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Sample records for cellular base excision

  1. Mitochondrial base excision repair assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten;

    2010-01-01

    The main source of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during normal cellular metabolism. The main mtDNA lesions generated by ROS are base modifications, such as the ubiquitous 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesion; however, base loss and strand breaks may also occur....... Many human diseases are associated with mtDNA mutations and thus maintaining mtDNA integrity is critical. All of these lesions are repaired primarily by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. It is now known that mammalian mitochondria have BER, which, similarly to nuclear BER, is catalyzed by DNA...

  2. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  3. Base excision repair mechanisms and relevance to cancer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway is considered the predominant DNA repair system in mammalian cells for eliminating small DNA lesions generated at DNA bases either exogenously by environmental agents or endogenously by normal cellular metabolic processes (e.g. production of oxyradical species, alkylating agents, etc). The main goal of this project is the understanding of the involvement of BER in genome stability and in particular in sporadic cancer development associated with inflammation such as gastric cancer (GC). A major risk factor of GC is the infection by Helicobacter pylori, which causes oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is mainly repaired by BER

  4. Base Excision Repair, a Pathway Regulated by Posttranslational Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rachel J; Parsons, Jason L

    2016-05-15

    Base excision repair (BER) is an essential DNA repair pathway involved in the maintenance of genome stability and thus in the prevention of human diseases, such as premature aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, SUMOylation, and ubiquitylation, have emerged as important contributors in controlling cellular BER protein levels, enzymatic activities, protein-protein interactions, and protein cellular localization. These PTMs therefore play key roles in regulating the BER pathway and are consequently crucial for coordinating an efficient cellular DNA damage response. In this review, we summarize the presently available data on characterized PTMs of key BER proteins, the functional consequences of these modifications at the protein level, and also the impact on BER in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26976642

  5. Sequence Context Specific Mutagenesis and Base Excision Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Donigan, Katherine; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2009-01-01

    Base excision repair is critical for the maintenance of genome stability because it repairs at least 20,000 endogenously generated DNA lesions per cell per day. Several enzymes within the base excision repair pathway exhibit sequence context dependency during the excision and DNA synthesis steps of repair. New evidence is emerging that germ line and tumor-associated variants of enzymes in this repair pathway exhibit sequence context dependence that is different from their ancestral counterpar...

  6. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2011-04-01

    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P < 0.0001). Such conservative external excisions eliminated the risk of obliterating the natural alar-facial crease, which did not occur in any of our cases. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or vestibular stenosis were encountered. Keloid or hypertrophic scar formation was not encountered; however, dermabrasion of the scars was needed in three (6.5%) cases to eliminate apparent suture track marks. The boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring. PMID:21404164

  7. Variant Base Excision Repair Proteins: Contributors to Genomic Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Antonia A.; Wallace, Susan S.; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2012-01-01

    Cells sustain endogenous DNA damage at rates greater than 20,000 DNA lesions per cell per day. These damages occur largely as a result of the inherently unstable nature of DNA and the presence of reactive oxygen species within cells. The base excision repair system removes the majority of DNA lesions resulting from endogenous DNA damage. There are several enzymes that function during base excision repair. Importantly, there are over 100 germline single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that function in base excision repair and that result in non-synonymous amino acid substitutions in the proteins they encode. Somatic variants of these enzymes are also found in human tumors. Variant repair enzymes catalyze aberrant base excision repair. Aberrant base excision repair combined with continuous endogenous DNA damage over time has the potential to lead to a mutator phenotype. Mutations that arise in key growth control genes, imbalances in chromosome number, chromosomal translocations, and loss of heterozygosity can result in the initiation of human cancer or its progression. PMID:20955798

  8. The role of DNA base excision repair in brain homeostasis and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mansour; Morevati, Marya; Croteau, Deborah;

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification and spontaneous loss of nucleotide bases from DNA are estimated to occur at the rate of thousands per human cell per day. DNA base excision repair (BER) is a critical mechanism for repairing such lesions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Defective expression or function of p...... energy homeostasis, mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics, with especially strong influence on neurological function. Further studies in this area could lead to novel approaches to prevent and treat human neurodegenerative disease....

  9. Slow base excision by human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase limits the rate of formation of AP sites and AP endonuclease 1 does not stimulate base excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Robyn L; Vallur, Aarthy C; Feller, Joyce A; Bloom, Linda B

    2007-01-01

    The base excision repair pathway removes damaged DNA bases and resynthesizes DNA to replace the damage. Human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) is one of several damage-specific DNA glycosylases that recognizes and excises damaged DNA bases. AAG removes primarily damaged adenine residues. Human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) recognizes AP sites produced by DNA glycosylases and incises the phophodiester bond 5' to the damaged site. The repair process is completed by a DNA polymerase and DNA ligase. If not tightly coordinated, base excision repair could generate intermediates that are more deleterious to the cell than the initial DNA damage. The kinetics of AAG-catalyzed excision of two damaged bases, hypoxanthine and 1,N6-ethenoadenine, were measured in the presence and absence of APE1 to investigate the mechanism by which the base excision activity of AAG is coordinated with the AP incision activity of APE1. 1,N6-ethenoadenine is excised significantly slower than hypoxanthine and the rate of excision is not affected by APE1. The excision of hypoxanthine is inhibited to a small degree by accumulated product, and APE1 stimulates multiple turnovers by alleviating product inhibition. These results show that APE1 does not significantly affect the kinetics of base excision by AAG. It is likely that slow excision by AAG limits the rate of AP site formation in vivo such that AP sites are not created faster than can be processed by APE1. PMID:17018265

  10. Ku80-Deleted Cells are Defective at Base Excision Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Han; Marple, Teresa; Hasty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Ku80 forms a heterodimer with Ku70, called Ku, that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As a consequence of deleting NHEJ, Ku80-mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that cause DNA DSBs like ionizing radiation. Here we show that Ku80 deletion also decreased resistance to ROS and alkylating agents that typically cause base lesions and single-strand breaks (SSBs). This is unusual since base excision repair (BER), not NHEJ, typically repa...

  11. Mms19 protein functions in nucleotide excision repair by sustaining an adequate cellular concentration of the TFIIH component Rad3

    OpenAIRE

    Kou, Haiping; Ying ZHOU; Gorospe, R.M. Charlotte; Wang, Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major cellular defense mechanism against DNA damage. We have investigated the role of Mms19 in NER in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NER was deficient in the mms19 deletion mutant cell extracts, which was complemented by the NER/transcription factor TFIIH, but not by purified Mms19 protein. In mms19 mutant cells, protein levels of the core TFIIH component Rad3 (XPD homologue) and Ssl2 (XPB homologue) were significantly reduced by up to 3.5- and 2.2-f...

  12. Nucleotide Excision Repair in Cellular Chromatin: Studies with Yeast from Nucleotide to Gene to Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we review our development of, and results with, high resolution studies on global genome nucleotide excision repair (GGNER in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have focused on how GGNER relates to histone acetylation for its functioning and we have identified the histone acetyl tranferase Gcn5 and acetylation at lysines 9/14 of histone H3 as a major factor in enabling efficient repair. We consider results employing primarily MFA2 as a model gene, but also those with URA3 located at subtelomeric sequences. In the latter case we also see a role for acetylation at histone H4. We then go on to outline the development of a high resolution genome-wide approach that enables one to examine correlations between histone modifications and the nucleotide excision repair (NER of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers throughout entire genomes. This is an approach that will enable rapid advances in understanding the complexities of how compacted chromatin in chromosomes is processed to access DNA damage and then returned to its pre-damaged status to maintain epigenetic codes.

  13. uv photobiology: excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: steps in nucleotide excision; damage to DNA by uv-endonuclease; use of complementation to study DNA repair in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells; role of BUDR photolysis in excision repair, relation between DNA repair defect and human disease; base excision repair; and excision repair by removal of damaged region of a base in DNA without excision

  14. ALKBH1 is dispensable for abasic site cleavage during base excision repair and class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Tina A; Yu, Kefei; Hausinger, Robert P; Meek, Katheryn

    2013-01-01

    Potential roles of the abasic site lyase activity associated with AlkB homolog 1 (ALKBH1) were assessed by studies focusing on the two cellular processes that create abasic sites as intermediates: base excision repair and class switch recombination. Alkbh1(-/-) pups (lacking exon 3) were born at a lower than expected frequency from heterozygous parents, suggesting a reduced survival rate and non-Mendelian inheritance, and they exhibited a gender bias in favor of males (70% males and 30% females). To study ALKBH1's potential involvement in DNA repair, fibroblasts were isolated from Alkbh1(-/-) mice, spontaneously immortalized and tested for resistance to DNA damaging agents. Alkbh1(-/-) and isogenic cells expressing hALKBH1 showed no difference in survival to the DNA damaging agents methyl-methionine sulfate or H2O2. This result indicates that ALKBH1 does not play a major role in the base excision repair pathway. To assess ALKBH1's role in class switch recombination, splenic B cells were isolated from Alkbh1(-/-) and Alkbh1(+/+) mice and subjected to switching from IgM to IgG1. No differences were found in IgG1 switching, suggesting that Alkbh1 is not involved in class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin heavy chain during B lymphocyte activation. PMID:23825659

  15. ALKBH1 is dispensable for abasic site cleavage during base excision repair and class switch recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina A Müller

    Full Text Available Potential roles of the abasic site lyase activity associated with AlkB homolog 1 (ALKBH1 were assessed by studies focusing on the two cellular processes that create abasic sites as intermediates: base excision repair and class switch recombination. Alkbh1(-/- pups (lacking exon 3 were born at a lower than expected frequency from heterozygous parents, suggesting a reduced survival rate and non-Mendelian inheritance, and they exhibited a gender bias in favor of males (70% males and 30% females. To study ALKBH1's potential involvement in DNA repair, fibroblasts were isolated from Alkbh1(-/- mice, spontaneously immortalized and tested for resistance to DNA damaging agents. Alkbh1(-/- and isogenic cells expressing hALKBH1 showed no difference in survival to the DNA damaging agents methyl-methionine sulfate or H2O2. This result indicates that ALKBH1 does not play a major role in the base excision repair pathway. To assess ALKBH1's role in class switch recombination, splenic B cells were isolated from Alkbh1(-/- and Alkbh1(+/+ mice and subjected to switching from IgM to IgG1. No differences were found in IgG1 switching, suggesting that Alkbh1 is not involved in class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin heavy chain during B lymphocyte activation.

  16. Base excision by thymine DNA glycosylase mediates DNA-directed cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Kunz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU, a chemotherapeutic drug commonly used in cancer treatment, imbalances nucleotide pools, thereby favoring misincorporation of uracil and 5-FU into genomic DNA. The processing of these bases by DNA repair activities was proposed to cause DNA-directed cytotoxicity, but the underlying mechanisms have not been resolved. In this study, we investigated a possible role of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG, one of four mammalian uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs, in the cellular response to 5-FU. Using genetic and biochemical tools, we found that inactivation of TDG significantly increases resistance of both mouse and human cancer cells towards 5-FU. We show that excision of DNA-incorporated 5-FU by TDG generates persistent DNA strand breaks, delays S-phase progression, and activates DNA damage signaling, and that the repair of 5-FU-induced DNA strand breaks is more efficient in the absence of TDG. Hence, excision of 5-FU by TDG, but not by other UDGs (UNG2 and SMUG1, prevents efficient downstream processing of the repair intermediate, thereby mediating DNA-directed cytotoxicity. The status of TDG expression in a cancer is therefore likely to determine its response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy.

  17. Nucleosomes determine their own patch size in base excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meas, Rithy; Smerdon, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) processes non-helix distorting lesions (e.g., uracils and gaps) and is composed of two subpathways that differ in the number of nucleotides (nts) incorporated during the DNA synthesis step: short patch (SP) repair incorporates 1 nt and long patch (LP) repair incorporates 2-12 nts. This choice for either LP or SP repair has not been analyzed in the context of nucleosomes. Initial studies with uracil located in nucleosome core DNA showed a distinct DNA polymerase extension profile in cell-free extracts that specifically limits extension to 1 nt, suggesting a preference for SP BER. Therefore, we developed an assay to differentiate long and short repair patches in 'designed' nucleosomes containing a single-nucleotide gap at specific locations relative to the dyad center. Using cell-free extracts or purified enzymes, we found that DNA lesions in the nucleosome core are preferentially repaired by DNA polymerase β and there is a significant reduction in BER polymerase extension beyond 1 nt, creating a striking bias for incorporation of short patches into nucleosomal DNA. These results show that nucleosomes control the patch size used by BER. PMID:27265863

  18. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  19. Ku80-deleted cells are defective at base excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Han [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain); Marple, Teresa [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Hasty, Paul, E-mail: hastye@uthscsa.edu [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ku80-deleted cells are hypersensitive to ROS and alkylating agents. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Ku70 or Lig4, have reduced BER capacity. • OGG1 rescues hypersensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and paraquat in Ku80-mutant cells. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4, are defective at repairing AP sites. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4 or Brca2 exon 27, exhibit increased PAR. - Abstract: Ku80 forms a heterodimer with Ku70, called Ku, that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As a consequence of deleting NHEJ, Ku80-mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that cause DNA DSBs like ionizing radiation. Here we show that Ku80 deletion also decreased resistance to ROS and alkylating agents that typically cause base lesions and single-strand breaks (SSBs). This is unusual since base excision repair (BER), not NHEJ, typically repairs these types of lesions. However, we show that deletion of another NHEJ protein, DNA ligase IV (Lig4), did not cause hypersensitivity to these agents. In addition, the ROS and alkylating agents did not induce γ-H2AX foci that are diagnostic of DSBs. Furthermore, deletion of Ku80, but not Lig4 or Ku70, reduced BER capacity. Ku80 deletion also impaired BER at the initial lesion recognition/strand scission step; thus, involvement of a DSB is unlikely. Therefore, our data suggests that Ku80 deletion impairs BER via a mechanism that does not repair DSBs.

  20. Base excision repair deficiency in acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy of the hematopoietic system arising from a transformed myeloid progenitor cell. Genomic instability is the hallmark of AML and characterized by a variety of cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities. Whereas 10% to 20% of AML cases reflect long-term sequelae of cytotoxic therapies for a primary disorder, the etiology for the majority of AMLs remains unknown. The integrity of DNA is under continuous attack from a variety of exogenous and endogenous DNA damaging agents. The majority of DNA damage is caused by constantly generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from metabolic by-products. Base excision repair (BER) is the major DNA repair mechanism dealing with DNA base lesions that are induced by oxidative stress or alkylation. In this study we investigated the BER in AML. Primary AML patients samples as well as AML cell lines were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). DNA damage induction and repair was monitored by the alkaline comet assay. In 15/30 leukemic samples from patients with therapy-related AML, in 13/35 with de novo AML and 14/26 with AML following a myelodysplastic syndrome, significantly reduced single strand breaks (SSBs) representing BER intermediates were found. In contrast, normal SSB formation was seen in mononuclear cells of 30 healthy individuals and 30/31 purified hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cell preparations obtained from umbilical cord blood. Additionally, in 5/10 analyzed AML cell lines, no SSBs were formed upon H2O2 treatment, either. Differences in intracellular ROS concentrations or apoptosis could be excluded as reason for this phenomenon. A significantly diminished cleavage capacity for 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine as well as for Furan was observed in cell lines that exhibited no SSB formation. These data demonstrate for the first time that initial steps of BER are impaired in a proportion of AML cell lines and leukemic cells from patients with different forms of AML

  1. Cellular-based preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cellular-based preemption system that uses existing cellular infrastructure to transmit preemption related data to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles through one or more intersections. A cellular unit in an emergency vehicle is used to generate position reports that are transmitted to the one or more intersections during an emergency response. Based on this position data, the one or more intersections calculate an estimated time of arrival (ETA) of the emergency vehicle, and transmit preemption commands to traffic signals at the intersections based on the calculated ETA. Additional techniques may be used for refining the position reports, ETA calculations, and the like. Such techniques include, without limitation, statistical preemption, map-matching, dead-reckoning, augmented navigation, and/or preemption optimization techniques, all of which are described in further detail in the above-referenced patent applications.

  2. EXCISED DAMAGED BASE DETERMINES THE TURNOVER OF HUMAN N-METHYLPURINE-DNA GLYCOSYLASE

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Sanjay; Üren, Aykut; Roy, Rabindra

    2009-01-01

    N-Methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG) initiates base excision repair in DNA by removing a wide variety of alkylated, deaminated, and lipid peroxidation-induced purine adducts. In this study, we tested the role of excised base on MPG’s enzymatic activity. After the reaction, MPG produced two products: free damaged base and AP-site containing DNA. Our results showed that MPG excises 1, N6-ethenoadenine (εA) from εA-containing oligonucleotide (εA-DNA) at a similar or slightly increased efficiency...

  3. XRCC1 and base excision repair balance in response to nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutamba, James T; Svilar, David; Prasongtanakij, Somsak; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Ying-Chih; Dedon, Peter C; Sobol, Robert W; Engelward, Bevin P

    2011-12-10

    Inflammation associated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONs), including peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and nitric oxide (NO), create base lesions that potentially play a role in the toxicity and large genomic rearrangements associated with many malignancies. Little is known about the role of base excision repair (BER) in removing these endogenous DNA lesions. Here, we explore the role of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) in attenuating RONs-induced genotoxicity. XRCC1 is a scaffold protein critical for BER for which polymorphisms modulate the risk of cancer. We exploited CHO and human glioblastoma cell lines engineered to express varied levels of BER proteins to study XRCC1. Cytotoxicity and the levels of DNA repair intermediates (single-strand breaks; SSB) were evaluated following exposure of the cells to the ONOO(-) donor, SIN-1, and to gaseous NO. XRCC1 null cells were slightly more sensitive to SIN-1 than wild-type cells. We used small-scale bioreactors to expose cells to NO and found that XRCC1-deficient CHO cells were not sensitive. However, using a molecular beacon assay to test lesion removal in vitro, we found that XRCC1 facilitates AAG-initiated excision of two key NO-induced DNA lesions: 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine and hypoxanthine. Furthermore, overexpression of AAG rendered XRCC1-deficient cells sensitive to NO-induced DNA damage. These results show that AAG is a key glycosylase for BER of NO-induced DNA damage and that XRCC1's role in modulating sensitivity to RONs is dependent upon the cellular level of AAG. This demonstrates the importance of considering the expression of other components of the BER pathway when evaluating the impact of XRCC1 polymorphisms on cancer risk. PMID:22041025

  4. Oxidative DNA damage background estimated by a system model of base excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, B A; Wilson, III, D M

    2004-05-13

    Human DNA can be damaged by natural metabolism through free radical production. It has been suggested that the equilibrium between innate damage and cellular DNA repair results in an oxidative DNA damage background that potentially contributes to disease and aging. Efforts to quantitatively characterize the human oxidative DNA damage background level based on measuring 8-oxoguanine lesions as a biomarker have led to estimates varying over 3-4 orders of magnitude, depending on the method of measurement. We applied a previously developed and validated quantitative pathway model of human DNA base excision repair, integrating experimentally determined endogenous damage rates and model parameters from multiple sources. Our estimates of at most 100 8-oxoguanine lesions per cell are consistent with the low end of data from biochemical and cell biology experiments, a result robust to model limitations and parameter variation. Our results show the power of quantitative system modeling to interpret composite experimental data and make biologically and physiologically relevant predictions for complex human DNA repair pathway mechanisms and capacity.

  5. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA is thought to play a role in carcinogenesis by causing mutations, and indeed accumulation of oxidized DNA bases has been observed in samples obtained from tumors but not from surrounding tissue within the same patient. Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway for the...

  6. Base excision repair deficient mice lacking the Aag alkyladenine DNA glycosylase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. Engelward (Bevin); G. Weeda (Geert); M.D. Wyatt; J.L.M. Broekhof (Jose'); J. de Wit (Jan); I. Donker (Ingrid); J.M. Allan (James); B. Gold (Bert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); L.D. Samson (Leona)

    1997-01-01

    textabstract3-methyladenine (3MeA) DNA glycosylases remove 3MeAs from alkylated DNA to initiate the base excision repair pathway. Here we report the generation of mice deficient in the 3MeA DNA glycosylase encoded by the Aag (Mpg) gene. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase turns out to be the major DNA glyc

  7. The mitochondrial transcription factor A functions in mitochondrial base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canugovi, Chandrika; Maynard, Scott; Bayne, Anne-Cécile V;

    2010-01-01

    mitochondria, whereas base excision repair (BER) has been comprehensively characterized in these organelles. The BER proteins are associated with the inner membrane in mitochondria and thus with the mitochondrial nucleoid, where TFAM is also situated. However, a function for TFAM in BER has not yet been...

  8. Vertebrate POLQ and POLβ Cooperate in Base Excision Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimura, Michio; Kohzaki, Masaoki; Nakamura, Jun; Asagoshi, Kenjiro; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Hou, Esther; Prasad, Rajendra; Wilson, Samuel H.; TANO, KEIZO; Yasui, Akira; Lan, Li; Seki, Mineaki; Wood, Richard D.; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie

    2006-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) plays an essential role in protecting cells from mutagenic base damage caused by oxidative stress, hydrolysis, and environmental factors. POLQ is a DNA polymerase, which appears to be involved in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) past base damage. We disrupted POLQ, and its homologs HEL308 and POLN in chicken DT40 cells, and also created polq/hel308 and polq/poln double mutants. We found that POLQ-deficient mutants exhibit hypersensitivity to oxidative base damage ind...

  9. Unplanned Excision of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Korea: A Nationwide Study Based on a Claims Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungcheol Kang

    Full Text Available Unplanned excision of extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS is common and has detrimental effects not only on patients' oncologic outcomes but also on functional and economic issues. However, no study has analyzed a nationwide population-based database. To estimate the incidence and treatment pattern of unplanned excision in extremity STS in the Korean population, a nationwide epidemiologic study was performed using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, a centralized nationwide healthcare claims registry of Korea that covers the entire Korean population. Among 1,517 patients with extremity STS in the 4-year study period, 553 (36.5% underwent unplanned excision (unplanned group. About 80% of unplanned excisions were performed in tertiary or general hospitals. Of the unplanned group, 240 (43.4% underwent re-excision with or without radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy, and 51 (9.2% did not undergo re-excision but were treated with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy; whereas, 262 (47.4% did not undergo any further treatment following unplanned excision. This study is the first nationwide population-based study on the unplanned excision of extremity STS. The results may have implications in establishing preventive or therapeutic measures to reduce the burden of unplanned excision of extremity STS.

  10. XRCC1 and Base Excision Repair Balance in Response to Nitric Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Mutamba, James T; Svilar, David; Prasongtanakij, Somsak; Wang, Xiao-hong; Lin, Ying-Chih; Dedon, Peter C; Sobol, Robert W.; Engelward, Bevin P.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation associated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONs), including peroxynitrite (ONOO−) and nitric oxide (NO· ), create base lesions that potentially play a role in the toxicity and large-scale genomic rearrangements associated with many malignancies. Nevertheless, little is known about the functional role of base excision repair (BER) deficiencies following exposure to RONs. Here, we explore the role of XRCC1 in modulating the levels of RONs-induced genotoxicity. XRCC1 is a scaf...

  11. Gut Microbiota Imbalance and Base Excision Repair Dynamics in Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debolina; Kidane, Dawit

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota are required for host nutrition, energy balance, and regulating immune homeostasis, however, in some cases, this mutually beneficial relationship becomes twisted (dysbiosis), and the gut flora can incite pathological disorders including colon cancer. Microbial dysbiosis promotes the release of bacterial genotoxins, metabolites, and causes chronic inflammation, which promote oxidative DNA damage. Oxidized DNA base lesions are removed by base excision repair (BER), however, the role of this altered function of BER, as well as microbiota-mediated genomic instability and colon cancer development, is still poorly understood. In this review article, we will discuss how dysbiotic microbiota induce DNA damage, its impact on base excision repair capacity, the potential link of host BER gene polymorphism, and the risk of dysbiotic microbiota mediated genomic instability and colon cancer.

  12. Chk2-dependent phosphorylation of XRCC1 in the DNA damage response promotes base excision repair

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Hui-Chun; Wong, Fen-Hwa; Ding, Shian-ling; Wu, Pei-Ei; Shieh, Sheau-Yann; Shen, Chen-Yang

    2008-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) has an essential function in maintaining genomic stability. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR)-Chk1, triggered, respectively, by DNA double-strand breaks and blocked replication forks, are two major DDRs processing structurally complicated DNA damage. In contrast, damage repaired by base excision repair (BER) is structurally simple, but whether, and how, the DDR is involved in repairing this damage is un...

  13. Initial steps of the base excision repair pathway within the nuclear architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress induced lesions threaten aerobic organisms by representing a major cause of genomic instability. A common product of guanine oxidation, 8-oxo-guanine (8- oxoG) is particularly mutagenic by provoking G to T transversions. Removal of oxidised bases from DNA is initiated by the recognition and excision of the damaged base by a DNA glycosylase, initiating the base excision repair (BER) pathway. In mammals, 8-oxoG is processed by the 8-oxoG-DNA-glycosylase I (OGG1), which biochemical mechanisms has been well characterised in vitro. However how and where this enzyme finds the modified base within the complex chromatin architecture is not yet understood. We show that upon induction of 8-oxoG, OGG1, together with at least two other proteins involved in BER, is recruited from a soluble fraction to chromatin. Formation kinetics of this patches correlates with 8-oxoG excision, suggesting a direct link between presence of this chromatin-associated complexes and 8-oxoG repair. More precisely, these repair patches are specifically directed to euchromatin regions, and completely excluded from heterochromatin regions. Inducing of artificial chromatin compaction results in a complete inhibition of the in vivo repair of 8-oxoG, probably by impeding the access of OGG1 to the lesion. Using OGG1 mutants, we show that OGG1 direct recognition of 8-oxoG did not trigger its re-localisation to the chromatin. We conclude that in response to the induction of oxidative DNA damage, the DNA glycosylase is actively recruited to regions of open chromatin allowing the access of the BER machinery to the lesions. (author)

  14. Abnormal Base Excision Repair at Trinucleotide Repeats Associated with Diseases: A Tissue-Selective Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathi-Vasiliki Goula

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available More than fifteen genetic diseases, including Huntington’s disease, myotonic dystrophy 1, fragile X syndrome and Friedreich ataxia, are caused by the aberrant expansion of a trinucleotide repeat. The mutation is unstable and further expands in specific cells or tissues with time, which can accelerate disease progression. DNA damage and base excision repair (BER are involved in repeat instability and might contribute to the tissue selectivity of the process. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms of trinucleotide repeat instability, focusing more specifically on the role of BER.

  15. Polymorphisms within base and nucleotide excision repair pathways and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Monica; Figlioli, Gisella; Maccari, Giuseppe; Garritano, Sonia; De Santi, Chiara; Melaiu, Ombretta; Barone, Elisa; Bambi, Franco; Ermini, Stefano; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Foddis, Rudy; Bonotti, Alessandra; Romei, Cristina; Vivaldi, Agnese; Agate, Laura; Molinari, Eleonora; Barale, Roberto; Forsti, Asta; Hemminki, Kari; Elisei, Rossella; Gemignani, Federica; Landi, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    The thyrocytes are exposed to high levels of oxidative stress which could induce DNA damages. Base excision repair (BER) is one of the principal mechanisms of defense against oxidative DNA damage, however recent evidences suggest that also nucleotide excision repair (NER) could be involved. The aim of present work was to identify novel differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) risk variants in BER and NER genes. For this purpose, the most strongly associated SNPs within NER and BER genes found in our previous GWAS on DTC were selected and replicated in an independent series of samples for a new case-control study. Although a positive signal was detected at the nominal level of 0.05 for rs7689099 (encoding for an aminoacid change proline to arginine at codon 117 within NEIL3), none of the considered SNPs (i.e. rs7990340 and rs690860 within RFC3, rs3744767 and rs1131636 within RPA1, rs16962916 and rs3136166 in ERCC4, and rs17739370 and rs7689099 in NEIL3) was associated with the risk of DTC when the correction of multiple testing was applied. In conclusion, a role of NER and BER pathways was evoked in the susceptibility to DTC. However, this seemed to be limited to few polymorphic genes and the overall effect size appeared weak. PMID:27062014

  16. A Novel Variable Index and Excision CFAR Based Ship Detection Method on SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefeng Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When applying the constant false alarm rate (CFAR detector to ship detection on synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery, multiple interferers such as upwelling, breaking waves, ambiguities, and neighboring ships in a dense traffic area will degrade the probability of detection. In this paper, we propose a novel variable index and excision CFAR (VIE-CFAR based ship detection method to alleviate the masking effect of multiple interferers. Firstly, we improve the variable index (VI CFAR with an excision procedure, which censors the multiple interferers from the reference cells. And then, the paper integrates the novel CFAR concept into a ship detection scheme on SAR imagery, which adopts the VIE-CFAR to screen reference cells and the distribution to derive detection threshold. Finally, we analyze the performances of the VIE-CFAR under different environments and validate the proposed method on both ENVISAT and TerraSAR-X SAR data. The results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms other existing detectors, especially in the presence of multiple interferers.

  17. The DNA glycosylase AlkD uses a non-base-flipping mechanism to excise bulky lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Elwood A.; Shi, Rongxin; Parsons, Zachary D.; Yuen, Philip K.; David, Sheila S.; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Eichman, Brandt F.

    2015-11-01

    Threats to genomic integrity arising from DNA damage are mitigated by DNA glycosylases, which initiate the base excision repair pathway by locating and excising aberrant nucleobases. How these enzymes find small modifications within the genome is a current area of intensive research. A hallmark of these and other DNA repair enzymes is their use of base flipping to sequester modified nucleotides from the DNA helix and into an active site pocket. Consequently, base flipping is generally regarded as an essential aspect of lesion recognition and a necessary precursor to base excision. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, DNA glycosylase mechanism that does not require base flipping for either binding or catalysis. Using the DNA glycosylase AlkD from Bacillus cereus, we crystallographically monitored excision of an alkylpurine substrate as a function of time, and reconstructed the steps along the reaction coordinate through structures representing substrate, intermediate and product complexes. Instead of directly interacting with the damaged nucleobase, AlkD recognizes aberrant base pairs through interactions with the phosphoribose backbone, while the lesion remains stacked in the DNA duplex. Quantum mechanical calculations revealed that these contacts include catalytic charge-dipole and CH-π interactions that preferentially stabilize the transition state. We show in vitro and in vivo how this unique means of recognition and catalysis enables AlkD to repair large adducts formed by yatakemycin, a member of the duocarmycin family of antimicrobial natural products exploited in bacterial warfare and chemotherapeutic trials. Bulky adducts of this or any type are not excised by DNA glycosylases that use a traditional base-flipping mechanism. Hence, these findings represent a new model for DNA repair and provide insights into catalysis of base excision.

  18. X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1 in base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanssen-Bauer, Audun; Solvang-Garten, Karin; Akbari, Mansour;

    2012-01-01

    X-ray Repair Cross Complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) acts as a scaffolding protein in the converging base excision repair (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR) pathways. XRCC1 also interacts with itself and rapidly accumulates at sites of DNA damage. XRCC1 can thus mediate the assembly of large...... multiprotein DNA repair complexes as well as facilitate the recruitment of DNA repair proteins to sites of DNA damage. Moreover, XRCC1 is present in constitutive DNA repair complexes, some of which associate with the replication machinery. Because of the critical role of XRCC1 in DNA repair, its common...... variants Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln have been extensively studied. However, the prevalence of these variants varies strongly in different populations, and their functional influence on DNA repair and disease remains elusive. Here we present the current knowledge about the role of XRCC1 and its...

  19. Distinct spatiotemporal patterns and PARP dependence of XRCC1 recruitment to single-strand break and base excision repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Campalans (Anna); R. Amouroux (Rachel); H. Menoni (Hervé); W. Vermeulen (Wim); J.P. Radicella (Pablo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSingle-strand break repair (SSBR) and base excision repair (BER) of modified bases and abasic sites share several players. Among them is XRCC1, an essential scaffold protein with no enzymatic activity, required for the coordination of both pathways. XRCC1 is recruited to SSBR by PARP-1,

  20. Repair of 3-methyladenine and abasic sites by base excision repair mediates glioblastoma resistance to temozolomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Silber

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents have long played a central role in the adjuvant therapy of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. More recently, inclusion of temozolomide (TMZ, an orally administered methylating agent with low systemic toxicity, during radiotherapy and afterward has markedly improved survival. Extensive in vitro and in vivo evidence has shown that TMZ-induced O6-methylguanine (O6-meG mediates GBM cell killing. Moreover, low or absent expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT, the sole human repair protein that removes O6-meG from DNA, is frequently associated with longer survival in GBMs treated with TMZ, promoting interest in developing inhibitors of MGMT to counter resistance. However, the clinical efficacy of TMZ is unlikely to be due solely to O6-meG, as the agent produces approximately a dozen additional DNA adducts, including cytotoxic N3-methyladenine (3-meA and abasic sites. Repair of 3-meA and abasic sites, both of which are produced in greater abundance than O6-meG, is mediated by the base excision repair (BER pathway, and occurs independently of removal of O6-meG. These observations indicate that BER activities are also potential targets for strategies to potentiate TMZ cytotoxicity. Here we review the evidence that 3-meA and abasic sites mediate killing of GBM cells. We also present in vitro and in vivo evidence that alkyladenine-DNA–glycosylase, the sole repair activity that excises 3-meA from DNA, and Ape1, the major human abasic site endonuclease, mediate TMZ resistance in GBMs and represent potential anti-resistance targets.

  1. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin

  2. Polysulfide compounds as inhibitors of the key base excision repair enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salakhutdinov N. F.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To increase the capacity of antitumor therapy based on DNA damage it is important to minimize the repair of DNA lesions that can be achieved by inhibiting the activity of key DNA repair enzymes. To this end several benzopentathiepine and benzo[1,3]dithiol derivatives were synthesized and tested as inhibitors of the key base excision repair (BER enzymes, PARP1, DNA polymerase β, and APE1. Methods. The procedure of synthesis of several new compounds was developed. The inhibitory capacity of the compounds was estimated by comparison of the enzyme activities in specific tests in the presence of compounds versus their absence. Results. Benzopentathiepine derivative bearing trifluoromethyl group at the 1st position was shown to be a weak inhibitor of PARP1. Cyclic substituents at the 1st position attached through amide bond bring about moderate enhancement of pol β inhibition. Each studied substituent at the 1st position considerably increases the inhibition of APE1-catalyzed hydrolysis of AP sites as compared to parent compound. Conclusions. Several new inhibitors of BER enzymes were revealed. The directions for further modification of compounds to improve their inhibitory activity were found out.

  3. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de, E-mail: nadja@iq.usp.br

    2015-06-15

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin.

  4. Phyllodes Tumors and Fibroepithelial Lesions with Cellular Stroma of the Breast and Diagnosed by Sonographically Guided Core Needle Biopsy: A Comparison Between the Results of Excision Biopsy and the Sonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Rho, Ji Young [CHA University College of Medicine, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the histologic concordance of sonographically guided core needle biopsy for phyllodes tumors or fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma of the breast by comparing this with the outcomes of excision biopsy and to identify any sonographic features that are helpful to predict phyllodes tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 60 breast masses that were diagnosed as phyllodes tumors (n = 43) or fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma (n = 17) on a sonographically guided core needle biopsy. The tumors were all subsequently excised by surgery. The sonographic features were compared between the phyllodes tumors and the non-phyllodes tumors according to the results of excision biopsy. By the results on excision biopsy, there were 48 (80%) phyllodes tumors and 12 (20%) non-phyllodes tumors. Phyllodes tumors were diagnosed at a rate of 90.7% (39/43) for the nodules with phyllodes tumors on the sonographically guided core needle biopsy, and at a rate of 52.9% (9/17) for the nodules with fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma on the sonographically guided core needle biopsy. On sonography, heterogeneous internal echotexture (58% vs. 17%, respectively, p = 0.0239), clefts (56% vs. 17%, respectively, p = 0.0331) and horizontal linear striations (71% vs. 33%, respectively, p = 0.0221) were significantly more frequent in the phyllodes tumors than that in the non-phyllodes tumors. Identification of a heterogeneous-internal echotexture, clefts and horizontal linear striations on sonography might help differentiate phyllodes tumors from non-phyllodes tumors

  5. Pol β associated complex and base excision repair factors in mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Williams, Jason G; Hou, Esther W; Wilson, Samuel H

    2012-12-01

    During mammalian base excision repair (BER) of lesion-containing DNA, it is proposed that toxic strand-break intermediates generated throughout the pathway are sequestered and passed from one step to the next until repair is complete. This stepwise process is termed substrate channeling. A working model evaluated here is that a complex of BER factors may facilitate the BER process. FLAG-tagged DNA polymerase (pol) β was expressed in mouse fibroblasts carrying a deletion in the endogenous pol β gene, and the cell extract was subjected to an 'affinity-capture' procedure using anti-FLAG antibody. The pol β affinity-capture fraction (ACF) was found to contain several BER factors including polymerase-1, X-ray cross-complementing factor1-DNA ligase III and enzymes involved in processing 3'-blocked ends of BER intermediates, e.g. polynucleotide kinase and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1. In contrast, DNA glycosylases, apurinic/aprymidinic endonuclease 1 and flap endonuclease 1 and several other factors involved in BER were not present. Some of the BER factors in the pol β ACF were in a multi-protein complex as observed by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The pol β ACF was capable of substrate channeling for steps in vitro BER and was proficient in in vitro repair of substrates mimicking a 3'-blocked topoisomerase I covalent intermediate or an oxidative stress-induced 3'-blocked intermediate. PMID:23042675

  6. On-bead fluorescent DNA nanoprobes to analyze base excision repair activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •On magnetic beads fluorescent enzymatic assays. •Simple, easy, non-radioactive and electrophoresis-free functional assay. •Lesion-containing hairpin DNA probes are selective for repair enzymes. •The biosensing platform allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or within cell free extracts. -- Abstract: DNA integrity is constantly threatened by endogenous and exogenous agents that can modify its physical and chemical structure. Changes in DNA sequence can cause mutations sparked by some genetic diseases or cancers. Organisms have developed efficient defense mechanisms able to specifically repair each kind of lesion (alkylation, oxidation, single or double strand break, mismatch, etc). Here we report the adjustment of an original assay to detect enzymes’ activity of base excision repair (BER), that supports a set of lesions including abasic sites, alkylation, oxidation or deamination products of bases. The biosensor is characterized by a set of fluorescent hairpin-shaped nucleic acid probes supported on magnetic beads, each containing a selective lesion targeting a specific BER enzyme. We have studied the DNA glycosylase alkyl-adenine glycosylase (AAG) and the human AP-endonuclease (APE1) by incorporating within the DNA probe a hypoxanthine lesion or an abasic site analog (tetrahydrofuran), respectively. Enzymatic repair activity induces the formation of a nick in the damaged strand, leading to probe's break, that is detected in the supernatant by fluorescence. The functional assay allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or in cell-free extracts in a fast, specific, quantitative and sensitive way, using only 1 pmol of probe for a test. We recorded a detection limit of 1 μg mL−1 and 50 μg mL−1 of HeLa nuclear extracts for APE1 and AAG enzymes, respectively. Finally, the on-bead assay should be useful to screen inhibitors of DNA repair activities

  7. Measurement of DNA base and nucleotide excision repair activities in mammalian cells and tissues using the comet assay - A methodological overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Azqueta, A.; Langie, S. A. S.; Slyšková, Jana; Collins, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2013), s. 1007-1010. ISSN 1568-7864 Grant ostatní: EU FP6(XE) LSHB-CT-2006-037575 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : comet assay * base excision repair * nucleotide excision repair Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.362, year: 2013

  8. Nonhomologous end joining of complex DNA double-strand breaks with proximal thymine glycol and interplay with base excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohaini, Mohammed; Chalasani, Sri Lakshmi; Bafail, Duaa; Akopiants, Konstantin; Zhou, Tong; Yannone, Steven M; Ramsden, Dale A; Hartman, Matthew C T; Povirk, Lawrence F

    2016-05-01

    DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation are often accompanied by ancillary oxidative base damage that may prevent or delay their repair. In order to better define the features that make some DSBs repair-resistant, XLF-dependent nonhomologous end joining of blunt-ended DSB substrates having the oxidatively modified nonplanar base thymine glycol at the first (Tg1), second (Tg2), third (Tg3) or fifth (Tg5) positions from one 3' terminus, was examined in human whole-cell extracts. Tg at the third position had little effect on end-joining even when present on both ends of the break. However, Tg as the terminal or penultimate base was a major barrier to end joining (>10-fold reduction in ligated products) and an absolute barrier when present at both ends. Dideoxy trapping of base excision repair intermediates indicated that Tg was excised from Tg1, Tg2 and Tg3 largely if not exclusively after DSB ligation. However, Tg was rapidly excised from the Tg5 substrate, resulting in a reduced level of DSB ligation, as well as slow concomitant resection of the opposite strand. Ligase reactions containing only purified Ku, XRCC4, ligase IV and XLF showed that ligation of Tg3 and Tg5 was efficient and only partially XLF-dependent, whereas ligation of Tg1 and Tg2 was inefficient and only detectable in the presence of XLF. Overall, the results suggest that promoting ligation of DSBs with proximal base damage may be an important function of XLF, but that Tg can still be a major impediment to repair, being relatively resistant to both trimming and ligation. Moreover, it appears that base excision repair of Tg can sometimes interfere with repair of DSBs that would otherwise be readily rejoined. PMID:27049455

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi contains a single detectable uracil-DNA glycosylase and repairs uracil exclusively via short patch base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Akbari, Mansour; Sundheim, Ottar; Farez-Vidal, M Esther; Andersen, Sonja; Sneve, Ragnhild; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Krokan, Hans E; Slupphaug, Geir

    2004-01-01

    Enzymes involved in genomic maintenance of human parasites are attractive targets for parasite-specific drugs. The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi contains at least two enzymes involved in the protection against potentially mutagenic uracil, a deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (d......UTPase) and a uracil-DNA glycosylase belonging to the highly conserved UNG-family. Uracil-DNA glycosylase activities excise uracil from DNA and initiate a multistep base-excision repair (BER) pathway to restore the correct nucleotide sequence. Here we report the biochemical characterisation of T.cruzi UNG (Tc......UNG) and its contribution to the total uracil repair activity in T.cruzi. TcUNG is shown to be the major uracil-DNA glycosylase in T.cruzi. The purified recombinant TcUNG exhibits substrate preference for removal of uracil in the order ssU>U:G>U:A, and has no associated thymine-DNA glycosylase activity. T.cruzi...

  10. A nanotube based electron microbeam cellular irradiator for radiobiology research

    OpenAIRE

    Bordelon, David E.; Zhang, Jian; Graboski, Sarah; Cox, Adrienne; Schreiber, Eric; Zhou, Otto Z.; Chang, Sha

    2008-01-01

    A prototype cellular irradiator utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission electron source has been developed for microscopic image-guided cellular region irradiation. The CNT cellular irradiation system has shown great potential to be a high temporal and spatial resolution research tool to enable researchers to gain a better understanding of the intricate cellular and intercellular microprocesses occurring following radiation deposition, which is essential to improving radiothera...

  11. Metal inhibition of human alkylpurine-DNA-N-glycosylase activityin base excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping; Guliaev, Anton B.; Hang, Bo

    2006-02-28

    Cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}), nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) and cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) are human and/or animal carcinogens. Zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) is not categorized as a carcinogen, and rather an essential element to humans. Metals were recently shown to inhibit DNA repair proteins that use metals for their function and/or structure. Here we report that the divalent ions Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} can inhibit the activity of a recombinant human N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG) toward a deoxyoligonucleotide with ethenoadenine (var epsilonA). MPG removes a variety of toxic/mutagenic alkylated bases and does not require metal for its catalytic activity or structural integrity. At concentrations starting from 50 to 1000 {micro}M, both Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} showed metal-dependent inhibition of the MPG catalytic activity. Ni{sup 2+} also inhibited MPG, but to a lesser extent. Such an effect can be reversed with EDTA addition. In contrast, Co{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} did not inhibit the MPG activity in the same dose range. Experiments using HeLa cell-free extracts demonstrated similar patterns of inactivation of the var epsilonA excision activity by the same metals. Binding of MPG to the substrate was not significantly affected by Cd{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Ni{sup 2+} at concentrations that show strong inhibition of the catalytic function, suggesting that the reduced catalytic activity is not due to altered MPG binding affinity to the substrate. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with Zn{sup 2+} showed that the MPG active site has a potential binding site for Zn{sup 2+}, formed by several catalytically important and conserved residues. Metal binding to such a site is expected to interfere with the catalytic mechanism of this protein. These data suggest that inhibition of MPG activity may contribute to metal genotoxicity and depressed repair of alkylation damage by metals in vivo.

  12. Comparative assessment of plasmid and oligonucleotide DNA substrates in measurement of in vitro base excision repair activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Esther W.; Prasad, Rajendra; Asagoshi, Kenjiro; Masaoka, Aya; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian base excision repair (BER) is mediated through at least two subpathways designated ‘single-nucleotide’ (SN) and ‘long-patch’ (LP) BER (2-nucleotides long/more repair patch). Two forms of DNA substrate are generally used for in vitro BER assays: oligonucleotide- and plasmid-based. For plasmid-based BER assays, the availability of large quantities of substrate DNA with a specific lesion remains the limiting factor. Using sequence-specific endonucleases that cleave only one strand of D...

  13. Repair of DNA damage in mammalian cells after treatment with UV and dimethyl sulphate: discrimination between nucleotide and base excision repair by their temperature dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjertvik, M; Erixon, K; Ahnström, G

    1998-03-01

    Alkylating agents have been reported to give rise to both short and long patches of repair. The reason for the different patch sizes is not known. One possibility is that alkylating agents can trigger both base and nucleotide excision repair. Another possibility is that base excision repair itself can result in different patch sizes. Recognition and incision at lesions is the rate limiting step in excision repair. In order to discriminate between base and nucleotide excision repair it would be desirable to be able to distinguish between different incision activities. In order to accurately measure incision rates, the rejoining of the strand-breaks formed must be inhibited. We have used two inhibitors, aphidicolin and 3-aminobenzamide. Aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA polymerases alpha/delta/epsilon. caused accumulation of single-strand breaks both after UV and dimethylsulphate. 3-Aminobenzamide, an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase caused accumulation of single-strand breaks only after alkylating agents and is thus specific for base excision repair. Enzymatic activities can be characterised by their activation energy. In order to discriminate between base and nucleotide excision repair the temperature dependence of incision activities was determined. When the temperature is decreased, the incision rate is reduced to a larger extent for UV than for DMS-induced repair. Incisions in UV-irradiated cells are practically cut off at temperatures of 15 degrees C and below, whereas DMS-exposed cells still are actively repairing at this temperature. In DMS treated cells the temperature dependence was the same whether aphidicolin or 3-aminobenzamide was used, speaking against an involvement of nucleotide excision repair. In addition, cell lines deficient in nucleotide excision repair responded in the same way to aphidicolin after DMS treatment as normal cells and were able to make incisions at 15 degrees C. This indicates that nucleotide excision repair is not to any

  14. Differential modes of DNA binding by mismatch uracil DNA glycosylase from Escherichia coli: implications for abasic lesion processing and enzyme communication in the base excision repair pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Grippon, Seden; Zhao, Qiyuan; Robinson, Tom; Marshall, Jacqueline J. T.; O’Neill, Rory J.; Manning, Hugh; Kennedy, Gordon; Dunsby, Christopher; Neil, Mark; Halford, Stephen E.; French, Paul M. W.; Baldwin, Geoff S.

    2010-01-01

    Mismatch uracil DNA glycosylase (Mug) from Escherichia coli is an initiating enzyme in the base-excision repair pathway. As with other DNA glycosylases, the abasic product is potentially more harmful than the initial lesion. Since Mug is known to bind its product tightly, inhibiting enzyme turnover, understanding how Mug binds DNA is of significance when considering how Mug interacts with downstream enzymes in the base-excision repair pathway. We have demonstrated differential binding modes o...

  15. Mutants of the Base Excision Repair Glycosylase, Endonuclease III: DNA Charge Transport as a First Step in Lesion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Christine A.; Sontz, Pamela A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2011-01-01

    Endonuclease III (EndoIII) is a base excision repair glycosylase that targets damaged pyrimidines and contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster. We have proposed a model where BER proteins that contain redox-active [4Fe-4S] clusters utilize DNA charge transport (CT) as a first step in the detection of DNA lesions. Here, several mutants of EndoIII were prepared to probe their efficiency of DNA/protein charge transport. Cyclic voltammetry experiments on DNA-modified electrodes show that aromatic residues F30...

  16. Cellular-based sea level gauge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.

    treaties with greater transparency. Among the various communication technologies used for real-time transmission of sea-level data are the wired telephone connection, VHF/UHF transceivers, satellite transmit terminals and cellular connectivity. Wired... telephone connections are severely susceptible to loss of connectivity during natural disasters such as storm surges, primarily because of telephone line breakage. Communication via VHF/UHF transceivers is limited by line-of-sight distance between...

  17. Mammalian Base Excision Repair: Functional Partnership between PARP-1 and APE1 in AP-Site Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    Full Text Available The apurinic/apyrimidinic- (AP- site in genomic DNA arises through spontaneous base loss and base removal by DNA glycosylases and is considered an abundant DNA lesion in mammalian cells. The base excision repair (BER pathway repairs the AP-site lesion by excising and replacing the site with a normal nucleotide via template directed gap-filling DNA synthesis. The BER pathway is mediated by a specialized group of proteins, some of which can be found in multiprotein complexes in cultured mouse fibroblasts. Using a DNA polymerase (pol β immunoaffinity-capture technique to isolate such a complex, we identified five tightly associated and abundant BER factors in the complex: PARP-1, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, PNKP, and Tdp1. AP endonuclease 1 (APE1, however, was not present. Nevertheless, the complex was capable of BER activity, since repair was initiated by PARP-1's AP lyase strand incision activity. Addition of purified APE1 increased the BER activity of the pol β complex. Surprisingly, the pol β complex stimulated the strand incision activity of APE1. Our results suggested that PARP-1 was responsible for this effect, whereas other proteins in the complex had no effect on APE1 strand incision activity. Studies of purified PARP-1 and APE1 revealed that PARP-1 was able to stimulate APE1 strand incision activity. These results illustrate roles of PARP-1 in BER including a functional partnership with APE1.

  18. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  19. TRAFFIC FLOW MODEL BASED ON CELLULAR AUTOMATION WITH ADAPTIVE DECELERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Shinkarev, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes continuation of the authors’ work in the field of traffic flow mathematical models based on the cellular automata theory. The refactored representation of the multifactorial traffic flow model based on the cellular automata theory is used for a representation of an adaptive deceleration step implementation. The adaptive deceleration step in the case of a leader deceleration allows slowing down smoothly but not instantly. Concepts of the number of time steps without confli...

  20. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria protects cells against oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial DNA base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mansour; Keijzers, Guido; Maynard, Scott;

    2014-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is the most prominent DNA repair pathway in human mitochondria. BER also results in a temporary generation of AP-sites, single-strand breaks and nucleotide gaps. Thus, incomplete BER can result in the generation of DNA repair intermediates that can disrupt mitochondrial...... rotenone. Our results suggest that the amount of DNA ligase III in mitochondria may be critical for cell survival following prolonged oxidative stress, and demonstrate a functional link between mitochondrial DNA damage and repair, cell survival upon oxidative stress, and removal of dysfunctional...... DNA replication and transcription and generate mutations. We carried out BER analysis in highly purified mitochondrial extracts from human cell lines U2OS and HeLa, and mouse brain using a circular DNA substrate containing a lesion at a specific position. We found that DNA ligation is significantly...

  1. Cellular Phone Base Stations: Technology and Exposures (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles and practice of cellular radio systems for mobile communications are presented using GSM 1800 as a reference system. In particular, the concepts of small cells and frequency re-use and the components of radio base station technology are described. Public and cellular broadcasting have been widely available for many years and a brief history is given to indicate length of exposure from these sources. National and international guidelines for safe exposure to non-ionising radiation are used by cellular operators to define exclusion zones around transmitting antennas. A methodology for calculating an exclusion zone is described, together with an example for a typical antenna configuration. Estimated levels of exposure near practical base stations are given and comparisons made with other sources of RF radiation. Finally, the digital nature of today's cellular radio systems, such as GSM, are explained and the implications described. (author)

  2. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons

  3. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Jiang, Yanlin [Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Kelley, Mark R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Vasko, Michael R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Lee, Suk-Hee, E-mail: slee@iu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons.

  4. Distinct spatio temporal patterns and PARP dependence of XRCC1 recruitment to single-strand break and base excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-strand break repair (SSBR) and base excision repair (BER) of modified bases and abasic sites share several players. Among them is XRCC1, an essential scaffold protein with no enzymatic activity, required for the coordination of both pathways. XRCC1 is recruited to SSBR by PARP-1, responsible for the initial recognition of the break. The recruitment of XRCC1 to BER is still poorly understood. Here we show by using both local and global induction of oxidative DNA base damage that XRCC1 participation in BER complexes can be distinguished from that in SSBR by several criteria. We show first that XRCC1 recruitment to BER is independent of PARP. Second, unlike SSBR complexes that are assembled within minutes after global damage induction, XRCC1 is detected later in BER patches, with kinetics consistent with the repair of oxidized bases. Third, while XRCC1-containing foci associated with SSBR are formed both in eu- and heterochromatin domains, BER complexes are assembled in patches that are essentially excluded from heterochromatin and where the oxidized bases are detected. (authors)

  5. Cellular automaton-based position sensitive detector equalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando, Nestor [Grupo de Diseno de Sistemas Digitales, Instituto de Aplicaciones de las Tecnologias de la Informacion y de las Comunicaciones Avanzadas, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: nesferjo@upvnet.upv.es; Herrero, V.; Cerda, J.; Lerche, C.W.; Colom, R.J.; Gadea, R.; Martinez, J.D.; Monzo, J.M.; Mateo, F.; Sebastia, A.; Benlloch, J.M. [Grupo de Diseno de Sistemas Digitales, Instituto de Aplicaciones de las Tecnologias de la Informacion y de las Comunicaciones Avanzadas, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    Indirect position detectors based on scintillator crystals lack of spacial uniformity in their response. This happens due to crystal inhomogeneities and gain differences among the photomultiplier anodes. In order to solve this, PESIC, an integrated front-end for multianode photomultiplier based nuclear imaging devices was created. One of its main features is the digitally programmable gain adjustment for every photomultiplier output. On another front, cellular automata have been proved to be a useful method for dynamic system modeling. In this paper, a cellular automaton which emulates the behavior of the scintillator crystal, the photomultiplier and the front-end is introduced. Thanks to this model, an automatic energy-based calibration of the detector can be done by configuring the cellular automaton with experimental data and making it evolve up to an stable state. This can be useful as a precalibration method of the detector.

  6. Optimising base station location for UMTS cellular networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid development of universal mobile telecommunication systems put demands on tools for assisting planning of cellular network infrastructure. The tools need to focus on critical issues in modern cellular networks and techniques used for previous generation system no longer serve useful. In this paper, an algorithm based on Branch and Bound approach is proposed for solving base station location problem, covering interference levels, traffic demands and power control mechanism. The efficiency of the algorithm is evaluated with respect to existing approaches for solving this problem – using the designed and implemented experimentation system

  7. Variation within 3' UTRs of base excision repair genes and response to therapy in colorectal cancer patients: a potential modulation of microRNAs binding.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pardini, B.; Rosa, F.; Barone, E.; Di Gaetano, C.; Slyšková, Jana; Novotný, J.; Levý, M.; Garritano, S.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Buchler, T.; Gemignani, F.; Landi, S.; Vodička, Pavel; Naccarati, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 21 (2013), s. 6044-6056. ISSN 1078-0432 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/10/1286; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1585 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : colorectal cancer * base excision repair * survival Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.193, year: 2013

  8. DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, Ana; Milne, Roger L; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline;

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of th...

  9. The Base Excision Repair system of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium counteracts DNA damage by host nitric oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Richardson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular pathogens must withstand nitric oxide (NO. generated by host phagocytes. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium interferes with intracellular trafficking of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and possesses multiple systems to detoxify NO.. Consequently, the level of NO. stress encountered by S. Typhimurium during infection in vivo has been unknown. The Base Excision Repair (BER system recognizes and repairs damaged DNA bases including cytosine and guanine residues modified by reactive nitrogen species. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP sites generated by BER glycosylases require subsequent processing by AP endonucleases. S. Typhimurium xth nfo mutants lacking AP endonuclease activity exhibit increased NO. sensitivity resulting from chromosomal fragmentation at unprocessed AP sites. BER mutant strains were thus used to probe the nature and extent of nitrosative damage sustained by intracellular bacteria during infection. Here we show that an xth nfo S. Typhimurium mutant is attenuated for virulence in C3H/HeN mice, and virulence can be completely restored by the iNOS inhibitor L-NIL. Inactivation of the ung or fpg glycosylase genes partially restores virulence to xth nfo mutant S. Typhimurium, demonstrating that NO. fluxes in vivo are sufficient to modify cytosine and guanine bases, respectively. Mutants lacking ung or fpg exhibit NO.-dependent hypermutability during infection, underscoring the importance of BER in protecting Salmonella from the genotoxic effects of host NO.. These observations demonstrate that host-derived NO. damages Salmonella DNA in vivo, and the BER system is required to maintain bacterial genomic integrity.

  10. 3CAPS – a structural AP–site analogue as a tool to investigate DNA base excision repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermann, David; Scheidegger, Simon P.; Weber, Alain R.; Bjørås, Magnar; Leumann, Christian J.; Schär, Primo

    2016-01-01

    Abasic sites (AP-sites) are frequent DNA lesions, arising by spontaneous base hydrolysis or as intermediates of base excision repair (BER). The hemiacetal at the anomeric centre renders them chemically reactive, which presents a challenge to biochemical and structural investigation. Chemically more stable AP-site analogues have been used to avoid spontaneous decay, but these do not fully recapitulate the features of natural AP–sites. With its 3′–phosphate replaced by methylene, the abasic site analogue 3CAPS was suggested to circumvent some of these limitations. Here, we evaluated the properties of 3CAPS in biochemical BER assays with mammalian proteins. 3CAPS-containing DNA substrates were processed by APE1, albeit with comparably poor efficiency. APE1-cleaved 3CAPS can be extended by DNA polymerase β but repaired only by strand displacement as the 5′–deoxyribophosphate (dRP) cannot be removed. DNA glycosylases physically and functionally interact with 3CAPS substrates, underlining its structural integrity and biochemical reactivity. The AP lyase activity of bifunctional DNA glycosylases (NTH1, NEIL1, FPG), however, was fully inhibited. Notably, 3CAPS-containing DNA also effectively inhibited the activity of bifunctional glycosylases on authentic substrates. Hence, the chemically stable 3CAPS with its preserved hemiacetal functionality is a potent tool for BER research and a potential inhibitor of bifunctional DNA glycosylases. PMID:26733580

  11. Reprint of "Oxidant and environmental toxicant-induced effects compromise DNA ligation during base excision DNA repair".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağlayan, Melike; Wilson, Samuel H

    2015-12-01

    DNA lesions arise from many endogenous and environmental agents, and such lesions can promote deleterious events leading to genomic instability and cell death. Base excision repair (BER) is the main DNA repair pathway responsible for repairing single strand breaks, base lesions and abasic sites in mammalian cells. During BER, DNA substrates and repair intermediates are channeled from one step to the next in a sequential fashion so that release of toxic repair intermediates is minimized. This includes handoff of the product of gap-filling DNA synthesis to the DNA ligation step. The conformational differences in DNA polymerase β (pol β) associated with incorrect or oxidized nucleotide (8-oxodGMP) insertion could impact channeling of the repair intermediate to the final step of BER, i.e., DNA ligation by DNA ligase I or the DNA Ligase III/XRCC1 complex. Thus, modified DNA ligase substrates produced by faulty pol β gap-filling could impair coordination between pol β and DNA ligase. Ligation failure is associated with 5'-AMP addition to the repair intermediate and accumulation of strand breaks that could be more toxic than the initial DNA lesions. Here, we provide an overview of the consequences of ligation failure in the last step of BER. We also discuss DNA-end processing mechanisms that could play roles in reversal of impaired BER. PMID:26596511

  12. WWW Business Applications Based on the Cellular Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshio Kodama; Tosiyasu L. Kunii; Yoichi Seki

    2008-01-01

    A cellular model based on the Incrementally Modular Abstraction Hierarchy (IMAH) is a novel model that can represent the architecture of and changes in cyberworlds, preserving invariants from a general level to a specific one. We have developed a data processing system called the Cellular Data System (CDS). In the development of business applications, you can prevent combinatorial explosion in the process of business design and testing by using CDS. In this paper, we have first designed and implemented wide-use algebra on the presentation level. Next, we have developed and verified the effectiveness of two general business applications using CDS: 1) a customer information management system, and 2) an estimate system.

  13. A NOVEL ARCHITECTURE FOR SDN-BASED CELLULAR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Humayun Kabir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel SDN-based cellular network architecture that will be able to utilize the opportunities of centralized administration of today’s emerging mobile network. Our proposed architecture would not depend on a single controller, rather it divides the whole cellular area into clusters, and each cluster is controlled by a separate controller. A number of controller services are provided on top of each controller to manage all the major functionalities of the network and help to make the network programmable and more agile, and create opportunities for policy-driven supervision and more automation.

  14. Bases of Schur algebras associated to cellularly stratified diagram algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bowman, C

    2011-01-01

    We examine homomorphisms between induced modules for a certain class of cellularly stratified diagram algebras, including the BMW algebra, Temperley-Lieb algebra, Brauer algebra, and (quantum) walled Brauer algebra. We define the `permutation' modules for these algebras, these are one-sided ideals which allow us to study the diagrammatic Schur algebras of Hartmann, Henke, Koenig and Paget. We construct bases of these Schur algebras in terms of modified tableaux. On the way we prove that the (quantum) walled Brauer algebra and the Temperley-Lieb algebra are both cellularly stratified and therefore have well-defined Specht filtrations.

  15. A nanotube based electron microbeam cellular irradiator for radiobiology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, David E.; Zhang, Jian; Graboski, Sarah; Cox, Adrienne; Schreiber, Eric; Zhou, Otto Z.; Chang, Sha

    2008-12-01

    A prototype cellular irradiator utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission electron source has been developed for microscopic image-guided cellular region irradiation. The CNT cellular irradiation system has shown great potential to be a high temporal and spatial resolution research tool to enable researchers to gain a better understanding of the intricate cellular and intercellular microprocesses occurring following radiation deposition, which is essential to improving radiotherapy cancer treatment outcomes. In this paper, initial results of the system development are reported. The relationship between field emission current, the dose rate, and the dose distribution has been investigated. A beam size of 23 μm has been achieved with variable dose rates of 1-100 Gy/s, and the system dosimetry has been measured using a radiochromic film. Cell irradiation has been demonstrated by the visualization of H2AX phosphorylation at DNA double-strand break sites following irradiation in a rat fibroblast cell monolayer. The prototype single beam cellular irradiator is a preliminary step to a multipixel cell irradiator that is under development.

  16. A nanotube based electron microbeam cellular irradiator for radiobiology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype cellular irradiator utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission electron source has been developed for microscopic image-guided cellular region irradiation. The CNT cellular irradiation system has shown great potential to be a high temporal and spatial resolution research tool to enable researchers to gain a better understanding of the intricate cellular and intercellular microprocesses occurring following radiation deposition, which is essential to improving radiotherapy cancer treatment outcomes. In this paper, initial results of the system development are reported. The relationship between field emission current, the dose rate, and the dose distribution has been investigated. A beam size of 23 μm has been achieved with variable dose rates of 1-100 Gy/s, and the system dosimetry has been measured using a radiochromic film. Cell irradiation has been demonstrated by the visualization of H2AX phosphorylation at DNA double-strand break sites following irradiation in a rat fibroblast cell monolayer. The prototype single beam cellular irradiator is a preliminary step to a multipixel cell irradiator that is under development.

  17. C. elegans lifespan extension by osmotic stress requires FUdR, base excision repair, FOXO, and sirtuins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Edward N; Corkins, Mark E; Li, Jia-Cheng; Singh, Komudi; Parsons, Sadé; Tucey, Tim M; Sorkaç, Altar; Huang, Huiyan; Dimitriadi, Maria; Sinclair, David A; Hart, Anne C

    2016-03-01

    Moderate stress can increase lifespan by hormesis, a beneficial low-level induction of stress response pathways. 5'-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR) is commonly used to sterilize Caenorhabditis elegans in aging experiments. However, FUdR alters lifespan in some genotypes and induces resistance to thermal and proteotoxic stress. We report that hypertonic stress in combination with FUdR treatment or inhibition of the FUdR target thymidylate synthase, TYMS-1, extends C. elegans lifespan by up to 30%. By contrast, in the absence of FUdR, hypertonic stress decreases lifespan. Adaptation to hypertonic stress requires diminished Notch signaling and loss of Notch co-ligands leads to lifespan extension only in combination with FUdR. Either FUdR treatment or TYMS-1 loss induced resistance to acute hypertonic stress, anoxia, and thermal stress. FUdR treatment increased expression of DAF-16 FOXO and the osmolyte biosynthesis enzyme GPDH-1. FUdR-induced hypertonic stress resistance was partially dependent on sirtuins and base excision repair (BER) pathways, while FUdR-induced lifespan extension under hypertonic stress conditions requires DAF-16, BER, and sirtuin function. Combined, these results demonstrate that FUdR, through inhibition of TYMS-1, activates stress response pathways in somatic tissues to confer hormetic resistance to acute and chronic stress. C. elegans lifespan studies using FUdR may need re-interpretation in light of this work. PMID:26854551

  18. Mammary gland selective excision of c-jun identifies its role in mRNA splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyar, Sanjay; Jiao, Xuanmao; Addya, Sankar; Ertel, Adam; Rose, Vanessa; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Zhou, Jie; Lisanti, Michael P; Nasim, Talat; Fortina, Paolo; Pestell, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The c-jun gene regulates cellular proliferation and apoptosis via direct regulation of cellular gene expression. Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA increases the diversity of protein functions and alternate splicing events occur in tumors. Here, by targeting the excision of the endogenous c-jun gene within the mouse mammary epithelium, we have identified its selective role as an inhibitor of RNA splicing. Microarray-based assessment of gene expression, on laser capture micro-dissected c-jun−/− ...

  19. Ion beam analysis based on cellular nonlinear networks

    OpenAIRE

    Senger, V.; R. Tetzlaff; H. Reichau; Ratzinger, U.

    2011-01-01

    The development of a non- destructive measurement method for ion beam parameters has been treated in various projects. Although results are promising, the high complexity of beam dynamics has made it impossible to implement a real time process control up to now. In this paper we will propose analysing methods based on the dynamics of Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) that can be implemented on pixel parallel CNN based architectures and yield satisfying results even at low re...

  20. Ion beam analysis based on cellular nonlinear networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, V.; Tetzlaff, R.; Reichau, H.; Ratzinger, U.

    2011-07-01

    The development of a non- destructive measurement method for ion beam parameters has been treated in various projects. Although results are promising, the high complexity of beam dynamics has made it impossible to implement a real time process control up to now. In this paper we will propose analysing methods based on the dynamics of Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) that can be implemented on pixel parallel CNN based architectures and yield satisfying results even at low resolutions.

  1. Performance evaluation of cellular phone network based portable ECG device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, cellular phone network based portable ECG device was developed and three experiments were performed to evaluate the accuracy, reliability and operability, applicability during daily life of the developed device. First, ECG signals were measured using the developed device and Biopac device (reference device) during sitting and marking time and compared to verify the accuracy of R-R intervals. Second, the reliable data transmission to remote server was verified on two types of simulated emergency event using patient simulator. Third, during daily life with five types of motion, accuracy of data transmission to remote server was verified on two types of event occurring. By acquiring and comparing subject's biomedical signal and motion signal, the accuracy, reliability and operability, applicability during daily life of the developed device were verified. Therefore, cellular phone network based portable ECG device can monitor patient with inobtrusive manner. PMID:19162767

  2. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ivey, Jill W.; Eduardo L. Latouche; Sano, Michael B.; John H. Rossmeisl; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pu...

  3. Finite Field Arithmetic Architecture Based on Cellular Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Won Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various finite field arithmetic structures are introduced for VLSI circuit implementation on cryptosystems and error correcting codes. In this study, we present an efficient finite field arithmetic architecture based on cellular semi-systolic array for Montgomery multiplication by choosing a proper Montgomery factor which is highly suitable for the design on parallel structures. Therefore, our architecture has reduced a time complexity by 50% compared to typical architecture.

  4. Cellular-Based Statistical Model for Mobile Dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla, Mouhamed; Shayan, Yousef R.

    2013-01-01

    While analyzing mobile systems we often approximate the actual coverage surface and assume an ideal cell shape. In a multi-cellular network, because of its tessellating nature, a hexagon is more preferred than a circular geometry. Despite this reality, perhaps due to the inherent simplicity, only a model for circular based random spreading is available. However, if used, this results an unfair terminal distribution for non-circular contours. Therefore, in this paper we specifically derived an...

  5. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures...

  6. Cellular Automata-Based Parallel Random Number Generators Using FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. K. Hoe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular computing represents a new paradigm for implementing high-speed massively parallel machines. Cellular automata (CA, which consist of an array of locally connected processing elements, are a basic form of a cellular-based architecture. The use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs for implementing CA accelerators has shown promising results. This paper investigates the design of CA-based pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs using an FPGA platform. To improve the quality of the random numbers that are generated, the basic CA structure is enhanced in two ways. First, the addition of a superrule to each CA cell is considered. The resulting self-programmable CA (SPCA uses the superrule to determine when to make a dynamic rule change in each CA cell. The superrule takes its inputs from neighboring cells and can be considered itself a second CA working in parallel with the main CA. When implemented on an FPGA, the use of lookup tables in each logic cell removes any restrictions on how the super-rules should be defined. Second, a hybrid configuration is formed by combining a CA with a linear feedback shift register (LFSR. This is advantageous for FPGA designs due to the compactness of the LFSR implementations. A standard software package for statistically evaluating the quality of random number sequences known as Diehard is used to validate the results. Both the SPCA and the hybrid CA/LFSR were found to pass all the Diehard tests.

  7. Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Xu, Jin-Yu; Li, Weimin

    2015-09-01

    Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material (BFRPGCM) was prepared. The stress-strain curve has been worked out. The ideal energy-absorbing efficiency has been analyzed and the application prospect has been explored. The results show the following: fiber reinforced cellular material has successively sized pore structures; the stress-strain curve has two stages: elastic stage and yielding plateau stage; the greatest value of the ideal energy-absorbing efficiency of BFRPGCM is 89.11%, which suggests BFRPGCM has excellent energy-absorbing property. Thus, it can be seen that BFRPGCM is easy and simple to make, has high plasticity, low density and excellent energy-absorbing features. So, BFRPGCM is a promising energy-absorbing material used especially in civil defense engineering.

  8. Coverage and Economy of Cellular Networks with Many Base Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seunghyun

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a cellular network can be significantly improved by employing many base stations (BSs), which shortens transmission distances. However, there exist no known results on quantifying the performance gains from deploying many BSs. To address this issue, we adopt a stochastic-geometry model of the downlink cellular network and analyze the mobile outage probability. Specifically, given Poisson distributed BSs, the outage probability is shown to diminish inversely with the increasing ratio between the BS and mobile densities. Furthermore, we analyze the optimal tradeoff between the performance gain from increasing the BS density and the resultant network cost accounting for energy consumption, BS hardware and backhaul cables. The optimal BS density is proved to be proportional to the square root of the mobile density and the inverse of the square root of the cost factors considered.

  9. Fire Spread Model for Old Towns Based on Cellular Automaton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Nan; WENG Wenguo; MA Wei; NI Shunjiang; HUANG Quanyi; YUAN Hongyong

    2008-01-01

    Old towns like Lijiang have enormous historic,artistic,and architectural value.The buildings in such old towns are usually made of highly combustible materials,such as wood and grass.If a fire breaks out,it will spread to multiple buildings,so fire spreading and controlling in old towns need to be studied.This paper presents a fire spread model for old towns based on cellular automaton.The cellular automaton rules were set according to historical fire data in empirical formulas.The model also considered the effects of climate.The simulation results were visualized in a geography information system.An example of a fire spread in Lijiang was investigated with the results showing that this model provides a realistic tool for predicting fire spread in old towns.Fire brigades can use this tool to predict when and how a fire spreads to minimize the losses.

  10. An inverse switch in DNA base excision and strand break repair contributes to melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta M L Sousa

    Full Text Available Alterations in checkpoint and DNA repair pathways may provide adaptive mechanisms contributing to acquired drug resistance. Here, we investigated the levels of proteins mediating DNA damage signaling and -repair in RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cells and its Melphalan-resistant derivative 8226-LR5. We observed markedly reduced steady-state levels of DNA glycosylases UNG2, NEIL1 and MPG in the resistant cells and cross-resistance to agents inducing their respective DNA base lesions. Conversely, repair of alkali-labile sites was apparently enhanced in the resistant cells, as substantiated by alkaline comet assay, autoribosylation of PARP-1, and increased sensitivity to PARP-1 inhibition by 4-AN or KU58684. Reduced base-excision and enhanced single-strand break repair would both contribute to the observed reduction in genomic alkali-labile sites, which could jeopardize productive processing of the more cytotoxic Melphalan-induced interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs. Furthermore, we found a marked upregulation of proteins in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ pathway of double-strand break (DSB repair, likely contributing to the observed increase in DSB repair kinetics in the resistant cells. Finally, we observed apparent upregulation of ATR-signaling and downregulation of ATM-signaling in the resistant cells. This was accompanied by markedly increased sensitivity towards Melphalan in the presence of ATR-, DNA-PK, or CHK1/2 inhibitors whereas no sensitizing effect was observed subsequent to ATM inhibition, suggesting that replication blocking lesions are primary triggers of the DNA damage response in the Melphalan resistant cells. In conclusion, Melphalan resistance is apparently contributed by modulation of the DNA damage response at multiple levels, including downregulation of specific repair pathways to avoid repair intermediates that could impair efficient processing of cytotoxic ICLs and ICL-induced DSBs. This study has revealed several novel

  11. DNA polymerase X from Deinococcus radiodurans implicated in bacterial tolerance to DNA damage is characterized as a short patch base excision repair polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Nivedita P; Misra, Hari S

    2009-09-01

    The Deinococcus radiodurans R1 genome encodes an X-family DNA repair polymerase homologous to eukaryotic DNA polymerase beta. The recombinant deinococcal polymerase X (PolX) purified from transgenic Escherichia coli showed deoxynucleotidyltransferase activity. Unlike the Klenow fragment of E. coli, this enzyme showed short patch DNA synthesis activity on heteropolymeric DNA substrate. The recombinant enzyme showed 5'-deoxyribose phosphate (5'-dRP) lyase activity and base excision repair function in vitro, with the help of externally supplied glycosylase and AP endonuclease functions. A polX disruption mutant of D. radiodurans expressing 5'-dRP lyase and a truncated polymerase domain was comparatively less sensitive to gamma-radiation than a polX deletion mutant. Both mutants showed higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. Excision repair mutants of E. coli expressing this polymerase showed functional complementation of UV sensitivity. These results suggest the involvement of deinococcal polymerase X in DNA-damage tolerance of D. radiodurans, possibly by contributing to DNA double-strand break repair and base excision repair. PMID:19542005

  12. Mathematical model for flood routing based on cellular automaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin CAI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing frequency and severity of flooding have caused tremendous damage in China, requiring more essential countermeasures to alleviate the damage. In this study, the dynamic simulation property of a cellular automaton was used to make further progress in flood routing. In consideration of terrain’s influence on flood routing, we regarded the terrain elevation as an auxiliary attribute of a two-dimensional cellular automaton in path selection for flood routing and developed a mathematical model based on a cellular automaton. A numerical case of propagation of an outburst flood in an area of the lower Yangtze River was analyzed with both the fixed-step and variable-step models. The results show that the flood does not spread simultaneously in all directions, but flows into the lower place first, and that the submerged area grows quickly at the beginning, but slowly later on. The final submerged areas obtained from the two different models are consistent, and the flood volume balance test shows that the flood volume meets the requirement of the total volume balance. The analysis of the case shows that the proposed model can be a valuable tool for flood routing.

  13. Excised radicle tips as a source of genomic DNA for PCR-based genotyping and melting curve analysis in cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Srinivasa Rao; P Sateesh Kumar; Ramesh V Sonti

    2013-03-01

    Genomic DNA isolation in cotton is complicated because of the presence of secondary metabolites that are inhibitory to PCR amplification. We report here that radicle tips, but not other parts of cotton seedlings, yield high-quality DNA that is readily amenable for PCR. The radicle-tip-excised seedlings retain viability because of the formation of adventitious roots. We demonstrate the utility of this method in distinguishing homozygotes from heterozygotes in a cotton breeding population and in hybrid seed purity testing.

  14. The role of base excision repair in the development of primary open angle glaucoma in the Polish population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuchra, Magda; Markiewicz, Lukasz; Mucha, Bartosz [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz (Poland); Pytel, Dariusz [The Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Szymanek, Katarzyna [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, SPKSO Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Szemraj, Janusz [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P. [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, SPKSO Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Majsterek, Ireneusz, E-mail: ireneusz.majsterek@umed.lodz.pl [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We suggested the association of XRCC1 gene with the increase risk of POAG development. • We indicated the association of clinical factor and XRCC1, MUTYH, ADPRT and APE1 genes with POAG progression. • We postulated the increase level of oxidative DNA damage in group of patients with POAG in relation to healthy controls. • We suggested the slightly decrease ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage. • This is the first data that showed the role of BER mechanism in POAG pathogenesis. - Abstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in developing countries. Previous data have shown that progressive loss of human TM cells may be connected with chronic exposure to oxidative stress. This hypothesis may suggest a role of the base excision repair (BER) pathway of oxidative DNA damage in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an association of BER gene polymorphism with a risk of POAG. Moreover, an association of clinical parameters was examined including cup disk ratio (c/d), rim area (RA) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) with glaucoma progression according to BER gene polymorphisms. Our research included 412 patients with POAG and 454 healthy controls. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) clinical parameters were also analyzed. The 399Arg/Gln genotype of the XRCC1 gene (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.02–1.89 p = 0.03) was associated with an increased risk of POAG occurrence. It was indicated that the 399Gln/Gln XRCC1 genotype might increase the risk of POAG progression according to the c/d ratio (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.07–2.61 P = 0.02) clinical parameter. Moreover, the association of VF factor with 148Asp/Glu of APE1 genotype distribution and POAG progression (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.30–3.89) was also found. Additionally, the analysis of the 324Gln/His MUTYH polymorphism gene distribution in the patient group according to RNFL factor showed that it might

  15. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 regulates activity of DNA polymerase {beta} in long patch base excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanova, Maria; Khodyreva, Svetlana [Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Lavrik, Olga, E-mail: lavrik@niboch.nsc.ru [Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-03-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1), functioning as DNA nick-sensor, interacts with base excision repair (BER) DNA intermediates containing single-strand breaks. When bound to DNA breaks, PARP1 catalyzes synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) covalently attached to itself and some nuclear proteins. Autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP1 facilitates its dissociation from DNA breaks and is considered as a factor regulating DNA repair. In the study, using system reconstituted from purified BER proteins, bovine testis nuclear extract and model BER DNA intermediates, we examined the influence of PARP1 and its autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation on DNA polymerase {beta} (Pol {beta})-mediated long patch (LP) BER DNA synthesis that is accomplished through a cooperation between Pol {beta} and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1) or flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and gap-filling activity of Pol {beta}. PARP1 upon interaction with nicked LP BER DNA intermediated, formed after gap-filling, was shown to suppress the subsequent steps in LP pathway. PARP1 interferes with APE1-dependent stimulation of DNA synthesis by Pol {beta} via strand-displacement mechanism. PARP1 also represses Pol {beta}/FEN1-mediated LP BER DNA synthesis via a 'gap translation' mechanism inhibiting FEN1 activity on the nicked DNA intermediate. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP1 abolishes its inhibitory influence on LP BER DNA synthesis catalyzed by Pol {beta} both via APE1-mediated strand-displacement and FEN1-mediated 'gap translation' mechanism. Thus PARP1 may act as a negative regulator of Pol {beta} activity in LP BER pathway and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP1 seems to play a critical role in enablement of Pol {beta}-mediated DNA synthesis in this process. In contrast, interaction of PARP1 with one nucleotide gapped DNA mimicking the intermediate of short patch (SP) BER slightly inhibits the gap-filling activity of Pol {beta} and the overall efficiency of SP BER is practically unaffected by PARP1. Thus

  16. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 regulates activity of DNA polymerase β in long patch base excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1), functioning as DNA nick-sensor, interacts with base excision repair (BER) DNA intermediates containing single-strand breaks. When bound to DNA breaks, PARP1 catalyzes synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) covalently attached to itself and some nuclear proteins. Autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP1 facilitates its dissociation from DNA breaks and is considered as a factor regulating DNA repair. In the study, using system reconstituted from purified BER proteins, bovine testis nuclear extract and model BER DNA intermediates, we examined the influence of PARP1 and its autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation on DNA polymerase β (Pol β)-mediated long patch (LP) BER DNA synthesis that is accomplished through a cooperation between Pol β and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1) or flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and gap-filling activity of Pol β. PARP1 upon interaction with nicked LP BER DNA intermediated, formed after gap-filling, was shown to suppress the subsequent steps in LP pathway. PARP1 interferes with APE1-dependent stimulation of DNA synthesis by Pol β via strand-displacement mechanism. PARP1 also represses Pol β/FEN1-mediated LP BER DNA synthesis via a 'gap translation' mechanism inhibiting FEN1 activity on the nicked DNA intermediate. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP1 abolishes its inhibitory influence on LP BER DNA synthesis catalyzed by Pol β both via APE1-mediated strand-displacement and FEN1-mediated 'gap translation' mechanism. Thus PARP1 may act as a negative regulator of Pol β activity in LP BER pathway and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP1 seems to play a critical role in enablement of Pol β-mediated DNA synthesis in this process. In contrast, interaction of PARP1 with one nucleotide gapped DNA mimicking the intermediate of short patch (SP) BER slightly inhibits the gap-filling activity of Pol β and the overall efficiency of SP BER is practically unaffected by PARP1. Thus, PARP1 differentially influences DNA synthesis in SP- and

  17. The role of base excision repair in the development of primary open angle glaucoma in the Polish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We suggested the association of XRCC1 gene with the increase risk of POAG development. • We indicated the association of clinical factor and XRCC1, MUTYH, ADPRT and APE1 genes with POAG progression. • We postulated the increase level of oxidative DNA damage in group of patients with POAG in relation to healthy controls. • We suggested the slightly decrease ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage. • This is the first data that showed the role of BER mechanism in POAG pathogenesis. - Abstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in developing countries. Previous data have shown that progressive loss of human TM cells may be connected with chronic exposure to oxidative stress. This hypothesis may suggest a role of the base excision repair (BER) pathway of oxidative DNA damage in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an association of BER gene polymorphism with a risk of POAG. Moreover, an association of clinical parameters was examined including cup disk ratio (c/d), rim area (RA) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) with glaucoma progression according to BER gene polymorphisms. Our research included 412 patients with POAG and 454 healthy controls. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) clinical parameters were also analyzed. The 399Arg/Gln genotype of the XRCC1 gene (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.02–1.89 p = 0.03) was associated with an increased risk of POAG occurrence. It was indicated that the 399Gln/Gln XRCC1 genotype might increase the risk of POAG progression according to the c/d ratio (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.07–2.61 P = 0.02) clinical parameter. Moreover, the association of VF factor with 148Asp/Glu of APE1 genotype distribution and POAG progression (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.30–3.89) was also found. Additionally, the analysis of the 324Gln/His MUTYH polymorphism gene distribution in the patient group according to RNFL factor showed that it might

  18. Cellular Bases of Light-regulated Gravity Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the most significant research accomplished in our NAG2-1347 project on the cellular bases of light-regulated gravity responses, It elaborates mainly on our discovery of the role of calcium currents in gravity-directed polar development in single germinating spore cells of the fern Ceratopteris, our development of RNA silencing as a viable method of suppressing the expression of specific genes in Ceratopteris, and on the structure, expression and distribution of members of the annexin family in flowering plants, especially Arabidopsis.

  19. Bilayer Beams and Relay Sharing based OFDMA Cellular Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxiong Pan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, researchers have been putting a lot of energy on co-channel interference suppression in the forthcoming fourth generation (4G wireless networks. Existing approaches to interference suppression are mainly based on signal processing, cooperative communication or coordination techniques. Though good performance has been attained already, a more complex receiver is needed, and there is still room for improvement through other ways.Considering spatial frequency reuse, which provides an easier way to cope with the co-channel interference, this paper proposed a bilayer beams and relay sharing based (BBRS OFDMA cellular architecture and corresponding frequency planning scheme. The main features of the novel architecture are as follows. Firstly, the base station (BS uses two beams, one composed of six wide beams providing coverage to mobile stations (MSs that access to the BS, and the other composed of six narrow beams communicating with fixed relay stations (FRSs. Secondly, in the corresponding frequency planning scheme, soft frequency reuse is considered on all FRSs further. System-level simulation results demonstrate that better coverage performance is obtained and the mean data rate of MSs near the cell edge is improved significantly. The BBRS cellular architecture provides a practical method to interference suppression in 4G networks since a better tradeoff between performance and complexity is achieved.

  20. Measurements of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Cellular Base Stations in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing the usage of mobile communication devices and internet network information, the entry of private telecommunications companies in Iraq has been started since 2003. These companies began to build up cellular towers to accomplish the telecommunication works but they ignore the safety conditions imposed for the health and environment that are considered in random way. These negative health effects which may cause a health risk for life beings and environment pollution. The aim of this work is to determine the safe and unsafe ranges and discuss damage caused by radiation emitted from Asia cell base stations in Shirqat city and discuses the best ways in which can be minimize its exposure level to avoid its negative health effects. Practical measurements of power density around base stations has been accomplished by using a radiation survey meter type (Radio frequency EMF Strength Meter 480846 in two ways. The first way of measurements has been accomplished at a height of 2 meters above ground for different distances from (0-300 meters .The second way is at a distance of 150 meters for different levels from (2-15 meters above ground level. The maximum measured power density is about (3 mW/m2. Results indicate that the levels of power density are far below the RF radiation exposure of USSR safety standards levels. And that means these cellular base station don't cause negative the health effect for life being if the exposure is within the acceptable international standard levels.

  1. Mosquito population dynamics from cellular automata-based simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafarina, Inna; Sadikin, Rifki; Nuraini, Nuning

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present an innovative model for simulating mosquito-vector population dynamics. The simulation consist of two stages: demography and dispersal dynamics. For demography simulation, we follow the existing model for modeling a mosquito life cycles. Moreover, we use cellular automata-based model for simulating dispersal of the vector. In simulation, each individual vector is able to move to other grid based on a random walk. Our model is also capable to represent immunity factor for each grid. We simulate the model to evaluate its correctness. Based on the simulations, we can conclude that our model is correct. However, our model need to be improved to find a realistic parameters to match real data.

  2. Exploring Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Reversible Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Kumar Chandra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA is a new technology for development of logic circuits based on nanotechnology, and it is an one of the alternative for designing high performance computing over existing CMOS technology. The basic logic in QCA does not use voltage level for logic representation rather it represent binary state by polarization of electrons on the Quantum Cell which is basic building block of QCA. Extensive work is going on QCA for circuit design due to low power consumption and regularity in the circuit.. Clocking is used in QCA circuit to synchronize and control the information flow and to provide the power to run the circuit. Reversible logic design is a well-known paradigm in digital computation, and if circuit developed is reversible then it consumes very low power . Here, in this paper we are presenting a Reversible Universal Gate (RUG based on Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA. The RUG implemented by QCA Designer tool and also its behavior is simulated by it.

  3. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II effort will continue to develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular...

  4. Oxidative stress alters base excision repair pathway and increases apoptotic response in Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 haploinsufficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Unnikrishnan, Archana; Raffoul, Julian J.; Patel, Hiral V.; Prychitko, Thomas M.; Anyangwe, Njwen; Meira, Lisiane B.; Friedberg, Errol C.; Cabelof, Diane C.; Heydari, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is the redox regulator of multiple stress-inducible transcription factors, such as NF-κB, and the major 5’-endonuclease in base excision repair (BER). We utilized mice containing heterozygous gene-targeted deletion of APE1/Ref-1 (Apex+/-) to determine the impact of APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency on the processing of oxidative DNA damage induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP) in the liver tissue of mice. APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency re...

  5. Excision repair of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine from the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major ionizing radiation products, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), was measured in the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans following exposure of cells to 6.8-MeV electrons or 254-nm ultraviolet light. Removal of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine was measured in both an ionizing radiation-sensitive strain (262) and a highly radioresistant strain (the wild type W+) of Micrococcus radiodurans. Within 30 min of incubation (330C) following exposure to ultraviolet light (2400 J/m2) approximately 60% of the thymine glycols were excised, whereas in the case of ionizing radiation (250 krad) only 35% were removed from the cellular DNA of the wild-type strain. In contrast less than 50% of the thymine glycols were excised from the sensitive strain. The amount of DNA degradation induced by radiation was less than 10% in both strains. The results suggest a possible correlation between reduced excision repair of base damage and increased radiation sensitivity

  6. Motor Schema-Based Cellular Automaton Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wenguo; Hasemi, Yuji; Fan, Weicheng

    A new cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics based on motor schema is presented. Each pedestrian is treated as an intelligent mobile robot, and motor schemas including move-to-goal, avoid-away and avoid-around drive pedestrians to interact with their environment. We investigate the phenomenon of many pedestrians with different move velocities escaping from a room. The results show that the pedestrian with high velocity have predominance in competitive evacuation, if we only consider repulsion from or avoiding around other pedestrians, and interaction with each other leads to disordered evacuation, i.e., decreased evacuation efficiency. Extensions of the model using learning algorithms for controlling pedestrians, i.e., reinforcement learning, neural network and genetic algorithms, etc. are noted.

  7. Global Network Model based on Earth Grid and Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqi Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aim to understand the current health state of the Earth and find how human activities influence it. Based on the theory of Earth’s Grid and Cellular Automata, we define and test a global network model, analyze the mutual interactions and feedbacks of ecosystem, hydrologic circle and atmosphere. In addition, we consult a lot of data to find a benchmark for the “Earth Health Map”, with the ecosystem distribution on it, which can be helpful for making a strategic decision for policy makers and prediction. Our model can be extended to other similar fields. In the end, we discuss the sensitivity of parameters selection, and the superiorities and weaknesses of our model.

  8. Edge detection of noisy images based on cellular neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Hongyu; Li, Chaojie

    2011-09-01

    This paper studies a technique employing both cellular neural networks (CNNs) and linear matrix inequality (LMI) for edge detection of noisy images. Our main work focuses on training templates of noise reduction and edge detection CNNs. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, we derive a criterion for global asymptotical stability of a unique equilibrium of the noise reduction CNN. Then we design an approach to train edge detection templates, and this approach can detect the edge precisely and efficiently, i.e., by only one iteration. Finally, we illustrate performance of the proposed methodology from the aspect of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) through computer simulations. Moreover, some comparisons are also given to prove that our method outperforms classical operators in gray image edge detection.

  9. Cellular automaton based track reconstruction in the STAR TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAR is an active collider heavy-ion experiment at RHIC/BNL (Upton, USA). The main tracking detector of the experiment is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). For future collision rates of up to 1 kHz STAR experiment requires a fast track reconstruction procedure, which can deal with high track densities (up to 10-20 thousands tracks). The Cellular Automaton (CA) algorithm is based on local reconstruction and therefore is robust, fast and easily parallelized, that makes it perfectly suitable for the task under consideration. The algorithm has been implemented by adaptation of the Alice HLT TPC CA track finder for the STAR TPC detector. The efficiency, speed and robustness have been increased. The algorithm is highly parallelized on both data (uses SIMD instruction set) and task (uses Threading Building Blocks technology) levels. The memory usage in the algorithm is optimized as well. Tests with Au-Au at 200 AGeV real data events have been performed. It has been shown that event reconstruction procedure with the CA based track finder demonstrates better track reconstruction efficiency by 9% with respect to the previous scalar version based on track following with Kalman Filter. CA based track finder takes only 10% of event reconstruction procedure.

  10. 碱基切除修复与抗肿瘤药物耐药%Base excision repair and antineoplastic drug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况里杉; 王宇亮; 周向东

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the main methods to treat malignant tumors in clinical practice. Resistance to antineoplastic agents is one of the important reasons for treatment failure. The antineoplastic mechanism of various chemotherapeutic agents is to cause DNA damage, then result in apoptosis of tumor cells. It is suggested that the function of DNA repair is directly associated with the efficacy of antineoplastic agents. Current studies suggest that there are four major DNA repair pathways including BER (base excision repair), NER (nucleotide excision repair), MMR (mismatch repair) and DSBR (double strand break repair). Of these four pathways, BER is one of the main mechanisms of DNA repair and its malfunction is closely related to the resistance to antineoplastic agents. Recently, many kinds of agents and strategies targeting BER have been developed to reverse chemoresistance. This review summarizes the progress in research in this area and discusses the mechanism of resistance to antineoplastic agents and the potential preventive and therapeutic strategies.%化疗是目前临床上治疗肿瘤的主要方法之一,抗肿瘤药物耐药则是导致肿瘤治疗失败的重要原因之一.多种化疗药物抗肿瘤的主要机制是引起DNA损伤,进而导致肿瘤细胞凋亡;因此,DNA修复功能状态与抗肿瘤药物疗效有着直接的关系.目前,已知有4种主要的DNA修复途径:碱基切除修复(base excision repair,BER)、核苷酸切除修复(nucleotide excision repair,NER)、错配修复(mismatch repair,MMR)和双键断裂修复(double strand break repair,DSBR).其中,BER是主要的DNA修复机制之一,其修复功能异常与抗肿瘤药物耐药有着密切的联系.近年来,以BER为靶点开发了多种逆转耐药的药物或方法.本文将简要综述相关的研究进展,深入探讨抗肿瘤药物耐药的发生机制及防治措施.

  11. A cellular automata-based mathematical model for thymocyte development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallan Souza-e-Silva

    Full Text Available Intrathymic T cell development is an important process necessary for the normal formation of cell-mediated immune responses. Importantly, such a process depends on interactions of developing thymocytes with cellular and extracellular elements of the thymic microenvironment. Additionally, it includes a series of oriented and tunely regulated migration events, ultimately allowing mature cells to cross endothelial barriers and leave the organ. Herein we built a cellular automata-based mathematical model for thymocyte migration and development. The rules comprised in this model take into account the main stages of thymocyte development, two-dimensional sections of the normal thymic microenvironmental network, as well as the chemokines involved in intrathymic cell migration. Parameters of our computer simulations with further adjusted to results derived from previous experimental data using sub-lethally irradiated mice, in which thymus recovery can be evaluated. The model fitted with the increasing numbers of each CD4/CD8-defined thymocyte subset. It was further validated since it fitted with the times of permanence experimentally ascertained in each CD4/CD8-defined differentiation stage. Importantly, correlations using the whole mean volume of young normal adult mice revealed that the numbers of cells generated in silico with the mathematical model fall within the range of total thymocyte numbers seen in these animals. Furthermore, simulations made with a human thymic epithelial network using the same mathematical model generated similar profiles for temporal evolution of thymocyte developmental stages. Lastly, we provided in silico evidence that the thymus architecture is important in the thymocyte development, since changes in the epithelial network result in different theoretical profiles for T cell development/migration. This model likely can be used to predict thymocyte evolution following therapeutic strategies designed for recovery of the

  12. A novel fluorescence-based cellular permeability assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ankur; Barillas, Samuel; Suliman, Ahmed; Angle, Niren

    2007-04-10

    Vascular permeability is a pathologic process in many disease states ranging from metastatic progression of malignancies to ischemia-reperfusion injury. In order to more precisely study tissue, and more specifically cell layer permeability, our goal was to create a fluorescence-based assay which could quantify permeability without radioactivity or electrical impedance measurements. Human aortic endothelial cells were grown in monolayer culture on Costar-Transwell clear polyester membrane 6-well cell culture inserts. After monolayer integrity was confirmed, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)) at varying concentrations with a fixed concentration of yellow-green fluorescent 0.04 microm carboxylate-modified FluoSpheres microspheres were placed in the luminal chamber and incubated for 24 h. When stimulated with VEGF(165) at 20, 40, 80, and 100 ng/ml, this assay system was able to detect increases in trans-layer flux of 8.2+/-2.4%, 16.0+/-3.7%, 41.5+/-4.9%, and 58.6+/-10.1% for each concentration, respectively. This represents the first fluorescence-based permeability assay with the sensitivity to detect changes in the permeability of a cell layer to fluid flux independent of protein flux; as well as being simpler and safer than previous radioactive-and impedance-based permeability assays. With the application of this in vitro assay to a variety of pathologic conditions, both the dynamics and physiology relating to cellular permeability can be more fully investigated. PMID:16962665

  13. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Jill W; Latouche, Eduardo L; Sano, Michael B; Rossmeisl, John H; Davalos, Rafael V; Verbridge, Scott S

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors. PMID:26596248

  14. Fluctuation in option pricing using cellular automata based market models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuying; Beni, Gerardo

    2005-05-01

    A new agent-based Cellular Automaton (CA) computational algorithm for option pricing is proposed. CAs have been extensively used in modeling complex dynamical systems but not in modeling option prices. Compared with traditional tools, which rely on guessing volatilities to calculate option prices, the CA model is directly addressing market mechanisms and simulates price fluctuation from aggregation of actions made by interacting individual market makers in a large population. This paper explores whether CA models can provide reasonable good answers to pricing European options. The Black-Scholes model and the Binomial Tree model are used for comparison. Comparison reveals that CA models perform reasonably well in pricing options, reproducing overall characteristics of random walk based model, while at the same time providing plausible results for the 'fat-tail' phenomenon observed in many markets. We also show that the binomial tree model can be obtained from a CA rule. Thus, CA models are suitable tools to generalize the standard theories of option pricing.

  15. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Jill W.; Latouche, Eduardo L.; Sano, Michael B.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-11-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors.

  16. The brittleness model of complex system based on cellular automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN De-ming; JIN Hong-zhang; LI Qi; WU Hong-mei

    2004-01-01

    Now the research on the complex system is a hot spot. Brittleness is one of the basic characteristics of a complex system. In a complex system, after one of subsystems is struck to be collapsed, the whole system will collapse. Meanwhile, cellular automata is a discrete dynamic system. When the rule is given, the cellular automata could be defined. Then it can imitate the complex action. Cellular automata is used to simulate the brittleness action in this study. Entropy was used to analyze the action and get the rule. Then,three normal brittleness models were given. The result shows that the brittleness of complex system is existent and in addition some important behavior mode of complex system brittleness has been achieved.

  17. Accurate assessment of cell density in low cellular liquid-based cervical cytology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Huberts-Manders, R.; Vedder, J.E.M.; Bulten, J.

    2013-01-01

    A. G. Siebers, J. A. W. M. van der Laak, R. Huberts-Manders, J. E. M. Vedder and J. Bulten Accurate assessment of cell density in low cellular liquid-based cervical cytology Objective: Scant cellularity is the most important source of unsatisfactory liquid-based cytology. Although still being debate

  18. Nuclear translocation contributes to regulation of DNA excision repair activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Lützen, Anne; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2009-01-01

    DNA mutations are circumvented by dedicated specialized excision repair systems, such as the base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways. Although the individual repair pathways have distinct roles in suppressing changes in the nuclear DNA, it is...... co-import appears to be a mechanism employed by the composite repair systems NER and MMR to enhance and regulate nuclear accumulation of repair proteins thereby ensuring faithful DNA repair....

  19. Value of histopathologic analysis of subcutis excisions by general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verweij Wim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only around 60% of skin lesions excised by GPs are referred to a pathologist. Clinical diagnoses of skin excisions by GPs may not be very accurate. Subcutis excisions are rarely done by GPs, and there is hence little information in the literature on the histopathological yield of subcutis excisions by GPs with regard to malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of histopathological investigation of a relatively large group of subcutis excisions by GPs, with special emphasis on discrepancies between clinical and histopathological diagnoses of malignancy. Methods We investigated a series of 90 subcutis excisions, which was derived from a database of consecutive GP submissions from the years 1999–2000 where in the same time period 4595 skin excisions were performed by the same group of GPs. This underlines the apparent reluctance of GPs to perform subcutis excisions. Results The final diagnosis was benign in 88 cases (97.8% and malignant in 2 cases (2.2%. Seven cases had no clinical diagnosis, all of which were benign. Of the 83 clinically benign cases, 81 (97.6% were indeed benign and 2 (2.4% were malignant: one Merkel cell carcinoma and one dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. The former was clinically thought to be a lipoma, and the latter a trichilemmal cyst. The dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans presented at the age of 27, and the Merkel cell carcinoma at the age of 60. Both were incompletely removed and required re-excision by a surgical oncologist. Conclusion Histopathological investigation of subcutis excisions by GPs yields unexpected and rare malignancies in about 2% of cases that may initially be excised inadequately. Based on these data, and because of the relatively rareness of these type of excisions, it could be argued that it may be worthwhile to have all subcutis excisions by GPs routinely investigated by histopathology.

  20. The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Shuiping Zhang; Huijune Luo

    2012-01-01

    The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimen...

  1. A Parallel Encryption Algorithm for Block Ciphers Based on Reversible Programmable Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Debasis

    2010-01-01

    A Cellular Automata (CA) is a computing model of complex System using simple rule. In CA the problem space into number of cell and each cell can be one or several final state. Cells are affected by neighbours' to the simple rule. Cellular Automata are highly parallel and discrete dynamical systems, whose behaviour is completely specified in terms of a local relation. This paper deals with the Cellular Automata (CA) in cryptography for a class of Block Ciphers through a new block encryption algorithm based on Reversible Programmable Cellular Automata Theory. The proposed algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric key systems.

  2. Kin-cohort estimates for familial breast cancer risk in relation to variants in DNA base excision repair, BRCA1 interacting and growth factor genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subtle functional deficiencies in highly conserved DNA repair or growth regulatory processes resulting from polymorphic variation may increase genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes can impact protein function leading to genomic instability facilitated by growth stimulation and increased cancer risk. Thus, 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes involved in base excision repair (XRCC1, APEX, POLD1), BRCA1 protein interaction (BRIP1, ZNF350, BRCA2), and growth regulation (TGFß1, IGFBP3) were evaluated. Genomic DNA samples were used in Taqman 5'-nuclease assays for most SNPs. Breast cancer risk to ages 50 and 70 were estimated using the kin-cohort method in which genotypes of relatives are inferred based on the known genotype of the index subject and Mendelian inheritance patterns. Family cancer history data was collected from a series of genotyped breast cancer cases (N = 748) identified within a cohort of female US radiologic technologists. Among 2,430 female first-degree relatives of cases, 190 breast cancers were reported. Genotypes associated with increased risk were: XRCC1 R194W (WW and RW vs. RR, cumulative risk up to age 70, risk ratio (RR) = 2.3; 95% CI 1.3–3.8); XRCC1 R399Q (QQ vs. RR, cumulative risk up to age 70, RR = 1.9; 1.1–3.9); and BRIP1 (or BACH1) P919S (SS vs. PP, cumulative risk up to age 50, RR = 6.9; 1.6–29.3). The risk for those heterozygous for BRCA2 N372H and APEX D148E were significantly lower than risks for homozygotes of either allele, and these were the only two results that remained significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. No associations with breast cancer were observed for: APEX Q51H; XRCC1 R280H; IGFPB3 -202A>C; TGFß1 L10P, P25R, and T263I; BRCA2 N289H and T1915M; BRIP1 -64A>C; and ZNF350 (or ZBRK1) 1845C>T, L66P, R501S, and S472P. Some variants in genes within the base-excision repair pathway (XRCC1) and BRCA1 interacting proteins (BRIP1) may play a role

  3. Base excision repair efficiency and mechanism in nuclear extracts are influenced by the ratio between volume of nuclear extraction buffer and nuclei—Implications for comparative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We examine effect of volume of extraction buffer relative to volume of isolated nuclei on repair activity of nuclear extract. • Base excision repair activity of nuclear extracts prepared from the same batch and number of nuclei varies inversely with the volume of nuclear extraction buffer. • Effect of the volume of extraction buffer on BER activity of nuclear extracts can only be partially reversed after concentration of the more diluted extract by ultrafiltration. - Abstract: The base excision repair (BER) pathway corrects many different DNA base lesions and is important for genomic stability. The mechanism of BER cannot easily be investigated in intact cells and therefore in vitro methods that reflect the in vivo processes are in high demand. Reconstitution of BER using purified proteins essentially mirror properties of the proteins used, and does not necessarily reflect the mechanism as it occurs in the cell. Nuclear extracts from cultured cells have the capacity to carry out complete BER and can give important information on the mechanism. Furthermore, candidate proteins in extracts can be inhibited or depleted in a controlled way, making defined extracts an important source for mechanistic studies. The major drawback is that there is no standardized method of preparing nuclear extract for BER studies, and it does not appear to be a topic given much attention. Here we have examined BER activity of nuclear cell extracts from HeLa cells, using as substrate a circular DNA molecule with either uracil or an AP-site in a defined position. We show that BER activity of nuclear extracts from the same batch of cells varies inversely with the volume of nuclear extraction buffer relative to nuclei volume, in spite of identical protein concentrations in the BER assay mixture. Surprisingly, the uracil–DNA glycosylase activity (mainly UNG2), but not amount of UNG2, also correlated negatively with the volume of extraction buffer. These studies demonstrate

  4. Model of Handover and Traffic Based on Cellular Geometry with Smart Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Zufan Zhang; Jie Zhang; Shaohui Sun

    2014-01-01

    Based on the application of smart antennas in cellular mobile communications, this paper introduces the impact of the width of the antenna beams playing on the dwell time probability density function in cellular geometry with smart antenna. The research results indicate that the smart cell structure can improve the dwell time of users within the cell and improve the traffic system performance.

  5. Membrane-Based Functions in the Origin of Cellular Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipot, Christophe; New, Michael H.; Schweighofer, Karl; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Our objective is to help explain how the earliest ancestors of contemporary cells (protocells) performed their essential functions employing only the molecules available in the protobiological milieu. Our hypothesis is that vesicles, built of amphiphilic, membrane-forming materials, emerged early in protobiological evolution and served as precursors to protocells. We further assume that the cellular functions associated with contemporary membranes, such as capturing and, transducing of energy, signaling, or sequestering organic molecules and ions, evolved in these membrane environments. An alternative hypothesis is that these functions evolved in different environments and were incorporated into membrane-bound structures at some later stage of evolution. We focus on the application of the fundamental principles of physics and chemistry to determine how they apply to the formation of a primitive, functional cell. Rather than attempting to develop specific models for cellular functions and to identify the origin of the molecules which perform these functions, our goal is to define the structural and energetic conditions that any successful model must fulfill, therefore providing physico-chemical boundaries for these models. We do this by carrying out large-scale, molecular level computer simulations on systems of interest.

  6. Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

    2004-12-01

    This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

  7. Polymorphisms in base excision DNA repair genes and association with melanoma risk in a pilot study on Central-South Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonocito, Concetta; Scapaticci, Margherita; Penitente, Romina; Paradisi, Andrea; Capizzi, Rodolfo; Lanza-Silveri, Sara; Ficarra, Silvana; Landi, Francesco; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2012-10-01

    Base excision repair plays a key role in the removing of DNA damage from exposure to endogenous and exogenous carcinogens. The BER pathway removes alterations of a single oxidized, reduced or methylated base. Recently some studies have explored the association between risk for cutaneous melanoma and non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in DNA-repair genes, although with contradictory results. We hypothesized that common nsSNPs of BER genes, specifically ADPRT rs1136410, XRCC1 rs25487, rs25489, rs1799782, APEX1 rs1130409, OGG1 rs1052133, LIG3 rs3136025 and MUTYH rs3219466, may contribute to risk of melanoma. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not a correlation between these nsSNPs and melanoma risk and/or aggressiveness is present. 167 melanoma patients and 186 healthy control subjects were analysed. By multivariate statistical analysis no association was found between nsSNP and melanoma aggressiveness, while only the two XRCC1 (rs25487 and rs25489) nsSNPs showed a strong correlation (p<0.001) with melanoma risk. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting an association between BER nsSNPs and melanoma risk in Central-South Italian individuals. Our findings, if confirmed in larger population studies, will allow the inclusion of these XRCC1 nsSNPs in a screening panel for those individuals at higher risk for melanoma. PMID:22687647

  8. Oxidative stress alters base excision repair pathway and increases apoptotic response in apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 haploinsufficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, Archana; Raffoul, Julian J; Patel, Hiral V; Prychitko, Thomas M; Anyangwe, Njwen; Meira, Lisiane B; Friedberg, Errol C; Cabelof, Diane C; Heydari, Ahmad R

    2009-06-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is the redox regulator of multiple stress-inducible transcription factors, such as NF-kappaB, and the major 5'-endonuclease in base excision repair (BER). We utilized mice containing a heterozygous gene-targeted deletion of APE1/Ref-1 (Apex(+/-)) to determine the impact of APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency on the processing of oxidative DNA damage induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP) in the liver tissue of mice. APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency results in a significant decline in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in response to oxidative stress in liver. In addition, loss of APE1/Ref-1 increases the apoptotic response to oxidative stress, in which significant increases in GADD45g expression, p53 protein stability, and caspase activity are observed. Oxidative stress displays a differential impact on monofunctional (UNG) and bifunctional (OGG1) DNA glycosylase-initiated BER in the liver of Apex(+/-) mice. APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency results in a significant decline in the repair of oxidized bases (e.g., 8-OHdG), whereas removal of uracil is increased in liver nuclear extracts of mice using an in vitro BER assay. Apex(+/-) mice exposed to 2-NP displayed a significant decline in 3'-OH-containing single-strand breaks and an increase in aldehydic lesions in their liver DNA, suggesting an accumulation of repair intermediates of failed bifunctional DNA glycosylase-initiated BER. PMID:19268524

  9. Production and properties of bronze based cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For production of lightweight components, cellular materials offer attractive potential. Here, manufacturing of sintered bodies from bronze hollow spheres is described. The process starts with fabrication of hollow copper particles by cementation of Cu on iron particles. The still fragile Cu shells are consolidated by coating with Sn and subsequent gravity sintering. The resulting specimens exhibit a closed cell bronze structure with rather consistent morphology and cell wall thickness. The apparent density may range between 1.5 and 3.0 gcm-3 and can be controlled by variation of particle size and wall thickness. The mechanical behavior of the structures esp. during compressive loading is described and related to the microstructural parameters. (author)

  10. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  11. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called......, thus allowing repair proteins to efficiently access DNA. On the other hand, after completion of the repair, the chromatin must be returned to its previous undamaged state. Chromatin remodeling can refer to three separate but interconnected processes, histone post-translational modifications, insertion...

  12. Is the Oxidative DNA Damage Level of Human Lymphocyte Correlated with the Antioxidant Capacity of Serum or the Base Excision Repair Activity of Lymphocyte?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chih Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A random screening of human blood samples from 24 individuals of nonsmoker was conducted to examine the correlation between the oxidative DNA damage level of lymphocytes and the antioxidant capacity of serum or the base excision repair (BER activity of lymphocytes. The oxidative DNA damage level was measured with comet assay containing Fpg/Endo III cleavage, and the BER activity was estimated with a modified comet assay including nuclear extract of lymphocytes for enzymatic cleavage. Antioxidant capacity was determined with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. We found that though the endogenous DNA oxidation levels varied among the individuals, each individual level appeared to be steady for at least 1 month. Our results indicate that the oxidative DNA damage level is insignificantly or weakly correlated with antioxidant capacity or BER activity, respectively. However, lymphocytes from carriers of Helicobacter pylori (HP or Hepatitis B virus (HBV tend to give higher levels of oxidative DNA damage (P<0.05. Though sera of this group of individuals show no particular tendency with reduced antioxidant capacity, the respective BER activities of lymphocytes are lower in average (P<0.05. Thus, reduction of repair activity may be associated with the genotoxic effect of HP or HBV infection.

  13. Symbolic Computation Using Cellular Automata-Based Hyperdimensional Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozgur

    2015-12-01

    This letter introduces a novel framework of reservoir computing that is capable of both connectionist machine intelligence and symbolic computation. A cellular automaton is used as the reservoir of dynamical systems. Input is randomly projected onto the initial conditions of automaton cells, and nonlinear computation is performed on the input via application of a rule in the automaton for a period of time. The evolution of the automaton creates a space-time volume of the automaton state space, and it is used as the reservoir. The proposed framework is shown to be capable of long-term memory, and it requires orders of magnitude less computation compared to echo state networks. As the focus of the letter, we suggest that binary reservoir feature vectors can be combined using Boolean operations as in hyperdimensional computing, paving a direct way for concept building and symbolic processing. To demonstrate the capability of the proposed system, we make analogies directly on image data by asking, What is the automobile of air? PMID:26496041

  14. The Cellular Bases of Antibody Responses during Dengue Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam-Puc, Juan Carlos; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Aguilar-Medina, Elsa Maribel; Ramos-Payán, Rosalío; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause from an asymptomatic disease to mild undifferentiated fever, classical dengue, and severe dengue. Neutralizing memory antibody (Ab) responses are one of the most important mechanisms that counteract reinfections and are therefore the main aim of vaccination. However, it has also been proposed that in dengue, some of these class-switched (IgG) memory Abs might worsen the disease. Although these memory Abs derive from B cells by T-cell-dependent processes, we know rather little about the (acute, chronic, or memory) B cell responses and the complex cellular mechanisms generating these Abs during DENV infections. This review aims to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective of the B cell responses during DENV infection, starting since the very early events such as the cutaneous DENV entrance and the arrival into draining lymph nodes, to the putative B cell activation, proliferation, and germinal centers (GCs) formation (the source of affinity-matured class-switched memory Abs), till the outcome of GC reactions such as the generation of plasmablasts, Ab-secreting plasma cells, and memory B cells. We discuss topics very poorly explored such as the possibility of B cell infection by DENV or even activation-induced B cell death. The current information about the nature of the Ab responses to DENV is also illustrated. PMID:27375618

  15. The cellular bases of antibody responses during dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Yam-Puc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause from an asymptomatic disease to mild undifferentiated fever, classical dengue, and severe dengue. Neutralizing memory antibody (Ab responses are one of the most important mechanisms that counteract reinfections and are therefore the main aim of vaccination. However, it has also been proposed that in dengue, some of these class-switched (IgG memory Abs might worsen the disease. Although these memory Abs derive from B cells by T-cell dependent processes, we know rather little about the (acute, chronic or memory B cell responses and the complex cellular mechanisms generating these Abs during DENV infections.This review aims to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective of the B cell responses during DENV infection, starting since the very early events like the cutaneous DENV entrance and the arrival into draining lymph nodes, to the putative B cell activation, proliferation and germinal centers (GCs formation (the source of affinity-matured class-switched memory Abs, till the outcome of GC reactions such as the generation of plasmablasts, Ab-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. We discuss topics very poorly explored such as the possibility of B cell infection by DENV or even activation-induced B cell death. The current information about the nature of the Ab responses to DENV is also illustrated.

  16. Analysis of Blocking Probability in a Relay-based Cellular OFDMA Network

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Mahima; Jain, Ranjan Bala; Karandikar, Abhay

    2012-01-01

    Relay deployment in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based cellular networks helps in coverage extension and or capacity improvement. In OFDMA system, each user requires different number of subcarriers to meet its rate requirement. This resource requirement depends on the Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) experienced by a user. Traditional methods to compute blocking probability cannot be used in relay based cellular OFDMA networks. In this paper, we present an approach ...

  17. The Mutyh base excision repair gene influences the inflammatory response in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Casorelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mutyh DNA glycosylase is involved in the repair of oxidized DNA bases. Mutations in the human MUTYH gene are responsible for colorectal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis. Since defective DNA repair genes might contribute to the increased cancer risk associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, we compared the inflammatory response of wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The severity of colitis, changes in expression of genes involved in DNA repair and inflammation, DNA 8-oxoguanine levels and microsatellite instability were analysed in colon of mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS. The Mutyh(-/- phenotype was associated with a significant accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in colon DNA of treated mice. A single DSS cycle induced severe acute ulcerative colitis in wild-type mice, whereas lesions were modest in Mutyh(-/- mice, and this was associated with moderate variations in the expression of several cytokines. Eight DSS cycles caused chronic colitis in both wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice. Lymphoid hyperplasia and a significant reduction in Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells were observed only in Mutyh(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that, in this model of ulcerative colitis, Mutyh plays a major role in maintaining intestinal integrity by affecting the inflammatory response.

  18. Fuel management optimization based on power profile by Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel management in PWR nuclear reactors is comprised of a collection of principles and practices required for the planning, scheduling, refueling, and safe operation of nuclear power plants to minimize the total plant and system energy costs to the extent possible. Despite remarkable advancements in optimization procedures, inherent complexities in nuclear reactor structure and strong inter-dependency among the fundamental parameters of the core make it necessary to evaluate the most efficient arrangement of the core. Several patterns have been presented so far to determine the best configuration of fuels in the reactor core by emphasis on minimizing the local power peaking factor (Pq). In this research, a new strategy for optimizing the fuel arrangements in a VVER-1000 reactor core is developed while lowering the Pq is considered as the main target. For this purpose, a Fuel Quality Factor, Z(r), served to depict the reactor core pattern. Mapping to ideal pattern is tracked over the optimization procedure in which the ideal pattern is prepared with considering the Z(r) constraints and their effects on flux and Pq uniformity. For finding the best configuration corresponding to the desired pattern, Cellular Automata (CA) is applied as a powerful and reliable tool on optimization procedure. To obtain the Z(r) constraints, the MCNP code was used and core calculations were performed by WIMS and CITATION codes. The results are compared with the predictions of a Neural Network as a smart optimization method, and the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as a reference proposed by the designer.

  19. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies of American science education have highlighted the need for more inquiry-based lessons. For example, when the National Research Counsel evaluated the Advanced Placement (AP) Biology program, it pointed out, "AP laboratory exercises tend to be "cookbook" rather than inquiry based. This criticism is particularly apt for the lab…

  20. A Multi-Swarm Cellular PSO based on Clonal Selection Algorithm in Dynamic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Nabizadeh, Somayeh; Rezvanian, Alireza; Meybodi, Mohammd Reza

    2013-01-01

    Many real-world problems are dynamic optimization problems. In this case, the optima in the environment change dynamically. Therefore, traditional optimization algorithms disable to track and find optima. In this paper, a new multi-swarm cellular particle swarm optimization based on clonal selection algorithm (CPSOC) is proposed for dynamic environments. In the proposed algorithm, the search space is partitioned into cells by a cellular automaton. Clustered particles in each cell, which make ...

  1. Vehicle Speed Estimation and Forecasting Methods Based on Cellular Floating Vehicle Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Kuang Lai; Ting-Huan Kuo; Chi-Hua Chen

    2016-01-01

    Traffic information estimation and forecasting methods based on cellular floating vehicle data (CFVD) are proposed to analyze the signals (e.g., handovers (HOs), call arrivals (CAs), normal location updates (NLUs) and periodic location updates (PLUs)) from cellular networks. For traffic information estimation, analytic models are proposed to estimate the traffic flow in accordance with the amounts of HOs and NLUs and to estimate the traffic density in accordance with the amounts of CAs and PL...

  2. Model of Handover and Traffic Based on Cellular Geometry with Smart Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the application of smart antennas in cellular mobile communications, this paper introduces the impact of the width of the antenna beams playing on the dwell time probability density function in cellular geometry with smart antenna. The research results indicate that the smart cell structure can improve the dwell time of users within the cell and improve the traffic system performance.

  3. Cell-based biosensors: Towards the development of cellular monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cell-based biosensors (CBBs), a research hotspot of biosensors, which treat living cells as sensing elements, can detect the functional information of biologically active analytes. They characterize with high sensitivity, excellent selectivity and rapid response, and have been applied in many fields, such as biomedicine, environmental monitoring and pharmaceutical screening. Recently cell-cultured technology, silicon microfabrication technology and genetic technology have promoted exploration of CBBs dramatically. To elucidate the novel research findings and applications of cell- based biosensors, this paper summarizes various research approaches, presents some challenges and proposes the research trends.

  4. DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Osorio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase, and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2 gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03-1.16, p = 2.7 × 10(-3 for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 4.8 × 10(-3. DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.

  5. POLYMORPHISMS IN THE DNA BASE EXCISION REPAIR GENES APEX1 AND XRCC1 AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei County is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays a key role in revers...

  6. Multidirectional Vector Excision Leads to Better Outcomes than Traditional Elliptical Excision of Facial Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Il Oh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The elliptical excision is the standard method of removing benign skin lesions,such as congenital melanocytic nevi. This technique allows for primary closure, with little to nodog-ear deformity, but may sacrifice normal tissue adjacent to the lesion, resulting in scarswhich are unnecessarily long. This study was designed to compare the predicted results ofelliptical excision with those resulting from our excision technique.Methods Eighty-two patients with congenital melanocytic nevus on the face were prospectivelystudied. Each lesion was examined and an optimal ellipse was designed and marked onthe skin. After an incision on one side of the nevus margin, subcutaneous undermining wasperformed in the appropriate direction. The skin flap was pulled up and approximated alongseveral vectors to minimize the occurrence of dog-ear deformity.Results Overall, the final wound length was 21.1% shorter than that achieved by ellipticalexcision. Only 8.5% of the patients required dog-ear repair. There was no significant distortionof critical facial structures. All of the scars were deemed aesthetically acceptable based ontheir Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale scores.Conclusions When compared to elliptical excision, our technique appears to minimize dogeardeformity and decrease the final wound length. This technique should be considered analternative method for excision of facial nevi.

  7. The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiping Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimensional chaotic systems, parameters, two-dimensional cellular automata local evolution rules f and iterations n. Experimental results shows that the algorithm has features that high efficiency, better security, sensitivity to the key and so on.

  8. Correlation between base-excision repair gene polymorphisms and levels of in-vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Yu

    Full Text Available In vitro benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral lymphocytes have been shown to be a phenotypic biomarker of individual's DNA repair phenotype that is associated with cancer risk. In this study, we explored associations between genotypes of base-excision repair genes (PARP1 Val762Ala, APEX1 Asp148Glu, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln and in vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes in 706 cancer-free non-Hispanic white subjects. We found that levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts were significantly higher in ever smokers than in never smokers and that individuals with the Glu variant genotypes (i.e., Asp/Glu and Glu/Glu exhibited lower levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts than did individuals with the common Asp/Asp homozygous genotype (median RAL levels: 32.0 for Asp/Asp, 27.0 for Asp/Glu, and 17.0 for Glu/Glu, respectively; P(trend = 0.030. Further stratified analysis showed that compared with individuals with the common APEX1-148 homozygous Asp/Asp genotype, individuals with the APEX1-148Asp/Glu genotype or the Glu/Glu genotype had a lower risk of having higher-level adducts (adjusted OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98 and adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26-0.86, respectively; P(trend = 0.012 among smokers. Such an effect was not observed in non-smokers. However, there was no significant interaction between the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and smoking exposure in this study population (P = 0.512. Additional genotype-phenotype analysis found that the APEX1-148Glu allele had significantly increased expression of APEX1 mRNA in 270 Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, which is likely associated with more active repair activity. Our findings suggest that the functional APEX1-148Glu allele is associated with reduced risk of having high levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts mediated with high levels of mRNA expression.

  9. Stochastic Ordering based Carrier-to-Interference Ratio Analysis for the Shotgun Cellular Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhanan, Prasanna; Youjian,; Liu,; Brown, Timothy X; Baker, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    A simple analytical tool based on stochastic ordering is developed to compare the distributions of carrier-to-interference ratio at the mobile station of two cellular systems where the base stations are distributed randomly according to certain non-homogeneous Poisson point processes. The comparison is conveniently done by studying only the base station densities without having to solve for the distributions of the carrier-to-interference ratio, that are often hard to obtain.

  10. A Case-Based Approach Increases Student Learning Outcomes and Comprehension of Cellular Respiration Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Baines, Antonio T.; McVey, Mitch; Thompson, Joseph T.; Wilkins, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated student learning outcomes using a case-based approach focused on cellular respiration. Students who used the case study, relative to students who did not use the case study, exhibited a significantly greater learning gain, and demonstrated use of higher-order thinking skills. Preliminary data indicate that after engaging…

  11. Antiproliferative Activity and Cellular Uptake of Evodiamine and Rutaecarpine Based on 3D Tumor Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Guo; Dongmei Liu; Bin Gao; Xiaohui Zhang; Minli You; Hui Ren; Hongbo Zhang; Santos, Hélder A.; Feng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Evodiamine (EVO) and rutaecarpine (RUT) are promising anti-tumor drug candidates. The evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity and cellular uptake of EVO and RUT in 3D multicellular spheroids of cancer cells would better recapitulate the native situation and thus better reflect an in vivo response to the treatment. Herein, we employed the 3D culture of MCF-7 and SMMC-7721 cells based on hanging drop method and evaluated the anti-proliferative activity and cellular uptake of EVO and RUT i...

  12. Management of Location Based Advertisement Services using Spatial Triggers in Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assad Ali

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the advent of new technologies which have emerged under the area of Location Based Services (LBS. An innovative implementation and approach has been presented for design of applications which are inventive and attractive towards the user. Spatial Trigger is one of the most promising additions to the LBS technologies. This paper describes ways in which mobile advertisement services can be introduced effectively in the cellular market by bringing innovation in them through effective usage of Spatial Triggers. Hence, opening new horizons to make the consumer cellular networks, commercially, more effective and informative.

  13. Management of Location Based Advertisement Services using Spatial Triggers in Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Irfan, M; Khan, Furqan H; Hashmi, Raheel M; Shehzad, Khurram; Ali, Assad

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advent of new technologies which have emerged under the area of Location Based Services (LBS). An innovative implementation and approach has been presented for design of applications which are inventive and attractive towards the user. Spatial Trigger is one of the most promising additions to the LBS technologies. This paper describes ways in which mobile advertisement services can be introduced effectively in the cellular market by bringing innovation in them through effective usage of Spatial Triggers. Hence, opening new horizons to make the consumer cellular networks, commercially, more effective and informative.

  14. Guard zone based D2D underlaid cellular networks with two-tier dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zheng; Kountouris, Marios

    2015-01-01

    International audience Device-to-device (D2D) communication is under active investigation and may be a key feature in 5G networks for its great potential in improving network spectral and energy efficiency. Underlaying proximity-based D2D communication links in current cellular networks allows D2D users to opportunistically access the cellular spectrum, thus causing interference not only in the D2D tier but also between D2D and macrocell tiers. In this paper, we consider a D2D underlaid ce...

  15. CCABC: Cyclic Cellular Automata Based Clustering For Energy Conservation in Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Indrajit; Rahaman, Hafizur

    2011-01-01

    Sensor network has been recognized as the most significant technology for next century. Despites of its potential application, wireless sensor network encounters resource restriction such as low power, reduced bandwidth and specially limited power sources. This work proposes an efficient technique for the conservation of energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN) by forming an effective cluster of the network nodes distributed over a wide range of geographical area. The clustering scheme is developed around a specified class of cellular automata (CA) referred to as the modified cyclic cellular automata (mCCA). It sets a number of nodes in stand-by mode at an instance of time without compromising the area of network coverage and thereby conserves the battery power. The proposed scheme also determines an effective cluster size where the inter-cluster and intra-cluster communication cost is minimum. The simulation results establish that the cyclic cellular automata based clustering for energy conservation in sens...

  16. Laboratory testing of a building envelope segment based on cellular concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Hygrothermal performance of a building envelope based on cellular concrete blocks is studied in the paper. Simultaneously, the strain fields induced by the heat and moisture changes are monitored. The studied wall is exposed to the climatic load corresponding to the winter climatic conditions of the moderate year for Prague. The winter climatic exposure is chosen in order to simulate the critical conditions of the building structure from the point of view of material performance and temperature and humidity loading. The evaluation of hygrothermal performance of a researched wall is done on the basis of relative humidity and temperature profiles measured along the cross section of the cellular concrete blocks. Strain gauges are fixed on the wall surface in expected orientation of the blocks expansion. The obtained results show a good hygrothermal function of the analyzed cellular concrete wall and its insignificant strain.

  17. Application of a Pattern-based Classification System for Invasive Endocervical Adenocarcinoma in Cervical Biopsy, Cone and Loop Electrosurgical Excision (LEEP) Material: Pattern on Cone and LEEP is Predictive of Pattern in the Overall Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Bojana; Parra-Herran, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    A pattern-based classification system has been recently proposed for invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma, which is predictive of the risk of nodal metastases. Identifying cases at risk of nodal involvement is most relevant at the time of biopsy and loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) to allow for optimal surgical planning, and, most importantly, consideration of lymphadenectomy. This study aims to determine the topography of patterns of stromal invasion in invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma with emphasis on patterns in biopsy, cone, and LEEP. Invasive pattern was assessed following the pattern-based classification (Patterns A, B, and C) in 47 invasive endocervical adenocarcinomas treated with hysterectomy or trachelectomy and correlated with pattern of invasion at the tumor surface (2 mm of tumor depth) and on preoperative biopsy and cone/LEEP. Patterns A, B, and C were present in 21.3%, 36.2%, and 42.5% of cases, respectively. Most pattern A cases were Stage IA (90%), whereas most Pattern B and C cases were Stage IB (76.5% and 80%, respectively). Horizontal spread was on average larger in Pattern C (24.1 mm) than in Patterns A and B (7.7 and 12.3 mm, respectively). Pattern at the tumor surface correlated with the overall pattern in 95.7% of cases. Concordance between patterns at cone/LEEP and hysterectomy was 92.8%; the only discrepant case was upgraded from Pattern A on LEEP to C on final excision. Agreement between patterns in biopsy and the overall tumor, however, was only 37.5%. In all discrepant cases, biopsy failed to reveal destructive invasion, which was evident on excision. All discrepant biopsies with pattern A showed glandular complexity resembling exophytic papillary growth but did not meet criteria for destructive invasion. On excision, marked gland confluence with papillary architecture was evident. We conclude that the pattern of invasion on cone/LEEP is a good predictor of pattern of invasion on hysterectomy, particularly if there is

  18. Excellent approach to modeling urban expansion by fuzzy cellular automata: agent base model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajavigodellou, Yousef; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Mohammed, Abdulrazak A. S.; Chapi, Kamran

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the interaction between humans and their environment is the one of important challenges in the world. Landuse/ cover change (LUCC) is a complex process that includes actors and factors at different social and spatial levels. The complexity and dynamics of urban systems make the applicable practice of urban modeling very difficult. With the increased computational power and the greater availability of spatial data, micro-simulation such as the agent based and cellular automata simulation methods, has been developed by geographers, planners, and scholars, and it has shown great potential for representing and simulating the complexity of the dynamic processes involved in urban growth and land use change. This paper presents Fuzzy Cellular Automata in Geospatial Information System and remote Sensing to simulated and predicted urban expansion pattern. These FCA-based dynamic spatial urban models provide an improved ability to forecast and assess future urban growth and to create planning scenarios, allowing us to explore the potential impacts of simulations that correspond to urban planning and management policies. A fuzzy inference guided cellular automata approach. Semantic or linguistic knowledge on Land use change is expressed as fuzzy rules, based on which fuzzy inference is applied to determine the urban development potential for each pixel. The model integrates an ABM (agent-based model) and FCA (Fuzzy Cellular Automata) to investigate a complex decision-making process and future urban dynamic processes. Based on this model rapid development and green land protection under the influences of the behaviors and decision modes of regional authority agents, real estate developer agents, resident agents and non- resident agents and their interactions have been applied to predict the future development patterns of the Erbil metropolitan region.

  19. An agent-based model of cellular dynamics and circadian variability in human endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung T Nguyen

    Full Text Available As cellular variability and circadian rhythmicity play critical roles in immune and inflammatory responses, we present in this study an agent-based model of human endotoxemia to examine the interplay between circadian controls, cellular variability and stochastic dynamics of inflammatory cytokines. The model is qualitatively validated by its ability to reproduce circadian dynamics of inflammatory mediators and critical inflammatory responses after endotoxin administration in vivo. Novel computational concepts are proposed to characterize the cellular variability and synchronization of inflammatory cytokines in a population of heterogeneous leukocytes. Our results suggest that there is a decrease in cell-to-cell variability of inflammatory cytokines while their synchronization is increased after endotoxin challenge. Model parameters that are responsible for IκB production stimulated by NFκB activation and for the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines have large impacts on system behaviors. Additionally, examining time-dependent systemic responses revealed that the system is least vulnerable to endotoxin in the early morning and most vulnerable around midnight. Although much remains to be explored, proposed computational concepts and the model we have pioneered will provide important insights for future investigations and extensions, especially for single-cell studies to discover how cellular variability contributes to clinical implications.

  20. Structure and properties of porous films based on aliphatic copolyamide developed for cellular technologies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobrovol`skaya, I.P.; Popryadukhin, P.V.; Yudin, V. E.; Ivankova, E.M.; Elokhovskiy, V.Y.; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Balík, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2015), article number 46. ISSN 0957-4530 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : porous film * aliphatic copolyamide * structure * properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2014 http://www.stem-art.com/Library/Science/Structure%20and%20properties%20of%20porous%20films%20based%20on%20aliphatic%20copolyamide%20developed%20for%20cellular%20technologies.pdf

  1. Image Edge Detection Based on Cellular Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Li; Zhengxia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Edge detection is one of the basic pre-processing methods in digital image processing. In order to extract the edge of image effectively, this paper employs linear matrix inequality and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based on cellular neural networks (CNN). Among these templates obtained by using linear matrix inequality (LMI), we utilize the PSO to carry out the optimization parameters. The performance of the proposed edge detection method is evaluated on different test images and compare...

  2. Management of Location Based Advertisement Services using Spatial Triggers in Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Assad Ali; Raheel M. Hashmi; Khurram Shehzad; Khan, Furqan H.; Baig, M. M. Tahir N.; Irfan, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advent of new technologies which have emerged under the area of Location Based Services (LBS). An innovative implementation and approach has been presented for design of applications which are inventive and attractive towards the user. Spatial Trigger is one of the most promising additions to the LBS technologies. This paper describes ways in which mobile advertisement services can be introduced effectively in the cellular market by bringing innovation in them through...

  3. Optimization Framework and Graph-Based Approach for Relay-Assisted Bidirectional OFDMA Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuan; Tao, Meixia; Li, Bin; Shen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers a relay-assisted bidirectional cellular network where the base station (BS) communicates with each mobile station (MS) using OFDMA for both uplink and downlink. The goal is to improve the overall system performance by exploring the full potential of the network in various dimensions including user, subcarrier, relay, and bidirectional traffic. In this work, we first introduce a novel three-time-slot time-division duplexing (TDD) transmission protocol. This protocol unifie...

  4. Mimo radar waveform design for spectrum sharing with cellular systems a Matlab based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Khawar, Awais; Clancy, T Charles

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses spectrum sharing between cellular systems and radars. The book addresses a novel way to design radar waveforms that can enable spectrum sharing between radars and communication systems, without causing interference to communication systems, and at the same time achieving radar objectives of target detection, estimation, and tracking. The book includes a MATLAB-based approach, which provides reader with a way to learn, experiment, compare, and build on top of existing algorithms.

  5. A new method of machine vision reprocessing based on cellular neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposed a method of image preprocessing in machine vision based on Cellular Neural Network (CNN). CNN is introduced to design image smoothing, image recovering, image boundary detecting and other image preprocessing problems. The proposed methods are so simple that the speed of algorithms are increased greatly to suit the needs of real-time image processing. The experimental results show a satisfactory reply

  6. Synchronous networks for bio-environmental surveillance based on cellular automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bao Hoai Lam; Hiep Xuan Huynh; Bernard Pottier

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a new approach to model a bio-environmental surveillance network as synchronous network systems, systems consist of components running simultaneously. In the network, bio-environmental factors compose a physical system of which executions proceed concurrently in synchronous rounds. This system is synchronized with a synchronous wireless sensor network, the observation network. Topology of the surveillance network is based on cellular automata to depict its concurrent charac...

  7. Nucleotide excision repair in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Graciela

    2015-12-01

    The demonstration of DNA damage excision and repair replication by Setlow, Howard-Flanders, Hanawalt and their colleagues in the early 1960s, constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER). The serial steps in NER are similar in organisms from unicellular bacteria to complex mammals and plants, and involve recognition of lesions, adducts or structures that disrupt the DNA double helix, removal of a short oligonucleotide containing the offending lesion, synthesis of a repair patch copying the opposite undamaged strand, and ligation, to restore the DNA to its original form. The transcription-coupled repair (TCR) subpathway of NER, discovered nearly two decades later, is dedicated to the removal of lesions from the template DNA strands of actively transcribed genes. In this review I will outline the essential factors and complexes involved in NER in humans, and will comment on additional factors and metabolic processes that affect the efficiency of this important process. PMID:26388429

  8. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in platinum-based treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with special emphasis on carboplatin: a review of current literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.; Sorensen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer have a dismal prognosis and are often relative resistant to chemotherapy. A need for markers has emerged based on tumour biology in order to predict which patients will respond to treatment. Excision repair cross-complementat......BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer have a dismal prognosis and are often relative resistant to chemotherapy. A need for markers has emerged based on tumour biology in order to predict which patients will respond to treatment. Excision repair cross......-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has shown potential as a predictive marker in patients with NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Carboplatin has gained widespread use in the treatment of advanced NSCLC and its mechanisms of action are likely similar to that of cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature...... articles and 1 clinical abstract were identified. Laboratory methods were mainly RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for expression of ERCC1. Preclinical studies pointed towards similar mechanisms of chemotherapy-resistance among platinum compounds. A...

  9. A Geometrical-Based Model for Cochannel Interference Analysis and Capacity Estimation of CDMA Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos B. Baltzis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption in cellular communications is the circular-cell approximation. In this paper, an alternative analysis based on the hexagonal shape of the cells is presented. A geometrical-based stochastic model is proposed to describe the angle of arrival of the interfering signals in the reverse link of a cellular system. Explicit closed form expressions are derived, and simulations performed exhibit the characteristics and validate the accuracy of the proposed model. Applications in the capacity estimation of WCDMA cellular networks are presented. Dependence of system capacity of the sectorization of the cells and the base station antenna radiation pattern is explored. Comparisons with data in literature validate the accuracy of the proposed model. The degree of error of the hexagonal and the circular-cell approaches has been investigated indicating the validity of the proposed model. Results have also shown that, in many cases, the two approaches give similar results when the radius of the circle equals to the hexagon inradius. A brief discussion on how the proposed technique may be applied to broadband access networks is finally made.

  10. Antiproliferative Activity and Cellular Uptake of Evodiamine and Rutaecarpine Based on 3D Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evodiamine (EVO and rutaecarpine (RUT are promising anti-tumor drug candidates. The evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity and cellular uptake of EVO and RUT in 3D multicellular spheroids of cancer cells would better recapitulate the native situation and thus better reflect an in vivo response to the treatment. Herein, we employed the 3D culture of MCF-7 and SMMC-7721 cells based on hanging drop method and evaluated the anti-proliferative activity and cellular uptake of EVO and RUT in 3D multicellular spheroids, and compared the results with those obtained from 2D monolayers. The drugs’ IC50 values were significantly increased from the range of 6.4–44.1 μM in 2D monolayers to 21.8–138.0 μM in 3D multicellular spheroids, which may be due to enhanced mass barrier and reduced drug penetration in 3D models. The fluorescence of EVO and RUT was measured via fluorescence spectroscopy and the cellular uptake of both drugs was characterized in 2D tumor models. The results showed that the cellular uptake concentrations of RUT increased with increasing drug concentrations. However, the EVO concentrations uptaken by the cells showed only a small change with increasing drug concentrations, which may be due to the different solubility of EVO and Rut in solvents. Overall, this study provided a new vision of the anti-tumor activity of EVO and RUT via 3D multicellular spheroids and cellular uptake through the fluorescence of compounds.

  11. Moving black holes via singularity excision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a singularity excision algorithm appropriate for numerical simulations of black holes moving throughout the computational domain. The method is an extension of the excision procedure previously used to obtain stable simulations of single, non-moving black holes. The excision procedure also shares elements used in recent work to study the dynamics of a scalar field in the background of a single, boosted black hole. The excision method is tested with single black-hole evolutions using a coordinate system in which the coordinate location of the black hole, and thus the excision boundary, moves throughout the computational domain

  12. Analysis on Traffic Conflicts of Two-lane Highway Based on Improved Cellular Automation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiru Tang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on microscopic traffic characteristics of two-lane highway and different driving characteristics for drivers, the characteristics of drivers and vehicle structure are introduced into Cellular Automation model for establishing new Cellular Automation model of two-lane highway. Through computer simulation, the paper analyzes the effect of the promotion of different vehicles, drivers and arrival rates on traffic conflicts of two-lane highway, which gets the relationship between the parameters such as road traffic and velocity variance and collision. The results indicate that the frequency of traffic conflicts has close relationship with the product of traffic flow and velocity variation. When the traffic flow and velocity variation are great, the frequency of the conflict is the greatest, and when the traffic flow and velocity variation are little, the frequency of the conflict is the least.

  13. A Stream Control Transmission Protocol Based OAM System of 3G Cellular Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    OAM (Operations, Administration and Maintenance) system is a very important component of 3G cellular network. In order to acquire overall management, fast response and steady operation, an SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) based OAM, i. e. , SOAM system was proposed. SOAM implements new characters of SCTP such as multi-stream, enforced SACK and heartbeat mechanism on its transport layer. These characters help SOAM decrease the message transmission delay and accelerate the link failure detection. Besides, a new component named SOAM agent was introduced to improve the operation efficiency of SOAM. The experimental results prove the proposed SOAM system achieves better performance on signaling transmission compared with conventional TCP based OAM system.

  14. Identification of new quinic acid derivatives as histone deacetylase inhibitors by fluorescence-based cellular assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dohyun; Kim, Chung Sub; Lee, Kang Ro; Park, Hyun-Ju

    2016-05-01

    A fluorescence-based cellular assay system was established to identify potential epigenetic modulator ligands. This assay method is to detect the de-repression of an EGFP reporter in cancer cells by the treatment of HDAC (histone deacetylase) or DNMT (DNA methyltransferase) inhibitor. Using this system, we conducted a preliminary screening of in-house natural product library containing extracts and pure compounds, and identified several active compounds. Among them, novel quinic acid derivatives were recognized as excellent HDAC inhibitors by both enzymatic and cell-based HDAC assays. PMID:26996372

  15. Effect of radiotherapy on survival of women with locally excised ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian GW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo-Wei Qian,1,* Xiao-Jian Ni,1,* Zheng Wang,2 Yi-Zhou Jiang,1 Ke-Da Yu,1 Zhi-Ming Shao1 1Department of Breast Surgery, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Cancer Center and Cancer Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although it has been previously reported that radiotherapy (RT effectively reduced the incidence of local recurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS following breast-conserving surgery (BCS, little is known about the effect of RT on survival of patients with locally excised DCIS. Patients and methods: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry data, we selected 56,968 female DCIS patients treated with BCS between 1998 and 2007. Overall survival (OS and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS were compared among patients who received RT or no RT using the Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Median follow-up was 91 months. In the multivariable model, patients receiving postoperative RT had better OS than those undergoing BCS alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53–0.67, P<0.001. This pattern remained after stratification by estrogen receptor (ER status and age. In contrast, RT delivery was not significantly associated with improved BCSS (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48–1.03, P=0.073. However, after stratifying by the above two variables, RT contributed to better BCSS in ER-negative/borderline patients (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19–0.88, P=0.023 and younger patients (≤50 years old; HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91, P=0.030. Conclusion: Our analysis confirms the beneficial effect of RT on OS in women with locally excised DCIS and reveals the specific protective effect of RT on BCSS in ER-negative/borderline and younger patients. Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ, breast cancer, breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy, survival

  16. Cellular neural network-based hybrid approach toward automatic image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Pattathal VijayaKumar; Katiyar, Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Image registration is a key component of various image processing operations that involve the analysis of different image data sets. Automatic image registration domains have witnessed the application of many intelligent methodologies over the past decade; however, inability to properly model object shape as well as contextual information has limited the attainable accuracy. A framework for accurate feature shape modeling and adaptive resampling using advanced techniques such as vector machines, cellular neural network (CNN), scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), coreset, and cellular automata is proposed. CNN has been found to be effective in improving feature matching as well as resampling stages of registration and complexity of the approach has been considerably reduced using coreset optimization. The salient features of this work are cellular neural network approach-based SIFT feature point optimization, adaptive resampling, and intelligent object modelling. Developed methodology has been compared with contemporary methods using different statistical measures. Investigations over various satellite images revealed that considerable success was achieved with the approach. This system has dynamically used spectral and spatial information for representing contextual knowledge using CNN-prolog approach. This methodology is also illustrated to be effective in providing intelligent interpretation and adaptive resampling.

  17. Surgical problems in the excision and repair of radiated tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical procedures for tissues damaged by radiation are fraught with the possibility of multiple and serious complications. A knowledge of the altered pathophysiology of such tissues (chiefly diminished blood supply, fibrosis, and direct cellular reparative potential) is necessary for the surgeon to make a proper judgment. Recognition of the pathognomic signs in the skin is important. The possibility of malignant change must be kept in mind. Surgical treatment must include the excision of radiated tissues back to good blood supply, and then proper and adequate coverage by the simplest and best means. If the surrounding local tissues are so altered that they are unsuitable for coverage, structures from a distance must be used. Prior planning of the coverage before the excision pays dividends by preventing disastrous complications. (U.S.)

  18. In vivo and in vitro cellular response to PEG-based hydrogels for wound repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, Heather

    Biomaterials are continuously being explored as a means to support, improve, or influence wound healing processes. Understanding the determining factors controlling the host response to biomaterials is crucial in developing strategies to employ materials for biomedical uses. In order to evaluate the host response to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels, both in vivo and in vitro studies were performed to determine its efficacy as a dermal wound treatment and to investigate the mechanisms controlling cell-material interaction, respectively. The results of an in vivo study using a full thickness wound in a rat model demonstrated that both soluble and immobilized bioactive factors could be incorporated into a PEG-based semi-interpenetrating network (sIPN) to enhance the rate and the quality of dermal wound healing. To gain a better understanding of the results observed in vivo, in vitro studies were then conducted to examine the dynamics and mechanisms of the cell-material interaction. Degradation of the sIPN was explored as an influential factor in both mediating cellular response and controlling solute transport from the material. As degradation through gelatin dissolution could be influenced by simple alterations to the material formulation, these results provide facile guidelines to control the delivery of high molecular weight compounds. Further investigation of the cellular response to PEG-based biomaterials focused on key factors influencing cell-material interaction. Specifically, the role of the beta1 integrin subunit and several serum proteins (TGF-aalpha, IL-1beta and PDGF-BB) in mediating cellular response was explored. As cell-material interactions are based on commonly occurring interfaces between cells and molecules of the native extracellular environment, these studies provided insight into the mechanisms controlling the observed cellular response. Finally, the inflammatory response of primary monocytes to biomaterials was examined. Monocytes

  19. Driver’s Awareness and Lane Changing Maneuver in Traffic Flow based on Cellular Automaton Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Steven Ray Sentinuwo

    2015-01-01

    Effect of driver’s awareness (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle) on the lane changing maneuver is discussed. “Scope awareness” is defined as the visibility which is required for the driver to make a visual perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that appears in the target lane for lane changing in the road. Cellular automaton based simulation model is created and applied to simulation studies for driver awareness behavior. This study clarifies re...

  20. Anisotropic optical flow algorithm based on self-adaptive cellular neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congxuan; Chen, Zhen; Li, Ming; Sun, Kaiqiong

    2013-01-01

    An anisotropic optical flow estimation method based on self-adaptive cellular neural networks (CNN) is proposed. First, a novel optical flow energy function which contains a robust data term and an anisotropic smoothing term is projected. Next, the CNN model which has the self-adaptive feedback operator and threshold is presented according to the Euler-Lagrange partial differential equations of the proposed optical flow energy function. Finally, the elaborate evaluation experiments indicate the significant effects of the various proposed strategies for optical flow estimation, and the comparison results with the other methods show that the proposed algorithm has better performance in computing accuracy and efficiency.

  1. A novel chaotic based image encryption using a hybrid model of deoxyribonucleic acid and cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayatifar, Rasul; Sadaei, Hossein Javedani; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there are many studies have conducted on developing security of the digital image in order to protect such data while they are sending on the internet. This work aims to propose a new approach based on a hybrid model of the Tinkerbell chaotic map, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cellular automata (CA). DNA rules, DNA sequence XOR operator and CA rules are used simultaneously to encrypt the plain-image pixels. To determine rule number in DNA sequence and also CA, a 2-dimension Tinkerbell chaotic map is employed. Experimental results and computer simulations, both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates outstanding encryption, but also resists various typical attacks.

  2. Development Of An Agent Based Simulation For The Cellular Transport System And Scenario Based Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Karakaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intralogistics Systems, in the rapidly increasing global business environment, are becoming more complex to analyze and more challenging to manage. In order to achieve the highest possible performance of warehouse operations, demanded by today’s modern businesses, intralogistics systems should be agile and flexible. With this objective in mind, the Cellular Transport System (CTS was developed as an alternative intralogistics system by Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics. This study investigates novel intralogistics system, the CTS, and proposes an integrated simulation tool in order to systematically anticipate change drivers and take optimum measures for the CTS.

  3. Functional evaluation of DNA repair in human biopsies and their relation to other cellular biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Slyskova, Jana; Langie, Sabine A. S.; Collins, Andrew R.; Vodicka, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of DNA lesions are estimated to occur in each cell every day and almost all are recognized and repaired. DNA repair is an essential system that prevents accumulation of mutations which can lead to serious cellular malfunctions. Phenotypic evaluation of DNA repair activity of individuals is a relatively new approach. Methods to assess base and nucleotide excision repair pathways (BER and NER) in peripheral blood cells based on modified comet assay protocols have been widely applied i...

  4. Excision repair cross complementation group 1 is a chemotherapy-tolerating gene in cisplatin-based treatment for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoufeng; Pan, Hong; Liu, Desen; Mao, Naiquan; Zuo, Chuantian; Li, Li; Xie, Tong; Huang, Dingming; Huang, Yaoyuan; Pan, Qi; Yang, Li; Wu, Junwei

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the biological functions of excision repair cross complementation goup 1 (ERCC1) in cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion and cisplatin response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Firstly, ERCC1 gene was successfully transfected into H1299 cells by gene cloning and transfection techniques. Then, cell proliferation was determined with the cell growth curve and colony-forming assays. Flow cytometry (FCM) was employed to investigate the cell cycle distribution. The ability of cell invasion was estimated by means of Matrigel invasion assays. Response of NSCLC cells to cisplatin was detected utilizing MTT assays, and the intracellular drug concentrations were determined by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Expression of the two cell membrane proteins, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), was also evaluated utilizing FCM technique. By contrast, ERCC1 expression in the NSCLC A549 cells was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) through RNAi technique. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on A549 cells was detected by MTT assays. In the present study, the results demonstrated that ERCC1 had no effect on cell proliferation, cell cycle and the ability of invasion, but showed significant impact on cisplatin response of the NSCLC H1299 cells. Furthermore, siRNA-induced suppression of ERCC1 evidently enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin of NSCLC A549 cells. Therefore, it is confirmed that ERCC1 is a chemotherapy-tolerating gene and a promising predictor in tailoring chemotherapy of NSCLC. PMID:25434755

  5. Local excision for selected colorectal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M A; Goldberg, S M

    1989-07-01

    In summary, local excision is a useful tool in the management of selected colorectal carcinomas. The advent of the fibreoptic colonoscope has revised the concept of local excision when dealing with carcinoma-containing polyps of the colon. The clinician now has the means of locally excising certain carcinomas which would have required laparotomy in the not so distant past. In dealing with carcinoma of the rectum, local excision is not advocated for all rectal carcinomas. In fact, when the previously discussed tumour related factors are considered, local excision should be the ultimate procedure in less than 5% of operations performed for rectal carcinomas. However, when appropriately used, local excision provides a less morbid alternative to more radical procedures without compromising patient survival rates or local recurrence rates. PMID:2692739

  6. A Vector-based Cellular Automata Model for Simulating Urban Land Use Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi; CAO Min; ZHANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    Cellular Automata (CA) is widely used for the simulation of land use changes.This study applied a vector-based CA model to simulate land use change in order to minimize or eliminate the scale sensitivity in traditional raster-based CA model.The cells of vector-based CA model are presented according to the shapes and attributes of geographic entities,and the transition rules of vector-based CA model are improved by taking spatial variables of the study area into consideration.The vector-based CA model is applied to simulate land use changes in downtown of Qidong City,Jiangsu Province,China and its validation is confirmed by the methods of visual assessment and spatial accuracy.The simulation result of vector-based CA model reveals that nearly 75% of newly increased urban cells are located in the northwest and southwest parts of the study area from 2002 to 2007,which is in consistent with real land use map.In addition,the simulation results of the vector-based and raster-based CA models are compared to real land use data and their spatial accuracies are found to be 84.0% and 81.9%,respectively.In conclusion,results from this study indicate that the vector-based CA model is a practical and applicable method for the simulation of urbanization processes.

  7. Vehicle Speed Estimation and Forecasting Methods Based on Cellular Floating Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kuang Lai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic information estimation and forecasting methods based on cellular floating vehicle data (CFVD are proposed to analyze the signals (e.g., handovers (HOs, call arrivals (CAs, normal location updates (NLUs and periodic location updates (PLUs from cellular networks. For traffic information estimation, analytic models are proposed to estimate the traffic flow in accordance with the amounts of HOs and NLUs and to estimate the traffic density in accordance with the amounts of CAs and PLUs. Then, the vehicle speeds can be estimated in accordance with the estimated traffic flows and estimated traffic densities. For vehicle speed forecasting, a back-propagation neural network algorithm is considered to predict the future vehicle speed in accordance with the current traffic information (i.e., the estimated vehicle speeds from CFVD. In the experimental environment, this study adopted the practical traffic information (i.e., traffic flow and vehicle speed from Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau as the input characteristics of the traffic simulation program and referred to the mobile station (MS communication behaviors from Chunghwa Telecom to simulate the traffic information and communication records. The experimental results illustrated that the average accuracy of the vehicle speed forecasting method is 95.72%. Therefore, the proposed methods based on CFVD are suitable for an intelligent transportation system.

  8. Equal Distribution Model of Epidemic Drugs Based on a Cellular Automata Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xinyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic spreading of infectious disease is a process of evolution over time. Based on the cellular automata model[1], this paper analyzes the epidemic spreading rules, and establishes an efficient equal distribution model of drugs in a broad sense. For multiple regions, in case of demand of drugs exceeding supply, the drugs shall be distributed according to the proportion of a total number of people in each region, the number of patients, the number of the isolated, and the number of deaths. It is necessary to simulate based on these four schemes to obtain simulation results. The results show that, when the drugs are distributed by the proportion of the number of deaths, it is optimal for controlling over epidemic situations.

  9. Modeling and Simulation for Urban Rail Traffic Problem Based on Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琰; 曹成铉; 李明华; 罗金龙

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the urban rail traffic flow under moving block system and present a new minimum instantaneous distance formula under pure moving block. We also analyze the characteristics of the urban rail traffic flow under the influence of train density, station dwell times, the length of train, and the train velocity. Train delays can be decreased effectively through flexible departure intervals according to the preceding train type before its departure. The results demonstrate that a suitable adjustment of the current train velocity based on the following train velocity can greatly shorten the minimum departure intervals and then increase the capacity of rail transit.

  10. Convergence and attractivity of memristor-based cellular neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sitian; Wang, Jun; Xue, Xiaoping

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents theoretical results on the convergence and attractivity of memristor-based cellular neural networks (MCNNs) with time delays. Based on a realistic memristor model, an MCNN is modeled using a differential inclusion. The essential boundedness of its global solutions is proven. The state of MCNNs is further proven to be convergent to a critical-point set located in saturated region of the activation function, when the initial state locates in a saturated region. It is shown that the state convergence time period is finite and can be quantitatively estimated using given parameters. Furthermore, the positive invariance and attractivity of state in non-saturated regions are also proven. The simulation results of several numerical examples are provided to substantiate the results. PMID:25562569

  11. Cellular Neural Network-Based Methods for Distributed Network Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the problems of current distributed architecture intrusion detection systems (DIDS, a new online distributed intrusion detection model based on cellular neural network (CNN was proposed, in which discrete-time CNN (DTCNN was used as weak classifier in each local node and state-controlled CNN (SCCNN was used as global detection method, respectively. We further proposed a new method for design template parameters of SCCNN via solving Linear Matrix Inequality. Experimental results based on KDD CUP 99 dataset show its feasibility and effectiveness. Emerging evidence has indicated that this new approach is affordable to parallelism and analog very large scale integration (VLSI implementation which allows the distributed intrusion detection to be performed better.

  12. Global Detection of Live Virtual Machine Migration Based on Cellular Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the demands of operation monitoring of large scale, autoscaling, and heterogeneous virtual resources in the existing cloud computing, a new method of live virtual machine (VM migration detection algorithm based on the cellular neural networks (CNNs, is presented. Through analyzing the detection process, the parameter relationship of CNN is mapped as an optimization problem, in which improved particle swarm optimization algorithm based on bubble sort is used to solve the problem. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can display the VM migration processing intuitively. Compared with the best fit heuristic algorithm, this approach reduces the processing time, and emerging evidence has indicated that this new approach is affordable to parallelism and analog very large scale integration (VLSI implementation allowing the VM migration detection to be performed better.

  13. Design and Analysis of Adders using Nanotechnology Based Quantum dot Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The area and complexity are the major issues in circuit design. Here, we propose different types of adder designs based on Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA that reduces number of QCA cells and area compare to previous designs. The quantum dot cellular automata is a novel computing paradigm in nanotechnology that can implement digital circuits with faster speed, smaller size and low power consumption. By taking the advantages of QCA we are able to design interesting computational architectures. The QCA cell is a basic building block of nanotechnology that can be used to make gates, wires and memories. The basic logic circuits used in this technology are the inverter and the Majority Gate (MG, using this other logical circuits can be designed. Approach: In this paper, the adders such as half, full and serial bit were designed and analyzed. These structures were designed with minimum number of cells by using cell minimization techniques. The techniques are (1 using two cells inverter and (2 suitable arrangement of cells without overlapping of neighboring cells. The proposed method can be used to minimize area and complexity. Results: These circuits were designed by majority gate and implemented by QCA cells. Then, they simulated using QCA Designer. The simulated results were verified according to the truth table. Conclusion: The performance analyses of those circuits are compared according to complexity, area and number of clock cycles and are also compared with previous designs.

  14. An Efficient Paging Scheme for IP-Based Cellular Networks Using Mobility Management Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Busa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In interworked fixed and mobile networks, both terminal mobility (TM and personal mobility (PM should be supported and interworked to provide seamless universal mobility to mobile users. TM supports movement between different locations with the same mobile terminal (MT. In TM management, an MT updates its location when it changes location area (LA and an incoming call is delivered to the MT by paging all cells within a registered LA. PM supports user mobility between different terminals by using personal identifier (PID. Mobile IP is an IETF RFC that supports transparent host migration on the Internet. In the transition to IP-based cellular networks, it is widely agreed that Mobile IP provides an elegant solution for inter-domain, or macro mobility management, but lacks critical aspects of mobility management needed within cellular networks. The shortcomings have led to the recent emergence of micro mobility management protocols. In the proposed paging scheme, paging is firstly performed only to the cells containing terminals with which a user is registered for PM, instead of all cells within a registered LA. If the called user is not found in the first paging step, remaining cells within the registered LA are paged.

  15. Cognitive and Energy Harvesting-Based D2D Communication in Cellular Networks: Stochastic Geometry Modeling and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakr, Ahmed Hamdi; Hossain, Ekram

    2014-01-01

    While cognitive radio enables spectrum-efficient wireless communication, radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting from ambient interference is an enabler for energy-efficient wireless communication. In this paper, we model and analyze cognitive and energy harvesting-based D2D communication in cellular networks. The cognitive D2D transmitters harvest energy from ambient interference and use one of the channels allocated to cellular users (in uplink or downlink), which is referred to as the D2D c...

  16. 27 CFR 26.30 - Excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise taxes. 26.30 Section 26.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Into the United States From Areas Other Than Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands § 26.30 Excise...

  17. 27 CFR 70.412 - Excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise taxes. 70.412 Section 70.412 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Beer § 70.412 Excise taxes. (a) Collection. Taxes on distilled spirits, wines, and beer are paid...

  18. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Gao, Nengyue; Xu, Qing-Hua; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). PMID:27589762

  19. Cellular automata-based artificial life system of horizontal gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-xin Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutation and natural selection is the core of Darwin's idea about evolution. Many algorithms and models are based on this idea. However, in the evolution of prokaryotes, more and more researches have indicated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT would be much more important and universal than the authors had imagined. Owing to this mechanism, the prokaryotes not only become adaptable in nearly any environment on Earth, but also form a global genetic bank and a super communication network with all the genes of the prokaryotic world. Under this background, they present a novel cellular automata model general gene transfer to simulate and study the vertical gene transfer and HGT in the prokaryotes. At the same time, they use Schrodinger's life theory to formulate some evaluation indices and to discuss the intelligence and cognition of prokaryotes which is derived from HGT.

  20. Hologram authentication based on a secure watermarking algorithm using cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Chan, Hao-Tang; Cheng, Chau-Jern

    2014-09-20

    A secure watermarking algorithm for hologram authentication is presented in this paper. The algorithm exploits the noise-like feature of holograms to randomly embed a watermark in the domain of the discrete cosine transform with marginal degradation in transparency. The pseudo random number (PRN) generators based on a cellular automata algorithm with asymmetrical and nonlocal connections are used for the random hiding. Each client has its own unique PRN generators for enhancing the watermark security. In the proposed algorithm, watermarks are also randomly generated to eliminate the requirements of prestoring watermarks in the clients and servers. An authentication scheme is then proposed for the algorithm with random watermark generation and hiding. PMID:25322138

  1. Ethical Perspectives on Stem Cell-based Cellular Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Mette; Pedersen, Finn Skou; Andersen, Svend;

    2012-01-01

    have benefits for patients. The side effect described most commonly in the literature is the risk of tumor formation by stem cells not fully differentiated into neurons when transplanted or following viral transduction and subsequent differentiation to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This risk...... may be avoided by differentiating stem cells in culture before transplantation. Here we argue that the following ethical considerations are important for clinical trials: Informed consent of research subjects or patients, specification of possible therapeutic effects, risk analysis of possible side......The effect of stem cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, Huntington disease, and Parkinson disease are currently being investigated. Here we specify possible therapeutic effects and possible side effects for patients and conclude that cellular therapies may...

  2. Driver’s Awareness and Lane Changing Maneuver in Traffic Flow based on Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of driver’s awareness (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle on the lane changing maneuver is discussed. “Scope awareness” is defined as the visibility which is required for the driver to make a visual perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that appears in the target lane for lane changing in the road. Cellular automaton based simulation model is created and applied to simulation studies for driver awareness behavior. This study clarifies relations between the lane changing behavior and the scope awareness parameter that reflects driver behavior. Simulation results show that the proposed model is valid for investigation of the important features of lane changing maneuver.

  3. Cellular Automation Model of Traffic Flow Based on the Car-Following Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You

    2004-01-01

    @@ We propose a new cellular automation (CA) traffic model that is based on the car-following model. A class of driving strategies is used in the car-following model instead of the acceleration in the NaSch traffic model. In our model, some realistic driver behaviour and detailed vehicle characteristics have been taken into account, such as distance-headway and safe distance, etc. The simulation results show that our model can exhibit some traffic flow states that have been observed in the real traffic, and both of the maximum flux and the critical density are very close to the real measurement. Moreover, it is easy to extend our method to multi-lane traffic.

  4. Optimization Framework and Graph-Based Approach for Relay-Assisted Bidirectional OFDMA Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Bin; Shen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers a relay-assisted bidirectional cellular network where the base station (BS) communicates with each mobile station (MS) using OFDMA for both uplink and downlink. The goal is to improve the overall system performance by exploring the full potential of the network in various dimensions including user, subcarrier, relay, and bidirectional traffic. In this work, we first introduce a novel three-time-slot time-division duplexing (TDD) transmission protocol. This protocol unifies direct transmission, one-way relaying and network-coded two-way relaying between the BS and each MS. Using the proposed three-time-slot TDD protocol, we then propose an optimization framework for resource allocation to achieve the following gains: cooperative diversity (via relay selection), network coding gain (via bidirectional transmission mode selection), and multiuser diversity (via subcarrier assignment). We formulate the problem as a combinatorial optimization problem, which is NP-complete. To make it more tracta...

  5. Current status and perspectives in atomic force microscopy-based identification of cellular transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenbo; Hu, Xiao; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complex interplay between cells and their biomechanics and how the interplay is influenced by the extracellular microenvironment, as well as how the transforming potential of a tissue from a benign to a cancerous one is related to the dynamics of both the cell and its surroundings, holds promise for the development of targeted translational therapies. This review provides a comprehensive overview of atomic force microscopy-based technology and its applications for identification of cellular progression to a cancerous phenotype. The review also offers insights into the advancements that are required for the next user-controlled tool to allow for the identification of early cell transformation and thus potentially lead to improved therapeutic outcomes. PMID:27274238

  6. Resonant Tunneling Diodes-Based Cellular Nonlinear Networks with Fault Tolerance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukai Duan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The resonant tunneling diodes (RTD have found numerous applications in high-speed digital and analog circuits owing to its folded-back negative differential resistance (NDR in current-voltage (I-V characteristics and nanometer size. On account of the replacement of the state resistor in standard cell by an RTD, an RTD-based cellular neural/nonlinear network (RTD-CNN can be obtained, in which the cell requires neither self-feedback nor a nonlinear output, thereby being more compact and versatile. This paper addresses the structure of RTD-CNN in detail and investigates its fault-tolerant properties in image processing taking horizontal line detection and edge extraction, for examples. A series of computer simulations demonstrates the promising fault-tolerant abilities of the RTD-CNN.

  7. A federation of simulations based on cellular automata in cyber-physical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Tran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In cyber-physical system (CPS, cooperation between a variety of computational and physical elements usually poses difficulties to current modelling and simulation tools. Although much research has proposed to address those challenges, most solutions do not completely cover uncertain interactions in CPS. In this paper, we present a new approach to federate simulations for CPS. A federation is a combination of, and coordination between simulations upon a standard of communication. In addition, a mixed simulation is defined as several parallel simulations federated in a common time progress. Such simulations run on the models of physical systems, which are built based on cellular automata theory. The experimental results are performed on a federation of three simulations of forest fire spread, river pollution diffusion and wireless sensor network. The obtained results can be utilized to observe and predict the behaviours of physical systems in their interactions.

  8. Cluster-based and cellular approach to fault detection and recovery in wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Akbari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years wireless sensor networks have received a greater interest in application such as disaster management, border protection, combat field reconnaissance, and security surveillance. Sensor nodes are expected to operate autonomously in unattended environments and potentially in large numbers. Failures are inevitable in wireless sensor networks due to inhospitable environment and unattended deployment. The data communication and various network operations cause energy depletion in sensor nodes and therefore, it is common for sensor nodes to exhaust its energy completely and stop operating. This may cause connectivity and data loss. Therefore, it is necessary that network failures aredetected in advance and appropriate measures are taken to sustain network operation. In this paper we survey cellular architecture and cluster-based to sustain network operation in the event of failure cause of energy-drained nodes. The failure detection and recovery technique recovers the cluster structure in less than one-fourth of the time taken by the Gupta algorithm and is also proven to be 70% more energyefficient than the same. The cluster-based failure detection and recovery scheme proves to be an efficient and quick solution to robust and scalable sensor network for long and sustained operation. In cellular architecture the network is partitioned into a virtual grid of cells to perform fault detection and recoverylocally with minimum energy consumption. Fault detection and recovery in a distributed manner allows the failure report to be forwarded across cells. Also this algorithm has been compared with some existingrelated work and proven to be more energy efficient.

  9. Evolutionary Computational Method of Facial Expression Analysis for Content-based Video Retrieval using 2-Dimensional Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Geetha, P

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Deterministic Cellular Automata (DCA) based video shot classification and retrieval is proposed. The deterministic 2D Cellular automata model captures the human facial expressions, both spontaneous and posed. The determinism stems from the fact that the facial muscle actions are standardized by the encodings of Facial Action Coding System (FACS) and Action Units (AUs). Based on these encodings, we generate the set of evolutionary update rules of the DCA for each facial expression. We consider a Person-Independent Facial Expression Space (PIFES) to analyze the facial expressions based on Partitioned 2D-Cellular Automata which capture the dynamics of facial expressions and classify the shots based on it. Target video shot is retrieved by comparing the similar expression is obtained for the query frame's face with respect to the key faces expressions in the database video. Consecutive key face expressions in the database that are highly similar to the query frame's face, then the key faces are use...

  10. Researches on the behaviour of cellular antiballistic composites based on AlMg-SiC alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălţătescu, O.; Florea, R. M.; Rusu, I.; Carcea, I.

    2015-11-01

    The researches presented in this paper refers basically to the impact of a small/medium caliber bullet shot on a light armor built on the base of a AlMg-SiC metallic composite cellular/foam. Thus, we study the antiballistic behavior and protection properties of the armor, based on the effects that occur at the impact zone of the bullet with the composite surface. We performed an antiballistic behavior modeling by means of a finite element analysis, based on a "multi grid" Fast Finite Element (FFE) system. We used for this purpose the DYNA 2D software package. The obtained samples show after the impact the occurrence of concentration / deformation pores effect and intercellular cracks development to the interior of the composite. Those effects, depending on speed, mass and length of the projectile ballistic trajectory, reduce zonal tensions due to the effect of cell walls deformation. It was obtained a good correlation between modeling results and the electron microscope analyse of the impact area. It is worth mentioning that almost all values for impact energy absorbed by the composite armor are in the protection active zone provided by it.

  11. An improved assay for antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity based on time resolved fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A K; Boyd, P N

    1995-07-17

    A new and faster assay for antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity based on release of europium from target cells is described. This has a number of important advantages over the traditional assays based on release of chromium-51 (51Cr). The new method involves labelling of Wein 133 target cells (B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells) which express the antigen, CDw52, with the chelate europium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (EuDTPA) according to the method of Blomberg et al. (1986). Labelled cells are sensitised (coated) with the anti-lymphocytic monoclonal antibody, Campath-1H. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells are added to mediate lysis of EuDTPA labelled Wein 133 cells by ADCC. Release of EuDTPA from lysed cells is determined by mixing supernatants with enhancement solution containing 2-naphthoyl trifluoroacetone, 2-NTA, to form a highly fluorescent chelate which is measured using time resolved fluorometry. Results obtained with the new EuDPTA release assays were comparable to traditional assays based on the release of the radioisotope 51Cr. It is anticipated that this assay will have a widespread application among laboratories performing ADCC assays. The method is non-hazardous and has been used routinely for over 2 years to monitor production and purification of Campath-1H. PMID:7622867

  12. FANTOM5 transcriptome catalog of cellular states based on Semantic MediaWiki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugessaisa, Imad; Shimoji, Hisashi; Sahin, Serkan; Kondo, Atsushi; Harshbarger, Jayson; Lizio, Marina; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kawaji, Hideya

    2016-01-01

    The Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome project (FANTOM5) mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and measured their activities in a diverse range of biological samples. The FANTOM5 project generated a large data set; including detailed information about the profiled samples, the uncovered TSSs at high base-pair resolution on the genome, their transcriptional initiation activities, and further information of transcriptional regulation. Data sets to explore transcriptome in individual cellular states encoded in the mammalian genomes have been enriched by a series of additional analysis, based on the raw experimental data, along with the progress of the research activities. To make the heterogeneous data set accessible and useful for investigators, we developed a web-based database called Semantic catalog of Samples, Transcription initiation And Regulators (SSTAR). SSTAR utilizes the open source wiki software MediaWiki along with the Semantic MediaWiki (SMW) extension, which provides flexibility to model, store, and display a series of data sets produced during the course of the FANTOM5 project. Our use of SMW demonstrates the utility of the framework for dissemination of large-scale analysis results. SSTAR is a case study in handling biological data generated from a large-scale research project in terms of maintenance and growth alongside research activities.Database URL: http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/5/sstar/. PMID:27402679

  13. Fuzzy Case-Based Reasoning in Product Style Acquisition Incorporating Valence-Arousal-Based Emotional Cellular Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqian Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional cellular (EC, proposed in our previous works, is a kind of semantic cell that contains kernel and shell and the kernel is formalized by a triple- L = , where P denotes a typical set of positive examples relative to word-L, d is a pseudodistance measure on emotional two-dimensional space: valence-arousal, and δ is a probability density function on positive real number field. The basic idea of EC model is to assume that the neighborhood radius of each semantic concept is uncertain, and this uncertainty will be measured by one-dimensional density function δ. In this paper, product form features were evaluated by using ECs and to establish the product style database, fuzzy case based reasoning (FCBR model under a defined similarity measurement based on fuzzy nearest neighbors (FNN incorporating EC was applied to extract product styles. A mathematical formalized inference system for product style was also proposed, and it also includes uncertainty measurement tool emotional cellular. A case study of style acquisition of mobile phones illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  14. Implementation of a cellular neural network-based segmentation algorithm on the bio-inspired vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiber, Fethullah; Grassi, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Pietro; Arik, Sabri; Yalcin, M. Erhan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the cellular neural network (CNN) paradigm, the bio-inspired (bi-i) cellular vision system is a computing platform consisting of state-of-the-art sensing, cellular sensing-processing and digital signal processing. This paper presents the implementation of a novel CNN-based segmentation algorithm onto the bi-i system. The experimental results, carried out for different benchmark video sequences, highlight the feasibility of the approach, which provides a frame rate of about 26 frame/sec. Comparisons with existing CNN-based methods show that, even though these methods are from two to six times faster than the proposed one, the conceived approach is more accurate and, consequently, represents a satisfying trade-off between real-time requirements and accuracy.

  15. A nanoflare based cellular automaton model and the observed properties of the coronal plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, Marcelo López

    2016-01-01

    We use the cellular automaton model described in L\\'opez Fuentes \\& Klimchuk (2015, ApJ, 799, 128) to study the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model, based on the idea of a critical misalignment angle in tangled magnetic fields, produces nanoflares of varying frequency with respect to the plasma cooling time. We compare the results of the model with active region (AR) observations obtained with the Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA instruments. The comparison is based on the statistical properties of synthetic and observed loop lightcurves. Our results show that the model reproduces the main observational characteristics of the evolution of the plasma in AR coronal loops. The typical intensity fluctuations have an amplitude of 10 to 15\\% both for the model and the observations. The sign of the skewness of the intensity distributions indicates the presence of cooling plasma in the loops. We also study the emission measure (EM) distribution predicted by the model and obtain slopes in log(EM) versus log(T) betw...

  16. Cellular bases of radiation-induced residual insufficiency in the haematopoietic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following radiation exposure, man's survival and further well-being largely depends on the degree of damage to his heamatopietic system. Stem cells are particualarly sensitive to radiation. Over and beyond acute radiation damge, residual radiation damage is of significance since it reduces the performance of the haematopietic system and enhances the risk of leukaemia. Knowledge concerning cellular bases may be important for preventive and therapeutic measures. The measurement method presented is based on the fact that stem cells from transfused bone marrow will settle in the spleen of highly irradiated mice and be able to reconstruct the haematopietic system. Initally individual colonies can be observed which originate from a single stem cell and the proliferation of its descendants. Counting these colonies will give the number of stem cells. The reduction of the proliferation factor measured in the stem-cell quality test apparently is not due to a shift in the age structure of the stem cell compartment but to a damage which is located within a more or less substantial proportion of the stem cells themselves. This damage is the cause of stem cell descendant growth retarded on an average. It is probable that recovery observed after irradiation is brought about by less-damaged or undamaged stem cells replacing damaged ones. Initial results point to the fact that this replacement can be influenced by treatment after irradiation. (orig./MG)

  17. Simulation of Microstructure during Laser Rapid Forming Solidification Based on Cellular Automaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grain microstructure of molten pool during the solidification of TC4 titanium alloy in the single point laser cladding was investigated based on the CAFE model which is the cellular automaton (CA coupled with the finite element (FE method. The correct temperature field is the prerequisite for simulating the grain microstructure during the solidification of the molten pool. The model solves the energy equation by the FE method to simulate the temperature distribution in the molten pool of the single point laser cladding. Based on the temperature field, the solidification microstructure of the molten pool is also simulated with the CAFE method. The results show that the maximum temperature in the molten pool increases with the laser power and the scanning rate. The laser power has a larger influence on the temperature distribution of the molten pool than the scanning rate. During the solidification of the molten pool, the heat at the bottom of the molten pool transfers faster than that at the top of the molten pool. The grains rapidly grow into the molten pool, and then the columnar crystals are formed. This study has a very important significance for improving the quality of the structure parts manufactured through the laser cladding forming.

  18. Memristor-based cellular nonlinear/neural network: design, analysis, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shukai; Hu, Xiaofang; Dong, Zhekang; Wang, Lidan; Mazumder, Pinaki

    2015-06-01

    Cellular nonlinear/neural network (CNN) has been recognized as a powerful massively parallel architecture capable of solving complex engineering problems by performing trillions of analog operations per second. The memristor was theoretically predicted in the late seventies, but it garnered nascent research interest due to the recent much-acclaimed discovery of nanocrossbar memories by engineers at the Hewlett-Packard Laboratory. The memristor is expected to be co-integrated with nanoscale CMOS technology to revolutionize conventional von Neumann as well as neuromorphic computing. In this paper, a compact CNN model based on memristors is presented along with its performance analysis and applications. In the new CNN design, the memristor bridge circuit acts as the synaptic circuit element and substitutes the complex multiplication circuit used in traditional CNN architectures. In addition, the negative differential resistance and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of the memristor have been leveraged to replace the linear resistor in conventional CNNs. The proposed CNN design has several merits, for example, high density, nonvolatility, and programmability of synaptic weights. The proposed memristor-based CNN design operations for implementing several image processing functions are illustrated through simulation and contrasted with conventional CNNs. Monte-Carlo simulation has been used to demonstrate the behavior of the proposed CNN due to the variations in memristor synaptic weights. PMID:25069124

  19. Presentation of a research project addressed to the realisation of a diamond-based cellular biosensing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarino, Luca; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio; Genovese, Marco; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Picollo, Federico; Traina, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    In this proceedings we will present a research project financed by Piedmont regional government (Italy; finalized to the realization and commercialization of functional devices for cellular bio-sensing based on diamond. Partners of the project are: Crisel Instruments, Torino University, Torino Polytechnic, INRIM, Politronica, Bionica Tech, Ulm University Here the main features of the final devices will be briefly summarized. We envisage an active diamond-based cellular substrate that can simultaneously stimulate and detect a variety of signals (chemical, optical, electrical) to and from neuroendocrine cells, in a fully biocompatible environment for the cellular system under test. Such a device can be realized by fully exploiting the peculiar properties of diamond: optical transparency, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, accessibility to a conductive graphite-like phase; properties that will be further explored and tested during the project.

  20. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  1. A Parallel Encryption Algorithm for Block Ciphers Based on Reversible Programmable Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Debasis; Ray, Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    A Cellular Automata (CA) is a computing model of complex System using simple rule. In CA the problem space into number of cell and each cell can be one or several final state. Cells are affected by neighbours' to the simple rule. Cellular Automata are highly parallel and discrete dynamical systems, whose behaviour is completely specified in terms of a local relation. This paper deals with the Cellular Automata (CA) in cryptography for a class of Block Ciphers through a new block encryption al...

  2. Dynamic modeling of cellular response to DNA damage based on p53 stress response networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinpeng Qi; Yongsheng Ding; Shihuang Shao

    2009-01-01

    Under acute perturbations from the outside, cells can trigger self-defensive mechanisms to fight against genome stress. To investigate the cellular response to continuous ion radiation (IR), a dynamic model for p53 stress response networks at the cellular level is proposed. The model can successfully be used to simulate the dynamic processes of double-strand breaks (DSBs) generation and their repair, switch-like ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activation, oscillations occurring in the p53-MDM2 feedback loop, as well as toxins elimination triggered by p53 stress response networks. Especially, the model can predict the plausible outcomes of cellular response under different IR dose regimes.

  3. Intraoral excision of large submental dermoid

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Bhatnagar; Vinay Kumar Verma; Pankaj Kumar Patel

    2013-01-01

    Sublingual dermoids are the rarest forms of craniofacial dermoids mostly seen in young individuals. Excision of large and deep submental dermoid is generally done via extraoral approach scarring the most prominent part of the face, which can lead to post operative scar hypertrophy and hyperpigmentation especially in non-Caucasian races. Presence of such scars leads to adverse psychological effects in young individuals. Excision via intraoral route, although technically demanding, can be simpl...

  4. Giant rhinophyma: Excision with coblation assisted surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Caner Sahin; Mesut Turker; Bulent Celasun

    2014-01-01

    An 83-year-old man presented with an unusually severe case of rhinophyma. Giant rhinopyhma is very rare in literature. The giant lesion was widely excised using sharp surgical incision and coblation assisted surgery. Using direct coblation to the nasal dorsum may cause edema in the surrounding tissue. There was minimal edema in surrounding tissue using this technique. A full thickness-skin graft was applied after excision. Cosmetic and functional postoperative results were satisfactory.

  5. Efficient Excise Taxation: The Evidence from Cigarettes.

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, Daniel K; William R. Dougan

    1997-01-01

    The authors develop a model in which optimizing policy makers in adjacent government jurisdictions levy excise taxes on a commodity that has a unique point of production from which all shipments emanate. From this model the authors derive an unusually specific predicted geographical pattern of those excise taxes in which these taxes rise at specific decreasing rate as one moves outward from the point of production. The authors compare these predictions to the observed pattern of cigarette tax...

  6. The Inversion-based Coverage Prediction Tool for Cellular Networks - Real City Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a novel tool, called ICPT (inversion-based coverage prediction tool, for predicting coverage field strength in outdoor cellular network by means of the inversion method. Instead of using the high-precision geometric modeling of wireless environments, the problem of radio propagation prediction is solved by using an inversion of the measured data (under all priori constraints, adapting the system parameters according to the change of radio channels and the characteristics of user behaviors. ICPT undertakes the whole process of coverage calculation by loading GIS (Google Earth, selecting the placement of target area and cells with their characterization, and presenting the results in Google Earth. These tasks are easily carried out due to a friendly graphical interface developed in Visual C++2010. The proposed ICPT system is demonstrated using two applications in real city-Zhuhai in China. The results are compared to that obtained by the COST231 model. The system can be used in coverage prediction, network fault diagnosing, as well as automatic drive test.

  7. Dietary nucleotides prevent decrease in cellular immunity in ground-based microgravity analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Keiko; Hales, Nathan W.; Robinson, Sandra M.; Niehoff, Michael L.; Ramesh, Vani; Pellis, Neal R.; Kulkarni, Anil D.

    2002-01-01

    Microgravity and stress of spaceflights result in immune dysfunction. The role of nutrition, especially nucleotide supplementation, has become an area of intensive research and significant interest in immunomodulation for maintenance of cellular immune responses. The studies presented here evaluate the plausibility of administering nucleotides to obviate immune dysfunction in an Earth-based in vivo analog of microgravity as studied in anti-orthostatic tail suspension (AOS) of mice. Mice were divided into three housing groups: group, isolation, and AOS. Mice were fed either control chow diet (CD), or RNA-, adenine-, or uracil-supplemented CD for the 1-wk duration of the experiments. In AOS mice, supplemental nucleotides significantly increased in vivo lymph node proliferation and ex vivo lymphoproliferation response to alloantigen and mitogens, respectively, and interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma production. A lower corticosterone level was observed in uracil-supplemented CD compared with CD. These results suggest that exogenous nucleotide supplementation, especially uracil, of normal diet is beneficial in the maintenance and restoration of the immune response during the microgravity analog conditions.

  8. Modeling and Simulation of Polarization in Internet Group Opinions Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaofeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot events on Internet always attract many people who usually form one or several opinion camps through discussion. For the problem of polarization in Internet group opinions, we propose a new model based on Cellular Automata by considering neighbors, opinion leaders, and external influences. Simulation results show the following: (1 It is easy to form the polarization for both continuous opinions and discrete opinions when we only consider neighbors influence, and continuous opinions are more effective in speeding the polarization of group. (2 Coevolution mechanism takes more time to make the system stable, and the global coupling mechanism leads the system to consensus. (3 Opinion leaders play an important role in the development of consensus in Internet group opinions. However, both taking the opinion leaders as zealots and taking some randomly selected individuals as zealots are not conductive to the consensus. (4 Double opinion leaders with consistent opinions will accelerate the formation of group consensus, but the opposite opinions will lead to group polarization. (5 Only small external influences can change the evolutionary direction of Internet group opinions.

  9. A universal concept based on cellular neural networks for ultrafast and flexible solving of differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedjou, Jean Chamberlain; Kyamakya, Kyandoghere

    2015-04-01

    This paper develops and validates a comprehensive and universally applicable computational concept for solving nonlinear differential equations (NDEs) through a neurocomputing concept based on cellular neural networks (CNNs). High-precision, stability, convergence, and lowest-possible memory requirements are ensured by the CNN processor architecture. A significant challenge solved in this paper is that all these cited computing features are ensured in all system-states (regular or chaotic ones) and in all bifurcation conditions that may be experienced by NDEs.One particular quintessence of this paper is to develop and demonstrate a solver concept that shows and ensures that CNN processors (realized either in hardware or in software) are universal solvers of NDE models. The solving logic or algorithm of given NDEs (possible examples are: Duffing, Mathieu, Van der Pol, Jerk, Chua, Rössler, Lorenz, Burgers, and the transport equations) through a CNN processor system is provided by a set of templates that are computed by our comprehensive templates calculation technique that we call nonlinear adaptive optimization. This paper is therefore a significant contribution and represents a cutting-edge real-time computational engineering approach, especially while considering the various scientific and engineering applications of this ultrafast, energy-and-memory-efficient, and high-precise NDE solver concept. For illustration purposes, three NDE models are demonstratively solved, and related CNN templates are derived and used: the periodically excited Duffing equation, the Mathieu equation, and the transport equation. PMID:25794380

  10. Applying Cellular Automata for Simulating and Assessing Urban Growth Scenario Based in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Mubea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research explores urban growth based scenarios for the city of Nairobi using a cellular automata urban growth model (UGM. African cities have experienced rapid urbanization over the last decade due to increased population growth and high economic activities. We used multi-temporal Landsat imageries for 1976, 1986, 2000 and 2010 to investigate urban land-use changes in Nairobi. Our UGM used data from urban land-use of 1986 and 2010, road data, slope data and exclusion layer. Monte-Carlo technique was used for model calibration and Multi Resolution Validation (MRV technique for validation. Simulation of urban land-use was done up to the year 2030 when Kenya plans to attain Vision 2030. Three scenarios were explored in the urban modelling process; unmanaged growth with no restriction on environmental areas, managed growth with moderate protection, and a managed growth with maximum protection on forest, agricultural areas, and urban green. Thus alternative scenario development using UGM is useful for planning purposes so as to ensure sustainable development is achieved. UGM provides quantitative, visual, spatial and temporal information which aid policy and decision makers can make informed decisions.

  11. Switched-based interference reduction scheme for open-access overlaid cellular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2012-06-01

    Femtocells have been proposed to enhance the spatial coverage and system capacity of existing cellular networks. However, this technology may result in significant performance loss due to the increase in co-channel interference, particularly when coordination between access points is infeasible. This paper targets interference management in such overlaid networks. It is assumed that the femtocells employ the open-access strategy to reduce cross-tier interference, and can share resources concurrently. It is also assumed that each end user (EU) can access one channel at a time, and transfer limited feedback. To reduce the effect of co-tier interference in the absence of the desired EU channel state information (CSI) at the serving access point as well as coordination between active access points, a switched scheme based on the interference levels associated with available channels is proposed. Through the analysis, the scheme modes of operation in under-loaded and over-loaded channels are studied, from which the statistics of the resulting interference power are quantified. The impact of the proposed scheme on the received desired power is thoroughly discussed. In addition, the effect of the switching threshold on the achieved performance of the desired EU is investigated. The results clarify that the proposed scheme can improve the performance while reducing the number of examined channels and feedback load. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. The effect of the Electromagnetic fields Non Ionized radiations of cellular base station on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the enormous expansion in the installation of Cellular Base Stations (CBS) on building tops, and the concern of residents, neighbouring those stations, of contracting serious diseases, because of their exposure to electromagnetic radiations, transmitted by (CBS) antennas, a scientific and statistical study has been conducted on residents neighbouring (CBS)s in several quarters of Damascus. The aim of the study is to identify the effect of the CBS's diation on the human body. The Study involves the following steps: 1. Site measurements have been carried out to evaluate the energy density, the strength of electrical and magnetic fields of the electromagnetic radiation, emitted from the CBS antennas, close to the buildings with (SBC)s on top, taking distance into account, in order to know the range of residents' exposure [to electromagnetic radiation], close to and far away from the CBS's antennas 2. Field Statistical Health Questionnaires of residents adjacent to ,or far away from (SBC)s,have been carried out, in order establish the link between the electromagnetic radiation transmitted by (SBC)s and diseases developed by nearby residents. Finally, very important scientific findings have been obtained. (author)

  13. Identifying disease feature genes based on cellular localized gene functional modules and regulation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; ZHU Jing; GUO Zheng; LI Xia; YANG Da; WANG Lei; RAO Shaoqi

    2006-01-01

    Identifying disease-relevant genes and functional modules, based on gene expression profiles and gene functional knowledge, is of high importance for studying disease mechanisms and subtyping disease phenotypes. Using gene categories of biological process and cellular component in Gene Ontology, we propose an approach to selecting functional modules enriched with differentially expressed genes, and identifying the feature functional modules of high disease discriminating abilities. Using the differentially expressed genes in each feature module as the feature genes, we reveal the relevance of the modules to the studied diseases. Using three datasets for prostate cancer, gastric cancer, and leukemia, we have demonstrated that the proposed modular approach is of high power in identifying functionally integrated feature gene subsets that are highly relevant to the disease mechanisms. Our analysis has also shown that the critical disease-relevant genes might be better recognized from the gene regulation network, which is constructed using the characterized functional modules, giving important clues to the concerted mechanisms of the modules responding to complex disease states. In addition, the proposed approach to selecting the disease-relevant genes by jointly considering the gene functional knowledge suggests a new way for precisely classifying disease samples with clear biological interpretations, which is critical for the clinical diagnosis and the elucidation of the pathogenic basis of complex diseases.

  14. Reconstitution of DNA base excision-repair with purified human proteins: interaction between DNA polymerase beta and the XRCC1 protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Y; Nash, R. A.; Klungland, A; Schär, P; Barnes, D E.; Lindahl, T

    1996-01-01

    Repair of a uracil-guanine base pair in DNA has been reconstituted with the recombinant human proteins uracil-DNA glycosylase, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, DNA polymerase beta and DNA ligase III. The XRCC1 protein, which is known to bind DNA ligase III, is not absolutely required for the reaction but suppresses strand displacement by DNA polymerase beta, allowing for more efficient ligation after filling of a single nucleotide patch. We show that XRCC1 interacts directly with DNA polym...

  15. Real-time reporting and internet-accessible cellular based coastal sea level gauge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A; Agarvadekar, Y.; Mehra, P.; Dabholkar, N.; Parab, A; Gouveia, A; Tengali, S.

    A real-time sea-level reporting system utilizing exiting cellular communication infrastructure is described. Several issues involved in the implementation of internetaccessible sea-level gauge have been addressed. It is anticipated that the growth...

  16. Live cell tracking based on cellular state recognition from microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-N; Lin, C-H; Kuo, C-C; Ho, C-L; Lin, C-J

    2009-07-01

    The analysis of cell motion is an essential process in fundamental medical studies because most active cellular functions involve motion. In this paper, a computer-assisted motion analysis system is proposed for cell tracking. In the proposed tracking process, unlike in conventional tracking methods, cellular states referring to the cellular life cycle are defined and appropriate strategies are adopted for cells at different states. The use of cellular state recognition allows detection of possible cell division and hence can improve the robustness of cell tracking. Experimental results show that cells can be successfully segmented and tracked over a long period of time, and the proposed system is found to be as accurate as manual tracking. Various quantitative analyses and visualizations are used to represent cell motion, which demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed system in the study of cell dynamics. PMID:19566631

  17. A child with xeroderma pigmentosum for excision of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi M Mulimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is characterized by hypersensitivity to sunlight, ocular involvement, and progressive neurological complications. These manifestations are due to a cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation leading to a defect in repair of DNA by the process of nucleotide excision repair. Basal cell carcinoma which is rare in children can occur with XP. Though the XP induced changes are predominately dermatologic, pose several challenges in anaesthetic management. Hence, we are reporting a 9-year-old child with XP scheduled for excision of basal cell carcinoma under general anaesthesia.

  18. Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Cellular Networks Based on Spatial Distributions of Traffic Load and Power Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Lin; Ge, Xiaohu; Wang, Cheng-Xiang; Li, Frank Y.; Reichert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency has gained its significance when service providers' operational costs burden with the rapidly growing data traffic demand in cellular networks. In this paper, we propose an energy efficiency model for Poisson-Voronoi tessellation (PVT) cellular networks considering spatial distributions of traffic load and power consumption. The spatial distributions of traffic load and power consumption are derived for a typical PVT cell, and can be directly extended to the whole PVT cellul...

  19. Stackelberg Game Based Power Allocation for Physical Layer Security of Device-to-device Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Junyue; Cai, Yueming; Wu, Dan; Chen, Hualiang

    2014-05-01

    The problem of power allocation for device-to-device (D2D) underlay communication to improve physical layer security is addressed. Specifically, to improve the secure communication of the cellular users, we introduce a Stackelberg game for allocating the power of the D2D link under a total power constraint and a rate constraint at the D2D pair. In the introduced Stackelberg game the D2D pair works as a seller and the cellular UEs work as buyers. Firstly, because the interference signals from D2D pair are unknown to both the legitimate receiver and the illegitimate eavesdropper, it is possible that a cellular UE decline to participate in the introduced Stackelberg game. So the condition under which a legitimate user will participate in the introduced Stackelberg game is discussed. Then, based on the Stackelberg game, we propose a semi-distributed power allocation algorithm, which is proved to conclude after finite-time iterations. In the end, some simulations are presented to verify the performance improvement in the physical layer security of cellular UEs using the proposed power allocation algorithm. We can determine that with the proposed algorithm, while the D2D pair's communication demand is met, the physical layer security of cellular UEs can be improved.

  20. European Union Harmonized Excise Taxation : Occasional Importation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhua, Taina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written with the intent to compile the information related to occasional importation process and European Union harmonized taxation into a single package. The process is based on European Union legislation and the aim of it is to unify the taxation within the internal market area. The national excise duties are not part of the occasional importation process but are partly linked to it. The first part of the thesis discusses the occasional importation of goods subject to ha...

  1. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, C. B.; Fitzgerald, A; Reese, G.; Goldin, R; Tekkis, P; O Kelly, P. S.; Pickwell-MacPherson, E.; Gibson, A. P.; Wallace, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured...

  2. 29 CFR 794.121 - Exclusion of excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion of excise taxes. 794.121 Section 794.121 Labor... Exclusion of excise taxes. The computation of the annual gross volume of sales of the enterprise for purposes of section 7(b)(3) is made “exclusive of excise taxes.” It will be noted that the excise...

  3. New design of nucleotide excision repair (NER) inhibitors for combination cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Francesco; Tuszynski, Jack A; Barakat, Khaled H

    2016-04-01

    Many cancer chemotherapy agents act by targeting the DNA of cancer cells, causing substantial damage within their genome and causing them to undergo apoptosis. An effective DNA repair pathway in cancer cells can act in a reverse way by removing these drug-induced DNA lesions, allowing cancer cells to survive, grow and proliferate. In this context, DNA repair inhibitors opened a new avenue in cancer treatment, by blocking the DNA repair mechanisms from removing the chemotherapy-mediated DNA damage. In particular, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) involves more than thirty protein-protein interactions and removes DNA adducts caused by platinum-based chemotherapy. The excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1)-xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A (XPA) protein (XPA-ERCC1) complex seems to be one of the most promising targets in this pathway. ERCC1 is over expressed in cancer cells and the only known cellular function so far for XPA is to recruit ERCC1 to the damaged point. Here, we build upon our recent advances in identifying inhibitors for this interaction and continue our efforts to rationally design more effective and potent regulators for the NER pathway. We employed in silico drug design techniques to: (1) identify compounds similar to the recently discovered inhibitors, but more effective at inhibiting the XPA-ERCC1 interactions, and (2) identify different scaffolds to develop novel lead compounds. Two known inhibitor structures have been used as starting points for two ligand/structure-hybrid virtual screening approaches. The findings described here form a milestone in discovering novel inhibitors for the NER pathway aiming at improving the efficacy of current platinum-based therapy, by modulating the XPA-ERCC1 interaction. PMID:26939044

  4. Knowledge-based matrix factorization temporally resolves the cellular responses to IL-6 stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretz Norbert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External stimulations of cells by hormones, cytokines or growth factors activate signal transduction pathways that subsequently induce a re-arrangement of cellular gene expression. The analysis of such changes is complicated, as they consist of multi-layered temporal responses. While classical analyses based on clustering or gene set enrichment only partly reveal this information, matrix factorization techniques are well suited for a detailed temporal analysis. In signal processing, factorization techniques incorporating data properties like spatial and temporal correlation structure have shown to be robust and computationally efficient. However, such correlation-based methods have so far not be applied in bioinformatics, because large scale biological data rarely imply a natural order that allows the definition of a delayed correlation function. Results We therefore develop the concept of graph-decorrelation. We encode prior knowledge like transcriptional regulation, protein interactions or metabolic pathways in a weighted directed graph. By linking features along this underlying graph, we introduce a partial ordering of the features (e.g. genes and are thus able to define a graph-delayed correlation function. Using this framework as constraint to the matrix factorization task allows us to set up the fast and robust graph-decorrelation algorithm (GraDe. To analyze alterations in the gene response in IL-6 stimulated primary mouse hepatocytes, we performed a time-course microarray experiment and applied GraDe. In contrast to standard techniques, the extracted time-resolved gene expression profiles showed that IL-6 activates genes involved in cell cycle progression and cell division. Genes linked to metabolic and apoptotic processes are down-regulated indicating that IL-6 mediated priming renders hepatocytes more responsive towards cell proliferation and reduces expenditures for the energy metabolism. Conclusions GraDe provides

  5. The incision-excision technique in minor auricular deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppt, Werner J

    2004-11-01

    In 1972, in the search for a method to cope with all deformities in protruding ears and other common minor auricular deformities, Claus Walter published a surgical technique based on various incisions and excisions of the cartilage. The procedure consists of a complete separation of the auricle into two parts, combined with remodeling of antihelical, helical, and lobular structures without use of adjusting sutures. Thus, even in patients with stiff and unyielding cartilage and in revisional surgery, pleasing aesthetic results may be achieved. The recurrence rate has found to be reduced markedly. Considering all pros and cons and optional surgical modifications, the incision-excision technique can be adopted for every protruding ear as well as for lop ears, moderate cup ear deformities, and secondary revisions. Because of the extent of cartilage dissection, this technique is not recommended for beginners but should be restricted to experienced surgeons with profound knowledge of basic remodeling procedures. PMID:15778916

  6. PARP-1 enhances the mismatch-dependence of 5′-directed excision in human mismatch repair in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yiyong; Kadyrov, Farid A; Modrich, Paul

    2011-01-01

    End-directed mismatch-provoked excision has been reconstituted in several purified systems. While 3′-directed excision displays a mismatch dependence similar to that observed in nuclear extracts (≈ 20-fold), the mismatch dependence of 5′-directed excision is only 3 to 4-fold, significantly less than that in extracts (8 to 10-fold). Utilizing a fractionation-based approach, we have isolated a single polypeptide that enhances mismatch dependence of reconstituted 5′-directed excision and have sh...

  7. A simple yeast-based strategy to identify host cellular processes targeted by bacterial effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Bosis

    Full Text Available Bacterial effector proteins, which are delivered into the host cell via the type III secretion system, play a key role in the pathogenicity of gram-negative bacteria by modulating various host cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. To identify cellular processes targeted by bacterial effectors, we developed a simple strategy that uses an array of yeast deletion strains fitted into a single 96-well plate. The array is unique in that it was optimized computationally such that despite the small number of deletion strains, it covers the majority of genes in the yeast synthetic lethal interaction network. The deletion strains in the array are screened for hypersensitivity to the expression of a bacterial effector of interest. The hypersensitive deletion strains are then analyzed for their synthetic lethal interactions to identify potential targets of the bacterial effector. We describe the identification, using this approach, of a cellular process targeted by the Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopE2. Interestingly, we discover that XopE2 affects the yeast cell wall and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. More generally, the use of a single 96-well plate makes the screening process accessible to any laboratory and facilitates the analysis of a large number of bacterial effectors in a short period of time. It therefore provides a promising platform for studying the functions and cellular targets of bacterial effectors and other virulence proteins.

  8. Intraoral excision of large submental dermoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Bhatnagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublingual dermoids are the rarest forms of craniofacial dermoids mostly seen in young individuals. Excision of large and deep submental dermoid is generally done via extraoral approach scarring the most prominent part of the face, which can lead to post operative scar hypertrophy and hyperpigmentation especially in non-Caucasian races. Presence of such scars leads to adverse psychological effects in young individuals. Excision via intraoral route, although technically demanding, can be simplified using basic principles of plastic surgery leading to optimal aesthetic outcome with least downtime. We excised a large sublingual dermoid extending deep to the mylohyoid muscle through intraoral approach with excellent cosmetic results. Clinicians dealing with such lesions should keep these principals in their armamentarium when dealing with this rare subset of cases.

  9. An arteriovenous fistula following chalazion excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias-Amborcar Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An arteriovenous fistula secondary to a chalazion is a rare occurrence. It may follow spontaneous necrosis or surgical trauma. Digital subtraction angiography and identification of the arterial feeders combined with direct puncture of the nidus and embolization is recommended, as surgical excision becomes much easier and results in a complete excision of the lesion. Conchal cartilage graft is a useful lining material for reconstruction of the tarsal plate due to its natural curvature. It restores lid integrity and ensures a stable and functional eyelid.

  10. A trans-well-based cellular model for the rapid pre-evaluation of tympanic membrane repair materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shih-Han; Su, Chin-Hui; Tseng, How

    2016-08-01

    It is important to have a standardized tympanic membrane (TM) perforation platform to evaluate the various myringoplasty materials that have been studied and developed extensively during recent years. However, currently there are no cellular models specifically designed for this purpose, and animal models remain unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study is to propose an inexpensive, readily available, well-controlled, and easy-to-create cellular model as a substitute for use in the evaluation of TM repairing materials. A trans-well model was created using a cell culture insert with a round hole created at the center of the polycarbonate membrane. HaCaT cells were cultured on the fenestrated culture insert, and the desired myringoplasty graft was placed at the center of the window for one week and observed by fluorescent microscopy under vital staining. Under this cellular model, there was notable migration of HaCaT cells onto the positive control graft (rabbit fascia), while only a few cell clusters were observed on the negative control graft (paper). Model validation showed that the cell migration ratio for the PLLA + 1% hyaluronic acid (HA) graft is significantly higher than using myringoplasty paper, poly L-lactide (PLLA), or PLLA + 0.5% HA (p < 0.05). This trans-well-based cellular model might be a useful pre-evaluation platform for the evaluation of TM repairing materials. The model is inexpensive, readily available, easy to create, and standardized for use. PMID:26335291

  11. A unique hinge binder of extremely selective aminopyridine-based Mps1 (TTK) kinase inhibitors with cellular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Ken-ichi; Ide, Nobuyuki; Daigo, Yataro; Itoh, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Takahiko; Kojima, Eiichi; Mitsuoka, Yasunori; Tadano, Genta; Tagashira, Sachie; Higashino, Kenichi; Okano, Yousuke; Sato, Yuji; Inoue, Makiko; Iguchi, Motofumi; Kanazawa, Takayuki; Ishioka, Yukichi; Dohi, Keiji; Kido, Yasuto; Sakamoto, Shingo; Ando, Shigeru; Maeda, Masahiro; Higaki, Masayo; Yoshizawa, Hidenori; Murai, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2015-05-01

    Mps1, also known as TTK, is a dual-specificity kinase that regulates the spindle assembly check point. Increased expression levels of Mps1 are observed in cancer cells, and the expression levels correlate well with tumor grade. Such evidence points to selective inhibition of Mps1 as an attractive strategy for cancer therapeutics. Starting from an aminopyridine-based lead 3a that binds to a flipped-peptide conformation at the hinge region in Mps1, elaboration of the aminopyridine scaffold at the 2- and 6-positions led to the discovery of 19c that exhibited no significant inhibition for 287 kinases as well as improved cellular Mps1 and antiproliferative activities in A549 lung carcinoma cells (cellular Mps1 IC₅₀=5.3 nM, A549 IC₅₀=26 nM). A clear correlation between cellular Mps1 and antiproliferative IC₅₀ values indicated that the antiproliferative activity observed in A549 cells would be responsible for the cellular inhibition of Mps1. The X-ray structure of 19c in complex with Mps1 revealed that this compound retains the ability to bind to the peptide flip conformation. Finally, comparative analysis of the X-ray structures of 19c, a deamino analogue 33, and a known Mps1 inhibitor bound to Mps1 provided insights into the unique binding mode at the hinge region. PMID:25801152

  12. Analyzing the Influence of Mobile Phone Use of Drivers on Traffic Flow Based on an Improved Cellular Automaton Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Xiao; Jing Shi

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the influence of drivers’ behavior of phone use while driving on traffic flow, including both traffic efficiency and traffic safety. An improved cellular automaton model was proposed to simulate traffic flow with distracted drivers based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. The driving characters of drivers using a phone were first discussed and a value representing the probability to use a phone while driving was put into the CA model. Simulation results showed that ...

  13. An asynchronous communication system based on the hyperchaotic system of 6th-order cellular neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Xu, Bing; Luo, Chao

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel asynchronous communication scheme. Based on this scheme, a model using the hyperchaotic system of 6th-order Cellular Neural Network (CNN) is designed. This scheme enhances the security of asynchronous communication compared to the conventional ones. It is noteworthy that the proposed communication scheme does not depend on synchronization, and almost all chaotic systems can be involved in this scheme. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of this scheme.

  14. Kinetic Mechanism for the Flipping and Excision of 1,N 6-Ethenoadenine by AlkA

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Erin L.; O’Brien, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA), an adaptive response glycosylase with a broad substrate range, initiates base excision repair by flipping a lesion out of the DNA duplex and hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond. We used transient and steady state kinetics to determine the minimal mechanism for recognition and excision of 1,N 6-ethenoadenine (εA) by AlkA. The natural fluorescence of this endogenously produced lesion allowed us to directly monitor the nucleotide flipping...

  15. Recombinant methods for screening human DNA excision repair proficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring DNA excision repair in response to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage has been developed, validated, and field-tested in cultured human lymphocytes. The methodology is amenable to population-based screening and should facilitate future epidemiologic studies seeking to investigate associations between excision repair proficiency and cancer susceptibility. The impetus for such endeavors derives from the belief that the high incidence of skin cancer in the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primarily is a result of the reduced capacity of patients cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. For assay, UV-irradiated non-replicating recombinant plasmid DNA harboring a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) indicator gene is introduced into lymphocytes using DEAE-dextran short-term transfection conditions. Exposure to UV induces transcriptionally-inactivating DNA photoproducts in the plasmid DNA which inactivate CAT gene expression. Excision repair of the damaged CAT gene is monitored indirectly as a function of reactivated CAT enzyme activity following a 40 hour repair/expression incubation period

  16. Context Information Based Initial Cell Search for Millimeter Wave 5G Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Waqas Bin; Zorzi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is envisioned as a cornerstone to fulfill the data rate requirements for fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. In mmWave communication, beamforming is considered as a key technology to combat the high path-loss, and unlike in conventional microwave communication, beamforming may be necessary even during initial access/cell search. Among the proposed beamforming schemes for initial cell search, analog beamforming is a power efficient approach but suffe...

  17. Microfluidics-Based in Vivo Mimetic Systems for the Study of Cellular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Donghyuk; Wu, Xiaojie; Young, Ashlyn T.; Haynes, Christy L.

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus The human body is a complex network of molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, and organs: an uncountable number of interactions and transformations interconnect all the system’s components. In addition to these biochemical components, biophysical components, such as pressure, flow, and morphology, and the location of all of these interactions play an important role in the human body. Technical difficulties have frequently limited researchers from observing cellular biology as it oc...

  18. Cancer physics: diagnostics based on damped cellular elastoelectrical vibrations in microtubules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Vedruccio, C.; Cifra, Michal; Kučera, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 6 (2011), s. 747-759. ISSN 0175-7571 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649; GA ČR GPP102/10/P454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : cancer   * cellular biophysics     * bioelectric phenomena     Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2011

  19. Expression of P-glycoprotein in excised human nasal mucosa and optimized models of RPMI 2650 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberg, Anne M; Reichl, Stephan

    2016-07-11

    To assess the transmucosal drug transport in the development of medications for intranasal administration, cellular in vitro models are preferred over the use of animal tissues due to inter-species variations and ethical concerns. With regard to the distribution of active agents and multidrug resistance, the ABC transporter P-glycoprotein plays a major role in several mammalian tissues. The present study compares the expression of this efflux pump in optimized in vitro models based on the human RPMI 2650 cell line with specimens of human turbinate mucosa. The presence of the ABCB1 gene was investigated at the mRNA and protein levels using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in differently cultured RPMI 2650 cells and excised human nasal epithelium. Furthermore, the localization and activity of P-gp was examined by immunohistochemical staining and functionality assays using different substrates in both in vitro and ex vivo models. Both mRNA and protein expression of P-gp was found in all studied models. Furthermore, transporter functionality was detected in both RPMI 2650 cell culture models and excised human mucosa. The results demonstrated a highly promising comparability between RPMI 2650 models and explants of human nasal tissue concerning the influence of MDR1 on drug disposition. The RPMI 2650 cell line might become a useful tool in preclinical trials to improve reproducibility and achieve greater applicability to humans of experimental data regarding passive diffusion and active efflux of drug candidates. PMID:27155589

  20. Simulation Based Optimization of Complex Monolithic Composite Structures Using Cellular Core Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmott, Curtis W.

    Cellular core tooling is a new technology which has the capability to manufacture complex integrated monolithic composite structures. This novel tooling method utilizes thermoplastic cellular cores as inner tooling. The semi-rigid nature of the cellular cores makes them convenient for lay-up, and under autoclave temperature and pressure they soften and expand providing uniform compaction on all surfaces including internal features such as ribs and spar tubes. This process has the capability of developing fully optimized aerospace structures by reducing or eliminating assembly using fasteners or bonded joints. The technology is studied in the context of evaluating its capabilities, advantages, and limitations in developing high quality structures. The complex nature of these parts has led to development of a model using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software Abaqus and the plug-in COMPRO Common Component Architecture (CCA) provided by Convergent Manufacturing Technologies. This model utilizes a "virtual autoclave" technique to simulate temperature profiles, resin flow paths, and ultimately deformation from residual stress. A model has been developed simulating the temperature profile during curing of composite parts made with the cellular core technology. While modeling of composites has been performed in the past, this project will look to take this existing knowledge and apply it to this new manufacturing method capable of building more complex parts and develop a model designed specifically for building large, complex components with a high degree of accuracy. The model development has been carried out in conjunction with experimental validation. A double box beam structure was chosen for analysis to determine the effects of the technology on internal ribs and joints. Double box beams were manufactured and sectioned into T-joints for characterization. Mechanical behavior of T-joints was performed using the T-joint pull-off test and compared to traditional

  1. A child with xeroderma pigmentosum for excision of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mulimani, Sridevi M; Talikoti, Dayanand G

    2013-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by hypersensitivity to sunlight, ocular involvement, and progressive neurological complications. These manifestations are due to a cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation leading to a defect in repair of DNA by the process of nucleotide excision repair. Basal cell carcinoma which is rare in children can occur with XP. Though the XP induced changes are predominately dermatologic, pose several challenges in anaesthetic management. Hence, we...

  2. Mutagenic specificity of solar UV light in nucleotide excision repair-deficient rodent cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, E.; Lamolet, B; Brulay, E; Moustacchi, E; Chteauneuf, A; Drobetsky, E A

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in the cellular processing of carcinogenic DNA photoproducts induced by defined, environmentally relevant portions of the solar wavelength spectrum, we have determined the mutagenic specificity of simulated sunlight (310-1100 nm), UVA (350-400 nm), and UVB (290-320 nm), as well as of the "nonsolar" model mutagen 254-nm UVC, at the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) locus in NER-deficient (ERCC1) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell...

  3. Cellular automata model based on GIS and urban sprawl dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Fengyun; Zhang, Zengxiang

    2005-10-01

    The simulation of land use change process needs the support of Geographical Information System (GIS) and other relative technologies. While the present commercial GIS lack capabilities of distribution, prediction, and simulation of spatial-temporal data. Cellular automata (CA) provide dynamically modeling "from bottom-to-top" framework and posses the capability of modeling spatial-temporal evolvement process of a complicated geographical system, which is composed of a fourfold: cells, states, neighbors and rules. The simplicity and flexibility make CA have the ability to simulate a variety of behaviors of complex systems. One of the most potentially useful applications of cellular automata from the point of view of spatial planning is their use in simulations of urban sprawl at local and regional level. The paper firstly introduces the principles and characters of the cellular automata, and then discusses three methods of the integration of CA and GIS. The paper analyses from a practical point of view the factors that effect urban activities in the science of spatial decision-making. The status of using CA to dynamic simulates of urban expansion at home and abroad is analyzed. Finally, the problems and tendencies that exist in the application of CA model are detailed discussed, such as the quality of the data that the CA needs, the self-organization of the CA roots in the mutual function among the elements of the system, the partition of the space scale, the time calibration of the CA and the integration of the CA with other modular such as artificial nerve net modular and population modular etc.

  4. Behind the NAT??? A measurement based evaluation of cellular service quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaup, F.; Michelinakis, F.; Bui, N.;

    2015-01-01

    quality is affected by a number of factors, including network operator and available technologies. However, most studies focusing on measuring the cellular network do not consider the performance implications of network configuration and management. To this end, this paper reports about an extensive data...... is observed that the association of mobile devices to a Point of Presence (PoP) within the operator's network can influence the end-to-end RTT by a large extent. Given the collected data a model predicting the PoP assignment and its resulting RTT leveraging Markov Chain and machine learning...

  5. Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X. W.; Kim, D. H.; Cho, S. J.; Kim, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-...

  6. A new design for reconfigurable XOR function based on cellular neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyi; Liu, Wenbo

    2014-10-01

    We have described a new method to construct the reconfigurable XOR logic circuit by using the modification of the standard uncoupled cellular neural network (CNN) cells. The modification of the cell is easier to implement in engineering applications. The scheme proposed in this paper, using the modification of standard uncoupled CNN cells, allows less hardware consumption in comparison to the utilisation of chaos computing system or harnessing piecewise-linear systems. The template parameters of the modified cell have been discussed, and the physical circuit implementing the reconfigurable two-input and three-input XOR function has also been presented.

  7. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  8. Phenomenological study of irregular cellular automata based on Lyapunov exponents and Jacobians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetens, Jan M; De Baets, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    Originally, cellular automata (CA) have been defined upon regular tessellations of the n-dimensional Euclidean space, while CA on irregular tessellations have received only little attention from the scientific community, notwithstanding serious shortcomings are associated with the former manner of subdividing Rn. In this paper we present a profound phenomenological study of two-state, two-dimensional irregular CA from a dynamical systems viewpoint. We opted to exploit properly defined quantitative measures instead of resorting to qualitative methods for discriminating between behavioral classes. As such, we employ Lyapunov exponents, measuring the divergence rate of close trajectories in phase space, and Jacobians, formulated using Boolean derivatives and expressing the sensitivity of a cellular automaton to its inputs. Both are stated for two-state CA on irregular tessellations, enabling us to characterize these discrete dynamical systems, and advancing us to propose a classification scheme for this CA family. In addition, a relationship between these quantitative measures is established in extension of the insights already developed for the classical CA paradigm. Finally, we discuss the repercussions on the CA dynamics that arise when the geometric variability of the spatial entities is taken into account during the CA simulation. PMID:20887052

  9. Stair evacuation simulation based on cellular automata considering evacuees’ walk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Tao; Peter, B. Luh

    2015-06-01

    As a physical model, the cellular automata (CA) model is widely used in many areas, such as stair evacuation. However, existing CA models do not consider evacuees’ walk preferences nor psychological status, and the structure of the basic model is unapplicable for the stair structure. This paper is to improve the stair evacuation simulation by addressing these issues, and a new cellular automata model is established. Several evacuees’ walk preference and how evacuee’s psychology influences their behaviors are introduced into this model. Evacuees’ speeds will be influenced by these features. To validate this simulation, two fire drills held in two high-rise buildings are video-recorded. It is found that the simulation results are similar to the fire drill results. The structure of this model is simple, and it is easy to further develop and utilize in different buildings with various kinds of occupants. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB719705) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91224008, 91024032, and 71373139).

  10. Low Density Nanocellular Polymers Based on PMMA Produced by Gas Dissolution Foaming: Fabrication and Cellular Structure Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Martín-de León

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the processing conditions needed to produce low density nanocellular polymers based on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA with relative densities between 0.45 and 0.25, cell sizes between 200 and 250 nm and cell densities higher than 1014 cells/cm3. To produce these nanocellular polymers, the foaming parameters of the gas dissolution foaming technique using CO2 as blowing agent have been optimized. Taking into account previous works, the amount of CO2 uptake was maintained constant (31% by weight for all the materials. Foaming parameters were modified between 40 °C and 110 °C for the foaming temperature and from 1 to 5 min for the foaming time. Foaming temperatures in the range of 80 to 100 °C and foaming times of 2 min allow for production of nanocellular polymers with relative densities as low as 0.25. Cellular structure has been studied in-depth to obtain the processing-cellular structure relationship. In addition, it has been proved that the glass transition temperature depends on the cellular structure. This effect is associated with a confinement of the polymer in the cell walls, and is one of the key reasons for the improved properties of nanocellular polymers.

  11. Mechanistic model of radon-induced lung cancer risk at low exposure levels based on cellular alpha particle hits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Hofmann; Hatim, Fakir [Salzburg Univ., Div. of Physics and Biophysics, Dept. of Material Science (Austria); Lucia-Adina, Truta-Popa [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Faculty of Physics (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    To explore the role of the multiplicity of cellular hits by radon progeny alpha particles for lung cancer incidence, the number of single and multiple alpha particle hits were computed for basal and secretory cells in the bronchial epithelium of human airway bifurcations employing Monte Carlo methods. Hot spots of alpha particle hits were observed at the branching points of bronchial airway bifurcations, suggesting that multiple alpha particle hits may occur primarily at carinal ridges. Random alpha particle intersections of bronchial cells during a given exposure period, selected from a Poisson distribution, were simulated by an initiation-promotion model, based on experimentally observed cellular transformation and survival functions. To consider potential bystander effects, which have been observed in cellular in vitro studies, alpha particle interactions were also simulated for larger sensitive target volumes in bronchial epithelium, consisting of a collection of cells. Lung cancer risk simulations indicated that cancer induction for continuous exposures is related to the cycle time of an irradiated cell, thus exhibiting a distinct dose-rate effect. While the dominant role of single hits leads to a linear dose-response relationship at low radon exposure levels, predicted lung cancer risk for a collection of interacting cells exhibits a linear-quadratic response, suggesting that bystander effects, if operating at all under in vivo irradiations, may be restricted to a small number of adjacent cells. (author)

  12. Mechanistic model of radon-induced lung cancer risk at low exposure levels based on cellular alpha particle hits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the role of the multiplicity of cellular hits by radon progeny alpha particles for lung cancer incidence, the number of single and multiple alpha particle hits were computed for basal and secretory cells in the bronchial epithelium of human airway bifurcations employing Monte Carlo methods. Hot spots of alpha particle hits were observed at the branching points of bronchial airway bifurcations, suggesting that multiple alpha particle hits may occur primarily at carinal ridges. Random alpha particle intersections of bronchial cells during a given exposure period, selected from a Poisson distribution, were simulated by an initiation-promotion model, based on experimentally observed cellular transformation and survival functions. To consider potential bystander effects, which have been observed in cellular in vitro studies, alpha particle interactions were also simulated for larger sensitive target volumes in bronchial epithelium, consisting of a collection of cells. Lung cancer risk simulations indicated that cancer induction for continuous exposures is related to the cycle time of an irradiated cell, thus exhibiting a distinct dose-rate effect. While the dominant role of single hits leads to a linear dose-response relationship at low radon exposure levels, predicted lung cancer risk for a collection of interacting cells exhibits a linear-quadratic response, suggesting that bystander effects, if operating at all under in vivo irradiations, may be restricted to a small number of adjacent cells. (author)

  13. Numerical study on photoresist etching processes based on a cellular automata model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For the three-dimensional (3-D) numerical study of photoresist etching processes, the 2-D dynamic cellular automata (CA) model has been successfully extended to a 3-D dynamic CA model. Only the boundary cells will be processed in the 3-D dy-namic CA model and the structure of “if-else” description in the simulation pro-gram is avoided to speed up the simulation. The 3-D dynamic CA model has found to be stable, fast and accurate for the numerical study of photoresist etching processes. The exposure simulation, post-exposure bake (PEB) simulation and etching simulation are integrated together to further investigate the performances of the CA model. Simulation results have been compared with the available ex-perimental results and the simulations show good agreement with the available experiments.

  14. Numerical study on photoresist etching processes based on a cellular automata model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU ZaiFa; HUANG QingAn; LI WeiHua; LU Wei

    2007-01-01

    For the three-dimensional (3-D) numerical study of photoresist etching processes, the 2-D dynamic cellular automata (CA) model has been successfully extended to a 3-D dynamic CA model. Only the boundary cells will be processed in the 3-D dynamic CA model and the structure of "if-else" description in the simulation program is avoided to speed up the simulation. The 3-D dynamic CA model has found to be stable, fast and accurate for the numerical study of photoresist etching processes. The exposure simulation, post-exposure bake (PEB) simulation and etching simulation are integrated together to further investigate the performances of the CA model. Simulation results have been compared with the available experimental results and the simulations show good agreement with the available experiments.

  15. Fatigue design of a cellular phone folder using regression model-based multi-objective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Jongsoo

    2016-08-01

    In a folding cellular phone, the folding device is repeatedly opened and closed by the user, which eventually results in fatigue damage, particularly to the front of the folder. Hence, it is important to improve the safety and endurance of the folder while also reducing its weight. This article presents an optimal design for the folder front that maximizes its fatigue endurance while minimizing its thickness. Design data for analysis and optimization were obtained experimentally using a test jig. Multi-objective optimization was carried out using a nonlinear regression model. Three regression methods were employed: back-propagation neural networks, logistic regression and support vector machines. The AdaBoost ensemble technique was also used to improve the approximation. Two-objective Pareto-optimal solutions were identified using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Finally, a numerically optimized solution was validated against experimental product data, in terms of both fatigue endurance and thickness index.

  16. MEMS-based thermally-actuated image stabilizer for cellular phone camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work develops an image stabilizer (IS) that is fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology and is designed to counteract the vibrations when human using cellular phone cameras. The proposed IS has dimensions of 8.8 × 8.8 × 0.3 mm3 and is strong enough to suspend an image sensor. The processes that is utilized to fabricate the IS includes inductive coupled plasma (ICP) processes, reactive ion etching (RIE) processes and the flip-chip bonding method. The IS is designed to enable the electrical signals from the suspended image sensor to be successfully emitted out using signal output beams, and the maximum actuating distance of the stage exceeds 24.835 µm when the driving current is 155 mA. Depending on integration of MEMS device and designed controller, the proposed IS can decrease the hand tremor by 72.5%. (paper)

  17. Cellular telephone-based radiation sensor and wide-area detection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2006-12-12

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  18. Fast encryption of RGB color digital images using a tweakable cellular automaton based schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraoun, Kamel Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new tweakable construction of block-enciphers using second-order reversible cellular automata, and we apply it to encipher RGB-colored images. The proposed construction permits a parallel encryption of the image content by extending the standard definition of a block cipher to take into account a supplementary parameter used as a tweak (nonce) to control the behavior of the cipher from one region of the image to the other, and hence avoid the necessity to use slow sequential encryption's operating modes. The proposed construction defines a flexible pseudorandom permutation that can be used with efficacy to solve the electronic code book problem without the need to a specific sequential mode. Obtained results from various experiments show that the proposed schema achieves high security and execution performances, and enables an interesting mode of selective area decryption due to the parallel character of the approach.

  19. A Compact Self-organizing Cellular Automata-based Genetic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Barmpoutis, Vasileios

    2007-01-01

    A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed in which each member of the population can change schemata only with its neighbors according to a rule. The rule methodology and the neighborhood structure employ elements from the Cellular Automata (CA) strategies. Each member of the GA population is assigned to a cell and crossover takes place only between adjacent cells, according to the predefined rule. Although combinations of CA and GA approaches have appeared previously, here we rely on the inherent self-organizing features of CA, rather than on parallelism. This conceptual shift directs us toward the evolution of compact populations containing only a handful of members. We find that the resulting algorithm can search the design space more efficiently than traditional GA strategies due to its ability to exploit mutations within this compact self-organizing population. Consequently, premature convergence is avoided and the final results often are more accurate. In order to reinforce the superior mutation capability, ...

  20. 29 CFR 779.264 - Excise taxes separately stated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes separately stated. 779.264 Section 779.264... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.264 Excise taxes separately stated. A tax is separately stated where it clearly... was no invoice or sales slip. In the absence of a sales slip or invoice, the amount of the tax...

  1. Local excision carcinoma in early stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Dong Gao; Yong-Fu Shao; Jian-Jun Bi; Su-Sheng Shi; Jun Liang; Yu-Hua Hu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the validity of local excision for the early stage low rectal cancer as an effective treatment alternative to radical resection.METHODS: A retrospective medical chart review was done in 47 patients with early stage low rectal carcinoma who underwent local excision from November 1980 through November 1999 at Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS). The patients were treated by either transanal (40 cases), trans-sacral (5 cases), or trans-vaginal (2 cases) excision of tumors and no death was related to surgery. Sixteen patients received postoperative radiotherapy.RESULTS: T1 and T2 lesion was found in 36 (76.6 %) and 11 patients (23.4 %) respectively. The overall local tumor recurrence rate was 14.9 % (7/47), with an average recurrence time of 21 months. Among these 7 recurrent patients, there were 4 T1 and 3 T2 lesions. Microscopically,the surgical incisal margin was negative in 45 (95.7 %) and positive in 2 patients (4.3 %); Both of the later had developed local recurrence. The overall 5-year survival rate was 91.7 %,in which there were 94.4 % for T1 and 83.3 % for T2 tumors.T stage, intravessel tumor thrombosis, lymphocytic infiltration and histological grade were not found to be significant by related to the local recurrence and survival (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Local tumor excision was a safe procedure for the treatment of early stage low rectal carcinoma with minimal morbidity and mortality, which might serves as one of the primary surgical treatment methods for the disease of this kind.

  2. Fate of Kaluza-Klein black holes: Evaporation or excision?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the evaporation process of black strings which are typical examples of Kaluza-Klein black holes. Taking into account the backreaction of the Hawking radiation, we deduce the evolution equation for the radion field. By solving the evolution equation, we find that the shape of the internal space is necked by the Hawking radiation and the amount of the deformation becomes large as the evaporation proceeds. Based on this analysis, we speculate that the Kaluza-Klein black holes would be excised from the Kaluza-Klein spacetime before the onset of the Gregory-Laflamme instability and therefore before the evaporation

  3. Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of a series of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers: objective comparison between cellular and acellular types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H; Yuasa, M; Onuma, H; Takeoka, S; Tsuchida, E

    2000-01-01

    A series of hemoglobin (Hb)-based O(2) carriers, acellular and cellular types, were synthesized and their physicochemical characteristics were compared. The acellular type includes intramolecularly cross-linked Hb (XLHb), polyoxyethylene (POE)-conjugated pyridoxalated Hb (POE-PLP-Hb), hydroxyethylstarch-conjugated Hb (HES-XLHb), and glutaraldehyde-polymerized XLHb (Poly-XLHb). The cellular type is Hb-vesicles (HbV) of which the surface is modified with POE (POE-HbV). Their particle diameters are 7 +/- 2, 22 +/- 2, 47 +/- 17, 68 +/- 24, and 224 +/- 76 nm, respectively, thus all the materials penetrate across membrane filters with 0.4 microm pore size, though only the POE-HbV cannot penetrate across the filter with 0.2 microm pore size. These characteristics of permeability are important to consider an optimal particle size in microcirculation in vivo. POE-PLP-Hb ([Hb] = 5 g/dL) showed viscosity of 6.1 cP at 332 s(-1) and colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of 70.2 Torr, which are beyond the physiological conditions (human blood, viscosity = 3-4 cP, COP = ca. 25 Torr). XLHb and Poly-XLHb showed viscosities of 1.0 and 1.5 cp, respectively, which are significantly lower than that of blood. COP of POE-HbV is regulated to 20 Torr in 5% human serum albumin (HSA). HES-XLHb and POE-HbV/HSA showed comparable viscosity with human blood. Microscopic observation of human red blood cells (RBC) after mixing blood with POE-PLP-Hb or HES-XLHb disclosed aggregates of RBC, a kind of sludge, indicating a strong interaction with RBC, which is anticipated to modify peripheral blood flow in vivo. On the other hand, XLHb and POE-HbV showed no rouleaux or aggregates of RBC. The acellular Hbs (P(50) = 14-32 Torr) have their specific O(2) affinities determined by their structures, while that of the cellular POE-HbV is regulated by coencapsulating an appropriate amount of an allosteric effector (e.g., P(50) = 18, 32 Torr). These differences in physicochemical characteristics between the acellular

  4. Keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum: unresponsive to oral retinoid and successfully treated with wide local excision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapildev Das

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 65-year-old male presenting with a large plaque with a rolled-out interrupted margin, atrophic center, and island of normal skin over the left arm. It grew peripherally with central healing, and there was a history of recurrence after inadequate excision. Investigations ruled out other clin­ical mimickers; namely, squamous cell carcinoma, lupus vulgaris, botryomycosis, and blastomycosis-like pyoderma. Histopathological sections showed irregularly shaped craters filled with keratin and epithelial pearl but no evidence of granuloma or cellular atypia. Clinico­pathological correlation proved the lesion to be keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum (KCM, a rare variant of keratoacanthoma, which spreads centrifugally, attains a huge size, and never involutes spontaneously. Treatment of KCM has been a problem always and, in our case, systemic retinoid (acitretin for three months proved ineffective. The patient also had a history of recurrence following surgical intervention previously, necessitating wide excision to achieve complete clearance of tumor cells. Hence, after failure of retinoid therapy, the decision of excision with a 1-centimeter margin was taken and the large defect was closed by a split thickness skin graft. The graft uptake was satisfactory, and the patient is being followed-up presently and shows no signs of recurrence after six months, highlighting wide local excision as a useful treatment option.

  5. Phonatory characteristics of excised pig, sheep, and cow larynges

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, Fariborz; Jaiswal, Sanyukta

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the phonatory characteristics of pig, sheep, and cow excised larynges and to find out which of these animal species is the best model for human phonation. Excised pig, sheep, and cow larynges were prepared and mounted over a tapered tube on the excised bench that supplied pressurized, heated, and humidified air in a manner similar to that for excised canine models. Each excised larynx was subjected to a series of pressure-flow experiments with adductio...

  6. Finite element analysis of the mechanical properties of cellular aluminium based on micro-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Elastic and plastic anisotropy is observed for both materials → Both show qualitatively similar characteristics with quantitative differences → Distinctly higher mechanical properties for closed-cell foam → The 'big' and 'small' models show good agreement for the closed-cell foam. - Abstract: In the present paper, the macroscopic mechanical properties of open-cell M-Pore sponge (porosity of 91-93%) and closed-cell Alporas foam (porosity of 80-86%) are investigated. The complex geometry of these cellular materials is scanned by micro-computed tomography and used in finite element (FE) analysis. The mechanical properties are determined by uni-axial compression simulations in three perpendicular directions (x-, y- and z-direction). M-Pore and Alporas exhibit the same qualitative mechanical characteristics but with quantitative differences. In both cases, strong anisotropy is observed for Young's modulus and the 0.002 offset yield stress. Furthermore, for the investigated relative density range a linear dependence between relative density and mechanical properties is found. Finally, a distinctly higher Young's modulus and 0.002 offset yield stress is observed for Alporas.

  7. A versatile transreplication-based system to identify cellular proteins involved in geminivirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morilla, Gabriel; Castillo, Araceli G; Preiss, Werner; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R

    2006-04-01

    A versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette containing the replication origins of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) is described. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants containing one copy of the cassette stably integrated into their genome were superinfected with TYLCSV, which mobilized and replicated the cassette as an episomal replicon. The expression of the reporter gene (the GFP gene) was thereby modified. Whereas GFP fluorescence was dimmed in the intercostal areas, an increase of green fluorescence in veins of all leaves placed above the inoculation site, as well as in transport tissues of roots and stems, was observed. The release of episomal trans replicons from the transgene and the increase in GFP expression were dependent on the cognate geminiviral replication-associated protein (Rep) and required interaction between Rep and the intergenic region of TYLCSV. This expression system is able to monitor the replication status of TYLCSV in plants, as induction of GFP expression is only produced in those tissues where Rep is present. To further confirm this notion, the expression of a host factor required for geminivirus replication, the proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) was transiently silenced. Inhibition of PCNA prevented GFP induction in veins and reduced viral DNA. We propose that these plants could be widely used to easily identify host factors required for geminivirus replication by virus-induced gene silencing. PMID:16537630

  8. Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.

  9. Radio Capacity Estimation for Millimeter Wave 5G Cellular Networks Using Narrow Beamwidth Antennas at the Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlMuthanna Turki Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents radio frequency (RF capacity estimation for millimeter wave (mm-wave based fifth-generation (5G cellular networks using field-level simulations. It is shown that, by reducing antenna beamwidth from 65° to 30°, we can enhance the capacity of mm-wave cellular networks roughly by 3.0 times at a distance of 220 m from the base station (BS. This enhancement is far much higher than the corresponding enhancement of 1.2 times observed for 900 MHz and 2.6 GHz microwave networks at the same distance from the BS. Thus the use of narrow beamwidth transmitting antennas has more pronounced benefits in mm-wave networks. Deployment trials performed on an LTE TDD site operating on 2.6 GHz show that 6-sector site with 27° antenna beamwidth enhances the quality of service (QoS roughly by 40% and more than doubles the overall BS throughput (while enhancing the per sector throughput 1.1 times on average compared to a 3-sector site using 65° antenna beamwidth. This agrees well with our capacity simulations. Since mm-wave 5G networks will use arbitrary number of beams, with beamwidth much less than 30°, the capacity enhancement expected in 5G system when using narrow beamwidth antennas would be much more than three times observed in our simulations.

  10. Virtual cellular manufacturing system based on resource element approach and analyzing its performance over different basic layouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Esmaeilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to present how choosing a suitable layout can improve the performance of virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMSs, especially minimizing the material flow between machines required by each family group. To present the efficacy of basic layouts on performances of VCMSs, a multi-objective mathematical model with a goal programming (GP approach is developed to generate VCMSs based on resource-elements (REs. The formulated model is coded in Lingo software and is run over functional and distributed arrangements of the same machines. The performance and the validity of the developed model are checked by a numerical example taken from the literature. The objective function of the mathematical model is measured for that example over two mentioned layout to compare the performance of the generated systems. Moreover, because of the material handling costs importance, material flows are measured to find the best option as a basic layout for VCMSs. To compare the performance of the generated system with the classical cellular manufacturing system (CMS, cell capacity utilization (CCU is employed as an independent criterion to evaluate each system. The result illustrates the priority of distributed layouts for generating RE-based VCMSs because of its flexibility, minimizing the objective function for the mathematical model, and smaller material flow by the components. In addition, the generated VCMSs outperforms the classical CMS from the CCU point of view.

  11. Coding and reimbursement of primary care debridement and excision procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, T J; Purvis, J R

    1992-12-01

    Current medical practice requires physicians to accurately report services provided to patients. Patient billing for debridement and excision procedures involves the selection of specific 1992 Physicians' Current Procedural Terminology codes. Although a site-specific surgical procedure code often yields higher reimbursement than a general procedure code, physicians should select the code that most accurately reflects the procedure performed. This review identifies the codes used to report destruction and excision procedures performed by primary care physicians. Included in this review are skin debridement, burn debridement, excision of benign and malignant lesions of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, cyst and ganglion excision, nail excision, anorectal lesion excision, shave, paring, and skin tag excision procedures, and foreign body removal. The Health Care Financing Administration's relative value units and one state's published Medicaid payment rates are included for each procedure code. Instructions are provided for selecting between multiple coding options when more than one code describes the service provided. PMID:1453151

  12. Descriptive Study of Patients Receiving Excision and Radiotherapy for Keloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review and describe our institution's outcomes in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy after keloid excision. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study. Patients who received radiotherapy between July 1994 and January 2004 after keloid excision were identified. A questionnaire was mailed regarding sociodemographic factors, early and late radiation toxicities, the need for additional therapy, and satisfaction level. All patients had received a total of 15 Gy in three daily 5-Gy fractions. Treatment started within 24 h after surgery and was delivered on a Siemens orthovoltage machine. The data were analyzed using the STATA statistical package. Results: A total of 234 patients were approached. The response rate was 41%, and 75% were female. The mean age was 36.5 years (range, 16-69 years). The patients were mainly of European (53.1%) or African (19.8%) descent. For early toxicity outcomes, 54.2% reported skin redness and 24% reported skin peeling. For late toxicity outcomes, 27% reported telangiectasia and 62% reported permanent skin color changes. No association was found with gender, skin color, or age for the late toxicity outcomes. Of the patients responding, 14.6% required adjuvant treatment. On a visual scale of 1-10 for the satisfaction level, 60% reported a satisfaction level of ≥8. Telangiectasia was the most significant predictor of a low satisfaction level (≤3, p < 0.005). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that orthovoltage-based radiotherapy after surgical excision for keloids is a good method for the prevention of relapse. It is well tolerated, causes little toxicity, and leads to a high patient satisfaction level

  13. Nucleotide Excision Repair in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes Lans; Wim Vermeulen

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays an essential role in many organisms across life domains to preserve and faithfully transmit DNA to the next generation. In humans, NER is essential to prevent DNA damage-induced mutation accumulation and cell death leading to cancer and aging. NER is a versatile DNA repair pathway that repairs many types of DNA damage which distort the DNA helix, such as those induced by solar UV light. A detailed molecular model of the NER pathway has emerged from in vi...

  14. An Asynchronous Recurrent Network of Cellular Automaton-Based Neurons and Its Reproduction of Spiking Neural Network Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Takashi; Torikai, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Modeling and implementation approaches for the reproduction of input-output relationships in biological nervous tissues contribute to the development of engineering and clinical applications. However, because of high nonlinearity, the traditional modeling and implementation approaches encounter difficulties in terms of generalization ability (i.e., performance when reproducing an unknown data set) and computational resources (i.e., computation time and circuit elements). To overcome these difficulties, asynchronous cellular automaton-based neuron (ACAN) models, which are described as special kinds of cellular automata that can be implemented as small asynchronous sequential logic circuits have been proposed. This paper presents a novel type of such ACAN and a theoretical analysis of its excitability. This paper also presents a novel network of such neurons, which can mimic input-output relationships of biological and nonlinear ordinary differential equation model neural networks. Numerical analyses confirm that the presented network has a higher generalization ability than other major modeling and implementation approaches. In addition, Field-Programmable Gate Array-implementations confirm that the presented network requires lower computational resources. PMID:25974951

  15. Subunit composition of VRAC channels determines substrate specificity and cellular resistance to Pt-based anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planells-Cases, Rosa; Lutter, Darius; Guyader, Charlotte; Gerhards, Nora M; Ullrich, Florian; Elger, Deborah A; Kucukosmanoglu, Asli; Xu, Guotai; Voss, Felizia K; Reincke, S Momsen; Stauber, Tobias; Blomen, Vincent A; Vis, Daniel J; Wessels, Lodewyk F; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Borst, Piet; Rottenberg, Sven; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2015-12-14

    Although platinum-based drugs are widely used chemotherapeutics for cancer treatment, the determinants of tumor cell responsiveness remain poorly understood. We show that the loss of subunits LRRC8A and LRRC8D of the heteromeric LRRC8 volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) increased resistance to clinically relevant cisplatin/carboplatin concentrations. Under isotonic conditions, about 50% of cisplatin uptake depended on LRRC8A and LRRC8D, but neither on LRRC8C nor on LRRC8E. Cell swelling strongly enhanced LRRC8-dependent cisplatin uptake, bolstering the notion that cisplatin enters cells through VRAC. LRRC8A disruption also suppressed drug-induced apoptosis independently from drug uptake, possibly by impairing VRAC-dependent apoptotic cell volume decrease. Hence, by mediating cisplatin uptake and facilitating apoptosis, VRAC plays a dual role in the cellular drug response. Incorporation of the LRRC8D subunit into VRAC substantially increased its permeability for cisplatin and the cellular osmolyte taurine, indicating that LRRC8 proteins form the channel pore. Our work suggests that LRRC8D-containing VRACs are crucial for cell volume regulation by an important organic osmolyte and may influence cisplatin/carboplatin responsiveness of tumors. PMID:26530471

  16. BioJazz: in silico evolution of cellular networks with unbounded complexity using rule-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Song; Ollivier, Julien F; Swain, Peter S; Soyer, Orkun S

    2015-10-30

    Systems biologists aim to decipher the structure and dynamics of signaling and regulatory networks underpinning cellular responses; synthetic biologists can use this insight to alter existing networks or engineer de novo ones. Both tasks will benefit from an understanding of which structural and dynamic features of networks can emerge from evolutionary processes, through which intermediary steps these arise, and whether they embody general design principles. As natural evolution at the level of network dynamics is difficult to study, in silico evolution of network models can provide important insights. However, current tools used for in silico evolution of network dynamics are limited to ad hoc computer simulations and models. Here we introduce BioJazz, an extendable, user-friendly tool for simulating the evolution of dynamic biochemical networks. Unlike previous tools for in silico evolution, BioJazz allows for the evolution of cellular networks with unbounded complexity by combining rule-based modeling with an encoding of networks that is akin to a genome. We show that BioJazz can be used to implement biologically realistic selective pressures and allows exploration of the space of network architectures and dynamics that implement prescribed physiological functions. BioJazz is provided as an open-source tool to facilitate its further development and use. Source code and user manuals are available at: http://oss-lab.github.io/biojazz and http://osslab.lifesci.warwick.ac.uk/BioJazz.aspx. PMID:26101250

  17. Pattern-oriented Agent-based Monte Carlo simulation of Cellular Redox Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Jiaowei; Holcombe, Mike; Boonen, Harrie C.M.

    . Because complex networks and dynamics of redox still is not completely understood , results of existing experiments will be used to validate the modeling according to ideas in pattern-oriented agent-based modeling[8]. The simulation of this model is computational intensive, thus an application 'FLAME......] could be very important factors. In our project, an agent-based Monte Carlo modeling [6] is offered to study the dynamic relationship between extracellular and intracellular redox and complex networks of redox reactions. In the model, pivotal redox-related reactions will be included, and the reactants...... cells. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects, 2008. 1780(11): p. 1271-1290. 5. Jones, D.P., Redox sensing: orthogonal control in cell cycle and apoptosis signalling. J Intern Med, 2010. 268(5): p. 432-48. 6. Pogson, M., et al., Formal agent-based modelling of intracellular chemical interactions...

  18. A literature mining-based approach for identification of cellular pathways associated with chemoresistance in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Hun; Deasy, Joseph O

    2016-05-01

    Chemoresistance is a major obstacle to the successful treatment of many human cancer types. Increasing evidence has revealed that chemoresistance involves many genes and multiple complex biological mechanisms including cancer stem cells, drug efflux mechanism, autophagy and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance. However, understanding of the biological mechanisms in chemoresistance still remains limited. We surveyed the literature on chemoresistance-related genes and pathways of multiple cancer types. We then used a curated pathway database to investigate significant chemoresistance-related biological pathways. In addition, to investigate the importance of chemoresistance-related markers in protein-protein interaction networks identified using the curated database, we used a gene-ranking algorithm designed based on a graph-based scoring function in our previous study. Our comprehensive survey and analysis provide a systems biology-based overview of the underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance. PMID:26220932

  19. Photobiomodulatory effects of He-Ne laser on excision wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Vijendra; Rao, Satish B. S.; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Lakshmi; Mahato, Krishna K.

    2011-03-01

    Presently, great importance has been given to Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) with the intent of promoting wound healing process. The present study was aimed to investigate the promotive effect of LLLT on full thickness excision wounds in Swiss albino mice using optical fiber probe based light device. Circular wounds of diameter 15 mm were illuminated with single exposure of various laser doses 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 J/cm2 along with appropriate controls. Further, an optimal dose of 2 J/cm2 was applied to excision wounds at different post-wounding treatment schedules (0, 24 h and 48 h) to explicate the relations between treatment schedule and its tissue regeneration potential. Wound area, mean wound healing time along with hydroxyproline and glucosamine levels from wound ground tissue was assessed to evaluate the resultant photobiostimulatory outcome. Histological analysis was performed on day 10 of post-wounding. A significant increase in hydroxyproline (P< 0.001) and glucosamine levels (P< 0.01) were observed in 2 J/cm2 irradiation group, which was also substantiated by histological findings. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the immediate irradiation of 2 J/cm2 dose following wounding hasten the healing process compared to the unilluminated control.

  20. Study on cellular internalization of poly(vinyldiaminotriazine)-based hydrosen bonding type non-viral trans-gene vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE GuiXiang; CAO ZhiQiang; LIN Lin; CHEN DaYong; LIU WenGuang

    2008-01-01

    Previously we successfully prepared poly(vinyldiaminotriazine)(PVDT)-based non-viral vectors which complexed plasmid DNA via hydrogen bonding with adenine-thymine base pairs. In this report, surface charges and complex sizes of this system were further examined. The results showed that PVDT-based polymer could cover surface charges of DNA resulting in slightly negative or neutral complexes. It was also found that the complex sizes were governed by two events: the aggregation induced by the instability of neutral particles, and more compact complexes produced by PVDT-based polymers. In the study of cellular uptake, chlorpromazine and filipin III were used to inhibit clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, respectively. We found that PVDT-based systems were transported into cells via a non-clathrin, non-caveolae mediated endocytosis. This special process was studied by temperature inhibition and kinetics assays. It was revealed that such a pathway was characterized by (i) a more energy dependent process and (ii) a much slow transfection-effective internalization.

  1. Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: A review of the studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phone base stations evokes much interest in view of the fact that people living in their vicinity are fated to continuous exposure to EMF. None of the studies carried out throughout the world have revealed excessive values of standards adopted by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints. (author)

  2. Analyzing the Influence of Mobile Phone Use of Drivers on Traffic Flow Based on an Improved Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the influence of drivers’ behavior of phone use while driving on traffic flow, including both traffic efficiency and traffic safety. An improved cellular automaton model was proposed to simulate traffic flow with distracted drivers based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. The driving characters of drivers using a phone were first discussed and a value representing the probability to use a phone while driving was put into the CA model. Simulation results showed that traffic flow rate was significantly reduced if some drivers used a phone compared to no phone use. The flow rate and velocity decreased as the proportion of drivers using a phone increased. While, under low density, the risk of traffic decreased first and then increased as the distracted drivers increased, the distracted behavior of drivers, like using a phone, could reduce the flow rate by 5 percent according to the simulation.

  3. Identification of large-scale cellular structures on the Sun based on the SDO and PSPT data

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, V I; Solovev, A A

    2014-01-01

    Three independent sets of data: i). series of filtergrams obtained in line CaII K (393.416 nm) with the ground-based telescope Precision Solar Photometric Telescope (PSPT) of Mauna Loa Solar Observatory; ii). series of filtergrams of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in {\\lambda}160 nm and iii). series of magnetograms of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) of SDO have been processed to reveal reliably the existence of spatial cellular structures on the solar photosphere at scale about of 300 arcsec. This scale is intermediate between supergranules and giant cells (~30,000 and ~300,000 kilometers across, respectively). To identify the different spatial structures the tens of two-dimensional power spectra (2DFFT) have been averaged. For one-dimensional photometric cross sections of frames, the Fourier power spectra (FFT) and wavelet transforms (Morlet 5-th order) have been calculated.

  4. Cell Identification based on Received Signal Strength Fingerprints: Concept and Application towards Energy Saving in Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Roth-Mandutz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of small cells aimed at off-loading data traffic from macrocells in heterogeneous networks has resulted in a drastic increase in energy consumption in cellular networks. Energy consumption can be optimized in a selforganized way by adapting the number of active cells in response to the current traffic demand. In this paper we concentrate on the complex problem of how to identify small cells to be reactivated in situations where multiple cells are concurrently inactive. Solely based on the received signal strength, we present cell-specific patterns for the generation of unique cell fingerprints. The cell fingerprints of the deactivated cells are matched with measurements from a high data rate demanding mobile device to identify the most appropriate candidate. Our scheme results in a matching success rate of up to 100% to identify the best cell depending on the number of cells to be activated.

  5. A new model for anaerobic processes of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors based on cellular automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    characteristics and lead to different reactor behaviour. A dynamic mathematical model has been developed for the anaerobic digestion of a glucose based synthetic wastewater in UASB reactors. Cellular automata (CA) theory has been applied to simulate the granule development process. The model takes......The advantageous performance of the UASB reactors is due to the immobilisation of the active biomass, since bacteria coagulate forming aggregates usually called granules. Changes in organic loading rate, hydraulic loading rate or influent substrate composition usually result in changes in granule...... into consideration that granule diameter and granule microbial composition are functions of the reactor operational parameters and is capable of predicting the UASB performance and the layer structure of the granules....

  6. Developing an effective 2-D urban flood inundation model for city emergency management based on cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods have occurred frequently and severely in the urban areas of South China. An effective process-oriented urban flood inundation model becomes an urgent demand for urban storm water and emergency management. This study develops an effective and flexible cellular automaton (CA model to simulate storm water runoff and the flood inundation process during extreme storm events. The process of infiltration, inlets discharge and flow dynamic can be simulated only with little pre-processing on commonly available basic urban geographic data. In this model, a set of gravitational diverging rules are implemented in a cellular automation (CA model to govern the water flow in a 3 x 3 cell template of a raster layer. The model is calibrated by one storm event and validated by another in a small urban catchment in Guangzhou of Southern China. The depth of accumulated water at the catchment outlet is interpreted from street monitoring sensors and verified by on-site survey. A good level of agreement between the simulated process and the reality is reached for both storm events. The model reproduces the changing extent and depth of flooded areas at the catchment outlet with an accuracy of 4 cm in water depth. Comparisons with a physically-based 2-D model (FloodMap results show that the model have the capability of simulating flow dynamics. The high computational efficiency of CA model can satisfy the demand of city emergency management. The encouraging results of the simulations demonstrate that the CA-based approach is capable of effectively representing the key processes associated with a storm event and reproducing the process of water accumulation at the catchment outlet for making process-considered city emergency management decisions.

  7. MEMS-based Massively-parallelized Mechanoporation Instrumentation for Ultrahigh Throughput Cellular Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanyan

    2012-01-01

    Many applications in cell biology, genetic engineering, cell-based therapeutics, and drug discovery require precise and safe methods for introducing membrane-impermeable molecules into cells. This can be implemented satisfactorily by microinjection. However, disadvantages of traditional manual microinjection include high degree of operator skill, low throughput and labor-intensiveness. Many studies have focused on developing automated and high-throughput systems for microinjection to address ...

  8. Cellular automata and urban development simulation : a transition rules creation process based on statistical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Valentine; Antoni, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    National audience Nowadays land use evolution study has become a major stake in urban planning. The main focus is to understand the way in which land use evolves across time and to understand processes that take place. This understanding would allow to plan urban developments based on a knowledge as complete as possible covering as many fields as possible (i.e. urban planning, politics, sociology, etc.). Simulation tools can be used to merge and display different points of view and stakes ...

  9. Evaluation of adamantane hydroxamates as botulinum neurotoxin inhibitors: synthesis, crystallography, modeling, kinetic and cellular based studies

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhár, Peter; Silvaggi, Nicholas R; Pellett, Sabine; Čapková, Kateřina; Johnson, Eric A.; Allen, Karen N.; Janda, Kim D.

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most lethal biotoxins known to mankind and are responsible for the neuroparalytic disease botulism. Current treatments for botulinum poisoning are all protein based and thus have a limited window of treatment opportunity. Inhibition of the BoNT light chain protease (LC) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of botulism as it may provide an effective post exposure remedy. Using a combination of crystallographic and modeling studies a seri...

  10. Antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins-rich fractions from Choerospondias axillaris peels using a combination of chemical-based methods and cellular-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Xieyi; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chengmei; Li, Ti; McClements, David Julian; Dai, Taotao; Liu, Jiyan

    2016-10-01

    An extract isolated from Choerospondias axillaris peels was separated into five fractions using size-exclusion chromatography. The structural composition and mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of these fractions were then characterized by acid-catalysis followed by HPLC analysis. The antioxidant activity of each fraction was determined using a combination of chemical-based methods (DPPH, ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and phosphomolybdate assay) and a cellular-based assay. All fractions tested were found to have high total phenolics contents and were rich in proanthocyanidins. The mDP of fractions (F1-F5) ranged from 1.92 to 9.25. When tested by the chemical-based assays, the antioxidant activity of the fractions did not depend on molecular weight of the phenolics. Conversely, when tested by the cellular-based assay the antioxidant activity actually decreased with increasing molecular weight of the proanthocyanidins. These experiments highlight the limitations of using chemical-based assays to establish the antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins within biological systems. PMID:27132855

  11. Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnoli, Franco

    1998-01-01

    An introduction to cellular automata (both deterministic and probabilistic) with examples. Definition of deterministic automata, dynamical properties, damage spreading and Lyapunov exponents; probabilistic automata and Markov processes, nonequilibrium phase transitions, directed percolation, diffusion; simulation techniques, mean field. Investigation themes: life, epidemics, forest fires, percolation, modeling of ecosystems and speciation. They represent my notes for the school "Dynamical Mod...

  12. Multispectral and Photoplethysmography Optical Imaging Techniques Identify Important Tissue Characteristics in an Animal Model of Tangential Burn Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E; Li, Weizhi; Rodriguez-Vaqueiro, Yolanda; Squiers, John J; Mo, Weirong; Lu, Yang; Plant, Kevin D; Sellke, Eric; King, Darlene R; Fan, Wensheng; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose A; DiMaio, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    Burn excision, a difficult technique owing to the training required to identify the extent and depth of injury, will benefit from a tool that can cue the surgeon as to where and how much to resect. We explored two rapid and noninvasive optical imaging techniques in their ability to identify burn tissue from the viable wound bed using an animal model of tangential burn excision. Photoplethysmography (PPG) imaging and multispectral imaging (MSI) were used to image the initial, intermediate, and final stages of burn excision of a deep partial-thickness burn. PPG imaging maps blood flow in the skin's microcirculation, and MSI collects the tissue reflectance spectrum in visible and infrared wavelengths of light to classify tissue based on a reference library. A porcine deep partial-thickness burn model was generated and serial tangential excision accomplished with an electric dermatome set to 1.0 mm depth. Excised eschar was stained with hematoxylin and eosin to determine the extent of burn remaining at each excision depth. We confirmed that the PPG imaging device showed significantly less blood flow where burn tissue was present, and the MSI method could delineate burn tissue in the wound bed from the viable wound bed. These results were confirmed independently by a histological analysis. We found these devices can identify the proper depth of excision, and their images could cue a surgeon as to the preparedness of the wound bed for grafting. These image outputs are expected to facilitate clinical judgment in the operating room. PMID:26594863

  13. A Dynamic Programming Approach for Base Station Sleeping in Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    The energy consumption of the information and communication technology (ICT) industry, which has become a serious problem, is mostly due to the network infrastructure rather than the mobile terminals. In this paper, we focus on reducing the energy consumption of base stations (BSs) by adjusting their working modes (active or sleep). Specifically, the objective is to minimize the energy consumption while satisfying quality of service (QoS, e.g., blocking probability) requirement and, at the same time, avoiding frequent mode switching to reduce signaling and delay overhead. The problem is modeled as a dynamic programming (DP) problem, which is NP-hard in general. Based on cooperation among neighboring BSs, a low-complexity algorithm is proposed to reduce the size of state space as well as that of action space. Simulations demonstrate that, with the proposed algorithm, the active BS pattern well meets the time variation and the non-uniform spatial distribution of system traffic. Moreover, the tradeoff between the energy saving from BS sleeping and the cost of switching is well balanced by the proposed scheme.

  14. Creative elements: network-based predictions of active centres in proteins, cellular and social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Csermely, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Active centres and hot spots of proteins have a paramount importance in enzyme action, protein complex formation and drug design. Recently a number of publications successfully applied the analysis of residue networks to predict active centres in proteins. Most real-world networks show a number of properties, such as small-worldness or scale-free degree distribution, which are rather general features of networks from molecules to the society. Based on extensive analogies I propose that the existing findings and methodology enable us to detect active centres in cells, social networks and ecosystems. Members of these active centres are creative elements of the respective networks, which may help them to survive unprecedented, novel challenges, and play a key role in the development, survival and evolvability of complex systems.

  15. Simulation of nanoparticle based enhancement of cellular electroporation for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hao; Joshi, Ravindra P.; Pradhan, Aswini

    2014-11-01

    Introduction of nanoparticles can modify electrical properties such as the permittivity and conductivity of a medium. This model based study focuses on such modulated changes of an extracellular medium from the standpoint of enhancing electroporation to achieve more efficient delivery into biological cells. A finite element, time-dependent axisymmetric bio-model, coupled with the Smoluchowski equation, has been used to evaluate the transmembrane potentials and evolution of pore densities. Our simulation results show that a relatively small fraction of gold nanoparticles in the extracellular medium effectively enhances the transmembrane potentials, leads to much higher pore densities, and shifts the pore distribution towards larger radii. This collectively bodes well for enhancing drug delivery or gene transfection in cells.

  16. Lower Lip Reconstruction after Wide Excision of a Malignancy with Barrel-Shaped Excision or the Webster Modification of the Bernard Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chan Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Because there are numerous methods for reconstruction of the lower lip,it is not easy to choose the optimal method. In choosing the surgical method for lowerlip reconstruction, we obtained acceptable outcomes based on our treatment strategy,which included either a barrel-shaped excision or the Webster modification of the Bernardoperation. We report on the surgical outcomes based on our treatment strategy.Methods This study included 26 patients who underwent lower lip reconstructive surgeryfrom September 1996 to September 2010. The operation was done using either a barrelshapedexcision or the Webster modification, considering the location of the defect, the size ofthe defect, and the amount of residual tissue on the lateral side of the vermilion after excision.Results In our series, 3 patients underwent a single barrel-shaped excision, and nine patientsunderwent a double barrel-shaped excision. In addition, the unilateral Webster modificationwas performed on in 6 patients, and there were eight cases of bilateral Webster modification.All of the patients except one were satisfied with the postoperative shape of the lip. In onecase both recurrence and dehiscence occurred. One patient had a good postoperative lip shape,but had difficulty wearing a denture, and also underwent commissuroplasty. Furthermore,there were two patients who complained of drooling, and 4 with paresthesia.Conclusions A soft tissue defect resulting from wide excision of a lower lip malignancy canbe successfully reconstructed using only one of two surgical methods: the barrel-shapedexcision or the Webster modification of the Bernard operation.

  17. Kinetics of excision of purine lesions from DNA by Escherichia coli Fpg protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaya, A; Jaruga, P; Bohr, V A; Grollman, A P; Dizdaroglu, M

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of excision of damaged purine bases from oxidatively damaged DNA by Escherichia coli Fpg protein were investigated. DNA substrates, prepared by treatment with H2O2/Fe(III)-EDTA or by gamma-irradiation under N2O or air, were incubated with Fpg protein, followed by precipitation of DNA. Precipitated DNA and supernatant fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography/isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. Kinetic studies revealed efficient excision of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-Gua), 2,6-dia...

  18. Human DNA mismatch repair: coupling of mismatch recognition to strand-specific excision

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Huixian; Hays, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic mismatch-repair (MMR) proteins MutSα and MutLα couple recognition of base mismatches to strand-specific excision, initiated in vivo at growing 3′ ends and 5′ Okazaki-fragment ends or, in human nuclear extracts, at nicks in exogenous circular substrates. We addressed five biochemical questions relevant to coupling models. Excision remained fully efficient at DNA:MutSα ratios of nearly 1 to 1 at various mismatch-nick distances, suggesting a requirement for only one MutSα molecule per...

  19. Analytical Models for Dimensioning of OFDMA-based Cellular Networks Carrying VoIP and Best-Effort Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Baynat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The last years have seen an exponentially growing interest for mobile telecommunication services. As a consequence, a great diversity of applications is expected to be supported by cellular networks. To answer this ever increasing demand, the ITU-R defined the requirements that the fourth generation (4G of mobile standards must fulfill. Today, two especially promising candidates for 4G stand out: WiMAX and LTE. However, 4G cellular networks are still far from being implemented, and the high deployment costs render over-provisioning out of question. We thus propose in this paper accurate and convenient analytical models well-suited for the complex dimensioning of these promising access networks. Our main interest is WiMAX, yet, we show how our models can be easily used to consider LTE cells since both technologies are based on OFDMA. Generic Markovian models are developed specifically for three service classes defined in the WiMAX standard: UGS, ertPS and BE, respectively corresponding to VoIP, VoIP with silence suppression and best-effort traffic. First, we consider cells carrying either UGS, ertPS or BE traffic. Three methods to combine the previous models are then proposed to assume both UGS and BE traffic in the studied cell. Finally, we provide a way to easily integrate the ertPS traffic and obtain a UGS/ertPS/BE model able to account for multiple traffic profiles in each service class while keeping an instantaneous resolution. The proposed models are compared in depth with realistic simulations that show their accuracy. Lastly, we demonstrate through different examples how our models can be used to answer dimensioning issues which would be intractable with simulations.

  20. Biomimetic synthesis of cellular SiC based ceramics from plant precursor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O P Chakrabarti; H S Maiti; R Majumdar

    2004-10-01

    A novel biomimetic approach in designing and fabricating engineering ceramic materials has gained much interest in recent times. Following this approach, synthesis has been made of dense Si–SiC duplex ceramic composites and highly porous SiC ceramics in the image of the morphological features inherent in the caudex stem of a local monocotyledonous plant. The process route involves making of a carbonaceous biopreform and its subsequent reaction with an infiltrating silicon melt to yield the biomorphic Si–SiC ceramic composites with flexural strength and Young’s modulus of 264 MPa and 247 Gpa, respectively and loss in weight of only ∼ 9% during oxidative heating up to 1200°C in flowing air. The Si–SiC composites were transformed into porous (49 vol.%) SiC ceramics with complete preservation of microcellular anatomy of the parent plant, by depleting residual silicon phase in channel pores through reaction with carbon. SiC based materials so derived can be used in structural applications and in designing high temperature filters and catalyst supports.

  1. GIS Based System for Post-Earthquake Crisis Managment Using Cellular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeesi, M.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters. Earthquakes happen mainly near the edges of tectonic plates, but they may happen just about anywhere. Earthquakes cannot be predicted. Quick response after disasters, like earthquake, decreases loss of life and costs. Massive earthquakes often cause structures to collapse, trapping victims under dense rubble for long periods of time. After the earthquake and destroyed some areas, several teams are sent to find the location of the destroyed areas. The search and rescue phase usually is maintained for many days. Time reduction for surviving people is very important. A Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used for decreasing response time and management in critical situations. Position estimation in short period of time time is important. This paper proposes a GIS based system for post-earthquake disaster management solution. This system relies on several mobile positioning methods such as cell-ID and TA method, signal strength method, angel of arrival method, time of arrival method and time difference of arrival method. For quick positioning, the system can be helped by any person who has a mobile device. After positioning and specifying the critical points, the points are sent to a central site for managing the procedure of quick response for helping. This solution establishes a quick way to manage the post-earthquake crisis.

  2. GIS BASED SYSTEM FOR POST-EARTHQUAKE CRISIS MANAGMENT USING CELLULAR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raeesi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters. Earthquakes happen mainly near the edges of tectonic plates, but they may happen just about anywhere. Earthquakes cannot be predicted. Quick response after disasters, like earthquake, decreases loss of life and costs. Massive earthquakes often cause structures to collapse, trapping victims under dense rubble for long periods of time. After the earthquake and destroyed some areas, several teams are sent to find the location of the destroyed areas. The search and rescue phase usually is maintained for many days. Time reduction for surviving people is very important. A Geographical Information System (GIS can be used for decreasing response time and management in critical situations. Position estimation in short period of time time is important. This paper proposes a GIS based system for post–earthquake disaster management solution. This system relies on several mobile positioning methods such as cell-ID and TA method, signal strength method, angel of arrival method, time of arrival method and time difference of arrival method. For quick positioning, the system can be helped by any person who has a mobile device. After positioning and specifying the critical points, the points are sent to a central site for managing the procedure of quick response for helping. This solution establishes a quick way to manage the post–earthquake crisis.

  3. A new rhodamine B based fluorometric chemodosimeter for Cu2+ ion in aqueous and cellular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, sensitive and selective fluorescent chemo dosimeter rhodamine B phenyl hydrazide (RBPH) for Cu2+ was proposed. This probe is non fluorescent and colorless but exhibits fluorescent enhancement at 580 nm and displayed color change from colorless to pink for Cu2+ in the pH range 1–6. Fluorescence microscope experimental results reveals that this chemo sensor is cell permeable and can be used for fluorescence imaging of Cu2+ ions in living cells. This probe can detect Cu2+ with good linear relationships from 10 to 100 nM with r=0.99971 then limit of detection was found to be 0.015 nM with ±0.91% RSD at 10 nM concentrations. -- Highlights: • The new sensitive, highly selective fluorescent chemodosimeter for Cu2+ based on spirolactam ring opening process has been proposed. • The probe posse’s excellent cell permeability and it has been applied for fluorescence imaging of Cu2+ ions in MCF-7 cell lines. • The protocol has been successfully applied for copper determination in blood and urine samples

  4. The lack of histological changes of CDMA cellular phone-based radio frequency on rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-June; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Nam; Choi, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jae-Seon; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2010-10-01

    We examined the histological changes by radiofrequency (RF) fields on rat testis, specifically with respect to sensitive processes such as spermatogenesis. Male rats were exposed to 848.5 MHz RF for 12 weeks. The RF exposure schedule consisted of two 45-min RF exposure periods, separated by a 15-min interval. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of RF was 2.0 W/kg. We then investigated correlates of testicular function such as sperm counts in the cauda epididymis, malondialdehyde concentrations in the testes and epididymis, frequency of spermatogenesis stages, germ cell counts, and appearance of apoptotic cells in the testes. We also performed p53, bcl-2, caspase 3, p21, and PARP immunoblotting of the testes in sham- and RF-exposed animals. Based on these results, we concluded that subchronic exposure to 848.5 MHz with 2.0 W/kg SAR RF did not have any observable adverse effects on rat spermatogenesis. PMID:20607737

  5. Dynamic Resource Management in MC-CDMA Based Cellular Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Jeevitha Vani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the multimedia and Internet services today are asymmetric in nature, and require high data rate support. Allocating equal band width in both uplink and downlink is not prudent solution, as most of the time user requirement is more either in uplink or downlink. The Multi Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA system with time division duplex mode can easily met this requirement by dynamically declaring traffic direction in TDD slot, and adaptively allocating the sub channels. In this paper, we propose a adaptive slot and sub carrier allocation algorithm, that can be independently implemented in each cell of mobile communication network. Our analytical model is generalization of two cell concept to represent a multi cell model. Based on two cell concept four cases of interference pattern has been considered and simulated separately in presence of Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN and Rayleigh Channel. The simulated result suggests the requirement of approximately 9dB of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR to maintain Bit Error Rate below 10-3. We also analyze the average delay incurred by the proposed algorithm in allocating resources.

  6. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair through ubiquitination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Li; Audesh Bhat; Wei Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the most versatile DNA-repair pathway in all organisms.While bacteria require only three proteins to complete the incision step of NER,eukaryotes employ about 30 proteins to complete the same step.Here we summarize recent studies demonstrating that ubiquitination,a post-translational modification,plays critical roles in regulating the NER activity either dependent on or independent of ubiquitin-proteolysis.Several NER components have been shown as targets of ubiquitination while others are actively involved in the ubiquitination process.We argue through this analysis that ubiquitination serves to coordinate various steps of NER and meanwhile connect NER with other related pathways to achieve the efficient global DNA-damage response.

  7. Retrorectal tumors: excision by transanal endoscopic microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, S; Joos, A; Dinter, D; Back, W; Horisberger, K; Post, S; Palma, P

    2007-09-01

    Tumours within the retrorectal space are uncommon. Due to their rarity and diverse symptoms they are often misdiagnosed or mistreated. We report three cases of women presenting a variety of symptoms including increased rectal pain, recurrent abscesses/fistulas and constipation. Upon clinical examination and further investigations using MR scan, endorectal ultrasound and endoscopy, a retrorectal mass was suspected in all three cases. In order to achieve a complete excision of the tumor while minimizing trauma, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was performed. The histology of the multicystic tumor revealed in all three cases a tailgut cyst. As far as we know this is the first report describing the use of TEM for surgical treatment of tumors located in the retrorectal space. PMID:18052651

  8. A STUDY ON CELLULAR AUTOMATA BASED ON RELATIONAL DATABASES AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIMULATIONS OF CULTURE DIFFUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a development of the extended Cellular Automata (CA), based on relational databases(RDB), to model dynamic interactions among spatial objects. The integration of Geographical Information System (GIS)and CA has the great advantage of simulating geographical processes. But standard CA has some restrictions in cellularshape and neighbourhood and neighbour rules, which restrict the CA's ability to simulate complex, real world environ-ments. This paper discusses a cell's spatial relation based on the spatial object's geometrical and non-geometrical characteris-tics, and extends the cell' s neighbour definition, and considers that the cell' s neighbour lies in the forms of not only spa-tial adjacency but also attribute correlation. This paper then puts forward that spatial relations between two different cellscan be divided into three types, including spatial adjacency, neighbourhood and complicated separation. Based on tradition-al ideas, it is impossible to settle CA's restrictions completely. RDB-based CA is an academic experiment, in whichsome fields are designed to describe the essential information needed to define and select a cell's neighbour. The cultureinnovation diffusion system has multiple forms of space diffusion and inherited characteristics that the RDB-based CA iscapable of simulating more effectively. Finally this paper details a successful case study on the diffusion of fashion weartrends. Compared to the original CA, the RDB-based CA is a more natural and efficient representation of human knowl-edge over space, and is an effective tool in simulating complex systems that have multiple forms of spatial diffusion.

  9. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emin, David, E-mail: emin@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Akhtari, Massoud [Semple Institutes for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ellingson, B. M. [Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mathern, G. W. [Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm.

  10. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm

  11. 碱基切除修复基因HOGG1特异性锤头状核酶表达载体的构建及其功能的初步研究%Constructing the Eukaryotic Expression Vector to Study Preliminarily the Functions of Hammerhead Ribozyme Targeting Base Excision Repair Gene HOGG1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张遵真; 张勤; 吴媚

    2006-01-01

    Objective Adriamycin is widely used as an effective anti-tumor drug clinically treating a number of human cancers, but the effect of adriamycin is limited by drug resistance. The various kinds of investigations indicated that the anti-tumor activity of adriamycin resulted from drug-induced free radical formation. The free radicals could lead to oxidative DNA damage, and the lesion would be repaired by base excision repair (BER) pathway. Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (HOGG1) is a key enzyme on BER pathway. To study the influence and biological mechanism of the HOGG1 to adriamycin drug-sensitivity, the eukaryotic expression vector with gene of hammerhead ribozyme targeting HOGG1 mRNA would be constructed and identified, and then the change of drug-sensitivity in lung cancer A549 cells would be investigated. Methods According to computer design, two specific restriction site BamHⅠ and EcoRⅠ were added to both ends of the ribozyme gene, then the modified ribozyme gene was synthesized and cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+). The positive recombinants were screened by ampicillin resistance, and plasmids were extracted from the positive recombinants and digested by BamH Ⅰ and EcoR Ⅰ, and then were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. The recombinants were transiently transfected into A549 cells. The positive recombinants were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting to NEO gene, which was a neomycin resistance gene for selection of stable cell lines and only existed in vectors. The changes of HOGG1 mRNA in A549 cells were detected by RT-PCR. Then the cellular sensitivity to adriamycin was tested by comparison between untransfected cells and transfected cells by MTT assay. The adriamycin-induced DNA damage was investigated by comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) between untransfected and transfected cells. Results The recombinants containing the ribozyme gene

  12. Phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers based on dual vegetable actives involved in the prevention of cellular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrati, D; Lacatusu, I; Bordei, N; Badea, G; Oprea, O; Stefan, L M; Stan, R; Badea, N; Meghea, A

    2016-07-01

    The growing scientific interest in exploitation of vegetable bioactives has raised a number of questions regarding their imminent presence in pharmaceutical formulations. This study intends to demonstrate that a dual combination between vegetable oil (e.g. thistle oil, safflower oil, sea buckthorn oil) and a carrot extract represents an optimal approach to formulate safe carrier systems that manifest cell regeneration effect and promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Inclusion of both natural actives into lipid carriers imparted a strong negative charge on the nanocarrier surface (up to -45mV) and displayed average sizes of 70nm to 140nm. The entrapment efficiency of carrot extract into nanostructured carriers ranged between 78.3 and 88.3%. The in vitro release study has demonstrated that the entrapment of the extract represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. Besides the excellent antioxidant properties (e.g. scavenging up to 98% of the free oxygen radicals), the results of cellular integrity (e.g. cell viability of 133%) recommend these nanocarriers based on dual carrot extract-bioactive oil as a promising trend for the treatment of certain disorders in which oxidative stress plays a prominent role. In addition, the lipid nanocarriers based on safflower oil and sea buckthorn oil demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS induced THP-1 macrophages, by inhibiting the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. PMID:27127051

  13. Reshaping the eyebrow by follicular unit transplantation from excised eyebrow in extended infrabrow excision blepharoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi, Kazuhito

    2012-01-01

    Kazuhito Konishi1, Isao Sugimoto2, Hirohiko Kakizaki3, Akihiro Ichinose41Kobe Academia Clinic, 2Division of Aesthetic Medical Science, Department of Plastic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: We report the reshaping of the eyebrow by follicular unit transplantation from excised eyebrow skin in ...

  14. Reshaping the eyebrow by follicular unit transplantation from excised eyebrow in extended infrabrow excision blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichinose A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhito Konishi1, Isao Sugimoto2, Hirohiko Kakizaki3, Akihiro Ichinose41Kobe Academia Clinic, 2Division of Aesthetic Medical Science, Department of Plastic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: We report the reshaping of the eyebrow by follicular unit transplantation from excised eyebrow skin in extended infrabrow excision blepharoplasty.Methods: The method was carried out in two patients with moderate or significant dermatochalasis. The areas to be excised from the infrabrow and intrabrow skin were decided upon and the area of hair transplantation was planned in the suprabrow area and the tail of the eyebrow. The skin was removed and the excised intrabrow skin was dissected into single follicular units. Tiny incisions were made with a scalpel, and grafts were inserted using fine forceps.Results: Almost all transplanted eyebrow follicles took successfully, resulting in eyebrows of a desirable shape as planned preoperatively. The reshaped eyebrows had a natural appearance since the transplanted hairs were similar to those of the original eyebrow. The eyelids still looked youthful rather than operated-on. Finally, the evidence of blepharoplasty was hardly visible and patient satisfaction was quite high. The patients felt more ease in opening their eyes and obtained a wider visual field.Conclusion: Our study demonstrated excellent results with hair transplantation from eyebrow to eyebrow, a finding which, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. Our method can be used for selected patients, especially men, with moderate to severe dermatochalasis, who find a reduction or change in the shape of the eyebrow unacceptable.Keywords: blepharoplasty, dermatochalasis, follicular unit transplantation, eyebrow reconstruction

  15. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on... providing guidance on the indoor tanning services excise tax imposed by the Patient Protection...

  16. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking by... tanning services excise tax imposed by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. These...

  17. Interference Excision in Spread Spectrum Communications Using Adaptive Positive Time-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Sridhar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel algorithm to excise single and multicomponent chirp-like interferences in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS communications. The excision algorithm consists of two stages: adaptive signal decomposition stage and directional element detection stage based on the Hough-Radon transform (HRT. Initially, the received spread spectrum signal is decomposed into its time-frequency (TF functions using an adaptive signal decomposition algorithm, and the resulting TF functions are mapped onto the TF plane. We then use a line detection algorithm based on the HRT that operates on the image of the TF plane and detects energy varying directional elements that satisfy a parametric constraint. Interference is modeled by reconstructing the corresponding TF functions detected by the HRT, and subtracted from the received signal. The proposed technique has two main advantages: (i it localizes the interferences on the TF plane with no cross-terms, thus facilitating simple filtering techniques based on thresholding of the TF functions, and is an efficient way to excise the interference; (ii it can be used for the detection of any directional interferences that can be parameterized. Simulation results with synthetic models have shown successful performance with linear and quadratic chirp interferences for single and multicomponent interference cases. The proposed method excises the interference even under very low SNR conditions of  dB, and the technique could be easily extended to any interferences that could be represented by a parametric equation in the TF plane.

  18. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces the demand for cigarettes, thereby reducing youth smoking initiation and cigarette consumption and decreasing the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States overall, particularly among youths and young adults. The most common way governments have increased the price of cigarettes is by increasing cigarette excise taxes, which currently are imposed by all states and the District of Columbia. To update data on state cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of changes in state cigarette excise taxes during 2010-2011. During that period, eight states increased their cigarette excise taxes, and one state decreased its tax; as a result, the mean state tax increased from $1.34 in 2009 to $1.46 in 2011. Previous evidence indicates that further increases in cigarette excise taxes would be expected to result in further reductions in demand for cigarettes, decreasing smoking and associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:22456118

  19. Cellular resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Lena; Harris, Georgina; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cellular resilience describes the ability of a cell to cope with environmental changes such as toxicant exposure. If cellular metabolism does not collapse directly after the hit or end in programmed cell death, the ensuing stress responses promote a new homeostasis under stress. The processes of reverting "back to normal" and reversal of apoptosis ("anastasis") have been studied little at the cellular level. Cell types show astonishingly similar vulnerability to most toxicants, except for those that require a very specific target, metabolism or mechanism present only in specific cell types. The majority of chemicals triggers "general cytotoxicity" in any cell at similar concentrations. We hypothesize that cells differ less in their vulnerability to a given toxicant than in their resilience (coping with the "hit"). In many cases, cells do not return to the naive state after a toxic insult. The phenomena of "pre-conditioning", "tolerance" and "hormesis" describe this for low-dose exposures to toxicants that render the cell more resistant to subsequent hits. The defense and resilience programs include epigenetic changes that leave a "memory/scar" - an alteration as a consequence of the stress the cell has experienced. These memories might have long-term consequences, both positive (resistance) and negative, that contribute to chronic and delayed manifestations of hazard and, ultimately, disease. This article calls for more systematic analyses of how cells cope with toxic perturbations in the long-term after stressor withdrawal. A technical prerequisite for these are stable (organotypic) cultures and a characterization of stress response molecular networks. PMID:26536287

  20. The State of Cellular Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Youngbin

    2003-01-01

    Cellular probe technology is one of several potentially promising technologies for obtaining accurate travel time information. In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mandated E911 requirements that cellular location be provided when 911 emergency calls come in to emergency management authorities. The E911 requirements allow 50 -300 meters from the emergency call location, depending on the type of cellular phone technology used and whether handset-based or network-based solutions...

  1. Cellular attachment and differentiation on titania nanotubes exposed to air- or nitrogen-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yeon Seo

    Full Text Available The surface topography and chemistry of titanium implants are important factors for successful osseointegration. However, chemical modification of an implant surface using currently available methods often results in the disruption of topographical features and the loss of beneficial effects during the shelf life of the implant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the recently highlighted portable non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ, elicited from one of two different gas sources (nitrogen and air, to TiO2 nanotube surfaces to further improve their osteogenic properties while preserving the topographical morphology. The surface treatment was performed before implantation to avoid age-related decay. The surface chemistry and morphology of the TiO2 nanotube surfaces before and after the NTAPPJ treatment were determined using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a surface profiler, a contact angle goniometer, and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The MC3T3-E1 cell viability, attachment and morphology were confirmed using calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining, and analysis of gene expression using rat mesenchymal stem cells was performed using a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that both portable nitrogen- and air-based NTAPPJ could be used on TiO2 nanotube surfaces easily and without topographical disruption. NTAPPJ resulted in a significant increase in the hydrophilicity of the surfaces as well as changes in the surface chemistry, which consequently increased the cell viability, attachment and differentiation compared with the control samples. The nitrogen-based NTAPPJ treatment group exhibited a higher osteogenic gene expression level than the air-based NTAPPJ treatment group due to the lower atomic percentage of carbon on the surface that resulted from treatment. It was concluded that NTAPPJ treatment of TiO2 nanotube surfaces results in an increase in

  2. Developing an effective 2-D urban flood inundation model for city emergency management based on cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Yu, D.; Liu, K.; Huang, H.; Hu, G.

    2015-03-01

    Flash floods have occurred frequently in the urban areas of southern China. An effective process-oriented urban flood inundation model is urgently needed for urban storm-water and emergency management. This study develops an efficient and flexible cellular automaton (CA) model to simulate storm-water runoff and the flood inundation process during extreme storm events. The process of infiltration, inlets discharge and flow dynamics can be simulated with little preprocessing on commonly available basic urban geographic data. In this model, a set of gravitational diverging rules are implemented to govern the water flow in a rectangular template of three cells by three cells of a raster layer. The model is calibrated by one storm event and validated by another in a small urban catchment in Guangzhou of southern China. The depth of accumulated water at the catchment outlet is interpreted from street-monitoring closed-circuit television (CCTV) videos and verified by on-site survey. A good level of agreement between the simulated process and the reality is reached for both storm events. The model reproduces the changing extent and depth of flooded areas at the catchment outlet with an accuracy of 4 cm in water depth. Comparisons with a physically based 2-D model (FloodMap) show that the model is capable of effectively simulating flow dynamics. The high computational efficiency of the CA model can meet the needs of city emergency management.

  3. Simulating the conversion of rural settlements to town land based on multi-agent systems and cellular automata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolin Liu

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS and cellular automata (CA. The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.

  4. Spatiotemporal Simulation of Tourist Town Growth Based on the Cellular Automata Model: The Case of Sanpo Town in Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal simulation of tourist town growth is important for research on land use/cover change under the influence of urbanization. Many scholars have shown great interest in the unique pattern of driving urban development with tourism development. Based on the cellular automata (CA model, we simulated and predicted the spatiotemporal growth of Sanpo town in Hebei Province, using the tourism urbanization growth model. Results showed that (1 average annual growth rate of the entire region was 1.5 Ha2 per year from 2005 to 2010, 4 Ha2 per year from 2010 to 2015, and 2.5 Ha2 per year from 2015 to 2020; (2 urban growth rate increased yearly, with regional differences, and had a high degree of correlation with the Euclidean distance of town center, traffic route, attractions, and other factors; (3 Gougezhuang, an important village center in the west of the town, demonstrated traffic advantages and increased growth rate since 2010; (4 Magezhuang village has the largest population in the region, so economic advantages have driven the development of rural urbanization. It showed that CA had high reliability in simulating the spatiotemporal evolution of tourist town, which assists the study of spatiotemporal growth under urbanization and rational protection of tourism resources.

  5. Pathogen-Mimicking Polymeric Nanoparticles based on Dopamine Polymerization as Vaccines Adjuvants Induce Robust Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Jia, Jilei; Yang, Tingyuan; Fan, Qingze; Wang, Lianyan; Ma, Guanghui

    2016-04-01

    Aiming to enhance the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines, a novel antigen delivery and adjuvant system based on dopamine polymerization on the surface of poly(D,L-lactic-glycolic-acid) nanoparticles (NPs) with multiple mechanisms of immunity enhancement is developed. The mussel-inspired biomimetic polydopamine (pD) not only serves as a coating to NPs but also functionalizes NP surfaces. The method is facile and mild including simple incubation of the preformed NPs in the weak alkaline dopamine solution, and incorporation of hepatitis B surface antigen and TLR9 agonist unmethylated cytosine-guanine (CpG) motif with the pD surface. The as-constructed NPs possess pathogen-mimicking manners owing to their size, shape, and surface molecular immune-activating properties given by CpG. The biocompatibility and biosafety of these pathogen-mimicking NPs are confirmed using bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Pathogen-mimicking NPs hold great potential as vaccine delivery and adjuvant system due to their ability to: 1) enhance cytokine secretion and immune cell recruitment at the injection site; 2) significantly activate and maturate dendritic cells; 3) induce stronger humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo. Furthermore, this simple and versatile dopamine polymerization method can be applicable to endow NPs with characteristics to mimic pathogen structure and function, and manipulate NPs for the generation of efficacious vaccine adjuvants. PMID:26849717

  6. Resistance to Nucleotide Excision Repair of Bulky Guanine Adducts Opposite Abasic Sites in DNA Duplexes and Relationships between Structure and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available The nucleotide excision repair of certain bulky DNA lesions is abrogated in some specific non-canonical DNA base sequence contexts, while the removal of the same lesions by the nucleotide excision repair mechanism is efficient in duplexes in which all base pairs are complementary. Here we show that the nucleotide excision repair activity in human cell extracts is moderate-to-high in the case of two stereoisomeric DNA lesions derived from the pro-carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (cis- and trans-B[a]P-N2-dG adducts in a normal DNA duplex. By contrast, the nucleotide excision repair activity is completely abrogated when the canonical cytosine base opposite the B[a]P-dG adducts is replaced by an abasic site in duplex DNA. However, base excision repair of the abasic site persists. In order to understand the structural origins of these striking phenomena, we used NMR and molecular spectroscopy techniques to evaluate the conformational features of 11mer DNA duplexes containing these B[a]P-dG lesions opposite abasic sites. Our results show that in these duplexes containing the clustered lesions, both B[a]P-dG adducts adopt base-displaced intercalated conformations, with the B[a]P aromatic rings intercalated into the DNA helix. To explain the persistence of base excision repair in the face of the opposed bulky B[a]P ring system, molecular modeling results suggest how the APE1 base excision repair endonuclease, that excises abasic lesions, can bind productively even with the trans-B[a]P-dG positioned opposite the abasic site. We hypothesize that the nucleotide excision repair resistance is fostered by local B[a]P residue-DNA base stacking interactions at the abasic sites, that are facilitated by the absence of the cytosine partner base in the complementary strand. More broadly, this study sets the stage for elucidating the interplay between base excision and nucleotide excision repair in processing different types of clustered DNA lesions that are substrates of

  7. Cellular Phone Towers, parcel data base attribute, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is...

  8. Actin-Based Motility of Burkholderia thailandensis Requires a Central Acidic Domain of BimA That Recruits and Activates the Cellular Arp2/3 Complex▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sitthidet, Chayada; Stevens, Joanne M; Field, Terence R.; Layton, Abigail N.; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Stevens, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Burkholderia species use BimA for intracellular actin-based motility. Uniquely, Burkholderia thailandensis BimA harbors a central and acidic (CA) domain. The CA domain was required for actin-based motility, binding to the cellular Arp2/3 complex, and Arp2/3-dependent polymerization of actin monomers. Our data reveal distinct strategies for actin-based motility among Burkholderia species.

  9. Classification of Cells with Membrane Staining and/or Fixation Based on Cellular Specific Membrane Capacitance and Cytoplasm Conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Bin Huang; Yang Zhao; Deyong Chen; Shing-Lun Liu; Yana Luo; Tzu-Keng Chiu; Junbo Wang; Jian Chen; Min-Hsien Wu

    2015-01-01

    Single-cell electrical properties (e.g., specific membrane capacitance (Cspecific membrane) and cytoplasm conductivity (σcytoplasm)) have been regarded as potential label-free biophysical markers for the evaluation of cellular status. However, whether there exist correlations between these biophysical markers and cellular status (e.g., membrane-associate protein expression) is still unknown. To further validate the utility of single-cell electrical properties in cell type classification, Cspe...

  10. Nucleotide Excision Repair in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Lans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide excision repair (NER plays an essential role in many organisms across life domains to preserve and faithfully transmit DNA to the next generation. In humans, NER is essential to prevent DNA damage-induced mutation accumulation and cell death leading to cancer and aging. NER is a versatile DNA repair pathway that repairs many types of DNA damage which distort the DNA helix, such as those induced by solar UV light. A detailed molecular model of the NER pathway has emerged from in vitro and live cell experiments, particularly using model systems such as bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cell cultures. In recent years, the versatility of the nematode C. elegans to study DNA damage response (DDR mechanisms including NER has become increasingly clear. In particular, C. elegans seems to be a convenient tool to study NER during the UV response in vivo, to analyze this process in the context of a developing and multicellular organism, and to perform genetic screening. Here, we will discuss current knowledge gained from the use of C. elegans to study NER and the response to UV-induced DNA damage.

  11. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ersoy Callıoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented.

  12. Cellular automata-based forecasting of the impact of accidental fire and toxic dispersion in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc. - qualitative as well as quantitative - depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies

  13. Germicidal persistence of teat dips by modified excised teat procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A L; Oliver, S P; Fydenkevez, M E

    1985-01-01

    An excised teat protocol was modified to evaluate persistence of germicidal activity of teat dips over 8 h. Five teat dip formulations, iodophor (1%), chlorhexidine gluconate (.55%), linear dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (1.94%), sodium chlorite-lactic acid in a water base, and sodium chlorite-lactic acid in a gel base were tested against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. Iodophor and chlorhexidine had high germicidal activity throughout 8 h, whereas dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid had little activity. Germicidal activity of both sodium chlorite-lactic acid teat dips was high initially but declined with time. The gel base dip, however, remained more germicidal than the water base dip. Results were similar for either organism for most teat dips. However, chlorhexidine was less effective and the gel base dip more effective against Klebsiella oxytoca than Escherichia coli. Standard errors often appeared higher for Klebsiella oxytoca than for Escherichia coli. These assays may prove useful for laboratory screening of teat dips to determine germicidal persistence over time. PMID:3884679

  14. Characteristics of thymine dimer excision from xeroderma pigmentosum chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated thymine dimer excision from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) chromatin in the cell-free reconstruction system. The normal-cell extract performed specific dimer excision from native chromatin and DNA isolated from 100 J/m2-irradiated cells. Such an excision in vitro was rapid and required high concentrations of extract. The extracts of XP group A, C and G cells were unable to excise from their own native-chromatin, but capable of excising from chromatin deprived of loosely bound nonhistone proteins with 0.35 M NaCl, as were from purified DNA. Thus, group A, C and G cells are most likely to be defective in the specific XP factors facilitating the excising activity under multicomponent regulation at the chromatin level. Further, either of group A, C and G extracts successfully complemented the native chromatin of the alternative groups. Uniquely, the XP group D extract excised dimers from native chromatin in the normal fashion under the condition. These results suggest that XP group A, C, D and G cells examined may not be defective in the dimer specific endonuclease and exonuclease per se. 19 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  15. Looking for a needle in a haystack: Cellular proteins that may interact with the tyrosine-based sorting signal of the TGEV S protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincone, Anna; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel

    2015-04-16

    The spike protein S of transmissible gastroenteritis virus, an Alphacoronavirus, contains a tyrosine-based sorting signal that is responsible for ERGIC retention and may be important for a correct viral assembly process. To find out whether the S protein interacts with cellular proteins via this sorting signal, a pulldown assay with GST fusion proteins was performed. Filamin A has been identified as a putative interaction candidate. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed a co-localization between the TGEV S protein and filamin A. Further experiments have to be performed to prove a significant impact of filamin A on TGEV infection. Different approaches of several researchers for the identification of cellular interaction candidates relevant for coronavirus replication are summarized. These results may help in the future to identify the role of cellular proteins during coronavirus assembly at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. PMID:25481285

  16. 77 FR 37806 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and temporary... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  17. Effect of pterygium excision on pterygium induced astigmatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari Sejal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterygium is known to affect refractive astigmatism, which can have a significant impact on vision. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of pterygium excision on refractive astigmatism. Thirty-six eyes with primary pterygium with astigmatism of 2D or more were analysed before and after pterygium excision. Astigmatism increased with the increase in the grade of pterygium (P = 0.000001. The preoperative refractive cylinder decreased from 4.60±2D to 2.20±2.04D (P = 0.00001 after pterygium excision.

  18. Laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalp, Cüneyt; Soyer, Vural; Ersan, Veysel; Aydın, Cemalettin; Karagül, Servet

    2016-01-01

    Congenital choledochal cysts are rare in adults. Due to the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma, the current standard of care is complete excision of the cyst and reconstruction with hepaticojejunostomy. So far, more than 200 laparoscopic resections have been reported in adults, the majority being from Far Eastern countries over the last five years. Herein, the technique of laparoscopic type I choledochal cyst excision and hepaticojejunostomy is presented in a 37-year-old male with an accompanying video. The advantages of laparoscopic surgery are applicable for choledochal cyst excision as well. We believe that teamwork, expertise on intracorporeal suturing and hepatobiliary surgery are central issues for this operation. PMID:27436941

  19. Bio-nanoplatforms based on carbon dots conjugating with F-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite for cellular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yafei; Shi, Liyi; Fang, Jianhui; Feng, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great promise in a wide range of bioapplications due to their tunable optical properties and noncytotoxicity. For the first time, a rational strategy was designed to construct new bio-nanoplatforms based on carboxylic acid terminated CDs (CDs-COOH) conjugating with amino terminated F-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (NFAp) via EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The monodisperse NFAp nanorods were functionalized with o-phosphoethanolamine (PEA) to provide them with amino groups and render them hydrophilic with respect to the ligand exchange process. The CDs-COOH@PEA-NFAp conjugates exhibits bright blue fluorescence under UV illumination, excellent photostability and colloidal stability. Due to their low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility as determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, the CDs-COOH@PEA-NFAp conjugates were successfully applied as bio-nanoplatforms to MCF-7 breast cancer cells for cellular imaging in vitro. More importantly, the functional CDs conjugated to NFAp provide an extended and general approach to construct different water-soluble NFAp bio-nanoplatforms for other easily functionalised luminescent materials. Therefore, these green nanoplatforms may be a prospective candidate for applications in bioimaging or targeted biological therapy and drug delivery.Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great promise in a wide range of bioapplications due to their tunable optical properties and noncytotoxicity. For the first time, a rational strategy was designed to construct new bio-nanoplatforms based on carboxylic acid terminated CDs (CDs-COOH) conjugating with amino terminated F-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (NFAp) via EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The monodisperse NFAp nanorods were functionalized with o-phosphoethanolamine (PEA) to provide them with amino groups and render them hydrophilic with respect to the ligand exchange process. The CDs-COOH@PEA-NFAp conjugates exhibits bright blue fluorescence under UV illumination

  20. Global-genome Nucleotide Excision Repair Controlled by Ubiquitin/Sumo Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eRuethemann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Global-genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER prevents genome instability by excising a wide range of structurally unrelated DNA base adducts and crosslinks induced by chemical carcinogens, ultraviolet (UV radiation or intracellular metabolic by-products. As a versatile damage sensor, xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC protein initiates this generic defense reaction by locating the damage and recruiting the subunits of a large lesion demarcation complex that, in turn, triggers the excision of aberrant DNA by endonucleases. In the very special case of a DNA repair response to UV radiation, the function of this XPC initiator is tightly controlled by the dual action of cullin-type CRL4DDB2 and sumo-targeted RNF111 ubiquitin ligases. This twofold protein ubiquitination system promotes GG-NER reactions by spatially and temporally regulating the interaction of XPC protein with damaged DNA across the nucleosome landscape of chromatin. In the absence of either CRL4DDB2 or RNF111, the DNA excision repair of UV lesions is inefficient, indicating that these two ubiquitin ligases play a critical role in mitigating the adverse biological effects of UV light in the exposed skin.

  1. Global-genome Nucleotide Excision Repair Controlled by Ubiquitin/Sumo Modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüthemann, Peter; Balbo Pogliano, Chiara; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Global-genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) prevents genome instability by excising a wide range of different DNA base adducts and crosslinks induced by chemical carcinogens, ultraviolet (UV) light or intracellular side products of metabolism. As a versatile damage sensor, xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein initiates this generic defense reaction by locating the damage and recruiting the subunits of a large lesion demarcation complex that, in turn, triggers the excision of aberrant DNA by endonucleases. In the very special case of a DNA repair response to UV radiation, the function of this XPC initiator is tightly controlled by the dual action of cullin-type CRL4(DDB2) and sumo-targeted RNF111 ubiquitin ligases. This twofold protein ubiquitination system promotes GG-NER reactions by spatially and temporally regulating the interaction of XPC protein with damaged DNA across the nucleosome landscape of chromatin. In the absence of either CRL4(DDB2) or RNF111, the DNA excision repair of UV lesions is inefficient, indicating that these two ubiquitin ligases play a critical role in mitigating the adverse biological effects of UV light in the exposed skin. PMID:27200078

  2. Clinical analysis of risk factors contributing to recurrence of pterygium after excision and graft surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang; Won; Ha; Joon; Ho; Park; Im; Hee; Shin; Hong; Kyun; Kim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To find the risk factors related to the reproliferation of the pterygial tissue after excision and graft surgery.METHODS: Charts of 130 eyes of 130 patients who had pterygial excision from March 2006 to April 2011 were reviewed. Preoperative pterygium morphology, surgical methods, and adjunctive treatments were statistically analyzed for their relationship with recurrence.RESULTS: During the follow-up period, recurrence was observed in 20 eyes(15.4%). None of the preoperative morphologic features were affected the rate of the recurrence. However, an age <40y [P =0.085, odds ratio(OR) 3.609, 95% confidence interval(CI) 0.838-15.540]and amniotic membrane graft instead of conjunctival autograft(P =0.002, OR 9.093, 95% CI 2.316-35.698) were statistically significant risk factors for recurrence.Multivariate analysis revealed that intraoperative mitomycin C(MMC)(P =0.072, OR 0.298, 95% CI 0.080-1.115)decreased the rate of recurrence. CONCLUSION: Younger age is a risk factor for reproliferation of pterygial tissue after excision and amniotic membrane transplantation(AMT) are less effective in preventing recurrence of pterygium after excision based on the comparison between conjunctival autograft and AMT. Intraoperative MMC application and conjunctival autograft reduce recurrence.

  3. A logic gate-based fluorogenic probe for Hg(2+) detection and its applications in cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiwen; Hu, Zhangjun; Chen, Zhiwen; Gao, Hong-Wen; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2016-05-01

    A new colorimetric and fluorogenic probe (RN3) based on rhodamine-B has been successfully designed and synthesized. It displays a selective response to Hg(2+) in the aqueous buffer solution over the other competing metals. Upon addition of Hg(2+), the solution of RN3 exhibits a 'naked eye' observable color change from colorless to red and an intensive fluorescence with about 105-fold enhancement. The changes in the color and fluorescence are ascribed to the ring-opening of spirolactam in rhodamine fluorophore, which is induced by a binding of the constructed receptor to Hg(2+) with the association and dissociation constants of 0.22 × 10(5) M(-1) and 25.2 μM, respectively. The Job's plot experiment determines a 1:1 binding stoichiometry between RN3 and Hg(2+). The resultant "turn-on" fluorescence in buffer solution, allows the application of a method to determine Hg(2+) levels in the range of 4.0-15.0 μM, with the limit of detection (LOD) calculated at 60.7 nM (3σ/slope). In addition, the fluorescence 'turn-off' and color 'fading-out' happen to the mixture of RN3-Hg(2+) by further addition of I(-) or S(2-). The reversible switching cycles of fluorescence intensity upon alternate additions of Hg(2+) and S(2-) demonstrate that RN3 can perform as an INHIBIT logic gate. Furthermore, the potential of RN3 as a fluorescent probe has been demonstrated for cellular imaging. PMID:27086103

  4. Modelling and analyzing the watershed dynamics using Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov model - A geo-information based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Mukunda D.; Borate, Santosh N.; Panda, Sudhindra N.; Behera, Priti R.; Roy, Partha S.

    2012-08-01

    Improper practices of land use and land cover (LULC) including deforestation, expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development are deteriorating watershed conditions. Here, we have utilized remote sensing and GIS tools to study LULC dynamics using Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov model and predicted the future LULC scenario, in terms of magnitude and direction, based on past trend in a hydrological unit, Choudwar watershed, India. By analyzing the LULC pattern during 1972, 1990, 1999 and 2005 using satellite-derived maps, we observed that the biophysical and socio-economic drivers including residential/industrial development, road-rail and settlement proximity have influenced the spatial pattern of the watershed LULC, leading to an accretive linear growth of agricultural and settlement areas. The annual rate of increase from 1972 to 2004 in agriculture land, settlement was observed to be 181.96, 9.89 ha/year, respectively, while decrease in forest, wetland and marshy land were 91.22, 27.56 and 39.52 ha/year, respectively. Transition probability and transition area matrix derived using inputs of (i) residential/industrial development and (ii) proximity to transportation network as the major causes. The predicted LULC scenario for the year 2014, with reasonably good accuracy would provide useful inputs to the LULC planners for effective management of the watershed. The study is a maiden attempt that revealed agricultural expansion is the main driving force for loss of forest, wetland and marshy land in the Choudwar watershed and has the potential to continue in future. The forest in lower slopes has been converted to agricultural land and may soon take a call on forests occurring on higher slopes. Our study utilizes three time period changes to better account for the trend and the modelling exercise; thereby advocates for better agricultural practices with additional energy subsidy to arrest further forest loss and LULC alternations.

  5. Microstructure and in vitro cellular response to novel soy protein-based porous structures for tissue regeneration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olami, Hilla; Zilberman, Meital

    2016-02-01

    Interest in the development of new bioresorbable structures for various tissue engineering applications is on the rise. In the current study, we developed and studied novel soy protein-based porous blends as potential new scaffolds for such applications. Soy protein has several advantages over the various types of natural proteins employed for biomedical applications due to its low price, non-animal origin and relatively long storage time and stability. In the present study, blends of soy protein with other polymers (gelatin, pectin and alginate) were added and chemically cross-linked using the cross-linking agents carbodiimide or glyoxal, and the porous structure was obtained through lyophilization. The resulting blend porous structures were characterized using environmental scanning microscopy, and the cytotoxicity of these scaffolds was examined in vitro. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was also evaluated in vitro by seeding and culturing human fibroblasts on these scaffolds. Cell growth morphology and adhesion were examined histologically. The results show that these blends can be assembled into porous three-dimensional structures by combining chemical cross-linking with freeze-drying. The achieved blend structures combine suitable porosity with a large pore size (100-300 µm). The pore structure in the soy-alginate scaffolds possesses adequate interconnectivity compared to that of the soy-gelatin scaffolds. However, porous structure was not observed for the soy-pectin blend, which presented a different structure with significantly lower porosities than all other groups. The in vitro evaluation of these porous soy blends demonstrated that soy-alginate blends are advantageous over soy-gelatin blends and exhibited adequate cytocompatibility along with better cell infiltration and stability. These soy protein scaffolds may be potentially useful as a cellular/acellular platform for skin regeneration applications. PMID:26526932

  6. [Face necrotizing fasciitis following spinocellular epithelioma excision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindre, S; Dellamonica, J; Couadau, E; Carles, M; Vandenbos, F; Delgiudice, P; Grimaud, D; Ichai, C

    2005-06-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a bacterial dermo-hypodermitis with superficial aponevrosis necrosis due to Streptococcus pyogenes. Head and neck region are some rare localization of this infection especially after surgery. We report herein a case of a face necrotizing fasciitis following minor face surgery. A 86 year-old Caucasian male without any antecedents, nor treatment, has been operated for a fronthead spinocellular epithelioma under local anesthesia. Twelve hours later, a severe pain localized to the face occurred, with sleeplessness, followed up with a face orbitary oedema and fever. Twenty-four hours later, an intravenous antibiotherapy was therefore started and surgical treatment was performed as soon as the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was considered. An important inflammatory oedema was noticed, associated to a large necrotic softening of the face, the eyelid and the neck sub-cutaneous tissues. Then, the patient has been transferred in intensive care unit because multi-organ failure clinical and biological signs occurred. Pre-operatory bacteriological samples culture identified Streptococcus pyogenes. Repeated surgical explorations and debridement (excision, cleaning, draining and bandages recovery) were performed daily as needed until all the necrotic tissue was all eradicated. The antibiotherapy was prescribed to totalised 15 days. Our report underlines the importance of an early recognition of the diagnosis of soft tissue infection, because early surgical treatment has a better prognosis and antibiotic treatment alone is inefficient for the recovery. Alert is delivered by the local signs quickly followed up by skin changes. Anti-inflammatory therapy must be avoid in case of any soft tissue infection sign: they may increase the lesions, hide alarm signs and delay surgical treatment. PMID:15963844

  7. Proposal for a new comprehensive classification of V-Y plasty and its analogues: the pros and cons of inverted versus ordinary Burow's triangle excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Matsuda, K; Nishimura, Y

    1996-11-01

    Burow's triangle excision is often used in V-Y plasty to facilitate the advancement of the V flap. The technique also seems to help reduce unsightly scarring. We devised an alternative technique to Burow's triangle excision, i.e., an inverted Burow's triangle excision. Sometimes the inverted Burow's triangle excision seems to be more effective for both purposes. In this paper we propose a new comprehensive classification of V-Y plasty and its analogues such as V-M, V-W, or five Z-plasty based on a new concept, the appropriate use of Burow's and inverted Burow's triangle excision and other criteria. The applications of these designs are discussed. PMID:8911471

  8. Route Planning of Unmanned Target Drone Based on Cellular-Ant Colony Algorithm%基于元胞蚂蚁算法的无人靶机航路规划设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志强; 陈景彬

    2013-01-01

      靶机飞行航路设计是实现靶机有效控制,确保高效完成供靶任务的保障。本文通过元胞蚂蚁算法对某型无人靶机飞行航路优化设计进行了研究,分析了实现航路优化应突出解决的问题,并通过仿真实验验证该方法的可行性。%  Route planning of unmanned target drone is the basis of its efficient control and ensuring its high-performance of completing target mission. The route planning of an unmanned target drone is studied based on cellular-ant colony algorithm. The main problem of the optimum of the route planning is analyzed. The possibility of this method has been tested by simulation experiments.

  9. Subungual glomus tumors of the hand Treated by transungual excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Jawalkar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The transungual approach provides good access to the entire lesion and facilitates complete excision. Contrary to reported literature, we did not find the development of any new nail deformity with this approach.

  10. Excise Tax Rates On Packs Of Cigarettes PDF Slides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Download the current excise tax rates on packs of cigarettes slides. These slides are available in PDF and PowerPoint formats. The PowerPoint version can be found...

  11. Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dode, Adilza C., E-mail: adilzadode@terra.com.br [Minas Methodist University Center Izabela Hendrix, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Municipal Government of Belo Horizonte, Municipal Health Department, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); MRE Engenharia (Electromagnetic Radiations Measurement-Engineering), Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Leao, Monica M.D., E-mail: monica@desa.ufmg.br [UFMG-Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Belo Horizonte, Environmental and Sanitary Engineering Department, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Tejo, Francisco de A.F. [UFCG-Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Center of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Academic Unit of Electrical Engineering, Paraiba State (Brazil); Gomes, Antonio C.R. [MRE Engenharia (Electromagnetic Radiations Measurement-Engineering), Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Dode, Daiana C. [MRE Engenharia (Electromagnetic Radiations Measurement-Engineering), Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Faculty of Medical Sciences, Medicine-Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Dode, Michael C. [MRE Engenharia (Electromagnetic Radiations Measurement-Engineering), Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Moreira, Cristina W.; Condessa, Vania A.; Albinatti, Claudia [Municipal Government of Belo Horizonte, Municipal Health Department, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Caiaffa, Waleska T. [UFMG-Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Belo Horizonte, Urban Health Observatory, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil)

    2011-09-01

    Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ('Agencia Nacional de Telecomunicacoes': 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ('Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica': 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the 'Centro-Sul' ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 {mu

  12. Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ('Agencia Nacional de Telecomunicacoes': 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ('Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica': 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the 'Centro-Sul' ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 μW/cm2, and the smallest was 0.04 μW/cm2. - Highlights:

  13. Excision in algebraic K-theory and Karoubi's conjecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslin, A A; Wodzicki, M

    1990-12-15

    We prove that the property of excision in algebraic K-theory is for a Q-algebra A equivalent to the H-unitality of the latter. Our excision theorem, in particular, implies Karoubi's conjecture on the equality of algebraic and topological K-theory groups of stable C*-algebras. It also allows us to identify the algebraic K-theory of the symbol map in the theory of pseudodifferential operators. PMID:11607130

  14. Teflon strip pneumostasis for excision of giant emphysematous bullae.

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, J M; Hubbard, W G; Matthews, H. R.

    1987-01-01

    Excision of giant emphysematous bullae commonly results in a persistent air leak that requires prolonged intercostal drainage and delays recovery. To minimise this we have used Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) strips to buttress the suture line and secure pneumostasis. During 1976-84 eight bullae were excised in seven patients. One patient had bilateral staged thoracotomies. All chest drains were removed within eight days (mean 4.5 days) and no patient developed pulmonary complications. At lo...

  15. Low-dose formaldehyde delays DNA damage recognition and DNA excision repair in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luch

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Formaldehyde is still widely employed as a universal crosslinking agent, preservative and disinfectant, despite its proven carcinogenicity in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the possible impact of low-dose formaldehyde exposures in the general population. Due to the concomitant occurrence of multiple indoor and outdoor toxicants, we tested how formaldehyde, at micromolar concentrations, interferes with general DNA damage recognition and excision processes that remove some of the most frequently inflicted DNA lesions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The overall mobility of the DNA damage sensors UV-DDB (ultraviolet-damaged DNA-binding and XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C was analyzed by assessing real-time protein dynamics in the nucleus of cultured human cells exposed to non-cytotoxic (<100 μM formaldehyde concentrations. The DNA lesion-specific recruitment of these damage sensors was tested by monitoring their accumulation at local irradiation spots. DNA repair activity was determined in host-cell reactivation assays and, more directly, by measuring the excision of DNA lesions from chromosomes. Taken together, these assays demonstrated that formaldehyde obstructs the rapid nuclear trafficking of DNA damage sensors and, consequently, slows down their relocation to DNA damage sites thus delaying the excision repair of target lesions. A concentration-dependent effect relationship established a threshold concentration of as low as 25 micromolar for the inhibition of DNA excision repair. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A main implication of the retarded repair activity is that low-dose formaldehyde may exert an adjuvant role in carcinogenesis by impeding the excision of multiple mutagenic base lesions. In view of this generally disruptive effect on DNA repair, we propose that formaldehyde exposures in the general population should be further decreased to help reducing cancer risks.

  16. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  17. Effect of cordycepin(3'-deoxyadenosine) on excision repair of 5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine-type products from the DNA of Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordycepin(3'-deoxyadenosine), a nucleoside analog, has been shown to enhance radiation-induced cell killing. In an effort to elucidate the possible mechanism for enhancement of cell killing, the effect of cordycepin on the excision repair of radiation-induced 5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine-type (t') products from the DNA of wild type Micrococcus radiodurans was investigated. The capacity of M. radiodurans to excise nondimeric (t') products from its DNA was significantly impaired after cordycepin treatment. The results suggest that the increased radiation sensitivity of cordycepin-treated cells could be due to alterations in cellular processes that repair DNA damage

  18. "The lobbying strategy is to keep excise as low as possible" - tobacco industry excise taxation policy in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Krasovsky Konstantin S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco taxes are one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) claim they wish to develop and secure excise systems that benefit both governments and the profitability of the companies themselves. The objective of the paper is to use the case of Ukraine, with its inconsistent history of excise tax changes in 1992-2008, to explore tobacco industry taxation strategies and tactics, and their implications for governmental revenue...

  19. Adaptive Biorthogonal Local Discrete Cosine Transform for Interference Excision in Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽平; 胡光锐; 朱义胜

    2005-01-01

    A novel time-frequency domain interference excision technique is proposed. The technique is based on adaptive biorthogonal local discrete cosine transform (BLDCT). It uses a redundant library of biorthogonal local discrete cosine bases and an efficient concave cost function to match the transform basis to the interfering signal. The main advantage of the algorithm over conventional transform domain excision algorithms is that the basis functions are not fixed but can be adapted to the time-frequency structure of the interfering signal. It is well suited to transform domain compression and suppression of various types of interference. Compared to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) that provides logarithmic division of the frequency bands, the adaptive BLDCT can provide more flexible frequency resolution. Thus it is more insensitive to variations of jamming frequency. Simulation results demonstrate the improved bit error rate (BER) performance and the increased robustness of the receiver.

  20. Nucleation efficiency of talc in the foaming behavior and cellular structure of polyolefin-based foams: new perspectives for optimized lightweight materials

    OpenAIRE

    Meli, Gilles; Abler, Caroline; Jouffret, Frédéric; Antunes, Marcelo de Sousa Pais; Gedler, Gabriel; Arencón Osuna, David; Velasco Perero, José Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The research consisted in evaluating the nucleation efficiency of different types of talc (with different particle size distributions, morphologies and even surface modifications) in the foaming behaviour and cellular structure os polypropylene-based materials, with the objective of developing lightweight materials with improved stiffness and lower densities. Nucleation efficiency was first evaluated in talc filled PP foamed with a physical blowing agent inside a high pressure vessel. Dependi...

  1. Teaching elliptical excision skills to novice medical students: A randomized controlled study comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Denadai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation is needed due to ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in training surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals. Aims : To evaluate if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of elliptical excision skills by novice medical students. Materials and Methods: Forty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed elliptical excision skills′ training (n = 8: didactic materials (control; organic bench model (low-fidelity; ethylene-vinyl acetate bench model (low-fidelity; chicken legs′ skin bench model (high-fidelity; or pig foot skin bench model (high-fidelity. Pre- and post-tests were applied. Global rating scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence based on Likert scale were used to evaluate all elliptical excision performances. Results : The analysis showed that after training, the students practicing on bench models had better performance based on Global rating scale (all P 0.05 between the groups that trained on bench models. The magnitude of the effect (basic cutaneous surgery skills′ training was considered large (>0.80 in all measurements. Conclusion : The acquisition of elliptical excision skills after instructor-directed training on low-fidelity bench models was similar to the training on high-fidelity bench models; and there was a more substantial increase in elliptical excision performances of students that trained on all simulators compared to the learning on didactic materials.

  2. Contributions of mass spectrometry-based proteomics to defining cellular mechanisms and diagnostic markers for systemic lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, Erik A.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Powell, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease for which molecular diagnostics are limited and pathogenesis is not clearly understood. Important information is provided in this regard by identification and characterization of more specific molecular and cellular targets in SLE immune cells and target tissue and markers of early-onset and effective response to treatment of SLE complications. In recent years, advances in proteomic technologies and applications have facilitated such d...

  3. A cardiac electrical activity model based on a cellular automata system in comparison with neural network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Sadiq Ali; Yousuf, Sidrah

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac Electrical Activity is commonly distributed into three dimensions of Cardiac Tissue (Myocardium) and evolves with duration of time. The indicator of heart diseases can occur randomly at any time of a day. Heart rate, conduction and each electrical activity during cardiac cycle should be monitor non-invasively for the assessment of "Action Potential" (regular) and "Arrhythmia" (irregular) rhythms. Many heart diseases can easily be examined through Automata model like Cellular Automata concepts. This paper deals with the different states of cardiac rhythms using cellular automata with the comparison of neural network also provides fast and highly effective stimulation for the contraction of cardiac muscles on the Atria in the result of genesis of electrical spark or wave. The specific formulated model named as "States of automaton Proposed Model for CEA (Cardiac Electrical Activity)" by using Cellular Automata Methodology is commonly shows the three states of cardiac tissues conduction phenomena (i) Resting (Relax and Excitable state), (ii) ARP (Excited but Absolutely refractory Phase i.e. Excited but not able to excite neighboring cells) (iii) RRP (Excited but Relatively Refractory Phase i.e. Excited and able to excite neighboring cells). The result indicates most efficient modeling with few burden of computation and it is Action Potential during the pumping of blood in cardiac cycle. PMID:27087101

  4. Excision of IS492 Requires Flanking Target Sequences and Results in Circle Formation in Pseudoalteromonas atlantica

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins-Balding, Donna; Duval-Valentin, Guy; Glasgow, Anna C.

    1999-01-01

    The gram-negative marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas atlantica produces extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) that is important in biofilm formation by this bacterium. Insertion and precise excision of IS492 at a locus essential for extracellular polysaccharide production (eps) controls phase variation of EPS production in P. atlantica. Examination of IS492 transposition in P. atlantica by using a PCR-based assay revealed a circular form of IS492 that may be an intermediate in transposition or a...

  5. 29 CFR 779.262 - Excise taxes at the retail level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.262 Excise taxes at the retail level. (a) Federal excise taxes are imposed at... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes at the retail level. 779.262 Section...

  6. Interference Excision in Spread Spectrum Communications Using Adaptive Positive Time-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Krishnan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel algorithm to excise single and multicomponent chirp-like interferences in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS communications. The excision algorithm consists of two stages: adaptive signal decomposition stage and directional element detection stage based on the Hough-Radon transform (HRT. Initially, the received spread spectrum signal is decomposed into its time-frequency (TF functions using an adaptive signal decomposition algorithm, and the resulting TF functions are mapped onto the TF plane. We then use a line detection algorithm based on the HRT that operates on the image of the TF plane and detects energy varying directional elements that satisfy a parametric constraint. Interference is modeled by reconstructing the corresponding TF functions detected by the HRT, and subtracted from the received signal. The proposed technique has two main advantages: (i it localizes the interferences on the TF plane with no cross-terms, thus facilitating simple filtering techniques based on thresholding of the TF functions, and is an efficient way to excise the interference; (ii it can be used for the detection of any directional interferences that can be parameterized. Simulation results with synthetic models have shown successful performance with linear and quadratic chirp interferences for single and multicomponent interference cases. The proposed method excises the interference even under very low SNR conditions of −10 dB, and the technique could be easily extended to any interferences that could be represented by a parametric equation in the TF plane.

  7. Subungual glomus tumors of the hand: Treated by transungual excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawalkar, Harshad; Maryada, Venkateshwar Reddy; Brahmajoshyula, Venkatramana; Kotha, Guruvardhan Kumar V

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glomus tumors are benign hamartomas arising from the glomus body, mostly occurring in the subungual region of the digits. A triad of excruciating pain, localized tenderness and cold sensitivity is the key to diagnosing these tumors. Two surgical approaches are described in the literature for excision of subungual glomus tumors-transungual and periungual. We reviewed retrospectively the results of subungual glomus tumors of the hand treated by transungual excision. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients (9 females and 3 males) with histopathologically confirmed subungual glomus tumors of the hand were treated by transungual excision at our institute. The mean age of the patients was 40.5 years (range 28–63 years). All patients presented with pain in the nail bed and cold sensitivity. A bluish-brown discoloration was present in 6 patients. Love's pin test was positive in all and Hildreth's test was positive in 8 patients. The mean duration of followup was 38 months (range 8–72 months). Results: All patients had complete pain relief. There was no new nail deformity and no recurrence till last followup. One patient had deformity of the nail preoperatively due to previous surgery, which persisted after excision of the tumor. All of them returned to their preoperative occupation and regained full function of the hand. Conclusions: The transungual approach provides good access to the entire lesion and facilitates complete excision. Contrary to reported literature, we did not find the development of any new nail deformity with this approach. PMID:26229160

  8. Resveratrol mediated cell death in cigarette smoke transformed breast epithelial cells is through induction of p21Waf1/Cip1 and inhibition of long patch base excision repair pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigarette smoking is a key factor for the development and progression of different cancers including mammary tumor in women. Resveratrol (Res) is a promising natural chemotherapeutic agent that regulates many cellular targets including p21, a cip/kip family of cyclin kinase inhibitors involved in DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and blocking of DNA replication and repair. We have recently shown that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from commercially available Indian cigarette can cause neoplastic transformation of normal breast epithelial MCF-10A cell. Here we studied the mechanism of Res mediated apoptosis in CSC transformed (MCF-10A-Tr) cells in vitro and in vivo. Res mediated apoptosis in MCF-10A-Tr cells was a p21 dependent event. It increased the p21 protein expression in MCF-10A-Tr cells and MCF-10A-Tr cells-mediated tumors in xenograft mice. Res treatment reduced the tumor size(s) and expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. PI3K, AKT, NFκB) in solid tumor. The expressions of cell cycle regulatory (Cyclins, CDC-2, CDC-6, etc.), BER associated (Pol-β, Pol-δ, Pol-ε, Pol-η, RPA, Fen-1, DNA-Ligase-I, etc.) proteins and LP-BER activity decreased in MCF-10A-Tr cells but remain significantly unaltered in isogenic p21 null MCF-10A-Tr cells after Res treatment. Interestingly, no significant changes were noted in SP-BER activity in both the cell lines after Res exposure. Finally, it was observed that increased p21 blocks the LP-BER in MCF-10A-Tr cells by increasing its interaction with PCNA via competing with Fen-1 after Res treatment. Thus, Res caused apoptosis in CSC-induced cancer cells by reduction of LP-BER activity and this phenomenon largely depends on p21. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (Res) caused reduction of MCF-10A-Tr cell growth by inducing apoptosis. • Res caused cell cycle arrest and DNA damage in p21 dependent manner. • Res mediated LP-BER reduction in MCF-10A-Tr cells was a p21 dependent phenomenon. • Res inhibits BER and PI

  9. Resveratrol mediated cell death in cigarette smoke transformed breast epithelial cells is through induction of p21Waf1/Cip1 and inhibition of long patch base excision repair pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Siddharth, Sumit [Cancer Biology Division, KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Campus-11, Patia, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751024 (India); Choudhuri, Tathagata [Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751023 (India); Department of Biotechnology, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, West Bengal (India); Kundu, Chanakya Nath, E-mail: cnkundu@gmail.com [Cancer Biology Division, KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Campus-11, Patia, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751024 (India)

    2014-03-15

    Cigarette smoking is a key factor for the development and progression of different cancers including mammary tumor in women. Resveratrol (Res) is a promising natural chemotherapeutic agent that regulates many cellular targets including p21, a cip/kip family of cyclin kinase inhibitors involved in DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and blocking of DNA replication and repair. We have recently shown that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from commercially available Indian cigarette can cause neoplastic transformation of normal breast epithelial MCF-10A cell. Here we studied the mechanism of Res mediated apoptosis in CSC transformed (MCF-10A-Tr) cells in vitro and in vivo. Res mediated apoptosis in MCF-10A-Tr cells was a p21 dependent event. It increased the p21 protein expression in MCF-10A-Tr cells and MCF-10A-Tr cells-mediated tumors in xenograft mice. Res treatment reduced the tumor size(s) and expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. PI3K, AKT, NFκB) in solid tumor. The expressions of cell cycle regulatory (Cyclins, CDC-2, CDC-6, etc.), BER associated (Pol-β, Pol-δ, Pol-ε, Pol-η, RPA, Fen-1, DNA-Ligase-I, etc.) proteins and LP-BER activity decreased in MCF-10A-Tr cells but remain significantly unaltered in isogenic p21 null MCF-10A-Tr cells after Res treatment. Interestingly, no significant changes were noted in SP-BER activity in both the cell lines after Res exposure. Finally, it was observed that increased p21 blocks the LP-BER in MCF-10A-Tr cells by increasing its interaction with PCNA via competing with Fen-1 after Res treatment. Thus, Res caused apoptosis in CSC-induced cancer cells by reduction of LP-BER activity and this phenomenon largely depends on p21. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (Res) caused reduction of MCF-10A-Tr cell growth by inducing apoptosis. • Res caused cell cycle arrest and DNA damage in p21 dependent manner. • Res mediated LP-BER reduction in MCF-10A-Tr cells was a p21 dependent phenomenon. • Res inhibits BER and PI

  10. No evident dose-response relationship between cellular ROS level and its cytotoxicity--a paradoxical issue in ROS-based cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunpeng; Hu, Wei; Wu, Hao; Hu, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Targeting cancer via ROS-based mechanism has been proposed as a radical therapeutic approach. Cancer cells exhibit higher endogenous oxidative stress than normal cells and pharmacological ROS insults via either enhancing ROS production or inhibiting ROS-scavenging activity can selectively kill cancer cells. In this study, we randomly chose 4 cancer cell lines and primary colon or rectal cancer cells from 4 patients to test the hypothesis and obtained following paradoxical results: while piperlongumin (PL) and β-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), 2 well-defined ROS-based anticancer agents, induced an increase of cellular ROS and killed effectively the tested cells, lactic acidosis (LA), a common tumor environmental factor that plays multifaceted roles in promoting cancer progression, induced a much higher ROS level in the tested cancer cells than PL and PEITC, but spared them; L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO, 20 μM) depleted cellular GSH more effectively and increased higher ROS level than PL or PEITC but permitted progressive growth of the tested cancer cells. No evident dose-response relationship between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. If ROS is the effecter, it should obey the fundamental therapeutic principle - the dose-response relationship. This is a major concern. PMID:24848642

  11. APPROACHES REGARDING DELIVERY OPERATIONS ACCOUNTING BY THE MANUFACTURER OF EXCISABLE MERCHANDISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatol GRAUR

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the calculation of delivery operations accounting of goods subject to the excise duty. The author examines tax cases of the internal movement of excisable goods, while presenting the timing of the development of tax liability. The material analyses the Tax Code regulations concerning the excise duties in specialized stores. The author describes how to apply excise taxes on goods sold but not yet shipped outside of the excise premises.

  12. An Option Pricing Model Based on Cellular Automaton%基于元胞自动机的期权定价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李捷

    2011-01-01

    Option pricing is one of the most difficult problems in financial research. The key to the problem is how to simulate the randomness of the underlying asset price. This paper designs and implements an option pricing model based on the cellular automaton, which treats market participants as the cells in the cellular automaton. The model uses cellular automaton rules to simulate the interactions between traders and the changes of underlying asset prices. The paper compares the output data of the model with the calculation results of the Black-Scholes model, tests the normality of the model's output data, and finds that the option pricing model based on the cellular automaton is not only feasible, but also more effective than the Black-Scholes model.%针对期权定价难于模拟基础资产价格波动随机性的问题,设计了基于元胞自动机的期权定价模型.该模型将市场参与者看作一个个的元胞,使用元胞规则来模拟金融市场中交易者之间的交互行为。从而在总体上模拟出基础资产价格的变化.比较了模型产出的数据和Black-Scholes模型的计算结果,检验了模型产出数据的正态性,发现基于元胞自动机的期权定价模型不仅具有可行性,而且比Black-Scholes模型更有效.

  13. Disease-free survival after complete mesocolic excision compared with conventional colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders; Neuenschwander, Anders Ulrich; Jansen, Jens Erik; Wilhelmsen, Michael; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Anders; Tenma, Jutaka Reilin; Bols, Birgitte; Ingeholm, Peter; Rasmussen, Leif Ahrenst; Jepsen, Lars Vedel; Iversen, Else Refsgaard; Kristensen, Bent; Gögenur, Ismail

    BACKGROUND: Application of the principles of total mesorectal excision to colon cancer by undertaking complete mesocolic excision (CME) has been proposed to improve oncological outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether implementation of CME improved disease-free survival compared with conventional...... colon resection. METHODS: Data for all patients who underwent elective resection for Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage I-III colon adenocarcinomas in the Capital Region of Denmark between June 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2011, were retrieved for this population-based study. The CME group...... consisted of patients who underwent CME surgery in a centre validated to perform such surgery; the control group consisted of patients undergoing conventional colon resection in three other hospitals. Data were collected from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) database and medical charts. Patients...

  14. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes isolates from surgically excised lumbar disc herniations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rollason, Jess; McDowell, Andrew; Albert, Hanne B;

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised...... from each of 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation. P. acnes and other bacteria were detected by anaerobic culture, followed by biochemical and PCR-based identification. In total, 24/64 (38%) patients had evidence of P. acnes in their excised herniated disc tissue. Using recA and mAb typing methods...... isolate collection (63%) suggests that the role of P. acnes in lumbar disc herniation should not be readily dismissed....

  15. Excision of oral mucocele by different wavelength lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Romeo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucocele is a common benign neoplasm of oral soft tissues and the most common after fibroma. It generally occurs in the lower lip and its treatment includes excision of cyst and the responsible salivary gland, in order to prevent recurrences. Aims: To evaluate the capability of three different lasers in performing the excision of labial mucocele with two different techniques. Materials and Methods: In the presented cases, excision was performed using two different techniques (circumferential incision technique and mucosal preservation technique and three different laser wavelengths (Er,Cr:YSGG 2780 nm, diode 808 nm, and KTP 532 nm. Results: All the tested lasers, regardless of wavelength, showed many advantages (bloodless surgical field, no postoperative pain, relative speed, and easy execution. The most useful surgical technique depends on clinical features of the lesion. Conclusion: Tested lasers, with both techniques, are helpful in the management of labial mucocele.

  16. Look-Ahead Strategies Based on Store-Carry and Forward Relaying for Energy Efficient Cellular Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiotis Kolios

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing availability of Internet type services on mobile devices and the attractive flat rate all-you-can-eat billing system, cellular telecommunication networks are experiencing a tremendous growth in data usage demand. However, there are increasing concerns that current network deployment trends (including more efficient radio access techniques and increased spectrum allocation strategies, will be unable to support the increased Internet traffic in a sustainable way. The delay tolerant nature of mobile Internet traffic allows for a large degree of flexibility in optimizing network performance to meet different design objectives and it’s a feature that has mostly gone unexplored by the research community. In this paper, we introduce a novel message forwarding mechanism in cellular networks that benefits from the inherent delay tolerance of Internet type services to provide flexible and adjustable forwarding strategies for efficient network operation while guaranteeing timely deliveries. By capitalizing on the elasticity of message delivery deadlines and the actual mobility of nodes inside the cell, considerable performance gains can be achieved by physically propagating information messages within the network.

  17. Boron-11 NMR spectroscopy of excised mouse tissues after infusion of boron compound used in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective boron uptake by the tumor and in situ activation by neutron beam. The authors propose the use of B-11 MR spectroscopy to noninvasively study boron uptake in animal tumor models. Sodium mercaptoundeca-hydrododecaborate was infused into female BALB/cJ mice and liver, brain, spleen, kidney, and tumor tissues were excised for MR (27.4MHz) and total boron content measurements. Boron-11 was easily detectable in tumor, liver, spleen, and skin. The results gave a very good correlation (correlation coefficient of .997) between B-11 MR measurements and total boron content of excised mouse tissues

  18. Excision of pyrimidine dimers from nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid in ultraviolet-irradiated Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J.M.; Deering, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    A sensitive endonuclease assay was used to study the fate of pyrimidine dimers introduced by ultraviolet irradiation into the nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid of the cellular slime mold Dictyostellium discoideum. Analysis of the frequency of T4 endonuclease V-induced single-strand breaks by alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation showed that strain NC4 (rad/sup +/) removed >98% of the dimers induced by irradiation at 40 J/m/sup 2/ (254 nm) within 215 min after irradiation. HPS104 (radC44), a mutant sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation, removed 91% under these conditions, although at a significantly slower rate than NC4: only 8% were removed during the 10- to 15- min period immediately after irradiation, whereas NC4 excised 64% during this interval. HPS104 thus appears to be deficient in the activity(ies) responsible for rapidly incising ultraviolet-irradiated nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid at the sites of pyrimidine dimers.

  19. Effect of pterygium excision on pterygium induced astigmatism.

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshwari Sejal

    2003-01-01

    Pterygium is known to affect refractive astigmatism, which can have a significant impact on vision. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of pterygium excision on refractive astigmatism. Thirty-six eyes with primary pterygium with astigmatism of 2D or more were analysed before and after pterygium excision. Astigmatism increased with the increase in the grade of pterygium (P = 0.000001). The preoperative refractive cylinder decreased from 4.60±2D to 2.20±2.04D (P = 0.0...

  20. Cellular Neurothekeoma of the Scalp in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Min-Cheol; Seung, Won-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Cellular neurothekeoma (CNT) is an uncommon variant of neurothekeoma that is composed of pithelioid to spindled cells with variable nuclear atypia or pleomorphism but no myxoid stroma. CNT occurs predominantly in the head and neck or upper trunk of children and young adults, with female predominance. The following case is different from typical CNTs. An 88-year-old female presented with a palpable mass on the scalp, which we excised. Histologically, the tumor was non-encapsulated and composed...

  1. Cellular Automata based Encrypted ECG-hash Code Generation: An Application in Inter-human Biometric Authentication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Nandi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this modern era, biometrics incorporate various mechanisms to recognize inimitable features of human beings by utilizing their biological and evident features. This paper proposes a novel technique for constructing a resilient and secure biometric recognition system. In this paper, an ECG-hash code of two distinct individuals has been formed by taking dot product of electrocardiogram (ECG feature matrices of two persons located at two different sites at respective databases. The validity of the system increases as samples from both persons, between whom the transmission takes place, are essential. Besides, electrocardiogram is such a unique feature of an individual that could not be compromised at any circumstance as contradictory to other features like fingerprints, face recognition etc. Moreover, the ECG-hash code is encrypted using rule vector of cellular automata that gives better security in terms of randomness of generated cipher text.

  2. Traffic paradox on a road segment based on a cellular automaton: Impact of lane-changing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Jinyang; Ding, Ning; Nie, Cen

    2015-06-01

    The traffic paradox "faster is slower" does not always apply. To study when and where it is valid, a simulation for a real road segment is performed using a novel cellular automaton. This simulation is used to analyze the change in global traffic flow status during free lane-changing behavior under general urban traffic conditions. The impact of lane-changing behavior is quantified into two aspects, time and space, and are described by average delay and transitable flow, respectively. Then surfaces are obtained, which adopt the arriving probability of vehicles and the green ratio as dual independent variables. Thus by the comparison of two surfaces, free lane-changing and straight proceeding, the horizontal projection of the intersecting lines is solved. Finally, the range of occurrence and reasons for the paradox are analyzed.

  3. Comparison of Adnexal Mass in Women Undergoing Mass Excision During the Antepartum Period and Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Saghafi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The frequency of adnexal masses in pregnant women ranges from 0.1% to 4%. Selecting the right approach to manage the subsequent intervention remains one of the most controversial challenges among gynecologists. Our aim in this cross-sectional study was to clarify the clinical-pathological differences among the adnexal masses that are excised during either the antepartum period or cesarean section (CS. Methods: In this study, we assessed 11,000 pregnancy cases referred to the Qaem Hospital in the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between 2010 and 2014. In total, 53 pregnant women with adnexal masses (other than non-gynecological mass and ectopic pregnancy were selected for further investigation. We divided patients into two groups (group A and group B. Patients of group A had a diagnosed tumor that was excised antepartum while patients in group B had a mass taken out during CS. We then assembled data based on maternal age, parity, gestational age, surgery type, delivery mode, size and location of the tumor, complications, presentations, histopathological diagnosis, and ultrasonography findings for further analysis. Results: The major proportion of masses (62.3% were excised during CS whereas the remainder (37.7% were removed antepartum. The mean size of the detected tumor for benign and malignant cases was 10.0 cm and 13.8 cm in group A, and 8.0 cm and 9.3 cm in group B, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference observed between patients in the two groups regarding the benign/malignant status of the mass (p = 0.008, its size (p = 0.019 and simplicity/complexity (p = 0.004. Conclusions: The rate of malignant tumors was considerably higher in women who had antepartum mass excision compared to those with mass resection during CS. Also, tumors were larger (and more complex in patients in group A compared to group B.

  4. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  5. Quantum cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porod, Wolfgang; Lent, Craig S.; Bernstein, Gary H.

    1994-06-01

    The Notre Dame group has developed a new paradigm for ultra-dense and ultra-fast information processing in nanoelectronic systems. These Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA's) are the first concrete proposal for a technology based on arrays of coupled quantum dots. The basic building block of these cellular arrays is the Notre Dame Logic Cell, as it has been called in the literature. The phenomenon of Coulomb exclusion, which is a synergistic interplay of quantum confinement and Coulomb interaction, leads to a bistable behavior of each cell which makes possible their use in large-scale cellular arrays. The physical interaction between neighboring cells has been exploited to implement logic functions. New functionality may be achieved in this fashion, and the Notre Dame group invented a versatile majority logic gate. In a series of papers, the feasibility of QCA wires, wire crossing, inverters, and Boolean logic gates was demonstrated. A major finding is that all logic functions may be integrated in a hierarchial fashion which allows the design of complicated QCA structures. The most complicated system which was simulated to date is a one-bit full adder consisting of some 200 cells. In addition to exploring these new concepts, efforts are under way to physically realize such structures both in semiconductor and metal systems. Extensive modeling work of semiconductor quantum dot structures has helped identify optimum design parameters for QCA experimental implementations.

  6. Transient Allodynia Following Caudal Lipoma Excision: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kalemci, Orhan; Ozer, Ercan; YUCESOY, Kemal; Arda, Mehmet Nuri; Erkin, Yüksel

    2011-01-01

    Allodynia is the sensation of pain due to non-painful stimuli. It usually occurs due to destructive lesions of the spinal cord or peripheral nerves. Allodynia following intradural lipoma surgery has been reported previously. We herein report a case of allodynia developed after microsurgical caudal lipoma excision without associated spinal cord injury.

  7. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  8. 75 FR 33683 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... means a service employing any electronic product designed to incorporate one or more ultraviolet lamps... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40, 49, and 602 RIN 1545-BJ41 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and...

  9. 75 FR 9359 - Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Register (74 FR 52928) proposing changes to parts 113 and 191 within title 19 of the Code of... the Federal Register (74 FR 52928) on October 15, 2009, so that relevant issues involved in the... Parts 113 and 191 RIN 1505-AC18 Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax AGENCY: Customs and...

  10. Structural basis of HIV-1 resistance to AZT by excision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Xiongying; Das, Kalyan; Han, Qianwei; Bauman, Joseph D.; Clark, Jr., Arthur D.; Hou, Xiaorong; Frenkel, Yulia V.; Gaffney, Barbara L.; Jones, Roger A.; Boyer, Paul L.; Hughes, Stephen H.; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Arnold, Eddy (Rutgers); (Clark); (NCI)

    2011-11-23

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) develops resistance to 3'-azido-2',3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) by acquiring mutations in reverse transcriptase that enhance the ATP-mediated excision of AZT monophosphate from the 3' end of the primer. The excision reaction occurs at the dNTP-binding site, uses ATP as a pyrophosphate donor, unblocks the primer terminus and allows reverse transcriptase to continue viral DNA synthesis. The excision product is AZT adenosine dinucleoside tetraphosphate (AZTppppA). We determined five crystal structures: wild-type reverse transcriptase-double-stranded DNA (RT-dsDNA)-AZTppppA; AZT-resistant (AZTr; M41L D67N K70R T215Y K219Q) RT-dsDNA-AZTppppA; AZTr RT-dsDNA terminated with AZT at dNTP- and primer-binding sites; and AZTr apo reverse transcriptase. The AMP part of AZTppppA bound differently to wild-type and AZTr reverse transcriptases, whereas the AZT triphosphate part bound the two enzymes similarly. Thus, the resistance mutations create a high-affinity ATP-binding site. The structure of the site provides an opportunity to design inhibitors of AZT-monophosphate excision.

  11. Nucleotide excision repair by dual incisions in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canturk, Fazile; Karaman, Muhammet; Selby, Christopher P; Kemp, Michael G; Kulaksiz-Erkmen, Gulnihal; Hu, Jinchuan; Li, Wentao; Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A; Sancar, Aziz

    2016-04-26

    Plants use light for photosynthesis and for various signaling purposes. The UV wavelengths in sunlight also introduce DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts [(6-4)PPs] that must be repaired for the survival of the plant. Genome sequencing has revealed the presence of genes for both CPD and (6-4)PP photolyases, as well as genes for nucleotide excision repair in plants, such as Arabidopsis and rice. Plant photolyases have been purified, characterized, and have been shown to play an important role in plant survival. In contrast, even though nucleotide excision repair gene homologs have been found in plants, the mechanism of nucleotide excision repair has not been investigated. Here we used the in vivo excision repair assay developed in our laboratory to demonstrate that Arabidopsis removes CPDs and (6-4)PPs by a dual-incision mechanism that is essentially identical to the mechanism of dual incisions in humans and other eukaryotes, in which oligonucleotides with a mean length of 26-27 nucleotides are removed by incising ∼20 phosphodiester bonds 5' and 5 phosphodiester bonds 3' to the photoproduct. PMID:27071131

  12. Excise Taxes and the Price Elasticity of Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Ralph C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that, although the analysis of the imposition of an excise tax is widely used in economics courses, the consequences of a change in the tax rate are different and ignored. This article presents an effective way to teach about such a change. (GG)

  13. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    OpenAIRE

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the...

  14. Cellular Phone Towers, Serve as base information for use in GIS systems for general planning, analytical, and research purposes., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2007. It is described as 'Serve as base information for use in GIS systems for...

  15. Fate of PLA and PCL-Based Polymeric Nanocarriers in Cellular and Animal Models of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitia, Leopoldo; Ferrari, Raffaele; Violatto, Martina B; Talamini, Laura; Dragoni, Luca; Colombo, Claudio; Colombo, Laura; Lupi, Monica; Ubezio, Paolo; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Morbidelli, Massimo; Salmona, Mario; Moscatelli, Davide; Bigini, Paolo

    2016-03-14

    An integrated platform to assess the interaction between nanocarriers and biological matrices has been developed by our group using poly methyl-methacrylate nanoparticles. In this study, we exploited this platform to evaluate the behavior of two biodegradable formulations, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL3) and poly lactic-acid (PLA8), respectively, in cellular and animal models of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Both NPs shared the main physicochemical parameters (size, shape, ζ-potential) and exclusively differentiated on the material on which they are composed. Our results showed that (1) PLA8 NPs, systemically injected in mice, underwent rapid degradation without penetration into tumors; (2) PLA8 NPs were not internalized in the human TNBC cell line (MDA-MB-231); (3) PCL3 NPs had a longer bioavailability, reached the tumor parenchyma, and efficiently penetrated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data highlight the relevance of the material selection to both improve bioavailability and target tropism, and make PCL3 NPs an interesting tool for the development of nanodrugs against TNBC. PMID:26791775

  16. Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiubin Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under the natural development scenario, most of ecological land will be replaced by construction land and crop land. But under the scenarios of object orientation and ecosystem priority, the ecological land area will increase, especially under the scenario of ecosystem priority. When considering the factors such as total area of ecological land, loss of key ecological land and spatial patterns of land use, the scenarios from priority to inferiority are ecosystem priority, object orientation and natural development, so future land management policies in Beijing should be focused on conversion of cropland to forest, wetland protection and prohibition of exploitation of natural protection zones, water source areas and forest parks to maintain the safety of the regional ecosystem.

  17. An optimization method based on combination of cellular automata and simulated annealing for VVER-1000 NPP loading pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces a design methodology in the context of finding new and innovative design principles by means of optimization techniques. In this method cellular automata (CA) and simulated annealing (SA) were combined and used for solving the optimization problem. This method contains two principles that are neighboring concept from CA and accepting each displacement basis on decreasing of objective function and Boltzman distribution from SA that plays role of transition rule. Proposed method was used for solving fuel management optimization problem in VVER-1000 Russian reactor. Since the fuel management problem contains a huge amount of calculation for finding the best configuration for fuel assemblies in reactor core this method has been introduced for reducing the volume of calculation. In this study reducing of power peaking factor inside the reactor core of Bushehr NPP is considered as the objective function. The proposed optimization method is compared with Hopfield neural network procedure that was used for solving this problem and has been shown that the result, velocity and qualification of new method are comparable with that. Besides, the result is the optimum configuration, which is in agreement with the pattern proposed by the designer.

  18. 基于元胞蚂蚁算法的防空靶机航路规划研究%Route Planning of Anti-Air Target Drone Based on Cellular-Ant Colony Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志强; 雷宇曜; 阳再清

    2014-01-01

    防空靶机飞行航路设计是实现靶机有效控制,确保高效完成供靶任务的保障。通过对靶机三维航路规划模型进行分析,给出了元胞蚂蚁算法的航路规划模型的求解方法及算法实现的具体流程,并分别应用蚁群算法和元胞蚂蚁算法进行仿真实验。结果表明:元胞蚂蚁算法克服了蚁群算法收敛速度慢、陷于局部最小值的缺陷,可得到较优的航路。%The design of the flight airway of anti-air target is essential to the effective target control and the high effective completion of target supply task. Through the analysis of the three-dimensional airway design model, the solution method and corresponding algorithm flow of the cellular-ant colony algorithm is provided in this paper. The simulation experiment of the ant colony and cellular-ant colony algorithms is carried out, which shows that the cellular ant algorithm over comes the ant colony algorithm disadvantages of the slow convergence and local optima, and it is able to obtain optimal airway.

  19. Functional evaluation of DNA repair in human biopsies and their relation to other cellular biomarkers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slyšková, Jana; Langie, S. A. S.; Collins, A. R.; Vodička, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 5 (2014). ISSN 1664-8021 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1585 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : base excision repair * nucleotide excision repair * human solid tissue Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Failover in cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2010-01-01

    A cellular automata (CA) configuration is constructed that exhibits emergent failover. The configuration is based on standard Game of Life rules. Gliders and glider-guns form the core messaging structure in the configuration. The blinker is represented as the basic computational unit, and it is shown how it can be recreated in case of a failure. Stateless failover using primary-backup mechanism is demonstrated. The details of the CA components used in the configuration and its working are described, and a simulation of the complete configuration is also presented.

  1. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p < 0.05) between the bacterial cell count estimated by the pour plate method and flow cytometry, despite there being differences in the absolute number of cells detected. The combined approach of flow cytometric CRP measurement and cell sorting allowed an in situ analysis of microbial cell vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells. PMID:27406324

  2. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis. (paper)

  3. Improved quality of care for patients undergoing an abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkerink, G.M.J.; Buijs, E.F.; Ruijter, W. de; Rosman, C.; Sietses, C.; Strobel, R.; Heisterkamp, J.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Bremers, A.J.A.; Wilt, J.H.W. de

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: New diagnostics, the emergence of total mesorectal excision and neoadjuvant treatments have improved outcome for patients with rectal cancer. Patients with distal rectal cancer undergoing an abdominoperineal excision seem to do worse compared to those treated with sphinctersparing tech

  4. The Role of Altered Nucleotide Excision Repair and UVB-Induced DNA Damage in Melanomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Budden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UVB radiation is the most mutagenic component of the UV spectrum that reaches the earth’s surface and causes the development of DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. UV radiation usually results in cellular death, but if left unchecked, it can affect DNA integrity, cell and tissue homeostasis and cause mutations in oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes. These mutations, if unrepaired, can lead to abnormal cell growth, increasing the risk of cancer development. Epidemiological data strongly associates UV exposure as a major factor in melanoma development, but the exact biological mechanisms involved in this process are yet to be fully elucidated. The nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway is responsible for the repair of UV-induced lesions. Patients with the genetic disorder Xeroderma Pigmentosum have a mutation in one of eight NER genes associated with the XP complementation groups XP-A to XP-G and XP variant (XP-V. XP is characterized by diminished repair capacity, as well as a 1000-fold increase in the incidence of skin cancers, including melanoma. This has suggested a significant role for NER in melanoma development as a result of UVB exposure. This review discusses the current research surrounding UVB radiation and NER capacity and how further investigation of NER could elucidate the role of NER in avoiding UV-induced cellular death resulting in melanomagenesis.

  5. Subunit influenza vaccine candidate based on CD154 fused to HAH5 increases the antibody titers and cellular immune response in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pose, Alaín González; Gómez, Julia Noda; Sánchez, Alina Venereo; Redondo, Armando Vega; Rodríguez, Elsa Rodríguez; Seguí, Raquel Montesino; Ramos, Ernesto Manuel González; Moltó, María Pilar Rodríguez; Rodríguez, Elaine Santana; Cordero, Liliam Rios; Mallón, Alina Rodríguez; Nordelo, Carlos Borroto

    2011-09-28

    World Health Organization has a great concern about the spreading of avian influenza virus H5N1. To counteract its massive spread, poultry vaccination is highly recommended together with biosecurity measures. In our study, a recombinant vaccine candidate based on the fusion of extracellular segments of hemagglutinin (HA) H5 of avian influenza virus and chicken CD154 (HACD) is tested with the aim of enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses in chickens. Protein expression was carried out by transducing several mammalian cell lines with recombinant adenoviral vectors. HACD purification was assessed by three distinct purification protocols: immunoaffinity chromatography by elution at acidic pH or with a chaotropic agent and size exclusion chromatography. Humoral and cellular immune responses were measured using the hemagglutination inhibition assay and the semiquantitative real time PCR, respectively. The results showed that humoral response against HACD was significantly higher than the obtained with HA alone after booster (Pvaccine candidate against H5N1 virus outbreaks. PMID:21680114

  6. The excision width in surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališ M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma originates from pluripotent cells of basal layer of epiderm, external covering of hair follicles, sebaceous glands or other skin adnexa. It is characterized by local infiltrating and sometimes destructive growth. There are several types of basal cell carcinomas that may be manifested in over 12 clinical forms. Surgical treatment depends to a large extent on the histological type, localization and its clinical manifestation. The analysis included 250 patients of both gender and different age, operated for basal cell carcinoma. Clinical characteristics of basal cell carcinoma and the width of the excision were described. It was concluded that the width of the excision of basal cell cancer was in relation to histological type. .

  7. Anatomo surgical study on radical mesorectum excision in rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro A. Gorodner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of surgical anatomy of the mesorectum is essential for cancer surgery in rectal cancer. Radical mesorectal excision allows an appropriate surgery, preserving the pelvic nerves of the autonomic system, preventing postsurgical morbidity. The aim of this paper is to describe the anatomy of the mesorectum as a cornerstone to achieve a careful and detailed technique on rectal cancer surgery. 10 (ten adult formalized cadavers were dissected (nine male and one female specimen. Anatomical elements, both nervous and vascular were explored, in order to recognize those elements that should be preserved in rectal cancer surgery with radical mesorectal excision. The dissection of corpses may be an experimental model to test this type of cancer surgery. Samples were photographed and compared with those made in vivo. Rectal resection with its corresponding mesorectum, accordingly to the location of the tumor improves survival of patients with rectal cancer. Knowledge of the anatomy of the pelvic neurovascular elements significantly reduces postsurgical morbidity.

  8. 29 CFR 779.263 - Excise taxes not at the retail level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes not at the retail level. 779.263 Section 779... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.263 Excise taxes not at the retail level. There are also a wide variety of taxes levied at the manufacturer's or distributor's level and not at the retail level. It should...

  9. 77 FR 37838 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  10. Assessment of electromagnetic fields intensity emitted by cellular phone base stations in surrounding flats - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid development of mobile telecommunications (MT) has resulted in an increased concern about possible detrimental health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by MT systems, and by MT base stations in particular. Research into EMFs effects on the health of inhabitants living in their vicinity requires first of all a solid assessment of the exposure level. Up to now, the reports in this field have been rather scant. This article presents the results of preliminary measurements of EMFs fields in selected flats around selected base stations in the city of Lodz. Measurements of electric field strength, E, to assess EMF exposure were based on the standard procedures currently in force in Poland. As the study is regarded as a preliminary one, the measurements were conducted in buildings with the expected largest radiation. The measurements show that in the flats located up to 500 m from the base station, EMFs are within the limits specified by relevant Polish regulations on the general public and environmental protection. It was also observed that in a few (less than 10%) flats the field with E exceeded 0.8 V/m. The results show that there are no correlations between electric field strength and distance between the flat and the base station. Therefore, the distance from the base station cannot be used to represent the exposure rate; to determine the latter, EMF measurements are necessary. (author)

  11. Tissue-specific accelerated aging in nucleotide excision repair deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Laura J. Niedernhofer

    2008-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a multi-step DNA repair mechanism that removes helix-distorting modified nucleotides from the genome. NER is divided into two subpathways depending on the location of DNA damage in the genome and how it is first detected. Global genome NER identifies and repairs DNA lesions throughout the genome. This subpathway of NER primarily protects against the accumulation of mutations in the genome. Transcription-coupled (TC) NER rapidly repairs lesions in the transc...

  12. Summation by parts and dissipation for domains with excised regions

    CERN Document Server

    Calabrese, G; Reula, O; Sarbach, O; Tiglio, M H; Calabrese, Gioel; Lehner, Luis; Reula, Oscar; Sarbach, Olivier; Tiglio, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    We extend and construct finite difference techniques for hyperbolic equations in non-trivial domains, as those that arise when simulating black hole spacetimes. We construct dissipative and difference operators that satisfy summation by parts in domains with excised multiple cubic regions. These techniques can be used to derive semi-discrete energy estimates for the associated initial-boundary value problem, and therefore, can be used to show numerical stability.

  13. Excise levying on gold products on the Romanian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bostan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As regards the trade operations with gold products, the tax regime is rather special. The current paper tackles the most significant aspects of excise levying of this products/jewels type in the Romanian system. The focus is on certain framework elements regarding the fiscal status of the operator with gold products. The study relies on the European and national regulations but it also refers to other works which highlight similar problems.

  14. Threshold to predict astigmatism reduction after pterygium excision

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Morán, Gemma; de Carvalho Mendes Castanheira, Amélia Maria; Kostov, Belchin Adriyanov; Pujol Vives, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare corneal astigmatism after pterygium excision, using limbal-conjunctival autograft (LCA) with and without mitomycin C (MMC) and to establish a threshold for postoperative astigmatism reduction.; Methods. Sixty-eight eyes with primary pterygium were consecutively sampled and assigned to LCA with MMC (MMC+) or LCA without MMC (MMC-). Corneal lesion length, corneal lesion area, preoperative corneal astigmatism (PRCA), and postoperative corneal astigmatism (POCA) at 1, 3, and 6...

  15. Excise levying on gold products on the Romanian territory

    OpenAIRE

    I. Bostan; T. Roman

    2016-01-01

    As regards the trade operations with gold products, the tax regime is rather special. The current paper tackles the most significant aspects of excise levying of this products/jewels type in the Romanian system. The focus is on certain framework elements regarding the fiscal status of the operator with gold products. The study relies on the European and national regulations but it also refers to other works which highlight similar problems.

  16. Summation by parts and dissipation for domains with excised regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, Gioel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Lehner, Luis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Reula, Oscar [FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba 5000 (Argentina); Sarbach, Olivier [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Tiglio, Manuel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2004-12-21

    We discuss finite difference techniques for hyperbolic equations in non-trivial domains, as those that arise when simulating black-hole spacetimes. In particular, we construct dissipative and difference operators that satisfy the summation by parts property in domains with excised multiple cubic regions. This property can be used to derive semi-discrete energy estimates for the associated initial-boundary value problem which in turn can be used to prove numerical stability.

  17. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity

  18. Norwegian NOx emissions excise duty hits shipping and offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory framework concerning the new excise duty appears as complex and unfinished, raising more questions than providing answers. The duty will entail a significant expense item for the businesses liable to register and it is therefore important to have an overview of how the regulatory framework should be understood. Errors made since 1 January 2007 may lead to future reassessments of duties, with interest (author) (ml)

  19. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Seminal Vesicle Cystadenoma Excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourmouris, Panagiotis; Tufek, İlter; Saglican, Yesim; Obek, Can; Kural, Ali Riza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cystadenoma is an extremely rare benign tumor of the seminal vesicle. Diagnosis of these tumors and differential diagnosis from malignant ones may be challenging since most of the time symptoms do not occur. Management of these tumors remains debatable due to the limited data in the literature. We present the first robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of a cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle. Case Presentation: A 48-year-old man presented with diminished ejaculate volume and a 3.5 cm right seminal vesicle mass, which increased its size at 6 cm after the 3-month period. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy revealed no malignancy. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of the tumor was performed. Port placement was the same as robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Operative time and estimated blood loss were 240 minutes and 200 mL, respectively. Patient was discharged on postoperative day 3 without any complications. Final histopathologic examination revealed cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Surgical intervention may be considered when a cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle is diagnosed and symptoms or tumor growth occurs. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision is an alternative in the management of these rare tumors.

  20. The Impact of Pterygium Excision on Corneal Astigmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the corneal astigmatism before and after the excision of pterygium and also to determine the correlation of pterygium size with the postoperative corneal astigmatism. Study Design: Cross-sectional interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Eye Department, Combined Military Hospital, Abbottabad, from May 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: Thirty patients underwent pterygium excision. Pre-operatively Snellen visual acuity, manifest refraction and slit lamp examination was done. The size of the pterygium was recorded in mm by projecting a horizontal slit lamp beam from the limbus to the apex. All the pterygium were equal to or greater than 2.5 mm. Keratometry was performed with an automated keratometer. Keratometric data was recorded pre-operatively and at 28 days postoperatively. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for comparing the pre-operative and the postoperative corneal astigmatism. Spearman's rank order was calculated to observe correlation of pterygium size with the postoperative astigmatism. Results: The median (mean rank) pre-operative astigmatism of 2.25 (15.50) reduced to a median (mean rank) postoperative astigmatism of 1.30 (14.96). This decrease in the postoperative astigmatism was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically non-significant correlation between the postoperative astigmatism and the pterygium size (rs = -0.29, p = 0.12). Conclusion: Pterygium excision caused significant reduction in corneal astigmatism. (author)

  1. Staged Excision for Lentigo Maligna and Lentigo Maligna Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua B.; Walling, Hobart W.; Scupham, Richard K.; Bean, Andrew K.; Ceilley, Roger I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Lentigo maligna is a form of in situ melanoma that occurs commonly on sun-exposed skin of middle-aged to elderly adults. Margin-control surgery offers the highest cure rate for lentigo maligna/lentigo maligna melanoma. Materials and methods: Charts from the authors’ private office from the 20-year period from January 1986 to December 2005 were reviewed to identify patients with histologically confirmed lentigo maligna or lentigo maligna melanoma treated by staged excision. Results: Sixty-eight patients (39 men, 29 women; mean age at diagnosis 67.4±10.2 years, range 48-87 years) with 68 tumors were treated in the authors’ office for lentigo maligna (58) or lentigo maligna melanoma (10) between January 1986 and December 2005. After excision, patients were followed clinically for a minimum of three years. The mean follow-up duration was 138 months (median 139 months; range 37-330 months). The overall margin for tumor clearance was 7.0±0.55mm with a recurrence rate of 5.9 percent. Limitations: The limitations of this study include the retrospective nature of the authors’ review, and data collected from a single, private practice setting. Conclusion: The authors’ findings support staged excision as an effective method of treating lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma, offering a high cure rate while maximally preserving normal tissue. PMID:27386048

  2. Interaction of Frequency Allocation Schemes and Beam Forming on the Performance of Cellular Communication Systems Based on OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholami

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction of Beam Forming and frequency allocation schemes on an OFDM-based system such as LTE or WiMAX is investigated in order to support the maximum capacity and minimum outage probability. The results of simulation show that rank1 precode scheme based on MISO channel, according to what considered in LTE standard, along with the cell region division in order to allocate OFDM frequency carriers lead to a Considerable interest in the total capacity of the network in different traffics.

  3. Synthesis and validation of novel cholesterol-based fluorescent lipids designed to observe the cellular trafficking of cationic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bieong-Kil; Seu, Young-Bae; Choi, Jong-Soo; Park, Jong-Won; Doh, Kyung-Oh

    2015-09-15

    Cholesterol-based fluorescent lipids with ether linker were synthesized using NBD (Chol-E-NBD) or Rhodamine B (Chol-E-Rh), and the usefulnesses as fluorescent probes for tracing cholesterol-based liposomes were validated. The fluorescent intensities of liposomes containing these modified lipids were measured and observed under a microscope. Neither compound interfered with the expression of GFP plasmid, and live cell images were obtained without interferences. Changes in the fluorescent intensity of liposomes containing Chol-E-NBD were followed by flow cytometry for up to 24h. These fluorescent lipids could be useful probes for trafficking of cationic liposome-mediated gene delivery. PMID:26243368

  4. Modeling cellular effects of coal pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this project is to develop and test models for the dose and dose-rate dependence of biological effects of coal pollutants on mammalian cells in tissue culture. Particular attention is given to the interaction of pollutants with the genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid, or NDA) in the cell. Unlike radiation, which can interact directly with chromatin, chemical pollutants undergo numerous changes before the ultimate carcinogen becomes covalently bound to the DNA. Synthetic vesicles formed from a phospholipid bilayer are being used to investigate chemical transformations that may occur during the transport of pollutants across cellular membranes. The initial damage to DNA is rapidly modified by enzymatic repair systems in most living organisms. A model has been developed for predicting the effects of excision repair on the survival of human cells exposed to chemical carcinogens. In addition to the excision system, normal human cells also have tolerance mechanisms that permit continued growth and division of cells without removal of the damage. We are investigating the biological effect of damage passed to daughter cells by these tolerance mechanisms

  5. State-specific liquor excise taxes and retail prices in 8 US states, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B; Williams, Rebecca S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in 8 states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. The authors made 6042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, the authors examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. The authors find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24159914

  6. New insights about excisable pathogenicity islands in Salmonella and their contribution to virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Pamela A; Pardo-Roa, Catalina; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Tobar, Hugo E; Coronado-Arrázola, Irenice; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2016-05-01

    Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are regions of the chromosome of pathogenic bacteria that harbor virulence genes, which were probably acquired by lateral gene transfer. Several PAIs can excise from the bacterial chromosome by site-specific recombination and in this review have been denominated "excisable PAIs". Here, the characteristic of some of the excisable PAIs from Salmonella enterica and the possible role and impact of the excision process on bacterial virulence is discussed. Understanding the role of PAI excision could provide important insights relative to the emergence, evolution and virulence of pathogenic enterobacteria. PMID:26939722

  7. ReaDDy--a software for particle-based reaction-diffusion dynamics in crowded cellular environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schöneberg

    Full Text Available We introduce the software package ReaDDy for simulation of detailed spatiotemporal mechanisms of dynamical processes in the cell, based on reaction-diffusion dynamics with particle resolution. In contrast to other particle-based reaction kinetics programs, ReaDDy supports particle interaction potentials. This permits effects such as space exclusion, molecular crowding and aggregation to be modeled. The biomolecules simulated can be represented as a sphere, or as a more complex geometry such as a domain structure or polymer chain. ReaDDy bridges the gap between small-scale but highly detailed molecular dynamics or Brownian dynamics simulations and large-scale but little-detailed reaction kinetics simulations. ReaDDy has a modular design that enables the exchange of the computing core by efficient platform-specific implementations or dynamical models that are different from Brownian dynamics.

  8. Base station MAC with APRMA protocol for broadband multimedia ATM in micro/pico-cellular mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Khanh Hoang; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov; Dittmann, Lars;

    1998-01-01

    principles and the performance of this protocol are discussed. A channel efficiency of more than 70% and a mean cell transfer delay of less than 17 cells are obtained in the range of 1-50 simultaneously connected users even with bursty traffic. For this, the cell dropping rate is kept below 10-9 when the......The concept for a wireless ATM access system that enables seamless mobile connectivity to the B-ISDN is presented. It is based on small, low cost and intelligent base stations running a medium access control (MAC) protocol using adaptive packet reservation multiple access (APRMA). Both the...... mobile terminals use buffer lengths of only 200-300 cells. The different components of this access system are currently under implementation and the MAC unit has been successfully implemented for a 32 Mbit/s wireless channel supporting 25 Mbit/s ATM introducing only 22% of protocol overhead...

  9. Quantitative prediction of cellular metabolism with constraint-based models: the COBRA Toolbox v2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberger, Jan; Que, Richard; Fleming, Ronan M. T.; Thiele, Ines; Orth, Jeffrey D.; Feist, Adam M; Zielinski, Daniel C; Bordbar, Aarash; Lewis, Nathan E.; Rahmanian, Sorena; Kang, Joseph; Hyduke, Daniel R; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, a growing community of researchers has emerged around the use of COnstraint-Based Reconstruction and Analysis (COBRA) methods to simulate, analyze and predict a variety of metabolic phenotypes using genome-scale models. The COBRA Toolbox, a MATLAB package for implementing COBRA methods, was presented earlier. Here we present a significant update of this in silico ToolBox. Version 2.0 of the COBRA Toolbox expands the scope of computations by including in silico analysis m...

  10. Multicolor probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy: a new world for in vivo and real-time cellular imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vercauteren, Tom; Doussoux, François; Cazaux, Matthieu; Schmid, Guillaume; Linard, Nicolas; Durin, Marie-Amélie; GHARBI, Hedi; Lacombe, François

    2013-01-01

    International audience Since its inception in the field of in vivo imaging, endomicroscopy through optical fiber bundles, or probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (pCLE), has extensively proven the benefit of in situ and real-time examination of living tissues at the microscopic scale. By continuously increasing image quality, reducing invasiveness and improving system ergonomics, Mauna Kea Technologies has turned pCLE not only into an irreplaceable research instrument for small animal...

  11. DS-CDMA Cellular Systems Performance with Base Station Assignment, Power Control Error and Beamforming over Multipath Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Dosaranian Moghadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interference reduction capability of antenna arrays, base station assignment and the power controlalgorithms have been considered separately as means to increase the capacity in wireless communicationnetworks. In this paper, we propose base station assignment method based on minimizing the transmitterpower (BSA-MTP technique in a direct sequence-code division multiple access (DS-CDMA receiver inthe presence of frequency-selective Rayleigh fading and power control error (PCE. This receiverconsists of constrained least mean squared (CLMS algorithm, matched filter (MF, and maximal ratiocombining (MRC in three stages. Also, we present switched-beam (SB technique in the first stage of theRAKE receiver for enhancing signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR in DS-CDMA cellularsystems. The simulation results indicate that BSA-MTP technique can significantly improve the networkbit error rate (BER in comparison with the conventional case. Finally, we discuss on three parameters ofthe PCE, number of resolvable paths, and channel propagation conditions (path-loss exponent andshadowing and their effects on capacity of the system via some computer simulations.

  12. The Deleterious Effects of Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress on Palmitoylation, Membrane Lipid Rafts and Lipid-Based Cellular Signalling: New Drug Targets in Neuroimmune Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Walder, Ken; Puri, Basant K; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) is causatively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, schizophrenia and depression. Many of the consequences stemming from O&NS, including damage to proteins, lipids and DNA, are well known, whereas the effects of O&NS on lipoprotein-based cellular signalling involving palmitoylation and plasma membrane lipid rafts are less well documented. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the mechanisms involved in lipid-based signalling, including palmitoylation, membrane/lipid raft (MLR) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) functions, the effects of O&NS processes on these processes and their role in the abovementioned diseases. S-palmitoylation is a post-translational modification, which regulates protein trafficking and association with the plasma membrane, protein subcellular location and functions. Palmitoylation and MRLs play a key role in neuronal functions, including glutamatergic neurotransmission, and immune-inflammatory responses. Palmitoylation, MLRs and n-3 PUFAs are vulnerable to the corruptive effects of O&NS. Chronic O&NS inhibits palmitoylation and causes profound changes in lipid membrane composition, e.g. n-3 PUFA depletion, increased membrane permeability and reduced fluidity, which together lead to disorders in intracellular signal transduction, receptor dysfunction and increased neurotoxicity. Disruption of lipid-based signalling is a source of the neuroimmune disorders involved in the pathophysiology of the abovementioned diseases. n-3 PUFA supplementation is a rational therapeutic approach targeting disruptions in lipid-based signalling. PMID:26310971

  13. Cellular scanning strategy for selective laser melting: Evolution of optimal grid-based scanning path & parametric approach to thermal homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    developed and validated using thermal distributions obtained using different existing scanning strategies. Several existing standard and non-standard scanning methods have been evaluated and compared using the empirical model as well as a 3D-thermal finite element model. Finally, a new grid-based scan......Selective laser melting, as a rapid manufacturing technology, is uniquely poised to enforce a paradigm shift in the manufacturing industry by eliminating the gap between job- and batch-production techniques. Products from this process, however, tend to show an increased amount of defects such as...

  14. Towards a Cellular Automata Based Network Intrusion Detection System with Power Level Metric in Wireless Adhoc Networks (IDFADNWCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sree, Pokkuluri Kiran; Babu, Inampudi Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Adhoc wireless network with their changing topology and distributed nature are more prone to intruders. The efficiency of an Intrusion detection system in the case of an adhoc network is not only determined by its dynamicity in monitoring but also in its flexibility in utilizing the available power in each of its nodes. In this paper we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system, based on a power level metric for potential adhoc hosts, which is used to determine the duration for which a part...

  15. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.; D' Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

    1991-12-15

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

  16. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO6-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O6-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP

  17. Competition-based cellular peptide binding assays for 13 prevalent HLA class I alleles using fluorescein-labeled synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jan H; Mommaas, Bregje; Mutis, Tuna; Huijbers, Ivo; Vissers, Debby; Benckhuijsen, Willemien E; Schreuder, Geziena M Th; Offringa, Rienk; Goulmy, Els; Melief, Cornelis J M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Drijfhout, Jan W

    2003-02-01

    We report the development, validation, and application of competition-based peptide binding assays for 13 prevalent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles. The assays are based on peptide binding to HLA molecules on living cells carrying the particular allele. Competition for binding between the test peptide of interest and a fluorescein-labeled HLA class I binding peptide is used as read out. The use of cell membrane-bound HLA class I molecules circumvents the need for laborious biochemical purification of these molecules in soluble form. Previously, we have applied this principle for HLA-A2 and HLA-A3. We now describe the assays for HLA-A1, HLA-A11, HLA-A24, HLA-A68, HLA-B7, HLA-B8, HLA-B14, HLA-B35, HLA-B60, HLA-B61, and HLA-B62. Together with HLA-A2 and HLA-A3, these alleles cover more than 95% of the Caucasian population. Several allele-specific parameters were determined for each assay. Using these assays, we identified novel HLA class I high-affinity binding peptides from HIVpol, p53, PRAME, and minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1. Thus these convenient and accurate peptide-binding assays will be useful for the identification of putative cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes presented on a diverse array of HLA class I molecules. PMID:12559627

  18. The development and assessment of high-throughput mass spectrometry-based methods for the quantification of a nanoparticle drug delivery agent in cellular lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Joshua; Purves, Randy W; Verrall, Ronald E; Badea, Ildiko; Zhang, Haixia; Mulligan, Christopher C; Peru, Kerry M; Bailey, Jonathan; Headley, John V; El-Aneed, Anas

    2014-11-01

    The safe use of lipid-based drug delivery agents requires fast and sensitive qualitative and quantitative assessment of their cellular interactions. Many mass spectrometry (MS) based analytical platforms can achieve such task with varying capabilities. Therefore, four novel high-throughput MS-based quantitative methods were evaluated for the analysis of a small organic gene delivery agent: N,N-bis(dimethylhexadecyl)-1,3-propane-diammonium dibromide (G16-3). Analysis utilized MS instruments that detect analytes using low-resolution tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis (i.e. QTRAP or linear ion trap in this work) or high-resolution MS analysis (i.e. time of flight (ToF) or Orbitrap). Our results indicate that the validated fast chromatography (FC)-QTRAP-MS/MS, FC- LTQ-Orbitrap-MS, desorption electrospray ionization-collision-induced dissociation (CID)-MS/MS and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-ToF/ToF-MS MS methods were superior in the area of method development and sample analysis time to a previously developed liquid chromatography (LC)-CID-MS/MS. To our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the abilities of five MS-based quantitative methods that target a single pharmaceutical analyte. Our findings indicate that, in comparison to conventional LC-CID-MS/MS, the new MS-based methods resulted in a (1) substantial reduction in the analysis time, (2) reduction in the time required for method development and (3) production of either superior or comparable quantitative data. The four new high-throughput MS methods, therefore, were faster, more efficient and less expensive than a conventional LC-CID-MS/MS for the quantification of the G16-3 analyte within tissue culture. When applied to cellular lysate, no significant change in the concentration of G16-3 gemini surfactant within PAM212 cells was observed between 5 and 53 h, suggesting the absence of any metabolism/excretion from PAM212 cells. PMID:25395133

  19. Wound repair and anti-inflammatory potential of Lonicera japonica in excision wound-induced rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wei-Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae, a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is used to treat some infectious diseases and it may have uses as a healthy food and applications in cosmetics and as an ornamental groundcover. The ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica (LJEE was investigated for its healing efficiency in a rat excision wound model. Methods Excision wounds were inflicted upon three groups of eight rats each. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction in skin wound sites in rats treated with simple ointment base, 10% (w/w LJEE ointment, or the reference standard drug, 0.2% (w/w nitrofurazone ointment. The effects of LJEE on the contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine during healing were estimated. The antimicrobial activity of LJEE against microorganisms was also assessed. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of LJEE was investigated to understand the mechanism of wound healing. Results LJEE exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis. The ointment formulation prepared with 10% (w/w LJEE exhibited potent wound healing capacity as evidenced by the wound contraction in the excision wound model. The contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine also correlated with the observed healing pattern. These findings were supported by the histopathological characteristics of healed wound sections, as greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts, and angiogenesis were observed in the 10% (w/w LJEE ointment-treated group. The results also indicated that LJEE possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity, as it enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines that suppress proinflammatory cytokine production. Conclusions The results suggest that the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of LJEE act synergistically to accelerate wound repair.

  20. Cellular Genetic Algorithm Based on Chaotic Map%基于混沌映射的元胞遗传算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪岩; 李雪梅; 李学伟; 吴今培

    2015-01-01

    针对元胞遗传算法( CGA)的功能及结构特点,将元胞遗传算法与混沌算法进行有机结合,分别设计基于Cat映射、Logistic映射及Tent映射的混沌映射元胞遗传算法( CCGA),并解释三种映射的遍历性。文中利用混沌映射的遍历特点及初值敏感性优化种群的初始分布,扩大搜索范围,设计遗传算子中的局部混沌交叉操作及混沌变异扰动机制,并比较不同混沌映射算子作用下种群多样性的变化。理论分析及计算机仿真实验表明,引入三种混沌映射的元胞遗传算法在提升寻优精度,提高算法收敛速度,避免局部极值方面均取得良好的效果。%According to the function and structure characteristics of cellular genetic algorithm ( CGA) , chaos cellular genetic algorithm ( CCGA ) based on Cat map, Logistic map and Tent map are designed respectively with the organic combination of cellular genetic algorithm and chaos algorithm. Besides, the ergodicity of three chaotic mappings are explained. Taking advantage of chaotic ergodicity and sensitivity to initial condition, the initial distribution of population is optimized, the searching scope of the algorithm is enlarged, the mechanism of local chaotic crossover operator and chaotic mutation disturbance are designed, and the changes of population diversity are compared under different mapping operators. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has obtained good performance in improving optimizing accuracy, accelerating convergence and avoiding the local optimum by introducing three chaotic maps.

  1. 基于混沌映射的元胞遗传算法%Cellular Genetic Algorithm Based on Chaotic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪岩; 李雪梅; 李学伟; 吴今培

    2015-01-01

    According to the function and structure characteristics of cellular genetic algorithm ( CGA) , chaos cellular genetic algorithm ( CCGA ) based on Cat map, Logistic map and Tent map are designed respectively with the organic combination of cellular genetic algorithm and chaos algorithm. Besides, the ergodicity of three chaotic mappings are explained. Taking advantage of chaotic ergodicity and sensitivity to initial condition, the initial distribution of population is optimized, the searching scope of the algorithm is enlarged, the mechanism of local chaotic crossover operator and chaotic mutation disturbance are designed, and the changes of population diversity are compared under different mapping operators. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has obtained good performance in improving optimizing accuracy, accelerating convergence and avoiding the local optimum by introducing three chaotic maps.%针对元胞遗传算法( CGA)的功能及结构特点,将元胞遗传算法与混沌算法进行有机结合,分别设计基于Cat映射、Logistic映射及Tent映射的混沌映射元胞遗传算法( CCGA),并解释三种映射的遍历性。文中利用混沌映射的遍历特点及初值敏感性优化种群的初始分布,扩大搜索范围,设计遗传算子中的局部混沌交叉操作及混沌变异扰动机制,并比较不同混沌映射算子作用下种群多样性的变化。理论分析及计算机仿真实验表明,引入三种混沌映射的元胞遗传算法在提升寻优精度,提高算法收敛速度,避免局部极值方面均取得良好的效果。

  2. Lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles as oral drug delivery vehicles for poorly water-soluble drugs: cellular interaction and in vivo absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ni Zeng,1,3,* Xiaoling Gao,2,* Quanyin Hu,1 Qingxiang Song,2 Huimin Xia,1 Zhongyang Liu,1 Guangzhi Gu,1 Mengyin Jiang,1,4 Zhiqing Pang,1 Hongzhuan Chen,2 Jun Chen,1 Liang Fang3 1Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education and PLA, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Science, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 4School of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong People's Republic of China, *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs have attracted growing interest as novel drug-delivery systems for improving the bioavailability of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. However, their cellular interaction and in vivo behavior have not been fully developed and characterized.Methods: In this study, self-assembled LCNPs prepared from soy phosphatidylcholine and glycerol dioleate were developed as a platform for oral delivery of paclitaxel. The particle size of empty LCNPs and paclitaxel-loaded LCNPs was around 80 nm. The phase behavior of the liquid crystalline matrix was characterized using crossed polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, and showed both reversed cubic and hexagonal phase in the liquid crystalline matrix. Transmission electron microscopy and cryofield emission scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed an inner winding water channel in LCNPs and a "ball-like"/"hexagonal" morphology.Results: Cellular uptake of LCNPs in Caco-2 cells was found to be concentration-dependent and time-dependent, with involvement of both clathrin and caveolae/lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. Under confocal laser scanning microscopy, soy phosphatidylcholine was observed to segregate from the internalized LCNPs and

  3. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values. PMID:26647953

  4. Fluorescence-Based Codetection with Protein Markers Reveals Distinct Cellular Compartments for Altered MicroRNA Expression in Solid Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempere, Lorenzo F.; Preis, Meir; Yezefski, Todd;

    2010-01-01

    of altered miRNA expression in solid tumors, we developed a sensitive fluorescence-based in situ hybridization (ISH) method to visualize miRNA accumulation within individual cells in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. This ISH method was implemented to be compatible with routine......Purpose: High-throughput profiling experiments have linked altered expression of microRNAs (miRNA) to different types of cancer. Tumor tissues are a heterogeneous mixture of not only cancer cells, but also supportive and reactive tumor microenvironment elements. To clarify the clinical significance...... clinical immunohistochemical (IHC) assays to enable the detection of miRNAs and protein markers in the same tissue section for colocalization and functional studies. Experimental Design: We used this combined ISH/IHC assay to study a subset of cancer-associated miRNAs, including miRNAs frequently detected...

  5. Nano-CeO2 decorated graphene based chitosan nanocomposites as enzymatic biosensing platform: fabrication and cellular biocompatibility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sriparna; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The present study summarizes the designing of a green transducer phase based on nano-cerium oxide (CeO2) decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO) reinforced chitosan nanocomposites as an effective enzyme immobilizer and bio-sensing matrix for glucose analyte. Also, it scrutinizes the biocompatibility and cell viability of the synthesized nanohybrid with human fibroblastic macrophage cell line. CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully grown on graphene nanosheet in the presence of cationic surfactant followed by facile hydrothermal treatment. The eventual growth of synthesized CeO2 nanocrystals on the graphene layer was confirmed from X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman analysis. The biocompatibility of the synthesized nanohybrid was also evident from the MTT assay. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was employed on the green polymer nanocomposites modified FTO electrode to fabricate an enzymatic bioelectrode. The electroanalytical response of the GOx/nano-CeO2/RGO/CS/FTO bioelectrode towards electrooxidation of glucose analyte was investigated by electrochemical impedance (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) study. The resulting biosensor exhibited a good electrochemical response to glucose within the linear detection range of 0.05-6.5 mM with a low detection limit of 2 μM and a sensitivity of 7.198 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The bioelectrode also showed good shelf life (~10 weeks) and negligible interfering ability under controlled environment. The obtained results indicate that nano-CeO2/RGO nanohybrid based chitosan nanocomposites achieve a biocompatible biosensing platform for effective enzyme immobilization due to the excellent synergistic effects between the CeO2 nanoparticles and graphene sheet. PMID:25980384

  6. Modeling and cellular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing the applicability of mathematical models with carefully designed experiments is a powerful tool in the investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation on cells. The modeling and cellular studies complement each other, for modeling provides guidance for designing critical experiments which must provide definitive results, while the experiments themselves provide new input to the model. Based on previous experimental results the model for the accumulation of damage in Chlamydomonas reinhardi has been extended to include various multiple two-event combinations. Split dose survival experiments have shown that models tested to date predict most but not all the observed behavior. Stationary-phase mammalian cells, required for tests of other aspects of the model, have been shown to be at different points in the cell cycle depending on how they were forced to stop proliferating. These cultures also demonstrate different capacities for repair of sublethal radiation damage

  7. 47 CFR 22.923 - Cellular system configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular system configuration. 22.923 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.923 Cellular system configuration. Mobile stations... directly or through cellular repeaters. Auxiliary test stations may communicate with base or...

  8. 基于细胞自动机的安全图像加密算法%Secure Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊永红; 廖晓峰; 周庆

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problems that the cipher image encrypted by encryption algorithm based on the merit of the state attractors of Elementary Cellular Automata(ECA) can still discern part outline of the original image, and the plaintext sensitivity is poor, this paper proposes a secure image encryption algorithm. It employs the method which encrypts every bit plane with period two 2D Cellular Automata(CA), and then uses state attractors to encrypt the image, to achieve the effect that I bit change in the plaintext can be spreaded to the whole cipher image. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm is more sensitive, has larger key space, and easy to implement.%利用初等细胞自动机状态环性质进行加密后的密文图像仍可看出原图像的部分轮廓,且明文敏感性差.由此提出一种安全的图像加密算法,采用周期为2的二维细胞自动机对图像进行位平面加密,再通过状态环加密的方法使明文改变1 bit即可影响整个密文图像.仿真结果表明,改进算法敏感性更高,密钥空间更大,且加密速度较快.

  9. Quantitative prediction of cellular metabolism with constraint-based models: the COBRA Toolbox v2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Jan; Que, Richard; Fleming, Ronan M T; Thiele, Ines; Orth, Jeffrey D; Feist, Adam M; Zielinski, Daniel C; Bordbar, Aarash; Lewis, Nathan E; Rahmanian, Sorena; Kang, Joseph; Hyduke, Daniel R; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2011-09-01

    Over the past decade, a growing community of researchers has emerged around the use of constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) methods to simulate, analyze and predict a variety of metabolic phenotypes using genome-scale models. The COBRA Toolbox, a MATLAB package for implementing COBRA methods, was presented earlier. Here we present a substantial update of this in silico toolbox. Version 2.0 of the COBRA Toolbox expands the scope of computations by including in silico analysis methods developed since its original release. New functions include (i) network gap filling, (ii) (13)C analysis, (iii) metabolic engineering, (iv) omics-guided analysis and (v) visualization. As with the first version, the COBRA Toolbox reads and writes systems biology markup language-formatted models. In version 2.0, we improved performance, usability and the level of documentation. A suite of test scripts can now be used to learn the core functionality of the toolbox and validate results. This toolbox lowers the barrier of entry to use powerful COBRA methods. PMID:21886097

  10. effect of electromagnetic fields from cellular phone base stations on some physiological and biophysical properties of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the hazards of exposure to EMFs are observed on different tissues, the mechanistic by which EMFs can produce such effect still need to be delineated. the present study aims to monitor the possibility of modulation in the different physiological and biophysical properties of the organs after exposure to microwave produced from mobile phone base station at frequency of 900 MHz. one hundred and ten pregnant rats were exposed for periods of 5 and 12 week's at distances of 8,15 and 25 meter from the station antenna (0.01,0.05 and 0.036 MW/cm2) the groups exposed for 5 weeks classified into two halves, one half was used for direct effect studies and the other was used for delayed effects studies (45 days post irradiation). haematological investigations demonstrated non significant changes in (RBC's), (Hb),(PCV) and (MCV)of exposed and delayed rats for 5,12 weeks. the young's of exposed rats show non considerable increase in RBC's, Hb and PCV. significant increases were observed in serum total protein , albumin and globulin levels in 5 and 12 weeks exposed rats and more significant increase in delayed rats

  11. GPU-based rapid reconstruction of cellular 3D refractive index maps from tomographic phase microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardikman, Gili; Shaked, Natan T.

    2016-03-01

    We present highly parallel and efficient algorithms for real-time reconstruction of the quantitative three-dimensional (3-D) refractive-index maps of biological cells without labeling, as obtained from the interferometric projections acquired by tomographic phase microscopy (TPM). The new algorithms are implemented on the graphic processing unit (GPU) of the computer using CUDA programming environment. The reconstruction process includes two main parts. First, we used parallel complex wave-front reconstruction of the TPM-based interferometric projections acquired at various angles. The complex wave front reconstructions are done on the GPU in parallel, while minimizing the calculation time of the Fourier transforms and phase unwrapping needed. Next, we implemented on the GPU in parallel the 3-D refractive index map retrieval using the TPM filtered-back projection algorithm. The incorporation of algorithms that are inherently parallel with a programming environment such as Nvidia's CUDA makes it possible to obtain real-time processing rate, and enables high-throughput platform for label-free, 3-D cell visualization and diagnosis.

  12. Sleeping Beauty transposon-based system for cellular reprogramming and targeted gene insertion in induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabundzija, Ivana; Wang, Jichang; Sebe, Attila; Erdei, Zsuzsanna; Kajdi, Robert; Devaraj, Anantharam; Steinemann, Doris; Szuhai, Károly; Stein, Ulrike; Cantz, Tobias; Schambach, Axel; Baum, Christopher; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Sarkadi, Balázs; Ivics, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of direct cell reprogramming and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology opened up new avenues for the application of non-viral, transposon-based gene delivery systems. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is highly advanced for versatile genetic manipulations in mammalian cells. We established iPS cell reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human foreskin fibroblasts by transposition of OSKM (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) and OSKML (OSKM + Lin28) expression cassettes mobilized by the SB100X hyperactive transposase. The efficiency of iPS cell derivation with SB transposon system was in the range of that obtained with retroviral vectors. Co-expression of the miRNA302/367 cluster together with OSKM significantly improved reprogramming efficiency and accelerated the temporal kinetics of reprogramming. The iPS cells displayed a stable karyotype, and hallmarks of pluripotency including expression of stem cell markers and the ability to differentiate into embryoid bodies in vitro. We demonstrate Cre recombinase-mediated exchange allowing simultaneous removal of the reprogramming cassette and targeted knock-in of an expression cassette of interest into the transposon-tagged locus in mouse iPS cells. This strategy would allow correction of a genetic defect by site-specific insertion of a therapeutic gene construct into ‘safe harbor’ sites in the genomes of autologous, patient-derived iPS cells. PMID:23275558

  13. Enhanced cellular activities of polycaprolactone/alginate-based cell-laden hierarchical scaffolds for hard tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyeongJin; Kim, GeunHyung

    2014-09-15

    Biomedical scaffolds have been widely investigated because they are essential for support and promotion of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation in three-dimensional (3D) structures. An ideal scaffold should be highly porous to enable efficient nutrient and oxygen transfer and have a 3D structure that provides optimal micro-environmental conditions for the seeded cells to obtain homogeneous growth after a long culture period. In this study, new hierarchical osteoblast-like cell (MG-63)-laden scaffolds consisting of micro-sized struts/inter-layered micro-nanofibres and cell-laden hydrogel struts with mechanically stable and biologically superior properties were introduced. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was used as a sacrificial component to generate pores within the cell-laden hydrogel struts to attain a homogeneous cell distribution and rapid cell growth in the scaffold interior. The alginate-based cell-laden struts with PEO induced fast/homogeneous cell release, in contrast to nonporous cell-laden struts. Various weight fractions (0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 3.5 wt%) of PEO were used, of which 2 wt% PEO in the cell-laden strut resulted in the most appropriate cell release and enhanced biological activities (cell proliferation and calcium deposition), compared to nonporous cell-laden struts. PMID:24974244

  14. Female urogenital dysfunction following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ashraf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of Total Mesorectal Excision (TME on sexual function in the male is well documented. However, there is little literature in female patients. The aim of this study was to review the pelvic autonomic nervous anatomy in the female and to perform a retrospective audit of urinary and sexual function in women following surgery for rectal cancer where TME had been performed. Urogenital dysfunction was assessed through interview and questionnaire. Method Twenty-three questionnaires, eighteen returned, were sent to women with a mean age 65.5 yrs (range 34–86. All had undergone total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer between 1998–2001. Mean follow-up was 18.8 months (range 3–35. Results Preoperatively 5/18 (28% were sexually active, 3/18 (17% of patients described urinary frequency and nocturia and 7/18 (39% described symptoms of stress incontinence prior to surgery. Postoperatively all sexually active patients remained active although all described some discomfort with penetration. Two of the patients sexually active described reduced libido secondary to the stoma. Postoperative urinary symptoms developed with 59% reporting the development of nocturia, 18% developed stress incontinence and one patient required a permanent catheter. Of those with symptoms, 80% persisted longer than three months from surgery. Symptoms were predominant in those patients with low rectal cancers, particularly those undergoing abdomino-perineal excision and in those who had previously undergone abdominal hysterectomy. Conclusion The treatment of rectal cancer involves surgery to the pelvic floor. Despite nerve preservation this is associated with the development of worsening nocturia and stress incontinence. This is most marked in those patients who had previously undergone a hysterectomy. Further studies are warranted to assess the interaction with previous gynaecological surgery.

  15. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the system spontaneously splitting into stable domains separated by static boundaries, some synchronously oscillating and the others incoherent. When the coupling range is local, nontrivial coherent structures with different periodicities are formed.

  16. Successful excision of a massive bleeding schwannoma by thoracoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hironori; Takasaki, Chihiro; Okubo, Kenichi

    2016-06-01

    Massive intrathoracic bleeding caused by rupture of a benign schwannoma is extremely rare. A 73-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department because of chest pain and dyspnea. Computed tomography revealed massive pleural effusion and a posterior mediastinal tumor. Chest tube thoracostomy was performed, and the initial blood drainage was 1700 mL. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor at the 8th costal level measured 46 × 60 mm. The tumor, located beside the 8th vertebra, had ruptured and caused the bleeding. It was successfully excised by thoracoscopic surgery and diagnosed as a benign schwannoma. PMID:27095705

  17. Use of Preputial Skin as Cutaneous Graft after Nevus Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D'Alessio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a four-year-old boy with a nevus covering all the plantar side of his second finger on the left foot. He was also affected by congenital phimosis. Surgical excision of the nevus was indicated, but the skin defect would have been too large to be directly closed. The foreskin was taken as a full-thickness skin graft to cover the cutaneous defect of the finger. The graft intake was favourable and provided a functional repair with good aesthetic characteristic.

  18. Use of Preputial Skin as Cutaneous Graft after Nevus Excision

    OpenAIRE

    A. D'Alessio; Piro, E; Brugnoni, M.; L. Abati

    2010-01-01

    We report a four-year-old boy with a nevus covering all the plantar side of his second finger on the left foot. He was also affected by congenital phimosis. Surgical excision of the nevus was indicated, but the skin defect would have been too large to be directly closed. The foreskin was taken as a full-thickness skin graft to cover the cutaneous defect of the finger. The graft intake was favourable and provided a functional repair with good aesthetic characteristic.

  19. Evidence implying DNA polymerase beta function in excision repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Siedlecki, J A; Szyszko, J.; Pietrzykowska, I; Zmudzka, B

    1980-01-01

    Comparison was made of the ability of calf thymus DNA polymerases alpha and beta to replicate the following templates: native E. coli CR-34 DNA (T-DNA), calf thymus DNA activated by DNase I (act.DNA), BU-DNA (from E. coli CR-34 cells cultured on BUdR-containing medium) with damages resulting from incomplete excision repair, as well as thermally denatured act.DNA and BU-DNA (s.s.act.DNA and s.s.BU-DNA). 3H-TTP incorporation during extensive replication of act.DNA was similar for both enzymes, ...

  20. Microsurgical excision of hematoma of the lumbar ligamentum flavum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Yayama, Takafumi; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2010-07-01

    Hematoma of the lumbar ligamentum flavum is a very rare cause of sciatica. A 72-year-old man presented with left-sided sciatica and paresthesia of the lateral aspect of his left foot. From CT and MRI findings, he was diagnosed as having a hematoma embedded in the ligamentum flavum, which compressed the dura mater at the L5/S1 disc level. After an adequate surgical field was obtained with a microscope and a Casper retractor, the hematoma of the ligamentum flavum could be excised via a unilateral approach and satisfactory decompression of the cauda equina and nerve roots were obtained. PMID:20537575

  1. Successful surgical excision of primary right atrial angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Horst Iwan CC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor with a high incidence of metastatic spread (up to 89% at the time of diagnosis, which restricts the indication for surgical resection to a small number of patients. We report the case of a 50-year old Caucasian woman with non-metastatic primary right atrial angiosarcoma, who underwent successful surgical excision of the tumor (with curative intent and reconstruction of the right atrium with a porcine pericardial patch. However, after a symptom-free survival of five months the patient presented with bone and liver metastases without evidence of local tumor recurrence.

  2. Lobar pressure-volume characteristics of excised human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Berend, N; Skoog, C; Thurlbeck, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    The pressure-volume (P-V) characteristics were investigated in 14 excised left human lungs and their individual lobes. Comparison of the upper and lower lobar P-V curves of the emphysema-free and emphysematous lungs showed no significant difference when plotted as per cent lobar volume at a transpulmonary pressure (PL) of 30 cm H2O (V30). However, when in the emphysematous lungs the more severely involved lobes were compared with the less severely involved lobes, significant differences in th...

  3. Effect of the uvrD mutation on excision repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuemmerle, N B; Masker, W E

    1980-01-01

    A pair of related Escherichia coli K-12 strains, one of which contains the uvrD101 mutation, were constructed and compared for ability to perform various steps in the excision repair of deoxyribonucleic acid damage inflicted by ultraviolet radiation. The results of this study indicated: (i) ultraviolet sensitivity in the uvrD101 mutant was greater than that of wild type but less than that measured in an incision-deficient uvrA mutant; (ii) host cell reactivation paralleled the survival data; ...

  4. Chloroethyinitrosourea-derived ethano cytosine and adenine adducts are substrates for escherichia coli glycosylases excising analogous etheno adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliaev, Anton B.; Singer, B.; Hang, Bo

    2004-05-05

    Exocyclic ethano DNA adducts are saturated etheno ring derivatives formed mainly by therapeutic chloroethylnitrosoureas (CNUs), which are also mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this work, we report that two of the ethano adducts, 3,N{sup 4}-ethanocytosine (EC) and 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine (EA), are novel substrates for the Escherichia coli mismatch-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase (Mug) and 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA), respectively. It has been shown previously that Mug excises 3,N{sup 4}-ethenocytosine ({var_epsilon}C) and AlkA releases 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using synthetic oligonucleotides containing a single ethano or etheno adduct, we found that both glycosylases had a {approx}20-fold lower excision activity toward EC or EA than that toward their structurally analogous {var_epsilon}C or {var_epsilon}A adduct. Both enzymes were capable of excising the ethano base paired with any of the four natural bases, but with varying efficiencies. The Mug activity toward EC could be stimulated by E. coli endonuclease IV and, more efficiently, by exonuclease III. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed similar structural features of the etheno and ethano derivatives when present in DNA duplexes. However, also as shown by MD, the stacking interaction between the EC base and Phe 30 in the Mug active site is reduced as compared to the {var_epsilon}C base, which could account for the lower EC activity observed in this study.

  5. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  6. Photoreversal-dependent release of thymidine and thymidine monophosphate from pyrimidine dimer-containing DNA excision fragments isolated from ultraviolet-damaged human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the enzymatic excision-repair process operative on cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimers in human dermal fibroblasts, we have examined excised dimer-containing material recovered in the trichloroacetic acid soluble fraction from far-ultraviolet-irradiated (254 nm, 40 J m-2) and incubated (24 h) cell cultures. The excised DNA photoproducts were found in oligonucleotide fragments with an estimated mean chain length of approximately 3.7 bases. Exposure of these isolated excision fragments, labeled with [3H]thymidine (dT), to a secondary, dimer-photoreversing fluence of far-UV (5.5 kJ m-2) resulted in the release of free dT and thymidine monophosphate (TMP). Photorelease of these two radioactive species was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, with TMP being detected as the increase in dT following bacterial alkaline phosphatase treatment. These data imply that the photoliberated dT and TMP moieties were attached to the excision fragments solely by the cyclobutane ring of the dimer. No evidence was obtained for the photoliberation of free thymine, thus corroborating a conclusion reached by others that the excision of dimers in human cells is not initiated by scission of an intradimer N-glycosyl bond. The sum of the tritium label recovered in dT plus TMP corresponded to approximately 40% of that disappearing from thymine-containing dimers on photoreversal, suggesting that in about 80% of the isolated excision fragments the dimer is located at one end of the oligonucleotide and contains a break in its internal phosphodiester bond

  7. A new adenovirus based vaccine vector expressing an Eimeria tenella derived TLR agonist improves cellular immune responses to an antigenic target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Appledorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenoviral based vectors remain promising vaccine platforms for use against numerous pathogens, including HIV. Recent vaccine trials utilizing Adenovirus based vaccines expressing HIV antigens confirmed induction of cellular immune responses, but these responses failed to prevent HIV infections in vaccinees. This illustrates the need to develop vaccine formulations capable of generating more potent T-cell responses to HIV antigens, such as HIV-Gag, since robust immune responses to this antigen correlate with improved outcomes in long-term non-progressor HIV infected individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we designed a novel vaccine strategy utilizing an Ad-based vector expressing a potent TLR agonist derived from Eimeria tenella as an adjuvant to improve immune responses from a [E1-]Ad-based HIV-Gag vaccine. Our results confirm that expression of rEA elicits significantly increased TLR mediated innate immune responses as measured by the influx of plasma cytokines and chemokines, and activation of innate immune responding cells. Furthermore, our data show that the quantity and quality of HIV-Gag specific CD8(+ and CD8(- T-cell responses were significantly improved when coupled with rEA expression. These responses also correlated with a significantly increased number of HIV-Gag derived epitopes being recognized by host T cells. Finally, functional assays confirmed that rEA expression significantly improved antigen specific CTL responses, in vivo. Moreover, we show that these improved responses were dependent upon improved TLR pathway interactions. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented in this study illustrate the potential utility of Ad-based vectors expressing TLR agonists to improve clinical outcomes dependent upon induction of robust, antigen specific immune responses.

  8. The involvement of XPC protein in the cisplatin DNA damaging treatment-mediated cellular response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan WANG; Alan DOMBKOWSKI; Lynn CHUANG; Xiao Xin S XU

    2004-01-01

    Recognition of DNA damage is a critical step for DNA damage-mediated cellular response. XPC is an important DNA damage recognition protein involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). We have studied the XPC protein in cisplatin DNA damaging treatment-mediated cellular response. Comparison of the microarray data from both normal and XPCdefective human fibroblasts identified 861 XPC-responsive genes in the cisplatin treatment (with minimum fold change≥1.5).The cell cycle and cell proliferation-related genes are the most affected genes by the XPC defect in the treatment. Many other cellular function genes, especially the DNA repair and signal transduction-related genes, were also affected by the XPC defect in the treatment. To validate the microarray data, the transcription levels of some microarray-identified genes were also determined by an RT-PCR based real time PCR assay. The real time PCR results are consistent with the microarray data for most of the tested genes, indicating the reliability of the microarray data. To further validate the microarray data, the cisplatin treatment-mediated caspase-3 activation was also determined. The Western blot hybridization results indicate that the XPC defect greatly attenuates the cisplatin treatment-mediated Caspase-3 activation. We elucidated the role of p53 protein in the XPC protein DNA damage recognition-mediated signaling process. The XPC defect reduces the cisplatin treatment-mediated p53 response. These results suggest that the XPC protein plays an important role in the cisplatin treatment-mediated cellular response. It may also suggest a possible mechanism of cancer cell drug resistance.

  9. Performance of high-temperature superconducting band-pass filters with high selectivity for base transceiver applications of digital cellular communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly selective high-temperature superconducting band-pass filters based on spiral meander line structures have been developed for base transceiver station applications of digital cellular communication systems. The filter comprised 12-pole microstrip line resonators with a circuit size of 0.5x17x41 mm3. The filter was designed to have a bandwidth of 25 MHz at a centre frequency of 834 MHz. Particularly, the physical size of each resonator was chosen not only to reduce far-field radiation, but also to have reasonable tunability in the filter. Device characteristics exhibited a low insertion loss of 0.4 dB with a 0.2 dB ripple and a return loss better than 10 dB in the pass-band at 65 K. The out-of-band signals were attenuated better than 60 dB at about 3.5 MHz from the lower band edge, and 3.8 MHz from the higher band edge. (author)

  10. 26 CFR 55.4981-2 - Imposition of excise tax with respect to certain undistributed income of real estate investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certain undistributed income of real estate investment trusts; calendar years beginning after December 31... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Real Estate Investment Trusts § 55.4981-2 Imposition of excise tax...

  11. Endoscopic Excision of Non-embolized Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma: Our Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Trichy Narayanan; Sharma, Shilpee Bhatia; Panicker, Vidya Bhargavan

    2016-09-01

    To approach Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma extending to the sphenoid sinus, pterygoid wedge and minimal involvement of the pterygopalatine fossa (Radkowski Stage 2 A) with an endoscopic technique without embolization with no recurrence and minimal morbidity and mortality. This is a retrospective, descriptive study based on the medical records of 15 patients with histologically confirmed JNA who underwent endoscopic binostril four handed endoscopic excision in our centre without embolisation between 2010 and 2015. All 15 patients were young males with a mean age of 14.13 years who underwent endoscopic excision of JNA without embolisation. Nasal obstruction (100 %) and epistaxis (100 %) were the most common symptoms. Average surgery length was 1 h 41 min. Mean blood loss was 67.2 ml and none of patients required blood transfusion. All patients had crusting and septal defect postoperatively, only 3 (20 %) had synechiae. Mean hospitalization time was 3.66 days. 2 (13.33 %) of our patients had a residual tumor and one (6.66 %) had a relapse in pterygoid wedge. There were no cases of death or significant morbidity. The follow up period was 1 year. Endoscopic endo nasal bi nostril four handed technique can achieve complete resection without embolization in case of small to medium sized JNA s in the hands of an experienced surgeon with minimal blood loss, low rates of recurrence and morbidity. PMID:27508124

  12. Nucleotide-excision repair of DNA in cell-free extracts of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide spectrum of DNA lesions are repaired by the nucleotide-excision repair (NER) pathway in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. We have developed a cell-free system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that supports NER. NER was monitored by measuring repair synthesis in DNA treated with cisplatin or with UV radiation. Repair synthesis in vitro was defective in extracts of rad1, rad2, and rad10 mutant cells, all of which have mutations in genes whose products are known to be required for NER in vivo. Additionally, repair synthesis was complemented by mixing different mutant extracts, or by adding purified Rad1 or Rad10 protein to rad1 or rad10 mutant extracts, respectively. The latter observation demonstrates that the Rad1 and Rad10 proteins directly participate in the biochemical pathway of NER. NER supported by nuclear extracts requires ATP and Mg2+ and is stimulated by polyethylene glycol and by small amounts of whole cell extract containing overexpressed Rad2 protein. The nuclear extracts also contain base-excision repair activity that is present at wild-type levels in rad mutant extracts. This cell-free system is expected to facilitate studies on the biochemical pathway of NER in S. cerevisiae

  13. Enzymic excision of ultraviolet-induced cytosine hydrates from left-handed DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet irradiation of DNA produces a variety of pyrimidine modifications. These include cytosine hydrate (5,6-dihydro-6-hydroxycytosine), released as a free base by E. coli endonuclease III. The enzymic excision of cytosine hydrate by this purified enzyme was investigated by assaying release of labeled photoproduct from DNA into the ethanol-soluble fraction. Ultraviolet-irradiated poly(dG-dC):poly(dG-dC), radio-labeled in cytosines, was used as substrate. Shifts between the right-handed B-conformation and the left-handed Z-conformation were effected by heating the polymer in the presence of either Ni[II] or Co[II]. Conformational states were determined by ultraviolet circular dichroism. Rates of enzymic cytosine hydrate release did not differ between the different substrate conformations, B-DNA and Z-DNA. Irradiation of left-handed poly(dG-dC):poly(dG-dC) resulted in cytosine hydrate formation. Therefore, neither formation nor enzymic excision of ultraviolet-induced cytosine hydrates are substantially affected by the DNA conformational state. Cytosine hydrates are most likely to occur in alternating purine:pyrimidine sequences. Such segments can adopt the Z-conformation as a result of reactions with chemical carcinogens, the presence of metal ions, or negative superhelicity. These results indicate repair of cytosine hydrates to be likely, regardless of the DNA conformational state

  14. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadotte, Alexandra; Mikhelson, Victor M; Spivak, Irina M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data. PMID:26805432

  15. Excising terrestrial radio interference in low frequency radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interference from terrestrial transmitters is a major problem in low-frequency radio astronomy. Experimental work is described in which a 22.25-MHz interferometer provided baseband signals from which 128-channel spectra were calculated in hardware by FFT and processed by a microcomputer. Narrow-band interference was identified and excised from the in-phase and quadrature cross-spectra and the auto-spectra in a 52-kHz band in real time. The observations were performed during winter near sun-spot maximum with the on-line microcomputer performing +- 4 σ iterative deletion of interference. Off-line, an algorithm was developed in which robust estimation was used to give protection from statistical outliers. The results showed consistently that 2 to 3 hr extra observing time were made possible per night. Low-level interference, which would not have been noticeable in records taken with a conventional receiving system, was detected and excised on most nights. (author)

  16. Effect of the uvrD mutation on excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pair of related Escherichia coli K-12 strains, one of which contains the uvrD101 mutation, were constructed and compared for ability to perform various steps in the excision repair of deoxyribonucleic acid damage inflicted by ultraviolet radiation. The results of this study indicated: (i) ultraviolet sensitivity in the uvrD101 mutant was greater than that of wild type but less than that measured in an incision-deficient uvrA mutant; (ii) host cell reactivation paralleled the survival data; (iii) postirradiation deoxyribonucleic acid degradation was virtually identical in the two strains; (iv) incision, presumably at the sites of pyrimidine dimers, proceeded normally in the uvrD101 strain; (v) excision of pyrimidine dimers was markedly reduced in both rate and extent in the uvrD101 mutant; (vi) the amount of repair resynthesis was the same in both strains, and there was no evidence of abnormally long repair patches in the uvrD mutant; and (vii) rejoining of incision breaks was slow and incomplete in the uvrD strain. These data suggest that the ultraviolet sensitivity conferred by the uvrD mutation arises from inefficient removal of pyrimidine dimers or from failure to close incision breaks. The data are compatible with the notion that the uvrD+ gene product affects the conformation of incised deoxyribonucleic acid molecules

  17. Effect of the uvrD mutation on excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmerle, N.B.; Masker, W.E.

    1980-05-01

    A pair of related Escherichia coli K-12 strains, one of which contains the uvrD101 mutation, were constructed and compared for ability to perform various steps in the excision repair of deoxyribonucleic acid damage inflicted by ultraviolet radiation. The results of this study indicated: (i) ultraviolet sensitivity in the uvrD101 mutant was greater than that of wild type but less than that measured in an incision-deficient uvrA mutant; (ii) host cell reactivation paralleled the survival data; (iii) postirradiation deoxyribonucleic acid degradation was virtually identical in the two strains; (iv) incision, presumably at the sites of pyrimidine dimers, proceeded normally in the uvrD101 strain; (v) excision of pyrimidine dimers was markedly reduced in both rate and extent in the uvrD101 mutant; (vi) the amount of repair resynthesis was the same in both strains, and there was no evidence of abnormally long repair patches in the uvrD mutant; and (vii) rejoining of incision breaks was slow and incomplete in the uvrD strain. These data suggest that the ultraviolet sensitivity conferred by the uvrD mutation arises from inefficient removal of pyrimidine dimers or from failure to close incision breaks. The data are compatible with the notion that the uvrD+ gene product affects the conformation of incised deoxyribonucleic acid molecules.

  18. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  19. A germline polymorphism of DNA polymerase beta induces genomic instability and cellular transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yamtich

    Full Text Available Several germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified in the POLB gene, but little is known about their cellular and biochemical impact. DNA Polymerase β (Pol β, encoded by the POLB gene, is the main gap-filling polymerase involved in base excision repair (BER, a pathway that protects the genome from the consequences of oxidative DNA damage. In this study we tested the hypothesis that expression of the POLB germline coding SNP (rs3136797 in mammalian cells could induce a cancerous phenotype. Expression of this SNP in both human and mouse cells induced double-strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and cellular transformation. Following treatment with an alkylating agent, cells expressing this coding SNP accumulated BER intermediate substrates, including single-strand and double-strand breaks. The rs3136797 SNP encodes the P242R variant Pol β protein and biochemical analysis showed that P242R protein had a slower catalytic rate than WT, although P242R binds DNA similarly to WT. Our results suggest that people who carry the rs3136797 germline SNP may be at an increased risk for cancer susceptibility.

  20. Oxidative damage to RPA limits the nucleotide excision repair capacity of human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Melisa; Brem, Reto; Macpherson, Peter; Peacock, Matthew; Karran, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) protects against sunlight-induced skin cancer. Defective NER is associated with photosensitivity and a high skin cancer incidence. Some clinical treatments that cause photosensitivity can also increase skin cancer risk. Among these, the immunosuppressant azathioprine and the fluoroquinolone antibiotics ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, interact with UVA radiation to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that diminish NER capacity by causing protein damage. The RPA DNA binding protein plays a pivotal role in DNA metabolism and is an essential component of NER. The relationship between protein oxidation and NER inhibition was investigated in cultured human cells expressing different levels of RPA. We show here that RPA is limiting for NER and that oxidative damage to RPA compromises NER capability. Our findings reveal that cellular RPA is surprisingly vulnerable to oxidation and we identify oxidized forms of RPA that are associated with impaired NER. The vulnerability of NER to inhibition by oxidation provides a connection between cutaneous photosensitivity, protein damage and increased skin cancer risk. Our findings emphasize that damage to DNA repair proteins, as well as to DNA itself is likely to be an important contributor to skin cancer risk. PMID:26134950