Pol-δ, Pol-ε, Pol-η, RPA, Fen-1, DNA-Ligase-I, etc.) proteins and LP-BER activity decreased in MCF-10A-Tr cells but remain significantly unaltered in isogenic p21 null MCF-10A-Tr cells after Res treatment. Interestingly, no significant changes were noted in SP-BER activity in both the cell lines after Res exposure. Finally, it was observed that increased p21 blocks the LP-BER in MCF-10A-Tr cells by increasing its interaction with PCNA via competing with Fen-1 after Res treatment. Thus, Res caused apoptosis in CSC-induced cancer cells by reduction of LP-BER activity and this phenomenon largely depends on p21. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (Res) caused reduction of MCF-10A-Tr cell growth by inducing apoptosis. • Res caused cell cycle arrest and DNA damage in p21 dependent manner. • Res mediated LP-BER reduction in MCF-10A-Tr cells was a p21 dependent phenomenon. • Res inhibits BER and PI

  17. Dual Functional Nanocarrier for Cellular Imaging and Drug Delivery in Cancer Cells Based on π-Conjugated Core and Biodegradable Polymer Arms.

    Kulkarni, Bhagyashree; Surnar, Bapurao; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2016-03-14

    Multipurpose polymer nanoscaffolds for cellular imaging and delivery of anticancer drug are urgently required for the cancer therapy. The present investigation reports a new polymer drug delivery concept based on biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) and highly luminescent π-conjugated fluorophore as dual functional nanocarrier for cellular imaging and delivery vehicles for anticancer drug to cancer cells. To accomplish this goal, a new substituted caprolactone monomer was designed, and it was subjected to ring opening polymerization using a blue luminescent bishydroxyloligo-phenylenevinylene (OPV) fluorophore as an initiator. A series of A-B-A triblock copolymer building blocks with a fixed OPV π-core and variable chain biodegradable PCL arm length were tailor-made. These triblocks self-assembled in organic solvents to produce well-defined helical nanofibers, whereas in water they produced spherical nanoparticles (size ∼150 nm) with blue luminescence. The hydrophobic pocket of the polymer nanoparticle was found to be an efficient host for loading water insoluble anticancer drug such as doxorubicin (DOX). The photophysical studies revealed that there was no cross-talking between the OPV and DOX chromophores, and their optical purity was retained in the nanoparticle assembly for cellular imaging. In vitro studies revealed that the biodegradable PCL arm was susceptible to enzymatic cleavage at the intracellular lysosomal esterase under physiological conditions to release the loaded drugs. The nascent nanoparticles were found to be nontoxic to cancer cells, whereas the DOX-loaded nanoparticles accomplished more than 80% killing in HeLa cells. Confocal microscopic analysis confirmed the cell penetrating ability of the blue luminescent polymer nanoparticles and their accumulation preferably in the cytoplasm. The DOX loaded red luminescent polymer nanoparticles were also taken up by the cells, and the drug was found to be accumulated at the perinuclear environment

  18. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes isolates from surgically excised lumbar disc herniations

    Rollason, Jess; McDowell, Andrew; Albert, Hanne B

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised...... from each of 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation. P. acnes and other bacteria were detected by anaerobic culture, followed by biochemical and PCR-based identification. In total, 24/64 (38%) patients had evidence of P. acnes in their excised herniated disc tissue. Using recA and mAb typing methods...... isolate collection (63%) suggests that the role of P. acnes in lumbar disc herniation should not be readily dismissed....

  19. TREATMENT OF DOGS WITH ORAL MELANOMA RECURRENCE BY DIODE LASER EXCISION

    Cornel Igna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of oral melanomas utilizes the surgical excision-resection (Culp et al., 2013 and/or radiation therapy (Proulx et al., 2003, chemotherapy with carboplatin (Brockley et al., 2013, immunotherapy (Ottnod et al., 2013. Treatment based on surgical excision is usually palliative (Freeman et al., 2003. Aims: In the literature even though there are data concerning the prognosis of oral melanomas in dogs after surgery, are missing data after laser excision. Taking into account these findings we wished to present our experience regarding three cases of oral melanoma recurrence and immediate and long term laser surgery results. Materials and Methods: The casuistry consisted of three dogs with recurrent oral malignant melanomas, subjected to surgical reintervention. The initial diagnosis was melanotic melanoma in stage I or II. The animals were brought back at different time intervals from originally excision with electric scalpel. Before reintervention, dogs were subjected to clinical, paraclinical exam and biopsy. Excision of the tumor mass was made with an optical fiber hawing a diameter of 400µm, at a power of 10W and a wavelength of 940 nm with a diode laser. At 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months after laser reintervention the dogs were reexamined. Results: Average time in which appeared canine oral melanoma relapse was 58.6 days. After reexamination all cases where reinstatement in stage I. Operators times were held in conditions of comfort with wide access, minimum bleeding, effective hemostasis. After surgery at 24 hours on the intervention place a slight local redness, without swelling and bleeding was observed. Palpation revealed initially also a slight local sensitivity which completely disappeared in 48 hours. There were no grasping and chewing disturbances. Macroscopic healing occurred in 7-9 days. At last recheck performed at 12 months there were no evidences of tumour recurrence or metastasis. Conclusion: Diode laser excision

  20. Total excision of intramedullary epidermoid cyst in one case

    PU Ke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical experience of total excision in a 14-year-old female with intramedullary epidermoid cyst was reported. The patient with L3-4 intramedullary epidermoid cyst underwent total excision through posterior median approach under microscopy. The patient was admitted for progressive strephexopodia and urinary and fecal incontinence. Preoperative imaging examination showed scoliosis, incontionous L4-S1 and abnormal signal of L3-4. Total excision and spinal remodeling were performed under intraoperative neurophysiological monitoning. Epidermoid cyst and its membrane were totally removed without aseptic meningitis after surgery, and the neurologic symptoms of the patient were gradually improved. Completely removing the membrane of epidermoid cyst is the key point to prevent recurrence and aseptic meningitis postoperatively. Dissection should be strictly in accordance with the boundaries of the membrane and the spinal cord, in order to avoid spinal cord injury.

  1. Excision of oral mucocele by different wavelength lasers

    Umberto Romeo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucocele is a common benign neoplasm of oral soft tissues and the most common after fibroma. It generally occurs in the lower lip and its treatment includes excision of cyst and the responsible salivary gland, in order to prevent recurrences. Aims: To evaluate the capability of three different lasers in performing the excision of labial mucocele with two different techniques. Materials and Methods: In the presented cases, excision was performed using two different techniques (circumferential incision technique and mucosal preservation technique and three different laser wavelengths (Er,Cr:YSGG 2780 nm, diode 808 nm, and KTP 532 nm. Results: All the tested lasers, regardless of wavelength, showed many advantages (bloodless surgical field, no postoperative pain, relative speed, and easy execution. The most useful surgical technique depends on clinical features of the lesion. Conclusion: Tested lasers, with both techniques, are helpful in the management of labial mucocele.

  2. CELL POPULATION KINETICS OF EXCISED ROOTS OF PISUM SATIVUM

    Van't Hof, Jack

    1965-01-01

    The cell population kinetics of excised, cultured pea roots was studied with the use of tritiated thymidine and colchicine to determine (1) the influence of excision, (2) the influence of sucrose concentration, (3) the average mitotic cycle duration, and (4) the duration of mitosis and the G 1, S, and G 2 periods of interphase.1 The results indicate that the process of excision causes a drop in the frequency of mitotic figures when performed either at the beginning of the culture period or after 100 hours in culture. This initial decrease in frequency of cell division is independent of sucrose concentration, but the subsequent rise in frequency of division, after 12 hours in culture, is dependent upon sucrose concentration. Two per cent sucrose maintains the shortest mitotic cycle duration. The use of colchicine indicated an average cycle duration of 20 hours, whereas the use of tritiated thymidine produced an average cycle duration of 17 hours. PMID:5857253

  3. Olfactory groove meningioma: discussion of clinical presentation and surgical outcomes following excision via the subcranial approach.

    Pepper, Jon-Paul; Hecht, Sarah L; Gebarski, Stephen S; Lin, Erin M; Sullivan, Stephen E; Marentette, Lawrence J

    2011-11-01

    To describe surgical outcomes and radiographic features of olfactory groove meningiomas treated by excision through the subcranial approach. Special emphasis is placed on paranasal sinus and orbit involvement. Retrospective review of a series of patients. Nineteen patients underwent excision of olfactory groove meningioma (OGM) via the transglabellar/subcranial approach between December 1995 and November 2009. Nine patients had previously undergone prior resection at outside institutions, and four had prior radiotherapy in addition to a prior excision. Transglabellar/subcranial surgical approach to the anterior skull base was performed. Tumor histology included three World Health Organization (WHO) grade III lesions, one WHO grade II lesion, and 15 WHO grade I lesions. Fourteen patients had evidence of extension into the paranasal sinuses, with the ethmoid sinus being most commonly involved. Kaplan-Meier estimates of mean overall and disease-free survival were 121.45 months and 93.03 months, respectively. The mean follow-up interval was 41.0 months, and at the time of data analysis three patients had recurrent tumors. Seven (36.8%) patients experienced a major complication in the perioperative period; there were no perioperative mortalities. Orbit invasion was observed in four patients, with optic nerve impingement in 11 patients. Of these, three patients had long-term diplopia. No patients experienced worsening of preoperative visual acuity. Olfactory groove meningiomas demonstrate a propensity to spread into the paranasal sinuses, particularly in recurrent cases. Given a tendency for infiltrative recurrence along the skull base, this disease represents an important area of collaboration between neurosurgery and otolaryngology. The subcranial approach offers excellent surgical access for excision, particularly for recurrences that involve the paranasal sinuses and optic apparatus. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society

  4. Simulation of regionally ecological land based on a cellular automation model: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Xie, Hualin; Kung, Chih-Chun; Zhang, Yanting; Li, Xiubin

    2012-08-01

    Ecological land is like the "liver" of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA) model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under the natural development scenario, most of ecological land will be replaced by construction land and crop land. But under the scenarios of object orientation and ecosystem priority, the ecological land area will increase, especially under the scenario of ecosystem priority. When considering the factors such as total area of ecological land, loss of key ecological land and spatial patterns of land use, the scenarios from priority to inferiority are ecosystem priority, object orientation and natural development, so future land management policies in Beijing should be focused on conversion of cropland to forest, wetland protection and prohibition of exploitation of natural protection zones, water source areas and forest parks to maintain the safety of the regional ecosystem.

  5. Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Xiubin Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under the natural development scenario, most of ecological land will be replaced by construction land and crop land. But under the scenarios of object orientation and ecosystem priority, the ecological land area will increase, especially under the scenario of ecosystem priority. When considering the factors such as total area of ecological land, loss of key ecological land and spatial patterns of land use, the scenarios from priority to inferiority are ecosystem priority, object orientation and natural development, so future land management policies in Beijing should be focused on conversion of cropland to forest, wetland protection and prohibition of exploitation of natural protection zones, water source areas and forest parks to maintain the safety of the regional ecosystem.

  6. Change of Land Use/Cover in Tianjin City Based on the Markov and Cellular Automata Models

    Ruci Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, urban areas have been expanding rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. With this rapid urban growth, several environmental and social problems have appeared. Better understanding of land use and land cover (LULC change will facilitate urban planning and constrain these potential problems. As one of the four municipalities in China, Tianjin has experienced rapid urbanization and such trend is expected to continue. Relying on remote sensing (RS and geographical information system (GIS tools, this study investigates LULC change in Tianjin city. First, we used RS to generate classification maps for 1995, 2005, and 2015. Then, simulation models were applied to evaluate the LULC changes. Analysis of the 1995, 2005, and 2015 LULC maps shows that more than 10% of the cropland areas were transformed into built-up areas. Finally, by employing the Markov model and cellular automata (CA model, the LULC in 2025 and 2035 were simulated and forecasted. Our analysis contributes to the understanding of the development process in the Tianjin area, which will facilitate future planning, as well as constraining the potential negative consequences brought by future LULC changes.

  7. Micro-simulation of vehicle conflicts involving right-turn vehicles at signalized intersections based on cellular automata.

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D

    2014-02-01

    At intersection, vehicles coming from different directions conflict with each other. Improper geometric design and signal settings at signalized intersection will increase occurrence of conflicts between road users and results in a reduction of the safety level. This study established a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate vehicular interactions involving right-turn vehicles (as similar to left-turn vehicles in US). Through various simulation scenarios for four case cross-intersections, the relationships between conflict occurrences involving right-turn vehicles with traffic volume and right-turn movement control strategies are analyzed. Impacts of traffic volume, permissive right-turn compared to red-amber-green (RAG) arrow, shared straight-through and right-turn lane as well as signal setting are estimated from simulation results. The simulation model is found to be able to provide reasonable assessment of conflicts through comparison of existed simulation approach and observed accidents. Through the proposed approach, prediction models for occurrences and severity of vehicle conflicts can be developed for various geometric layouts and traffic control strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New Portland cement-based materials for endodontics mixed with articaine solution: a study of cellular response.

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Perut, Francesca; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Mongiorgi, Romano; Prati, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The biocompatibility of innovative tetrasilicate cements proposed for root-end filling restorations was tested. White ProRoot-MTA and AH Plus were used as control. The new cements were mixed with a local anesthetic solution (4% articaine) to form a paste. Human osteoblast-like cells Saos-2 were challenged in short-term cultures (72 hours) with solid materials and with material extracts prepared in culture medium. Cell growth and viability, cellular attachment, and morphologic features were assessed to verify cell/material interactions. No acute toxicity was exerted by the experimental cements in the assay systems. On solid samples Saos-2 adhered and proliferated on all the experimental cements and on MTA. The ultrastructural findings revealed that Saos-2 were able to adhere and to spread. The maintenance of the osteoblastic phenotype on the innovative cements was confirmed by the alkaline phosphatase assay. All experimental cements prepared with articaine supported the growth of bone-like cells, showing suitable properties to be used as canal sealers and root-end filling materials.

  9. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-01-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis. (paper)

  10. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    Cheung, Kenneth C.; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-09-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis.

  11. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  12. Union Women, the Tobacco Industry, and Excise Taxes

    Balbach, Edith D.; Campbell, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1997, the tobacco industry used the issue of cigarette excise tax increases to create a political partnership with the Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW), a group representing female trade unionists in the U.S. This paper documents how the industry created this relationship and the lessons tobacco-control advocates can learn from the industry’s example, in order to mitigate possible unintended consequences of advocating excise tax increases In 1998, under the terms of the Master Settlement Agreement, the tobacco industry began making documents produced in litigation available publicly. Currently, approximately 50 million pages are available online, including substantial documentation of the industry–CLUW relationship. For this study, a comprehensive search of these documents was conducted. The tobacco industry encouraged CLUW’s opposition to excise tax increases by emphasizing the economic regressivity of these taxes, discussing excise taxes generically to deflect attention from cigarettes, and encouraging opposition to earmarking cigarette taxes to pay for specific programs. In addition, CLUW received at least $221,500 in financial support between 1987 and 1997 and in-kind support for its conferences, membership materials, and other services. Excise tax increases, if pursued without considering the impacts they may have on low-SES populations, may have unintended consequences. In this case, such proposals may have helped to create a relationship between CLUW and the tobacco industry. Because excise taxes are endorsed in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, tobacco-control advocates must understand how to build relationships with low-SES populations and mitigate potential alliances with the tobacco industry. PMID:19591750

  13. Black-hole excision with multiple grid patches

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    When using black-hole excision to numerically evolve a black-hole spacetime with no continuous symmetries, most 3 + 1 finite differencing codes use a Cartesian grid. It is difficult to do excision on such a grid because the natural r = constant excision surface must be approximated either by a very different shape such as a contained cube, or by an irregular and non-smooth 'LEGO 1 sphere' which may introduce numerical instabilities into the evolution. In this paper I describe an alternate scheme which uses multiple {r x (angular coordinates)} grid patches, each patch using a different (nonsingular) choice of angular coordinates. This allows excision on a smooth r = constant 2-sphere. I discuss the key design choices in such a multiple-patch scheme, including the choice of ghost-zone versus internal-boundary treatment of the interpatch boundaries (I use a ghost-zone scheme), the number and shape of the patches (I use a 6-patch 'inflated-cube' scheme), the details of how the ghost zones are 'synchronized' by interpolation from neighbouring patches, the tensor basis for the Einstein equations in each patch, and the handling of non-tensor field variables such as the BSSN Γ-tilde i (I use a scheme which requires ghost zones which are twice as wide for the BSSN conformal factor φ as for Γ-tilde i and the other BSSN field variables). I present sample numerical results from a prototype implementation of this scheme. This code simulates the time evolution of the (asymptotically flat) spacetime around a single (excised) black hole, using fourth-order finite differencing in space and time. Using Kerr initial data with J/m 2 = 0.6, I present evolutions to t ∼> 1500m. The lifetime of these evolutions appears to be limited only by outer boundary instabilities, not by any excision instabilities or by any problems inherent to the multiple-patch scheme

  14. Cellular communication through light.

    Daniel Fels

    Full Text Available Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  15. Recurred Myofibroblastoma of Breast After Excision: A Case Report

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Yang, Keun Ho

    2010-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma of the breast is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor that is known to occur in middle-aged and elderly men, yet there are some recent reports showing no certain difference for the gender distribution of this malady. Localized mass excision can usually provide a complete cure. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of metastasis or recurrence of this tumor. Here we describe the sonographic findings of a case of recurrent myofibroblastoma after surgical excision for suspected fibroadenomas in both breasts of a 25-year-old woman

  16. A seventh complementation group in excision-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum

    Keijzer, W.; Jaspers, N.G.J.; Bootsma, D.; Abrahams, P.J.; Taylor, A.M.R.; Arlett, C.F.; Zelle, B.; Kinmont, P.D.S.

    1979-01-01

    Cells from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient XP2B1 who has reached 17 years of age with no keratoses or skin tumours constitute a new, 7th complementation group G. These cells exhibit a low residual level of excision repair, 2% of normal after a UV dose of 5 J/m 2 and an impairment of post-replication repair characteristic of excision-defective XPs. They are also sensitive to the lethal effects of UV and defective in host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated SV40 DNA. (Auth.)

  17. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in platinum-based treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with special emphasis on carboplatin: a review of current literature

    Vilmar, A.; Sorensen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    on carboplatin based on the current literature. Research on the development of a reliable methodology is warranted followed by validation in large, prospective, randomized trials as ERCC1 may possibly play an important role as tumour marker in tailored chemotherapy for NSCLC Udgivelsesdato: 2009/5......-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has shown potential as a predictive marker in patients with NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Carboplatin has gained widespread use in the treatment of advanced NSCLC and its mechanisms of action are likely similar to that of cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature...... review on ERCC1 was conducted as predictor in NSCLC patients receiving platinum-based treatment with emphasis on carboplatin. English language publications from January 1996 to February 2008 were eligible and data on methodology and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Eight preclinical articles, 25 clinical...

  18. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells.

  19. Functional evaluation of DNA repair in human biopsies and their relation to other cellular biomarkers

    Slyšková, Jana; Langie, S. A. S.; Collins, A. R.; Vodička, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 5 (2014) ISSN 1664-8021 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1585 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : base excision repair * nucleotide excision repair * human solid tissue Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Poloxamer-Based Thermoreversible Gel for Topical Delivery of Emodin: Influence of P407 and P188 on Solubility of Emodin and Its Application in Cellular Activity Screening

    Eunmi Ban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Emodin is a component in a Chinese herb, Rheum officinale Baill, traditionally used for diabetes and anticancer. Its poor solubility is one of the major challenges to pharmaceutical scientists. We previously reported on thermoreversible gel formulations based on poloxamer for the topical delivery of emodin. The present study was to understand the effect of poloxamer type on emodin solubility and its application in cellular activity screening. Various gel formulations composed of poloxamer 407 (P407, poloxamer 188 (P188 and PEG400 were prepared and evaluated. Major evaluation parameters were the gelation temperature (Tgel and solubility of emodin. The emodin solubility increased with increasing poloxamer concentration and the Tgel was modulated by the proper combination of P407. In particular, this study showed that the amount of P407 in thermoreversible poloxamer gel (PG was the dominant factor in enhancing solubility and P188 was effective at fixing gelation temperature in the desired range. A thermoreversible emodin PG was selected as the proper composition with the liquid state at room temperature and gel state at body temperature. The gel showed the solubility enhancement of emodin at least 100-fold compared to 10% ethanol or water. The thermoreversible formulation was applied for in vitro cellular activity screening in the human dermal fibroblast cell line and DLD-1 colon cancer cell line after dilution with cell culture media. The thermoreversible gel formulation remained as a clear solution in the microplate, which allowed reliable cellular activity screening. In contrast, emodin solution in ethanol or DMSO showed precipitation at the corresponding emodin concentration, complicating data interpretation. In conclusion, the gel formulation is proposed as a useful prototype topical formulation for testing emodin in vivo as well as in vitro.

  1. Uracil DNA glycosylase counteracts APOBEC3G-induced hypermutation of hepatitis B viral genomes: excision repair of covalently closed circular DNA.

    Kouichi Kitamura

    Full Text Available The covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA of the hepatitis B virus (HBV plays an essential role in chronic hepatitis. The cellular repair system is proposed to convert cytoplasmic nucleocapsid (NC DNA (partially double-stranded DNA into cccDNA in the nucleus. Recently, antiviral cytidine deaminases, AID/APOBEC proteins, were shown to generate uracil residues in the NC-DNA through deamination, resulting in cytidine-to-uracil (C-to-U hypermutation of the viral genome. We investigated whether uracil residues in hepadnavirus DNA were excised by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG, a host factor for base excision repair (BER. When UNG activity was inhibited by the expression of the UNG inhibitory protein (UGI, hypermutation of NC-DNA induced by either APOBEC3G or interferon treatment was enhanced in a human hepatocyte cell line. To assess the effect of UNG on the cccDNA viral intermediate, we used the duck HBV (DHBV replication model. Sequence analyses of DHBV DNAs showed that cccDNA accumulated G-to-A or C-to-T mutations in APOBEC3G-expressing cells, and this was extensively enhanced by UNG inhibition. The cccDNA hypermutation generated many premature stop codons in the P gene. UNG inhibition also enhanced the APOBEC3G-mediated suppression of viral replication, including reduction of NC-DNA, pre-C mRNA, and secreted viral particle-associated DNA in prolonged culture. Enhancement of APOBEC3G-mediated suppression by UNG inhibition was not observed when the catalytic site of APOBEC3G was mutated. Transfection experiments of recloned cccDNAs revealed that the combination of UNG inhibition and APOBEC3G expression reduced the replication ability of cccDNA. Taken together, these data indicate that UNG excises uracil residues from the viral genome during or after cccDNA formation in the nucleus and imply that BER pathway activities decrease the antiviral effect of APOBEC3-mediated hypermutation.

  2. Surgical Excision Of A Craniopharynginoma By Transcallosal ...

    complaints included: polydipsia and polyuria in one case, progressive hypopsia in the second case; headache in the third case; and hormonal manifestations in the .... Intraventricular craniopharyngiomas: topographical classification and surgical approach selection based on an extensive overview. Acta Neurochir , 2004 ,.

  3. Biomedical implications from a morphoelastic continuum model for the simulation of contracture formation in skin grafts that cover excised burns

    Koppenol, D.C.; Vermolen, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    A continuum hypothesis-based model is developed for the simulation of the (long term) contraction of skin grafts that cover excised burns in order to obtain suggestions regarding the ideal length of splinting therapy and when to start with this therapy such that the therapy is effective

  4. Results of surgical excision of urethral prolapse in symptomatic patients.

    Hall, Mary E; Oyesanya, Tola; Cameron, Anne P

    2017-11-01

    Here, we present the clinical presentation and surgical outcomes of women with symptomatic urethral prolapse presenting to our institution over 20 years, and seek to provide treatment recommendations for management of symptomatic urethral prolapse and caruncle. A retrospective review of medical records from female patients who underwent surgery for symptomatic urethral prolapse from June 1995 to August 2015 was performed. Surgical technique consisted of a four-quadrant excisional approach for repair of urethral prolapse. A total of 26 patients were identified with a mean age of 38.8 years (range 3-81). The most common presentations were vaginal bleeding, hematuria, pain, and dysuria. All patients underwent surgical excision of urethral prolapse via a standard approach. Follow-up data was available in 24 patients. Six patients experienced temporary postoperative bleeding, and one patient required placement of a Foley catheter for tamponade. One patient experienced temporary postoperative urinary retention requiring Foley catheter placement. Three patients had visible recurrence of urethral prolapse, for which one later underwent re-excision. Surgical excision of urethral prolapse is a reasonable treatment option in patients who have tried conservative management without relief, as well as in those who present with severe symptoms. Possible complications following excision include postoperative bleeding and recurrence, and patients must be counseled accordingly. In this work, we propose a treatment algorithm for symptomatic urethral prolapse. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax ...

    A proposed law in the Philippines to increase the excise tax on tobacco by ... developing countries to reduce demand for tobacco through price and tax measures. Southeast Asian countries are struggling with how to implement the main provisions of the Convention. ... Far East Asia, Philippines, Central Asia, South Asia ...

  6. Positive malignant margins in clinically diagnosed and excised be ...

    This study was aimed at utilizing retrospective descriptive data to evaluate the percentage of clini-cally benign breast lumps that turned out to be histologically malignant and the prevalence of posi-tive tumour margins among the malignant cases. A total of 2,917 registered cases of excised breast lump at the Department of ...

  7. Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision ...

    peripheral nerve sheath tumour (6%).[6] Soft-tissue sarcomas most frequently affect the extremities and include MFH (40%), lipo- sarcoma (25%), synovial sarcoma and fibrosarcoma.[7]. Appropriate management is reliant on an accurate preoperative histology result. Excision biopsy is recommended for tumours. <3 cm in ...

  8. The safety of complete mesocolic excision once again confirmed

    Bertelsen, C A; Neuenschwander, A U

    2018-01-01

    We would like to commend Bernhoff and colleagues (1) for publishing further evidence supporting complete mesocolic excision (CME) as a safe approach in colon cancer surgery. They report no increased risk of 30-day mortality or reoperation after right-sided CME in a nested case-control study...

  9. 26 CFR 25.2512-7 - Effect of excise tax.

    2010-04-01

    ... by a taxpayer and made the subject of gifts within a reasonable time after purchase, the purchase...-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2512-7 Effect of excise tax. If...

  10. Nucleotide excision repair II: From yeast to mammals

    J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAn intricate network of repair systems safeguards the integrity of genetic material, by eliminating DNA lesions induced by numerous environmental and endogenous genotoxic agents. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is one of the most versatile DNA repair systems. Deficiencies in this

  11. Peri-operative management for excision of plexiform ...

    Case report: A 28-year-old female weighing 78 kilograms presented at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) with a huge left thigh mass, nodules and brownish skin patches (café-au-lait spots) all over her body. Plexiform neurofibromatosis was diagnosed. The mass was subsequently excised under ...

  12. Excise Taxes and the Price Elasticity of Demand.

    Gamble, Ralph C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that, although the analysis of the imposition of an excise tax is widely used in economics courses, the consequences of a change in the tax rate are different and ignored. This article presents an effective way to teach about such a change. (GG)

  13. A Method To Determine Adhesion Of Suppository Mass On Excised ...

    A method to determine adhesion of suppository mass to intestinal tissue was developed using excised pig intestine. The method which employs the principe of drainage unto and subsequent detachment from the mucosa, of an adherent suppository mass is simple, inexpensive and accurate. Fully optimised, it can be used ...

  14. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  15. Papillary lesions of the breast: To excise or observe?

    Khan, Sidrah; Diaz, Adrian; Archer, Kellie J; Lehman, Rebecca R; Mullins, Tiffany; Cardenosa, Gilda; Bear, Harry D

    2018-05-01

    Papillary lesions of the breast range from benign to atypical to malignant. Although papillomas without frank cancer are benign, their management remains controversial. When a core needle biopsy of a lesion yields a diagnosis of intraductal papilloma with atypia, excision is generally recommended to rule out a concurrent malignant neoplasm. For intraductal papillomas without atypia, however, recommendations for excision versus observation are variable. The aims of this study are to evaluate the rate of concurrent malignancies for intraductal papilloma diagnosed on core needle biopsy and to assess the long-term risk of developing cancer after the diagnosis of a papillary lesion. This single institution retrospective study analyzed 259 patients that were diagnosed with intraductal papilloma (IDP) by core needle biopsy from 1995 to 2010. Patients were grouped by initial diagnosis into three groups (papilloma without atypia, papilloma with atypia, and papilloma with atypical duct hyperplasia or atypical lobular hyperplasia (ADH/ALH) and followed up for long-term outcomes. After a core needle biopsy showing IDP with atypia or IDP + ADH/ALH, surgical excision yielded a diagnosis of concomitant invasive or ductal in situ cancer in greater that 30% of cases. For intraductal papilloma without atypia, the likelihood of cancer was much lower. Moreover, even with excision, the finding of intraductal papilloma with atypia carries a significant risk of developing cancer long-term, and such patients should be followed carefully and perhaps should be considered for chemoprevention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    2011-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 [REG-112841-10] RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This document provides notice...

  17. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    2010-06-15

    ... 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service.... 7805. * * * Par. 5. Section 49.0-3 is added to read as follows: Sec. 49.0-3 Introduction; cosmetic...--Cosmetic Services Sec. 49.5000B-1 Indoor tanning services. [The text of this proposed Sec. 49.5000B-1 is...

  18. of lung metastases carcinoma of the cervix Surgical excision from ...

    of lung metastases carcinoma of the cervix. Surgical excision from squamous. A report of 2 cases. N. G. DE MOOR, A. V. BERRY, M. M. NISSENBAUM. These2casereportsservetoemphasizetwoimpor- tant points concerning carcinoma of the cervix: (i) blood-borne metastases are now frequently encountered in this disease; ...

  19. Clinical trial comparing excision and primary closure with modified ...

    The aim of this study was to compare modified Limberg flap procedure with excision and primary closure in the treatment of uncomplicated pilonidal disease. Methods: This study was conducted on 120 patients with uncomplicated sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease that were randomly allocated into two groups: group I ...

  20. Microendoscopic excision of C2 osteoid osteoma: a technical report.

    Kulkarni, Arvind G; Dhruv, Abhilash N; Bassi, Anupreet J

    2013-09-01

    Case report and description of technique. To describe a microendoscopic posterior approach for excision of an osteoid osteoma of C2. Microendoscopic techniques are widely used in the management of degenerative disorders of the spine. This is the first report of their use in the management of an osteoid osteoma via the posterior approach. A 12-year-old-boy presented with left-sided neck pain of 3-month duration. Investigations revealed an osteoid osteoma of C2 lamina-lateral mass complex. The patient underwent a posterior microendoscopic excision using 18-mm diameter METRx system (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN) of tubular retractors. A postoperative computed tomographic scan was done and preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scale and Neck Disability Index were evaluated. The patient was periodically followed up for 1 year. The postoperative computed tomographic scan revealed complete excision of the tumor. The visual analogue scale score for neck pain improved from 3/5 (preoperative) to 0/5 (postoperative) and Neck Disability Index from 33.33 (preoperative) to 0 (postoperative) at 1-year follow-up. Microendoscopic techniques can be extended to excise lesions of the spine. It is a safe procedure in experienced hands. The advantages are minimal morbidity, minimal postoperative pain and discomfort, less analgesic dependence, and better cosmesis. The authors recommend this technique for accessible lesions involving the spine.