Overview of cellular automaton models for corrosion
Perez-Brokate, Cristian Felipe; De Lamare, Jacques; Dung di Caprio; Feron, Damien; Chausse, Annie
2014-01-01
A review of corrosion process modeling using cellular automata methods is presented. This relatively new and growing approach takes into account the stochastic nature of the phenomena and uses physico-chemical rules to make predictions at a mesoscopic scale. Milestone models are analyzed and perspectives are established. (authors)
An improved cellular automaton method to model multispecies biofilms.
Tang, Youneng; Valocchi, Albert J
2013-10-01
Biomass-spreading rules used in previous cellular automaton methods to simulate multispecies biofilm introduced extensive mixing between different biomass species or resulted in spatially discontinuous biomass concentration and distribution; this caused results based on the cellular automaton methods to deviate from experimental results and those from the more computationally intensive continuous method. To overcome the problems, we propose new biomass-spreading rules in this work: Excess biomass spreads by pushing a line of grid cells that are on the shortest path from the source grid cell to the destination grid cell, and the fractions of different biomass species in the grid cells on the path change due to the spreading. To evaluate the new rules, three two-dimensional simulation examples are used to compare the biomass distribution computed using the continuous method and three cellular automaton methods, one based on the new rules and the other two based on rules presented in two previous studies. The relationship between the biomass species is syntrophic in one example and competitive in the other two examples. Simulation results generated using the cellular automaton method based on the new rules agree much better with the continuous method than do results using the other two cellular automaton methods. The new biomass-spreading rules are no more complex to implement than the existing rules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cellular automaton model of coupled mass transport and chemical reactions
Karapiperis, T.
1994-01-01
Mass transport, coupled with chemical reactions, is modelled as a cellular automaton in which solute molecules perform a random walk on a lattice and react according to a local probabilistic rule. Assuming molecular chaos and a smooth density function, we obtain the standard reaction-transport equations in the continuum limit. The model is applied to the reactions a + b ↔c and a + b →c, where we observe interesting macroscopic effects resulting from microscopic fluctuations and spatial correlations between molecules. We also simulate autocatalytic reaction schemes displaying spontaneous formation of spatial concentration patterns. Finally, we propose and discuss the limitations of a simple model for mineral-solute interaction. (author) 5 figs., 20 refs
Cellular automaton model of mass transport with chemical reactions
Karapiperis, T.; Blankleider, B.
1993-10-01
The transport and chemical reactions of solutes are modelled as a cellular automaton in which molecules of different species perform a random walk on a regular lattice and react according to a local probabilistic rule. The model describes advection and diffusion in a simple way, and as no restriction is placed on the number of particles at a lattice site, it is also able to describe a wide variety of chemical reactions. Assuming molecular chaos and a smooth density function, we obtain the standard reaction-transport equations in the continuum limit. Simulations on one-and two-dimensional lattices show that the discrete model can be used to approximate the solutions of the continuum equations. We discuss discrepancies which arise from correlations between molecules and how these discrepancies disappear as the continuum limit is approached. Of particular interest are simulations displaying long-time behaviour which depends on long-wavelength statistical fluctuations not accounted for by the standard equations. The model is applied to the reactions a + b ↔ c and a + b → c with homogeneous and inhomogeneous initial conditions as well as to systems subject to autocatalytic reactions and displaying spontaneous formation of spatial concentration patterns. (author) 9 figs., 34 refs
Multiscale modeling of porous ceramics using movable cellular automaton method
Smolin, Alexey Yu.; Smolin, Igor Yu.; Smolina, Irina Yu.
2017-10-01
The paper presents a multiscale model for porous ceramics based on movable cellular automaton method, which is a particle method in novel computational mechanics of solid. The initial scale of the proposed approach corresponds to the characteristic size of the smallest pores in the ceramics. At this scale, we model uniaxial compression of several representative samples with an explicit account of pores of the same size but with the unique position in space. As a result, we get the average values of Young's modulus and strength, as well as the parameters of the Weibull distribution of these properties at the current scale level. These data allow us to describe the material behavior at the next scale level were only the larger pores are considered explicitly, while the influence of small pores is included via effective properties determined earliar. If the pore size distribution function of the material has N maxima we need to perform computations for N-1 levels in order to get the properties step by step from the lowest scale up to the macroscale. The proposed approach was applied to modeling zirconia ceramics with bimodal pore size distribution. The obtained results show correct behavior of the model sample at the macroscale.
Modeling and Experimental Study of Soft Error Propagation Based on Cellular Automaton
He, Wei; Wang, Yueke; Xing, Kefei; Yang, Jianwei
2016-01-01
Aiming to estimate SEE soft error performance of complex electronic systems, a soft error propagation model based on cellular automaton is proposed and an estimation methodology based on circuit partitioning and error propagation is presented. Simulations indicate that different fault grade jamming and different coupling factors between cells are the main parameters influencing the vulnerability of the system. Accelerated radiation experiments have been developed to determine the main paramet...
Calibrating cellular automaton models for pedestrians walking through corners
Dias, Charitha; Lovreglio, Ruggiero
2018-05-01
Cellular Automata (CA) based pedestrian simulation models have gained remarkable popularity as they are simpler and easier to implement compared to other microscopic modeling approaches. However, incorporating traditional floor field representations in CA models to simulate pedestrian corner navigation behavior could result in unrealistic behaviors. Even though several previous studies have attempted to enhance CA models to realistically simulate pedestrian maneuvers around bends, such modifications have not been calibrated or validated against empirical data. In this study, two static floor field (SFF) representations, namely 'discrete representation' and 'continuous representation', are calibrated for CA-models to represent pedestrians' walking behavior around 90° bends. Trajectory data collected through a controlled experiment are used to calibrate these model representations. Calibration results indicate that although both floor field representations can represent pedestrians' corner navigation behavior, the 'continuous' representation fits the data better. Output of this study could be beneficial for enhancing the reliability of existing CA-based models by representing pedestrians' corner navigation behaviors more realistically.
Cellular automaton model for hydrogen transport dynamics through metallic surface
Shimura, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Terai, T.; Yamawaki, M.
2002-01-01
Hydrogen re-emission and re-combination at the surface of first wall materials are a crucial issue for the understanding of the fuel recycling and for the tritium inventory in plasma facing materials. It is know to be difficult to model the transient behaviour of those processes due to their complex time-transient nature. However, cellular automata (CA) are powerful tools to model such complex systems because of their nature of discreteness in both dependent and independent variables. Then the system can be represented by the fully local interactions between cells. For that reason, complex physical and chemical systems can be described by fairly simple manner. In this study, the kinetics of desorption of adsorbed hydrogen from an ideal metallic surface is modelled in CA. Thermal desorption is simulated with this model and the comparison with the theory of rate processes is performed to identify the validity of this model. The overall results show that this model is reasonable to express the desorption kinetics
Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould
Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.
2015-04-01
In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned
A new stochastic cellular automaton model on traffic flow and its jamming phase transition
Sakai, Satoshi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Iida, Shinji
2006-01-01
A general stochastic traffic cellular automaton (CA) model, which includes the slow-to-start effect and driver's perspective, is proposed in this paper. It is shown that this model includes well-known traffic CA models such as the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, the quick-start model and the slow-to-start model as specific cases. Fundamental diagrams of this new model clearly show metastable states around the critical density even when the stochastic effect is present. We also obtain analytic expressions of the phase transition curve in phase diagrams by using approximate flow-density relations at boundaries. These phase transition curves are in excellent agreement with numerical results
Cellular automaton modeling of biological pattern formation characterization, examples, and analysis
Deutsch, Andreas
2017-01-01
This text explores the use of cellular automata in modeling pattern formation in biological systems. It describes several mathematical modeling approaches utilizing cellular automata that can be used to study the dynamics of interacting cell systems both in simulation and in practice. New in this edition are chapters covering cell migration, tissue development, and cancer dynamics, as well as updated references and new research topic suggestions that reflect the rapid development of the field. The book begins with an introduction to pattern-forming principles in biology and the various mathematical modeling techniques that can be used to analyze them. Cellular automaton models are then discussed in detail for different types of cellular processes and interactions, including random movement, cell migration, adhesive cell interaction, alignment and cellular swarming, growth processes, pigment cell pattern formation, tissue development, tumor growth and invasion, and Turing-type patterns and excitable media. In ...
Application of a novel cellular automaton porosity prediction model to aluminium castings
Atwood, R.C.; Chirazi, A.; Lee, P.D.
2002-01-01
A multiscale model was developed to predict the formation of porosity within a solidifying aluminium-silicon alloy. The diffusion of silicon and dissolved gas was simulated on a microscopic scale combined with cellular automaton models of gas porosity formation within the growing three-dimensional solidification microstructure. However, due to high computational cost, the modelled volume is limited to the millimetre range. This renders the application of direct modelling of complex shape castings unfeasible. Combining the microstructural modelling with a statistical response-surface prediction method allows application of the microstructural model results to industrial scale casts by incorporating them in commercial solidification software. (author)
Cellular automaton modelling of ductile iron microstructure in the thin wall casting
Burbelko, A A; Gurgul, D; Kapturkiewicz, W; Górny, M
2012-01-01
The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD) calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the ductile iron solidification in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration.
Cellular automatons applied to gas dynamic problems
Long, Lyle N.; Coopersmith, Robert M.; Mclachlan, B. G.
1987-01-01
This paper compares the results of a relatively new computational fluid dynamics method, cellular automatons, with experimental data and analytical results. This technique has been shown to qualitatively predict fluidlike behavior; however, there have been few published comparisons with experiment or other theories. Comparisons are made for a one-dimensional supersonic piston problem, Stokes first problem, and the flow past a normal flat plate. These comparisons are used to assess the ability of the method to accurately model fluid dynamic behavior and to point out its limitations. Reasonable results were obtained for all three test cases, but the fundamental limitations of cellular automatons are numerous. It may be misleading, at this time, to say that cellular automatons are a computationally efficient technique. Other methods, based on continuum or kinetic theory, would also be very efficient if as little of the physics were included.
Individual Subjective Initiative Merge Model Based on Cellular Automaton
Yin-Jie Xu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The merge control models proposed for work zones are classified into two types (Hard Control Merge (HCM model and Soft Control Merge (SCM model according to their own control intensity and are compared with a new model, called Individual Subjective Initiative Merge (ISIM model, which is based on the linear lane-changing probability strategy in the merging area. The attention of this paper is paid to the positive impact of the individual subjective initiative for the whole traffic system. Three models (ISIM, HCM, and SCM are established and compared with each other by two order parameters, that is, system output and average vehicle travel time. Finally, numerical results show that both ISIM and SCM perform better than HCM. Compared with SCM, the output of ISIM is 20 vehicles per hour higher under the symmetric input condition and is more stable under the asymmetric input condition. Meanwhile, the average travel time of ISIM is 2000 time steps less under the oversaturated input condition.
Boundary effects on car accidents in a cellular automaton model
Yang Xianqing; Ma Yuqiang; Zhao Yuemin
2004-01-01
In this paper we numerically study the probability P ac of occurrence of car accidents in the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model with open boundary condition. In the deterministic NS model, numerical results show that there exists a critical value of extinction rate β above which no car accidents occur, and below which the probability P ac is independent of the speed limit v max and the injection rate α, but only determined by the extinction rate β. In the non-deterministic NS model, the probability P ac is a non-monotonic function of β in the region of low β value, while it is independent of β in the region of high β value. The stochastic braking not only reduces the occurrence of car accidents, but splits degenerate effects of v max on the probability P ac . Theoretical analyses give an agreement with numerical results in the deterministic NS model and in the non-deterministic NS model with v max = 1 in the case of low β value region. Qualitative differences between open and periodic systems in the relations of P ac to the bulk density ρ imply that various correlations may exist between the two systems
Modeling and Experimental Study of Soft Error Propagation Based on Cellular Automaton
Wei He
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming to estimate SEE soft error performance of complex electronic systems, a soft error propagation model based on cellular automaton is proposed and an estimation methodology based on circuit partitioning and error propagation is presented. Simulations indicate that different fault grade jamming and different coupling factors between cells are the main parameters influencing the vulnerability of the system. Accelerated radiation experiments have been developed to determine the main parameters for raw soft error vulnerability of the module and coupling factors. Results indicate that the proposed method is feasible.
Simulation of emotional contagion using modified SIR model: A cellular automaton approach
Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lv, Wei; Lo, Siuming
2014-07-01
Emotion plays an important role in the decision-making of individuals in some emergency situations. The contagion of emotion may induce either normal or abnormal consolidated crowd behavior. This paper aims to simulate the dynamics of emotional contagion among crowds by modifying the epidemiological SIR model to a cellular automaton approach. This new cellular automaton model, entitled the “CA-SIRS model”, captures the dynamic process ‘susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible', which is based on SIRS contagion in epidemiological theory. Moreover, in this new model, the process is integrated with individual movement. The simulation results of this model show that multiple waves and dynamical stability around a mean value will appear during emotion spreading. It was found that the proportion of initial infected individuals had little influence on the final stable proportion of infected population in a given system, and that infection frequency increased with an increase in the average crowd density. Our results further suggest that individual movement accelerates the spread speed of emotion and increases the stable proportion of infected population. Furthermore, decreasing the duration of an infection and the probability of reinfection can markedly reduce the number of infected individuals. It is hoped that this study will be helpful in crowd management and evacuation organization.
Non-linearity and spatial resolution in a cellular automaton model of a small upland basin
T. J. Coulthard
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The continuing development of computational fluid dynamics is allowing the high resolution study of hydraulic and sediment transport processes but, due to computational complexities, these are rarely applied to areas larger than a reach. Existing approaches, based upon linked cross sections, can give a quasi two-dimensional view, effectively simulating sediment transport for a single river reach. However, a basin represents a whole discrete dynamic system within which channel, floodplain and slope processes operate over a wide range of space and time scales. Here, a cellular automaton (CA approach has been used to overcome some of these difficulties, in which the landscape is represented as a series of fixed size cells. For every model iteration, each cell acts only in relation to the influence of its immediate neighbours in accordance with appropriate rules. The model presented here takes approximations of existing flow and sediment transport equations, and integrates them, together with slope and floodplain approximations, within a cellular automaton framework. This method has been applied to the basin of Cam Gill Beck (4.2 km2 above Starbotton, upper Wharfedale, a tributary of the River Wharfe, North Yorkshire, UK. This approach provides, for the first time, a workable model of the whole basin at a 1 m resolution. Preliminary results show the evolution of bars, braids, terraces and alluvial fans which are similar to those observed in the field, and examples of large and small scale non-linear behaviour which may have considerable implications for future models.
Tian, Jun-fang; Yuan, Zhen-zhou; Jia, Bin; Fan, Hong-qiang; Wang, Tao
2012-01-01
Velocity effect and critical velocity are incorporated into the average space gap cellular automaton model [J.F. Tian, et al., Phys. A 391 (2012) 3129], which was able to reproduce many spatiotemporal dynamics reported by the three-phase theory except the synchronized outflow of wide moving jams. The physics of traffic breakdown has been explained. Various congested patterns induced by the on-ramp are reproduced. It is shown that the occurrence of synchronized outflow, free outflow of wide moving jams is closely related with drivers time delay in acceleration at the downstream jam front and the critical velocity, respectively. -- Highlights: ► Velocity effect is added into average space gap cellular automaton model. ► The physics of traffic breakdown has been explained. ► The probabilistic nature of traffic breakdown is simulated. ► Various congested patterns induced by the on-ramp are reproduced. ► The occurrence of synchronized outflow of jams depends on drivers time delay.
Züleyha, Artuç; Ziya, Merdan; Selçuk, Yeşiltaş; Kemal, Öztürk M.; Mesut, Tez
2017-11-01
Computational models for tumors have difficulties due to complexity of tumor nature and capacities of computational tools, however, these models provide visions to understand interactions between tumor and its micro environment. Moreover computational models have potential to develop strategies for individualized treatments for cancer. To observe a solid brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we present a two dimensional Ising Model applied on Creutz cellular automaton (CCA). The aim of this study is to analyze avascular spherical solid tumor growth, considering transitions between non tumor cells and cancer cells are like phase transitions in physical system. Ising model on CCA algorithm provides a deterministic approach with discrete time steps and local interactions in position space to view tumor growth as a function of time. Our simulation results are given for fixed tumor radius and they are compatible with theoretical and clinic data.
Cellular automaton modeling of ductile iron microstructure in the thin wall
A.A. Burbelko
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the solidification of the ductile iron with different carbon equivalent in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration. Solidification of the DI with different carbon equivalents was analyzed. Obtained results were compared with the solidification path calculated by CALPHAD method.
Lian, Yanping; Lin, Stephen; Yan, Wentao; Liu, Wing Kam; Wagner, Gregory J.
2018-01-01
In this paper, a parallelized 3D cellular automaton computational model is developed to predict grain morphology for solidification of metal during the additive manufacturing process. Solidification phenomena are characterized by highly localized events, such as the nucleation and growth of multiple grains. As a result, parallelization requires careful treatment of load balancing between processors as well as interprocess communication in order to maintain a high parallel efficiency. We give a detailed summary of the formulation of the model, as well as a description of the communication strategies implemented to ensure parallel efficiency. Scaling tests on a representative problem with about half a billion cells demonstrate parallel efficiency of more than 80% on 8 processors and around 50% on 64; loss of efficiency is attributable to load imbalance due to near-surface grain nucleation in this test problem. The model is further demonstrated through an additive manufacturing simulation with resulting grain structures showing reasonable agreement with those observed in experiments.
Lian, Yanping; Lin, Stephen; Yan, Wentao; Liu, Wing Kam; Wagner, Gregory J.
2018-05-01
In this paper, a parallelized 3D cellular automaton computational model is developed to predict grain morphology for solidification of metal during the additive manufacturing process. Solidification phenomena are characterized by highly localized events, such as the nucleation and growth of multiple grains. As a result, parallelization requires careful treatment of load balancing between processors as well as interprocess communication in order to maintain a high parallel efficiency. We give a detailed summary of the formulation of the model, as well as a description of the communication strategies implemented to ensure parallel efficiency. Scaling tests on a representative problem with about half a billion cells demonstrate parallel efficiency of more than 80% on 8 processors and around 50% on 64; loss of efficiency is attributable to load imbalance due to near-surface grain nucleation in this test problem. The model is further demonstrated through an additive manufacturing simulation with resulting grain structures showing reasonable agreement with those observed in experiments.
Feng, Yongjiu; Tong, Xiaohua
2017-09-22
Defining transition rules is an important issue in cellular automaton (CA)-based land use modeling because these models incorporate highly correlated driving factors. Multicollinearity among correlated driving factors may produce negative effects that must be eliminated from the modeling. Using exploratory regression under pre-defined criteria, we identified all possible combinations of factors from the candidate factors affecting land use change. Three combinations that incorporate five driving factors meeting pre-defined criteria were assessed. With the selected combinations of factors, three logistic regression-based CA models were built to simulate dynamic land use change in Shanghai, China, from 2000 to 2015. For comparative purposes, a CA model with all candidate factors was also applied to simulate the land use change. Simulations using three CA models with multicollinearity eliminated performed better (with accuracy improvements about 3.6%) than the model incorporating all candidate factors. Our results showed that not all candidate factors are necessary for accurate CA modeling and the simulations were not sensitive to changes in statistically non-significant driving factors. We conclude that exploratory regression is an effective method to search for the optimal combinations of driving factors, leading to better land use change models that are devoid of multicollinearity. We suggest identification of dominant factors and elimination of multicollinearity before building land change models, making it possible to simulate more realistic outcomes.
A Modified Cellular Automaton Approach for Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow Modeling
Xiaonian Shan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Several previous studies have used the Cellular Automaton (CA for the modeling of bicycle traffic flow. However, previous CA models have several limitations, resulting in differences between the simulated and the observed traffic flow features. The primary objective of this study is to propose a modified CA model for simulating the characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic flow. Field data were collected on physically separated bicycle path in Shanghai, China, and were used to calibrate the CA model using the genetic algorithm. Traffic flow features between simulations of several CA models and field observations were compared. The results showed that our modified CA model produced more accurate simulation for the fundamental diagram and the passing events in mixed bicycle traffic flow. Based on our model, the bicycle traffic flow features, including the fundamental diagram, the number of passing events, and the number of lane changes, were analyzed. We also analyzed the traffic flow features with different traffic densities, traffic components on different travel lanes. Results of the study can provide important information for understanding and simulating the operations of mixed bicycle traffic flow.
Cellular Automaton Modeling of Dendritic Growth Using a Multi-grid Method
Natsume, Y; Ohsasa, K
2015-01-01
A two-dimensional cellular automaton model with a multi-grid method was developed to simulate dendritic growth. In the present model, we used a triple-grid system for temperature, solute concentration and solid fraction fields as a new approach of the multi-grid method. In order to evaluate the validity of the present model, we carried out simulations of single dendritic growth, secondary dendrite arm growth, multi-columnar dendritic growth and multi-equiaxed dendritic growth. From the results of the grid dependency from the simulation of single dendritic growth, we confirmed that the larger grid can be used in the simulation and that the computational time can be reduced dramatically. In the simulation of secondary dendrite arm growth, the results from the present model were in good agreement with the experimental data and the simulated results from a phase-field model. Thus, the present model can quantitatively simulate dendritic growth. From the simulated results of multi-columnar and multi-equiaxed dendrites, we confirmed that the present model can perform simulations under practical solidification conditions. (paper)
A Nanoflare-Based Cellular Automaton Model and the Observed Properties of the Coronal Plasma
Lopez-Fuentes, Marcelo; Klimchuk, James Andrew
2016-01-01
We use the cellular automaton model described in Lopez Fuentes and Klimchuk to study the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model, based on the idea of a critical misalignment angle in tangled magnetic fields, produces nanoflares of varying frequency with respect to the plasma cooling time. We compare the results of the model with active region (AR) observations obtained with the Hinode/XRT and SDOAIA instruments. The comparison is based on the statistical properties of synthetic and observed loop light curves. Our results show that the model reproduces the main observational characteristics of the evolution of the plasma in AR coronal loops. The typical intensity fluctuations have amplitudes of 10 percent - 15 percent both for the model and the observations. The sign of the skewness of the intensity distributions indicates the presence of cooling plasma in the loops. We also study the emission measure (EM) distribution predicted by the model and obtain slopes in log(EM) versus log(T) between 2.7 and 4.3, in agreement with published observational values.
A NANOFLARE-BASED CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL AND THE OBSERVED PROPERTIES OF THE CORONAL PLASMA
Fuentes, Marcelo López [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Klimchuk, James A., E-mail: lopezf@iafe.uba.ar [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2016-09-10
We use the cellular automaton model described in López Fuentes and Klimchuk to study the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model, based on the idea of a critical misalignment angle in tangled magnetic fields, produces nanoflares of varying frequency with respect to the plasma cooling time. We compare the results of the model with active region (AR) observations obtained with the Hinode /XRT and SDO /AIA instruments. The comparison is based on the statistical properties of synthetic and observed loop light curves. Our results show that the model reproduces the main observational characteristics of the evolution of the plasma in AR coronal loops. The typical intensity fluctuations have amplitudes of 10%–15% both for the model and the observations. The sign of the skewness of the intensity distributions indicates the presence of cooling plasma in the loops. We also study the emission measure (EM) distribution predicted by the model and obtain slopes in log(EM) versus log(T) between 2.7 and 4.3, in agreement with published observational values.
Christensen, K.; Olami, Z.
1992-01-01
We present a two-dimensional continuous cellular automaton that is equivalent to a driven spring-block model. Both the conservation and the anisotropy in the model are controllable quantities. Above a critical level of conservation, the model exhibits self-organized criticality. The self-organization of this system and hence the critical exponents depend on the conservation and the boundary conditions. In the critical isotropic nonconservative phase, the exponents change continuously as a function of conservation. Furthermore, the exponents vary continuously when changing the boundary conditions smoothly. Consequently, there is no universality of the critical exponents. We discuss the relevance of this for earthquakes. Introducing anisotropy changes the scaling of the distribution function, but not the power-law exponent. We explore the phase diagram of this model. We find that at low conservation levels a localization transition occurs. We see two additional phase transitions. The first is seen when moving from the conservative into the nonconservative model. The second appears when passing from the anisotropic two-dimensional system to the purely one-dimensional system
TWO-DIMENSIONAL CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE REGION CORONAL PLASMAS
López Fuentes, Marcelo [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Klimchuk, James A., E-mail: lopezf@iafe.uba.ar [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2015-02-01
We study a two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model for the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model is based on the idea that coronal loops are made of elementary magnetic strands that are tangled and stressed by the displacement of their footpoints by photospheric motions. The magnetic stress accumulated between neighbor strands is released in sudden reconnection events or nanoflares that heat the plasma. We combine the CA model with the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops model to compute the response of the plasma to the heating events. Using the known response of the X-Ray Telescope on board Hinode, we also obtain synthetic data. The model obeys easy-to-understand scaling laws relating the output (nanoflare energy, temperature, density, intensity) to the input parameters (field strength, strand length, critical misalignment angle). The nanoflares have a power-law distribution with a universal slope of –2.5, independent of the input parameters. The repetition frequency of nanoflares, expressed in terms of the plasma cooling time, increases with strand length. We discuss the implications of our results for the problem of heating and evolution of active region coronal plasmas.
Simple cellular automaton model for traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow
Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Schreckenberg, Michael
2011-10-01
We present a simple cellular automaton (CA) model for two-lane roads explaining the physics of traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow. The model consists of the rules “acceleration,” “deceleration,” “randomization,” and “motion” of the Nagel-Schreckenberg CA model as well as “overacceleration through lane changing to the faster lane,” “comparison of vehicle gap with the synchronization gap,” and “speed adaptation within the synchronization gap” of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. We show that these few rules of the CA model can appropriately simulate fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity found in traffic data measured over years in different countries, like characteristics of synchronized flow, the existence of the spontaneous and induced breakdowns at the same bottleneck, and associated probabilistic features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity. Single-vehicle data derived in model simulations show that synchronized flow first occurs and then self-maintains due to a spatiotemporal competition between speed adaptation to a slower speed of the preceding vehicle and passing of this slower vehicle. We find that the application of simple dependences of randomization probability and synchronization gap on driving situation allows us to explain the physics of moving synchronized flow patterns and the pinch effect in synchronized flow as observed in real traffic data.
Emergent 1d Ising Behavior in AN Elementary Cellular Automaton Model
Kassebaum, Paul G.; Iannacchione, Germano S.
The fundamental nature of an evolving one-dimensional (1D) Ising model is investigated with an elementary cellular automaton (CA) simulation. The emergent CA simulation employs an ensemble of cells in one spatial dimension, each cell capable of two microstates interacting with simple nearest-neighbor rules and incorporating an external field. The behavior of the CA model provides insight into the dynamics of coupled two-state systems not expressible by exact analytical solutions. For instance, state progression graphs show the causal dynamics of a system through time in relation to the system's entropy. Unique graphical analysis techniques are introduced through difference patterns, diffusion patterns, and state progression graphs of the 1D ensemble visualizing the evolution. All analyses are consistent with the known behavior of the 1D Ising system. The CA simulation and new pattern recognition techniques are scalable (in both dimension, complexity, and size) and have many potential applications such as complex design of materials, control of agent systems, and evolutionary mechanism design.
Nagatani, Takashi; Tainaka, Kei-ichi
2018-01-01
In most cases, physicists have studied the migration of biospecies by the use of random walk. In the present article, we apply cellular automaton of traffic model. For simplicity, we deal with an ecosystem contains a prey and predator, and use one-dimensional lattice with two layers. Preys stay on the first layer, but predators uni-directionally move on the second layer. The spatial and temporal evolution is numerically explored. It is shown that the migration has the important effect on populations of both prey and predator. Without migration, the phase transition between a prey-phase and coexisting-phase occurs. In contrast, the phase transition disappears by migration. This is because predator can survive due to migration. We find another phase transition for spatial distribution: in one phase, prey and predator form a stripe pattern of condensation and rarefaction, while in the other phase, they uniformly distribute. The self-organized stripe may be similar to the migration patterns in real ecosystems.
Guillemot, G.; Avettand-Fènoël, M.-N.; Iosta, A.; Foct, J.
2011-01-01
Hot-dipping galvanizing process is a widely used and efficient way to protect steel from corrosion. We propose to master the microstructure of zinc grains by investigating the relevant process parameters. In order to improve the texture of this coating, we model grain nucleation and growth processes and simulate the zinc solid phase development. A coupling scheme model has been applied with this aim. This model improves a previous two-dimensional model of the solidification process. It couples a cellular automaton (CA) approach and a finite element (FE) method. CA grid and FE mesh are superimposed on the same domain. The grain development is simulated at the micro-scale based on the CA grid. A nucleation law is defined using a Gaussian probability and a random set of nucleating cells. A crystallographic orientation is defined for each one with a choice of Euler's angle (Ψ,θ,φ). A small growing shape is then associated to each cell in the mushy domain and a dendrite tip kinetics is defined using the model of Kurz [2]. The six directions of basal plane and the two perpendicular directions develop in each mushy cell. During each time step, cell temperature and solid fraction are then determined at micro-scale using the enthalpy conservation relation and variations are reassigned at macro-scale. This coupling scheme model enables to simulate the three-dimensional growing kinetics of the zinc grain in a two-dimensional approach. Grain structure evolutions for various cooling times have been simulated. Final grain structure has been compared to EBSD measurements. We show that the preferentially growth of dendrite arms in the basal plane of zinc grains is correctly predicted. The described coupling scheme model could be applied for simulated other product or manufacturing processes. It constitutes an approach gathering both micro and macro scale models.
fA cellular automaton model of crystalline cellulose hydrolysis by cellulases
Little Bryce A
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose from plant biomass is an abundant, renewable material which could be a major feedstock for low emissions transport fuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Cellulase enzymes that break down cellulose into fermentable sugars are composed of different types - cellobiohydrolases I and II, endoglucanase and β-glucosidase - with separate functions. They form a complex interacting network between themselves, soluble hydrolysis product molecules, solution and solid phase substrates and inhibitors. There have been many models proposed for enzymatic saccharification however none have yet employed a cellular automaton approach, which allows important phenomena, such as enzyme crowding on the surface of solid substrates, denaturation and substrate inhibition, to be considered in the model. Results The Cellulase 4D model was developed de novo taking into account the size and composition of the substrate and surface-acting enzymes were ascribed behaviors based on their movements, catalytic activities and rates, affinity for, and potential for crowding of, the cellulose surface, substrates and inhibitors, and denaturation rates. A basic case modeled on literature-derived parameters obtained from Trichoderma reesei cellulases resulted in cellulose hydrolysis curves that closely matched curves obtained from published experimental data. Scenarios were tested in the model, which included variation of enzyme loadings, adsorption strengths of surface acting enzymes and reaction periods, and the effect on saccharide production over time was assessed. The model simulations indicated an optimal enzyme loading of between 0.5 and 2 of the base case concentrations where a balance was obtained between enzyme crowding on the cellulose crystal, and that the affinities of enzymes for the cellulose surface had a large effect on cellulose hydrolysis. In addition, improvements to the cellobiohydrolase I activity period substantially improved overall
Cellular automaton for surface reactions
Pechatnikov, E L [AN SSSR, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Otdelenie Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki; Frankowicz, A; Danielak, R [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)
1994-06-01
A new algorithm which overcomes some specific difficulties arising in modeling of heterogeneous catalytic processes by cellular automata (CA) technique is proposed. The algorithm was tested with scheme introduced by Ziff, Gulari and Barshad and showed a good agreement with their results. The problem of the physical adequacy and interpretation of the algorithm was discussed. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs.
S. Psakhie
2013-04-01
Full Text Available A general approach to realization of models of elasticity, plasticity and fracture of heterogeneous materials within the framework of particle-based numerical methods is proposed in the paper. It is based on building many-body forces of particle interaction, which provide response of particle ensemble correctly conforming to the response (including elastic-plastic behavior and fracture of simulated solids. Implementation of proposed approach within particle-based methods is demonstrated by the example of the movable cellular automaton (MCA method, which integrates the possibilities of particle-based discrete element method (DEM and cellular automaton methods. Emergent advantages of the developed approach to formulation of many-body interaction are discussed. Main of them are its applicability to various realizations of the concept of discrete elements and a possibility to realize various rheological models (including elastic-plastic or visco-elastic-plastic and models of fracture to study deformation and fracture of solid-phase materials and media. Capabilities of particle-based modeling of heterogeneous solids are demonstrated by the problem of simulation of deformation and fracture of particle-reinforced metal-ceramic composites.
Shimura, K.; Terai, T.; Yamawaki, M.
2003-01-01
In this study, the kinetics of desorption of adsorbed hydrogen from an ideal metallic surface is modelled in Cellular Automaton (CA). The modelling is achieved by downgrading the surface to one dimension. The model consists of two parts that are surface migration and desorption. The former is attained by randomly sorting the particles at each time, the latter is realised by modelling the thermally-activated process. For the verification of this model, thermal desorption is simulated then the comparison with the chemical kinetics is carried out. Excellent agreement is observed from the result. The results show that this model is reasonable to express the recombinative desorption of two chemisorbed adatoms. Though, the application of this model is limited to the second-order reaction case. But it can be believed that the groundwork of modelling the transport dynamics of hydrogen through the surface under complex conditions is established
Azarbarmas, M.; Aghaie-Khafri, M.
2018-03-01
A comprehensive cellular automaton (CA) model should be coupled with a rate-dependent (RD) model for analyzing the RD deformation of alloys at high temperatures. In the present study, a new CA technique coupled with an RD model—namely, CARD—was developed. The proposed CARD model was used to simulate the dynamic recrystallization phenomenon during the hot deformation of the Inconel 718 superalloy. This model is capable of calculating the mean grain size and volume fraction of dynamic recrystallized grains, and estimating the phenomenological flow behavior of the material. In the presented model, an actual orientation definition comprising three Euler angles was used by implementing the electron backscatter diffraction data. For calculating the lattice rotation of grains, it was assumed that all slip systems of grains are active during the high-temperature deformation because of the intrinsic rate dependency of the procedure. Moreover, the morphological changes in grains were obtained using a topological module.
Yao Xiao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the influence of drivers’ behavior of phone use while driving on traffic flow, including both traffic efficiency and traffic safety. An improved cellular automaton model was proposed to simulate traffic flow with distracted drivers based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. The driving characters of drivers using a phone were first discussed and a value representing the probability to use a phone while driving was put into the CA model. Simulation results showed that traffic flow rate was significantly reduced if some drivers used a phone compared to no phone use. The flow rate and velocity decreased as the proportion of drivers using a phone increased. While, under low density, the risk of traffic decreased first and then increased as the distracted drivers increased, the distracted behavior of drivers, like using a phone, could reduce the flow rate by 5 percent according to the simulation.
Mitus, A. C.; Stopa, P.; Zaklukiewicz, W.; Pawlik, G.; Mysliwiec, J.; Kajzar, F.; Rau, I.
2015-08-01
One of many photonic applications of biopolymers as functional materials is random lasing resulting from an incorporation of highly luminescent dyes into biopolymeric matrix, which leads to a random but coherent light scattering in amplifying medium. In spite of numerous theoretical and experimental studies the origin of the coherence is still not clear and various scenarios are discussed. In particular, inhomogeneity of biopolymeric layers can hypothetically promote the feedback in the scattering of the emitted light resulting in coherent and incoherent random lasing. In this paper we analyze the light scattering in a model system of scattering centers of circular shapes and various dimensions using ray-tracing techniques. In the second part, which has mostly a tutorial character, we present the approach to the study of random lasing using a cellular automaton model of Wiersma et al.
Multidimensional traveling waves in the Allen–Cahn cellular automaton
Murata, Mikio
2015-01-01
Ultradiscretization is a limiting procedure transforming a given difference equation into a cellular automaton. The cellular automaton constructed by this procedure preserves the essential properties of the original equation, such as the structure of exact solutions for integrable equations. In this article, a cellular automaton analog of the multidimensional Allen–Cahn equation which is not an integrable system is constructed by the ultradiscretization. Moreover, the traveling wave solutions for the resulting cellular automaton are given. The shape, behavior and stability of the solutions in ultradiscrete systems are similar to those in continuous systems. (paper)
Cellular automaton-based position sensitive detector equalization
Ferrando, Nestor [Grupo de Diseno de Sistemas Digitales, Instituto de Aplicaciones de las Tecnologias de la Informacion y de las Comunicaciones Avanzadas, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: nesferjo@upvnet.upv.es; Herrero, V.; Cerda, J.; Lerche, C.W.; Colom, R.J.; Gadea, R.; Martinez, J.D.; Monzo, J.M.; Mateo, F.; Sebastia, A.; Benlloch, J.M. [Grupo de Diseno de Sistemas Digitales, Instituto de Aplicaciones de las Tecnologias de la Informacion y de las Comunicaciones Avanzadas, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)
2009-06-01
Indirect position detectors based on scintillator crystals lack of spacial uniformity in their response. This happens due to crystal inhomogeneities and gain differences among the photomultiplier anodes. In order to solve this, PESIC, an integrated front-end for multianode photomultiplier based nuclear imaging devices was created. One of its main features is the digitally programmable gain adjustment for every photomultiplier output. On another front, cellular automata have been proved to be a useful method for dynamic system modeling. In this paper, a cellular automaton which emulates the behavior of the scintillator crystal, the photomultiplier and the front-end is introduced. Thanks to this model, an automatic energy-based calibration of the detector can be done by configuring the cellular automaton with experimental data and making it evolve up to an stable state. This can be useful as a precalibration method of the detector.
Cellular automaton-based position sensitive detector equalization
Ferrando, Nestor; Herrero, V.; Cerda, J.; Lerche, C.W.; Colom, R.J.; Gadea, R.; Martinez, J.D.; Monzo, J.M.; Mateo, F.; Sebastia, A.; Benlloch, J.M.
2009-01-01
Indirect position detectors based on scintillator crystals lack of spacial uniformity in their response. This happens due to crystal inhomogeneities and gain differences among the photomultiplier anodes. In order to solve this, PESIC, an integrated front-end for multianode photomultiplier based nuclear imaging devices was created. One of its main features is the digitally programmable gain adjustment for every photomultiplier output. On another front, cellular automata have been proved to be a useful method for dynamic system modeling. In this paper, a cellular automaton which emulates the behavior of the scintillator crystal, the photomultiplier and the front-end is introduced. Thanks to this model, an automatic energy-based calibration of the detector can be done by configuring the cellular automaton with experimental data and making it evolve up to an stable state. This can be useful as a precalibration method of the detector.
Jin, Cheng-Jie; Jiang, Rui; Yin, Jun-Lin; Dong, Li-Yun; Li, Dawei
2017-09-01
In the experiments of bi-directional pedestrian flow, it is often observed that pedestrians turn their bodies and change from walking straight to walking sideways, in order to mitigate or avoid the conflicts with opposite walking ones. When these conflicts disappear, pedestrians restore and walk straight again. In the turning states, the forward velocities of pedestrians are not affected. In order to simulate this body-turning behavior, we use a cellular automaton (CA) model named ITP model, which has been proposed before. But the occupied area of one pedestrian is set as 0.4 m∗0.2 m. After the introduction of new rules of turnings and restorations, the pedestrians become more intelligent and flexible during the lane formation process, and some improvements of the fundamental diagram of pedestrian flow can be found. The simulation results of two different scenarios under open boundary conditions are also presented, and compared with the experimental data. It is shown that the new model performs much better than the original model in various tests, which further confirms the validity of the new rules. We think this approach is one useful contribution to the pedestrian flow modeling.
New cellular automaton designed to simulate geometration in gel electrophoresis
Krawczyk, M. J.; Kułakowski, K.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.
2002-08-01
We propose a new kind of cellular automaton to simulate transportation of molecules of DNA through agarose gel. Two processes are taken into account: reptation at strong electric field E, described in the particle model, and geometration, i.e. subsequent hookings and releases of long molecules at and from gel fibres. The automaton rules are deterministic and they are designed to describe both processes within one unified approach. Thermal fluctuations are not taken into account. The number of simultaneous hookings is limited by the molecule length. The features of the automaton are: (i) the size of the cell neighbourhood for the automaton rule varies dynamically, from nearest neighbors to the entire molecule; (ii) the length of the time step is determined at each step according to dynamic rules. Calculations are made up to N=244 reptons in a molecule. Two subsequent stages of the motion are found. Firstly, an initial set of random configurations of molecules is transformed into a more ordered phase, where most molecules are elongated along the applied field direction. After some transient time, the mobility μ reaches a constant value. Then, it varies with N as 1/ N for long molecules. The band dispersion varies with time t approximately as Nt1/2. Our results indicate that the well-known plateau of the mobility μ vs. N does not hold at large electric fields.
Li, Xingli; Guo, Fang; Kuang, Hua; Zhou, Huaguo
2017-12-01
Psychology tells us that the different level of tension may lead to different behavior variation for individuals. In this paper, an extended cost potential field cellular automaton is proposed to simulate pedestrian counter flow under an emergency by considering behavior variation of pedestrian induced by psychological tension. A quantitative formula is introduced to describe behavioral changes caused by psychological tension, which also leads to the increasing cost of discomfort. The numerical simulations are performed under the periodic boundary condition and show that the presented model can capture some essential features of pedestrian counter flow, such as lane formation and segregation phenomenon for normal condition. Furthermore, an interesting feature is found that when pedestrians are in an extremely nervous state, a stable lane formation will be broken by a disordered mixture flow. The psychological nervousness under an emergency is not always negative to moving efficiency and a moderate level of tension will delay the occurrence of jamming phase. In addition, a larger asymmetrical ratio of left walkers to right walkers will improve the critical density related to the jamming phase and retard the occurrence of completely jammed phase. These findings will be helpful in pedestrian control and management under an emergency.
Orientation selection of equiaxed dendritic growth by three-dimensional cellular automaton model
Wei Lei [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Lin Xin, E-mail: xlin@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wang Meng; Huang Weidong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2012-07-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cellular automata (CA) model is developed to simulate the equiaxed dendritic growth of pure substance. In order to reduce the mesh induced anisotropy by CA capture rules, a limited neighbor solid fraction (LNSF) method is presented. It is shown that the LNSF method reduced the mesh induced anisotropy based on the simulated morphologies for isotropic interface free energy. An expansion description using two interface free energy anisotropy parameters ({epsilon}{sub 1}, {epsilon}{sub 2}) is used in the present 3-D CA model. It is illustrated by present 3-D CA model that the positive {epsilon}{sub 1} favors the dendritic growth with the Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 100 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket preferred directions, and negative {epsilon}{sub 2} favors dendritic growth with the Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 110 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket preferred directions, which has a good agreement with the prediction of the spherical plot of the inverse of the interfacial stiffness. The dendritic growths with the orientation selection between Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 100 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 110 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket are also discussed using the different {epsilon}{sub 1} with {epsilon}{sub 2}=-0.02. It is found that the simulated morphologies by present CA model are as expected from the minimum stiffness criterion.
Chung, C A; Lin, Tze-Hung; Chen, Shih-Di; Huang, Hsing-I
2010-01-21
Mathematic models help interpret experimental results and accelerate tissue engineering developments. We develop in this paper a hybrid cellular automata model that combines the differential nutrient transport equation to investigate the nutrient limited cell construct development for cartilage tissue engineering. Individual cell behaviors of migration, contact inhibition and cell collision, coupled with the cell proliferation regulated by oxygen concentration were carefully studied. Simplified two-dimensional simulations were performed. Using this model, we investigated the influence of cell migration speed on the overall cell growth within in vitro cell scaffolds. It was found that intense cell motility can enhance initial cell growth rates. However, since cell growth is also significantly modulated by the nutrient contents, intense cell motility with conventional uniform cell seeding method may lead to declined cell growth in the final time because concentrated cell population has been growing around the scaffold periphery to block the nutrient transport from outside culture media. Therefore, homogeneous cell seeding may not be a good way of gaining large and uniform cell densities for the final results. We then compared cell growth in scaffolds with various seeding modes, and proposed a seeding mode with cells initially residing in the middle area of the scaffold that may efficiently reduce the nutrient blockage and result in a better cell amount and uniform cell distribution for tissue engineering construct developments.
Chen, Shijia; Guillemot, Gildas; Gandin, Charles-André
2016-01-01
Solidification grain structure has significant impact on the final properties of welded parts using fusion welding processes. Direct simulation of grain structure at industrial scale is yet rarely reported in the literature and remains a challenge. A three-dimensional (3D) coupled Cellular Automaton (CA) – Finite Element (FE) model is presented that predicts the grain structure formation during multiple passes Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). The FE model is established in a level set (LS) approach that tracks the evolution of the metal-shielding gas interface due to the addition of metal. The FE method solves the mass, energy and momentum conservation equations for the metal plus shielding gas system based on an adaptive mesh (FE mesh). Fields are projected in a second FE mesh, named CA mesh. A CA grid made of a regular lattice of cubic cells is created to overlay the fixed CA mesh. The CA model based on the CA grid simulates the melting and growth of the grain boundaries in the liquid pool. In order to handle large computational domains while keeping reasonable computational costs, parallel computations and dynamic strategies for the allocation/deallocation of the CA grid are introduced. These strategies correspond to significant optimizations of the computer memories that are demonstrated. The 3D CAFE model is first applied to the simple configuration of single linear passes by GTAW of a duplex stainless steel URANUS 2202. It is then applied to a more persuasive example considering GMAW in spray transfer mode during multiple passes to fill a V-groove chamfer. Simulations reveal the possibility to handle domains with millions of grains in representative domain sizes while following the formation of textures that result from the growth competition among columnar grains. -- Graphical abstract: Simulated 3D grain structure (3D CAFE model) for GTAW multiple linear passes at the surface of a duplex stainless steel (URANUS 22002
Level Set Structure of an Integrable Cellular Automaton
Taichiro Takagi
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Based on a group theoretical setting a sort of discrete dynamical system is constructed and applied to a combinatorial dynamical system defined on the set of certain Bethe ansatz related objects known as the rigged configurations. This system is then used to study a one-dimensional periodic cellular automaton related to discrete Toda lattice. It is shown for the first time that the level set of this cellular automaton is decomposed into connected components and every such component is a torus.
Soliton cellular automaton associated with Dn(1)-crystal B2,s
Misra, Kailash C.; Wilson, Evan A.
2013-04-01
A solvable vertex model in ferromagnetic regime gives rise to a soliton cellular automaton which is a discrete dynamical system in which site variables take on values in a finite set. We study the scattering of a class of soliton cellular automata associated with the U_q(D_n^{(1)})-perfect crystal B2, s. We calculate the combinatorial R matrix for all elements of B2, s ⊗ B2, 1. In particular, we show that the scattering rule for our soliton cellular automaton can be identified with the combinatorial R matrix for U_q(A_1^{(1)}) oplus U_q(D_{n-2}^{(1)})-crystals.
Qi, Le; Zheng, Zhongyi; Gang, Longhui
2017-10-01
It was found that the ships' velocity change, which is impacted by the weather and sea, e.g., wind, sea wave, sea current, tide, etc., is significant and must be considered in the marine traffic model. Therefore, a new marine traffic model based on cellular automaton (CA) was proposed in this paper. The characteristics of the ship's velocity change are taken into account in the model. First, the acceleration of a ship was divided into two components: regular component and random component. Second, the mathematical functions and statistical distribution parameters of the two components were confirmed by spectral analysis, curve fitting and auto-correlation analysis methods. Third, by combining the two components, the acceleration was regenerated in the update rules for ships' movement. To test the performance of the model, the ship traffic flows in the Dover Strait, the Changshan Channel and the Qiongzhou Strait were studied and simulated. The results show that the characteristics of ships' velocities in the simulations are consistent with the measured data by Automatic Identification System (AIS). Although the characteristics of the traffic flow in different areas are different, the velocities of ships can be simulated correctly. It proves that the velocities of ships under the influence of weather and sea can be simulated successfully using the proposed model.
Cellular automaton simulation of counter flow with paired pedestrians
Hui Xiong
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Knowledge on pedestrian behavior is the basis to build decision support system for crowd evacuation management in emergency. In this paper, the impact of paired walking behavior on pedestrian counter flow in a channel is studied. The pedestrian walking behaviors are simulated by the cellular automaton model and the pedestrians are classified as single right walker, single left walker, paired right walker, and paired left walker. Single walker can move forward, leftward, rightward or stand still. The paired pedestrians are considered as a combined unit similar to the single walker in terms of route choice and they can move to the same direction simultaneously. It is found that flow and velocity decrease with increase of the paired rate in case of stable density. Simulation results reveal the phase transitions in terms of density from free flow to the unstable flow and from the unstable flow to the congestion flow. However, the critical densities of phase transition are unaffected by the channel size.
The cellular automaton interpretation of quantum mechanics
't Hooft, Gerard
2016-01-01
This book presents the deterministic view of quantum mechanics developed by Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft. Dissatisfied with the uncomfortable gaps in the way conventional quantum mechanics meshes with the classical world, 't Hooft has revived the old hidden variable ideas, but now in a much more systematic way than usual. In this, quantum mechanics is viewed as a tool rather than a theory. The book presents examples of models that are classical in essence, but can be analysed by the use of quantum techniques, and argues that even the Standard Model, together with gravitational interactions, might be viewed as a quantum mechanical approach to analysing a system that could be classical at its core. He shows how this approach, even though it is based on hidden variables, can be plausibly reconciled with Bell's theorem, and how the usual objections voiced against the idea of ‘superdeterminism' can be overcome, at least in principle. This framework elegantly explains - and automatically cures - the problems of...
Matthew W Johnston
Full Text Available The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles, which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species.
Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J
2013-01-01
The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species.
Application of a cellular automaton for recognition of straight tracks in the spectrometer DISTO
Bussa, M.P.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Grasso, A.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kisel', I.V.; Konotopskaya, E.V.; Pontecorvo, G.B.
1995-01-01
A model of the cellular automaton for recognition of straight tracks has been developed. The program realization of this algorithm has shown high efficiency and speed for the simulated data for the experiment DISTO. Its working speed provides for the processing of approximately 1000 events/sec using the 50 MIPS RISC-processor. This makes suitable its application for track recognition in the second level trigger of the DISTO spectrometer. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
An outline of cellular automaton universe via cosmological KdV equation
Christianto, V.; Smarandache, F.; Umniyati, Y.
2018-03-01
It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence are abound. However, such a sound wave model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework. This paper can be considered as our second attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on soliton wave solution of cosmological KdV equation. Then we advance further this KdV equation by virtue of Cellular Automaton method to solve the PDEs. We submit wholeheartedly Robert Kuruczs hypothesis that Big Bang should be replaced with a finite cellular automaton universe with no expansion [4][5]. Nonetheless, we are fully aware that our model is far from being complete, but it appears the proposed cellular automaton model of the Universe is very close in spirit to what Konrad Zuse envisaged long time ago. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.
The threshold of coexistence and critical behaviour of a predator-prey cellular automaton
Arashiro, Everaldo; Tome, Tania
2007-01-01
We study a probabilistic cellular automaton to describe two population biology problems: the threshold of species coexistence in a predator-prey system and the spreading of an epidemic in a population. By carrying out mean-field approximations and numerical simulations we obtain the phase boundaries (thresholds) related to the transition between an active state, where prey and predators present a stable coexistence, and a prey absorbing state. The numerical estimates for the critical exponents show that the transition belongs to the directed percolation universality class. In the limit where the cellular automaton maps into a model for the spreading of an epidemic with immunization we observe a crossover from directed percolation class to the dynamic percolation class. Patterns of growing clusters related to species coexistence and spreading of epidemic are shown and discussed
The Algorithm of Continuous Optimization Based on the Modified Cellular Automaton
Oleg Evsutin
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the application of the cellular automata mathematical apparatus to the problem of continuous optimization. The cellular automaton with an objective function is introduced as a new modification of the classic cellular automaton. The algorithm of continuous optimization, which is based on dynamics of the cellular automaton having the property of geometric symmetry, is obtained. The results of the simulation experiments with the obtained algorithm on standard test functions are provided, and a comparison between the analogs is shown.
Detector independent cellular automaton algorithm for track reconstruction
Kisel, Ivan; Kulakov, Igor; Zyzak, Maksym [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration
2013-07-01
Track reconstruction is one of the most challenging problems of data analysis in modern high energy physics (HEP) experiments, which have to process per second of the order of 10{sup 7} events with high track multiplicity and density, registered by detectors of different types and, in many cases, located in non-homogeneous magnetic field. Creation of reconstruction package common for all experiments is considered to be important in order to consolidate efforts. The cellular automaton (CA) track reconstruction approach has been used successfully in many HEP experiments. It is very simple, efficient, local and parallel. Meanwhile it is intrinsically independent of detector geometry and good candidate for common track reconstruction. The CA implementation for the CBM experiment has been generalized and applied to the ALICE ITS and STAR HFT detectors. Tests with simulated collisions have been performed. The track reconstruction efficiencies are at the level of 95% for majority of the signal tracks for all detectors.
Periodical cicadas: A minimal automaton model
de O. Cardozo, Giovano; de A. M. M. Silvestre, Daniel; Colato, Alexandre
2007-08-01
The Magicicada spp. life cycles with its prime periods and highly synchronized emergence have defied reasonable scientific explanation since its discovery. During the last decade several models and explanations for this phenomenon appeared in the literature along with a great deal of discussion. Despite this considerable effort, there is no final conclusion about this long standing biological problem. Here, we construct a minimal automaton model without predation/parasitism which reproduces some of these aspects. Our results point towards competition between different strains with limited dispersal threshold as the main factor leading to the emergence of prime numbered life cycles.
4D Cellular Automaton Track Finder in the CBM Experiment
Akishina, Valentina; Kisel, Ivan
2016-01-01
The CBM experiment (FAIR/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) will focus on the measurement of rare probes at interaction rates up to 10MHz with data flow of up to 1 TB/s. It requires a novel read-out and data-acquisition concept with self-triggered electronics and free-streaming data. In this case resolving different collisions is a non-trivial task and event building must be performed in software online. That requires full online event reconstruction and selection not only in space, but also in time, so-called 4D event building and selection. This is a task of the First-Level Event Selection (FLES). The FLES reconstruction and selection package consists of several modules: track finding, track fitting, short-lived particles finding, event building and event selection. The Cellular Automaton (CA) track finder algorithm was adapted towards time-based reconstruction. In this article, we describe in detail the modification done to the algorithm, as well as the performance of the developed time-based CA approach
Application of a cellular automaton for the evolution of etched nuclear tracks
Cruz-Trujillo, Leonardo de la; Hernández-Hernández, C.; Vázquez-López, C.; Zendejas-Leal, B.E.; Golzarri, I.; Espinosa, G.
2013-01-01
In the present work, it is demonstrated the first application of cellular automata to the growing of etched nuclear tracks. The simplest case in which conical etched tracks are gradually formed is presented, as well as a general case of time varying etching rate V t . It is demonstrated that the cellular automata elements consist in an image pattern of the latent nuclear track input cells, 16 rules for updating states, the Moore neighborhood and an algorithm of four states. - Highlights: ► We model the evolution of an etched nuclear track using cellular automata (ca). ► A cellular automaton of a conical track has 4 states and 16 transition rules. ► The ca of general tracks require a not regular mesh and the L(t) and V b parameters
Update schemes of multi-velocity floor field cellular automaton for pedestrian dynamics
Luo, Lin; Fu, Zhijian; Cheng, Han; Yang, Lizhong
2018-02-01
Modeling pedestrian movement is an interesting problem both in statistical physics and in computational physics. Update schemes of cellular automaton (CA) models for pedestrian dynamics govern the schedule of pedestrian movement. Usually, different update schemes make the models behave in different ways, which should be carefully recalibrated. Thus, in this paper, we investigated the influence of four different update schemes, namely parallel/synchronous scheme, random scheme, order-sequential scheme and shuffled scheme, on pedestrian dynamics. The multi-velocity floor field cellular automaton (FFCA) considering the changes of pedestrians' moving properties along walking paths and heterogeneity of pedestrians' walking abilities was used. As for parallel scheme only, the collisions detection and resolution should be considered, resulting in a great difference from any other update schemes. For pedestrian evacuation, the evacuation time is enlarged, and the difference in pedestrians' walking abilities is better reflected, under parallel scheme. In face of a bottleneck, for example a exit, using a parallel scheme leads to a longer congestion period and a more dispersive density distribution. The exit flow and the space-time distribution of density and velocity have significant discrepancies under four different update schemes when we simulate pedestrian flow with high desired velocity. Update schemes may have no influence on pedestrians in simulation to create tendency to follow others, but sequential and shuffled update scheme may enhance the effect of pedestrians' familiarity with environments.
Reaction-diffusion path planning in a hybrid chemical and cellular-automaton processor
Adamatzky, Andrew; Lacy Costello, Benjamin de
2003-01-01
To find the shortest collision-free path in a room containing obstacles we designed a chemical processor and coupled it with a cellular-automaton processor. In the chemical processor obstacles are represented by sites of high concentration of potassium iodide and a planar substrate is saturated with palladium chloride. Potassium iodide diffuses into the substrate and reacts with palladium chloride. A dark coloured precipitate of palladium iodide is formed almost everywhere except sites where two or more diffusion wavefronts collide. The less coloured sites are situated at the furthest distance from obstacles. Thus, the chemical processor develops a repulsive field, generated by obstacles. A snapshot of the chemical processor is inputted to a cellular automaton. The automaton behaves like a discrete excitable media; also, every cell of the automaton is supplied with a pointer that shows an origin of the cell's excitation. The excitation spreads along the cells corresponding to precipitate depleted sites of the chemical processor. When the destination-site is excited, waves travel on the lattice and update the orientations of the pointers. Thus, the automaton constructs a spanning tree, made of pointers, that guides a traveler towards the destination point. Thus, the automaton medium generates an attractive field and combination of this attractive field with the repulsive field, generated by the chemical processor, provides us with a solution of the collision-free path problem
Solutions of the lattice sine–Gordon equation and the solitons of its cellular automaton
Willox, R; Ramani, A; Grammaticos, B
2014-01-01
We analyse the solutions of the cellular automaton sine–Gordon equation and link them to solutions of the discrete, lattice, sine–Gordon. We show that while the ultradiscretizable, positive definite, solutions of the latter behave dispersively, certain parts of these dispersive waves nonetheless survive in the ultradiscrete limit, giving rise to the solutions of the cellular automaton. We examine the ultradiscrete solutions in the case of a generalized cellular automaton in which the dependent variable can assume non-integer values and we show that the collision of two solitary waves is inelastic, leading to the creation of a ‘bridge’ of constant height that links two outgoing structures. Based on the ultradiscrete form of the sine–Gordon equation we explain the appearance of this bridging region and we describe its interaction with a solitary wave. (paper)
Watanabe, S; Takahashi, R [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-01-25
The applicability of a cellular automaton technique to engineering problems will be examined by dealing with mixing in multicomponent flow. The quality and accumulation rate of the product depend on the mixing of raw materials basically. After thoroughly understanding the mixing process, we optimize the geometrical allocation of such elements as a propeller with casing, a chimney and a product output nozzle in a reactor. Usually mixing is formulated by partial differential equations of conservation laws and empirical formulae, and solved numerically by the finite difference technique. In order to evaluate the fine structure of time-dependent interfacial behavior in multicomponent flow, the cellular automaton technique is used, since this has an advantage of describing the pattern formation in detail. It will be demonstrated in the present paper that mixing of two-component immiscible flow is reasonably simulated mesoscopically. 13 refs., 17 figs.
Cellular automaton and elastic net for event reconstruction in the NEMO-2 experiment
Kovalenko, V.
1997-01-01
A cellular automaton for track searching and an elastic net for charged particle trajectory fitting are presented. The advantages of the methods are: simplicity of the algorithms, fast and stable convergence to real tracks, and a reconstruction efficiency close to 100%. Demonstration programs are available at http://nuweb.jinr.dubna.su/LNP/NEMO using a Java enabled browser. (orig.)
Bankhead, Armand; Magnuson, Nancy S; Heckendorn, Robert B
2007-06-07
A computer simulation is used to model ductal carcinoma in situ, a form of non-invasive breast cancer. The simulation uses known histological morphology, cell types, and stochastic cell proliferation to evolve tumorous growth within a duct. The ductal simulation is based on a hybrid cellular automaton design using genetic rules to determine each cell's behavior. The genetic rules are a mutable abstraction that demonstrate genetic heterogeneity in a population. Our goal was to examine the role (if any) that recently discovered mammary stem cell hierarchies play in genetic heterogeneity, DCIS initiation and aggressiveness. Results show that simpler progenitor hierarchies result in greater genetic heterogeneity and evolve DCIS significantly faster. However, the more complex progenitor hierarchy structure was able to sustain the rapid reproduction of a cancer cell population for longer periods of time.
Simulation of plant communities with a cellular automaton
Gassmann, F [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
With a modelling approach based on cellular automata, five observed types of plant development can be simulated. In addition, the proposed model shows a strong tendency towards the formation of patches and a high degree of dynamical and structural instability leading to limits of predictability for the asymptotic solution chosen by the system among several possible metastable patterns (multistability). Further, external fluctuations can be shown to have advantages for certain plant types. The presented model unifies the fundamental dichotomy in vegetation dynamics between determinism (understood as predictability) and disorder (chance effects) by showing the outcome of both classical theories as special cases. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.
Pseudo-random number generation using a 3-state cellular automaton
Bhattacharjee, Kamalika; Paul, Dipanjyoti; Das, Sukanta
This paper investigates the potentiality of pseudo-random number generation of a 3-neighborhood 3-state cellular automaton (CA) under periodic boundary condition. Theoretical and empirical tests are performed on the numbers, generated by the CA, to observe the quality of it as pseudo-random number generator (PRNG). We analyze the strength and weakness of the proposed PRNG and conclude that the selected CA is a good random number generator.
Cellular automaton and elastic net for event reconstruction in the NEMO-2 experiment
Kisel, I.; Kovalenko, V.; Laplanche, F.
1997-01-01
A cellular automaton for track searching combined with an elastic net for charged particle trajectory fitting is presented. The advantages of the methods are: the simplicity of the algorithms, the fast and stable convergency to real tracks, and a good reconstruction efficiency. The combination of techniques have been used with success for event reconstruction on the data of the NEMO-2 double-beta (ββ) decay experiments. (orig.)
A cellular automaton simulation of contaminant transport in porous media
Freed, D.M.; Simonson, S.A.
1995-01-01
A simulation tool to investigate radionuclide transport in porous groundwater flow is described. The flow systems of interest are those important in determining the fate of radionuclides emplaced in an underground repository, such as saturated matrix flow, matrix and fracture flow in the unsaturated zone, and viscous fingering in porous fractures. The work discussed here is confined to consideration of saturated flow in porous media carrying a dilute, sorptive species. The simulation technique is based on a special class of cellular automata known as lattice gas automata (LGA) which are capable of predicting hydrodynamic behavior. The original two-dimensional scheme (that of Frisch et. al. known as the FHP model) used particles of unit mass traveling on a triangular lattice with unit velocity and undergoing simple collisions which conserve mass and momentum at each node. These microscopic rules go over to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the macroscopic limit. One of the strengths of this technique is the natural way that heterogeneities, such as boundaries, are accommodated. Complex geometries such as those associated with porous microstructures can be modeled effectively. Several constructions based on the FHP model have been devised, including techniques to eliminate statistical noise, extension to three dimensions, and the addition of surface tension which leads to multiphase flow
Quantum field theoretic behavior of a deterministic cellular automaton
Hooft, G ' t; Isler, K; Kalitzin, S [Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands)
1992-11-16
A certain class of cellular automata in 1 space +1 time dimension is shown to be closely related to quantum field theories containing Dirac fermions. In the massless case this relation can be studied analytically, while the introduction of Dirac mass requires numerical simulations. We show that in the last case the cellular automation describes the corresponding field theory only approximately. (orig.).
Stable oscillations of a predator-prey probabilistic cellular automaton: a mean-field approach
Tome, Tania; Carvalho, Kelly C de
2007-01-01
We analyze a probabilistic cellular automaton describing the dynamics of coexistence of a predator-prey system. The individuals of each species are localized over the sites of a lattice and the local stochastic updating rules are inspired by the processes of the Lotka-Volterra model. Two levels of mean-field approximations are set up. The simple approximation is equivalent to an extended patch model, a simple metapopulation model with patches colonized by prey, patches colonized by predators and empty patches. This approximation is capable of describing the limited available space for species occupancy. The pair approximation is moreover able to describe two types of coexistence of prey and predators: one where population densities are constant in time and another displaying self-sustained time oscillations of the population densities. The oscillations are associated with limit cycles and arise through a Hopf bifurcation. They are stable against changes in the initial conditions and, in this sense, they differ from the Lotka-Volterra cycles which depend on initial conditions. In this respect, the present model is biologically more realistic than the Lotka-Volterra model
Peculiarities of hardware implementation of generalized cellular tetra automaton
Аноприенко, Александр Яковлевич; Федоров, Евгений Евгениевич; Иваница, Сергей Васильевич; Альрабаба, Хамза
2015-01-01
Cellular automata are widely used in many fields of knowledge for the study of variety of complex real processes: computer engineering and computer science, cryptography, mathematics, physics, chemistry, ecology, biology, medicine, epidemiology, geology, architecture, sociology, theory of neural networks. Thus, cellular automata (CA) and tetra automata are gaining relevance taking into account the hardware and software solutions.Also it is marked a trend towards an increase in the number of p...
Multiscale Simulation of Porous Ceramics Based on Movable Cellular Automaton Method
Smolin, A.; Smolin, I.; Eremina, G.; Smolina, I.
2017-10-01
The paper presents a model for simulating mechanical behaviour of multiscale porous ceramics based on movable cellular automaton method, which is a novel particle method in computational mechanics of solid. The initial scale of the proposed approach corresponds to the characteristic size of the smallest pores in the ceramics. At this scale, we model uniaxial compression of several representative samples with an explicit account of pores of the same size but with the random unique position in space. As a result, we get the average values of Young’s modulus and strength, as well as the parameters of the Weibull distribution of these properties at the current scale level. These data allow us to describe the material behaviour at the next scale level were only the larger pores are considered explicitly, while the influence of small pores is included via the effective properties determined at the previous scale level. If the pore size distribution function of the material has N maxima we need to perform computations for N - 1 levels in order to get the properties from the lowest scale up to the macroscale step by step. The proposed approach was applied to modelling zirconia ceramics with bimodal pore size distribution. The obtained results show correct behaviour of the model sample at the macroscale.
Chen, Shaohua; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang
2018-06-01
Additive manufacturing such as selective laser sintering and electron beam melting has become a popular technique which enables one to build near-net-shape product from packed powders. The performance and properties of the manufactured product strongly depends on its material microstructure, which is in turn determined by the processing conditions including beam power density, spot size, scanning speed and path etc. In this paper, we develop a computational framework that integrates the finite element method (FEM) and cellular automaton (CA) simulation to model the 3D microstructure of additively manufactured Ti–6Al–4V alloy, focusing on the β → α + β transition pathway in a consolidated alloy region as the power source moves away from this region. Specifically, the transient temperature field resulted from a scanning laser/electron beam following a zig-zag path is first obtained by solving nonlinear heat transfer equations using the FEM. Next, a CA model for the β → α + β phase transformation in the consolidated alloy is developed which explicitly takes into account the temperature dependent heterogeneous nucleation and anisotropic growth of α grains from the parent β phase field. We verify our model by reproducing the overall transition kinetics predicted by the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov theory under a typical processing condition and by quantitatively comparing our simulation results with available experimental data. The utility of the model is further demonstrated by generating large-field realistic 3D alloy microstructures for subsequent structure-sensitive micro-mechanical analysis. In addition, we employ our model to generate a wide spectrum of alloy microstructures corresponding to different processing conditions for establishing quantitative process-structure relations for the system.
A new cellular automaton for signal controlled traffic flow based on driving behaviors
Wang, Yang; Chen, Yan-Yan
2015-03-01
The complexity of signal controlled traffic largely stems from the various driving behaviors developed in response to the traffic signal. However, the existing models take a few driving behaviors into account and consequently the traffic dynamics has not been completely explored. Therefore, a new cellular automaton model, which incorporates the driving behaviors typically manifesting during the different stages when the vehicles are moving toward a traffic light, is proposed in this paper. Numerical simulations have demonstrated that the proposed model can produce the spontaneous traffic breakdown and the dissolution of the over-saturated traffic phenomena. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the slow-to-start behavior and the inch-forward behavior can foster the traffic breakdown. Particularly, it has been discovered that the over-saturated traffic can be revised to be an under-saturated state when the slow-down behavior is activated after the spontaneous breakdown. Finally, the contributions of the driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown have been examined. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grand No. 2012CB723303) and the Beijing Committee of Science and Technology, China (Grand No. Z1211000003120100).
A quantum Samaritan’s dilemma cellular automaton
Situ, Haozhen
2017-01-01
The dynamics of a spatial quantum formulation of the iterated Samaritan’s dilemma game with variable entangling is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e. with local and synchronous interaction. The game is assessed in fair and unfair contests, in noiseless scenarios and with disrupting quantum noise. PMID:28680654
Simulation of Microstructure during Laser Rapid Forming Solidification Based on Cellular Automaton
Zhi-jian Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The grain microstructure of molten pool during the solidification of TC4 titanium alloy in the single point laser cladding was investigated based on the CAFE model which is the cellular automaton (CA coupled with the finite element (FE method. The correct temperature field is the prerequisite for simulating the grain microstructure during the solidification of the molten pool. The model solves the energy equation by the FE method to simulate the temperature distribution in the molten pool of the single point laser cladding. Based on the temperature field, the solidification microstructure of the molten pool is also simulated with the CAFE method. The results show that the maximum temperature in the molten pool increases with the laser power and the scanning rate. The laser power has a larger influence on the temperature distribution of the molten pool than the scanning rate. During the solidification of the molten pool, the heat at the bottom of the molten pool transfers faster than that at the top of the molten pool. The grains rapidly grow into the molten pool, and then the columnar crystals are formed. This study has a very important significance for improving the quality of the structure parts manufactured through the laser cladding forming.
Cellular automaton simulation of pedestrian counter flow with different walk velocities
Weng, W. G.; Chen, T.; Yuan, H. Y.; Fan, W. C.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a cellular automaton model without step back for pedestrian dynamics considering the human behaviors which can make judgments in some complex situations. This model can simulate pedestrian movement with different walk velocities through update at different time-step intervals. Two kinds of boundary conditions including periodic and open boundary for pedestrian counter flow are considered, and their dynamical characteristics are discussed. Simulation results show that for periodic boundary condition there are three phases of pedestrian patterns, i.e., freely moving phase, lane formation phase, and perfectly stopped phase at some certain total density ranges. In the stage of lane formation, the phenomenon that pedestrians exceed those with lower walk velocity through a narrow walkway can be found. For open boundary condition, at some certain entrance densities, there are two steady states of pedestrian patterns; but the first is metastable. Spontaneous fluctuations can break the first steady state, i.e., freely moving phase, and run into the second steady state, i.e., perfectly stopped phase
Cellular automaton decoders of topological quantum memories in the fault tolerant setting
Herold, Michael; Eisert, Jens; Kastoryano, Michael J; Campbell, Earl T
2017-01-01
Active error decoding and correction of topological quantum codes—in particular the toric code—remains one of the most viable routes to large scale quantum information processing. In contrast, passive error correction relies on the natural physical dynamics of a system to protect encoded quantum information. However, the search is ongoing for a completely satisfactory passive scheme applicable to locally interacting two-dimensional systems. Here, we investigate dynamical decoders that provide passive error correction by embedding the decoding process into local dynamics. We propose a specific discrete time cellular-automaton decoder in the fault tolerant setting and provide numerical evidence showing that the logical qubit has a survival time extended by several orders of magnitude over that of a bare unencoded qubit. We stress that (asynchronous) dynamical decoding gives rise to a Markovian dissipative process. We hence equate cellular-automaton decoding to a fully dissipative topological quantum memory, which removes errors continuously. In this sense, uncontrolled and unwanted local noise can be corrected for by a controlled local dissipative process. We analyze the required resources, commenting on additional polylogarithmic factors beyond those incurred by an ideal constant resource dynamical decoder. (paper)
Frenkel, D.; Ernst, M.H.
1989-01-01
We compute the velocity autocorrelation function of a tagged particle in a two-dimensional lattice-gas cellular automaton using a method that is about a million times more efficient than existing techniques. A t-1 algebraic tail in the tagged-particle velocity autocorrelation function is clearly
CATS: a cellular automaton for tracking in silicon for the HERA-B vertex detector
Abt, I.; Emeliyanov, D.; Kisel, I.; Masciocchi, S.
2002-01-01
The new track reconstruction program CATS developed for the Vertex Detector System of the HERA-B experiment at DESY is presented. It employs a cellular automaton for track searching and the Kalman filter for track fitting. This results in a very fast algorithm that combines highly efficient track recognition with accurate and reliable track parameter estimation. To reduce the computational cost of the fit an optimized numerical implementation of the Kalman filter is used. Alternative approaches to the track reconstruction in the VDS are also discussed. Since 1999, after extensive tests on simulated data, CATS has been employed to reconstruct experimental data collected in HERA-B. Results regarding tracking performance, the accuracy of track parameter estimates and CPU time consumption are presented
3D simulation of friction stir welding based on movable cellular automaton method
Eremina, Galina M.
2017-12-01
The paper is devoted to a 3D computer simulation of the peculiarities of material flow taking place in friction stir welding (FSW). The simulation was performed by the movable cellular automaton (MCA) method, which is a representative of particle methods in mechanics. Commonly, the flow of material in FSW is simulated based on computational fluid mechanics, assuming the material as continuum and ignoring its structure. The MCA method considers a material as an ensemble of bonded particles. The rupture of interparticle bonds and the formation of new bonds enable simulations of crack nucleation and healing as well as mas mixing and microwelding. The simulation results showed that using pins of simple shape (cylinder, cone, and pyramid) without a shoulder results in small displacements of plasticized material in workpiece thickness directions. Nevertheless, the optimal ratio of longitudinal velocity to rotational speed makes it possible to transport the welded material around the pin several times and to produce a joint of good quality.
Matsubara, Takashi; Torikai, Hiroyuki
2016-04-01
Modeling and implementation approaches for the reproduction of input-output relationships in biological nervous tissues contribute to the development of engineering and clinical applications. However, because of high nonlinearity, the traditional modeling and implementation approaches encounter difficulties in terms of generalization ability (i.e., performance when reproducing an unknown data set) and computational resources (i.e., computation time and circuit elements). To overcome these difficulties, asynchronous cellular automaton-based neuron (ACAN) models, which are described as special kinds of cellular automata that can be implemented as small asynchronous sequential logic circuits have been proposed. This paper presents a novel type of such ACAN and a theoretical analysis of its excitability. This paper also presents a novel network of such neurons, which can mimic input-output relationships of biological and nonlinear ordinary differential equation model neural networks. Numerical analyses confirm that the presented network has a higher generalization ability than other major modeling and implementation approaches. In addition, Field-Programmable Gate Array-implementations confirm that the presented network requires lower computational resources.
Parallel 4-dimensional cellular automaton track finder for the CBM experiment
Akishina, Valentina [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); JINR Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kisel, Ivan [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration
2016-07-01
The CBM experiment at FAIR will focus on the measurement of rare probes at interaction rates up to 10 MHz. The beam will provide free stream of particles, so that information about different collisions may overlap in time. It requires the full online event reconstruction not only in space, but also in time, so-called 4D (4-dimensional) event building. This is a task of the First-Level Event Selection (FLES) package. The FLES reconstruction package consists of several modules: track finding, track fitting, short-lived particles finding, event building and selection. The Silicon Tracking System (STS) time measurement information was included into the Cellular Automaton (CA) track finder algorithm. The 4D track finder algorithm speed (8.5 ms per event in a time-slice) and efficiency is comparable with the event-based analysis. The CA track finder was fully parallelised inside the time-slice. The parallel version achieves a speed-up factor of 10.6 while parallelising between 10 Intel Xeon physical cores with a hyper-threading. The first version of event building based on 4D track finder was implemented.
Parallel 4-Dimensional Cellular Automaton Track Finder for the CBM Experiment
Akishina, Valentina; Kisel, Ivan
2016-01-01
The CBM experiment (FAIR/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) will focus on the measurement of rare probes at interaction rates up to 10 MHz with data flow of up to 1 TB/s. It requires a novel read-out and data-acquisition concept with self-triggered electronics and free-streaming data. In this case resolving different collisions is not a trivial task and event building must be performed in software online. That requires full online event reconstruction and selection not only in space, but also in time, so-called 4D event building and selection. This is a task of the First-Level Event Selection (FLES). The FLES reconstruction and selection package consists of several modules: track finding, track fitting, short-lived particles finding, event building and event selection. The Cellular Automaton (CA) track finder algorithm was adapted towards time-slice-based reconstruction and included into the CBMROOT framework. In this article, we describe the modification done to the algorithm, as well as the performance of the developed time-based approach. (paper)
Macroscopic Spatial Complexity of the Game of Life Cellular Automaton: A Simple Data Analysis
Hernández-Montoya, A. R.; Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Rodríguez-Achach, M. E.
In this chapter we present a simple data analysis of an ensemble of 20 time series, generated by averaging the spatial positions of the living cells for each state of the Game of Life Cellular Automaton (GoL). We show that at the macroscopic level described by these time series, complexity properties of GoL are also presented and the following emergent properties, typical of data extracted complex systems such as financial or economical come out: variations of the generated time series following an asymptotic power law distribution, large fluctuations tending to be followed by large fluctuations, and small fluctuations tending to be followed by small ones, and fast decay of linear correlations, however, the correlations associated to their absolute variations exhibit a long range memory. Finally, a Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) of the generated time series, indicates that the GoL spatial macro states described by the time series are not either completely ordered or random, in a measurable and very interesting way.
Yamamoto, Takehiro; Emura, Chie; Oya, Masashi
2016-12-01
The growth of a biofilm begins with the adhesion of bacteria to a solid surface. Consequently, biofilm growth can be managed by the control of bacterial adhesion. Recent experimental studies have suggested that bacterial adhesion can be controlled by modifying a solid surface using nanostructures. Computational prediction and analysis of bacterial adhesion behavior are expected to be useful for the design of effective arrangements of nanostructures for controlling bacterial adhesion. The present study developed a cellular automaton (CA) model for bacterial adhesion simulation that could describe both the diffusive motion of bacteria and dependence of their adhesion patterns on the distance between nanostructures observed in experimental studies. The diffusive motion was analyzed by the moment scaling spectrum theory, and the present model was confirmed to describe subdiffusion behavior due to obstacles. Adhesion patterns observed in experimental studies can be successfully simulated by introducing CA rules to describe a mechanism by which bacteria tend to move to increase the area of contact with nanostructures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Motzkin numbers out of Random Domino Automaton
Białecki, Mariusz, E-mail: bialecki@igf.edu.pl [Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Ks. Janusza 64, 01-452 Warszawa (Poland)
2012-10-01
Motzkin numbers are derived from a special case of Random Domino Automaton – recently proposed a slowly driven system being a stochastic toy model of earthquakes. It is also a generalisation of 1D Drossel–Schwabl forest-fire model. A solution of the set of equations describing stationary state of Random Domino Automaton in inverse-power case is presented. A link with Motzkin numbers allows to present explicit form of asymptotic behaviour of the automaton. -- Highlights: ► Motzkin numbers are derived from stochastic cellular automaton with avalanches. ► Explicit solution of toy model of earthquakes is presented. ► Case with inverse-power distribution of avalanches is found.
Berkovich, Simon
2015-04-01
The undamental advantage of a Cellular automaton construction foris that it can be viewed as an undetectable absolute frame o reference, in accordance with Lorentz-Poincare's interpretation.. The cellular automaton model for physical poblems comes upon two basic hurdles: (1) How to find the Elemental Rule that, and how to get non-locality from local transformations. Both problems are resolved considering the transfomation rule of mutual distributed synchronization Actually any information proessing device starts with a clocking system. and it turns out that ``All physical phenomena are different aspects of the high-level description of distributed mutual synchronization in a network of digital clocks''. Non-locality comes from two hugely different time-scales of signaling.. The universe is acombinines information and matter processes, These fast spreading diffusion wave solutions create the mechanism of the Holographic Universe. And thirdly Disengaged from synchronization, circular counters can perform memory functions by retaining phases of their oscillations, an idea of Von Neumann'. Thus, the suggested model generates the necessary constructs for the physical world as an Internet of Things. Life emerges due to the specifics of macromolecules that serve as communication means, with the holographic memory...
Chen, Rui; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng
2015-01-01
In this paper, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) model allowing for the prediction of dendrite growth of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloys in two and three dimensions is presented. The growth kinetic of S/L interface is calculated based on the solute equilibrium approach. In order to describe the dendrite growth with arbitrarily crystallographic orientations, this model introduces a modified decentered octahedron algorithm for neighborhood tracking to eliminate the effect of mesh dependency on dendrite growth. The thermody namic and kinetic data needed for dendrite growth is obtained through coupling with Pandat software package in combination with thermodynamic/kinetic/equilibrium phase diagram calculation databases. The effect of interactions between various alloying elements on solute diffusion coefficient is considered in the model. This model has first been used to simulate Al-7Si (weight percent) binary dendrite growth followed by a validation using theoretical predictions. For ternary alloy, Al-7Si-0.5Mg dendrite simulation has been carried out and the effects of solute interactions on diffusion matrix as well as the differences of Si and Mg in solute distribution have been analyzed. For actual application, this model has been applied to simulate the equiaxed dendrite growth with various crystallographic orientations of Al-7Si-0.36Mg ternary alloy, and the predicted secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the columnar dendrite growth in directional solidification has also been simulated and the predicted primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) is in good agreement with experiments. The simulated results effectively demonstrate the abilities of the model in prediction of dendritic microstructure of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloy. (paper)
Chen, Rui; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng
2015-06-01
In this paper, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) model allowing for the prediction of dendrite growth of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloys in two and three dimensions is presented. The growth kinetic of S/L interface is calculated based on the solute equilibrium approach. In order to describe the dendrite growth with arbitrarily crystallographic orientations, this model introduces a modified decentered octahedron algorithm for neighborhood tracking to eliminate the effect of mesh dependency on dendrite growth. The thermody namic and kinetic data needed for dendrite growth is obtained through coupling with Pandat software package in combination with thermodynamic/kinetic/equilibrium phase diagram calculation databases. The effect of interactions between various alloying elements on solute diffusion coefficient is considered in the model. This model has first been used to simulate Al-7Si (weight percent) binary dendrite growth followed by a validation using theoretical predictions. For ternary alloy, Al-7Si-0.5Mg dendrite simulation has been carried out and the effects of solute interactions on diffusion matrix as well as the differences of Si and Mg in solute distribution have been analyzed. For actual application, this model has been applied to simulate the equiaxed dendrite growth with various crystallographic orientations of Al-7Si-0.36Mg ternary alloy, and the predicted secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the columnar dendrite growth in directional solidification has also been simulated and the predicted primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) is in good agreement with experiments. The simulated results effectively demonstrate the abilities of the model in prediction of dendritic microstructure of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloy.
Chen Shijia
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Dans le domaine du soudage, les propriétés finales du cordon sont fortement liées à la structure de grains développée au cours des procédés de fusion / resolidification. La maîtrise des propriétés de l'assemblage final passe ainsi par une amélioration de la connaissance de sa structure de ce domaine. Dans cet objectif, un modèle couplé Automates Cellulaires – Eléments Finis est proposé pour simuler le développement, en volume, de cette structure, dans le cadre du soudage TIG. Ce modèle est appliqué au soudage d'acier Duplex 2202 et l'évolution de la structure de grains selon les paramètres procédés est discutée. In the welding area, the final properties of the weld bead are mainly induced by the grain structure developed during the melting and solidification steps. The mastery of the properties of the joining will be achieved with a better knowledge of the developed grain structure. A 3D coupled Cellular Automaton – Finite Element model is proposed in order to simulate the grains development in TIG process. This model is applied to the welding of a duplex stainless steel grade. The grain structure evolution is discussed for the various process parameters.
An extinction-survival-type phase transition in the probabilistic cellular automaton p182-q200
Mendonca, J R G; Oliveira, M J de, E-mail: jricardo@usp.br, E-mail: oliveira@if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R 187, Cidade Universitaria 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2011-04-15
We investigate the critical behaviour of a probabilistic mixture of cellular automata (CA) rules 182 and 200 (in Wolfram's enumeration scheme) by mean-field analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. We found that as we switch off one CA and switch on the other by the variation of the single parameter of the model, the probabilistic CA (PCA) goes through an extinction-survival-type phase transition, and the numerical data indicate that it belongs to the directed percolation universality class of critical behaviour. The PCA displays a characteristic stationary density profile and a slow, diffusive dynamics close to the pure CA 200 point that we discuss briefly. Remarks on an interesting related stochastic lattice gas are addressed in the conclusions.
An extinction-survival-type phase transition in the probabilistic cellular automaton p182-q200
Mendonca, J R G; Oliveira, M J de
2011-01-01
We investigate the critical behaviour of a probabilistic mixture of cellular automata (CA) rules 182 and 200 (in Wolfram's enumeration scheme) by mean-field analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. We found that as we switch off one CA and switch on the other by the variation of the single parameter of the model, the probabilistic CA (PCA) goes through an extinction-survival-type phase transition, and the numerical data indicate that it belongs to the directed percolation universality class of critical behaviour. The PCA displays a characteristic stationary density profile and a slow, diffusive dynamics close to the pure CA 200 point that we discuss briefly. Remarks on an interesting related stochastic lattice gas are addressed in the conclusions.
Simulation of electrochemical processes in cardiac tissue based on cellular automaton
Avdeev, S A; Bogatov, N M
2014-01-01
A new class of cellular automata using special accumulative function for nonuniformity distribution is presented. Usage of this automata type for simulation of excitable media applied to electrochemical processes in human cardiac tissue is shown
Dobravec, Tadej; Mavrič, Boštjan; Šarler, Božidar
2017-11-01
A two-dimensional model to simulate the dendritic and eutectic growth in binary alloys is developed. A cellular automaton method is adopted to track the movement of the solid-liquid interface. The diffusion equation is solved in the solid and liquid phases by using an explicit finite volume method. The computational domain is divided into square cells that can be hierarchically refined or coarsened using an adaptive mesh based on the quadtree algorithm. Such a mesh refines the regions of the domain near the solid-liquid interface, where the highest concentration gradients are observed. In the regions where the lowest concentration gradients are observed the cells are coarsened. The originality of the work is in the novel, adaptive approach to the efficient and accurate solution of the posed multiscale problem. The model is verified and assessed by comparison with the analytical results of the Lipton-Glicksman-Kurz model for the steady growth of a dendrite tip and the Jackson-Hunt model for regular eutectic growth. Several examples of typical microstructures are simulated and the features of the method as well as further developments are discussed.
On the effect of memory in a quantum prisoner's dilemma cellular automaton
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Revuelta, Fabio
2018-03-01
The disrupting effect of quantum memory on the dynamics of a spatial quantum formulation of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game with variable entangling is studied. The game is played within a cellular automata framework, i.e., with local and synchronous interactions. The main findings of this work refer to the shrinking effect of memory on the disruption induced by noise.
Gu, Cheng; Wei, Yanhong; Yu, Fengyi; Liu, Xiangbo; She, Lvbo
2017-09-01
Welding porosity defects significantly reduce the mechanical properties of welded joints. In this paper, the hydrogen porosity evolution coupled with dendrite growth during solidification in the molten pool of Al-4.0 wt pct Cu alloy was modeled and simulated. Three phases, including a liquid phase, a solid phase, and a gas phase, were considered in this model. The growth of dendrites and hydrogen gas pores was reproduced using a cellular automaton (CA) approach. The diffusion of solute and hydrogen was calculated using the finite difference method (FDM). Columnar and equiaxed dendrite growth with porosity evolution were simulated. Competitive growth between different dendrites and porosities was observed. Dendrite morphology was influenced by porosity formation near dendrites. After solidification, when the porosities were surrounded by dendrites, they could not escape from the liquid, and they made pores that existed in the welded joints. With the increase in the cooling rate, the average diameter of porosities decreased, and the average number of porosities increased. The average diameter of porosities and the number of porosities in the simulation results had the same trend as the experimental results.
A Universal Semi-totalistic Cellular Automaton on Kite and Dart Penrose Tilings
Katsunobu Imai
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate certain properties of semi-totalistic cellular automata (CA on the well known quasi-periodic kite and dart two dimensional tiling of the plane presented by Roger Penrose. We show that, despite the irregularity of the underlying grid, it is possible to devise a semi-totalistic CA capable of simulating any boolean circuit on this aperiodic tiling.
Drera, Saleem S., E-mail: saleem.drera@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hofman, Gerard L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL 60439 (United States); Kee, Robert J. [Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, Jeffrey C. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)
2014-10-15
Highlights: • This article presents a cellular automata (CA) algorithm to synthesize the growth of intermetallic interaction layers in U–Mo/Al dispersion fuel. • The method utilizes a 3D representation of the fuel, which is discretized into separate voxels that can change identy based on derived CA rules. • The CA model is compared to ILT measurements for RERTR experimental data. • The primary objective of the model is to synthesize three-dimensional microstructures that can be used in subsequent thermal and mechanical modeling. • The CA model can be used for predictive analysis. For example, it can be used to study the dependence of temperature on interaction layer growth. - Abstract: Low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel plates for high power materials test reactors (MTR) are composed of nominally spherical uranium–molybdenum (U–Mo) particles within an aluminum matrix. Fresh U–Mo particles typically range between 10 and 100 μm in diameter, with particle volume fractions up to 50%. As the fuel ages, reaction–diffusion processes cause the formation and growth of interaction layers that surround the fuel particles. The growth rate depends upon the temperature and radiation environment. The cellular automaton algorithm described in this paper can synthesize realistic random fuel-particle structures and simulate the growth of the intermetallic interaction layers. Examples in the present paper pack approximately 1000 particles into three-dimensional rectangular fuel structures that are approximately 1 mm on each side. The computational approach is designed to yield synthetic microstructures consistent with images from actual fuel plates and is validated by comparison with empirical data on actual fuel plates.
Yu Xiaofei [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen Shenhao [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Shenyang 110016 (China)], E-mail: shchen@sdu.edu.cn; Liu Ying; Ren Fengfeng [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)
2010-06-15
The impact of solution and sensitization treatments on the intergranular corrosion (IGC) of austenitic stainless steel (316) was studied by electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR) test, and the results showed the degree of sensitization (DOS) decreased as solution treatment temperature and time went up, but it increased as sensitization temperature prolonged. Factors that affected IGC were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). Furthermore, the precipitation evolution of Cr-rich carbides and the distribution of chromium concentration were simulated by cellular automaton (CA), clearly showing the effects of solution and sensitization treatments on IGC.
A 3D Cellular Automaton for Cell Differentiation in a Solid Tumor with Plasticity
Margarit, David H.; Romanelli, Lilia; Fendrik, Alejandro J.
A model with spherical symmetry is proposed. We analyze the appropriate parameters of cell differentiation for different kinds of cells (Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) and Differentiated Cells (DC)). The plasticity (capacity to return from a DC to its previous state of CSC) is taken into account. Following this hypothesis, the dissemination of CSCs to another organ is analyzed. The location of the cells in the tumor and the plasticity range for possible metastasis is discussed.
Coupled THM processes in EDZ of crystalline rocks using an elasto-plastic cellular automaton
Pan, Peng-Zhi; Feng, Xia-Ting; Huang, Xiao-Hua; Cui, Qiang; Zhou, Hui
2009-05-01
This paper aims at a numerical study of coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical processes in the excavation disturbed zones (EDZ) around nuclear waste emplacement drifts in fractured crystalline rocks. The study was conducted for two model domains close to an emplacement tunnel; (1) a near-field domain and (2) a smaller wall-block domain. Goodman element and weak element were used to represent the fractures in the rock mass and the rock matrix was represented as elasto-visco-plastic material. Mohr-Coulomb criterion and a non-associated plastic flow rule were adopted to consider the viscoplastic deformation in the EDZ. A relation between volumetric strain and permeability was established. Using a self-developed EPCA2D code, the elastic, elasto-plastic and creep analyses to study the evolution of stress and deformations, as well as failure and permeability evolution in the EDZ were conducted. Results indicate a strong impact of fractures, plastic deformation and time effects on the behavior of EDZ especially the evolution of permeability around the drift.
Gu, Cheng; Wei, Yanhong; Liu, Renpei; Yu, Fengyi
2017-12-01
A two-dimensional cellular automaton-finite volume model was developed to simulate dendrite growth of Al-3 wt pct Cu alloy during solidification to investigate the effect of temperature and fluid flow on dendrite morphology, solute concentration distribution, and dendrite growth velocity. Different calculation conditions that may influence the results of the simulation, including temperature and flow, were considered. The model was also employed to study the effect of different undercoolings, applied temperature fields, and forced flow velocities on solute segregation and dendrite growth. The initial temperature and fluid flow have a significant impact on the dendrite morphologies and solute profiles during solidification. The release of energy is operated with solidification and results in the increase of temperature. A larger undercooling leads to larger solute concentration near the solid/liquid interface and solute concentration gradient at the same time-step. Solute concentration in the solid region tends to increase with the increase of undercooling. Four vortexes appear under the condition when natural flow exists: the two on the right of the dendrite rotate clockwise, and those on the left of the dendrite rotate counterclockwise. With the increase of forced flow velocity, the rejected solute in the upstream region becomes easier to be washed away and enriched in the downstream region, resulting in acceleration of the growth of the dendrite in the upstream and inhibiting the downstream dendrite growth. The dendrite perpendicular to fluid flow shows a coarser morphology in the upstream region than that of the downstream. Almost no secondary dendrite appears during the calculation process.
Model checking of time Petri nets using the state class timed automaton
Lime, Didier; Roux, Olivier H.
2006-01-01
In this paper, we propose a method for building the state class graph of a bounded time Petri net (TPN) as a timed automaton (TA), which we call the state class timed automaton. We consider bounded TPN, whose underlying net is not necessarily bounded. We prove that our translation preserves the b...
Genetic Algorithm Calibration of Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Modeling Mining Permit Activity
Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.
2003-01-01
We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate a spatially and temporally resolved cellular automata to model mining activity on public land in Idaho and western Montana. The genetic algorithm searches through a space of transition rule parameters of a two dimensional cellular automata model to find rule parameters that fit observed mining activity data. Previous work by one of the authors in calibrating the cellular automaton took weeks - the genetic algorithm takes a day and produces rules leading to about the same (or better) fit to observed data. These preliminary results indicate that genetic algorithms are a viable tool in calibrating cellular automata for this application. Experience gained during the calibration of this cellular automata suggests that mineral resource information is a critical factor in the quality of the results. With automated calibration, further refinements of how the mineral-resource information is provided to the cellular automaton will probably improve our model.
Car Deceleration Considering Its Own Velocity in Cellular Automata Model
Li Keping
2006-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new cellular automaton model, which is based on NaSch traffic model. In our method, when a car has a larger velocity, if the gap between the car and its leading car is not enough large, it will decrease. The aim is that the following car has a buffer space to decrease its velocity at the next time, and then avoid to decelerate too high. The simulation results show that using our model, the car deceleration is realistic, and is closer to the field measure than that of NaSch model.
A cellular automata model of Ebola virus dynamics
Burkhead, Emily; Hawkins, Jane
2015-11-01
We construct a stochastic cellular automaton (SCA) model for the spread of the Ebola virus (EBOV). We make substantial modifications to an existing SCA model used for HIV, introduced by others and studied by the authors. We give a rigorous analysis of the similarities between models due to the spread of virus and the typical immune response to it, and the differences which reflect the drastically different timing of the course of EBOV. We demonstrate output from the model and compare it with clinical data.
Zhai, Xiaofang; Zhu, Xinyan; Xiao, Zhifeng; Weng, Jie
2009-10-01
Historically, cellular automata (CA) is a discrete dynamical mathematical structure defined on spatial grid. Research on cellular automata system (CAS) has focused on rule sets and initial condition and has not discussed its adjacency. Thus, the main focus of our study is the effect of adjacency on CA behavior. This paper is to compare rectangular grids with hexagonal grids on their characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. They have great influence on modeling effects and other applications including the role of nearest neighborhood in experimental design. Our researches present that rectangular and hexagonal grids have different characteristics. They are adapted to distinct aspects, and the regular rectangular or square grid is used more often than the hexagonal grid. But their relative merits have not been widely discussed. The rectangular grid is generally preferred because of its symmetry, especially in orthogonal co-ordinate system and the frequent use of raster from Geographic Information System (GIS). However, in terms of complex terrain, uncertain and multidirectional region, we have preferred hexagonal grids and methods to facilitate and simplify the problem. Hexagonal grids can overcome directional warp and have some unique characteristics. For example, hexagonal grids have a simpler and more symmetric nearest neighborhood, which avoids the ambiguities of the rectangular grids. Movement paths or connectivity, the most compact arrangement of pixels, make hexagonal appear great dominance in the process of modeling and analysis. The selection of an appropriate grid should be based on the requirements and objectives of the application. We use rectangular and hexagonal grids respectively for developing city model. At the same time we make use of remote sensing images and acquire 2002 and 2005 land state of Wuhan. On the base of city land state in 2002, we make use of CA to simulate reasonable form of city in 2005. Hereby, these results provide a proof of
Babykina, Génia; Brînzei, Nicolae; Aubry, Jean-François; Deleuze, Gilles
2016-01-01
The paper proposes a modeling framework to support Monte Carlo simulations of the behavior of a complex industrial system. The aim is to analyze the system dependability in the presence of random events, described by any type of probability distributions. Continuous dynamic evolutions of physical parameters are taken into account by a system of differential equations. Dynamic reliability is chosen as theoretical framework. Based on finite state automata theory, the formal model is built by parallel composition of elementary sub-models using a bottom-up approach. Considerations of a stochastic nature lead to a model called the Stochastic Hybrid Automaton. The Scilab/Scicos open source environment is used for implementation. The case study is carried out on an example of a steam generator of a nuclear power plant. The behavior of the system is studied by exploring its trajectories. Possible system trajectories are analyzed both empirically, using the results of Monte Carlo simulations, and analytically, using the formal system model. The obtained results are show to be relevant. The Stochastic Hybrid Automaton appears to be a suitable tool to address the dynamic reliability problem and to model real systems of high complexity; the bottom-up design provides precision and coherency of the system model. - Highlights: • A part of a nuclear power plant is modeled in the context of dynamic reliability. • Stochastic Hybrid Automaton is used as an input model for Monte Carlo simulations. • The model is formally built using a bottom-up approach. • The behavior of the system is analyzed empirically and analytically. • A formally built SHA shows to be a suitable tool to approach dynamic reliability.
USE OF AN AUTOMATON MODEL FOR THE DESIGNING OF REAL-TIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE RAILWAY STATIONS
Igor ZHUKOVYTS’KYY
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The author proposes to develop special models that are built based on finite-state machine, Mealy, in order to display information about technological processes at railway stations. The input alphabet of such machines is represented by the real signals (from the floor equipment, the related information systems and the dispatch office personnel. This representation allows one to formalize the software design process of real-time information management systems for these technological processes. The article demonstrates the possibility of formal transition from the automaton model to the software algorithms. The proposed approach was tested when designing the information system for Nizhnedneprovsk junction railway yard.
Matthäus, Franziska; Pahle, Jürgen
2017-01-01
This contributed volume comprises research articles and reviews on topics connected to the mathematical modeling of cellular systems. These contributions cover signaling pathways, stochastic effects, cell motility and mechanics, pattern formation processes, as well as multi-scale approaches. All authors attended the workshop on "Modeling Cellular Systems" which took place in Heidelberg in October 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
Kato, Yasuyoshi
1999-01-01
Since most of complex phenomena comprise of various elementary processes e.g., fluid flow, heat conduction, phase transition, chemical reaction, structural deformation, and these processes interact each other nonlinearly, the complex phenomena cannot be easily clarified by such the conventional topdown approaches as describe phenomena by using differential equations. In contrast to the topdown approaches where the differential equations are located at the top of the analysis procedures, these are bottomup approaches where phenomena are reproduced by local interaction of particles on cells. Cellular automata are one of the typical bottomup approaches. The basic principle, computer simulation results, and massively parallel processors for the cellular automata are reviewed and perspectives of the bottomup approach are discussed on clarification of the complex phenomena in nuclear plants. The computer simulations mainly deal with fluid flows and phase interfacial phenomena. (author)
Banjanovic-Mehmedovic Lejla
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate prediction of traffic information is important in many applications in relation to Intelligent Transport systems (ITS, since it reduces the uncertainty of future traffic states and improves traffic mobility. There is a lot of research done in the field of traffic information predictions such as speed, flow and travel time. The most important research was done in the domain of cooperative intelligent transport system (C-ITS. The goal of this paper is to introduce the novel cooperation behaviour profile prediction through the example of flexible Road Trains useful road cooperation parameter, which contributes to the improvement of traffic mobility in Intelligent Transportation Systems. This paper presents an approach towards the control and cooperation behaviour modelling of vehicles in the flexible Road Train based on hybrid automaton and neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS prediction of cooperation profile of the flexible Road Train. Hybrid automaton takes into account complex dynamics of each vehicle as well as discrete cooperation approach. The ANFIS is a particular class of the ANN family with attractive estimation and learning potentials. In order to provide statistical analysis, RMSE (root mean square error, coefficient of determination (R2 and Pearson coefficient (r, were utilized. The study results suggest that ANFIS would be an efficient soft computing methodology, which could offer precise predictions of cooperative interactions between vehicles in Road Train, which is useful for prediction mobility in Intelligent Transport systems.
Wang Kuangfei
2010-02-01
Full Text Available The microstructural evolution of Ti-45 at.%Al alloy during directional solidification was simulated by applying a solute diffusion controlled solidification model. The obtained results have shown that under high thermal gradients the stable primary spacing can be adjusted via branching or competitive growth. For dendritic structures formed under a high thermal gradient, the secondary dendrite arms are developed not very well in many cases due to the branching mechanism under a constrained dendritic growth condition. Furthermore, it has been observed that, with increasing pulling velocity, there exists a cell/dendrite transition region consisting of cells and dendrites, which varies with the thermal gradient in a contradicting way, i.e. increase of the thermal gradient leading to the decrease of the range of the transition region. The simulations agree reasonably well with experiment results.
Anon.
1982-01-01
Testing the applicability of mathematical models with carefully designed experiments is a powerful tool in the investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation on cells. The modeling and cellular studies complement each other, for modeling provides guidance for designing critical experiments which must provide definitive results, while the experiments themselves provide new input to the model. Based on previous experimental results the model for the accumulation of damage in Chlamydomonas reinhardi has been extended to include various multiple two-event combinations. Split dose survival experiments have shown that models tested to date predict most but not all the observed behavior. Stationary-phase mammalian cells, required for tests of other aspects of the model, have been shown to be at different points in the cell cycle depending on how they were forced to stop proliferating. These cultures also demonstrate different capacities for repair of sublethal radiation damage
Glider-based computing in reaction-diffusion hexagonal cellular automata
Adamatzky, Andrew; Wuensche, Andrew; De Lacy Costello, Benjamin
2006-01-01
A three-state hexagonal cellular automaton, discovered in [Wuensche A. Glider dynamics in 3-value hexagonal cellular automata: the beehive rule. Int J Unconvention Comput, in press], presents a conceptual discrete model of a reaction-diffusion system with inhibitor and activator reagents. The automaton model of reaction-diffusion exhibits mobile localized patterns (gliders) in its space-time dynamics. We show how to implement the basic computational operations with these mobile localizations, and thus demonstrate collision-based logical universality of the hexagonal reaction-diffusion cellular automaton
Cosserat modeling of cellular solids
Onck, P.R.
Cellular solids inherit their macroscopic mechanical properties directly from the cellular microstructure. However, the characteristic material length scale is often not small compared to macroscopic dimensions, which limits the applicability of classical continuum-type constitutive models. Cosserat
Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata
Bezzi, M.
2001-01-01
In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section
A Cellular Automata-based Model for Simulating Restitution Property in a Single Heart Cell.
Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojjat; Pourhasanzade, Fateme
2011-01-01
Ventricular fibrillation is the cause of the most sudden mortalities. Restitution is one of the specific properties of ventricular cell. The recent findings have clearly proved the correlation between the slope of restitution curve with ventricular fibrillation. This; therefore, mandates the modeling of cellular restitution to gain high importance. A cellular automaton is a powerful tool for simulating complex phenomena in a simple language. A cellular automaton is a lattice of cells where the behavior of each cell is determined by the behavior of its neighboring cells as well as the automata rule. In this paper, a simple model is depicted for the simulation of the property of restitution in a single cardiac cell using cellular automata. At first, two state variables; action potential and recovery are introduced in the automata model. In second, automata rule is determined and then recovery variable is defined in such a way so that the restitution is developed. In order to evaluate the proposed model, the generated restitution curve in our study is compared with the restitution curves from the experimental findings of valid sources. Our findings indicate that the presented model is not only capable of simulating restitution in cardiac cell, but also possesses the capability of regulating the restitution curve.
Probabilistic cellular automata.
Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Giuclea, Marius
2014-09-01
Cellular automata are binary lattices used for modeling complex dynamical systems. The automaton evolves iteratively from one configuration to another, using some local transition rule based on the number of ones in the neighborhood of each cell. With respect to the number of cells allowed to change per iteration, we speak of either synchronous or asynchronous automata. If randomness is involved to some degree in the transition rule, we speak of probabilistic automata, otherwise they are called deterministic. With either type of cellular automaton we are dealing with, the main theoretical challenge stays the same: starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, predict (with highest accuracy) the end configuration. If the automaton is deterministic, the outcome simplifies to one of two configurations, all zeros or all ones. If the automaton is probabilistic, the whole process is modeled by a finite homogeneous Markov chain, and the outcome is the corresponding stationary distribution. Based on our previous results for the asynchronous case-connecting the probability of a configuration in the stationary distribution to its number of zero-one borders-the article offers both numerical and theoretical insight into the long-term behavior of synchronous cellular automata.
An improved cellular automata model for train operation simulation with dynamic acceleration
Li, Wen-Jun; Nie, Lei
2018-03-01
Urban rail transit plays an important role in the urban public traffic because of its advantages of fast speed, large transport capacity, high safety, reliability and low pollution. This study proposes an improved cellular automaton (CA) model by considering the dynamic characteristic of the train acceleration to analyze the energy consumption and train running time. Constructing an effective model for calculating energy consumption to aid train operation improvement is the basis for studying and analyzing energy-saving measures for urban rail transit system operation.
Using synchronization to improve the forecasting of large relaxations in a cellular-automaton model
González, Á.; Gómez, J.B.; Vázquez-Prada, M.
2004-01-01
phenomena. In the new strategy, copies (clones) of the original system (the master) are defined, and they are driven using rules that tend to synchronize them with the master dynamics. The observation of definite patterns in the state of the clones is the signal for connecting an alarm in the original...
Statistical mechanics of cellular automata
Wolfram, S.
1983-01-01
Cellular automata are used as simple mathematical models to investigate self-organization in statistical mechanics. A detailed analysis is given of ''elementary'' cellular automata consisting of a sequence of sites with values 0 or 1 on a line, with each site evolving deterministically in discrete time steps according to p definite rules involving the values of its nearest neighbors. With simple initial configurations, the cellular automata either tend to homogeneous states, or generate self-similar patterns with fractal dimensions approx. =1.59 or approx. =1.69. With ''random'' initial configurations, the irreversible character of the cellular automaton evolution leads to several self-organization phenomena. Statistical properties of the structures generated are found to lie in two universality classes, independent of the details of the initial state or the cellular automaton rules. More complicated cellular automata are briefly considered, and connections with dynamical systems theory and the formal theory of computation are discussed
Cellular Automata and the Humanities.
Gallo, Ernest
1994-01-01
The use of cellular automata to analyze several pre-Socratic hypotheses about the evolution of the physical world is discussed. These hypotheses combine characteristics of both rigorous and metaphoric language. Since the computer demands explicit instructions for each step in the evolution of the automaton, such models can reveal conceptual…
Milad Yousefi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop an agent based modeling (ABM framework to simulate the behavior of patients who leave a public hospital emergency department (ED without being seen (LWBS. In doing so, the study complements computer modeling and cellular automata (CA techniques to simulate the behavior of patients in an ED. After verifying and validating the model by comparing it with data from a real case study, the significance of four preventive policies including increasing number of triage nurses, fast-track treatment, increasing the waiting room capacity and reducing treatment time were investigated by utilizing ordinary least squares regression. After applying the preventing policies in ED, an average of 42.14% reduction in the number of patients who leave without being seen and 6.05% reduction in the average length of stay (LOS of patients was reported. This study is the first to apply CA in an ED simulation. Comparing the average LOS before and after applying CA with actual times from emergency department information system showed an 11% improvement. The simulation results indicated that the most effective approach to reduce the rate of LWBS is applying fast-track treatment. The ABM approach represents a flexible tool that can be constructed to reflect any given environment. It is also a support system for decision-makers to assess the relative impact of control strategies.
Yousefi, Milad; Yousefi, Moslem; Fogliatto, F S; Ferreira, R P M; Kim, J H
2018-01-11
The objective of this study was to develop an agent based modeling (ABM) framework to simulate the behavior of patients who leave a public hospital emergency department (ED) without being seen (LWBS). In doing so, the study complements computer modeling and cellular automata (CA) techniques to simulate the behavior of patients in an ED. After verifying and validating the model by comparing it with data from a real case study, the significance of four preventive policies including increasing number of triage nurses, fast-track treatment, increasing the waiting room capacity and reducing treatment time were investigated by utilizing ordinary least squares regression. After applying the preventing policies in ED, an average of 42.14% reduction in the number of patients who leave without being seen and 6.05% reduction in the average length of stay (LOS) of patients was reported. This study is the first to apply CA in an ED simulation. Comparing the average LOS before and after applying CA with actual times from emergency department information system showed an 11% improvement. The simulation results indicated that the most effective approach to reduce the rate of LWBS is applying fast-track treatment. The ABM approach represents a flexible tool that can be constructed to reflect any given environment. It is also a support system for decision-makers to assess the relative impact of control strategies.
Krzysztof Małecki
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A complex system is a set of mutually interacting elements for which it is possible to construct a mathematical model. This article focuses on the cellular automata theory and the graph theory in order to compare various types of cellular automata and to analyse applications of graph structures together with cellular automata. It proposes a graph cellular automaton with a variable configuration of cells and relation-based neighbourhoods (r–GCA. The developed mechanism enables modelling of phenomena found in complex systems (e.g., transport networks, urban logistics, social networks taking into account the interaction between the existing objects. As an implementation example, modelling of moving vehicles has been made and r–GCA was compared to the other cellular automata models simulating the road traffic and used in the computer simulation process.
Mondry Adrian
2004-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many arrhythmias are triggered by abnormal electrical activity at the ionic channel and cell level, and then evolve spatio-temporally within the heart. To understand arrhythmias better and to diagnose them more precisely by their ECG waveforms, a whole-heart model is required to explore the association between the massively parallel activities at the channel/cell level and the integrative electrophysiological phenomena at organ level. Methods We have developed a method to build large-scale electrophysiological models by using extended cellular automata, and to run such models on a cluster of shared memory machines. We describe here the method, including the extension of a language-based cellular automaton to implement quantitative computing, the building of a whole-heart model with Visible Human Project data, the parallelization of the model on a cluster of shared memory computers with OpenMP and MPI hybrid programming, and a simulation algorithm that links cellular activity with the ECG. Results We demonstrate that electrical activities at channel, cell, and organ levels can be traced and captured conveniently in our extended cellular automaton system. Examples of some ECG waveforms simulated with a 2-D slice are given to support the ECG simulation algorithm. A performance evaluation of the 3-D model on a four-node cluster is also given. Conclusions Quantitative multicellular modeling with extended cellular automata is a highly efficient and widely applicable method to weave experimental data at different levels into computational models. This process can be used to investigate complex and collective biological activities that can be described neither by their governing differentiation equations nor by discrete parallel computation. Transparent cluster computing is a convenient and effective method to make time-consuming simulation feasible. Arrhythmias, as a typical case, can be effectively simulated with the methods
Cellular Automata for Modeling the field-scale erosion
Diaz Suarez, Jorge; Bagarotti Marin, Angel; Ruiz Perez, Maria Elena
2008-01-01
Full text: The Cellular Automaton (CA) is a system used discrete dynamic modeling of many physical systems. Their fundamental properties are the interaction at the local level, homogeneity and parallelism. It has been used as a secondary for the simulation of large systems where the use of equations in partial derivatives is complex and costly from the computational point of view. On the other hand, the high complexity of spatial interaction in the processes involved in the erosion-transport-deposition of sediments at field level, considerably limiting the use of base models physics. The objective of this study is to model the main processes involved in erosion water supply of soils through the use of the CAMELot system, based on an extension of the original paradigm of the CA. The CAMELot system has been used in the simulation of systems of large spatial extent, where the laws of local interaction between automata have a deep physical sense. This system guarantees both the input of the necessary specifications and simulation in parallel, as the visualization and the general management of the system. They are exposed to each of the submodels used in it and the overall dynamics of the system is analyzed. (author)
Cellular automata a parallel model
Mazoyer, J
1999-01-01
Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.
Burbelko A.A.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the ductile iron solidification in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration. Calculation of eutectic saturation influence (Sc = 0.9 - 1.1 on microstructure (austenite and graphite fraction, density of austenite and graphite grains and temperature curves in 2 mm wall ductile iron casting has been done.
Cellular automata and integrodifferential equation models for cell renewal in mosaic tissues
Bloomfield, J. M.; Sherratt, J. A.; Painter, K. J.; Landini, G.
2010-01-01
Mosaic tissues are composed of two or more genetically distinct cell types. They occur naturally, and are also a useful experimental method for exploring tissue growth and maintenance. By marking the different cell types, one can study the patterns formed by proliferation, renewal and migration. Here, we present mathematical modelling suggesting that small changes in the type of interaction that cells have with their local cellular environment can lead to very different outcomes for the composition of mosaics. In cell renewal, proliferation of each cell type may depend linearly or nonlinearly on the local proportion of cells of that type, and these two possibilities produce very different patterns. We study two variations of a cellular automaton model based on simple rules for renewal. We then propose an integrodifferential equation model, and again consider two different forms of cellular interaction. The results of the continuous and cellular automata models are qualitatively the same, and we observe that changes in local environment interaction affect the dynamics for both. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the models reproduce some of the patterns seen in actual mosaic tissues. In particular, our results suggest that the differing patterns seen in organ parenchymas may be driven purely by the process of cell replacement under different interaction scenarios. PMID:20375040
An Urban Cellular Automata Model for Simulating Dynamic States on a Local Scale
Jenni Partanen
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In complex systems, flexibility and adaptability to changes are crucial to the systems’ dynamic stability and evolution. Such resilience requires that the system is able to respond to disturbances by self-organizing, which implies a certain level of entropy within the system. Dynamic states (static, cyclical/periodic, complex, and chaotic reflect this generative capacity, and correlate with the level of entropy. For planning complex cities, we need to develop methods to guide such autonomous progress in an optimal manner. A classical apparatus, cellular automaton (CA, provides such a tool. Applications of CA help us to study temporal dynamics in self-organizing urban systems. By exploring the dynamic states of the model’s dynamics resulting from different border conditions it is possible to discover favorable set(s of rules conductive to the self-organizing dynamics and enable the system’s recovery at the time of crises. Level of entropy is a relevant measurement for evaluation of these dynamic states. The 2-D urban cellular automaton model studied here is based on the microeconomic principle that similar urban activities are attracted to each other, especially in certain self-organizing areas, and that the local dynamics of these enclaves affect the dynamics of the urban region by channeling flows of information, goods and people. The results of the modeling experiment indicate that the border conditions have a major impact on the model’s dynamics generating various dynamic states of the system. Most importantly, it seemed that the model could simulate a favorable, complex dynamic state with medium entropy level which may refer to the continuous self-organization of the system. The model provides a tool for exploring and understanding the effects of boundary conditions in the planning process as various scenarios are tested: resulting dynamics of the system can be explored with such “planning rules” prior to decisions, helping to
Cellular automaton simulation of microstructure evolution during ...
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different composition and austenite grain size. Using the ..... Figure 1. Microstructures of 0⋅28% C steel heat treated samples: a. cooling rate 1⋅75°C/S and equivalent grain diameter .... qualitative predictions point to the essential soundness.
Kuentz, M
2003-01-01
A two-dimensional lattice gas automaton (LGA) is used for simulating concentration-dependent diffusion in a microscopically random heterogeneous structure. The heterogeneous medium is initialized at a low density rho sub 0 and then submitted to a steep concentration gradient by continuous injection of particles at a concentration rho sub 1 >rho sub 0 from a one-dimensional source to model spreading of a density front. Whereas the nonlinear diffusion equation generally used to describe concentration-dependent diffusion processes predicts a scaling law of the type phi = xt sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 in one dimension, the spreading process is shown to deviate from the expected t sup 1 sup / sup 2 scaling. The time exponent is found to be larger than 1/2, i.e. diffusion of the density front is enhanced with respect to standard Fickian diffusion. It is also established that the anomalous time exponent decreases as time elapses: anomalous spreading is thus not a timescaling process. We demonstrate that occurrence of a...
Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata
Groessing, G.; Zeilinger, A.
1991-01-01
The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.)
Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata
Groessing, G [Atominst. der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria); Zeilinger, A [Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik, Univ. Innsbruck (Austria)
1991-07-01
The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.).
Forest, Loïc; Demongeot, Jacques; Demongeota, Jacques
2006-05-01
The radial growth of conifer trees proceeds from the dynamics of a merismatic tissue called vascular cambium or cambium. Cambium is a thin layer of active proliferating cells. The purpose of this paper was to model the main characteristics of cambial activity and its consecutive radial growth. Cell growth is under the control of the auxin hormone indole-3-acetic. The model is composed of a discrete part, which accounts for cellular proliferation, and a continuous part involving the transport of auxin. Cambium is modeled in a two-dimensional cross-section by a cellular automaton that describes the set of all its constitutive cells. Proliferation is defined as growth and division of cambial cells under neighbouring constraints, which can eliminate some cells from the cambium. The cell-growth rate is determined from auxin concentration, calculated with the continuous model. We studied the integration of each elementary cambial cell activity into the global coherent movement of macroscopic morphogenesis. Cases of normal and abnormal growth of Pinus radiata (D. Don) are modelled. Abnormal growth includes deformed trees where gravity influences auxin transport, producing heterogeneous radial growth. Cross-sectional microscopic views are also provided to validate the model's hypothesis and results.
Khan, Muhammad Sadiq Ali; Yousuf, Sidrah
2016-03-01
Cardiac Electrical Activity is commonly distributed into three dimensions of Cardiac Tissue (Myocardium) and evolves with duration of time. The indicator of heart diseases can occur randomly at any time of a day. Heart rate, conduction and each electrical activity during cardiac cycle should be monitor non-invasively for the assessment of "Action Potential" (regular) and "Arrhythmia" (irregular) rhythms. Many heart diseases can easily be examined through Automata model like Cellular Automata concepts. This paper deals with the different states of cardiac rhythms using cellular automata with the comparison of neural network also provides fast and highly effective stimulation for the contraction of cardiac muscles on the Atria in the result of genesis of electrical spark or wave. The specific formulated model named as "States of automaton Proposed Model for CEA (Cardiac Electrical Activity)" by using Cellular Automata Methodology is commonly shows the three states of cardiac tissues conduction phenomena (i) Resting (Relax and Excitable state), (ii) ARP (Excited but Absolutely refractory Phase i.e. Excited but not able to excite neighboring cells) (iii) RRP (Excited but Relatively Refractory Phase i.e. Excited and able to excite neighboring cells). The result indicates most efficient modeling with few burden of computation and it is Action Potential during the pumping of blood in cardiac cycle.
Cellular automata models for diffusion of information and highway traffic flow
Fuks, Henryk
In the first part of this work we study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parameterized by the speed limit m and another parameter k that represents degree of 'anticipatory driving'. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: 'conservative' driving with high speed limit and 'anticipatory' driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered. For rule 184, we present exact calculations of the order parameter in a transition from the moving phase to the jammed phase using the method of preimage counting, and use this result to construct a solution to the density classification problem. In the second part we propose a probabilistic cellular automaton model for the spread of innovations, rumors, news, etc., in a social system. We start from simple deterministic models, for which exact expressions for the density of adopters are derived. For a more realistic model, based on probabilistic cellular automata, we study the influence of a range of interaction R on the shape of the adoption curve. When the probability of adoption is proportional to the local density of adopters, and individuals can drop the innovation with some probability p, the system exhibits a second order phase transition. Critical line separating regions of parameter space in which asymptotic density of adopters is positive from the region where it is equal to zero converges toward the mean-field line when the range of the interaction increases. In a region between R=1 critical line and the mean-field line asymptotic density of adopters depends on R, becoming zero if R is too small (smaller than some critical value). This result demonstrates the importance of connectivity in
A Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata Model and Its Application
Jun Yang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Cellular automaton (CA is an important method in land use and cover change studies, however, the majority of research focuses on the discovery of macroscopic factors affecting LUCC, which results in ignoring the local effects within the neighborhoods. This paper introduces a Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata (LLUC-CA model, based on local land use competition, land suitability evaluation, demand analysis of the different land use types, and multi-target land use competition allocation algorithm to simulate land use change at a micro level. The model is applied to simulate land use changes at Jinshitan National Tourist Holiday Resort from 1988 to 2012. The results show that the simulation accuracies were 64.46%, 77.21%, 85.30% and 99.14% for the agricultural land, construction land, forestland and water, respectively. In addition, comparing the simulation results of the LLUC-CA and CA-Markov model with the real land use data, their overall spatial accuracies were found to be 88.74% and 86.82%, respectively. In conclusion, the results from this study indicated that the model was an acceptable method for the simulation of large-scale land use changes, and the approach used here is applicable to analyzing the land use change driven forces and assist in decision-making.
Weyland, Mathias; Fellermann, Harold; Hadorn, Maik
2013-01-01
In this paper, we propose the MATCHIT Automaton (MA), a theoretical framework that shows how to improve the yield of the synthesis of chemical polymer reactions. This is achieved by separating sub-steps of the path of syn- thesis into compartments. We use chemical containers (chemtainers) to carr...... reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, and we show how this compartmentalization can be exploited for the synthesis of branched polymers. Lastly, we show exam- ples of artificial branched polymers and discuss how the MA can be configured to synthesize them with maximal yield....
Some Properties of topological pressure on cellular automata
Chih-Hung Chang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the ergodicity and the power rule of the topological pressure of a cellular automaton. If a cellular automaton is either leftmost or rightmost premutive (due to the terminology given by Hedlund [Math.~Syst.~Theor.~3, 320-375, 1969], then it is ergodic with respect to the uniform Bernoulli measure. More than that, the relation of topological pressure between the original cellular automaton and its power rule is expressed in a closed form. As an application, the topological pressure of a linear cellular automaton can be computed explicitly.
Shimura, K.; Terai, T.; Yamawaki, M.; Yamaguchi, K.
2003-01-01
Tritium release from the lithium ceramics as a fusion reactor breeder material is strongly affected by the composition of the sweep-gas as result of its influences with the material's surface. The typical surface processes which play important roles are adsorption, desorption and interaction between vacancy site and the constituents of the sweep-gas. Among a large number of studies and models, yet it seems to be difficult to model the overall behaviour of those processes due to its complex time-transient nature. In the present work the coarse grained atomic simulation based on the Cellular Automaton (CA) is used to model the dynamics of near-surface interaction between Li 2 O surface and sweep-gas that is consisting of a noble gas, hydrogen gas and water vapour. (author)
Monteagudo, Ángel; Santos, José
2015-01-01
Cancer can be viewed as an emergent behavior in terms of complex system theory and artificial life, Cellular Automata (CA) being the tool most used for studying and characterizing the emergent behavior. Different approaches with CA models were used to model cancer growth. The use of the abstract model of acquired cancer hallmarks permits the direct modeling at cellular level, where a cellular automaton defines the mitotic and apoptotic behavior of cells, and allows for an analysis of different dynamics of the cellular system depending on the presence of the different hallmarks. A CA model based on the presence of hallmarks in the cells, which includes a simulation of the behavior of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) and their implications for the resultant growth behavior of the multicellular system, was employed. This modeling of cancer growth, in the avascular phase, was employed to analyze the effect of cancer treatments in a cancer stem cell context. The model clearly explains why, after treatment against non-stem cancer cells, the regrowth capability of CSCs generates a faster regrowth of tumor behavior, and also shows that a continuous low-intensity treatment does not favor CSC proliferation and differentiation, thereby allowing an unproblematic control of future tumor regrowth. The analysis performed indicates that, contrary to the current attempts at CSC control, trying to make CSC proliferation more difficult is an important point to consider, especially in the immediate period after a standard treatment for controlling non-stem cancer cell proliferation.
Ángel Monteagudo
Full Text Available Cancer can be viewed as an emergent behavior in terms of complex system theory and artificial life, Cellular Automata (CA being the tool most used for studying and characterizing the emergent behavior. Different approaches with CA models were used to model cancer growth. The use of the abstract model of acquired cancer hallmarks permits the direct modeling at cellular level, where a cellular automaton defines the mitotic and apoptotic behavior of cells, and allows for an analysis of different dynamics of the cellular system depending on the presence of the different hallmarks. A CA model based on the presence of hallmarks in the cells, which includes a simulation of the behavior of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC and their implications for the resultant growth behavior of the multicellular system, was employed. This modeling of cancer growth, in the avascular phase, was employed to analyze the effect of cancer treatments in a cancer stem cell context. The model clearly explains why, after treatment against non-stem cancer cells, the regrowth capability of CSCs generates a faster regrowth of tumor behavior, and also shows that a continuous low-intensity treatment does not favor CSC proliferation and differentiation, thereby allowing an unproblematic control of future tumor regrowth. The analysis performed indicates that, contrary to the current attempts at CSC control, trying to make CSC proliferation more difficult is an important point to consider, especially in the immediate period after a standard treatment for controlling non-stem cancer cell proliferation.
Predictability in cellular automata.
Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Chira, Camelia; Giuclea, Marius
2014-01-01
Modelled as finite homogeneous Markov chains, probabilistic cellular automata with local transition probabilities in (0, 1) always posses a stationary distribution. This result alone is not very helpful when it comes to predicting the final configuration; one needs also a formula connecting the probabilities in the stationary distribution to some intrinsic feature of the lattice configuration. Previous results on the asynchronous cellular automata have showed that such feature really exists. It is the number of zero-one borders within the automaton's binary configuration. An exponential formula in the number of zero-one borders has been proved for the 1-D, 2-D and 3-D asynchronous automata with neighborhood three, five and seven, respectively. We perform computer experiments on a synchronous cellular automaton to check whether the empirical distribution obeys also that theoretical formula. The numerical results indicate a perfect fit for neighbourhood three and five, which opens the way for a rigorous proof of the formula in this new, synchronous case.
Boyer, D; Lopez-Corona, O
2009-01-01
We introduce a model of travelling agents (e.g., frugivorous animals) who feed on randomly located vegetation patches and disperse their seeds, thus modifying the spatial distribution of the resources in the long term. It is assumed that the survival probability of a seed increases with the distance to its parent patch and decreases with the size of the colonized patch. In turn, the foraging agents use a deterministic strategy with memory that makes them visit the largest possible patches accessible within minimal travelling distances. The combination of these interactions produce complex spatio-temporal patterns. If the patches have a small initial size, the vegetation total mass (biomass) increases with time and reaches a maximum corresponding to a self-organized critical state with power-law-distributed patch sizes and Levy-like movement patterns for the foragers. However, this state collapses as the biomass sharply decreases to reach a noisy stationary regime characterized by corrections to scaling. In systems with low plant competition, the efficiency of the foraging rules leads to the formation of heterogeneous vegetation patterns with 1/f α frequency spectra, and contributes, rather counter-intuitively, to lower the biomass levels.
A cellular automata model for ant trails
In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was investigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the model that ...
Cellular modeling of fault-tolerant multicomputers
Morgan, G
1987-01-01
Work described was concerned with a novel method for investigation of fault tolerance in large regular networks of computers. Motivation was to provide a technique useful in rapid evaluation of highly reliable systems that exploit the low cost and ease of volume production of simple microcomputer components. First, a system model and simulator based upon cellular automata are developed. This model is characterized by its simplicity and ease of modification when adapting to new types of network. Second, in order to test and verify the predictive capabilities of the cellular system, a more-detailed simulation is performed based upon an existing computational model, that of the Transputer. An example application is used to exercise various systems designed using the cellular model. Using this simulator, experimental results are obtained both for existing well-understood configurations and for more novel types also developed here. In all cases it was found that the cellular model and simulator successfully predicted the ranking in reliability improvement of the systems studied.
Fuzzy cellular automata models in immunology
Ahmed, E.
1996-01-01
The self-nonself character of antigens is considered to be fuzzy. The Chowdhury et al. cellular automata model is generalized accordingly. New steady states are found. The first corresponds to a below-normal help and suppression and is proposed to be related to autoimmune diseases. The second corresponds to a below-normal B-cell level
Algorithmic crystal chemistry: A cellular automata approach
Krivovichev, S. V.
2012-01-01
Atomic-molecular mechanisms of crystal growth can be modeled based on crystallochemical information using cellular automata (a particular case of finite deterministic automata). In particular, the formation of heteropolyhedral layered complexes in uranyl selenates can be modeled applying a one-dimensional three-colored cellular automaton. The use of the theory of calculations (in particular, the theory of automata) in crystallography allows one to interpret crystal growth as a computational process (the realization of an algorithm or program with a finite number of steps).
Cellular Automata Based Modeling for Evaluating Different Bus Stop Designs in China
Haoyang Ding
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate mixed traffic flow composed of motor vehicles and bicycles near bus stops. Three typical types of bus stops which are common in China are considered in the model, including two types of curbside bus stops and one type of bus bay stops. Passenger transport capacity of three types of bus stops, which is applied to evaluate the bus stop design, is calculated based on the corresponding traffic flow rate. According to the simulation results, the flow rates of both motor vehicles and bicycles exhibit phase transition from free flow to the saturation one at the critical point. The results also show that the larger the interaction between motor vehicle and bicycle flow is near curbside bus stops, the more the value of saturated flows drops. Curbside bus stops are more suitable when the conflicts between two flows are small and the inflow rate of motor vehicles is low. On the contrary, bus bay stops should be applied due to their ability to reduce traffic conflicts. Findings of this study can provide useful suggestions on bus stop selection considering different inflow rate of motor vehicles and bicycles simultaneously.
Discrete dynamic modeling of cellular signaling networks.
Albert, Réka; Wang, Rui-Sheng
2009-01-01
Understanding signal transduction in cellular systems is a central issue in systems biology. Numerous experiments from different laboratories generate an abundance of individual components and causal interactions mediating environmental and developmental signals. However, for many signal transduction systems there is insufficient information on the overall structure and the molecular mechanisms involved in the signaling network. Moreover, lack of kinetic and temporal information makes it difficult to construct quantitative models of signal transduction pathways. Discrete dynamic modeling, combined with network analysis, provides an effective way to integrate fragmentary knowledge of regulatory interactions into a predictive mathematical model which is able to describe the time evolution of the system without the requirement for kinetic parameters. This chapter introduces the fundamental concepts of discrete dynamic modeling, particularly focusing on Boolean dynamic models. We describe this method step-by-step in the context of cellular signaling networks. Several variants of Boolean dynamic models including threshold Boolean networks and piecewise linear systems are also covered, followed by two examples of successful application of discrete dynamic modeling in cell biology.
A Mathematical Model for Cisplatin Cellular Pharmacodynamics
Ardith W. El-Kareh
2003-03-01
Full Text Available A simple theoretical model for the cellular pharmacodynamics of cisplatin is presented. The model, which takes into account the kinetics of cisplatin uptake by cells and the intracellular binding of the drug, can be used to predict the dependence of survival (relative to controls on the time course of extracellular exposure. Cellular pharmacokinetic parameters are derived from uptake data for human ovarian and head and neck cancer cell lines. Survival relative to controls is assumed to depend on the peak concentration of DNA-bound intracellular platinum. Model predictions agree well with published data on cisplatin cytotoxicity for three different cancer cell lines, over a wide range of exposure times. In comparison with previously published mathematical models for anticancer drug pharmacodynamics, the present model provides a better fit to experimental data sets including long exposure times (∼100 hours. The model provides a possible explanation for the fact that cell kill correlates well with area under the extracellular concentration-time curve in some data sets, but not in others. The model may be useful for optimizing delivery schedules and for the dosing of cisplatin for cancer therapy.
Cellular automata and statistical mechanical models
Rujan, P.
1987-01-01
The authors elaborate on the analogy between the transfer matrix of usual lattice models and the master equation describing the time development of cellular automata. Transient and stationary properties of probabilistic automata are linked to surface and bulk properties, respectively, of restricted statistical mechanical systems. It is demonstrated that methods of statistical physics can be successfully used to describe the dynamic and the stationary behavior of such automata. Some exact results are derived, including duality transformations, exact mappings, disorder, and linear solutions. Many examples are worked out in detail to demonstrate how to use statistical physics in order to construct cellular automata with desired properties. This approach is considered to be a first step toward the design of fully parallel, probabilistic systems whose computational abilities rely on the cooperative behavior of their components
A cellular automata model of bone formation.
Van Scoy, Gabrielle K; George, Estee L; Opoku Asantewaa, Flora; Kerns, Lucy; Saunders, Marnie M; Prieto-Langarica, Alicia
2017-04-01
Bone remodeling is an elegantly orchestrated process by which osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts function as a syncytium to maintain or modify bone. On the microscopic level, bone consists of cells that create, destroy and monitor the bone matrix. These cells interact in a coordinated manner to maintain a tightly regulated homeostasis. It is this regulation that is responsible for the observed increase in bone gain in the dominant arm of a tennis player and the observed increase in bone loss associated with spaceflight and osteoporosis. The manner in which these cells interact to bring about a change in bone quality and quantity has yet to be fully elucidated. But efforts to understand the multicellular complexity can ultimately lead to eradication of metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and improved implant longevity. Experimentally validated mathematical models that simulate functional activity and offer eventual predictive capabilities offer tremendous potential in understanding multicellular bone remodeling. Here we undertake the initial challenge to develop a mathematical model of bone formation validated with in vitro data obtained from osteoblastic bone cells induced to mineralize and quantified at 26 days of culture. A cellular automata model was constructed to simulate the in vitro characterization. Permutation tests were performed to compare the distribution of the mineralization in the cultures and the distribution of the mineralization in the mathematical models. The results of the permutation test show the distribution of mineralization from the characterization and mathematical model come from the same probability distribution, therefore validating the cellular automata model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A generalized cellular automata approach to modeling first order ...
system, consisting of space, time and state, structured with simple local rules without ... Sensitivity analysis of a stochastic cellular automata model. 413 ..... Baetens J M and De Baets B 2011 Design and parameterization of a stochastic cellular.
Van Mier, J.G.M.; Jankovic, D.
2005-01-01
Numerical modeling of moisture flow, drying shrinkage and crack phenomena in cement microstructure, by coupling a Lattice Gas Automaton and a Lattice Fracture Model, highlighted the importance of a shrinkage coefficient (?sh) as the most significant parameter for achieving realistic numerical
Intractable problems in reversible cellular automata
Vatan, F.
1988-01-01
The billiard ball model, a classical mechanical system in which all parameters are real variables, can perform all digital computations. An eight-state, 11-neighbor reversible cellular automaton (an entirely discrete system in which all parameters are integer variables) can simulate this model. One of the natural problems for this system is to determine the shape of a container so that they initial specific distribution of gas molecules eventually leads to a predetermined distribution. This problem if PSPACE-complete. Related intractable and decidable problems are discussed as well
Modeling cellular effects of coal pollutants
Anon.
1981-01-01
The goal of this project is to develop and test models for the dose and dose-rate dependence of biological effects of coal pollutants on mammalian cells in tissue culture. Particular attention is given to the interaction of pollutants with the genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid, or NDA) in the cell. Unlike radiation, which can interact directly with chromatin, chemical pollutants undergo numerous changes before the ultimate carcinogen becomes covalently bound to the DNA. Synthetic vesicles formed from a phospholipid bilayer are being used to investigate chemical transformations that may occur during the transport of pollutants across cellular membranes. The initial damage to DNA is rapidly modified by enzymatic repair systems in most living organisms. A model has been developed for predicting the effects of excision repair on the survival of human cells exposed to chemical carcinogens. In addition to the excision system, normal human cells also have tolerance mechanisms that permit continued growth and division of cells without removal of the damage. We are investigating the biological effect of damage passed to daughter cells by these tolerance mechanisms
Intelligent Growth Automaton of Virtual Plant Based on Physiological Engine
Zhu, Qingsheng; Guo, Mingwei; Qu, Hongchun; Deng, Qingqing
In this paper, a novel intelligent growth automaton of virtual plant is proposed. Initially, this intelligent growth automaton analyzes the branching pattern which is controlled by genes and then builds plant; moreover, it stores the information of plant growth, provides the interface between virtual plant and environment, and controls the growth and development of plant on the basis of environment and the function of plant organs. This intelligent growth automaton can simulate that the plant growth is controlled by genetic information system, and the information of environment and the function of plant organs. The experimental results show that the intelligent growth automaton can simulate the growth of plant conveniently and vividly.
Extended Cellular Automata Models of Particles and Space-Time
Beedle, Michael
2005-04-01
Models of particles and space-time are explored through simulations and theoretical models that use Extended Cellular Automata models. The expanded Cellular Automata Models consist go beyond simple scalar binary cell-fields, into discrete multi-level group representations like S0(2), SU(2), SU(3), SPIN(3,1). The propagation and evolution of these expanded cellular automatas are then compared to quantum field theories based on the "harmonic paradigm" i.e. built by an infinite number of harmonic oscillators, and with gravitational models.
Cellular-automata supercomputers for fluid-dynamics modeling
Margolus, N.; Toffoli, T.; Vichniac, G.
1986-01-01
We report recent developments in the modeling of fluid dynamics, and give experimental results (including dynamical exponents) obtained using cellular automata machines. Because of their locality and uniformity, cellular automata lend themselves to an extremely efficient physical realization; with a suitable architecture, an amount of hardware resources comparable to that of a home computer can achieve (in the simulation of cellular automata) the performance of a conventional supercomputer
Katira, Parag; Bonnecaze, Roger T; Zaman, Muhammad H
2013-01-01
Malignant transformation, though primarily driven by genetic mutations in cells, is also accompanied by specific changes in cellular and extra-cellular mechanical properties such as stiffness and adhesivity. As the transformed cells grow into tumors, they interact with their surroundings via physical contacts and the application of forces. These forces can lead to changes in the mechanical regulation of cell fate based on the mechanical properties of the cells and their surrounding environment. A comprehensive understanding of cancer progression requires the study of how specific changes in mechanical properties influences collective cell behavior during tumor growth and metastasis. Here we review some key results from computational models describing the effect of changes in cellular and extra-cellular mechanical properties and identify mechanistic pathways for cancer progression that can be targeted for the prediction, treatment, and prevention of cancer.
Toward an automaton Constraint for Local Search
Jun He
2009-10-01
Full Text Available We explore the idea of using finite automata to implement new constraints for local search (this is already a successful technique in constraint-based global search. We show how it is possible to maintain incrementally the violations of a constraint and its decision variables from an automaton that describes a ground checker for that constraint. We establish the practicality of our approach idea on real-life personnel rostering problems, and show that it is competitive with the approach of [Pralong, 2007].
Cellular potts models multiscale extensions and biological applications
Scianna, Marco
2013-01-01
A flexible, cell-level, and lattice-based technique, the cellular Potts model accurately describes the phenomenological mechanisms involved in many biological processes. Cellular Potts Models: Multiscale Extensions and Biological Applications gives an interdisciplinary, accessible treatment of these models, from the original methodologies to the latest developments. The book first explains the biophysical bases, main merits, and limitations of the cellular Potts model. It then proposes several innovative extensions, focusing on ways to integrate and interface the basic cellular Potts model at the mesoscopic scale with approaches that accurately model microscopic dynamics. These extensions are designed to create a nested and hybrid environment, where the evolution of a biological system is realistically driven by the constant interplay and flux of information between the different levels of description. Through several biological examples, the authors demonstrate a qualitative and quantitative agreement with t...
Dynamic behavior of cellular materials and cellular structures: Experiments and modeling
Gao, Ziyang
Cellular solids, including cellular materials and cellular structures (CMS), have attracted people's great interests because of their low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They offer potential for lightweight structures, energy absorption, thermal management, etc. Therefore, the studies of cellular solids have become one of the hottest research fields nowadays. From energy absorption point of view, any plastically deformed structures can be divided into two types (called type I and type II), and the basic cells of the CMS may take the configurations of these two types of structures. Accordingly, separated discussions are presented in this thesis. First, a modified 1-D model is proposed and numerically solved for a typical type II structure. Good agreement is achieved with the previous experimental data, hence is used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a type II chain. Resulted from different load speeds, interesting collapse modes are observed, and the parameters which govern the cell's post-collapse behavior are identified through a comprehensive non-dimensional analysis on general cellular chains. Secondly, the MHS specimens are chosen as an example of type I foam materials because of their good uniformity of the cell geometry. An extensive experimental study was carried out, where more attention was paid to their responses to dynamic loadings. Great enhancement of the stress-strain curve was observed in dynamic cases, and the energy absorption capacity is found to be several times higher than that of the commercial metal foams. Based on the experimental study, finite elemental simulations and theoretical modeling are also conducted, achieving good agreements and demonstrating the validities of those models. It is believed that the experimental, numerical and analytical results obtained in the present study will certainly deepen the understanding of the unsolved fundamental issues on the mechanical behavior of
Modeling and Analysis of Cellular CDMA Forward Channel
Tighe, Jan
2001-01-01
In this thesis, we develop the forward channel model for a DS-CDMA cellular system operating in a slow-flat Rayleigh fading and log normal shadowing environment, which incorporates the extended Hata...
A generalized cellular automata approach to modeling first order ...
... inhibitors deforming the allosteric site or inhibitors changing the structure of active ... Cell-based models with discrete state variables, such as Cellular Automata ... capture the essential features of a discrete real system, consisting of space, ...
Recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings
Feldberg, R.; Knudsen, C.; Rasmussen, S.
1994-01-01
A method for a recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings is presented. The method is based on a graphical representation of global cellular-automata mappings. For a given cellular-automaton rule the recursive algorithm defines the change of the global cellular-automaton mapping as the number of lattice sites is incremented. A proof of lattice size invariance of global cellular-automata mappings is derived from an approximation to the exact recursive definition. The recursive definitions are applied to calculate the fractal dimension of the set of reachable states and of the set of fixed points of cellular automata on an infinite lattice
PASSENGER TRAFFIC MOVEMENT MODELLING BY THE CELLULAR-AUTOMAT APPROACH
T. Mikhaylovskaya
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The mathematical model of passenger traffic movement developed on the basis of the cellular-automat approach is considered. The program realization of the cellular-automat model of pedastrians streams movement in pedestrian subways at presence of obstacles, at subway structure narrowing is presented. The optimum distances between the obstacles and the angle of subway structure narrowing providing pedastrians stream safe movement and traffic congestion occurance are determined.
Obade, P.; Koedam, N.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Neukermans, G.; Bogaert, J.; Nyssen, E.; van Nedervelde, F.; Berger, U.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.
2009-01-01
Mangrove forests are ecologically and economically important and frequently dominating protected coastal areas in the tropics and subtropics at suitable intertidal zones and are often subjected to disturbances that disrupt the structure of an ecosystem, that change resource availability and that
Giovanni Dalmasso
Full Text Available Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelles that supply energy for cellular biochemistry through oxidative phosphorylation. Within a cell, hundreds of mobile mitochondria undergo fusion and fission events to form a dynamic network. These morphological and mobility dynamics are essential for maintaining mitochondrial functional homeostasis, and alterations both impact and reflect cellular stress states. Mitochondrial homeostasis is further dependent on production (biogenesis and the removal of damaged mitochondria by selective autophagy (mitophagy. While mitochondrial function, dynamics, biogenesis and mitophagy are highly-integrated processes, it is not fully understood how systemic control in the cell is established to maintain homeostasis, or respond to bioenergetic demands. Here we used agent-based modeling (ABM to integrate molecular and imaging knowledge sets, and simulate population dynamics of mitochondria and their response to environmental energy demand. Using high-dimensional parameter searches we integrated experimentally-measured rates of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, and using sensitivity analysis we identified parameter influences on population homeostasis. By studying the dynamics of cellular subpopulations with distinct mitochondrial masses, our approach uncovered system properties of mitochondrial populations: (1 mitochondrial fusion and fission activities rapidly establish mitochondrial sub-population homeostasis, and total cellular levels of mitochondria alter fusion and fission activities and subpopulation distributions; (2 restricting the directionality of mitochondrial mobility does not alter morphology subpopulation distributions, but increases network transmission dynamics; and (3 maintaining mitochondrial mass homeostasis and responding to bioenergetic stress requires the integration of mitochondrial dynamics with the cellular bioenergetic state. Finally, (4 our model suggests sources of, and stress conditions
Computational model of cellular metabolic dynamics
Li, Yanjun; Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M
2010-01-01
of the cytosol and mitochondria. The model simulated skeletal muscle metabolic responses to insulin corresponding to human hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Insulin-mediated rate of glucose disposal was the primary model input. For model validation, simulations were compared with experimental data......: intracellular metabolite concentrations and patterns of glucose disposal. Model variations were simulated to investigate three alternative mechanisms to explain insulin enhancements: Model 1 (M.1), simple mass action; M.2, insulin-mediated activation of key metabolic enzymes (i.e., hexokinase, glycogen synthase......, by application of mechanism M.3, the model predicts metabolite concentration changes and glucose partitioning patterns consistent with experimental data. The reaction rate fluxes quantified by this detailed model of insulin/glucose metabolism provide information that can be used to evaluate the development...
A cellular automata model for ant trails
In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was inves- tigated using ... the literature, it was considered in the model that (i) ant colony consists of two kinds of ants, good- ... ponents without a central controller [8].
Fire and Heat Spreading Model Based on Cellular Automata Theory
Samartsev, A. A.; Rezchikov, A. F.; Kushnikov, V. A.; Ivashchenko, V. A.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Filimonyuk, L. Yu; Dolinina, O. N.; Kushnikov, O. V.; Shulga, T. E.; Tverdokhlebov, V. A.; Fominykh, D. S.
2018-05-01
The distinctive feature of the proposed fire and heat spreading model in premises is the reduction of the computational complexity due to the use of the theory of cellular automata with probability rules of behavior. The possibilities and prospects of using this model in practice are noted. The proposed model has a simple mechanism of integration with agent-based evacuation models. The joint use of these models could improve floor plans and reduce the time of evacuation from premises during fires.
Recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings
Feldberg, Rasmus; Knudsen, Carsten; Rasmussen, Steen
1994-01-01
A method for a recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings is presented. The method is based on a graphical representation of global cellular-automata mappings. For a given cellular-automaton rule the recursive algorithm defines the change of the global cellular-automaton mapping...... as the number of lattice sites is incremented. A proof of lattice size invariance of global cellular-automata mappings is derived from an approximation to the exact recursive definition. The recursive definitions are applied to calculate the fractal dimension of the set of reachable states and of the set...
Microscopic and macroscopic models for pedestrian crowds
Makmul, Juntima
2016-01-01
This thesis is concerned with microscopic and macroscopic models for pedes- trian crowds. In the first chapter, we consider pedestrians exit choices and model human behaviour in an evacuation process. Two microscopic models, discrete and continuous, are studied in this chapter. The former is a cellular automaton model and the latter is a social force model. Different numerical test cases are investigated and their results are compared. In chapter 2, a hierarchy of models for...
Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.
Natalie Berestovsky
Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them
Wavefront cellular learning automata.
Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza
2018-02-01
This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.
Wavefront cellular learning automata
Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza
2018-02-01
This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.
Lattice gas cellular automata and lattice Boltzmann models an introduction
Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A
2000-01-01
Lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) and lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) are relatively new and promising methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. The book provides an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Working knowledge of calculus is required and experience in PDEs and fluid dynamics is recommended. Some peculiarities of cellular automata are outlined in Chapter 2. The properties of various LGCA and special coding techniques are discussed in Chapter 3. Concepts from statistical mechanics (Chapter 4) provide the necessary theoretical background for LGCA and LBM. The properties of lattice Boltzmann models and a method for their construction are presented in Chapter 5.
Empirical study on entropy models of cellular manufacturing systems
Zhifeng Zhang; Renbin Xiao
2009-01-01
From the theoretical point of view,the states of manufacturing resources can be monitored and assessed through the amount of information needed to describe their technological structure and operational state.The amount of information needed to describe cellular manufacturing systems is investigated by two measures:the structural entropy and the operational entropy.Based on the Shannon entropy,the models of the structural entropy and the operational entropy of cellular manufacturing systems are developed,and the cognizance of the states of manufacturing resources is also illustrated.Scheduling is introduced to measure the entropy models of cellular manufacturing systems,and the feasible concepts of maximum schedule horizon and schedule adherence are advanced to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of schedules.Finally,an example is used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed methodology.
Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata
Xun Jing; Ning Bin; Li Keping
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station. Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track. Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered. One is the scheme of 'pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track'. The other is the scheme of 'two tracks play the same role'. We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced. Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values. This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model. (general)
The adaptive cruise control vehicles in the cellular automata model
Jiang Rui; Wu Qingsong
2006-01-01
This Letter presented a cellular automata model where the adaptive cruise control vehicles are modelled. In this model, the constant time headway policy is adopted. The fundamental diagram is presented. The simulation results are in good agreement with the analytical ones. The mixture of ACC vehicles with manually driven vehicles is investigated. It is shown that with the introduction of ACC vehicles, the jam can be suppressed
Modeling cellular networks in fading environments with dominant specular components
Alammouri, Ahmad; Elsawy, Hesham; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Di Renzo, Marco; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2016-01-01
to the Nakagami-m fading in some special cases. However, neither the Rayleigh nor the Nakagami-m accounts for dominant specular components (DSCs) which may appear in realistic fading channels. In this paper, we present a tractable model for cellular networks
Radio Channel Modelling for UAV Communication over Cellular Networks
Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard
2017-01-01
The main goal of this paper is to obtain models for path loss exponents and shadowing for the radio channel between airborne Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and cellular networks. In this pursuit, field measurements were conducted in live LTE networks at the 800 MHz frequency band, using a commer...
Complex Automata: Multi-scale Modeling with Coupled Cellular Automata
Hoekstra, A.G.; Caiazzo, A.; Lorenz, E.; Falcone, J.-L.; Chopard, B.; Hoekstra, A.G.; Kroc, J.; Sloot, P.M.A.
2010-01-01
Cellular Automata (CA) are generally acknowledged to be a powerful way to describe and model natural phenomena [1-3]. There are even tempting claims that nature itself is one big (quantum) information processing system, e.g. [4], and that CA may actually be nature’s way to do this processing [5-7].
A Markov Process Inspired Cellular Automata Model of Road Traffic
Wang, Fa; Li, Li; Hu, Jianming; Ji, Yan; Yao, Danya; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Xuexiang; Su, Yuelong; Wei, Zheng
2008-01-01
To provide a more accurate description of the driving behaviors in vehicle queues, a namely Markov-Gap cellular automata model is proposed in this paper. It views the variation of the gap between two consequent vehicles as a Markov process whose stationary distribution corresponds to the observed distribution of practical gaps. The multiformity of this Markov process provides the model enough flexibility to describe various driving behaviors. Two examples are given to show how to specialize i...
Modeling cellular networks in fading environments with dominant specular components
AlAmmouri, Ahmad
2016-07-26
Stochastic geometry (SG) has been widely accepted as a fundamental tool for modeling and analyzing cellular networks. However, the fading models used with SG analysis are mainly confined to the simplistic Rayleigh fading, which is extended to the Nakagami-m fading in some special cases. However, neither the Rayleigh nor the Nakagami-m accounts for dominant specular components (DSCs) which may appear in realistic fading channels. In this paper, we present a tractable model for cellular networks with generalized two-ray (GTR) fading channel. The GTR fading explicitly accounts for two DSCs in addition to the diffuse components and offers high flexibility to capture diverse fading channels that appear in realistic outdoor/indoor wireless communication scenarios. It also encompasses the famous Rayleigh and Rician fading as special cases. To this end, the prominent effect of DSCs is highlighted in terms of average spectral efficiency. © 2016 IEEE.
Simulations of living cell origins using a cellular automata model.
Ishida, Takeshi
2014-04-01
Understanding the generalized mechanisms of cell self-assembly is fundamental for applications in various fields, such as mass producing molecular machines in nanotechnology. Thus, the details of real cellular reaction networks and the necessary conditions for self-organized cells must be elucidated. We constructed a 2-dimensional cellular automata model to investigate the emergence of biological cell formation, which incorporated a looped membrane and a membrane-bound information system (akin to a genetic code and gene expression system). In particular, with an artificial reaction system coupled with a thermal system, the simultaneous formation of a looped membrane and an inner reaction process resulted in a more stable structure. These double structures inspired the primitive biological cell formation process from chemical evolution stage. With a model to simulate cellular self-organization in a 2-dimensional cellular automata model, 3 phenomena could be realized: (1) an inner reaction system developed as an information carrier precursor (akin to DNA); (2) a cell border emerged (akin to a cell membrane); and (3) these cell structures could divide into 2. This double-structured cell was considered to be a primary biological cell. The outer loop evolved toward a lipid bilayer membrane, and inner polymeric particles evolved toward precursor information carriers (evolved toward DNA). This model did not completely clarify all the necessary and sufficient conditions for biological cell self-organization. Further, our virtual cells remained unstable and fragile. However, the "garbage bag model" of Dyson proposed that the first living cells were deficient; thus, it would be reasonable that the earliest cells were more unstable and fragile than the simplest current unicellular organisms.
Computer Modeling of the Earliest Cellular Structures and Functions
Pohorille, Andrew; Chipot, Christophe; Schweighofer, Karl
2000-01-01
In the absence of extinct or extant record of protocells (the earliest ancestors of contemporary cells). the most direct way to test our understanding of the origin of cellular life is to construct laboratory models of protocells. Such efforts are currently underway in the NASA Astrobiology Program. They are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures and developing designs for molecules that perform proto-cellular functions. Many of these functions, such as import of nutrients, capture and storage of energy. and response to changes in the environment are carried out by proteins bound to membranestructures at water-membrane interfaces and insert into membranes, (b) how these peptides aggregate to form membrane-spanning structures (eg. channels), and (c) by what mechanisms such aggregates perform essential proto-cellular functions, such as proton transport of protons across cell walls, a key step in cellular bioenergetics. The simulations were performed using the molecular dynamics method, in which Newton's equations of motion for each item in the system are solved iteratively. The problems of interest required simulations on multi-nanosecond time scales, which corresponded to 10(exp 6)-10(exp 8) time steps.
Unified Stochastic Geometry Model for MIMO Cellular Networks with Retransmissions
Afify, Laila H.
2016-10-11
This paper presents a unified mathematical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, for downlink cellular networks with multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) base stations (BSs). The developed paradigm accounts for signal retransmission upon decoding errors, in which the temporal correlation among the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) of the original and retransmitted signals is captured. In addition to modeling the effect of retransmission on the network performance, the developed mathematical model presents twofold analysis unification for MIMO cellular networks literature. First, it integrates the tangible decoding error probability and the abstracted (i.e., modulation scheme and receiver type agnostic) outage probability analysis, which are largely disjoint in the literature. Second, it unifies the analysis for different MIMO configurations. The unified MIMO analysis is achieved by abstracting unnecessary information conveyed within the interfering signals by Gaussian signaling approximation along with an equivalent SISO representation for the per-data stream SINR in MIMO cellular networks. We show that the proposed unification simplifies the analysis without sacrificing the model accuracy. To this end, we discuss the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff imposed by different MIMO schemes and shed light on the diversity loss due to the temporal correlation among the SINRs of the original and retransmitted signals. Finally, several design insights are highlighted.
Unified Stochastic Geometry Model for MIMO Cellular Networks with Retransmissions
Afify, Laila H.; Elsawy, Hesham; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2016-01-01
This paper presents a unified mathematical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, for downlink cellular networks with multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) base stations (BSs). The developed paradigm accounts for signal retransmission upon decoding errors, in which the temporal correlation among the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) of the original and retransmitted signals is captured. In addition to modeling the effect of retransmission on the network performance, the developed mathematical model presents twofold analysis unification for MIMO cellular networks literature. First, it integrates the tangible decoding error probability and the abstracted (i.e., modulation scheme and receiver type agnostic) outage probability analysis, which are largely disjoint in the literature. Second, it unifies the analysis for different MIMO configurations. The unified MIMO analysis is achieved by abstracting unnecessary information conveyed within the interfering signals by Gaussian signaling approximation along with an equivalent SISO representation for the per-data stream SINR in MIMO cellular networks. We show that the proposed unification simplifies the analysis without sacrificing the model accuracy. To this end, we discuss the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff imposed by different MIMO schemes and shed light on the diversity loss due to the temporal correlation among the SINRs of the original and retransmitted signals. Finally, several design insights are highlighted.
Learning automaton newtork and its dynamics. Gakushu automaton network to sono dynamics
Quan, F [Hiroshima-Denki Institute of Technology, Hiroshima (Jpaan); Unno, F; Hirata, H [Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan)
1991-10-20
In order to construct a distributed processing system having learning automata as autonomous elements, a reinforcement learning network of the automaton is proposed and it{prime}s dynamics is investigated. In this paper, it is attempted to add another level of meaning to computational cooperativity by using a reinforcement learning network with generalized leaning automata. The collection of learning automata in the team situation acts as self-interested agents that work toward improving their performance with respect to their individual preference ordering. In the global state space of the network, the case of partially synchronous stochastic process is considered. In this case, the existence of mean field is shown and a reinforcement learning algorithm which can make the dynamics on the average reinforcement trajectory is presented. This algorithm is shown to have a high convergence speed as a result of a simple experiment. 14 refs., 9 figs.
Precharattana, Monamorn; Nokkeaw, Arthorn; Triampo, Wannapong; Triampo, Darapond; Lenbury, Yongwimon
2011-07-01
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide. To date, many drug treatment regimens have been applied to AIDS patients but none has resulted in a successful cure. This is mainly due to the fact that free HIV particles are frequently in mutation, and infected CD4(+) T cells normally reside in the lymphoid tissue where they cannot (so far) be eradicated. We present a stochastic cellular automaton (CA) model to computationally study what could be an alternative treatment, namely Leukapheresis (LCAP), to remove HIV infected leukocytes in the lymphoid tissue. We base our investigations on Monte Carlo computer simulations. Our major objective is to investigate how the number of infected CD4(+) T cells changes in response to LCAP during the short-time (weeks) and long-time (years) scales of HIV/AIDS progression in an infected individual. To achieve our goal, we analyze the time evolution of the CD4(+) T cell population in the lymphoid tissue (i.e., the lymph node) for HIV dynamics in treatment situations with various starting times and frequencies and under a no treatment condition. Our findings suggest that the effectiveness of the treatment depends mainly on the treatment starting time and the frequency of the LCAP. Other factors (e.g., the removal proportion, the treatment duration, and the state of removed cells) that likely influence disease progression are subjects for further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The nature of turbulence in a triangular lattice gas automaton
Duong-Van, Minh; Feit, M. D.; Keller, P.; Pound, M.
1986-12-01
Power spectra calculated from the coarse-graining of a simple lattice gas automaton, and those of time averaging other stochastic times series that we have investigated, have exponents in the range -1.6 to -2, consistent with observation of fully developed turbulence. This power spectrum is a natural consequence of coarse-graining; the exponent -2 represents the continuum limit.
A Fluid Model for Performance Analysis in Cellular Networks
Coupechoux Marceau
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a new framework to study the performance of cellular networks using a fluid model and we derive from this model analytical formulas for interference, outage probability, and spatial outage probability. The key idea of the fluid model is to consider the discrete base station (BS entities as a continuum of transmitters that are spatially distributed in the network. This model allows us to obtain simple analytical expressions to reveal main characteristics of the network. In this paper, we focus on the downlink other-cell interference factor (OCIF, which is defined for a given user as the ratio of its outer cell received power to its inner cell received power. A closed-form formula of the OCIF is provided in this paper. From this formula, we are able to obtain the global outage probability as well as the spatial outage probability, which depends on the location of a mobile station (MS initiating a new call. Our analytical results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations performed in a traditional hexagonal network. Furthermore, we demonstrate an application of the outage probability related to cell breathing and densification of cellular networks.
Integrating cellular metabolism into a multiscale whole-body model.
Markus Krauss
Full Text Available Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development.
Integrating Cellular Metabolism into a Multiscale Whole-Body Model
Krauss, Markus; Schaller, Stephan; Borchers, Steffen; Findeisen, Rolf; Lippert, Jörg; Kuepfer, Lars
2012-01-01
Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development. PMID:23133351
A Cellular Automata Model of Infection Control on Medical Implants
Prieto-Langarica, Alicia; Kojouharov, Hristo; Chen-Charpentier, Benito; Tang, Liping
2011-01-01
S. epidermidis infections on medically implanted devices are a common problem in modern medicine due to the abundance of the bacteria. Once inside the body, S. epidermidis gather in communities called biofilms and can become extremely hard to eradicate, causing the patient serious complications. We simulate the complex S. epidermidis-Neutrophils interactions in order to determine the optimum conditions for the immune system to be able to contain the infection and avoid implant rejection. Our cellular automata model can also be used as a tool for determining the optimal amount of antibiotics for combating biofilm formation on medical implants. PMID:23543851
[Reparative and neoplastic spheroid cellular structures and their mathematical model].
Kogan, E A; Namiot, V A; Demura, T A; Faĭzullina, N M; Sukhikh, G T
2014-01-01
Spheroid cell structures in the cell cultures have been described and are used for studying cell-cell and cell- matrix interactions. At the same time, spheroid cell structure participation in the repair and development of cancer in vivo remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular composition of spherical structures and their functional significance in the repair of squamous epithelium in human papilloma virus-associated cervical pathology--chronic cervicitis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1-3 degree, and also construct a mathematical model to explain the development and behavior of such spheroid cell structure.
Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model
Winarno, Nanang; Prima, Eka Cahya; Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu
2016-01-01
This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled “A New Kind of Science” discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram’s investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations
Sordaria macrospora, a model organism to study fungal cellular development.
Engh, Ines; Nowrousian, Minou; Kück, Ulrich
2010-12-01
During the development of multicellular eukaryotes, the processes of cellular growth and organogenesis are tightly coordinated. Since the 1940s, filamentous fungi have served as genetic model organisms to decipher basic mechanisms underlying eukaryotic cell differentiation. Here, we focus on Sordaria macrospora, a homothallic ascomycete and important model organism for developmental biology. During its sexual life cycle, S. macrospora forms three-dimensional fruiting bodies, a complex process involving the formation of different cell types. S. macrospora can be used for genetic, biochemical and cellular experimental approaches since diverse tools, including fluorescence microscopy, a marker recycling system and gene libraries, are available. Moreover, the genome of S. macrospora has been sequenced and allows functional genomics analyses. Over the past years, our group has generated and analysed a number of developmental mutants which has greatly enhanced our fundamental understanding about fungal morphogenesis. In addition, our recent research activities have established a link between developmental proteins and conserved signalling cascades, ultimately leading to a regulatory network controlling differentiation processes in a eukaryotic model organism. This review summarizes the results of our recent findings, thus advancing current knowledge of the general principles and paradigms underpinning eukaryotic cell differentiation and development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
A hybrid parallel framework for the cellular Potts model simulations
Jiang, Yi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; He, Kejing [SOUTH CHINA UNIV; Dong, Shoubin [SOUTH CHINA UNIV
2009-01-01
The Cellular Potts Model (CPM) has been widely used for biological simulations. However, most current implementations are either sequential or approximated, which can't be used for large scale complex 3D simulation. In this paper we present a hybrid parallel framework for CPM simulations. The time-consuming POE solving, cell division, and cell reaction operation are distributed to clusters using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The Monte Carlo lattice update is parallelized on shared-memory SMP system using OpenMP. Because the Monte Carlo lattice update is much faster than the POE solving and SMP systems are more and more common, this hybrid approach achieves good performance and high accuracy at the same time. Based on the parallel Cellular Potts Model, we studied the avascular tumor growth using a multiscale model. The application and performance analysis show that the hybrid parallel framework is quite efficient. The hybrid parallel CPM can be used for the large scale simulation ({approx}10{sup 8} sites) of complex collective behavior of numerous cells ({approx}10{sup 6}).
Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model
Winarno, Nanang, E-mail: nanang-winarno@upi.edu; Prima, Eka Cahya [International Program on Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung40154 (Indonesia); Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu [Department of Physics Education, Post Graduate School, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung40154 (Indonesia)
2016-02-08
This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled “A New Kind of Science” discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram’s investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations.
Acanthamoeba and Dictyostelium as Cellular Models for Legionella Infection
Swart, A. Leoni; Harrison, Christopher F.; Eichinger, Ludwig; Steinert, Michael; Hilbi, Hubert
2018-01-01
Environmental bacteria of the genus Legionella naturally parasitize free-living amoebae. Upon inhalation of bacteria-laden aerosols, the opportunistic pathogens grow intracellularly in alveolar macrophages and can cause a life-threatening pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Intracellular replication in amoebae and macrophages takes place in a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). LCV formation requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which translocates literally hundreds of “effector” proteins into host cells, where they modulate crucial cellular processes for the pathogen's benefit. The mechanism of LCV formation appears to be evolutionarily conserved, and therefore, amoebae are not only ecologically significant niches for Legionella spp., but also useful cellular models for eukaryotic phagocytes. In particular, Acanthamoeba castellanii and Dictyostelium discoideum emerged over the last years as versatile and powerful models. Using genetic, biochemical and cell biological approaches, molecular interactions between amoebae and Legionella pneumophila have recently been investigated in detail with a focus on the role of phosphoinositide lipids, small and large GTPases, autophagy components and the retromer complex, as well as on bacterial effectors targeting these host factors. PMID:29552544
Acanthamoeba and Dictyostelium as Cellular Models for Legionella Infection
A. Leoni Swart
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Environmental bacteria of the genus Legionella naturally parasitize free-living amoebae. Upon inhalation of bacteria-laden aerosols, the opportunistic pathogens grow intracellularly in alveolar macrophages and can cause a life-threatening pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Intracellular replication in amoebae and macrophages takes place in a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV. LCV formation requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which translocates literally hundreds of “effector” proteins into host cells, where they modulate crucial cellular processes for the pathogen's benefit. The mechanism of LCV formation appears to be evolutionarily conserved, and therefore, amoebae are not only ecologically significant niches for Legionella spp., but also useful cellular models for eukaryotic phagocytes. In particular, Acanthamoeba castellanii and Dictyostelium discoideum emerged over the last years as versatile and powerful models. Using genetic, biochemical and cell biological approaches, molecular interactions between amoebae and Legionella pneumophila have recently been investigated in detail with a focus on the role of phosphoinositide lipids, small and large GTPases, autophagy components and the retromer complex, as well as on bacterial effectors targeting these host factors.
A dynamic cellular vertex model of growing epithelial tissues
Lin, Shao-Zhen; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao
2017-04-01
Intercellular interactions play a significant role in a wide range of biological functions and processes at both the cellular and tissue scales, for example, embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cancer invasion. In this paper, a dynamic cellular vertex model is presented to study the morphomechanics of a growing epithelial monolayer. The regulating role of stresses in soft tissue growth is revealed. It is found that the cells originating from the same parent cell in the monolayer can orchestrate into clustering patterns as the tissue grows. Collective cell migration exhibits a feature of spatial correlation across multiple cells. Dynamic intercellular interactions can engender a variety of distinct tissue behaviors in a social context. Uniform cell proliferation may render high and heterogeneous residual compressive stresses, while stress-regulated proliferation can effectively release the stresses, reducing the stress heterogeneity in the tissue. The results highlight the critical role of mechanical factors in the growth and morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and help understand the development and invasion of epithelial tumors.
Bin packing problem solution through a deterministic weighted finite automaton
Zavala-Díaz, J. C.; Pérez-Ortega, J.; Martínez-Rebollar, A.; Almanza-Ortega, N. N.; Hidalgo-Reyes, M.
2016-06-01
In this article the solution of Bin Packing problem of one dimension through a weighted finite automaton is presented. Construction of the automaton and its application to solve three different instances, one synthetic data and two benchmarks are presented: N1C1W1_A.BPP belonging to data set Set_1; and BPP13.BPP belonging to hard28. The optimal solution of synthetic data is obtained. In the first benchmark the solution obtained is one more container than the ideal number of containers and in the second benchmark the solution is two more containers than the ideal solution (approximately 2.5%). The runtime in all three cases was less than one second.
A Computational Model of Cellular Response to Modulated Radiation Fields
McMahon, Stephen J., E-mail: stephen.mcmahon@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Karl T. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McGarry, Conor K. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Trainor, Colman [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); O' Sullivan, Joe M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clinical Oncology, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hounsell, Alan R. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)
2012-09-01
Purpose: To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies. Materials and Methods: A Monte Carlo model of cellular radiation response was developed. This model incorporated damage from both direct radiation and intercellular communication including bystander signaling. The predictions of this model were compared to previously measured survival curves for a normal human fibroblast line (AGO1522) and prostate tumor cells (DU145) exposed to spatially modulated fields. Results: The model was found to be able to accurately reproduce cell survival both in populations which were directly exposed to radiation and those which were outside the primary treatment field. The model predicts that the bystander effect makes a significant contribution to cell killing even in uniformly irradiated cells. The bystander effect contribution varies strongly with dose, falling from a high of 80% at low doses to 25% and 50% at 4 Gy for AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This was verified using the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine to inhibit the bystander effect in cells exposed to different doses, which showed significantly larger reductions in cell killing at lower doses. Conclusions: The model presented in this work accurately reproduces cell survival following modulated radiation exposures, both in and out of the primary treatment field, by incorporating a bystander component. In addition, the model suggests that the bystander effect is responsible for a significant portion of cell killing in uniformly irradiated cells, 50% and 70% at doses of 2 Gy in AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This description is a significant departure from accepted radiobiological models and may have a significant impact on optimization of treatment planning approaches if proven to be applicable in vivo.
A Computational Model of Cellular Response to Modulated Radiation Fields
McMahon, Stephen J.; Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; Trainor, Colman; O’Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.
2012-01-01
Purpose: To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies. Materials and Methods: A Monte Carlo model of cellular radiation response was developed. This model incorporated damage from both direct radiation and intercellular communication including bystander signaling. The predictions of this model were compared to previously measured survival curves for a normal human fibroblast line (AGO1522) and prostate tumor cells (DU145) exposed to spatially modulated fields. Results: The model was found to be able to accurately reproduce cell survival both in populations which were directly exposed to radiation and those which were outside the primary treatment field. The model predicts that the bystander effect makes a significant contribution to cell killing even in uniformly irradiated cells. The bystander effect contribution varies strongly with dose, falling from a high of 80% at low doses to 25% and 50% at 4 Gy for AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This was verified using the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine to inhibit the bystander effect in cells exposed to different doses, which showed significantly larger reductions in cell killing at lower doses. Conclusions: The model presented in this work accurately reproduces cell survival following modulated radiation exposures, both in and out of the primary treatment field, by incorporating a bystander component. In addition, the model suggests that the bystander effect is responsible for a significant portion of cell killing in uniformly irradiated cells, 50% and 70% at doses of 2 Gy in AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This description is a significant departure from accepted radiobiological models and may have a significant impact on optimization of treatment planning approaches if proven to be applicable in vivo.
Pathloss Measurements and Modeling for UAVs Connected to Cellular Networks
Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard
2017-01-01
. The measurements were conducted in an operating LTE network (850 MHz), using a commercial cell phone, placed inside the frame of the UAV. Trials were conducted for UAV flying at 5 different heights measured above ground level (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100m) and a pathloss regression line was obtained from results. Then......This paper assess field measurements, as part of the investigation of the suitability of cellular networks for providing connectivity to UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). Evaluation is done by means of field measurements obtained in a rural environment in Denmark with an airbone UAV......, downlink (DL) SINR levels obtained during flight measurements are also presented. An important result obtained from the measurents reveal that there is a height-related DL SINR degradation. Three main sources of uncertainty on the pathloss model that could be responsible for the SINR degradation are also...
Multi Car Elevator Control by using Learning Automaton
Shiraishi, Kazuaki; Hamagami, Tomoki; Hirata, Hironori
We study an adaptive control technique for multi car elevators (MCEs) by adopting learning automatons (LAs.) The MCE is a high performance and a near-future elevator system with multi shafts and multi cars. A strong point of the system is that realizing a large carrying capacity in small shaft area. However, since the operation is too complicated, realizing an efficient MCE control is difficult for top-down approaches. For example, “bunching up together" is one of the typical phenomenon in a simple traffic environment like the MCE. Furthermore, an adapting to varying environment in configuration requirement is a serious issue in a real elevator service. In order to resolve these issues, having an autonomous behavior is required to the control system of each car in MCE system, so that the learning automaton, as the solutions for this requirement, is supposed to be appropriate for the simple traffic control. First, we assign a stochastic automaton (SA) to each car control system. Then, each SA varies its stochastic behavior distributions for adapting to environment in which its policy is evaluated with each passenger waiting times. That is LA which learns the environment autonomously. Using the LA based control technique, the MCE operation efficiency is evaluated through simulation experiments. Results show the technique enables reducing waiting times efficiently, and we confirm the system can adapt to the dynamic environment.
Cellular Model of Atherogenesis Based on Pluripotent Vascular Wall Pericytes.
Ivanova, Ekaterina A; Orekhov, Alexander N
2016-01-01
Pericytes are pluripotent cells that can be found in the vascular wall of both microvessels and large arteries and veins. They have distinct morphology with long branching processes and form numerous contacts with each other and with endothelial cells, organizing the vascular wall cells into a three-dimensional network. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that pericytes may play a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular disorders, including atherosclerosis. Macrovascular pericytes are able to accumulate lipids and contribute to growth and vascularization of the atherosclerotic plaque. Moreover, they participate in the local inflammatory process and thrombosis, which can lead to fatal consequences. At the same time, pericytes can represent a useful model for studying the atherosclerotic process and for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. In particular, they are suitable for testing various substances' potential for decreasing lipid accumulation induced by the incubation of cells with atherogenic low-density lipoprotein. In this review we will discuss the application of cellular models for studying atherosclerosis and provide several examples of successful application of these models to drug research.
A Computational model for compressed sensing RNAi cellular screening
Tan Hua
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi becomes an increasingly important and effective genetic tool to study the function of target genes by suppressing specific genes of interest. This system approach helps identify signaling pathways and cellular phase types by tracking intensity and/or morphological changes of cells. The traditional RNAi screening scheme, in which one siRNA is designed to knockdown one specific mRNA target, needs a large library of siRNAs and turns out to be time-consuming and expensive. Results In this paper, we propose a conceptual model, called compressed sensing RNAi (csRNAi, which employs a unique combination of group of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs to knockdown a much larger size of genes. This strategy is based on the fact that one gene can be partially bound with several small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and conversely, one siRNA can bind to a few genes with distinct binding affinity. This model constructs a multi-to-multi correspondence between siRNAs and their targets, with siRNAs much fewer than mRNA targets, compared with the conventional scheme. Mathematically this problem involves an underdetermined system of equations (linear or nonlinear, which is ill-posed in general. However, the recently developed compressed sensing (CS theory can solve this problem. We present a mathematical model to describe the csRNAi system based on both CS theory and biological concerns. To build this model, we first search nucleotide motifs in a target gene set. Then we propose a machine learning based method to find the effective siRNAs with novel features, such as image features and speech features to describe an siRNA sequence. Numerical simulations show that we can reduce the siRNA library to one third of that in the conventional scheme. In addition, the features to describe siRNAs outperform the existing ones substantially. Conclusions This csRNAi system is very promising in saving both time and cost for large-scale RNAi
The Universe as Automaton From Simplicity and Symmetry to Complexity
Mainzer, Klaus
2012-01-01
This booklet is an essay at the interface of philosophy and complexity research, trying to inspire the reader with new ideas and new conceptual developments of cellular automata. Going beyond the numerical experiments of Steven Wolfram, it is argued that cellular automata must be considered complex dynamical systems in their own right, requiring appropriate analytical models in order to find precise answers and predictions in the universe of cellular automata. Indeed, eventually we have to ask whether cellular automata can be considered models of the real world and, conversely, whether there are limits to our modern approach of attributing the world, and the universe for that matter, essentially a digital reality.
The linearity of quantum mechanics from the perspective of Hamiltonian cellular automata
Enrico Fermi, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Dipartimento di Fisica Enrico Fermi, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy))" >Elze, Hans-Thomas
2014-01-01
We discuss the action principle and resulting Hamiltonian equations of motion for a class of integer-valued cellular automata introduced recently [1]. Employing sampling theory, these deterministic finite-difference equations are mapped reversibly on continuum equations describing a set of bandwidth limited harmonic oscillators. They represent the Schrödinger equation. However, modifications reflecting the bandwidth limit are incorporated, i.e., the presence of a time (or length) scale. When this discreteness scale is taken to zero, the usual results are obtained. Thus, the linearity of quantum mechanics can be traced to the postulated action principle of such cellular automata and its conservation laws to discrete ones. The cellular automaton conservation laws are in one-to-one correspondence with those of the related quantum mechanical model, while admissible symmetries are not.
From equilibrium spin models to probabilistic cellular automata
Georges, A.; Le Doussal, P.
1989-01-01
The general equivalence between D-dimensional probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) and (D + 1)-dimensional equilibrium spin models satisfying a disorder condition is first described in a pedagogical way and then used to analyze the phase diagrams, the critical behavior, and the universality classes of some automato. Diagrammatic representations of time-dependent correlation functions PCA are introduced. Two important classes of PCA are singled out for which these correlation functions simplify: (1) Quasi-Hamiltonian automata, which have a current-carrying steady state, and for which some correlation functions are those of a D-dimensional static model PCA satisfying the detailed balance condition appear as a particular case of these rules for which the current vanishes. (2) Linear (and more generally affine) PCA for which the diagrammatics reduces to a random walk problem closely related to (D + 1)-dimensional directed SAWs: both problems display a critical behavior with mean-field exponents in any dimension. The correlation length and effective velocity of propagation of excitations can be calculated for affine PCA, as is shown on an explicit D = 1 example. The authors conclude with some remarks on nonlinear PCA, for which the diagrammatics is related to reaction-diffusion processes, and which belong in some cases to the universality class of Reggeon field theory
Cellular automata model for traffic flow with safe driving conditions
Lárraga María Elena; Alvarez-Icaza Luis
2014-01-01
In this paper, a recently introduced cellular automata (CA) model is used for a statistical analysis of the inner microscopic structure of synchronized traffic flow. The analysis focuses on the formation and dissolution of clusters or platoons of vehicles, as the mechanism that causes the presence of this synchronized traffic state with a high flow. This platoon formation is one of the most interesting phenomena observed in traffic flows and plays an important role both in manual and automated highway systems (AHS). Simulation results, obtained from a single-lane system under periodic boundary conditions indicate that in the density region where the synchronized state is observed, most vehicles travel together in platoons with approximately the same speed and small spatial distances. The examination of velocity variations and individual vehicle gaps shows that the flow corresponding to the synchronized state is stable, safe and highly correlated. Moreover, results indicate that the observed platoon formation in real traffic is reproduced in simulations by the relation between vehicle headway and velocity that is embedded in the dynamics definition of the CA model. (general)
A Computational Model of Cellular Engraftment on Lung Scaffolds
Joshua J. Pothen
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The possibility that stem cells might be used to regenerate tissue is now being investigated for a variety of organs, but these investigations are still essentially exploratory and have few predictive tools available to guide experimentation. We propose, in this study, that the field of lung tissue regeneration might be better served by predictive tools that treat stem cells as agents that obey certain rules of behavior governed by both their phenotype and their environment. Sufficient knowledge of these rules of behavior would then, in principle, allow lung tissue development to be simulated computationally. Toward this end, we developed a simple agent-based computational model to simulate geographic patterns of cells seeded onto a lung scaffold. Comparison of the simulated patterns to those observed experimentally supports the hypothesis that mesenchymal stem cells proliferate preferentially toward the scaffold boundary, whereas alveolar epithelial cells do not. This demonstrates that a computational model of this type has the potential to assist in the discovery of rules of cellular behavior
A Computational Model of Cellular Engraftment on Lung Scaffolds.
Pothen, Joshua J; Rajendran, Vignesh; Wagner, Darcy; Weiss, Daniel J; Smith, Bradford J; Ma, Baoshun; Bates, Jason H T
2016-01-01
The possibility that stem cells might be used to regenerate tissue is now being investigated for a variety of organs, but these investigations are still essentially exploratory and have few predictive tools available to guide experimentation. We propose, in this study, that the field of lung tissue regeneration might be better served by predictive tools that treat stem cells as agents that obey certain rules of behavior governed by both their phenotype and their environment. Sufficient knowledge of these rules of behavior would then, in principle, allow lung tissue development to be simulated computationally. Toward this end, we developed a simple agent-based computational model to simulate geographic patterns of cells seeded onto a lung scaffold. Comparison of the simulated patterns to those observed experimentally supports the hypothesis that mesenchymal stem cells proliferate preferentially toward the scaffold boundary, whereas alveolar epithelial cells do not. This demonstrates that a computational model of this type has the potential to assist in the discovery of rules of cellular behavior.
Lattice gas automaton scheme with stochastic particle movement for a rotated fluid flow
Ishiguro, Misako
2002-01-01
Lattice gas automaton (LGA) models developed so far are just for Cartesian geometries, and no direct approach to rotated fluid flows is found. In this paper, LGA method is applied to model a two-dimensional rotated flow. Several problems specific to the rotated flow are to be solved: hexagonal lattice geometry to effectively identify the neighbors, boundary condition for irregular walls, multi-speed scheme to represent angular-oriented fluid velocity υ θ ≅γω, shape of macroscopic domain for statistics, formula to obtain macroscopic quantities such as density and mean fluid velocities, application method of Fermi-Dirac function to the initial particle arrangement. For this purpose, FHP-I type hexagonal lattice model is revised and a new LGA model with stochastic particle movement is proposed. The results of the trial calculation are shown. It is also investigated whether or not the underlying microscopic Boolean equations newly introduced leads to Navier-Stokes equation. (author)
A survey on the modeling and applications of cellular automata theory
Gong, Yimin
2017-09-01
The Cellular Automata Theory is a discrete model which is now widely used in scientific researches and simulations. The model is comprised of some cells which changes according to a specific rule over time. This paper provides a survey of the Modeling and Applications of Cellular Automata Theory, which focus on the program realization of Cellular Automata Theory and the application of Cellular Automata in each field, such as road traffic, land use, and cutting machines. Each application is further explained, and several related main models are briefly introduced. This research aims to help decision-makers formulate appropriate development plans.
HEURISTIC METHOD FOR LOW POWER RACE-FREE STATE-ASSIGNMENT OF AN ASYNGHRONOUS AUTOMATON
Yu. V. Pottosin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of race free state-assignment of an asynchronous automaton minimizing the switching activity of memory elements in an implementing circuit is considered. A heuristic method to solve this problem for an asynchronous automaton is suggested where the critical races between memory elements of the implementing circuit are eliminated.
Simulasi Tumbukan Partikel Gas Ideal Dengan Model Cellular Automata Dua Dimensi
Abdul Basid, Annisa Mujriati
2010-01-01
Telah dilakukan simulasi tumbukan partikel gas ideal dengan menggunakan model cellular automata dua dimensi untuk memvisualisasikan tumbukan partikel gas ideal. Tumbukan partikel disimulasikan dengan menggunakan model cellular automata dua dimensi. Di dalam cellular automata, pergerakan partikel diatur dengan suatu aturan yaitu aturan delapan tetangga yang merupakan aturan acak. Hasil program simulasi tumbukan partikel gas ideal dengan model cellular automata dua dimensi mengguna...
Cellular Automata Models Applied to the Study of Landslide Dynamics
Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian
2015-04-01
Landslides are caused by complex processes controlled by the interaction of numerous factors. Increasing efforts are being made to understand the spatial and temporal evolution of this phenomenon, and the use of remote sensing data is making significant contributions in improving forecast. This paper studies landslides seen as complex dynamic systems, in order to investigate their potential Self Organized Critical (SOC) behavior, and in particular, scale-invariant aspects of processes governing the spatial development of landslides and their temporal evolution, as well as the mechanisms involved in driving the system and keeping it in a critical state. For this purpose, we build Cellular Automata Models, which have been shown to be capable of reproducing the complexity of real world features using a small number of variables and simple rules, thus allowing for the reduction of the number of input parameters commonly used in the study of processes governing landslide evolution, such as those linked to the geomechanical properties of soils. This type of models has already been successfully applied in studying the dynamics of other natural hazards, such as earthquakes and forest fires. The basic structure of the model is composed of three modules: (i) An initialization module, which defines the topographic surface at time zero as a grid of square cells, each described by an altitude value; the surface is acquired from real Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). (ii) A transition function, which defines the rules used by the model to update the state of the system at each iteration. The rules use a stability criterion based on the slope angle and introduce a variable describing the weakening of the material over time, caused for example by rainfall. The weakening brings some sites of the system out of equilibrium thus causing the triggering of landslides, which propagate within the system through local interactions between neighboring cells. By using different rates of
Fu Chuanji; Wang Binghong; Yin Chuanyang; Zhou Tao; Hu Bo; Gao Kun; Hui, P.M.; Hu, C.-K.
2007-01-01
We propose and study a one-dimensional traffic flow cellular automaton model of high-speed vehicles with the Fukui-Ishibashi-type (FI) acceleration rule for all cars, and the Nagel-Schreckenberg-type (NS) stochastic delay mechanism. We obtain analytically the fundamental diagrams of the average speed and vehicle flux depending on the vehicle density and stochastic delay probability. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations
The similia principle: results obtained in a cellular model system.
Wiegant, Fred; Van Wijk, Roeland
2010-01-01
This paper describes the results of a research program focused on the beneficial effect of low dose stress conditions that were applied according to the similia principle to cells previously disturbed by more severe stress conditions. In first instance, we discuss criteria for research on the similia principle at the cellular level. Then, the homologous ('isopathic') approach is reviewed, in which the initial (high dose) stress used to disturb cellular physiology and the subsequent (low dose) stress are identical. Beneficial effects of low dose stress are described in terms of increased cellular survival capacity and at the molecular level as an increase in the synthesis of heat shock proteins (hsps). Both phenomena reflect a stimulation of the endogenous cellular self-recovery capacity. Low dose stress conditions applied in a homologous approach stimulate the synthesis of hsps and enhance survival in comparison with stressed cells that were incubated in the absence of low dose stress conditions. Thirdly, the specificity of the low dose stress condition is described where the initial (high dose) stress is different in nature from the subsequently applied (low dose) stress; the heterologous or 'heteropathic' approach. The results support the similia principle at the cellular level and add to understanding of how low dose stress conditions influence the regulatory processes underlying self-recovery. In addition, the phenomenon of 'symptom aggravation' which is also observed at the cellular level, is discussed in the context of self-recovery. Finally, the difference in efficiency between the homologous and the heterologous approach is discussed; a perspective is indicated for further research; and the relationship between studies on the similia principle and the recently introduced concept of 'postconditioning hormesis' is emphasized. Copyright 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Clock, George D
2016-08-01
Cellular engineering involves modification and control of cell properties, and requires an understanding of fundamentals and mechanisms of action for cellular derived product development. One of the keys to success in cellular engineering involves the quality and validity of results obtained from cell chemical signaling pathway assays. The accuracy of the assay data cannot be verified or assured if the effect of positive feedback, nonlinearities, and interrelationships between cell chemical signaling pathway elements are not understood, modeled, and simulated. Nonlinearities and positive feedback in the cell chemical signaling pathway can produce significant aberrations in assay data collection. Simulating the pathway can reveal potential instability problems that will affect assay results. A simulation, using an electrical analog for the coupled differential equations representing each segment of the pathway, provides an excellent tool for assay validation purposes. With this approach, voltages represent pathway enzyme concentrations and operational amplifier feedback resistance and input resistance values determine pathway gain and rate constants. The understanding provided by pathway modeling and simulation is strategically important in order to establish experimental controls for assay protocol structure, time frames specified between assays, and assay concentration variation limits; to ensure accuracy and reproducibility of results.
Dynamic Simulation of 1D Cellular Automata in the Active aTAM.
Jonoska, Nataša; Karpenko, Daria; Seki, Shinnosuke
2015-07-01
The Active aTAM is a tile based model for self-assembly where tiles are able to transfer signals and change identities according to the signals received. We extend Active aTAM to include deactivation signals and thereby allow detachment of tiles. We show that the model allows a dynamic simulation of cellular automata with assemblies that do not record the entire computational history but only the current updates of the states, and thus provide a way for (a) algorithmic dynamical structural changes in the assembly and (b) reusable space in self-assembly. The simulation is such that at a given location the sequence of tiles that attach and detach corresponds precisely to the sequence of states the synchronous cellular automaton generates at that location.
Theoretical modeling of cellular and dendritic solidification microstructures
Song, Younggil
the invasion process starts with a group of cells, the leader cell can detach itself from the group and grow continuously as a misoriented solitary cell in the other grain with a different misorientation. We use PF simulations to investigate the GB morphology and dynamics of a solitary cell. Solidification experiments on earth are typically performed in a thin-sample geometry to avoid fluid convection. Thus, we consider various influences on cellular and dendritic array patterns in thin samples. First, we explore the influence of crystal orientation. When a grain in a thin-sample geometry is misoriented with respect to the temperature gradient, primary cells and dendrites drift laterally in both experiments and simulations. At the same time, grain boundaries are systematically formed at the edges of the misoriented grain. The misoriented primary branches move away from the divergent grain boundary. At this boundary, cells/dendrites are generated continuously, and their spacings are larger than the dynamically selected spacings. Primary branches run into the other convergent GB, which leads to their elimination. Thus, at a stationary state, a spacing distribution is uniform with the spacing selected at the divergent GB until it decreases near the convergent GB. We perform simulations to illustrate the global evolutions of a primary spacing. In addition, we suggest a simple geometrical model and a nonlinear advection equation for the dynamics of the primary spacing evolution, which can predict the slow evolution of a primary spacing in a quasi-2D array. Experimental observations point out that the primary spacing selection could be affected by the sample thickness; however, the detailed description for the link between the primary spacing selection and a sample thickness is still missing. Here, we use PF simulations to investigate the primary cellular and dendritic spacing selection mechanisms under the influence of a sample thickness. A thin-sample geometry can limit
A Model of How Different Biology Experts Explain Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms
Trujillo, Caleb M.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.
2015-01-01
Constructing explanations is an essential skill for all science learners. The goal of this project was to model the key components of expert explanation of molecular and cellular mechanisms. As such, we asked: What is an appropriate model of the components of explanation used by biology experts to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms? Do…
Variational cellular model of the molecular and crystal electronic structure
Ferreira, L.G.; Leite, J.R.
1977-12-01
A variational version of the cellular method is developed to calculate the electronic structure of molecules and crystals. Due to the simplicity of the secular equation, the method is easy to be implemented. Preliminary calculations on the hydrogen molecular ion suggest that it is also accurate and of fast convergence [pt
Multi-scale modeling in morphogenesis: a critical analysis of the cellular Potts model.
Anja Voss-Böhme
Full Text Available Cellular Potts models (CPMs are used as a modeling framework to elucidate mechanisms of biological development. They allow a spatial resolution below the cellular scale and are applied particularly when problems are studied where multiple spatial and temporal scales are involved. Despite the increasing usage of CPMs in theoretical biology, this model class has received little attention from mathematical theory. To narrow this gap, the CPMs are subjected to a theoretical study here. It is asked to which extent the updating rules establish an appropriate dynamical model of intercellular interactions and what the principal behavior at different time scales characterizes. It is shown that the longtime behavior of a CPM is degenerate in the sense that the cells consecutively die out, independent of the specific interdependence structure that characterizes the model. While CPMs are naturally defined on finite, spatially bounded lattices, possible extensions to spatially unbounded systems are explored to assess to which extent spatio-temporal limit procedures can be applied to describe the emergent behavior at the tissue scale. To elucidate the mechanistic structure of CPMs, the model class is integrated into a general multiscale framework. It is shown that the central role of the surface fluctuations, which subsume several cellular and intercellular factors, entails substantial limitations for a CPM's exploitation both as a mechanistic and as a phenomenological model.
Cellular automata in photonic cavity arrays.
Li, Jing; Liew, T C H
2016-10-31
We propose theoretically a photonic Turing machine based on cellular automata in arrays of nonlinear cavities coupled with artificial gauge fields. The state of the system is recorded making use of the bistability of driven cavities, in which losses are fully compensated by an external continuous drive. The sequential update of the automaton layers is achieved automatically, by the local switching of bistable states, without requiring any additional synchronization or temporal control.
Modeling chemical systems using cellular automata a textbook and laboratory manual
Kier, Lemont B; Cheng, Chao-Kun
2005-01-01
There are few publications on Cellular Automata and certainly no direct competition Insight into a new modeling paradigm Novel approach to the use of in silico modeling to replace or supplement costly labs.
Load-aware modeling for uplink cellular networks in a multi-channel environment
Alammouri, Ahmad; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
We exploit tools from stochastic geometry to develop a tractable analytical approach for modeling uplink cellular networks. The developed model is load aware and accounts for per-user power control as well as the limited transmit power constraint
A local cellular model for growth on quasicrystals
Chidyagwai, Prince; Reiter, Clifford A.
2005-01-01
The growth of real valued cellular automata using a deterministic algorithm on 2-dimensional quasicrystalline structures is investigated. Quasicrystals are intermediate between the rigid organization of crystals and disorganized random structures. Since the quasicrystalline structures may be highly symmetric or not, we are able to obtain highly organized and relatively random growth patterns. This deterministic growth produces dendrite, sector, stellar, regular polygons, round, and random DLA-like structures
Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage
Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.
2011-01-01
BACKGROUND: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. RESULTS: Water migration in cellular solid foods
Multi-scale modeling with cellular automata: The complex automata approach
Hoekstra, A.G.; Falcone, J.-L.; Caiazzo, A.; Chopard, B.
2008-01-01
Cellular Automata are commonly used to describe complex natural phenomena. In many cases it is required to capture the multi-scale nature of these phenomena. A single Cellular Automata model may not be able to efficiently simulate a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. It is our goal to
Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage
Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.
2011-01-01
Background: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. Results: Water migration in cellular solid foods
Excellent approach to modeling urban expansion by fuzzy cellular automata: agent base model
Khajavigodellou, Yousef; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Mohammed, Abdulrazak A. S.; Chapi, Kamran
2014-09-01
Recently, the interaction between humans and their environment is the one of important challenges in the world. Landuse/ cover change (LUCC) is a complex process that includes actors and factors at different social and spatial levels. The complexity and dynamics of urban systems make the applicable practice of urban modeling very difficult. With the increased computational power and the greater availability of spatial data, micro-simulation such as the agent based and cellular automata simulation methods, has been developed by geographers, planners, and scholars, and it has shown great potential for representing and simulating the complexity of the dynamic processes involved in urban growth and land use change. This paper presents Fuzzy Cellular Automata in Geospatial Information System and remote Sensing to simulated and predicted urban expansion pattern. These FCA-based dynamic spatial urban models provide an improved ability to forecast and assess future urban growth and to create planning scenarios, allowing us to explore the potential impacts of simulations that correspond to urban planning and management policies. A fuzzy inference guided cellular automata approach. Semantic or linguistic knowledge on Land use change is expressed as fuzzy rules, based on which fuzzy inference is applied to determine the urban development potential for each pixel. The model integrates an ABM (agent-based model) and FCA (Fuzzy Cellular Automata) to investigate a complex decision-making process and future urban dynamic processes. Based on this model rapid development and green land protection under the influences of the behaviors and decision modes of regional authority agents, real estate developer agents, resident agents and non- resident agents and their interactions have been applied to predict the future development patterns of the Erbil metropolitan region.
Game of Life Cellular Automata
Adamatzky, Andrew
2010-01-01
In the late 1960s, British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells' states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway's Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational
Cellular modelling of river catchments and reaches: Advantages, limitations and prospects
Coulthard, T. J.; Hicks, D. M.; Van De Wiel, M. J.
2007-10-01
The last decade has witnessed the development of a series of cellular models that simulate the processes operating within river channels and drive their geomorphic evolution. Their proliferation can be partly attributed to the relative simplicity of cellular models and their ability to address some of the shortcomings of other numerical models. By using relaxed interpretations of the equations determining fluid flow, cellular models allow rapid solutions of water depths and velocities. These can then be used to drive (usually) conventional sediment transport relations to determine erosion and deposition and alter the channel form. The key advance of using these physically based yet simplified approaches is that they allow us to apply models to a range of spatial scales (1-100 km 2) and time periods (1-100 years) that are especially relevant to contemporary management and fluvial studies. However, these approaches are not without their limitations and technical problems. This paper reviews the findings of nearly 10 years of research into modelling fluvial systems with cellular techniques, principally focusing on improvements in routing water and how fluvial erosion and deposition (including lateral erosion) are represented. These ideas are illustrated using sample simulations of the River Teifi, Wales. A detailed case study is then presented, demonstrating how cellular models can explore the interactions between vegetation and the morphological dynamics of the braided Waitaki River, New Zealand. Finally, difficulties associated with model validation and the problems, prospects and future issues important to the further development and application of these cellular fluvial models are outlined.
Archaic man meets a marvellous automaton: posthumanism, social robots, archetypes.
Jones, Raya
2017-06-01
Posthumanism is associated with critical explorations of how new technologies are rewriting our understanding of what it means to be human and how they might alter human existence itself. Intersections with analytical psychology vary depending on which technologies are held in focus. Social robotics promises to populate everyday settings with entities that have populated the imagination for millennia. A legend of A Marvellous Automaton appears as early as 350 B.C. in a book of Taoist teachings, and is joined by ancient and medieval legends of manmade humanoids coming to life, as well as the familiar robots of modern science fiction. However, while the robotics industry seems to be realizing an archetypal fantasy, the technology creates new social realities that generate distinctive issues of potential relevance for the theory and practice of analytical psychology. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Toward micro-scale spatial modeling of gentrification
O'Sullivan, David
A simple preliminary model of gentrification is presented. The model is based on an irregular cellular automaton architecture drawing on the concept of proximal space, which is well suited to the spatial externalities present in housing markets at the local scale. The rent gap hypothesis on which the model's cell transition rules are based is discussed. The model's transition rules are described in detail. Practical difficulties in configuring and initializing the model are described and its typical behavior reported. Prospects for further development of the model are discussed. The current model structure, while inadequate, is well suited to further elaboration and the incorporation of other interesting and relevant effects.
Cellular Shape Memory Alloy Structures: Experiments & Modeling (Part 1)
2012-08-01
High -‐ temperature SMAs 24 Braze Joint between two wrought pieces of a Ni24.5Pd25Ti50.5 HTSMA (HTSMA from...process can be used to join other metal alloys and high -‐ temperature SMAs 25 Cellular Shape Memory...20 30 40 50 60 910 3 4 8 5 2 T (°C) Shape memory & superelasticity 1 0 e (%) (GPa) 6 7 A NiTi wire
Stochastic Model of Vesicular Sorting in Cellular Organelles
Vagne, Quentin; Sens, Pierre
2018-02-01
The proper sorting of membrane components by regulated exchange between cellular organelles is crucial to intracellular organization. This process relies on the budding and fusion of transport vesicles, and should be strongly influenced by stochastic fluctuations, considering the relatively small size of many organelles. We identify the perfect sorting of two membrane components initially mixed in a single compartment as a first passage process, and we show that the mean sorting time exhibits two distinct regimes as a function of the ratio of vesicle fusion to budding rates. Low ratio values lead to fast sorting but result in a broad size distribution of sorted compartments dominated by small entities. High ratio values result in two well-defined sorted compartments but sorting is exponentially slow. Our results suggest an optimal balance between vesicle budding and fusion for the rapid and efficient sorting of membrane components and highlight the importance of stochastic effects for the steady-state organization of intracellular compartments.
Deterministic one-way simulation of two-way, real-time cellular automata and its related problems
Umeo, H; Morita, K; Sugata, K
1982-06-13
The authors show that for any deterministic two-way, real-time cellular automaton, m, there exists a deterministic one-way cellular automation which can simulate m in twice real-time. Moreover the authors present a new type of deterministic one-way cellular automata, called circular cellular automata, which are computationally equivalent to deterministic two-way cellular automata. 7 references.
Elsawy, Hesham; Hossain, Ekram
2014-01-01
Using stochastic geometry, we develop a tractable uplink modeling paradigm for outage probability and spectral efficiency in both single and multi-tier cellular wireless networks. The analysis accounts for per user equipment (UE) power control
Cellular-automation fluids: A model for flow in porous media
Rothman, D.H.
1987-01-01
Because the intrinsic inhomogeneity of porous media makes the application of proper boundary conditions difficult, fluid flow through microgeometric models has typically been achieved with idealized arrays of geometrically simple pores, throats, and cracks. The author proposes here an attractive alternative, capable of freely and accurately modeling fluid flow in grossly irregular geometries. This new method numerically solves the Navier-Stokes equations using the cellular-automation fluid model introduced by Frisch, Hasslacher, and Pomeau. The cellular-automation fluid is extraordinarily simple - particles of unit mass traveling with unit velocity reside on a triangular lattice and obey elementary collisions rules - but capable of modeling much of the rich complexity of real fluid flow. The author shows how cellular-automation fluids are applied to the study of porous media. In particular, he discusses issues of scale on the cellular-automation lattice and present the results of 2-D simulations, including numerical estimation of permeability and verification of Darcy's law
Geometric Modeling of Cellular Materials for Additive Manufacturing in Biomedical Field: A Review
Gianpaolo Savio
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Advances in additive manufacturing technologies facilitate the fabrication of cellular materials that have tailored functional characteristics. The application of solid freeform fabrication techniques is especially exploited in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, a classification of cellular materials from a geometric point of view is proposed; then, the main approaches on geometric modeling of cellular materials are discussed. Finally, an investigation on porous scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies is pointed out. Perspectives in geometric modeling of scaffolds for tissue engineering are also proposed.
Geometric Modeling of Cellular Materials for Additive Manufacturing in Biomedical Field: A Review.
Savio, Gianpaolo; Rosso, Stefano; Meneghello, Roberto; Concheri, Gianmaria
2018-01-01
Advances in additive manufacturing technologies facilitate the fabrication of cellular materials that have tailored functional characteristics. The application of solid freeform fabrication techniques is especially exploited in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, a classification of cellular materials from a geometric point of view is proposed; then, the main approaches on geometric modeling of cellular materials are discussed. Finally, an investigation on porous scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies is pointed out. Perspectives in geometric modeling of scaffolds for tissue engineering are also proposed.
Geometric Modeling of Cellular Materials for Additive Manufacturing in Biomedical Field: A Review
Rosso, Stefano; Meneghello, Roberto; Concheri, Gianmaria
2018-01-01
Advances in additive manufacturing technologies facilitate the fabrication of cellular materials that have tailored functional characteristics. The application of solid freeform fabrication techniques is especially exploited in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, a classification of cellular materials from a geometric point of view is proposed; then, the main approaches on geometric modeling of cellular materials are discussed. Finally, an investigation on porous scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies is pointed out. Perspectives in geometric modeling of scaffolds for tissue engineering are also proposed. PMID:29487626
Bilan Stepan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.
Simulation Modeling by Classification of Problems: A Case of Cellular Manufacturing
Afiqah, K N; Mahayuddin, Z R
2016-01-01
Cellular manufacturing provides good solution approach to manufacturing area by applying Group Technology concept. The evolution of cellular manufacturing can enhance performance of the cell and to increase the quality of the product manufactured but it triggers other problem. Generally, this paper highlights factors and problems which emerge commonly in cellular manufacturing. The aim of the research is to develop a thorough understanding of common problems in cellular manufacturing. A part from that, in order to find a solution to the problems exist using simulation technique, this classification framework is very useful to be adapted during model building. Biology evolution tool was used in the research in order to classify the problems emerge. The result reveals 22 problems and 25 factors using cladistic technique. In this research, the expected result is the cladogram established based on the problems in cellular manufacturing gathered. (paper)
Soleimani, Hamid; Drakakis, Emmanuel M
2017-06-01
Recent studies have demonstrated that calcium is a widespread intracellular ion that controls a wide range of temporal dynamics in the mammalian body. The simulation and validation of such studies using experimental data would benefit from a fast large scale simulation and modelling tool. This paper presents a compact and fully reconfigurable cellular calcium model capable of mimicking Hopf bifurcation phenomenon and various nonlinear responses of the biological calcium dynamics. The proposed cellular model is synthesized on a digital platform for a single unit and a network model. Hardware synthesis, physical implementation on FPGA, and theoretical analysis confirm that the proposed cellular model can mimic the biological calcium behaviors with considerably low hardware overhead. The approach has the potential to speed up large-scale simulations of slow intracellular dynamics by sharing more cellular units in real-time. To this end, various networks constructed by pipelining 10 k to 40 k cellular calcium units are compared with an equivalent simulation run on a standard PC workstation. Results show that the cellular hardware model is, on average, 83 times faster than the CPU version.
A minimalist model of characteristic earthquakes
Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.; Gómez, J.B.
2002-01-01
In a spirit akin to the sandpile model of self- organized criticality, we present a simple statistical model of the cellular-automaton type which simulates the role of an asperity in the dynamics of a one-dimensional fault. This model produces an earthquake spectrum similar to the characteristic-earthquake...... behaviour of some seismic faults. This model, that has no parameter, is amenable to an algebraic description as a Markov Chain. This possibility illuminates some important results, obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, such as the earthquake size-frequency relation and the recurrence time...... of the characteristic earthquake....
Cellular automata model for use with real freeway data
2002-01-01
The exponential rate of increase in freeway traffic is expanding the need for accurate and : realistic methods to model and predict traffic flow. Traffic modeling and simulation facilitates an : examination of both microscopic and macroscopic views o...
Simulating Urban Growth Using a Random Forest-Cellular Automata (RF-CA Model
Courage Kamusoko
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Sustainable urban planning and management require reliable land change models, which can be used to improve decision making. The objective of this study was to test a random forest-cellular automata (RF-CA model, which combines random forest (RF and cellular automata (CA models. The Kappa simulation (KSimulation, figure of merit, and components of agreement and disagreement statistics were used to validate the RF-CA model. Furthermore, the RF-CA model was compared with support vector machine cellular automata (SVM-CA and logistic regression cellular automata (LR-CA models. Results show that the RF-CA model outperformed the SVM-CA and LR-CA models. The RF-CA model had a Kappa simulation (KSimulation accuracy of 0.51 (with a figure of merit statistic of 47%, while SVM-CA and LR-CA models had a KSimulation accuracy of 0.39 and −0.22 (with figure of merit statistics of 39% and 6%, respectively. Generally, the RF-CA model was relatively accurate at allocating “non-built-up to built-up” changes as reflected by the correct “non-built-up to built-up” components of agreement of 15%. The performance of the RF-CA model was attributed to the relatively accurate RF transition potential maps. Therefore, this study highlights the potential of the RF-CA model for simulating urban growth.
Propagation Path Loss Models for 5G Urban Micro- and Macro-Cellular Scenarios
Sun, Shu; Rappaport, Theodore S.; Rangan, Sundeep
2016-01-01
This paper presents and compares two candidate large-scale propagation path loss models, the alpha-beta-gamma (ABG) model and the close-in (CI) free space reference distance model, for the design of fifth generation (5G) wireless communication systems in urban micro- and macro-cellular scenarios....
Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiaoxia; Xie, Dehong
2014-06-01
The study presented here optimizes several steps in the spectral printer modeling workflow based on a cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer (CYNSN) model. First, a printer subdividing method was developed that reduces the number of sub-models while maintaining the maximum device gamut. Second, the forward spectral prediction accuracy of the CYNSN model for each subspace of the printer was improved using back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) estimated n values. Third, a sequential gamut judging method, which clearly reduced the complexity of the optimal sub-model and cell searching process during printer backward modeling, was proposed. After that, we further modified the use of the modeling color metric and comprehensively improved the spectral and perceptual accuracy of the spectral printer model. The experimental results show that the proposed optimization approaches provide obvious improvements in aspects of the modeling accuracy or efficiency for each of the corresponding steps, and an overall improvement of the optimized spectral printer modeling workflow was also demonstrated.
Gharbieh, Mohammad; Elsawy, Hesham; Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2017-01-01
The Internet of Things (IoT) is large-scale by nature, which is manifested by the massive number of connected devices as well as their vast spatial existence. Cellular networks, which provide ubiquitous, reliable, and efficient wireless access, will play fundamental rule in delivering the first-mile access for the data tsunami to be generated by the IoT. However, cellular networks may have scalability problems to provide uplink connectivity to massive numbers of connected things. To characterize the scalability of cellular uplink in the context of IoT networks, this paper develops a traffic-aware spatiotemporal mathematical model for IoT devices supported by cellular uplink connectivity. The developed model is based on stochastic geometry and queueing theory to account for the traffic requirement per IoT device, the different transmission strategies, and the mutual interference between the IoT devices. To this end, the developed model is utilized to characterize the extent to which cellular networks can accommodate IoT traffic as well as to assess and compare three different transmission strategies that incorporate a combination of transmission persistency, backoff, and power-ramping. The analysis and the results clearly illustrate the scalability problem imposed by IoT on cellular network and offer insights into effective scenarios for each transmission strategy.
Gharbieh, Mohammad
2017-05-02
The Internet of Things (IoT) is large-scale by nature, which is manifested by the massive number of connected devices as well as their vast spatial existence. Cellular networks, which provide ubiquitous, reliable, and efficient wireless access, will play fundamental rule in delivering the first-mile access for the data tsunami to be generated by the IoT. However, cellular networks may have scalability problems to provide uplink connectivity to massive numbers of connected things. To characterize the scalability of cellular uplink in the context of IoT networks, this paper develops a traffic-aware spatiotemporal mathematical model for IoT devices supported by cellular uplink connectivity. The developed model is based on stochastic geometry and queueing theory to account for the traffic requirement per IoT device, the different transmission strategies, and the mutual interference between the IoT devices. To this end, the developed model is utilized to characterize the extent to which cellular networks can accommodate IoT traffic as well as to assess and compare three different transmission strategies that incorporate a combination of transmission persistency, backoff, and power-ramping. The analysis and the results clearly illustrate the scalability problem imposed by IoT on cellular network and offer insights into effective scenarios for each transmission strategy.
Point process models for localization and interdependence of punctate cellular structures.
Li, Ying; Majarian, Timothy D; Naik, Armaghan W; Johnson, Gregory R; Murphy, Robert F
2016-07-01
Accurate representations of cellular organization for multiple eukaryotic cell types are required for creating predictive models of dynamic cellular function. To this end, we have previously developed the CellOrganizer platform, an open source system for generative modeling of cellular components from microscopy images. CellOrganizer models capture the inherent heterogeneity in the spatial distribution, size, and quantity of different components among a cell population. Furthermore, CellOrganizer can generate quantitatively realistic synthetic images that reflect the underlying cell population. A current focus of the project is to model the complex, interdependent nature of organelle localization. We built upon previous work on developing multiple non-parametric models of organelles or structures that show punctate patterns. The previous models described the relationships between the subcellular localization of puncta and the positions of cell and nuclear membranes and microtubules. We extend these models to consider the relationship to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and to consider the relationship between the positions of different puncta of the same type. Our results do not suggest that the punctate patterns we examined are dependent on ER position or inter- and intra-class proximity. With these results, we built classifiers to update previous assignments of proteins to one of 11 patterns in three distinct cell lines. Our generative models demonstrate the ability to construct statistically accurate representations of puncta localization from simple cellular markers in distinct cell types, capturing the complex phenomena of cellular structure interaction with little human input. This protocol represents a novel approach to vesicular protein annotation, a field that is often neglected in high-throughput microscopy. These results suggest that spatial point process models provide useful insight with respect to the spatial dependence between cellular structures.
McCoy, Sophie J; Allesina, Stefano; Pfister, Catherine A
2016-03-16
Historical ecological datasets from a coastal marine community of crustose coralline algae (CCA) enabled the documentation of ecological changes in this community over 30 years in the Northeast Pacific. Data on competitive interactions obtained from field surveys showed concordance between the 1980s and 2013, yet also revealed a reduction in how strongly species interact. Here, we extend these empirical findings with a cellular automaton model to forecast ecological dynamics. Our model suggests the emergence of a new dominant competitor in a global change scenario, with a reduced role of herbivory pressure, or trophic control, in regulating competition among CCA. Ocean acidification, due to its energetic demands, may now instead play this role in mediating competitive interactions and thereby promote species diversity within this guild. © 2016 The Author(s).
Generic framework for mining cellular automata models on protein-folding simulations.
Diaz, N; Tischer, I
2016-05-13
Cellular automata model identification is an important way of building simplified simulation models. In this study, we describe a generic architectural framework to ease the development process of new metaheuristic-based algorithms for cellular automata model identification in protein-folding trajectories. Our framework was developed by a methodology based on design patterns that allow an improved experience for new algorithms development. The usefulness of the proposed framework is demonstrated by the implementation of four algorithms, able to obtain extremely precise cellular automata models of the protein-folding process with a protein contact map representation. Dynamic rules obtained by the proposed approach are discussed, and future use for the new tool is outlined.
Numerical cell model investigating cellular carbon fluxes in Emiliania huxleyi.
Holtz, Lena-Maria; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Thoms, Silke
2015-01-07
Coccolithophores play a crucial role in the marine carbon cycle and thus it is interesting to know how they will respond to climate change. After several decades of research the interplay between intracellular processes and the marine carbonate system is still not well understood. On the basis of experimental findings given in literature, a numerical cell model is developed that describes inorganic carbon fluxes between seawater and the intracellular sites of calcite precipitation and photosynthetic carbon fixation. The implemented cell model consists of four compartments, for each of which the carbonate system is resolved individually. The four compartments are connected to each other via H(+), CO2, and HCO3(-) fluxes across the compartment-confining membranes. For CO2 accumulation around RubisCO, an energy-efficient carbon concentrating mechanism is proposed that relies on diffusive CO2 uptake. At low external CO2 concentrations and high light intensities, CO2 diffusion does not suffice to cover the carbon demand of photosynthesis and an additional uptake of external HCO3(-) becomes essential. The model is constrained by data of Emiliania huxleyi, the numerically most abundant coccolithophore species in the present-day ocean. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Cellular models and therapies for age-related macular degeneration
David L. Forest
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex neurodegenerative visual disorder that causes profound physical and psychosocial effects. Visual impairment in AMD is caused by the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE cells and the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that they support. There is currently no effective treatment for the most common form of this disease (dry AMD. A new approach to treating AMD involves the transplantation of RPE cells derived from either human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. Multiple clinical trials are being initiated using a variety of cell therapies. Although many animal models are available for AMD research, most do not recapitulate all aspects of the disease, hampering progress. However, the use of cultured RPE cells in AMD research is well established and, indeed, some of the more recently described RPE-based models show promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms of AMD and for screening drug candidates. Here, we discuss innovative cell-culture models of AMD and emerging stem-cell-based therapies for the treatment of this vision-robbing disease.
Mohammad Sayemuzzaman; Manoj K. Jha
2014-01-01
State wide variant topographic features in North Carolina attract the hydro-climatologist. There is none modeling study found that predict future Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change for whole North Carolina. In this study, satellite-derived land cover maps of year 1992, 2001 and 2006 of North Carolina were integrated within the framework of the Markov-Cellular Automata (Markov-CA) model which combines the Markov chain and Cellular Automata (CA) techniques. A Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) was ...
Model of adipose tissue cellularity dynamics during food restriction.
Soula, H A; Géloën, A; Soulage, C O
2015-01-07
Adipose tissue and adipocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to obesity. Size of fat cells depends on the balance of synthesis and mobilization of lipids and can undergo important variations throughout the life of the organism. These variations usually occur when storing and releasing lipids according to energy demand. In particular when confronted to severe food restriction, adipocyte releases its lipid content via a process called lipolysis. We propose a mathematical model that combines cell diameter distribution and lipolytic response to show that lipid release is a surface (radius squared) limited mechanism. Since this size-dependent rate affects the cell׳s shrinkage speed, we are able to predict the cell size distribution evolution when lipolysis is the only factor at work: such as during an important food restriction. Performing recurrent surgical biopsies on rats, we measured the evolution of adipose cell size distribution for the same individual throughout the duration of the food restriction protocol. We show that our microscopic model of size dependent lipid release can predict macroscopic size distribution evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A cellular automata intraurban model with prices and income-differentiated actors
Furtado, B.A.; Ettema, D.F.; Ruiz, R.M.; Hurkens, J.; Delden, H. van
2012-01-01
This paper presents an intraurban cellular automata model that is an extension to White and Engelen’s pioneering model. The paper’s main contribution is to distinguish between agglomerative eff ects, determined by the attraction of the neighbourhood, and disagglomerative eff ects, driven by land
Designing and implementing a regional urban modeling system using the SLEUTH cellular urban model
Jantz, Claire A.; Goetz, Scott J.; Donato, David I.; Claggett, Peter
2010-01-01
This paper presents a fine-scale (30 meter resolution) regional land cover modeling system, based on the SLEUTH cellular automata model, that was developed for a 257000 km2 area comprising the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin in the eastern United States. As part of this effort, we developed a new version of the SLEUTH model (SLEUTH-3r), which introduces new functionality and fit metrics that substantially increase the performance and applicability of the model. In addition, we developed methods that expand the capability of SLEUTH to incorporate economic, cultural and policy information, opening up new avenues for the integration of SLEUTH with other land-change models. SLEUTH-3r is also more computationally efficient (by a factor of 5) and uses less memory (reduced 65%) than the original software. With the new version of SLEUTH, we were able to achieve high accuracies at both the aggregate level of 15 sub-regional modeling units and at finer scales. We present forecasts to 2030 of urban development under a current trends scenario across the entire Chesapeake Bay drainage basin, and three alternative scenarios for a sub-region within the Chesapeake Bay watershed to illustrate the new ability of SLEUTH-3r to generate forecasts across a broad range of conditions.
Kinetic theory approach to modeling of cellular repair mechanisms under genome stress.
Jinpeng Qi
Full Text Available Under acute perturbations from outer environment, a normal cell can trigger cellular self-defense mechanism in response to genome stress. To investigate the kinetics of cellular self-repair process at single cell level further, a model of DNA damage generating and repair is proposed under acute Ion Radiation (IR by using mathematical framework of kinetic theory of active particles (KTAP. Firstly, we focus on illustrating the profile of Cellular Repair System (CRS instituted by two sub-populations, each of which is made up of the active particles with different discrete states. Then, we implement the mathematical framework of cellular self-repair mechanism, and illustrate the dynamic processes of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs and Repair Protein (RP generating, DSB-protein complexes (DSBCs synthesizing, and toxins accumulating. Finally, we roughly analyze the capability of cellular self-repair mechanism, cellular activity of transferring DNA damage, and genome stability, especially the different fates of a certain cell before and after the time thresholds of IR perturbations that a cell can tolerate maximally under different IR perturbation circumstances.
Kinetic theory approach to modeling of cellular repair mechanisms under genome stress.
Qi, Jinpeng; Ding, Yongsheng; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Yizhi
2011-01-01
Under acute perturbations from outer environment, a normal cell can trigger cellular self-defense mechanism in response to genome stress. To investigate the kinetics of cellular self-repair process at single cell level further, a model of DNA damage generating and repair is proposed under acute Ion Radiation (IR) by using mathematical framework of kinetic theory of active particles (KTAP). Firstly, we focus on illustrating the profile of Cellular Repair System (CRS) instituted by two sub-populations, each of which is made up of the active particles with different discrete states. Then, we implement the mathematical framework of cellular self-repair mechanism, and illustrate the dynamic processes of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and Repair Protein (RP) generating, DSB-protein complexes (DSBCs) synthesizing, and toxins accumulating. Finally, we roughly analyze the capability of cellular self-repair mechanism, cellular activity of transferring DNA damage, and genome stability, especially the different fates of a certain cell before and after the time thresholds of IR perturbations that a cell can tolerate maximally under different IR perturbation circumstances.
Tools and Models for Integrating Multiple Cellular Networks
Gerstein, Mark [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Gerstein Lab.
2015-11-06
CRIT for correlation analysis in systems biology [5]. For Aim 3, we have further investigated the scaling relationship that the number of Transcription Factors (TFs) in a genome is proportional to the square of the total number of genes. We have extended the analysis from transcription factors to various classes of functional categories, and from individual categories to joint distribution [6]. By introducing a new analytical framework, we have generalized the original toolbox model to take into account of metabolic network with arbitrary network topology [7].
Number-conserving cellular automata with a von Neumann neighborhood of range one
Wolnik, Barbara; Dzedzej, Adam; Baetens, Jan M; De Baets, Bernard
2017-01-01
We present necessary and sufficient conditions for a cellular automaton with a von Neumann neighborhood of range one to be number-conserving. The conditions are formulated for any dimension and for any set of states containing zero. The use of the geometric structure of the von Neumann neighborhood allows for computationally tractable conditions even in higher dimensions. (paper)
Time-based Cellular Automaton track finder for the CBM experiment
Akishina, Valentina; Kisel, Ivan
2015-01-01
The future heavy-ion experiment CBM (FAIR/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) will focus on the measurement of rare probes at interaction rates up to 10 MHz with data flow of up to 1 TB/s. The beam will provide free stream of particles without bunch structure. That requires full online event reconstruction and selection not only in space, but also in time, so- called 4D event building and selection. This is a task of the First-Level Event Selection (FLES) package. The FLES reconstruction and selection package consists of several modules: track finding, track fitting, short-lived particles finding, event building and event selection. The input data are distributed within the FLES farm in a form of so-called time-slices, in which time length is proportional to a compute power of a processing node. A time-slice is reconstructed in parallel between cores within a CPU, thus minimising communication between CPUs. After all tracks of the whole time-slice are found and fitted, they are collected into clusters of tracks originated from common primary vertices. After that short-lived particles are found and the full event building process is finished. (paper)
Platinum nanozymes recover cellular ROS homeostasis in an oxidative stress-mediated disease model
Moglianetti, Mauro; de Luca, Elisa; Pedone, Deborah; Marotta, Roberto; Catelani, Tiziano; Sartori, Barbara; Amenitsch, Heinz; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo
2016-02-01
In recent years, the use of nanomaterials as biomimetic enzymes has attracted great interest. In this work, we show the potential of biocompatible platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) as antioxidant nanozymes, which combine abundant cellular internalization and efficient scavenging activity of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus simultaneously integrating the functions of nanocarriers and antioxidant drugs. Careful toxicity assessment and intracellular tracking of Pt NPs proved their cytocompatibility and high cellular uptake, with compartmentalization within the endo/lysosomal vesicles. We have demonstrated that Pt NPs possess strong and broad antioxidant properties, acting as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase enzymes, with similar or even superior performance than natural enzymes, along with higher adaptability to the changes in environmental conditions. We then exploited their potent activity as radical scavenging materials in a cellular model of an oxidative stress-related disorder, namely human Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM) disease, which is associated with a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels. Noteworthily, we found that Pt nanozymes can efficiently reduce ROS levels, completely restoring the cellular physiological homeostasis.In recent years, the use of nanomaterials as biomimetic enzymes has attracted great interest. In this work, we show the potential of biocompatible platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) as antioxidant nanozymes, which combine abundant cellular internalization and efficient scavenging activity of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus simultaneously integrating the functions of nanocarriers and antioxidant drugs. Careful toxicity assessment and intracellular tracking of Pt NPs proved their cytocompatibility and high cellular uptake, with compartmentalization within the endo/lysosomal vesicles. We have demonstrated that Pt NPs possess strong and broad antioxidant properties, acting as superoxide
Traffic Modelling for Moving-Block Train Control System
Tang Tao; Li Keping
2007-01-01
This paper presents a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train control system simulation. In the proposed CA model, the driver reactions to train movements are captured by some updated rules. The space-time diagram of traffic flow and the trajectory of train movement is used to obtain insight into the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow. A number of simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Not only the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow can be reproduced, but also the simulation values of the minimum time headway are close to the theoretical values.
Singh, V. K.; Jha, A. K.; Gupta, K.; Srivastav, S. K.
2017-12-01
Recent studies indicate that there is a significant improvement in the urban land use dynamics through modeling at finer spatial resolutions. Geo-computational models such as cellular automata and agent based model have given evident proof regarding the quantification of the urban growth pattern with urban boundary. In recent studies, socio- economic factors such as demography, education rate, household density, parcel price of the current year, distance to road, school, hospital, commercial centers and police station are considered to the major factors influencing the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) pattern of the city. These factors have unidirectional approach to land use pattern which makes it difficult to analyze the spatial aspects of model results both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this study, cellular automata model is combined with generic model known as Agent Based Model to evaluate the impact of socio economic factors on land use pattern. For this purpose, Dehradun an Indian city is selected as a case study. Socio economic factors were collected from field survey, Census of India, Directorate of economic census, Uttarakhand, India. A 3X3 simulating window is used to consider the impact on LULC. Cellular automata model results are examined for the identification of hot spot areas within the urban area and agent based model will be using logistic based regression approach where it will identify the correlation between each factor on LULC and classify the available area into low density, medium density, high density residential or commercial area. In the modeling phase, transition rule, neighborhood effect, cell change factors are used to improve the representation of built-up classes. Significant improvement is observed in the built-up classes from 84 % to 89 %. However after incorporating agent based model with cellular automata model the accuracy improved from 89 % to 94 % in 3 classes of urban i.e. low density, medium density and commercial classes
A coarse-grained model for the simulations of biomolecular interactions in cellular environments
Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Wu, Yinghao
2014-01-01
The interactions of bio-molecules constitute the key steps of cellular functions. However, in vivo binding properties differ significantly from their in vitro measurements due to the heterogeneity of cellular environments. Here we introduce a coarse-grained model based on rigid-body representation to study how factors such as cellular crowding and membrane confinement affect molecular binding. The macroscopic parameters such as the equilibrium constant and the kinetic rate constant are calibrated by adjusting the microscopic coefficients used in the numerical simulations. By changing these model parameters that are experimentally approachable, we are able to study the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of molecular binding, as well as the effects caused by specific cellular environments. We investigate the volumetric effects of crowded intracellular space on bio-molecular diffusion and diffusion-limited reactions. Furthermore, the binding constants of membrane proteins are currently difficult to measure. We provide quantitative estimations about how the binding of membrane proteins deviates from soluble proteins under different degrees of membrane confinements. The simulation results provide biological insights to the functions of membrane receptors on cell surfaces. Overall, our studies establish a connection between the details of molecular interactions and the heterogeneity of cellular environments
Kadakia, Ekta; Shah, Lipa; Amiji, Mansoor M
2017-07-01
Nanoemulsions have shown potential in delivering drug across epithelial and endothelial cell barriers, which express efflux transporters. However, their transport mechanisms are not entirely understood. Our goal was to investigate the cellular permeability of nanoemulsion-encapsulated drugs and apply mathematical modeling to elucidate transport mechanisms and sensitive nanoemulsion attributes. Transport studies were performed in Caco-2 cells, using fish oil nanoemulsions and a model substrate, rhodamine-123. Permeability data was modeled using a semi-mechanistic approach, capturing the following cellular processes: endocytotic uptake of the nanoemulsion, release of rhodamine-123 from the nanoemulsion, efflux and passive permeability of rhodamine-123 in aqueous solution. Nanoemulsions not only improved the permeability of rhodamine-123, but were also less sensitive to efflux transporters. The model captured bidirectional permeability results and identified sensitive processes, such as the release of the nanoemulsion-encapsulated drug and cellular uptake of the nanoemulsion. Mathematical description of cellular processes, improved our understanding of transport mechanisms, such as nanoemulsions don't inhibit efflux to improve drug permeability. Instead, their endocytotic uptake, results in higher intracellular drug concentrations, thereby increasing the concentration gradient and transcellular permeability across biological barriers. Modeling results indicated optimizing nanoemulsion attributes like the droplet size and intracellular drug release rate, may further improve drug permeability.
a Predator-Prey Model Based on the Fully Parallel Cellular Automata
He, Mingfeng; Ruan, Hongbo; Yu, Changliang
We presented a predator-prey lattice model containing moveable wolves and sheep, which are characterized by Penna double bit strings. Sexual reproduction and child-care strategies are considered. To implement this model in an efficient way, we build a fully parallel Cellular Automata based on a new definition of the neighborhood. We show the roles played by the initial densities of the populations, the mutation rate and the linear size of the lattice in the evolution of this model.
Embryonic stem cells as an ectodermal cellular model of human p63-related dysplasia syndromes.
Rostagno, P.; Wolchinsky, Z.; Vigano, A.M.; Shivtiel, S.; Zhou, Huiqing; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Ferone, G.; Missero, C.; Mantovani, R.; Aberdam, D.; Virolle, T.
2010-01-01
Heterozygous mutations in the TP63 transcription factor underlie the molecular basis of several similar autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes. Here we provide a novel cellular model derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells that recapitulates in vitro the main steps of embryonic skin
An agent-based model of cellular dynamics and circadian variability in human endotoxemia.
Tung T Nguyen
Full Text Available As cellular variability and circadian rhythmicity play critical roles in immune and inflammatory responses, we present in this study an agent-based model of human endotoxemia to examine the interplay between circadian controls, cellular variability and stochastic dynamics of inflammatory cytokines. The model is qualitatively validated by its ability to reproduce circadian dynamics of inflammatory mediators and critical inflammatory responses after endotoxin administration in vivo. Novel computational concepts are proposed to characterize the cellular variability and synchronization of inflammatory cytokines in a population of heterogeneous leukocytes. Our results suggest that there is a decrease in cell-to-cell variability of inflammatory cytokines while their synchronization is increased after endotoxin challenge. Model parameters that are responsible for IκB production stimulated by NFκB activation and for the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines have large impacts on system behaviors. Additionally, examining time-dependent systemic responses revealed that the system is least vulnerable to endotoxin in the early morning and most vulnerable around midnight. Although much remains to be explored, proposed computational concepts and the model we have pioneered will provide important insights for future investigations and extensions, especially for single-cell studies to discover how cellular variability contributes to clinical implications.
Boundary Induced Phase Transition in Cellular Automata Models of Pedestrian Flow
Bukáček, M.; Hrabák, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 4 (2016), s. 327-338 ISSN 1557-5969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Adaptive time-span * Cellular automata model * Floor-field * Pedestrian flow * Phase transition * Principle of bonds Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2016
Guedes, J.M.; Rodrigues, H.C.; Bendsøe, Martin P.
2003-01-01
This paper describes a computational model, based on inverse homogenization and topology design, for approximating energy bounds for two-phase composites under multiple load cases. The approach allows for the identification of possible single-scale cellular materials that give rise to the optimal...
A cellular automata model of traffic flow with variable probability of randomization
Zheng Wei-Fan; Zhang Ji-Ye
2015-01-01
Research on the stochastic behavior of traffic flow is important to understand the intrinsic evolution rules of a traffic system. By introducing an interactional potential of vehicles into the randomization step, an improved cellular automata traffic flow model with variable probability of randomization is proposed in this paper. In the proposed model, the driver is affected by the interactional potential of vehicles before him, and his decision-making process is related to the interactional potential. Compared with the traditional cellular automata model, the modeling is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process based on the vehicle and traffic situations in front of him in actual traffic. From the improved model, the fundamental diagram (flow–density relationship) is obtained, and the detailed high-density traffic phenomenon is reproduced through numerical simulation. (paper)
On the derivation of approximations to cellular automata models and the assumption of independence.
Davies, K J; Green, J E F; Bean, N G; Binder, B J; Ross, J V
2014-07-01
Cellular automata are discrete agent-based models, generally used in cell-based applications. There is much interest in obtaining continuum models that describe the mean behaviour of the agents in these models. Previously, continuum models have been derived for agents undergoing motility and proliferation processes, however, these models only hold under restricted conditions. In order to narrow down the reason for these restrictions, we explore three possible sources of error in deriving the model. These sources are the choice of limiting arguments, the use of a discrete-time model as opposed to a continuous-time model and the assumption of independence between the state of sites. We present a rigorous analysis in order to gain a greater understanding of the significance of these three issues. By finding a limiting regime that accurately approximates the conservation equation for the cellular automata, we are able to conclude that the inaccuracy between our approximation and the cellular automata is completely based on the assumption of independence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Application of neural networks and cellular automata to calorimetric problems
Brenton, V; Fonvieille, H; Guicheney, C; Jousset, J; Roblin, Y; Tamin, F; Grenier, P
1994-09-01
Computing techniques based on parallel processing have been used to treat the information from the electromagnetic calorimeters in SLAC experiments E142/E143. Cluster finding and separation of overlapping showers are performed by a cellular automaton, pion and electron identification is done by using a multilayered neural network. Both applications are presented and their resulting performances are shown to be improved compared to more standard approaches. (author). 9 refs.; Submitted to Nuclear Instruments and Methods (NL).
Application of neural networks and cellular automata to calorimetric problems
Brenton, V.; Fonvieille, H.; Guicheney, C.; Jousset, J.; Roblin, Y.; Tamin, F.; Grenier, P.
1994-09-01
Computing techniques based on parallel processing have been used to treat the information from the electromagnetic calorimeters in SLAC experiments E142/E143. Cluster finding and separation of overlapping showers are performed by a cellular automaton, pion and electron identification is done by using a multilayered neural network. Both applications are presented and their resulting performances are shown to be improved compared to more standard approaches. (author)
Multidimensional cellular automata and generalization of Fekete's lemma
Silvio Capobianco
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Fekete's lemma is a well known combinatorial result on number sequences: we extend it to functions defined on $d$-tuples of integers. As an application of the new variant, we show that nonsurjective $d$-dimensional cellular automata are characterized by loss of arbitrarily much information on finite supports, at a growth rate greater than that of the support's boundary determined by the automaton's neighbourhood index.
Modeling and Analysis of Cellular Networks using Stochastic Geometry: A Tutorial
Elsawy, Hesham; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Win, Moe Z.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a tutorial on stochastic geometry (SG) based analysis for cellular networks. This tutorial is distinguished by its depth with respect to wireless communication details and its focus on cellular networks. The paper starts by modeling and analyzing the baseband interference in a baseline single-tier downlink cellular network with single antenna base stations and universal frequency reuse. Then, it characterizes signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) and its related performance metrics. In particular, a unified approach to conduct error probability, outage probability, and transmission rate analysis is presented. Although the main focus of the paper is on cellular networks, the presented unified approach applies for other types of wireless networks that impose interference protection around receivers. The paper then extends the unified approach to capture cellular network characteristics (e.g., frequency reuse, multiple antenna, power control, etc.). It also presents numerical examples associated with demonstrations and discussions. To this end, the paper highlights the state-of-the- art research and points out future research directions.
Modeling and Analysis of Cellular Networks using Stochastic Geometry: A Tutorial
Elsawy, Hesham
2016-11-03
This paper presents a tutorial on stochastic geometry (SG) based analysis for cellular networks. This tutorial is distinguished by its depth with respect to wireless communication details and its focus on cellular networks. The paper starts by modeling and analyzing the baseband interference in a baseline single-tier downlink cellular network with single antenna base stations and universal frequency reuse. Then, it characterizes signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) and its related performance metrics. In particular, a unified approach to conduct error probability, outage probability, and transmission rate analysis is presented. Although the main focus of the paper is on cellular networks, the presented unified approach applies for other types of wireless networks that impose interference protection around receivers. The paper then extends the unified approach to capture cellular network characteristics (e.g., frequency reuse, multiple antenna, power control, etc.). It also presents numerical examples associated with demonstrations and discussions. To this end, the paper highlights the state-of-the- art research and points out future research directions.
Hannan, Shabab B; Dräger, Nina M; Rasse, Tobias M; Voigt, Aaron; Jahn, Thomas R
2016-04-01
Abnormal tau accumulations were observed and documented in post-mortem brains of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before the identification of mutations in the Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene, encoding the tau protein, in a different neurodegenerative disease called Frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). The discovery of mutations in the MAPT gene associated with FTDP-17 highlighted that dysfunctions in tau alone are sufficient to cause neurodegeneration. Invertebrate models have been diligently utilized in investigating tauopathies, contributing to the understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in disease etiology. An important discovery came with the demonstration that over-expression of human tau in Drosophila leads to premature mortality and neuronal dysfunction including neurodegeneration, recapitulating some key neuropathological features of the human disease. The simplicity of handling invertebrate models combined with the availability of a diverse range of experimental resources make these models, in particular Drosophila a powerful invertebrate screening tool. Consequently, several large-scale screens have been performed using Drosophila, to identify modifiers of tau toxicity. The screens have revealed not only common cellular and molecular pathways, but in some instances the same modifier has been independently identified in two or more screens suggesting a possible role for these modifiers in regulating tau toxicity. The purpose of this review is to discuss the genetic modifier screens on tauopathies performed in Drosophila and C. elegans models, and to highlight the common cellular and molecular pathways that have emerged from these studies. Here, we summarize results of tau toxicity screens providing mechanistic insights into pathological alterations in tauopathies. Key pathways or modifiers that have been identified are associated with a broad range of processes
Multi-layer composite mechanical modeling for the inhomogeneous biofilm mechanical behavior.
Wang, Xiaoling; Han, Jingshi; Li, Kui; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Mudong
2016-08-01
Experiments showed that bacterial biofilms are heterogeneous, for example, the density, the diffusion coefficient, and mechanical properties of the biofilm are different along the biofilm thickness. In this paper, we establish a multi-layer composite model to describe the biofilm mechanical inhomogeneity based on unified multiple-component cellular automaton (UMCCA) model. By using our model, we develop finite element simulation procedure for biofilm tension experiment. The failure limit and biofilm extension displacement obtained from our model agree well with experimental measurements. This method provides an alternative theory to study the mechanical inhomogeneity in biological materials.
Modeling cell adhesion and proliferation: a cellular-automata based approach.
Vivas, J; Garzón-Alvarado, D; Cerrolaza, M
Cell adhesion is a process that involves the interaction between the cell membrane and another surface, either a cell or a substrate. Unlike experimental tests, computer models can simulate processes and study the result of experiments in a shorter time and lower costs. One of the tools used to simulate biological processes is the cellular automata, which is a dynamic system that is discrete both in space and time. This work describes a computer model based on cellular automata for the adhesion process and cell proliferation to predict the behavior of a cell population in suspension and adhered to a substrate. The values of the simulated system were obtained through experimental tests on fibroblast monolayer cultures. The results allow us to estimate the cells settling time in culture as well as the adhesion and proliferation time. The change in the cells morphology as the adhesion over the contact surface progress was also observed. The formation of the initial link between cell and the substrate of the adhesion was observed after 100 min where the cell on the substrate retains its spherical morphology during the simulation. The cellular automata model developed is, however, a simplified representation of the steps in the adhesion process and the subsequent proliferation. A combined framework of experimental and computational simulation based on cellular automata was proposed to represent the fibroblast adhesion on substrates and changes in a macro-scale observed in the cell during the adhesion process. The approach showed to be simple and efficient.
Optical scatter imaging of cellular and mitochondrial swelling in brain tissue models of stroke
Johnson, Lee James
2001-08-01
The severity of brain edema resulting from a stroke can determine a patient's survival and the extent of their recovery. Cellular swelling is the microscopic source of a significant part of brain edema. Mitochondrial swelling also appears to be a determining event in the death or survival of the cells that are injured during a stroke. Therapies for reducing brain edema are not effective in many cases and current treatments of stroke do not address mitochondrial swelling at all. This dissertation is motivated by the lack of a complete understanding of cellular swelling resulting from stroke and the lack of a good method to begin to study mitochondrial swelling resulting from stroke in living brain tissue. In this dissertation, a novel method of detecting mitochondrial and cellular swelling in living hippocampal slices is developed and validated. The system is used to obtain spatial and temporal information about cellular and mitochondrial swelling resulting from various models of stroke. The effect of changes in water content on light scatter and absorption are examined in two models of brain edema. The results of this study demonstrate that optical techniques can be used to detect changes in water content. Mie scatter theory, the theoretical basis of the dual- angle scatter ratio imaging system, is presented. Computer simulations based on Mie scatter theory are used to determine the optimal angles for imaging. A detailed account of the early systems is presented to explain the motivations for the system design, especially polarization, wavelength and light path. Mitochondrial sized latex particles are used to determine the system response to changes in scattering particle size and concentration. The dual-angle scatter ratio imaging system is used to distinguish between osmotic and excitotoxic models of stroke injury. Such distinction cannot be achieved using the current techniques to study cellular swelling in hippocampal slices. The change in the scatter ratio is
Uniform and localized corrosion modelling by means of probabilistic cellular automata
Perez-Brokate, Cristian
2016-01-01
Numerical modelling is complementary tool for corrosion prediction. The objective of this work is to develop a corrosion model by means of a probabilistic cellular automata approach at a mesoscopic scale. In this work, we study the morphological evolution and kinetics of corrosion. This model couples electrochemical oxidation and reduction reactions. Regarding kinetics, cellular automata models are able to describe current as a function of the applied potential for a redox reaction on an inert electrode. The inclusion of probabilities allows the description of the stochastic nature of anodic and cathodic reactions. Corrosion morphology has been studied in different context: generalised corrosion, pitting corrosion and corrosion in an occluded environment. a general tendency of two regimes is found. a first regime of uniform corrosion where the anodic and cathodic reactions occur homogeneously over the surface. a second regime of localized corrosion when there is a spatial separation of anodic and cathodic zones, with an increase of anodic reaction rate. (author) [fr
Three-dimensional cellular automata as a model of a seismic fault
Gálvez, G; Muñoz, A
2017-01-01
The Earth's crust is broken into a series of plates, whose borders are the seismic fault lines and it is where most of the earthquakes occur. This plating system can in principle be described by a set of nonlinear coupled equations describing the motion of the plates, its stresses, strains and other characteristics. Such a system of equations is very difficult to solve, and nonlinear parts leads to a chaotic behavior, which is not predictable. In 1989, Bak and Tang presented an earthquake model based on the sand pile cellular automata. The model though simple, provides similar results to those observed in actual earthquakes. In this work the cellular automata in three dimensions is proposed as a best model to approximate a seismic fault. It is noted that the three-dimensional model reproduces similar properties to those observed in real seismicity, especially, the Gutenberg-Richter law. (paper)
Parallel Genetic Algorithms for calibrating Cellular Automata models: Application to lava flows
D'Ambrosio, D.; Spataro, W.; Di Gregorio, S.; Calabria Univ., Cosenza; Crisci, G.M.; Rongo, R.; Calabria Univ., Cosenza
2005-01-01
Cellular Automata are highly nonlinear dynamical systems which are suitable far simulating natural phenomena whose behaviour may be specified in terms of local interactions. The Cellular Automata model SCIARA, developed far the simulation of lava flows, demonstrated to be able to reproduce the behaviour of Etnean events. However, in order to apply the model far the prediction of future scenarios, a thorough calibrating phase is required. This work presents the application of Genetic Algorithms, general-purpose search algorithms inspired to natural selection and genetics, far the parameters optimisation of the model SCIARA. Difficulties due to the elevated computational time suggested the adoption a Master-Slave Parallel Genetic Algorithm far the calibration of the model with respect to the 2001 Mt. Etna eruption. Results demonstrated the usefulness of the approach, both in terms of computing time and quality of performed simulations
Simulation of a plane wavefront propagating in cardiac tissue using a cellular automata model
Barbosa, Carlos R Hall
2003-01-01
We present a detailed description of a cellular automata model for the propagation of action potential in a planar cardiac tissue, which is very fast and easy to use. The model incorporates anisotropy in the electrical conductivity and a spatial variation of the refractory time. The transmembrane potential distribution is directly derived from the cell states, and the intracellular and extracellular potential distributions are calculated for the particular case of a plane wavefront. Once the potential distributions are known, the associated current densities are calculated by Ohm's law, and the magnetic field is determined at a plane parallel to the cardiac tissue by applying the law of Biot and Savart. The results obtained for propagation speed and for magnetic field amplitude with the cellular automata model are compared with values predicted by the bidomain formulation, for various angles between wavefront propagation and fibre direction, characterizing excellent agreement between the models
Stochastic processes, multiscale modeling, and numerical methods for computational cellular biology
2017-01-01
This book focuses on the modeling and mathematical analysis of stochastic dynamical systems along with their simulations. The collected chapters will review fundamental and current topics and approaches to dynamical systems in cellular biology. This text aims to develop improved mathematical and computational methods with which to study biological processes. At the scale of a single cell, stochasticity becomes important due to low copy numbers of biological molecules, such as mRNA and proteins that take part in biochemical reactions driving cellular processes. When trying to describe such biological processes, the traditional deterministic models are often inadequate, precisely because of these low copy numbers. This book presents stochastic models, which are necessary to account for small particle numbers and extrinsic noise sources. The complexity of these models depend upon whether the biochemical reactions are diffusion-limited or reaction-limited. In the former case, one needs to adopt the framework of s...
Ordering phase transition in the one-dimensional Axelrod model
Vilone, D.; Vespignani, A.; Castellano, C.
2002-12-01
We study the one-dimensional behavior of a cellular automaton aimed at the description of the formation and evolution of cultural domains. The model exhibits a non-equilibrium transition between a phase with all the system sharing the same culture and a disordered phase of coexisting regions with different cultural features. Depending on the initial distribution of the disorder the transition occurs at different values of the model parameters. This phenomenology is qualitatively captured by a mean-field approach, which maps the dynamics into a multi-species reaction-diffusion problem.
Vergara-Blanco, J. E.; Leboeuf-Pasquier, J.; Benavides-Solorio, J. D. D.
2017-12-01
A simulation software that reproduces rainfall infiltration and runoff for a storm event in a particular forest area is presented. A cellular automaton is utilized to represent space and time. On the time scale, the simulation is composed by a sequence of discrete time steps. On the space scale, the simulation is composed of forest surface cells. The software takes into consideration rain intensity and length, individual forest cell soil absorption capacity evolution, and surface angle of inclination. The software is developed with the C++ programming language. The simulation is executed on a 100 ha area within La Primavera Forest in Jalisco, Mexico. Real soil texture for unburned terrain and high severity wildfire affected terrain is employed to recreate the specific infiltration profile. Historical rainfall data of a 92 minute event is used. The Horton infiltration equation is utilized for infiltration capacity calculation. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is employed to reproduce the surface topography. The DEM is displayed with a 3D mesh graph where individual surface cells can be observed. The plot colouring renders water content development at the cell level throughout the storm event. The simulation shows that the cumulative infiltration and runoff which take place at the surface cell level depend on the specific storm intensity, fluctuation and length, overall terrain topography, cell slope, and soil texture. Rainfall cumulative infiltration for unburned and high severity wildfire terrain are compared: unburned terrain exhibits a significantly higher amount of rainfall infiltration.It is concluded that a cellular automaton can be utilized with a C++ program to reproduce rainfall infiltration and runoff under diverse soil texture, topographic and rainfall conditions in a forest setting. This simulation is geared for an optimization program to pinpoint the locations of a series of forest land remediation efforts to support reforestation or to minimize runoff.
Cellular self-assembly and biomaterials-based organoid models of development and diseases.
Shah, Shivem B; Singh, Ankur
2017-04-15
Organogenesis and morphogenesis have informed our understanding of physiology, pathophysiology, and avenues to create new curative and regenerative therapies. Thus far, this understanding has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically relevant yet accessible model that affords biological control. Recently, three-dimensional ex vivo cellular cultures created through cellular self-assembly under natural extracellular matrix cues or through biomaterial-based directed assembly have been shown to physically resemble and recapture some functionality of target organs. These "organoids" have garnered momentum for their applications in modeling human development and disease, drug screening, and future therapy design or even organ replacement. This review first discusses the self-organizing organoids as materials with emergent properties and their advantages and limitations. We subsequently describe biomaterials-based strategies used to afford more control of the organoid's microenvironment and ensuing cellular composition and organization. In this review, we also offer our perspective on how multifunctional biomaterials with precise spatial and temporal control could ultimately bridge the gap between in vitro organoid platforms and their in vivo counterparts. Several notable reviews have highlighted PSC-derived organoids and 3D aggregates, including embryoid bodies, from a development and cellular assembly perspective. The focus of this review is to highlight the materials-based approaches that cells, including PSCs and others, adopt for self-assembly and the controlled development of complex tissues, such as that of the brain, gut, and immune system. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
LOW POWER RACE-FREE STATE ASSIGNMENT OF AN ASYNGHRONOUS AUTOMATON
Yu. V. Pottosin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of a race free state assignment of an asynchronous automaton is considered. A method for the state assignment is suggested that provides the minimization of the number and theswitching activity of the memory elements along with the elimination of the critical races betweenthem.
An Automaton Analysis of the Learning of a Miniature System of Japanese. Psychology Series.
Wexler, Kenneth Norman
The purpose of the study reported here was to do an automata-theoretical and experimental investigation of the learning of the syntax and semantics of a second natural language. The main thrust of the work was to ask what kind of automaton a person can become. Various kinds of automata were considered, predictions were made from them, and these…
The effect of cellular aging on the dynamics of spiral waves
Deng Min-Yi; Chen Xi-Qiong; Tang Guo-Ning
2014-01-01
Cellular aging can result in deterioration of electrical coupling, the extension of the action potential duration, and lower excitability of the cell. Those factors are introduced into the Greenberg—Hastings cellular automaton model and the effects of the cellular aging on the dynamics of spiral waves are studied. The numerical results show that a 50% reduction of the coupling strength of aging cells has a little influence on spiral waves. If the coupling strength of aging cells equals zero, the ability for the medium to maintain spiral waves will be reduced by approximately 50% when the aging cell ratio increases from 0 to 0.5, where the reduction of cell excitability plays a major role in inducing disappearance of spiral waves. When the relevant parameters are properly chosen, the cellular aging can lead to the meandering of spiral waves, the emergence of the binary spiral waves, and even the disappearance of spiral waves via the stopping rotation or shrinkage of wave. Physical mechanisms of the above phenomena are analyzed briefly. (general)
Efficient Analysis of Systems Biology Markup Language Models of Cellular Populations Using Arrays.
Watanabe, Leandro; Myers, Chris J
2016-08-19
The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) has been widely used for modeling biological systems. Although SBML has been successful in representing a wide variety of biochemical models, the core standard lacks the structure for representing large complex regular systems in a standard way, such as whole-cell and cellular population models. These models require a large number of variables to represent certain aspects of these types of models, such as the chromosome in the whole-cell model and the many identical cell models in a cellular population. While SBML core is not designed to handle these types of models efficiently, the proposed SBML arrays package can represent such regular structures more easily. However, in order to take full advantage of the package, analysis needs to be aware of the arrays structure. When expanding the array constructs within a model, some of the advantages of using arrays are lost. This paper describes a more efficient way to simulate arrayed models. To illustrate the proposed method, this paper uses a population of repressilator and genetic toggle switch circuits as examples. Results show that there are memory benefits using this approach with a modest cost in runtime.
Hui Guo
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Evodiamine (EVO and rutaecarpine (RUT are promising anti-tumor drug candidates. The evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity and cellular uptake of EVO and RUT in 3D multicellular spheroids of cancer cells would better recapitulate the native situation and thus better reflect an in vivo response to the treatment. Herein, we employed the 3D culture of MCF-7 and SMMC-7721 cells based on hanging drop method and evaluated the anti-proliferative activity and cellular uptake of EVO and RUT in 3D multicellular spheroids, and compared the results with those obtained from 2D monolayers. The drugs’ IC50 values were significantly increased from the range of 6.4–44.1 μM in 2D monolayers to 21.8–138.0 μM in 3D multicellular spheroids, which may be due to enhanced mass barrier and reduced drug penetration in 3D models. The fluorescence of EVO and RUT was measured via fluorescence spectroscopy and the cellular uptake of both drugs was characterized in 2D tumor models. The results showed that the cellular uptake concentrations of RUT increased with increasing drug concentrations. However, the EVO concentrations uptaken by the cells showed only a small change with increasing drug concentrations, which may be due to the different solubility of EVO and Rut in solvents. Overall, this study provided a new vision of the anti-tumor activity of EVO and RUT via 3D multicellular spheroids and cellular uptake through the fluorescence of compounds.
Cantone, Martina; Santos, Guido; Wentker, Pia; Lai, Xin; Vera, Julio
2017-01-01
Even today two bacterial lung infections, namely pneumonia and tuberculosis, are among the 10 most frequent causes of death worldwide. These infections still lack effective treatments in many developing countries and in immunocompromised populations like infants, elderly people and transplanted patients. The interaction between bacteria and the host is a complex system of interlinked intercellular and the intracellular processes, enriched in regulatory structures like positive and negative feedback loops. Severe pathological condition can emerge when the immune system of the host fails to neutralize the infection. This failure can result in systemic spreading of pathogens or overwhelming immune response followed by a systemic inflammatory response. Mathematical modeling is a promising tool to dissect the complexity underlying pathogenesis of bacterial lung infection at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels, and also at the interfaces among levels. In this article, we introduce mathematical and computational modeling frameworks that can be used for investigating molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying bacterial lung infection. Then, we compile and discuss published results on the modeling of regulatory pathways and cell populations relevant for lung infection and inflammation. Finally, we discuss how to make use of this multiplicity of modeling approaches to open new avenues in the search of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying bacterial infection in the lung.
Vaca-González, J J; Gutiérrez, M L; Guevara, J M; Garzón-Alvarado, D A
2017-01-01
Articular cartilage is characterized by low cell density of only one cell type, chondrocytes, and has limited self-healing properties. When articular cartilage is affected by traumatic injuries, a therapeutic strategy such as autologous chondrocyte implantation is usually proposed for its treatment. This approach requires in vitro chondrocyte expansion to yield high cell number for cell transplantation. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, it is necessary to assess cell dynamics such as migration, proliferation and cell death during culture. Computational models such as cellular automata can be used to simulate cell dynamics in order to enhance the result of cell culture procedures. This methodology has been implemented for several cell types; however, an experimental validation is required for each one. For this reason, in this research a cellular automata model, based on random-walk theory, was devised in order to predict articular chondrocyte behavior in monolayer culture during cell expansion. Results demonstrated that the cellular automata model corresponded to cell dynamics and computed-accurate quantitative results. Moreover, it was possible to observe that cell dynamics depend on weighted probabilities derived from experimental data and cell behavior varies according to the cell culture period. Thus, depending on whether cells were just seeded or proliferated exponentially, culture time probabilities differed in percentages in the CA model. Furthermore, in the experimental assessment a decreased chondrocyte proliferation was observed along with increased passage number. This approach is expected to having other uses as in enhancing articular cartilage therapies based on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Konstantinos B. Baltzis
2008-10-01
Full Text Available A common assumption in cellular communications is the circular-cell approximation. In this paper, an alternative analysis based on the hexagonal shape of the cells is presented. A geometrical-based stochastic model is proposed to describe the angle of arrival of the interfering signals in the reverse link of a cellular system. Explicit closed form expressions are derived, and simulations performed exhibit the characteristics and validate the accuracy of the proposed model. Applications in the capacity estimation of WCDMA cellular networks are presented. Dependence of system capacity of the sectorization of the cells and the base station antenna radiation pattern is explored. Comparisons with data in literature validate the accuracy of the proposed model. The degree of error of the hexagonal and the circular-cell approaches has been investigated indicating the validity of the proposed model. Results have also shown that, in many cases, the two approaches give similar results when the radius of the circle equals to the hexagon inradius. A brief discussion on how the proposed technique may be applied to broadband access networks is finally made.
Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Loft Højbjerre, Klaus
2016-01-01
Additive manufacturing is rapidly developing and gaining popularity for direct metal fabrication systems like selective laser melting (SLM). The technology has shown significant improvement for high-quality fabrication of lightweight design-efficient structures such as conformal cooling channels...... in injection molding tools and lattice structures. This research examines the effect of cellular lattice structures on the strength of workpieces additively manufactured from ultra high-strength steel powder. Two commercial SLM machines are used to fabricate cellular samples based on four architectures— solid......, hollow, lattice structure and rotated lattice structure. Compression test is applied to the specimens while they are deformed. The analytical approach includes finite element (FE), geometrical and mathematical models for prediction of collapse strength. The results from the the models are verified...
Modeling virtualized downlink cellular networks with ultra-dense small cells
Ibrahim, Hazem
2015-09-11
The unrelenting increase in the mobile users\\' populations and traffic demand drive cellular network operators to densify their infrastructure. Network densification increases the spatial frequency reuse efficiency while maintaining the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) performance, hence, increases the spatial spectral efficiency and improves the overall network performance. However, control signaling in such dense networks consumes considerable bandwidth and limits the densification gain. Radio access network (RAN) virtualization via control plane (C-plane) and user plane (U-plane) splitting has been recently proposed to lighten the control signaling burden and improve the network throughput. In this paper, we present a tractable analytical model for virtualized downlink cellular networks, using tools from stochastic geometry. We then apply the developed modeling framework to obtain design insights for virtualized RANs and quantify associated performance improvement. © 2015 IEEE.
Denker, Elsa; Jiang, Di
2012-05-01
Biological tubes are a prevalent structural design across living organisms. They provide essential functions during the development and adult life of an organism. Increasing progress has been made recently in delineating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tubulogenesis. This review aims to introduce ascidian notochord morphogenesis as an interesting model system to study the cell biology of tube formation, to a wider cell and developmental biology community. We present fundamental morphological and cellular events involved in notochord morphogenesis, compare and contrast them with other more established tubulogenesis model systems, and point out some unique features, including bipolarity of the notochord cells, and using cell shape changes and cell rearrangement to connect lumens. We highlight some initial findings in the molecular mechanisms of notochord morphogenesis. Based on these findings, we present intriguing problems and put forth hypotheses that can be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bru, Antonio; Cardona, Pere-Joan
2010-01-01
Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a particularly aggressive microorganism and the host's defense is based on the induction of cellular immunity, in which the creation of a granulomatous structure has an important role. Methodology We present here a new 2D cellular automata model based on the concept of a multifunctional process that includes key factors such as the chemokine attraction of the cells; the role of innate immunity triggered by natural killers; the presence of neutrophils; apoptosis and necrosis of infected macrophages; the removal of dead cells by macrophages, which induces the production of foamy macrophages (FMs); the life cycle of the bacilli as a determinant for the evolution of infected macrophages; and the immune response. Results The results obtained after the inclusion of two degrees of tolerance to the inflammatory response triggered by the infection shows that the model can cover a wide spectrum, ranging from highly-tolerant (i.e. mice) to poorly-tolerant hosts (i.e. mini-pigs or humans). Conclusions This model suggest that stopping bacillary growth at the onset of the infection might be difficult and the important role played by FMs in bacillary drainage in poorly-tolerant hosts together with apoptosis and innate lymphocytes. It also shows the poor ability of the cellular immunity to control the infection, provides a clear protective character to the granuloma, due its ability to attract a sufficient number of cells, and explains why an already infected host can be constantly reinfected. PMID:20886087
Silver Nanoparticle-Mediated Cellular Responses in Various Cell Lines: An in Vitro Model
Xi-Feng Zhang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have attracted increased interest and are currently used in various industries including medicine, cosmetics, textiles, electronics, and pharmaceuticals, owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, particularly as antimicrobial and anticancer agents. Recently, several studies have reported both beneficial and toxic effects of AgNPs on various prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. To develop nanoparticles for mediated therapy, several laboratories have used a variety of cell lines under in vitro conditions to evaluate the properties, mode of action, differential responses, and mechanisms of action of AgNPs. In vitro models are simple, cost-effective, rapid, and can be used to easily assess efficacy and performance. The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and biocompatibility of AgNPs depend on many factors such as size, shape, surface charge, surface coating, solubility, concentration, surface functionalization, distribution of particles, mode of entry, mode of action, growth media, exposure time, and cell type. Cellular responses to AgNPs are different in each cell type and depend on the physical and chemical nature of AgNPs. This review evaluates significant contributions to the literature on biological applications of AgNPs. It begins with an introduction to AgNPs, with particular attention to their overall impact on cellular effects. The main objective of this review is to elucidate the reasons for different cell types exhibiting differential responses to nanoparticles even when they possess similar size, shape, and other parameters. Firstly, we discuss the cellular effects of AgNPs on a variety of cell lines; Secondly, we discuss the mechanisms of action of AgNPs in various cellular systems, and try to elucidate how AgNPs interact with different mammalian cell lines and produce significant effects; Finally, we discuss the cellular activation of various signaling molecules in response to AgNPs, and conclude with
Referent 3D tumor model at cellular level in radionuclide therapy
Spaic, R.; Ilic, R.D.; Petrovic, B.J.
2002-01-01
Aim Conventional internal dosimetry has a lot of limitations because of tumor dose nonuniformity. The best approach for absorbed dose at cellular level for different tumors in radionuclide therapy calculation is Monte Carlo method. The purpose of this study is to introduce referent tumor 3D model at cellular level for Monte Carlo simulation study in radionuclide therapy. Material and Methods The moment when tumor is detectable and when same therapy can start is time period in which referent 3D tumor model at cellular level was defined. In accordance with tumor growth rate at that moment he was a sphere with same radius (10 000 μm). In that tumor there are cells or cluster of cells, which are randomly distributed spheres. Distribution of cells/cluster of cells can be calculated from histology data but it was assumed that this distribution is normal with the same mean value and standard deviation (100±50 mm). Second parameter, which was selected to define referent tumor, is volume density of cells (30%). In this referent tumor there are no necroses. Stroma is defined as space between spheres with same concentration of materials as in spheres. Results: Referent tumor defined on this way have about 2,2 10 5 cells or cluster of cells random distributed. Using this referent 3D tumor model and for same concentration of radionuclides (1:100) and energy of beta emitters (1000 keV) which are homogeneously distributed in labeled cells absorbed dose for all cells was calculated. Simulations are done using FOTELP Monte Carlo code, which is modified for this purposes. Results of absorbed dose in cells are given in numerical values (1D distribution) and as the images (2D or 3D distributions). Conclusion Geometrical module for Monte Carlo simulation study can be standardized by introducing referent 3D tumor model at cellular level. This referent 3D tumor model gives most realistic presentation of different tumors at the moment of their detectability. Referent 3D tumor model at
Caty, O.; Maire, E.; Youssef, S.; Bouchet, R.
2008-01-01
Closed-cell cellular materials exhibit several interesting properties. These properties are, however, very difficult to simulate and understand from the knowledge of the cellular microstructure. This problem is mostly due to the highly complex organization of the cells and to their very fine walls. X-ray tomography can produce three-dimensional (3-D) images of the structure, enabling one to visualize locally the damage of the cell walls that would result in the structure collapsing. These data could be used for meshing with continuum elements of the structure for finite element (FE) calculations. But when the density is very low, the walls are fine and the meshes based on continuum elements are not suitable to represent accurately the structure while preserving the representativeness of the model in terms of cell size. This paper presents a shell FE model obtained from tomographic 3-D images that allows bigger volumes of low-density closed-cell cellular materials to be calculated. The model is enriched by direct thickness measurement on the tomographic images. The values measured are ascribed to the shell elements. To validate and use the model, a structure composed of stainless steel hollow spheres is firstly compressed and scanned to observe local deformations. The tomographic data are also meshed with shells for a FE calculation. The convergence of the model is checked and its performance is compared with a continuum model. The global behavior is compared with the measures of the compression test. At the local scale, the model allows the local stress and strain field to be calculated. The calculated deformed shape is compared with the deformed tomographic images
A Model of How Different Biology Experts Explain Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms
Trujillo, Caleb M.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.
2015-01-01
Constructing explanations is an essential skill for all science learners. The goal of this project was to model the key components of expert explanation of molecular and cellular mechanisms. As such, we asked: What is an appropriate model of the components of explanation used by biology experts to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms? Do explanations made by experts from different biology subdisciplines at a university support the validity of this model? Guided by the modeling framework of R. S. Justi and J. K. Gilbert, the validity of an initial model was tested by asking seven biologists to explain a molecular mechanism of their choice. Data were collected from interviews, artifacts, and drawings, and then subjected to thematic analysis. We found that biologists explained the specific activities and organization of entities of the mechanism. In addition, they contextualized explanations according to their biological and social significance; integrated explanations with methods, instruments, and measurements; and used analogies and narrated stories. The derived methods, analogies, context, and how themes informed the development of our final MACH model of mechanistic explanations. Future research will test the potential of the MACH model as a guiding framework for instruction to enhance the quality of student explanations. PMID:25999313
An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow
Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Qu, Xiaobo [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222 Australia (Australia); Xu, Cheng [Department of Transportation Management Engineering, Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 China (China); College of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China (China); Ma, Dongfang, E-mail: mdf2004@zju.edu.cn [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Wang, Dianhai [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China)
2015-10-16
This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated.
An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow
Jin, Sheng; Qu, Xiaobo; Xu, Cheng; Ma, Dongfang; Wang, Dianhai
2015-01-01
This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated
Unified tractable model for downlink MIMO cellular networks using stochastic geometry
Afify, Laila H.
2016-07-26
Several research efforts are invested to develop stochastic geometry models for cellular networks with multiple antenna transmission and reception (MIMO). On one hand, there are models that target abstract outage probability and ergodic rate for simplicity. On the other hand, there are models that sacrifice simplicity to target more tangible performance metrics such as the error probability. Both types of models are completely disjoint in terms of the analytic steps to obtain the performance measures, which makes it challenging to conduct studies that account for different performance metrics. This paper unifies both techniques and proposes a unified stochastic-geometry based mathematical paradigm to account for error probability, outage probability, and ergodic rates in MIMO cellular networks. The proposed model is also unified in terms of the antenna configurations and leads to simpler error probability analysis compared to existing state-of-the-art models. The core part of the analysis is based on abstracting unnecessary information conveyed within the interfering signals by assuming Gaussian signaling. To this end, the accuracy of the proposed framework is verified against state-of-the-art models as well as system level simulations. We provide via this unified study insights on network design by reflecting system parameters effect on different performance metrics. © 2016 IEEE.
López, Leonardo; Burguerner, Germán; Giovanini, Leonardo
2014-04-12
The spread of an infectious disease is determined by biological and social factors. Models based on cellular automata are adequate to describe such natural systems consisting of a massive collection of simple interacting objects. They characterize the time evolution of the global system as the emergent behaviour resulting from the interaction of the objects, whose behaviour is defined through a set of simple rules that encode the individual behaviour and the transmission dynamic. An epidemic is characterized trough an individual-based-model built upon cellular automata. In the proposed model, each individual of the population is represented by a cell of the automata. This way of modeling an epidemic situation allows to individually define the characteristic of each individual, establish different scenarios and implement control strategies. A cellular automata model to study the time evolution of a heterogeneous populations through the various stages of disease was proposed, allowing the inclusion of individual heterogeneity, geographical characteristics and social factors that determine the dynamic of the desease. Different assumptions made to built the classical model were evaluated, leading to following results: i) for low contact rate (like in quarantine process or low density population areas) the number of infective individuals is lower than other areas where the contact rate is higher, and ii) for different initial spacial distributions of infected individuals different epidemic dynamics are obtained due to its influence on the transition rate and the reproductive ratio of disease. The contact rate and spatial distributions have a central role in the spread of a disease. For low density populations the spread is very low and the number of infected individuals is lower than in highly populated areas. The spacial distribution of the population and the disease focus as well as the geographical characteristic of the area play a central role in the dynamics of the
Chen, Fei [University of Nottingham, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Forming Technology and Equipment, Shanghai (China); Cui, Zhenshan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Forming Technology and Equipment, Shanghai (China); Ou, Hengan [University of Nottingham, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Long, Hui [University of Sheffield, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom)
2016-10-15
Microstructural evolution and plastic flow characteristics of a Ni-based superalloy were investigated using a simulative model that couples the basic metallurgical principle of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) with the two-dimensional (2D) cellular automaton (CA). Variation of dislocation density with local strain of deformation is considered for accurate determination of the microstructural evolution during DRX. The grain topography, the grain size and the recrystallized fraction can be well predicted by using the developed CA model, which enables to the establishment of the relationship between the flow stress, dislocation density, recrystallized fraction volume, recrystallized grain size and the thermomechanical parameters. (orig.)
Cellular-automata method for phase unwrapping
Ghiglia, D.C.; Mastin, G.A.; Romero, L.A.
1987-01-01
Research into two-dimensional phase unwrapping has uncovered interesting and troublesome inconsistencies that cause path-dependent results. Cellular automata, which are simple, discrete mathematical systems, offered promise of computation in nondirectional, parallel manner. A cellular automaton was discovered that can unwrap consistent phase data in n dimensions in a path-independent manner and can automatically accommodate noise-induced (pointlike) inconsistencies and arbitrary boundary conditions (region partitioning). For data with regional (nonpointlike) inconsistencies, no phase-unwrapping algorithm will converge, including the cellular-automata approach. However, the automata method permits more simple visualization of the regional inconsistencies. Examples of its behavior on one- and two-dimensional data are presented
McCune, Matthew; Shafiee, Ashkan; Forgacs, Gabor; Kosztin, Ioan
2014-03-01
Cellular Particle Dynamics (CPD) is an effective computational method for describing and predicting the time evolution of biomechanical relaxation processes of multicellular systems. A typical example is the fusion of spheroidal bioink particles during post bioprinting structure formation. In CPD cells are modeled as an ensemble of cellular particles (CPs) that interact via short-range contact interactions, characterized by an attractive (adhesive interaction) and a repulsive (excluded volume interaction) component. The time evolution of the spatial conformation of the multicellular system is determined by following the trajectories of all CPs through integration of their equations of motion. CPD was successfully applied to describe and predict the fusion of 3D tissue construct involving identical spherical aggregates. Here, we demonstrate that CPD can also predict tissue formation involving uneven spherical aggregates whose volumes decrease during the fusion process. Work supported by NSF [PHY-0957914]. Computer time provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.
Modelling land-use effects of future urbanization using cellular automata
Fuglsang, Morten; Münier, B.; Hansen, H.S.
2013-01-01
project PASHMINA (Paradigm Shift modelling and innovative approaches), three storylines of future transportation paradigm shifts towards 2040 are created. These storylines are translated into spatial planning strategies and modelled using the cellular automata model LUCIA. For the modelling, an Eastern......The modelling of land use change is a way to analyse future scenarios by modelling different pathways. Application of spatial data of different scales coupled with socio-economic data makes it possible to explore and test the understanding of land use change relations. In the EU-FP7 research...... Danish case area was selected, comprising of the Copenhagen metropolitan area and its hinterland. The different scenarios are described using a range of different descriptive GIS datasets. These include mapping of accessibility based on public and private transportation, urban density and structure...
Guided Inquiry and Consensus-Building Used to Construct Cellular Models
Joel I. Cohen
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Using models helps students learn from a “whole systems” perspective when studying the cell. This paper describes a model that employs guided inquiry and requires consensus building among students for its completion. The model is interactive, meaning that it expands upon a static model which, once completed, cannot be altered and additionally relates various levels of biological organization (molecular, organelle, and cellular to define cell and organelle function and interaction. Learning goals are assessed using data summed from final grades and from images of the student’s final cell model (plant, bacteria, and yeast taken from diverse seventh grade classes. Instructional figures showing consensus-building pathways and seating arrangements are discussed. Results suggest that the model leads to a high rate of participation, facilitates guided inquiry, and fosters group and individual exploration by challenging student understanding of the living cell.
Stochastic modeling for dynamics of HIV-1 infection using cellular automata: A review.
Precharattana, Monamorn
2016-02-01
Recently, the description of immune response by discrete models has emerged to play an important role to study the problems in the area of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, leading to AIDS. As infection of target immune cells by HIV-1 mainly takes place in the lymphoid tissue, cellular automata (CA) models thus represent a significant step in understanding when the infected population is dispersed. Motivated by these, the studies of the dynamics of HIV-1 infection using CA in memory have been presented to recognize how CA have been developed for HIV-1 dynamics, which issues have been studied already and which issues still are objectives in future studies.
Modeling and Performance Analysis for Cell Access and Handoff Schemes in Two-Tier Cellular Networks
Kyungkoo Jun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the effects of handoff on system performance in two-tier cellular networks. Two of the main performance metrics are new call blocking probability and handoff drop rate. We develop analytical models to evaluate the performance of two different handoff schemes. One scheme considers only femto-to-macrocell handoff while the other is bidirectional including macro-to-femtocell handoff. Our model is more elaborate than existing ones which have not considered the mobility of mobile stations. Numerical results show that the bidirectional scheme performs better than the femto-to-macrocell handoff as it achieves lower blocking probability and drop rate.
Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach
Dan Zhou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.
Smith, G.T.; Hubner, K.F.; Goodman, M.M.; Stubbs, J.B.
1992-01-01
Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to measure tissue radiotracer concentration in vivo. Radiochemical distribution can be determined with compartmental model analysis. A two compartment model describes the kinetics of N-13 ammonia ( 13 NH 3 ) in the myocardium. The model consists of a vascular space, Q 1 and a space for 13 NH 3 bound within the tissue, Q 2 . Differential equations for the model can be written: X(t) = AX(t) + BU( t), Y(t)= CX(t)+ DU(t) (1) where X(t) is a column vector [Q 1 (t); Q 2 (t)], U(t) is the arterial input activity measured from the left ventricular blood pool, and Y(t) is the measured tissue activity using PET. Matrices A, B, C, and D are dependent on physiological parameters describing the kinetics of 13 NH 3 in the myocardium. Estimated parameter matrices in Equation 1 have been validated in dog experiments by measuring myocardial perfusion with dynamic PET scanning and intravenous injection of 13 NH 3 . Tracer concentrations for each compartment can be calculated by direct integration of Equation 1. If the cellular level distribution of each compartment is known, the concentration of tracer within the intracellular and extracellular space can be determined. Applications of this type of modeling include parameter estimation for measurement of physiological processes, organ level dosimetry, and determination of cellular radiotracer distribution
Cellular Automata Modelling of Photo-Induced Oxidation Processes in Molecularly Doped Polymers
David M. Goldie
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The possibility of employing cellular automata (CA to model photo-induced oxidation processes in molecularly doped polymers is explored. It is demonstrated that the oxidation dynamics generated using CA models exhibit stretched-exponential behavior. This dynamical characteristic is in general agreement with an alternative analysis conducted using standard rate equations provided the molecular doping levels are sufficiently low to prohibit the presence of safe-sites which are impenetrable to dissolved oxygen. The CA models therefore offer the advantage of exploring the effect of dopant agglomeration which is difficult to assess from standard rate equation solutions. The influence of UV-induced bleaching or darkening upon the resulting oxidation dynamics may also be easily incorporated into the CA models and these optical effects are investigated for various photo-oxidation product scenarios. Output from the CA models is evaluated for experimental photo-oxidation data obtained from a series of hydrazone-doped polymers.
Reliable self-replicating machines in asynchronous cellular automata.
Lee, Jia; Adachi, Susumu; Peper, Ferdinand
2007-01-01
We propose a self-replicating machine that is embedded in a two-dimensional asynchronous cellular automaton with von Neumann neighborhood. The machine dynamically encodes its shape into description signals, and despite the randomness of cell updating, it is able to successfully construct copies of itself according to the description signals. Self-replication on asynchronously updated cellular automata may find application in nanocomputers, where reconfigurability is an essential property, since it allows avoidance of defective parts and simplifies programming of such computers.
Computing aggregate properties of preimages for 2D cellular automata.
Beer, Randall D
2017-11-01
Computing properties of the set of precursors of a given configuration is a common problem underlying many important questions about cellular automata. Unfortunately, such computations quickly become intractable in dimension greater than one. This paper presents an algorithm-incremental aggregation-that can compute aggregate properties of the set of precursors exponentially faster than naïve approaches. The incremental aggregation algorithm is demonstrated on two problems from the two-dimensional binary Game of Life cellular automaton: precursor count distributions and higher-order mean field theory coefficients. In both cases, incremental aggregation allows us to obtain new results that were previously beyond reach.
Cellular retention of radioactivity and increased radiation dose. Model experiments with EGF-dextran
Sundberg, Aasa Liljegren; Blomquist, Erik; Carlsson, Joergen; Steffen, Ann-Charlott; Gedda, Lars
2003-01-01
Targeting of tumor cells with radiolabeled biomolecules is a possible approach to inactivate disseminated tumor cells. However, rapid degradation of the biomolecules after cellular internalization and subsequent excretion of the radioactivity is a problem. We studied the possibility of using dextran as a carrier of radionuclides to improve the intracellular retention. An EGF-dextran conjugate, aimed for targeting of tumor cells overexpressing the EGF-receptor, was used as model. Retention tests were performed with 125 I on different parts: [ 125 I]-EGF-dextran-[ 125 I], [ 125 I]-EGF-dextran and EGF-dextran-[ 125 I]. Comparisons were made with [ 125 I]-EGF. The radiolabeled compounds were incubated with cultured glioma cells for different times. The cellular retention of radioactivity was then measured for up to 24 h. Expected radiation doses at the cellular level were calculated assuming that 131 I, instead of 125 I, was coupled to EGF and EGF-dextran. The results indicated that the EGF-part of the conjugate was degraded and the EGF-attached radioactivity was rapidly excreted, whereas radioactivity on dextran was retained intracellularly to a high degree, i.e. 70-80% of the radioactivity bound to dextran was still cell-associated after 24 h. The retention after 24 h was significantly higher (p < 0.001) when the radioactivity was on the dextran instead of the EGF-part. The radiolabeled EGF-dextran had a notably high specific radioactivity; up to 11 MBq/μg. There was potential for at least hundred times increased radiation dose per receptor interaction when the radioactivity was on the dextran part. The advantage with radioactivity on the dextran part was the high cellular retention and the high specific radioactivity (higher than previously reported for other residualizing labels) without severe loss of receptor specific binding. Thus, dextran seems suitable as a carrier of radionuclides aimed for therapy and gives potential for a highly increased radiation dose
Ma, Xiao; Zheng, Wei-Fan; Jiang, Bao-Shan; Zhang, Ji-Ye
2016-10-01
With the development of traffic systems, some issues such as traffic jams become more and more serious. Efficient traffic flow theory is needed to guide the overall controlling, organizing and management of traffic systems. On the basis of the cellular automata model and the traffic flow model with look-ahead potential, a new cellular automata traffic flow model with negative exponential weighted look-ahead potential is presented in this paper. By introducing the negative exponential weighting coefficient into the look-ahead potential and endowing the potential of vehicles closer to the driver with a greater coefficient, the modeling process is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process which is based on the traffic environment that the driver is facing. The fundamental diagrams for different weighting parameters are obtained by using numerical simulations which show that the negative exponential weighting coefficient has an obvious effect on high density traffic flux. The complex high density non-linear traffic behavior is also reproduced by numerical simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11572264, 11172247, 11402214, and 61373009).
Cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections in internet of vehicles
Zhao, Han-Tao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Chen, Xiao-Xu; Lu, Jian-Cheng
2018-03-01
Considering the effect of the front vehicle's speed, the influence of the brake light and the conflict of the traffic flow, we established a cellular automata model called CE-NS for traffic flow at the intersection in the non-vehicle networking environment. According to the information interaction of Internet of Vehicles (IoV), introducing parameters describing the congestion and the accurate speed of the front vehicle into the CE-NS model, we improved the rules of acceleration, deceleration and conflict, and finally established a cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections of IoV. The relationship between traffic parameters such as vehicle speed, flow and average travel time is obtained by numerical simulation of two models. Based on this, we compared the traffic situation of the non-vehicle networking environment with conditions of IoV environment, and analyzed the influence of the different degree of IoV on the traffic flow. The results show that the traffic speed is increased, the travel time is reduced, the flux of intersections is increased and the traffic flow is more smoothly under IoV environment. After the vehicle which achieves IoV reaches a certain proportion, the operation effect of the traffic flow begins to improve obviously.
Computational Modeling of Proteins based on Cellular Automata: A Method of HP Folding Approximation.
Madain, Alia; Abu Dalhoum, Abdel Latif; Sleit, Azzam
2018-06-01
The design of a protein folding approximation algorithm is not straightforward even when a simplified model is used. The folding problem is a combinatorial problem, where approximation and heuristic algorithms are usually used to find near optimal folds of proteins primary structures. Approximation algorithms provide guarantees on the distance to the optimal solution. The folding approximation approach proposed here depends on two-dimensional cellular automata to fold proteins presented in a well-studied simplified model called the hydrophobic-hydrophilic model. Cellular automata are discrete computational models that rely on local rules to produce some overall global behavior. One-third and one-fourth approximation algorithms choose a subset of the hydrophobic amino acids to form H-H contacts. Those algorithms start with finding a point to fold the protein sequence into two sides where one side ignores H's at even positions and the other side ignores H's at odd positions. In addition, blocks or groups of amino acids fold the same way according to a predefined normal form. We intend to improve approximation algorithms by considering all hydrophobic amino acids and folding based on the local neighborhood instead of using normal forms. The CA does not assume a fixed folding point. The proposed approach guarantees one half approximation minus the H-H endpoints. This lower bound guaranteed applies to short sequences only. This is proved as the core and the folds of the protein will have two identical sides for all short sequences.
Continuum-level modelling of cellular adhesion and matrix production in aggregates.
Geris, Liesbet; Ashbourn, Joanna M A; Clarke, Tim
2011-05-01
Key regulators in tissue-engineering processes such as cell culture and cellular organisation are the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. As mathematical models are increasingly applied to investigate biological phenomena in the biomedical field, it is important, for some applications, that these models incorporate an adequate description of cell adhesion. This study describes the development of a continuum model that represents a cell-in-gel culture system used in bone-tissue engineering, namely that of a cell aggregate embedded in a hydrogel. Cell adhesion is modelled through the use of non-local (integral) terms in the partial differential equations. The simulation results demonstrate that the effects of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are particularly important for the survival and growth of the cell population and the production of extracellular matrix by the cells, concurring with experimental observations in the literature.
Advanced spatial metrics analysis in cellular automata land use and cover change modeling
Zamyatin, Alexander; Cabral, Pedro
2011-01-01
This paper proposes an approach for a more effective definition of cellular automata transition rules for landscape change modeling using an advanced spatial metrics analysis. This approach considers a four-stage methodology based on: (i) the search for the appropriate spatial metrics with minimal correlations; (ii) the selection of the appropriate neighborhood size; (iii) the selection of the appropriate technique for spatial metrics application; and (iv) the analysis of the contribution level of each spatial metric for joint use. The case study uses an initial set of 7 spatial metrics of which 4 are selected for modeling. Results show a better model performance when compared to modeling without any spatial metrics or with the initial set of 7 metrics.
Idealized Mesoscale Model Simulations of Open Cellular Convection Over the Sea
Vincent, Claire Louise; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Kelly, Mark C.
2012-01-01
The atmospheric conditions during an observed case of open cellular convection over the North Sea were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model. Wind, temperature and water vapour mixing ratio profiles from the WRF simulation were used to initialize an idealized...... version of the model, which excluded the effects of topography, surface inhomogeneities and large-scale weather forcing. Cells with an average diameter of 17.4 km developed. Simulations both with and without a capping inversion were made, and the cell-scale kinetic energy budget was calculated for each...... case. By considering all sources of explicit diffusion in the model, the budgets were balanced. In comparison with previous work based on observational studies, the use of three-dimensional, gridded model data afforded the possibility of calculating all terms in the budgets, which showed...
A MODEL OF THE INFLUENCES OF A FOREST FIRE ON ITS NEIGHBORHOODS AND RELATED RISK MANAGEMENT ASPECTS
Valentin POSEA
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the present paper is to produce a model for the propagation of a forest fire analyzing the influences that the fire zone has on its neighborhoods. The model is aMoore cellular automaton type. It depends on six parameters: the medium slope of the elementary cell, the layer type, and the burning time of the fuel, the fuel type, the wind direction and speed. In order to study the influences of various parameter configurations on the system of vicinities of a fire cell we construct some special directional correlation functions. An application is elaborated based on real data.
Cellular-automata model of the dwarf shrubs populations and communities dynamics
A. S. Komarov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The probabilistic cellular-automata model of development and long-time dynamics of dwarf shrub populations and communities is developed. It is based on the concept of discrete description of the plant ontogenesis and joint model approaches in terms of probabilistic cellular automata and L-systems by Lindenmayer. Short representation of the basic model allows evaluation of the approach and software implementation. The main variables of the model are a number of partial bushes in clones or area projective cover. The model allows us to investigate the conditions of self-maintenance and sustainability population under different environmental conditions (inaccessibility of the territory for settlement, mosaic moisture conditions of soil and wealth. The model provides a forecast of the total biomass dynamics shrubs and their fractions (stems, leaves, roots, fine roots, fruits on the basis of the data obtained in the discrete description of ontogenesis and further information on the productivity of the plant fractions. The inclusion of the joint dynamics of biomass of shrubs and soil in EFIMOD models cycle of carbon and nitrogen to evaluate the role of shrubs in these circulations, especially at high impact, such as forest fires and clear cutting, allow forecasting of the dynamics of populations and ecosystem functions of shrubs (regulation of biogeochemical cycles maintaining biodiversity, participation in the creation of non-wood products with changing climatic conditions and strong damaging effects (logging, fires; and application of the models developed to investigate the stability and productivity of shrubs and their participation in the cycle of carbon and nitrogen in different climatic and edaphic conditions.
An examination of adaptive cellular protective mechanisms using a multi-stage carcinogenesis model
Schollnberger, H.; Stewart, R. D.; Mitchel, R. E. J.; Hofmann, W.
2004-01-01
A multi-stage cancer model that describes the putative rate-limiting steps in carcinogenesis was developed and used to investigate the potential impact on lung cancer incidence of the hormesis mechanisms suggested by Feinendegen and Pollycove. In this deterministic cancer model, radiation and endogenous processes damage the DNA of target cells in the lung. Some fraction of the misrepaired our unrepaired DNA damage induces genomic instability and, ultimately, leads to the accumulation of malignant cells. The model accounts for cell birth and death processes. Ita also includes a rate of malignant transformation and a lag period for tumour formation. Cellular defence mechanisms are incorporated into the model by postulating dose and dose rate dependent radical scavenging. The accuracy of DNA damage repair also depends on dose and dose rate. Sensitivity studies were conducted to identify critical model inputs and to help define the shapes of the cumulative lung cancer incidence curves that may arise when dose and dose rate dependent cellular defence mechanisms are incorporated into a multi-stage cancer model. For lung cancer, both linear no-threshold (LNT) and non-LNT shaped responses can be obtained. The reported studied clearly show that it is critical to know whether or not and to what extent multiply damaged DNA sites are formed by endogenous processes. Model inputs that give rise to U-shaped responses are consistent with an effective cumulative lung cancer incidence threshold that may be as high as 300 mGy (4 mGy per year for 75 years). (Author) 11 refs
Akishina, E.P.; Kostenko, B.F.; Ivanov, V.V.
2003-01-01
A new method of research in spatial structures that result from uranium dioxide burning in nuclear reactors of modern atomic plants is suggested. The method is based on the presentation of images of the mentioned structures in the form of the working field of a cellular automaton (CA). First, it has allowed one to extract some important quantitative characteristics of the structures directly from the micrographs of the uranium fuel surface. Secondly, the CA has been found out to allow one to formulate easily the dynamics of the evolution of the studied structures in terms of such micrograph elements as spots, spots' boundaries, cracks, etc. Relation has been found between the dynamics and some exactly solvable models of the theory of cellular automata, in particular, the Ising model and the vote model. This investigation gives a detailed description of some CA algorithms which allow one to perform the fuel surface image processing and to model its evolution caused by burnup or chemical etching. (author)
Yanni Li
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Searching for the multiple longest common subsequences (MLCS has significant applications in the areas of bioinformatics, information processing, and data mining, and so forth, Although a few parallel MLCS algorithms have been proposed, the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithms are not satisfactory with the increasing complexity and size of biologic data. To overcome the shortcomings of the existing MLCS algorithms, and considering that MapReduce parallel framework of cloud computing being a promising technology for cost-effective high performance parallel computing, a novel finite automaton (FA based on cloud computing called FACC is proposed under MapReduce parallel framework, so as to exploit a more efficient and effective general parallel MLCS algorithm. FACC adopts the ideas of matched pairs and finite automaton by preprocessing sequences, constructing successor tables, and common subsequences finite automaton to search for MLCS. Simulation experiments on a set of benchmarks from both real DNA and amino acid sequences have been conducted and the results show that the proposed FACC algorithm outperforms the current leading parallel MLCS algorithm FAST-MLCS.
Oxidative Damage and Cellular Defense Mechanisms in Sea Urchin Models of Aging
Du, Colin; Anderson, Arielle; Lortie, Mae; Parsons, Rachel; Bodnar, Andrea
2013-01-01
The free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging proposes that the accumulation of oxidative cellular damage is a major contributor to the aging process and a key determinant of species longevity. This study investigates the oxidative stress theory in a novel model for aging research, the sea urchin. Sea urchins present a unique model for the study of aging due to the existence of species with tremendously different natural life spans including some species with extraordinary longevity and negligible senescence. Cellular oxidative damage, antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities were measured in the tissues of three sea urchin species: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate lifespan. Levels of protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) measured in tissues (muscle, nerve, esophagus, gonad, coelomocytes, ampullae) and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) measured in cell-free coelomic fluid showed no general increase with age. The fluorescent age-pigment lipofuscin measured in muscle, nerve and esophagus, increased with age however it appeared to be predominantly extracellular. Antioxidant mechanisms (total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase) and proteasome enzyme activities were maintained with age. In some instances, levels of oxidative damage were lower and antioxidant activity higher in cells or tissues of the long-lived species compared to the short-lived species, however further studies are required to determine the relationship between oxidative damage and longevity in these animals. Consistent with the predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging, the results suggest that negligible senescence is accompanied by a lack of accumulation of cellular oxidative damage with age and maintenance of antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities may be important mechanisms to mitigate damage. PMID:23707327
Modeling of the competition life cycle using the software complex of cellular automata PyCAlab
Berg, D. B.; Beklemishev, K. A.; Medvedev, A. N.; Medvedeva, M. A.
2015-11-01
The aim of the work is to develop a numerical model of the life cycle of competition on the basis of software complex cellular automata PyCAlab. The model is based on the general patterns of growth of various systems in resource-limited settings. At examples it is shown that the period of transition from an unlimited growth of the market agents to the stage of competitive growth takes quite a long time and may be characterized as monotonic. During this period two main strategies of competitive selection coexist: 1) capture of maximum market space with any reasonable costs; 2) saving by reducing costs. The obtained results allow concluding that the competitive strategies of companies must combine two mentioned types of behavior, and this issue needs to be given adequate attention in the academic literature on management. The created numerical model may be used for market research when developing of the strategies for promotion of new goods and services.
Aalaei, Amin; Davoudpour, Hamid
2012-11-01
This article presents designing a new mathematical model for integrating dynamic cellular manufacturing into supply chain system with an extensive coverage of important manufacturing features consideration of multiple plants location, multi-markets allocation, multi-period planning horizons with demand and part mix variation, machine capacity, and the main constraints are demand of markets satisfaction in each period, machine availability, machine time-capacity, worker assignment, available time of worker, production volume for each plant and the amounts allocated to each market. The aim of the proposed model is to minimize holding and outsourcing costs, inter-cell material handling cost, external transportation cost, procurement & maintenance and overhead cost of machines, setup cost, reconfiguration cost of machines installation and removal, hiring, firing and salary worker costs. Aimed to prove the potential benefits of such a design, presented an example is shown using a proposed model.
Kamran Forghani
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new mathematical model in cellular manufacturing systems (CMSs has been presented. In order to increase the performance of manufacturing system, the production quantity of parts has been considered as a decision variable, i.e. each part can be produced and outsourced, simultaneously. This extension would be minimized the unused capacity of machines. The exceptional elements (EEs are taken into account and would be totally outsourced to the external supplier in order to remove intercellular material handling cost. The problem has been formulated as a mixed-integer programming to minimize the sum of manufacturing variable costs under budget, machines capacity and demand constraints. Also, to evaluate advantages of the model, several illustrative numerical examples have been provided to compare the performance of the proposed model with the available classical approaches in the literature.
STATISTIC MODEL OF DYNAMIC DELAY AND DROPOUT ON CELLULAR DATA NETWORKED CONTROL SYSTEM
MUHAMMAD A. MURTI
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Delay and dropout are important parameters influence overall control performance in Networked Control System (NCS. The goal of this research is to find a model of delay and dropout of data communication link in the NCS. Experiments have been done in this research to a water level control of boiler tank as part of the NCS based on internet communication network using High Speed Packet Access (HSPA cellular technology. By this experiments have been obtained closed-loop system response as well as data delay and dropout of data packets. This research contributes on modeling of the NCS which is combination of controlled plant and data communication link. Another contribution is statistical model of delay and dropout on the NCS.
Cigarette smoke-exposed saliva suppresses cellular and humoral immune responses in an animal model
Jafarzadeh, A.; Bakhshi, H.; Rezayati, M.T.; Nemati, M.
2009-01-01
To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed saliva on cellular and antibody responses in an animal model. The stimulatory and non-stimulatory saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy subjects and were then exposed to CS for 20 or 80 minutes. The CS-exposed saliva samples were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p) to male Balb/c mice. Then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was assessed. Moreover, the total white blood cells (WBC) counts and the blood lymphocytes counts were determined. The mean of DTH responses of animal groups received 20 minutes or 80 minutes CS-exposed saliva samples was significantly lower than that observed in control group. Moreover, The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibody was significantly lower in animal groups who received 80 minutes CS-exposed stimulatory or non-stimulatory saliva as compared to control group (P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). The mean counts of blood lymphocytes in 80 minutes CS exposed-stimulatory saliva group was also significantly lower as compared to control group (P<0.05). These results show that the CS-exposed saliva samples have profound suppressive effects on both cellular and humoral immune response in a mouse animal model (JPMA 59:760; 2009). (author)
Train flow chaos analysis based on an improved cellular automata model
Meng, Xuelei; Xiang, Wanli; Jia, Limin; Xu, Jie
2015-01-01
To control the chaos in the railway traffic flow and offer valuable information for the dispatchers of the railway system, an improved cellular model is presented to detect and analyze the chaos in the traffic flow. We first introduce the working mechanism of moving block system, analyzing the train flow movement characteristics. Then we improve the cellular model on the evolution rules to adjust the train flow movement. We give the train operation steps from three cases: the trains running on a railway section, a train will arrive in a station and a train will departure from a station. We simulate 4 trains to run on a high speed section fixed with moving block system and record the distances between the neighbor trains and draw the Poincare section to analyze the chaos in the train operation. It is concluded that there is not only chaos but order in the train operation system with moving blocking system and they can interconvert to each other. The findings have the potential value in train dispatching system construction and offer supporting information for the daily dispatching work.
Imène Achour
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. There is currently no cure for PD and present medications aim to alleviate clinical symptoms, thus prevention remains the ideal strategy to reduce the prevalence of this disease. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oleuropein (OLE, the major phenolic compound in olive derivatives, may prevent neuronal degeneration in a cellular dopaminergic model of PD, differentiated PC12 cells exposed to the potent parkinsonian toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA. We also investigated OLE’s ability to mitigate mitochondrial oxidative stress and modulate the autophagic flux. Our results obtained by measuring cytotoxicity and apoptotic events demonstrate that OLE significantly decreases neuronal death. OLE could also reduce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species resulting from blocking superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, quantification of autophagic and acidic vesicles in the cytoplasm alongside expression of specific autophagic markers uncovered a regulatory role for OLE against autophagic flux impairment induced by bafilomycin A1. Altogether, our results define OLE as a neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and autophagy-regulating molecule, in a neuronal dopaminergic cellular model.
Simulating Flaring Events via an Intelligent Cellular Automata Mechanism
Dimitropoulou, M.; Vlahos, L.; Isliker, H.; Georgoulis, M.
2010-07-01
We simulate flaring events through a Cellular Automaton (CA) model, in which, for the first time, we use observed vector magnetograms as initial conditions. After non-linear force free extrapolation of the magnetic field from the vector magnetograms, we identify magnetic discontinuities, using two alternative criteria: (1) the average magnetic field gradient, or (2) the normalized magnetic field curl (i.e. the current). Magnetic discontinuities are identified at the grid-sites where the magnetic field gradient or curl exceeds a specified threshold. We then relax the magnetic discontinuities according to the rules of Lu and Hamilton (1991) or Lu et al. (1993), i.e. we redistribute the magnetic field locally so that the discontinuities disappear. In order to simulate the flaring events, we consider several alternative scenarios with regard to: (1) The threshold above which magnetic discontinuities are identified (applying low, high, and height-dependent threshold values); (2) The driving process that occasionally causes new discontinuities (at randomly chosen grid sites, magnetic field increments are added that are perpendicular (or may-be also parallel) to the existing magnetic field). We address the question whether the coronal active region magnetic fields can indeed be considered to be in the state of self-organized criticality (SOC).
Zhao, Yuchao; Conolly, Rory B; Andersen, Melvin E.
2006-11-21
This report describes the development of a computational systems biology approach to evaluate the hypotheses of molecular and cellular mechanisms of adaptive response to low dose ionizing radiation. Our concept is that computational models of signaling pathways can be developed and linked to biologically based dose response models to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms which lead to adaptive response. For development of quantitatively accurate, predictive models, it will be necessary to describe tissues consisting of multiple cell types where the different types each contribute in their own way to the overall function of the tissue. Such a model will probably need to incorporate not only cell type-specific data but also spatial information on the architecture of the tissue and on intercellular signaling. The scope of the current model was more limited. Data obtained in a number of different biological systems were synthesized to describe a chimeric, “average” population cell. Biochemical signaling pathways involved in sensing of DNA damage and in the activation of cell cycle checkpoint controls and the apoptotic path were also included. As with any computational modeling effort, it was necessary to develop these simplified initial descriptions (models) that can be iteratively refined. This preliminary model is a starting point which, with time, can evolve to a level of refinement where large amounts of detailed biological information are synthesized and a capability for robust predictions of dose- and time-response behaviors is obtained.
Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Flavonolignans in Different Cellular Models
Michal Bijak
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5–3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.. In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides their hepatoprotective action, silymarin flavonolignans have many other healthy properties, such as anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of flavonolignans on blood platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and human lung cancer cell line—A549—using different molecular techniques. We established that three major flavonolignans: silybin, silychristin and silydianin, in concentrations of up to 100 µM, have neither a cytotoxic nor genotoxic effect on blood platelets, PMBCs and A549. We also saw that silybin and silychristin have a protective effect on cellular mitochondria, observed as a reduction of spontaneous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA damage in A549, measured as mtDNA copies, and mtDNA lesions in ND1 and ND5 genes. Additionally, we observed that flavonolignans increase the blood platelets’ mitochondrial membrane potential and reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species in blood platelets. Our current findings show for the first time that the three major flavonolignans, silybin, silychristin and silydianin, do not have any cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various cellular models, and that they actually protect cellular mitochondria. This proves that the antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effect of these compounds is part of our molecular health mechanisms.
Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model
Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore
FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.
A cellular automation model for the change of public attitude regarding nuclear energy
Ohnishi, Teruaki
1991-01-01
A cellular automation model was constructed to investigate how public opinion on nuclear energy in Japan depends upon the information environment and personal communication between people. From simulation with this model, the following become clear; (i) society is a highly non-linear system with a self-organizing potential: (ii) in a society composed of one type of constituent member with homogeneous characteristics, the trend of public opinion is substantially changed only when the effort to ameliorate public acceptance over a long period of time, by means such as education, persuasion and advertisement, exceeds a certain threshold, and (iii) in the case when the amount of information on nuclear risk released from the newsmedia is reduced continuously from now on, the acceptability of nuclear energy is significantly improved so far as the extent of the reduction exceeds a certain threshold. (author)
A cellular automation model for the change of public attitude regarding nuclear energy
Ohnishi, Teruaki (CRC Research Inst., Chiba (Japan))
1991-01-01
A cellular automation model was constructed to investigate how public opinion on nuclear energy in Japan depends upon the information environment and personal communication between people. From simulation with this model, the following become clear; (i) society is a highly non-linear system with a self-organizing potential: (ii) in a society composed of one type of constituent member with homogeneous characteristics, the trend of public opinion is substantially changed only when the effort to ameliorate public acceptance over a long period of time, by means such as education, persuasion and advertisement, exceeds a certain threshold, and (iii) in the case when the amount of information on nuclear risk released from the newsmedia is reduced continuously from now on, the acceptability of nuclear energy is significantly improved so far as the extent of the reduction exceeds a certain threshold. (author).
Genome editing of human pluripotent stem cells to generate human cellular disease models
Kiran Musunuru
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Disease modeling with human pluripotent stem cells has come into the public spotlight with the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2012 to Drs John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. This discovery has opened the door for the generation of pluripotent stem cells from individuals with disease and the differentiation of these cells into somatic cell types for the study of disease pathophysiology. The emergence of genome-editing technology over the past few years has made it feasible to generate and investigate human cellular disease models with even greater speed and efficiency. Here, recent technological advances in genome editing, and its utility in human biology and disease studies, are reviewed.
Guzmán, H. A.; Lárraga, M. E.; Alvarez-Icaza, L.; Carvajal, J.
2018-02-01
In this paper, a reliable cellular automata model oriented to faithfully reproduce deceleration and acceleration according to realistic reactions of drivers, when vehicles with different deceleration capabilities are considered is presented. The model focuses on describing complex traffic phenomena by coding in its rules the basic mechanisms of drivers behavior, vehicles capabilities and kinetics, while preserving simplicity. In particular, vehiclés kinetics is based on uniform accelerated motion, rather than in impulsive accelerated motion as in most existing CA models. Thus, the proposed model calculates in an analytic way three safe preserving distances to determine the best action a follower vehicle can take under a worst case scenario. Besides, the prediction analysis guarantees that under the proper assumptions, collision between vehicles may not happen at any future time. Simulations results indicate that all interactions of heterogeneous vehicles (i.e., car-truck, truck-car, car-car and truck-truck) are properly reproduced by the model. In addition, the model overcomes one of the major limitations of CA models for traffic modeling: the inability to perform smooth approach to slower or stopped vehicles. Moreover, the model is also capable of reproducing most empirical findings including the backward speed of the downstream front of the traffic jam, and different congested traffic patterns induced by a system with open boundary conditions with an on-ramp. Like most CA models, integer values are used to make the model run faster, which makes the proposed model suitable for real time traffic simulation of large networks.
Cellular automata in image processing and geometry
Adamatzky, Andrew; Sun, Xianfang
2014-01-01
The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of mass...
Iovine, G.; D'Ambrosio, D.
2003-04-01
Cellular Automata models do represent a valid method for the simulation of complex phenomena, when these latter can be described in "a-centric" terms - i.e. through local interactions within a discrete time-space. In particular, flow-type landslides (such as debris flows) can be viewed as a-centric dynamical system. SCIDDICA S4b, the last release of a family of two-dimensional hexagonal Cellular Automata models, has recently been developed for simulating debris flows characterised by strong inertial effects. It has been derived by progressively enriching an initial simplified CA model, originally derived for simulating very simple cases of slow-moving flow-type landslides. In S4b, by applying an empirical strategy, the inertial characters of the flowing mass have been translated into CA terms. In the transition function of the model, the distribution of landslide debris among the cells is computed by considering the momentum of the debris which move among the cells of the neighbourhood, and privileging the flow direction. By properly setting the value of one of the global parameters of the model (the "inertial factor"), the mechanism of distribution of the landslide debris among the cells can be influenced in order to emphasise the inertial effects, according to the energy of the flowing mass. Moreover, the high complexity of both the model and of the phenomena to be simulated (e.g. debris flows characterised by severe erosion along their path, and by strong inertial effects) suggested to employ an automated technique of evaluation, for the determination of the best set of global parameters. Accordingly, the calibration of the model has been performed through Genetic Algorithms, by considering several real cases of study: these latter have been selected among the population of landslides triggered in Campania (Southern Italy) in May 1998 and December 1999. Obtained results are satisfying: errors computed by comparing the simulations with the map of the real
Marko eUutela
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Fluoxetine is used as a therapeutic agent for autism spectrum disorder (ASD, including Fragile X syndrome (FXS. The treatment often associates with disruptive behaviors such as agitation and disinhibited behaviors in FXS. To identify mechanisms that increase the risk to poor treatment outcome, we investigated the behavioral and cellular effects of fluoxetine on adult Fmr1 knockout (KO mice, a mouse model for FXS. We found that fluoxetine reduced anxiety-like behavior of both wild type and Fmr1 KO mice seen as shortened latency to enter the center area in the open field test. In Fmr1 KO mice, fluoxetine normalized locomotor hyperactivity but abnormally increased exploratory activity. Reduced Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and increased TrkB receptor expression levels in the hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice associated with inappropriate coping responses under stressful condition and abolished antidepressant activity of fluoxetine. Fluoxetine response in the cell proliferation was also missing in the hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice when compared with wild type controls. The postnatal expression of serotonin transporter was reduced in the thalamic nuclei of Fmr1 KO mice during the time of transient innervation of somatosensory neurons suggesting that developmental changes of serotonin transporter (SERT expression were involved in the differential cellular and behavioral responses to fluoxetine in wild type and Fmr1 mice. The results indicate that changes of BDNF/TrkB signaling contribute to differential behavioral responses to fluoxetine among individuals with ASD.
An empirical Bayesian approach for model-based inference of cellular signaling networks
Klinke David J
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A common challenge in systems biology is to infer mechanistic descriptions of biological process given limited observations of a biological system. Mathematical models are frequently used to represent a belief about the causal relationships among proteins within a signaling network. Bayesian methods provide an attractive framework for inferring the validity of those beliefs in the context of the available data. However, efficient sampling of high-dimensional parameter space and appropriate convergence criteria provide barriers for implementing an empirical Bayesian approach. The objective of this study was to apply an Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo technique to a typical study of cellular signaling pathways. Results As an illustrative example, a kinetic model for the early signaling events associated with the epidermal growth factor (EGF signaling network was calibrated against dynamic measurements observed in primary rat hepatocytes. A convergence criterion, based upon the Gelman-Rubin potential scale reduction factor, was applied to the model predictions. The posterior distributions of the parameters exhibited complicated structure, including significant covariance between specific parameters and a broad range of variance among the parameters. The model predictions, in contrast, were narrowly distributed and were used to identify areas of agreement among a collection of experimental studies. Conclusion In summary, an empirical Bayesian approach was developed for inferring the confidence that one can place in a particular model that describes signal transduction mechanisms and for inferring inconsistencies in experimental measurements.
On the Geometric Modeling of the Uplink Channel in a Cellular System
K. B. Baltzis
2008-01-01
Full Text Available To meet the challenges of present and future wireless communications realistic propagation models that consider both spatial and temporal channel characteristics are used. However, the complexity of the complete characterization of the wireless medium has pointed out the importance of approximate but simple approaches. The geometrically based methods are typical examples of low–complexity but adequate solutions. Geometric modeling idealizes the aforementioned wireless propagation environment via a geometric abstraction of the spatial relationships among the transmitter, the receiver, and the scatterers. The paper tries to present an efficient way to simulate mobile channels using geometrical–based stochastic scattering models. In parallel with an overview of the most commonly used propagation models, the basic principles of the method as well the main assumptions made are presented. The study is focused on three well–known proposals used for the description of the Angle–of –Arrival and Time–of–Arrival statistics of the incoming multipaths in the uplink of a cellular communication system. In order to demonstrate the characteristics of these models illustrative examples are given. The physical mechanism and motivations behind them are also included providing us with a better understanding of the physical insight of the propagation medium.
Molecular modeling of the conformational dynamics of the cellular prion protein
Nguyen, Charles; Colling, Ian; Bartz, Jason; Soto, Patricia
2014-03-01
Prions are infectious agents responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), a type of fatal neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Prions propagate biological information by conversion of the non-pathological version of the prion protein to the infectious conformation, PrPSc. A wealth of knowledge has shed light on the nature and mechanism of prion protein conversion. In spite of the significance of this problem, we are far from fully understanding the conformational dynamics of the cellular isoform. To remedy this situation we employ multiple biomolecular modeling techniques such as docking and molecular dynamics simulations to map the free energy landscape and determine what specific regions of the prion protein are most conductive to binding. The overall goal is to characterize the conformational dynamics of the cell form of the prion protein, PrPc, to gain insight into inhibition pathways against misfolding. NE EPSCoR FIRST Award to Patricia Soto.
Chavali, Arvind K; Gianchandani, Erwin P; Tung, Kenneth S; Lawrence, Michael B; Peirce, Shayn M; Papin, Jason A
2008-12-01
The immune system is comprised of numerous components that interact with one another to give rise to phenotypic behaviors that are sometimes unexpected. Agent-based modeling (ABM) and cellular automata (CA) belong to a class of discrete mathematical approaches in which autonomous entities detect local information and act over time according to logical rules. The power of this approach lies in the emergence of behavior that arises from interactions between agents, which would otherwise be impossible to know a priori. Recent work exploring the immune system with ABM and CA has revealed novel insights into immunological processes. Here, we summarize these applications to immunology and, particularly, how ABM can help formulate hypotheses that might drive further experimental investigations of disease mechanisms.
Cellular Automata Models of Traffic Behavior in Presence of Speed Breaking Structures
Ramachandran, Parthasarathy
2009-01-01
In this article, we study traffic flow in the presence of speed breaking structures. The speed breakers are typically used to reduce the local speed of vehicles near certain institutions such as schools and hospitals. Through a cellular automata model we study the impact of such structures on global traffic characteristics. The simulation results indicate that the presence of speed breakers could reduce the global flow under moderate global densities. However, under low and high global density traffic regime the presence of speed breakers does not have an impact on the global flow. Further the speed limit enforced by the speed breaker creates a phase distinction. For a given global density and slowdown probability, as the speed limit enforced by the speed breaker increases, the traffic moves from the reduced flow phase to maximum flow phase. This underlines the importance of proper design of these structures to avoid undesired flow restrictions. (general)
Maytin, Edward; Anand, Sanjay; Sato, Nobuyuki; Mack, Judith; Ortel, Bernhard
2005-04-01
During ALA-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), a pro-drug (aminolevulinic acid; ALA) is taken up by tumor cells and metabolically converted to a photosensitizing intermediate (protoporphyrin IX; PpIX). ALA-based PDT, while an emerging treatment modality, remains suboptimal for most cancers (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma of the skin). Many treatment failures may be largely due to insufficient conversion of ALA to PpIX within cells. We discovered a novel way to increase the conversion of ALA to PpIX, by administering agents that can drive terminal differentiation (i.e., accelerate cellular maturation). Terminally-differentiated epithelial cells show higher levels of intracellular PpIX, apparently via increased levels of a rate-limiting enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO). To study these mechanisms in a three-dimensional tissue, we developed an organotypic model that mimics true epidermal physiology in a majority of respects. A line of rat epidermal keratinocytes (REKs), when grown in raft cultures, displays all the features of a fully-differentiated epidermis. Addition of ALA to the culture medium results in ALA uptake and PpIX synthesis, with subsequent death of keratinocytes upon exposure to blue light. Using this model, we can manipulate cellular differentiation via three different approaches. (1) Vitamin D, a hormone that enhances keratinocyte differentiation; (2) Hoxb13, a nuclear transcription factor that affects the genetically-controlled differentiation program of stratifying cells (3) Hyaluronan, an abundant extracellular matrix molecule that regulates epidermal differentiation. Because the raft cultures contain only a single cell type (no blood, fibroblasts, etc.) the effects of terminal differentiation upon CPO, PpIX, and keratinocyte cell death can be specifically defined.
Data Structure Analysis to Represent Basic Models of Finite State Automation
V. V. Gurenko
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Complex system engineering based on the automaton models requires a reasoned data structure selection to implement them. The problem of automaton representation and data structure selection to be used in it has been understudied. Arbitrary data structure selection for automaton model software implementation leads to unnecessary computational burden and reduces the developed system efficiency. This article proposes an approach to the reasoned selection of data structures to represent finite algoristic automaton basic models and gives practical considerations based on it.Static and dynamic data structures are proposed for three main ways to assign Mealy and Moore automatons: a transition table, a matrix of coupling and a transition graph. A thirddimensional array, a rectangular matrix and a matrix of lists are the static structures. Dynamic structures are list-oriented structures: two-level and three-level Ayliff vectors and a multi-linked list. These structures allow us to store all required information about finite state automaton model components - characteristic set cardinalities and data of transition and output functions.A criterion system is proposed for data structure comparative evaluation in virtue of algorithmic features of automata theory problems. The criteria focused on capacitive and time computational complexity of operations performed in tasks such as equivalent automaton conversions, proving of automaton equivalence and isomorphism, and automaton minimization.A data structure comparative analysis based on the criterion system has done for both static and dynamic type. The analysis showed advantages of the third-dimensional array, matrix and two-level Ayliff vector. These are structures that assign automaton by transition table. For these structures an experiment was done to measure the execution time of automation operations included in criterion system.The analysis of experiment results showed that a dynamic structure - two
Development of in vitro models for cellular and molecular studies in toxicology and chemoprevention
Mace, K.; Offord, E.A.; Harris, C.C.; Pfeifer, A.M.A. [Nestle Research Center, Lausanne (Switzerland)
1998-12-31
Many natural dietary phytochemicals found compounds found in fruits, vegetables, spices and tea have been shown in recent years to be protective against cancer in various animal models. In the light of the potential impact of these compounds on human health it is important to elucidate the mechanisms involved. We therefore developed and characterized relevant in vitro models using immortalized human epithelial cell lines derived from target tissues in carcinogenesis, such as lung, liver and colon. Assays were established, allowing the evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of various procarcinogens, including nitrosamines, mycotoxins and heterocyclic amines on these metabolically-competent human epithelial cell lines. These cellular models appeared to be a useful tool to study the capacity of certain food components to block the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. The ability of carnosol and carnosic acid from rosemary as well as the synthetic dithiolethione, oltipraz, to block the formation of DNA adducts, and their effects on the expression of phase I and phase II enzymes was investigated. We have observed that both rosemary extracts and oltiprax inhibited benzo(a)pyrene- or aflatoxin B{sub 1}-induced DNA adduct formation by strongly inhibiting CYP{sub 450} activities and inducing the expression of glutathione S-transferase. These results in human cell models give some insight into the different mechanisms involved in the chemopreventive action of both natural and synthetic compounds in relation to phase I and phase II enzymes. (orig.)
Juckett, D A
1987-03-01
A model is presented which proposes a specific cause-and-effect relationship between a limited cell division potential and the maximum lifespan of humans and other mammals. It is based on the clonal succession hypothesis of Kay which states that continually replicating cell beds (e.g. bone marrow, intestinal crypts, epidermis) could be composed of cells with short, well-defined division potentials. In this model, the cells of these beds are proposed to exist in an ordered hierarchy which establishes a specific sequence for cell divisions throughout the organism's lifespan. The depletion of division potential at all hierarchical levels leads to a loss of bed function and sets an intrinsic limit to species longevity. A specific hierarchy for cell proliferation is defined which allows the calculation of time to bed depletion and, ultimately, to organism mortality. The model allows the existence of a small number (n) of critical cell beds within the organism and defines organism death as the inability of any one of these beds to produce cells. The model is consistent with all major observations related to cellular and organismic aging. In particular, it links the PDLs (population doubling limit) observed for various species to their mean lifespan; it explains the slow decline in PDL as a function of age of the donor; it establishes a thermodynamically stable maximum lifespan for a disease-free population; and it can explain why tissue transplants outlive donors or hosts.
Ohmori, Shousuke; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro
2016-01-01
Ultradiscrete equations are derived from a set of reaction–diffusion partial differential equations, and cellular automaton rules are obtained on the basis of the ultradiscrete equations. Some rules reproduce the dynamical properties of the original reaction–diffusion equations, namely, bistability and pulse annihilation. Furthermore, other rules bring about soliton-like preservation and periodic pulse generation with a pacemaker, which are not obtained from the original reaction–diffusion equations. (author)
Lira, Matthew
This dissertation explores the Knowledge in Pieces (KiP) theory to account for how students learn to coordinate knowledge of mathematical and physical models in biology education. The KiP approach characterizes student knowledge as a fragmented collection of knowledge elements as opposed to stable and theory-like knowledge. This dissertation sought to use this theoretical lens to account for how students understand and learn with mathematical models and representations, such as equations. Cellular physiology provides a quantified discipline that leverages concepts from mathematics, physics, and chemistry to understand cellular functioning. Therefore, this discipline provides an exemplary context for assessing how biology students think and learn with mathematical models. In particular, the resting membrane potential provides an exemplary concept well defined by models of dynamic equilibrium borrowed from physics and chemistry. In brief, membrane potentials, or voltages, "rest" when the electrical and chemical driving forces for permeable ionic species are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. To assess students' understandings of this concept, this dissertation employed three studies: the first study employed the cognitive clinical interview to assess student thinking in the absence and presence of equations. The second study employed an intervention to assess student learning and the affordances of an innovative assessment. The third student employed a human-computer-interaction paradigm to assess how students learn with a novel multi-representational technology. Study 1 revealed that students saw only one influence--the chemical gradient--and that students coordinated knowledge of only this gradient with the related equations. Study 2 revealed that students benefited from learning with the multi-representational technology and that the assessment detected performance gains across both calculation and explanation tasks. Last, Study 3 revealed how students
Garijo, N; Manzano, R; Osta, R; Perez, M A
2012-12-07
Cell migration and proliferation has been modelled in the literature as a process similar to diffusion. However, using diffusion models to simulate the proliferation and migration of cells tends to create a homogeneous distribution in the cell density that does not correlate to empirical observations. In fact, the mechanism of cell dispersal is not diffusion. Cells disperse by crawling or proliferation, or are transported in a moving ﬂuid. The use of cellular automata, particle models or cell-based models can overcome this limitation. This paper presents a stochastic cellular automata model to simulate the proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells. These processes are considered as completely stochastic as well as discrete. The model developed was applied to predict the behaviour of in vitro cell cultures performed with adult muscle satellite cells. Moreover, non homogeneous distribution of cells has been observed inside the culture well and, using the above mentioned stochastic cellular automata model, we have been able to predict this heterogeneous cell distribution and compute accurate quantitative results. Differentiation was also incorporated into the computational simulation. The results predicted the myotube formation that typically occurs with adult muscle satellite cells. In conclusion, we have shown how a stochastic cellular automata model can be implemented and is capable of reproducing the in vitro behaviour of adult muscle satellite cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dynamic crushing of uniform and density graded cellular structures based on the circle arc model
Jianjun Zhang
Full Text Available AbstractA new circle-arc model was established to present the cellular structure. Dynamic response of models with density gradients under constant velocities is investigated by employing Ls-dyna 971. Compared with the uniform models, the quasi-static plateau stress of different layers seems a significant parameter correlated with the deformation mode except for inertia effect when the density gradient is introduced. The impact velocity becomes much more vital on the deformation of the unit cell than the density gradient. The stress at both the impact and stationary sides is investigated in details. Furthermore, the stress-strain curve is compared with the modified shock wave theory. The density gradient does have some remarkable influence on the energy absorption capability, and a certain density gradient is not always beneficial to the energy absorption. Irrespective of the impact velocity, there seems always a critical strain where the energy absorbed by all these specimens could approximate to nearly the same value. So the critical strain-velocity curve is plotted and gives the beneficial area for energy absorption pertinent to density gradients and impact velocity.
Safety impacts of red light cameras at signalized intersections based on cellular automata models.
Chai, C; Wong, Y D; Lum, K M
2015-01-01
This study applies a simulation technique to evaluate the hypothesis that red light cameras (RLCs) exert important effects on accident risks. Conflict occurrences are generated by simulation and compared at intersections with and without RLCs to assess the impact of RLCs on several conflict types under various traffic conditions. Conflict occurrences are generated through simulating vehicular interactions based on an improved cellular automata (CA) model. The CA model is calibrated and validated against field observations at approaches with and without RLCs. Simulation experiments are conducted for RLC and non-RLC intersections with different geometric layouts and traffic demands to generate conflict occurrences that are analyzed to evaluate the hypothesis that RLCs exert important effects on road safety. The comparison of simulated conflict occurrences show favorable safety impacts of RLCs on crossing conflicts and unfavorable impacts for rear-end conflicts during red/amber phases. Corroborative results are found from broad analysis of accident occurrence. RLCs are found to have a mixed effect on accident risk at signalized intersections: crossing collisions are reduced, whereas rear-end collisions may increase. The specially developed CA model is found to be a feasible safety assessment tool.
A computational approach to modeling cellular-scale blood flow in complex geometry
Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit
2017-04-01
We present a computational methodology for modeling cellular-scale blood flow in arbitrary and highly complex geometry. Our approach is based on immersed-boundary methods, which allow modeling flows in arbitrary geometry while resolving the large deformation and dynamics of every blood cell with high fidelity. The present methodology seamlessly integrates different modeling components dealing with stationary rigid boundaries of complex shape, moving rigid bodies, and highly deformable interfaces governed by nonlinear elasticity. Thus it enables us to simulate 'whole' blood suspensions flowing through physiologically realistic microvascular networks that are characterized by multiple bifurcating and merging vessels, as well as geometrically complex lab-on-chip devices. The focus of the present work is on the development of a versatile numerical technique that is able to consider deformable cells and rigid bodies flowing in three-dimensional arbitrarily complex geometries over a diverse range of scenarios. After describing the methodology, a series of validation studies are presented against analytical theory, experimental data, and previous numerical results. Then, the capability of the methodology is demonstrated by simulating flows of deformable blood cells and heterogeneous cell suspensions in both physiologically realistic microvascular networks and geometrically intricate microfluidic devices. It is shown that the methodology can predict several complex microhemodynamic phenomena observed in vascular networks and microfluidic devices. The present methodology is robust and versatile, and has the potential to scale up to very large microvascular networks at organ levels.
Loewe Axel
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Vernakalant is a new antiarrhythmic agent for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. While it has proven to be effective in a large share of patients in clinical studies, its underlying mode of action is not fully understood. In this work, we aim to link experimental data from the subcellular, tissue, and system level using an in-silico approach. A Hill’s equation-based drug model was extended to cover the frequency dependence of sodium channel block. Two model variants were investigated: M1 based on subcellular data and M2 based on tissue level data. 6 action potential (AP markers were evaluated regarding their dose, frequency and substrate dependence. M1 comprising potassium, sodium, and calcium channel block reproduced the reported prolongation of the refractory period. M2 not including the effects on potassium channels reproduced reported AP morphology changes on the other hand. The experimentally observed increase of ERP accompanied by a shortening of APD90 was not reproduced. Thus, explanations for the drug-induced changes are provided while none of the models can explain the effects in their entirety. These results foster the understanding of vernakalant’s cellular mode of action and point out relevant gaps in our current knowledge to be addressed in future in-silico and experimental research on this aspiring antiarrhythmic agent.
Wilson Gómez Manrique
Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe and characterize the cellular components during the evolution of chronic granulomatous inflammation in the teleost fish pacus (P. mesopotamicus induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG, using S-100, iNOS and cytokeratin antibodies. 50 fish (120±5.0 g were anesthetized and 45 inoculated with 20 μL (40 mg/mL (2.0 x 10(6 CFU/mg and five inoculated with saline (0,65% into muscle tissue in the laterodorsal region. To evaluate the inflammatory process, nine fish inoculated with BCG and one control were sampled in five periods: 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 33rd days post-inoculation (DPI. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the marking with anti-S-100 protein and anti-iNOS antibodies was weak, with a diffuse pattern, between the third and seventh DPI. From the 14th to the 33rd day, the marking became stronger and marked the cytoplasm of the macrophages. Positivity for cytokeratin was initially observed in the 14th DPI, and the stronger immunostaining in the 33rd day, period in which the epithelioid cells were more evident and the granuloma was fully formed. Also after the 14th day, a certain degree of cellular organization was observed, due to the arrangement of the macrophages around the inoculated material, with little evidence of edema. The arrangement of the macrophages around the inoculum, the fibroblasts, the lymphocytes and, in most cases, the presence of melanomacrophages formed the granuloma and kept the inoculum isolated in the 33rd DPI. The present study suggested that the granulomatous experimental model using teleost fish P. mesopotamicus presented a similar response to those observed in mammals, confirming its importance for studies of chronic inflammatory reaction.
Kihara, Takanori; Kashitani, Kosuke; Miyake, Jun
2017-07-14
Cell proliferation is a key characteristic of eukaryotic cells. During cell proliferation, cells interact with each other. In this study, we developed a cellular automata model to estimate cell-cell interactions using experimentally obtained images of cultured cells. We used four types of cells; HeLa cells, human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells, rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and rat smooth muscle A7r5 cells. These cells were cultured and stained daily. The obtained cell images were binarized and clipped into squares containing about 10 4 cells. These cells showed characteristic cell proliferation patterns. The growth curves of these cells were generated from the cell proliferation images and we determined the doubling time of these cells from the growth curves. We developed a simple cellular automata system with an easily accessible graphical user interface. This system has five variable parameters, namely, initial cell number, doubling time, motility, cell-cell adhesion, and cell-cell contact inhibition (of proliferation). Within these parameters, we obtained initial cell numbers and doubling times experimentally. We set the motility at a constant value because the effect of the parameter for our simulation was restricted. Therefore, we simulated cell proliferation behavior with cell-cell adhesion and cell-cell contact inhibition as variables. By comparing growth curves and proliferation cell images, we succeeded in determining the cell-cell interaction properties of each cell. Simulated HeLa and HOS cells exhibited low cell-cell adhesion and weak cell-cell contact inhibition. Simulated MSCs exhibited high cell-cell adhesion and positive cell-cell contact inhibition. Simulated A7r5 cells exhibited low cell-cell adhesion and strong cell-cell contact inhibition. These simulated results correlated with the experimental growth curves and proliferation images. Our simulation approach is an easy method for evaluating the cell-cell interaction properties of cells.
Searby, N. D.; Steele, C. R.; Globus, R. K.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Bone forming cells, osteoblasts, respond to various mechanical forces, including mechanical strain and fluid-induced shear stress. This study examined whether osteoblasts detect changes in gravity as a mechanical force, as assessed by cellular morphology and dimensions of the cytoskeletal network. We used modeling to evaluate how gravity influences cell morphology given theoretical differences in densities between the surrounding medium, cytoplasm, and nucleus. A mechanical model was built based on analysis of axisymmetric shell structures (Fast4 software) to study the effects of 10 times gravity (10G) on cell height. The model indicated 0.02% decrease in overall cell height when the medium was 10% denser than the nucleus or cytoplasm, 5.9 x 10(exp-5)% decrease when the nucleus was 10% denser than the cytoplasm or medium, and 1.3 x 10(exp-5)% decrease when the cell cytoplasm was 10% denser than the nucleus or medium. To experimentally evaluate the influence of gravity, cultured primary fetal rat osteoblasts were grown to near confluence and centrifuged at 10G for 3 hours. Actin, microtubules, and nuclei were fluorescently labeled and analyzed by confocal microscopy to determine overall microtubule and actin network height. Centrifugation led to an apparent reduction in height of both the microtubule (-16%) and the actin (-20%) networks relative to stationary controls. Thus, both modeling and experiments indicate that hypergravity reduces the height of the osteoblast cell layer and their microtubule and actin networks. This combination of modeling and experimental analyses will help us to better understand the mechanical loading of osteoblasts.
Stochastic Geometric Coverage Analysis in mmWave Cellular Networks with a Realistic Channel Model
Rebato, Mattia; Park, Jihong; Popovski, Petar
2017-01-01
Millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands have been attracting growing attention as a possible candidate for next-generation cellular networks, since the available spectrum is orders of magnitude larger than in current cellular allocations. To precisely design mmWave systems, it is important to examine mmWa...
Hybrid Automaton Based Controller Design for Damage Mitigation of Islanded Power Systems
Lahiri, Sudipta
some of these limitations, we derive a hybrid automaton model of a power system as a Discrete Event System (DES) plant and controller. The DES plant consists of a switched continuous system with an interface. The system state space is categorized based on safety criteria and discrete control specifications are embedded as transition rules within the DES controller. The DES controller searches for feasible control policies that drive the system trajectories from unsafe states to safe states. We define metrics to quantify the performance of these policies, thus allowing the derivation of the most suitable policy for a set of design specifications and disturbance type. Applications in voltage control, frequency control and dynamic service restoration is presented on a benchmark power system with approximately forty continuous states and eighteen thousand discrete states. To enable the analysis, we build a computational framework based on efficient symbolic computation tools in Mathematica and numerical integration tools in Matlab / Simulink so that the methodology can be replicated for a wide variety of applications. The framework is quite general, and may be expanded to problems beyond power systems.
Cellular automata model for urban road traffic flow considering pedestrian crossing street
Zhao, Han-Tao; Yang, Shuo; Chen, Xiao-Xu
2016-11-01
In order to analyze the effect of pedestrians' crossing street on vehicle flows, we investigated traffic characteristics of vehicles and pedestrians. Based on that, rules of lane changing, acceleration, deceleration, randomization and update are modified. Then we established two urban two-lane cellular automata models of traffic flow, one of which is about sections with non-signalized crosswalk and the other is on uncontrolled sections with pedestrians crossing street at random. MATLAB is used for numerical simulation of the different traffic conditions; meanwhile space-time diagram and relational graphs of traffic flow parameters are generated and then comparatively analyzed. Simulation results indicate that when vehicle density is lower than around 25 vehs/(km lane), pedestrians have modest impact on traffic flow, whereas when vehicle density is higher than about 60 vehs/(km lane), traffic speed and volume will decrease significantly especially on sections with non-signal-controlled crosswalk. The results illustrate that the proposed models reconstruct the traffic flow's characteristic with the situation where there are pedestrians crossing and can provide some practical reference for urban traffic management.
Tectonic modeling of Konya-Beysehir Region (Turkey using cellular neural networks
D. Aydogan
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, to separate regional-residual anomaly maps and to detect borders of buried geological bodies, we applied the Cellular Neural Network (CNN approach to gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. CNN is a stochastic image processing technique, based optimization of templates, which imply relationships of neighborhood pixels in 2-Dimensional (2D potential anomalies. Here, CNN performance in geophysics, tested by various synthetic examples and the results are compared to classical methods such as boundary analysis and second vertical derivatives. After we obtained satisfactory results in synthetic models, we applied CNN to Bouguer anomaly map of Konya-Beysehir Region, which has complex tectonic structure with various fault combinations. We evaluated CNN outputs and 2D/3D models, which are constructed using forward and inversion methods. Then we presented a new tectonic structure of Konya-Beysehir Region. We have denoted (F1, F2, , F7 and (Konya1, Konya2 faults according to our evaluations of CNN outputs. Thus, we have concluded that CNN is a compromising stochastic image processing technique in geophysics.
Load-aware modeling for uplink cellular networks in a multi-channel environment
AlAmmouri, Ahmad
2014-09-01
We exploit tools from stochastic geometry to develop a tractable analytical approach for modeling uplink cellular networks. The developed model is load aware and accounts for per-user power control as well as the limited transmit power constraint for the users\\' equipment (UEs). The proposed analytical paradigm is based on a simple per-user power control scheme in which each user inverts his path-loss such that the signal is received at his serving base station (BS) with a certain power threshold ρ Due to the limited transmit power of the UEs, users that cannot invert their path-loss to their serving BSs are allowed to transmit with their maximum transmit power. We show that the proposed power control scheme not only provides a balanced cell center and cell edge user performance, it also facilitates the analysis when compared to the state-of-the-art approaches in the literature. To this end, we discuss how to manipulate the design variable ρ in response to the network parameters to optimize one or more of the performance metrics such as the outage probability, the network capacity, and the energy efficiency.
Phase transitions and hysteresis in a cellular automata-based model of opinion formation
Kacperski, K.; Holyst, J.A.
1996-01-01
A particular case of a cellular automata-based model of two-state opinion formation in social groups with a strong leader is studied. We consider a 2D Euclidian geometry of open-quotes social spaceclose quotes and mutual interactions ∝ 1/r n . The model shows an interesting dynamics which can be analytically calculated. There are two stable states of the system: a cluster around the leader and unification. Unstable clusters may also appear. A variation in parameters such as the leader's strength or the open-quotes social temperatureclose quotes can change the size of a cluster or, when they reach some critical values, make the system jump into another state. For a certain range of parameters the system exhibits bistability and hysteresis phenomena. We obtained explicit formulas for the cluster size, critical values, make the system jump into another state. For a certain range of parameters the system exhibits bistability and hysteresis phenomena. We obtained explicit formulas for the cluster size, critical leader's strength, and critical open-quotes social temperature.close quotes These analytical results are verified by computer simulations
Martelli, Alain; Napierala, Marek; Puccio, Hélène
2012-01-01
In 1996, a link was identified between Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia in men, and alterations in the gene encoding frataxin (FXN). Initial studies revealed that the disease is caused by a unique, most frequently biallelic, expansion of the GAA sequence in intron 1 of FXN. Since the identification of this link, there has been tremendous progress in understanding frataxin function and the mechanism of FRDA pathology, as well as in developing diagnostics and therapeutic approaches for the disease. These advances were the subject of the 4th International Friedreich’s Ataxia Conference held on 5th–7th May in the Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France. More than 200 scientists gathered from all over the world to present the results of research spanning all areas of investigation into FRDA (including clinical aspects, FRDA pathogenesis, genetics and epigenetics of the disease, development of new models of FRDA, and drug discovery). This review provides an update on the understanding of frataxin function, developments of animal and cellular models of the disease, and recent advances in trying to uncover potential molecules for therapy. PMID:22382366
[A Cellular Automata Model for a Community Comprising Two Plant Species of Different Growth Forms].
Frolov, P V; Zubkova, E V; Komarov, A S
2015-01-01
A cellular automata computer model for the interactions between two plant species of different growth forms--the lime hairgrass Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) P. Beauv., a sod cereal, and the moneywort Lysimachia nummularia L., a ground creeping perennial herb--is considered. Computer experiments on the self-maintenance of the populations of each species against the background of a gradual increase in the share of randomly eliminated individuals, coexistence of the populations of two species, and the effect of the phytogenous field have been conducted. As has been shown, all the studied factors determine the number of individuals and self-sustainability of the simulated populations by the degree of their impact. The limits of action have been determined for individual factors; within these limits, the specific features in plant reproduction and dispersal provide sustainable coexistence of the simulated populations. It has been demonstrated that the constructed model allows for studying the long-term developmental dynamics of the plants belonging to the selected growth forms.
Effects of Mechanical Properties on Tumor Invasion: Insights from a Cellular Model
Li, YZ
2014-08-01
Understanding the regulating mechanism of tumor invasion is of crucial importance for both fundamental cancer research and clinical applications. Previous in vivo experiments have shown that invasive cancer cells dissociate from the primary tumor and invade into the stroma, forming an irregular invasive morphology. Although cell movements involved in tumor invasion are ultimately driven by mechanical forces of cell-cell interactions and tumor-host interactions, how these mechanical properties affect tumor invasion is still poorly understood. In this study, we use a recently developed two-dimensional cellular model to study the effects of mechanical properties on tumor invasion. We study the effects of cell-cell adhesions as well as the degree of degradation and stiffness of extracellular matrix (ECM). Our simulation results show that cell-cell adhesion relationship must be satisfied for tumor invasion. Increased adhesion to ECM and decreased adhesion among tumor cells result in invasive tumor behaviors. When this invasive behavior occurs, ECM plays an important role for both tumor morphology and the shape of invasive cancer cells. Increased stiffness and stronger degree of degradation of ECM promote tumor invasion, generating more aggressive tumor invasive morphologies. It can also generate irregular shape of invasive cancer cells, protruding towards ECM. The capability of our model suggests it a useful tool to study tumor invasion and might be used to propose optimal treatment in clinical applications.
Localizations in cellular automata with mutualistic excitation rules
Adamatzky, Andrew
2009-01-01
Every cell of two-dimensional cellular automaton with eight-cell neighborhood takes three states: resting, excited and refractory, and updates excited to refractory and refractory to resting states unconditionally. A resting cell excites depending on number of excited and refractory neighbors. We made exhaustive study of spatio-temporal excitation dynamics for all rules of this type and selected several classes of rules. The classes supporting self-localizations are studied in details. We uncover basic types of mobile (gliders) and stationary localizations, and characterize their morphology and dynamics.
Factorization, reduction and embedding in integrable cellular automata
Kuniba, Atsuo; Takagi, Taichiro; Takenouchi, Akira
2004-01-01
Factorized dynamics in soliton cellular automata with quantum group symmetry is identified with a motion of particles and anti-particles exhibiting pair creation and annihilation. An embedding scheme is presented showing that the D (1) n -automaton contains, as certain subsectors, the box-ball systems and all the other automata associated with the crystal bases of non-exceptional affine Lie algebras. The results extend the earlier ones to higher representations by a certain reduction and to a wider class of boundary conditions
Hilburn, Monty D.
Successful lean manufacturing and cellular manufacturing execution relies upon a foundation of leadership commitment and strategic planning built upon solid data and robust analysis. The problem for this study was to create and employ a simple lean transformation planning model and review process that could be used to identify functional support staff resources required to plan and execute lean manufacturing cells within aerospace assembly and manufacturing sites. The lean planning model was developed using available literature for lean manufacturing kaizen best practices and validated through a Delphi panel of lean experts. The resulting model and a standardized review process were used to assess the state of lean transformation planning at five sites of an international aerospace manufacturing and assembly company. The results of the three day, on-site review were compared with baseline plans collected from each of the five sites to determine if there analyzed, with focus on three critical areas of lean planning: the number and type of manufacturing cells identified, the number, type, and duration of planned lean and continuous kaizen events, and the quantity and type of functional staffing resources planned to support the kaizen schedule. Summarized data of the baseline and on-site reviews was analyzed with descriptive statistics. ANOVAs and paired-t tests at 95% significance level were conducted on the means of data sets to determine if null hypotheses related to cell, kaizen event, and support resources could be rejected. The results of the research found significant differences between lean transformation plans developed by site leadership and plans developed utilizing the structured, on-site review process and lean transformation planning model. The null hypothesis that there was no difference between the means of pre-review and on-site cell counts was rejected, as was the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in kaizen event plans. These
Sara Anjomani Virmouni
Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. We have previously established and performed preliminary characterisation of several human FXN yeast artificial chromosome (YAC transgenic FRDA mouse models containing GAA repeat expansions, Y47R (9 GAA repeats, YG8R (90 and 190 GAA repeats and YG22R (190 GAA repeats.We now report extended cellular, molecular and functional characterisation of these FXN YAC transgenic mouse models. FXN transgene copy number analysis of the FRDA mice demonstrated that the YG22R and Y47R lines each have a single copy of the FXN transgene while the YG8R line has two copies. Single integration sites of all transgenes were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH analysis of metaphase and interphase chromosomes. We identified significant functional deficits, together with a degree of glucose intolerance and insulin hypersensitivity, in YG8R and YG22R FRDA mice compared to Y47R and wild-type control mice. We also confirmed increased somatic GAA repeat instability in the cerebellum and brain of YG22R and YG8R mice, together with significantly reduced levels of FXN mRNA and protein in the brain and liver of YG8R and YG22R compared to Y47R.Together these studies provide a detailed characterisation of our GAA repeat expansion-based YAC transgenic FRDA mouse models that will help investigations of FRDA disease mechanisms and therapy.
Jensen, Erik C.; Stockton, Amanda M.; Chiesl, Thomas N.; Kim, Jungkyu; Bera, Abhisek; Mathies, Richard A.
2013-01-01
A digitally programmable microfluidic Automaton consisting of a 2-dimensional array of pneumatically actuated microvalves is programmed to perform new multiscale mixing and sample processing operations. Large (µL-scale) volume processing operations are enabled by precise metering of multiple reagents within individual nL-scale valves followed by serial repetitive transfer to programmed locations in the array. A novel process exploiting new combining valve concepts is developed for continuous rapid and complete mixing of reagents in less than 800 ms. Mixing, transfer, storage, and rinsing operations are implemented combinatorially to achieve complex assay automation protocols. The practical utility of this technology is demonstrated by performing automated serial dilution for quantitative analysis as well as the first demonstration of on-chip fluorescent derivatization of biomarker targets (carboxylic acids) for microchip capillary electrophoresis on the Mars Organic Analyzer. A language is developed to describe how unit operations are combined to form a microfluidic program. Finally, this technology is used to develop a novel microfluidic 6-sample processor for combinatorial mixing of large sets (>26 unique combinations) of reagents. The digitally programmable microfluidic Automaton is a versatile programmable sample processor for a wide range of process volumes, for multiple samples, and for different types of analyses. PMID:23172232
Screening Applications to Test Cellular Fitness in Transwell® Models After Nanoparticle Treatment.
Christ, Bastian; Fey, Christina; Cubukova, Alevtina; Walles, Heike; Dembski, Sofia; Metzger, Marco
2017-01-01
Nanoparticles (NPs) in biotechnology hold great promise for revolutionizing medical treatments and therapies. In order to bring NPs into clinical application there is a number of preclinical in vitro and in vivo tests, which have to be applied before. The initial in vitro evaluation includes a detailed physicochemical characterization as well as biocompatibility tests, among others. For determination of biocompatibility at the cellular level, the correct choice of the in vitro assay as well as NP pretreatment is absolutely essential. There are a variety of assay technologies available that use standard plate readers to measure metabolic markers to estimate the number of viable cells in culture. Each cell viability assay has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of the assay method chosen, the major factors critical for reproducibility and success include: (1) choosing the right assay after comparing optical NP properties with the read-out method of the assay, (2) verifying colloidal stability of NPs in cell culture media, (3) preparing a sterile and stable NP dispersion in cell culture media used in the assay, (4) using a tightly controlled and consistent cell model allowing appropriate characterization of NPs. This chapter will briefly summarize these different critical points, which can occur during biocompatibility screening applications of NPs.
M.A. Al-Griw
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Exposures to a wide variety of environmental substances are negatively associated with many biological cell systems both in humans and rodents. Trichloroethane (TCE, a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, is used in large quantities as a dissolvent, metal degreaser, chemical intermediate, and component of consumer products. This increases the likelihood of human exposure to these compounds through dermal, inhalation and oral routes. The present in vivo study was aimed to investigate the possible cellular and molecular etiology of liver abnormality induced by early exposure to TCE using a murine model. The results showed a significant increase in liver weight. Histopathological examination revealed a TCE-induced hepatotoxicity which appeared as heavily congested central vein and blood sinusoids as well as leukocytic infiltration. Mitotic figures and apoptotic changes such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragments were also identified. Cell death analysis demonstrates hepatocellular apoptosis was evident in the treated mice compared to control. TCE was also found to induce oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation, an oxidative stress marker. There was also a significant decrease in the DNA content of the hepatocytes of the treated groups compared to control. Agarose gel electrophoresis also provided further biochemical evidence of apoptosis by showing internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the liver cells, indicating oxidative stress as the cause of DNA damage. These results suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new chemical prior to its arrival into the consumer market.
Tilda Barliya
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To explore functional electroretinographic (ERG changes and associated cellular remodeling following experimental retinal detachment in a rabbit model. Methods. Retinal detachment was created in ten rabbits by injecting 0.1 ml balanced salt solution under the retina. Fundus imaging was performed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days postoperatively. ERGs were recorded pre- and 7 and 21 days postoperatively. Eyes were harvested on day 21 and evaluated immunohistochemically (IHC for remodeling of second- and third-order neurons. Results. Retinal reattachment occurred within two weeks following surgery. No attenuation was observed in the photopic or scotopic a- and b-waves. A secondary wavefront on the descending slope of the scotopic b-wave was the only ERG result that was attenuated in detached retinas. IHC demonstrated anatomical changes in both ON and OFF bipolar cells. Bassoon staining was observed in the remodeled dendrites. Amacrine and horizontal cells did not alter, but Muller cells were clearly reactive with marked extension. Conclusion. Retinal detachment and reattachment were associated with functional and anatomical changes. Exploring the significance of the secondary scotopic wavefront and its association with the remodeling of 2nd- and 3rd-order neurons will shade more light on functional changes and recovery of the retina.
McCleery, W. Tyler; Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A.; Grieneisen, Veronica A.
Cells within tissues can be regarded as autonomous entities that respond to their local environment and signaling from neighbors. Cell coordination is particularly important in plants, where root architecture must strategically invest resources for growth to optimize nutrient acquisition. Thus, root cells are constantly adapting to environmental cues and neighbor communication in a non-linear manner. To explain such plasticity, we view the root as a swarm of coupled multi-cellular structures, ''metamers'', rather than as a continuum of identical cells. These metamers are individually programmed to achieve a local objective - developing a lateral root primordia, which aids in local foraging of nutrients. Collectively, such individual attempts may be halted, structuring root architecture as an emergent behavior. Each metamer's decision to branch is coordinated locally and globally through hormone signaling, including processes of controlled diffusion, active polar transport, and dynamic feedback. We present a physical model of the signaling mechanism that coordinates branching decisions in response to the environment. This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Program, Project No. 601062, SWARM-ORGAN.
Modelling land use/cover changes with markov-cellular automata in Komering Watershed, South Sumatera
Kusratmoko, E.; Albertus, S. D. Y.; Supriatna
2017-01-01
This research has a purpose to study and develop a model that can representing and simulating spatial distribution pattern of land use change in Komering watershed. The Komering watershed is one of nine sub Musi river basin and is located in the southern part of Sumatra island that has an area of 8060,62 km2. Land use change simulations, achieved through Markov-cellular automata (CA) methodologies. Slope, elevation, distance from road, distance from river, distance from capital sub-district, distance from settlement area area were driving factors that used in this research. Land use prediction result in 2030 also shows decrease of forest acreage up to -3.37%, agricultural land decreased up to -2.13%, and open land decreased up to -0.13%. On the other hand settlement area increased up to 0.07%, and plantation land increased up to 5.56%. Based on the predictive result, land use unconformity percentage to RTRW in Komering watershed is 18.62 % and land use conformity is 58.27%. Based on the results of the scenario, where forest in protected areas and agriculture land are maintained, shows increase the land use conformity amounted to 60.41 % and reduce unconformity that occur in Komering watershed to 17.23 %.
Jahanishakib, Fatemeh; Mirkarimi, Seyed Hamed; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul; Poodat, Fatemeh
2018-05-08
Efficient land use management requires awareness of past changes, present actions, and plans for future developments. Part of these requirements is achieved using scenarios that describe a future situation and the course of changes. This research aims to link scenario results with spatially explicit and quantitative forecasting of land use development. To develop land use scenarios, SMIC PROB-EXPERT and MORPHOL methods were used. It revealed eight scenarios as the most probable. To apply the scenarios, we considered population growth rate and used a cellular automata-Markov chain (CA-MC) model to implement the quantified changes described by each scenario. For each scenario, a set of landscape metrics was used to assess the ecological integrity of land use classes in terms of fragmentation and structural connectivity. The approach enabled us to develop spatial scenarios of land use change and detect their differences for choosing the most integrated landscape pattern in terms of landscape metrics. Finally, the comparison between paired forecasted scenarios based on landscape metrics indicates that scenarios 1-1, 2-2, 3-2, and 4-1 have a more suitable integrity. The proposed methodology for developing spatial scenarios helps executive managers to create scenarios with many repetitions and customize spatial patterns in real world applications and policies.
Modeling and Simulation of Polarization in Internet Group Opinions Based on Cellular Automata
Yaofeng Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Hot events on Internet always attract many people who usually form one or several opinion camps through discussion. For the problem of polarization in Internet group opinions, we propose a new model based on Cellular Automata by considering neighbors, opinion leaders, and external influences. Simulation results show the following: (1 It is easy to form the polarization for both continuous opinions and discrete opinions when we only consider neighbors influence, and continuous opinions are more effective in speeding the polarization of group. (2 Coevolution mechanism takes more time to make the system stable, and the global coupling mechanism leads the system to consensus. (3 Opinion leaders play an important role in the development of consensus in Internet group opinions. However, both taking the opinion leaders as zealots and taking some randomly selected individuals as zealots are not conductive to the consensus. (4 Double opinion leaders with consistent opinions will accelerate the formation of group consensus, but the opposite opinions will lead to group polarization. (5 Only small external influences can change the evolutionary direction of Internet group opinions.
Assessment of freeway work zone safety with improved cellular automata model
Guohua Liang
2014-08-01
Full Text Available To accurately assess the safety of freeway work zones, this paper investigates the safety of vehicle lane change maneuvers with improved cellular automata model. Taking the traffic conflict and standard deviation of operating speed as the evaluation indexes, the study evaluates the freeway work zone safety. With improved deceleration probability in car-following raies and the addition of lanechanging rules under critical state, the lane-changing behavior under critical state is defined as a conflict count. Through 72 schemes of simulation runs, the possible states of the traffic flow are carefully studied. The results show that under the condition of constant saturation traffic conflict count and vehicle speed standard deviation reach their maximums when the mixed rate of heave vehicles is 40%. Meanwhile, in the case of constant heavy vehicles mix, traffic conflict count and vehicle speed standard deviation reach maximum values when saturation rate is 0. 75. Integrating ail simulation results, it is known the traffic safety in freeway work zones is classified into four levels : safe, relatively safe, relatively dangerous, and dangerous.
Broda, Ellen; Mickler, Frauke Martina; Lächelt, Ulrich; Morys, Stephan; Wagner, Ernst; Bräuchle, Christoph
2015-09-10
Sophisticated drug delivery systems are coated with targeting ligands to improve the specific adhesion to surface receptors on diseased cells. In our study, we developed a method with which we assessed the potential of peptide ligands to specifically bind to receptor overexpressing target cells. Therefore, a microfluidic setup was used where the cellular adhesion of nanoparticles with ligand and of control nanoparticles was observed in parallel under the same experimental conditions. The effect of the ligand on cellular binding was quantified by counting the number of adhered nanoparticles with ligand and differently labeled control nanoparticles on single cells after incubation under flow conditions. To provide easy-to-synthesize, stable and reproducible nanoparticles which mimic the surface characteristics of drug delivery systems and meet the requirements for quantitative analysis, latex beads based on amine-modified polystyrene were used as model nanoparticles. Two short peptides were tested to serve as targeting ligand on the beads by increasing the specific binding to HuH7 cells. The c-Met binding peptide cMBP2 was used for hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) targeting and the peptide B6 for transferrin receptor (TfR) targeting. The impact of the targeting peptide on binding was investigated by comparing the beads with ligand to different internal control beads: 1) without ligand and tailored surface charge (electrostatic control) and 2) with scrambled peptide and similar surface charge, but a different amino acid sequence (specificity control). Our results demonstrate that the method is very useful to select suitable targeting ligands for specific nanoparticle binding to receptor overexpressing tumor cells. We show that the cMBP2 ligand specifically enhances nanoparticle adhesion to target cells, whereas the B6 peptide mediates binding to tumor cells mainly by nonspecific interactions. All together, we suggest that cMBP2 is a suitable choice for
Ramírez-López, A.; Romero-Romo, M. A.; Muñoz-Negron, D.; López-Ramírez, S.; Escarela-Pérez, R.; Duran-Valencia, C.
2012-10-01
Computational models are developed to create grain structures using mathematical algorithms based on the chaos theory such as cellular automaton, geometrical models, fractals, and stochastic methods. Because of the chaotic nature of grain structures, some of the most popular routines are based on the Monte Carlo method, statistical distributions, and random walk methods, which can be easily programmed and included in nested loops. Nevertheless, grain structures are not well defined as the results of computational errors and numerical inconsistencies on mathematical methods. Due to the finite definition of numbers or the numerical restrictions during the simulation of solidification, damaged images appear on the screen. These images must be repaired to obtain a good measurement of grain geometrical properties. Some mathematical algorithms were developed to repair, measure, and characterize grain structures obtained from cellular automata in the present work. An appropriate measurement of grain size and the corrected identification of interfaces and length are very important topics in materials science because they are the representation and validation of mathematical models with real samples. As a result, the developed algorithms are tested and proved to be appropriate and efficient to eliminate the errors and characterize the grain structures.
A new micromechanical approach of micropolar continuum modeling for 2-D periodic cellular material
Bin Niu; Jun Yan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present a new united approach to formulate the equivalent micropolar constitutive relation of two-dimensional (2-D) periodic cellular material to capture its non-local properties and to explain the size effects in its structural analysis. The new united approach takes both the displacement compatibility and the equilibrium of forces and moments into consideration, where Taylor series expansion of the displacement and rotation fields and the extended aver-aging procedure with an explicit enforcement of equilibrium are adopted in the micromechanical analysis of a unit cell. In numerical examples, the effective micropolar constants obtained in this paper and others derived in the literature are used for the equivalent micropolar continuum simulation of cellular solids. The solutions from the equivalent analysis are compared with the discrete simulation solutions of the cellu-lar solids. It is found that the micropolar constants developed in this paper give satisfying results of equivalent analysis for the periodic cellular material.
D'Onofrio, Alberto
2009-01-01
In this paper we study and extend the mechanistic mean field theory of growth of cellular populations proposed by Mombach et al. [Mombach JCM, Lemke N, Bodmann BEJ, Idiart MAP. A mean-field theory of cellular growth. Europhys Lett 2002;59:923-928] (MLBI model), and we demonstrate that the original model and our generalizations lead to inferences of biological interest. In the first part of this paper, we show that the model in study is widely general since it admits, as particular cases, the main phenomenological models of cellular growth. In the second part of this work, we generalize the MLBI model to a wider family of models by allowing the cells to have a generic unspecified biologically plausible interaction. Then, we derive a relationship between this generic microscopic interaction function and the growth rate of the corresponding macroscopic model. Finally, we propose to use this relationship in order to help the investigation of the biological plausibility of phenomenological models of cancer growth.
Material modeling of biofilm mechanical properties.
Laspidou, C S; Spyrou, L A; Aravas, N; Rittmann, B E
2014-05-01
A biofilm material model and a procedure for numerical integration are developed in this article. They enable calculation of a composite Young's modulus that varies in the biofilm and evolves with deformation. The biofilm-material model makes it possible to introduce a modeling example, produced by the Unified Multi-Component Cellular Automaton model, into the general-purpose finite-element code ABAQUS. Compressive, tensile, and shear loads are imposed, and the way the biofilm mechanical properties evolve is assessed. Results show that the local values of Young's modulus increase under compressive loading, since compression results in the voids "closing," thus making the material stiffer. For the opposite reason, biofilm stiffness decreases when tensile loads are imposed. Furthermore, the biofilm is more compliant in shear than in compression or tension due to the how the elastic shear modulus relates to Young's modulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Modelling the morphology of migrating bacterial colonies
Nishiyama, A.; Tokihiro, T.; Badoual, M.; Grammaticos, B.
2010-08-01
We present a model which aims at describing the morphology of colonies of Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis. Our model is based on a cellular automaton which is obtained by the adequate discretisation of a diffusion-like equation, describing the migration of the bacteria, to which we have added rules simulating the consolidation process. Our basic assumption, following the findings of the group of Chuo University, is that the migration and consolidation processes are controlled by the local density of the bacteria. We show that it is possible within our model to reproduce the morphological diagrams of both bacteria species. Moreover, we model some detailed experiments done by the Chuo University group, obtaining a fine agreement.
"The Leviathan" as automaton: method and politics in Thomas Hobbes
Diego Fernández Peychaux
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This article points out the tension between the normative purpose of Thomas Hobbes’s political texts, and the identification of the resolutive-compositive method of science as it is applied in those texts. In order to solve this difficulty one should appeal to Hobbes’s epistemological texts to read the example of the clock from a new perspective. Thus, if the Hobbesian method responds to the need for normative innovation, it not only denies an apologetic intentionality for a completely ignored historical reality, but also makes it possible to describe the relationship between the individual and the State in a manner different from traditional understandings. According to these conclusions, man ceases to be simply a mechanical part but rather becomes a cause, and therefore, a measure of the effectiveness and functionality of a State. Man’s savage individualism while in the state of nature is not the model, but the cause that justifies a Leviathan capable of turning the homo homini lupus into homo homini deus.
N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevents stress-induced desmin aggregation in cellular models of desminopathy.
Bertrand-David Segard
Full Text Available Mutations within the human desmin gene are responsible for a subcategory of myofibrillar myopathies called desminopathies. However, a single inherited mutation can produce different phenotypes within a family, suggesting that environmental factors influence disease states. Although several mouse models have been used to investigate organ-specific desminopathies, a more general mechanistic perspective is required to advance our knowledge toward patient treatment. To improve our understanding of disease pathology, we have developed cellular models to observe desmin behaviour in early stages of disease pathology, e.g., upon formation of cytoplasmic desmin aggregates, within an isogenic background. We cloned the wildtype and three mutant desmin cDNAs using a Tet-On Advanced® expression system in C2C12 cells. Mutations were selected based on positioning within desmin and capacity to form aggregates in transient experiments, as follows: DesS46Y (head domain; low aggregation, DesD399Y (central rod domain; high aggregation, and DesS460I (tail domain; moderate aggregation. Introduction of these proteins into a C2C12 background permitted us to compare between desmin variants as well as to determine the role of external stress on aggregation. Three different types of stress, likely encountered during muscle activity, were introduced to the cell models-thermal (heat shock, redox-associated (H2O2 and cadmium chloride, and mechanical (stretching stresses-after which aggregation was measured. Cells containing variant DesD399Y were more sensitive to stress, leading to marked cytoplasmic perinuclear aggregations. We then evaluated the capacity of biochemical compounds to prevent this aggregation, applying dexamethasone (an inducer of heat shock proteins, fisetin or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (antioxidants before stress induction. Interestingly, N-acetyl-L-cysteine pre-treatment prevented DesD399Y aggregation during most stress. N-acetyl-L-cysteine has recently been
Nathalie Boone
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Familial dysautonomia (FD is a hereditary neuropathy caused by mutations in the IKBKAP gene, the most common of which results in variable tissue-specific mRNA splicing with skipping of exon 20. Defective splicing is especially severe in nervous tissue, leading to incomplete development and progressive degeneration of sensory and autonomic neurons. The specificity of neuron loss in FD is poorly understood due to the lack of an appropriate model system. To better understand and modelize the molecular mechanisms of IKBKAP mRNA splicing, we collected human olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (hOE-MSC from FD patients. hOE-MSCs have a pluripotent ability to differentiate into various cell lineages, including neurons and glial cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We confirmed IKBKAP mRNA alternative splicing in FD hOE-MSCs and identified 2 novel spliced isoforms also present in control cells. We observed a significant lower expression of both IKBKAP transcript and IKAP/hELP1 protein in FD cells resulting from the degradation of the transcript isoform skipping exon 20. We localized IKAP/hELP1 in different cell compartments, including the nucleus, which supports multiple roles for that protein. We also investigated cellular pathways altered in FD, at the genome-wide level, and confirmed that cell migration and cytoskeleton reorganization were among the processes altered in FD. Indeed, FD hOE-MSCs exhibit impaired migration compared to control cells. Moreover, we showed that kinetin improved exon 20 inclusion and restores a normal level of IKAP/hELP1 in FD hOE-MSCs. Furthermore, we were able to modify the IKBKAP splicing ratio in FD hOE-MSCs, increasing or reducing the WT (exon 20 inclusion:MU (exon 20 skipping ratio respectively, either by producing free-floating spheres, or by inducing cells into neural differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: hOE-MSCs isolated from FD patients represent a new approach for modeling FD to better
2007-03-01
computer models of cell cycle regulation in a variety of organisms, including yeast cells, amphibian embryos, bacterial cells and human cells. These...and meiosis ), but they do not nullify the central role played by irreversible, alternating START and FINISH transitions in the cell cycle. 32...AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2007-69 Final Technical Report March 2007 EUKARYOTIC CELL CYCLE AS A TEST CASE FOR MODELING CELLULAR REGULATION IN A
Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær
2002-01-01
characteristics and lead to different reactor behaviour. A dynamic mathematical model has been developed for the anaerobic digestion of a glucose based synthetic wastewater in UASB reactors. Cellular automata (CA) theory has been applied to simulate the granule development process. The model takes...... into consideration that granule diameter and granule microbial composition are functions of the reactor operational parameters and is capable of predicting the UASB performance and the layer structure of the granules....
Probing cellular mechanoadaptation using cell-substrate de-adhesion dynamics: experiments and model.
S S, Soumya; Sthanam, Lakshmi Kavitha; Padinhateeri, Ranjith; Inamdar, Mandar M; Sen, Shamik
2014-01-01
Physical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are known to regulate cellular processes ranging from spreading to differentiation, with alterations in cell phenotype closely associated with changes in physical properties of cells themselves. When plated on substrates of varying stiffness, fibroblasts have been shown to exhibit stiffness matching property, wherein cell cortical stiffness increases in proportion to substrate stiffness up to 5 kPa, and subsequently saturates. Similar mechanoadaptation responses have also been observed in other cell types. Trypsin de-adhesion represents a simple experimental framework for probing the contractile mechanics of adherent cells, with de-adhesion timescales shown to scale inversely with cortical stiffness values. In this study, we combine experiments and computation in deciphering the influence of substrate properties in regulating de-adhesion dynamics of adherent cells. We first show that NIH 3T3 fibroblasts cultured on collagen-coated polyacrylamide hydrogels de-adhere faster on stiffer substrates. Using a simple computational model, we qualitatively show how substrate stiffness and cell-substrate bond breakage rate collectively influence de-adhesion timescales, and also obtain analytical expressions of de-adhesion timescales in certain regimes of the parameter space. Finally, by comparing stiffness-dependent experimental and computational de-adhesion responses, we show that faster de-adhesion on stiffer substrates arises due to force-dependent breakage of cell-matrix adhesions. In addition to illustrating the utility of employing trypsin de-adhesion as a biophysical tool for probing mechanoadaptation, our computational results highlight the collective interplay of substrate properties and bond breakage rate in setting de-adhesion timescales.
Elsawy, Hesham
2014-08-01
Using stochastic geometry, we develop a tractable uplink modeling paradigm for outage probability and spectral efficiency in both single and multi-tier cellular wireless networks. The analysis accounts for per user equipment (UE) power control as well as the maximum power limitations for UEs. More specifically, for interference mitigation and robust uplink communication, each UE is required to control its transmit power such that the average received signal power at its serving base station (BS) is equal to a certain threshold ρo. Due to the limited transmit power, the UEs employ a truncated channel inversion power control policy with a cutoff threshold of ρo. We show that there exists a transfer point in the uplink system performance that depends on the following tuple: BS intensity λ, maximum transmit power of UEs Pu, and ρo. That is, when Pu is a tight operational constraint with respect to (w.r.t.) λ and ρo, the uplink outage probability and spectral efficiency highly depend on the values of λ and ρo. In this case, there exists an optimal cutoff threshold ρ*o, which depends on the system parameters, that minimizes the outage probability. On the other hand, when Pu is not a binding operational constraint w.r.t. λ and ρo, the uplink outage probability and spectral efficiency become independent of λ and ρo. We obtain approximate yet accurate simple expressions for outage probability and spectral efficiency, which reduce to closed forms in some special cases. © 2002-2012 IEEE.
Jin Kyu Kim; Petin, V.G.; Mishra, K.P.
2007-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Background: Organisms in their living environment are not exposed to merely a single stress agent. Several factors such as radiation and heat may simultaneously exert their stressful effect to the organisms. The combined exposure to two stressors can result in an enhanced effect that would be expected from the addition of the separate exposures to individual agents. Objective: This study has been undertaken to develop a theoretical model for assessment of combined effects of low dose radiation and mild heat for predictive cellular response assay. Rationale: Present study was motivated from the belief that synergism may occur in terms of lethal lesions arising from the interaction of non-lethal sub-lesions induced by individual agents. The sub-lesions induced by each agent may be negligible or undetectable. But, there exists a possibility of some cross talk between sublesions produced by radiation and heat. These processes may reflect the real mechanisms for inflicting the lethal damage by otherwise ignorable or undetectable insults to exposed organisms. Results: A theoretically developed mathematical model of the synergy was formulated which was tested for validation on the experimental data. The model predictions fairly closely corresponded with several experimental results. .The significance of synergistic effects for radiation biology has been demonstrated. A number of common peculiarities of synergistic interactions were found to play their roles. A unified biophysical concept for synergistic interaction has been suggested. Conclusions: For a constant dose rate, synergistic interaction between radiation and hyperthermia especially at low intensity is realized only within a certain range of temperature, independently of the target object analyzed. For temperatures below the range, the synergistic effect was not observed and cell killing was mainly determined by the damage induced by ionizing radiation. On the contrary, the
Invariant strings and pattern-recognizing properties of one-dimensional cellular automata
Jen, E.
1986-01-01
A cellular automaton is a discrete dynamical system whose evolution is governed by a deterministic rule involving local interactions. It is shown that given an arbitrary string of values and an arbitry neighborhood size (representing the range of interaction), a simple procedure can be used to find the fules of that neighborhood size under which the string is unvarian. The set of nearestneighbor rules for which invariant strings exist is completely specified, as is the set of strings invariant under each such rule. For any automaton rule, an associated ''filtering'' rule is defined for which the only attractors are spatial sequences consisting of concatenations of invariant strings. A result is provided defining the rule of minimum neighborhood size for which an arbitrrily chosen string is the unique invariant string. The applications of filtering rules to pttern recognition problems are discussed
Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon
2009-01-01
A 3D hierarchical computational model of deformation and stiffness of wood, which takes into account the structures of wood at several scale levels (cellularity, multilayered nature of cell walls, composite-like structures of the wall layers) is developed. At the mesoscale, the softwood cell...... cellular model. With the use of the developed hierarchical model, the influence of the microstructure, including microfibril angles (MFAs, which characterizes the orientation of the cellulose fibrils with respect to the cell axis), the thickness of the cell wall, the shape of the cell cross...... is presented as a 3D hexagon-shape-tube with multilayered walls. The layers in the softwood cell are considered as considered as composite reinforced by microfibrils (celluloses). The elastic properties of the layers are determined with Halpin–Tsai equations, and introduced into mesoscale finite element...
Spatial Models and Networks of Living Systems
Juul, Jeppe Søgaard
When studying the dynamics of living systems, insight can often be gained by developing a mathematical model that can predict future behaviour of the system or help classify system characteristics. However, in living cells, organisms, and especially groups of interacting individuals, a large number...... variables of the system. However, this approach disregards any spatial structure of the system, which may potentially change the behaviour drastically. An alternative approach is to construct a cellular automaton with nearest neighbour interactions, or even to model the system as a complex network...... with interactions defined by network topology. In this thesis I first describe three different biological models of ageing and cancer, in which spatial structure is important for the system dynamics. I then turn to describe characteristics of ecosystems consisting of three cyclically interacting species...
Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Loft Højbjerre, Klaus
2016-01-01
in injection molding tools and lattice structures. This research examines the effect of cellular lattice structures on the strength of workpieces additively manufactured from ultra high-strength steel powder. Two commercial SLM machines are used to fabricate cellular samples based on four architectures— solid...... with experimental data and it is shown that they agree well. The results from this research show that using lattice structures significantly reduces the strength of material with respect to solid samples while indicating no serious increase of strength compared to hollow structures. In combination with an analysis...
Induced pluripotent stem cells as a cellular model for studying Down Syndrome
Brigida AL
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS, or Trisomy 21 Syndrome, is one of the most common genetic diseases. It is a chromosomal abnormality caused by a duplication of chromosome 21. DS patients show the presence of a third copy (or a partial third copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy, as result of meiotic errors. These patients suffer of many health problems, such as intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, duodenal stenosis, Alzheimer's disease, leukemia, immune system deficiencies, muscle hypotonia and motor disorders. About one in 1000 babies born each year are affected by DS. Alterations in the dosage of genes located on chromosome 21 (also called HSA21 are responsible for the DS phenotype. However, the molecular pathogenic mechanisms of DS triggering are still not understood; newest evidences suggest the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. For obvious ethical reasons, studies performed on DS patients, as well as on human trisomic tissues are limited. Some authors have proposed mouse models of this syndrome. However, not all the features of the syndrome are represented. Stem cells are considered the future of molecular and regenerative medicine. Several types of stem cells could provide a valid approach to offer a potential treatment for some untreatable human diseases. Stem cells also represent a valid system to develop new cell-based drugs and/or a model to study molecular disease pathways. Among stem cell types, patient-derived induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells offer some advantages for cell and tissue replacement, engineering and studying: self-renewal capacity, pluripotency and ease of accessibility to donor tissues. These cells can be reprogrammed into completely different cellular types. They are derived from adult somatic cells via reprogramming with ectopic expression of four transcription factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4; or, Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28. By reprogramming cells from DS patients, it is possible to obtain new tissue with
Tadeo, Irene; Piqueras, Marta; Montaner, David; Villamón, Eva; Berbegall, Ana P; Cañete, Adela; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa
2014-02-01
Risk classification and treatment stratification for cancer patients is restricted by our incomplete picture of the complex and unknown interactions between the patient's organism and tumor tissues (transformed cells supported by tumor stroma). Moreover, all clinical factors and laboratory studies used to indicate treatment effectiveness and outcomes are by their nature a simplification of the biological system of cancer, and cannot yet incorporate all possible prognostic indicators. A multiparametric analysis on 184 tumor cylinders was performed. To highlight the benefit of integrating digitized medical imaging into this field, we present the results of computational studies carried out on quantitative measurements, taken from stromal and cancer cells and various extracellular matrix fibers interpenetrated by glycosaminoglycans, and eight current approaches to risk stratification systems in patients with primary and nonprimary neuroblastoma. New tumor tissue indicators from both fields, the cellular and the extracellular elements, emerge as reliable prognostic markers for risk stratification and could be used as molecular targets of specific therapies. The key to dealing with personalized therapy lies in the mathematical modeling. The use of bioinformatics in patient-tumor-microenvironment data management allows a predictive model in neuroblastoma.
Synchronization, TIGoRS, and Information Flow in Complex Systems: Dispositional Cellular Automata.
Sulis, William H
2016-04-01
Synchronization has a long history in physics where it refers to the phase matching of two identical oscillators. This notion has been extensively studied in physics as well as in biology, where it has been applied to such widely varying phenomena as the flashing of fireflies and firing of neurons in the brain. Human behavior, however, may be recurrent but it is not oscillatory even though many physiological systems do exhibit oscillatory tendencies. Moreover, much of human behaviour is collaborative and cooperative, where the individual behaviours may be distinct yet contemporaneous (if not simultaneous) and taken collectively express some functionality. In the context of behaviour, the important aspect is the repeated co-occurrence in time of behaviours that facilitate the propagation of information or of functionality, regardless of whether or not these behaviours are similar or identical. An example of this weaker notion of synchronization is transient induced global response synchronization (TIGoRS). Previous work has shown that TIGoRS is a ubiquitous phenomenon among complex systems, enabling them to stably parse environmental transients into salient units to which they stably respond. This leads to the notion of Sulis machines, which emergently generate a primitive linguistic structure through their dynamics. This article reviews the notion of TIGoRS and its expression in several complex systems models including tempered neural networks, driven cellular automata and cocktail party automata. The emergent linguistics of Sulis machines are discussed. A new class of complex systems model, the dispositional cellular automaton is introduced. A new metric for TIGoRS, the excess synchronization, is introduced and applied to the study of TIGoRS in dispositional cellular automata. It is shown that these automata exhibit a nonlinear synchronization response to certain perturbing transients.
A DNA Logic Gate Automaton for Detection of Rabies and Other Lyssaviruses.
Vijayakumar, Pavithra; Macdonald, Joanne
2017-07-05
Immediate activation of biosensors is not always desirable, particularly if activation is due to non-specific interactions. Here we demonstrate the use of deoxyribozyme-based logic gate networks arranged into visual displays to precisely control activation of biosensors, and demonstrate a prototype molecular automaton able to discriminate between seven different genotypes of Lyssaviruses, including Rabies virus. The device uses novel mixed-base logic gates to enable detection of the large diversity of Lyssavirus sequence populations, while an ANDNOT logic gate prevents non-specific activation across genotypes. The resultant device provides a user-friendly digital-like, but molecule-powered, dot-matrix text output for unequivocal results read-out that is highly relevant for point of care applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Pasculli, Antonio; Audisio, Chiara; Sciarra, Nicola
2017-12-01
In the alpine contest, the estimation of the rainfall (inflow) and the discharge (outflow) data are very important in order to, at least, analyse historical time series at catchment scale; determine the hydrological maximum and minimum estimate flood and drought frequency. Hydrological researches become a precious source of information for various human activities, in particular for land use management and planning. Many rainfall- runoff models have been proposed to reflect steady, gradually-varied flow condition inside a catchment. In these last years, the application of Reduced Complexity Models (RCM) has been representing an excellent alternative resource for evaluating the hydrological response of catchments, within a period of time up to decades. Hence, this paper is aimed at the discussion of the application of the research code CAESAR, based on cellular automaton (CA) approach, in order to evaluate the water and the sediment outputs from an alpine catchment (Soana, Italy), selected as test case. The comparison between the predicted numerical results, developed through parametric analysis, and the available measured data are discussed. Finally, the analysis of a numerical estimate of the sediment budget over ten years is presented. The necessity of a fast, but reliable numerical support when the measured data are not so easily accessible, as in Alpine catchments, is highlighted.
Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach
Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.
2015-07-01
The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.
Solar PV powered mobile cellular base station: Models and use cases in South Africa
Aderemi, BA
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The huge costs of operating a mobile cellular base station, and the negative impact of greenhouse gasses on the environment have made the solar PV renewable energy source a sought after. In addition to cost and environmental factor, abundant supply...
Zhang, Ziyu; Yuan, Lang; Lee, Peter D; Jones, Eric; Jones, Julian R
2014-11-01
Bone augmentation implants are porous to allow cellular growth, bone formation and fixation. However, the design of the pores is currently based on simple empirical rules, such as minimum pore and interconnects sizes. We present a three-dimensional (3D) transient model of cellular growth based on the Navier-Stokes equations that simulates the body fluid flow and stimulation of bone precursor cellular growth, attachment, and proliferation as a function of local flow shear stress. The model's effectiveness is demonstrated for two additive manufactured (AM) titanium scaffold architectures. The results demonstrate that there is a complex interaction of flow rate and strut architecture, resulting in partially randomized structures having a preferential impact on stimulating cell migration in 3D porous structures for higher flow rates. This novel result demonstrates the potential new insights that can be gained via the modeling tool developed, and how the model can be used to perform what-if simulations to design AM structures to specific functional requirements. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
H. Wang
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Microphysical and meteorological controls on the formation of open and closed cellular structures in the Southeast Pacific are explored using model simulations based on aircraft observations during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx. The effectiveness of factors such as boundary-layer moisture and temperature perturbations, surface heat and moisture fluxes, large-scale vertical motion and solar heating in promoting drizzle and open cell formation for prescribed aerosol number concentrations is explored. For the case considered, drizzle and subsequent open cell formation over a broad region are more sensitive to the observed boundary-layer moisture and temperature perturbations (+0.9 g kg^{−1}; −1 K than to a five-fold decrease in aerosol number concentration (150 vs. 30 mg^{−1}. When embedding the perturbations in closed cells, local drizzle and pockets of open cell (POC formation respond faster to the aerosol reduction than to the moisture increase, but the latter generates stronger and more persistent drizzle. A local negative perturbation in temperature drives a mesoscale circulation that prevents local drizzle formation but promotes it in a remote area where lower-level horizontal transport of moisture is blocked and converges to enhance liquid water path. This represents a potential mechanism for POC formation in the Southeast Pacific stratocumulus region whereby the circulation is triggered by strong precipitation in adjacent broad regions of open cells. A simulation that attempts to mimic the influence of a coastally induced upsidence wave results in an increase in cloud water but this alone is insufficient to initiate drizzle. An increase of surface sensible heat flux is also effective in triggering local drizzle and POC formation.
Both open and closed cells simulated with observed initial conditions exhibit distinct diurnal variations in cloud properties. A
Jarlath E. Nally
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease with a global distribution affecting over one million people annually. Rats are regarded as one of the most significant reservoir hosts of infection for human disease, and in the absence of clinical signs of infection, excrete large numbers of organisms in their urine. A unique biological equilibrium exists between pathogenic leptospires and reservoir hosts of infection, but surprisingly, little is known concerning the host's cellular immune response that facilitates persistent renal colonization. To address this deficiency, we established and applied an immunocompetent inbred rat model of persistent renal colonization; leptospires were detected in urine of experimentally infected rats by 3 weeks post-infection and remained positive until 8 weeks post-infection. However, there was little, if any, evidence of inflammation in colonized renal tubules. At 8 weeks post-infection, a robust antibody response was detected against lipopolysaccharide and protein outer membrane (OM components. Purified B and T cells derived from the spleen of infected and non-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with 0.5 μg of OM fractions of Leptospira, including CD4+ T cells, which comprised 40% of proliferating cells, compared to 25% in non-infected controls. However, analysis of gene expression did not determine which immunoregulatory pathways were activated. Lymphocytes purified from the lymph node draining the site of colonization, the renal lymph node, also showed an increase in percentage of proliferating B and T cells. However, in contrast to a phenotype of 40% CD4+ T cells in the spleen, the phenotype of proliferating T cells in the renal lymph node comprised 65% CD4+ T cells. These results confirm that the renal lymph node, the local lymphoid organ, is a dominant site containing Leptospira reactive CD4+ T cells and highlight the need to consider the local, vs
Gary Achtemeier
2012-01-01
A cellular automata fire model represents âelementsâ of fire by autonomous agents. A few simple algebraic expressions substituted for complex physical and meteorological processes and solved iteratively yield simulations for âsuper-diffusiveâ fire spread and coupled surface-layer (2-m) fireâatmosphere processes. Pressure anomalies, which are integrals of the thermal...
Path Loss, Shadow Fading, and Line-Of-Sight Probability Models for 5G Urban Macro-Cellular Scenarios
Sun, Shu; Thomas, Timothy; Rappaport, Theodore S.
2015-01-01
This paper presents key parameters including the line-of-sight (LOS) probability, large-scale path loss, and shadow fading models for the design of future fifth generation (5G) wireless communication systems in urban macro-cellular (UMa) scenarios, using the data obtained from propagation...... measurements in Austin, US, and Aalborg, Denmark, at 2, 10, 18, and 38 GHz. A comparison of different LOS probability models is performed for the Aalborg environment. Both single-slope and dual-slope omnidirectional path loss models are investigated to analyze and contrast their root-mean-square (RMS) errors...
Cali, Corrado
2015-07-14
Advances for application of electron microscopy to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions (3D). From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here, we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room where we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of electron microscopy (EM) preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to observe a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Keane, Harriet; Ryan, Brent J.; Jackson, Brendan; Whitmore, Alan; Wade-Martins, Richard
2015-11-01
Neurodegenerative diseases are complex multifactorial disorders characterised by the interplay of many dysregulated physiological processes. As an exemplar, Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves multiple perturbed cellular functions, including mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation in preferentially-sensitive dopamine neurons, a selective pathophysiology recapitulated in vitro using the neurotoxin MPP+. Here we explore a network science approach for the selection of therapeutic protein targets in the cellular MPP+ model. We hypothesised that analysis of protein-protein interaction networks modelling MPP+ toxicity could identify proteins critical for mediating MPP+ toxicity. Analysis of protein-protein interaction networks constructed to model the interplay of mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation (key aspects of MPP+ toxicity) enabled us to identify four proteins predicted to be key for MPP+ toxicity (P62, GABARAP, GBRL1 and GBRL2). Combined, but not individual, knockdown of these proteins increased cellular susceptibility to MPP+ toxicity. Conversely, combined, but not individual, over-expression of the network targets provided rescue of MPP+ toxicity associated with the formation of autophagosome-like structures. We also found that modulation of two distinct proteins in the protein-protein interaction network was necessary and sufficient to mitigate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings validate our network science approach to multi-target identification in complex neurological diseases.
Ibrahim, Hazem
2016-09-19
The unrelenting increase in the population of mobile users and their traffic demands drive cellular network operators to densify their network infrastructure. Network densification shrinks the footprint of base stations (BSs) and reduces the number of users associated with each BS, leading to an improved spatial frequency reuse and spectral efficiency, and thus, higher network capacity. However, the densification gain comes at the expense of higher handover rates and network control overhead. Hence, user’s mobility can diminish or even nullifies the foreseen densification gain. In this context, splitting the control plane ( C -plane) and user plane ( U -plane) is proposed as a potential solution to harvest densification gain with reduced cost in terms of handover rate and network control overhead. In this paper, we use stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mobility-aware model for a two-tier downlink cellular network with ultra-dense small cells and C -plane/ U -plane split architecture. The developed model is then used to quantify the effect of mobility on the foreseen densification gain with and without C -plane/ U -plane split. To this end, we shed light on the handover problem in dense cellular environments, show scenarios where the network fails to support certain mobility profiles, and obtain network design insights.
Spatial patterns and scale freedom in Prisoner's Dilemma cellular automata with Pavlovian strategies
Fort, H.; Viola, S.
2005-01-01
A cellular automaton in which cells represent agents playing the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game following the simple 'win—stay, lose—shift' strategy is studied. Individuals with binary behaviour, such that they can either cooperate (C) or defect (D), play repeatedly with their neighbours (Von Neumann's and Moore's neighbourhoods). Their utilities in each round of the game are given by a rescaled pay-off matrix described by a single parameter τ, which measures the ratio of temptation to defect to reward for cooperation. Depending on the region of the parameter space τ, the system self-organizes—after a transient—into dynamical equilibrium states characterized by different definite fractions of C agents \\bar {c}_\\infty (two states for the von Neumann neighbourhood and four for the Moore neighbourhood). For some ranges of τ the cluster size distributions, the power spectra P(f) and the perimeter-area curves follow power law scalings. Percolation below threshold is also found for D agent clusters. We also analyse the asynchronous dynamics version of this model and compare results.
Yangzexi Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The technology of autonomous vehicles is expected to revolutionize the operation of road transport systems. The penetration rate of autonomous vehicles will be low at the early stage of their deployment. It is a challenge to explore the effects of autonomous vehicles and their penetration on heterogeneous traffic flow dynamics. This paper aims to investigate this issue. An improved cellular automaton was employed as the modeling platform for our study. In particular, two sets of rules for lane changing were designed to address mild and aggressive lane changing behavior. With extensive simulation studies, we obtained some promising results. First, the introduction of autonomous vehicles to road traffic could considerably improve traffic flow, particularly the road capacity and free-flow speed. And the level of improvement increases with the penetration rate. Second, the lane-changing frequency between neighboring lanes evolves with traffic density along a fundamental-diagram-like curve. Third, the impacts of autonomous vehicles on the collective traffic flow characteristics are mainly related to their smart maneuvers in lane changing and car following, and it seems that the car-following impact is more pronounced.
FPGA Implementation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional cellular automata
D'Antone, I.
1999-01-01
This report describes the hardware implementation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional cellular automata (CAs). After a general introduction to the cellular automata, we consider a one-dimensional CA used to implement pseudo-random techniques in built-in self test for VLSI. Due to the increase in digital ASIC complexity, testing is becoming one of the major costs in the VLSI production. The high electronics complexity, used in particle physics experiments, demands higher reliability than in the past time. General criterions are given to evaluate the feasibility of the circuit used for testing and some quantitative parameters are underlined to optimize the architecture of the cellular automaton. Furthermore, we propose a two-dimensional CA that performs a peak finding algorithm in a matrix of cells mapping a sub-region of a calorimeter. As in a two-dimensional filtering process, the peaks of the energy clusters are found in one evolution step. This CA belongs to Wolfram class II cellular automata. Some quantitative parameters are given to optimize the architecture of the cellular automaton implemented in a commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA)
Tosic, P.T.
2011-01-01
We study certain types of Cellular Automata (CA) viewed as an abstraction of large-scale Multi-Agent Systems (MAS). We argue that the classical CA model needs to be modified in several important respects, in order to become a relevant and sufficiently general model for the large-scale MAS, and so that thus generalized model can capture many important MAS properties at the level of agent ensembles and their long-term collective behavior patterns. We specifically focus on the issue of inter-agent communication in CA, and propose sequential cellular automata (SCA) as the first step, and genuinely Asynchronous Cellular Automata (ACA) as the ultimate deterministic CA-based abstract models for large-scale MAS made of simple reactive agents. We first formulate deterministic and nondeterministic versions of sequential CA, and then summarize some interesting configuration space properties (i.e., possible behaviors) of a restricted class of sequential CA. In particular, we compare and contrast those properties of sequential CA with the corresponding properties of the classical (that is, parallel and perfectly synchronous) CA with the same restricted class of update rules. We analytically demonstrate failure of the studied sequential CA models to simulate all possible behaviors of perfectly synchronous parallel CA, even for a very restricted class of non-linear totalistic node update rules. The lesson learned is that the interleaving semantics of concurrency, when applied to sequential CA, is not refined enough to adequately capture the perfect synchrony of parallel CA updates. Last but not least, we outline what would be an appropriate CA-like abstraction for large-scale distributed computing insofar as the inter-agent communication model is concerned, and in that context we propose genuinely asynchronous CA. (author)
Im, A-Rang; Kim, Yun Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Song, Kwang Hoon
2016-05-01
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide. Therapeutic strategies for patients with NAFLD are limited by a lack of effective drugs. In this report, we show that Dolichos lablab water extract (DLL-Ex) protects against free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipid accumulation and attenuates expression of genes involved in lipid droplet accumulation in cellular NAFLD models. The hepatoprotective effects and underlying mechanism of DLL-Ex were assessed using an in vitro cellular model in which NAFLD was simulated by inducing excessive FFA influx into hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were treated with DLL-Ex and FFAs for 24 h, after which intracellular lipid content was observed by using Nile Red and Oil Red O staining. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression levels of genes related to FFA-mediated cellular energy depletion. Western blotting was used to measure protein levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 alpha. In HepG2 cells, DLL-Ex inhibited expression of CD36, which regulates fatty acid uptake, as well as BODIPY-labeled fatty acid uptake. Additionally, DLL-Ex significantly attenuated FFA-mediated cellular energy depletion and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Furthermore, DLL-Ex enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK, indicating that AMPK is a critical regulator of DLL-Ex-mediated inhibition of hepatic lipid accumulation, possibly through its antioxidative effect. These results demonstrate that DLL-Ex exerts potent anti-NAFLD activity, suggesting that it could be a potential adjuvant treatment for patients with NAFLD.
Morales, Jorge; Alpaugh, Mary L
2009-01-01
The initial step of metastasis in carcinomas, often referred to as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), occurs via the loss of adherens junctions (e.g. cadherins) by the tumor embolus. This leads to a subsequent loss of cell polarity and cellular differentiation and organization, enabling cells of the embolus to become motile and invasive. However highly malignant inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) over-expresses E-cadherin. The human xenograft model of IBC (MARY-X), like IBC, displays the signature phenotype of an exaggerated degree of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in situ by tumor emboli. An intact E-cadherin/α, β-catenin axis mediates the tight, compact clump of cells found both in vitro and in vivo as spheroids and tumor emboli, respectively. Using electron microscopy and focused ion beam milling to acquire in situ sections, we performed ultrastructural analysis of both an IBC and non-IBC, E-cadherin positive cell line to determine if retention of this adhesion molecule contributed to cellular organization. Here we report through ultrastructural analysis that IBC exhibits a high degree of cellular organization with polar elements such as apical/lateral positioning of E-cadherin, apical surface microvilli, and tortuous lumen-like (canalis) structures. In contrast, agarose-induced spheroids of MCF-7, a weakly invasive E-cadherin positive breast carcinoma cell line, do not exhibit ultrastructural polar features. This study has determined that the highly metastatic IBC with an exaggerated malignant phenotype challenges conventional wisdom in that instead of displaying a loss of cellular organization, IBC acquires a highly structured architecture. These findings suggest that the metastatic efficiency might be linked to the formation and maintenance of these architectural features. The comparative architectural features of both the spheroid and embolus of MARY-X provide an in vitro model with tractable in vivo applications
F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)
1999-01-01
textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on
Mourad Gridach; Noureddine Chenfour
2011-01-01
Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop th...
Towards the simplest hydrodynamic lattice-gas model.
Boghosian, Bruce M; Love, Peter J; Meyer, David A
2002-03-15
It has been known since 1986 that it is possible to construct simple lattice-gas cellular automata whose hydrodynamics are governed by the Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions. The simplest such model heretofore known has six bits of state per site on a triangular lattice. In this work, we demonstrate that it is possible to construct a model with only five bits of state per site on a Kagome lattice. Moreover, the model has a simple, deterministic set of collision rules and is easily implemented on a computer. In this work, we derive the equilibrium distribution function for this lattice-gas automaton and carry out the Chapman-Enskog analysis to determine the form of the Navier-Stokes equations.
Schmidt, Carl R; Shires, Peter; Mootoo, Mary
2012-02-01
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a largely non-thermal method for the ablation of solid tumours. The ability of ultrasound (US) to measure the size of the IRE ablation zone was studied in a porcine liver model. Three normal pig livers were treated in vivo with a total of 22 ablations using IRE. Ultrasound was used within minutes after ablation and just prior to liver harvest at either 6 h or 24 h after the procedure. The area of cellular necrosis was measured after staining with nitroblue tetrazolium and the percentage of cell death determined by histomorphometry. Visible changes in the hepatic parenchyma were apparent by US after all 22 ablations using IRE. The mean maximum diameter of the ablation zone measured by US during the procedure was 20.1 ± 2.7 mm. This compared with a mean cellular necrosis zone maximum diameter of 20.3 ± 2.9 mm as measured histologically. The mean percentage of dead cells within the ablation zone was 77% at 6 h and 98% at 24 h after ablation. Ultrasound is a useful modality for measuring the ablation zone within minutes of applying IRE to normal liver tissue. The area of parenchymal change measured by US correlates with the area of cellular necrosis. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.
Limmer, Stefanie; Haller, Samantha; Drenkard, Eliana; Lee, Janice; Yu, Shen; Kocks, Christine; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Ferrandon, Dominique
2011-01-01
An in-depth mechanistic understanding of microbial infection necessitates a molecular dissection of host–pathogen relationships. Both Drosophila melanogaster and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been intensively studied. Here, we analyze the infection of D. melanogaster by P. aeruginosa by using mutants in both host and pathogen. We show that orally ingested P. aeruginosa crosses the intestinal barrier and then proliferates in the hemolymph, thereby causing the infected flies to die of bacteremia. Host defenses against ingested P. aeruginosa included an immune deficiency (IMD) response in the intestinal epithelium, systemic Toll and IMD pathway responses, and a cellular immune response controlling bacteria in the hemocoel. Although the observed cellular and intestinal immune responses appeared to act throughout the course of the infection, there was a late onset of the systemic IMD and Toll responses. In this oral infection model, P. aeruginosa PA14 did not require its type III secretion system or other well-studied virulence factors such as the two-component response regulator GacA or the protease AprA for virulence. In contrast, the quorum-sensing transcription factor RhlR, but surprisingly not LasR, played a key role in counteracting the cellular immune response against PA14, possibly at an early stage when only a few bacteria are present in the hemocoel. These results illustrate the power of studying infection from the dual perspective of host and pathogen by revealing that RhlR plays a more complex role during pathogenesis than previously appreciated. PMID:21987808
Xia, Weiwei; Shen, Lianfeng
We propose two vertical handoff schemes for cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) integration: integrated service-based handoff (ISH) and integrated service-based handoff with queue capabilities (ISHQ). Compared with existing handoff schemes in integrated cellular/WLAN networks, the proposed schemes consider a more comprehensive set of system characteristics such as different features of voice and data services, dynamic information about the admitted calls, user mobility and vertical handoffs in two directions. The code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular network and IEEE 802.11e WLAN are taken into account in the proposed schemes. We model the integrated networks by using multi-dimensional Markov chains and the major performance measures are derived for voice and data services. The important system parameters such as thresholds to prioritize handoff voice calls and queue sizes are optimized. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed ISHQ scheme can maximize the utilization of overall bandwidth resources with the best quality of service (QoS) provisioning for voice and data services.
Modeling Cellular Networks with Full Duplex D2D Communication: A Stochastic Geometry Approach
Ali, Konpal S.
2016-08-24
Full-duplex (FD) communication is optimistically promoted to double the spectral efficiency if sufficient self-interference cancellation (SIC) is achieved. However, this is not true when deploying FD-communication in a large-scale setup due to the induced mutual interference. Therefore, a large-scale study is necessary to draw legitimate conclusions about gains associated with FD-communication. This paper studies the FD operation for underlay device-to-device (D2D) communication sharing the uplink resources in cellular networks. We propose a disjoint fine-tuned selection criterion for the D2D and FD modes of operation. Then, we develop a tractable analytical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, to calculate the outage probability and rate for cellular and D2D users. The results reveal that even in the case of perfect SIC, due to the increased interference injected to the network by FD-D2D communication, having all proximity UEs transmit in FD-D2D is not beneficial for the network. However, if the system parameters are carefully tuned, non-trivial network spectral-efficiency gains (64% shown) can be harvested. We also investigate the effects of imperfect SIC and D2D-link distance distribution on the harvested FD gains.
Continuous limit of a crowd motion and herding model: Analysis and numerical simulations
Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik
2011-11-01
In this paper we study the continuum limit of a cellular automaton model used for simulating human crowds with herding behaviour. We derive a system of non-linear partial differential equations resembling the Keller-Segel model for chemotaxis, however with a non-monotone interaction. The latter has interesting consequences on the behaviour of the model\\'s solutions, which we highlight in its analysis. In particular we study the possibility of stationary states, the formation of clusters and explore their connection to congestion. We also introduce an efficient numerical simulation approach based on an appropriate hybrid discontinuous Galerkin method, which in particular allows flexible treatment of complicated geometries. Extensive numerical studies also provide a better understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of the herding model, in particular we examine trapping effects of crowds behind nonconvex obstacles. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.
Sensitivity testing practice on pre-processing parameters in hard and soft coupled modeling
Z. Ignaszak
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper pays attention to the problem of practical applicability of coupled modeling with the use of hard and soft models types and necessity of adapted to that models data base possession. The data base tests results for cylindrical 30 mm diameter casting made of AlSi7Mg alloy were presented. In simulation tests that were applied the Calcosoft system with CAFE (Cellular Automaton Finite Element module. This module which belongs to „multiphysics” models enables structure prediction of complete casting with division of columnar and equiaxed crystals zones of -phase. Sensitivity tests of coupled model on the particular values parameters changing were made. On these basis it was determined the relations of CET (columnar-to-equaiaxed transition zone position influence. The example of virtual structure validation based on real structure with CET zone location and grain size was shown.
Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: spm@cdtn.b, E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b, E-mail: seg@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Maria Eugenia S., E-mail: mariaeugenia@iceb.ufop.b [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)
2011-07-01
During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)
Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein; Nunes, Maria Eugenia S.
2011-01-01
During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)
Majta, Janusz; Madej, Łukasz; Svyetlichnyy, Dmytro S.; Perzyński, Konrad; Kwiecień, Marcin, E-mail: mkwiecie@agh.edu.pl; Muszka, Krzysztof
2016-08-01
The potential of discrete cellular automata technique to predict the grain refinement in wires produced using combined metal forming process is presented and discussed within the paper. The developed combined metal forming process can be treated as one of the Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) techniques that consists of three different modes of deformation: asymmetric drawing with bending, namely accumulated angular drawing (AAD), wire drawing (WD) and wire flattening (WF). To accurately replicate complex stress state both at macro and micro scales during subsequent deformations two stage modeling approach was used. First, the Finite Element Method (FEM), implemented in commercial ABAQUS software, was applied to simulate entire combined forming process at the macro scale level. Then, based on FEM results, the Cellular Automata (CA) method was applied for simulation of grain refinement at the microstructure level. Data transferred between FEM and CA methods included set of files with strain tensor components obtained from selected integration points in the macro scale model. As a result of CA simulation, detailed information on microstructure evolution during severe plastic deformation conditions was obtained, namely: changes of shape and sizes of modeled representative volume with imposed microstructure, changes of the number of grains, subgrains and dislocation cells, development of grain boundaries angle distribution as well as changes in the pole figures. To evaluate CA model predictive capabilities, results of computer simulation were compared with scanning electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction images (SEM/EBSD) studies of samples after AAD+WD+WF process.
Dynamic data-driven integrated flare model based on self-organized criticality
Dimitropoulou, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Georgoulis, M. K.
2013-05-01
Context. We interpret solar flares as events originating in active regions that have reached the self-organized critical state. We describe them with a dynamic integrated flare model whose initial conditions and driving mechanism are derived from observations. Aims: We investigate whether well-known scaling laws observed in the distribution functions of characteristic flare parameters are reproduced after the self-organized critical state has been reached. Methods: To investigate whether the distribution functions of total energy, peak energy, and event duration follow the expected scaling laws, we first applied the previously reported static cellular automaton model to a time series of seven solar vector magnetograms of the NOAA active region 8210 recorded by the Imaging Vector Magnetograph on May 1 1998 between 18:59 UT and 23:16 UT until the self-organized critical state was reached. We then evolved the magnetic field between these processed snapshots through spline interpolation, mimicking a natural driver in our dynamic model. We identified magnetic discontinuities that exceeded a threshold in the Laplacian of the magnetic field after each interpolation step. These discontinuities were relaxed in local diffusion events, implemented in the form of cellular automaton evolution rules. Subsequent interpolation and relaxation steps covered all transitions until the end of the processed magnetograms' sequence. We additionally advanced each magnetic configuration that has reached the self-organized critical state (SOC configuration) by the static model until 50 more flares were triggered, applied the dynamic model again to the new sequence, and repeated the same process sufficiently often to generate adequate statistics. Physical requirements, such as the divergence-free condition for the magnetic field, were approximately imposed. Results: We obtain robust power laws in the distribution functions of the modeled flaring events with scaling indices that agree well
Mora, Juan Carlos Seck Tuoh; Hernandez, Manuel Gonzalez; Vergara, Sergio V Chapa
2003-01-01
Reversible cellular automata are invertible discrete dynamical systems which have been widely studied both for analysing interesting theoretical questions and for obtaining relevant practical applications, for instance, simulating invertible natural systems or implementing data coding devices. An important problem in the theory of reversible automata is to know how the local behaviour which is not invertible is able to yield a reversible global one. In this sense, symbolic dynamics plays an important role for obtaining an adequate representation of a reversible cellular automaton. In this paper we prove the equivalence between a reversible automaton where the ancestors only differ at one side (technically with one of the two Welch indices equal to 1) and a full shift. We represent any reversible automaton by a de Bruijn diagram, and we characterize the way in which the diagram produces an evolution formed by undefined repetitions of two states. By means of amalgamations, we prove that there is always a way of transforming a de Bruijn diagram into the full shift. Finally, we provide an example illustrating the previous results
Mora, Juan Carlos Seck Tuoh [Centro de Investigacion Avanzada en Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr Pachuca-Tulancingo Km 4.5, 42020 Pachuca (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel Gonzalez [Centro de Investigacion Avanzada en Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr Pachuca-Tulancingo Km 4.5, 42020 Pachuca (Mexico); Vergara, Sergio V Chapa [Depto de Ingenieria Electrica, Seccion Computacion, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av IPN 2508, Col San Pedro Zacatenco, 07300 DF (Mexico)
2003-07-25
Reversible cellular automata are invertible discrete dynamical systems which have been widely studied both for analysing interesting theoretical questions and for obtaining relevant practical applications, for instance, simulating invertible natural systems or implementing data coding devices. An important problem in the theory of reversible automata is to know how the local behaviour which is not invertible is able to yield a reversible global one. In this sense, symbolic dynamics plays an important role for obtaining an adequate representation of a reversible cellular automaton. In this paper we prove the equivalence between a reversible automaton where the ancestors only differ at one side (technically with one of the two Welch indices equal to 1) and a full shift. We represent any reversible automaton by a de Bruijn diagram, and we characterize the way in which the diagram produces an evolution formed by undefined repetitions of two states. By means of amalgamations, we prove that there is always a way of transforming a de Bruijn diagram into the full shift. Finally, we provide an example illustrating the previous results.
Phase-Type Models of Channel-Holding Times in Cellular Communication Systems
Christensen, Thomas Kaare; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Iversen, Villy Bæk
2004-01-01
In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell re...... residence times are correlated are derived. All distributions are of phase type, making them very general and flexible. The channel-holding times are of importance in performance evaluation and simulation of cellular mobile communication systems.......In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell...
Cutforth, Tyler; DeMille, Mellissa MC; Agalliu, Ilir; Agalliu, Dritan
2016-01-01
Streptococcus pyogenes infections have been associated with two autoimmune diseases of the CNS: Sydenham’s chorea (SC) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus infections (PANDAS). Despite the high frequency of pharyngeal streptococcus infections among children, only a small fraction develops SC or PANDAS. This suggests that several factors in combination are necessary to trigger autoimmune complications: specific S. pyogenes strains that induce a strong immune response toward the host nervous system; genetic susceptibility that predispose children toward an autoimmune response involving movement or tic symptoms; and multiple infections of the throat or tonsils that lead to a robust Th17 cellular and humoral immune response when untreated. In this review, we summarize the evidence for each factor and propose that all must be met for the requisite neurovascular pathology and behavioral deficits found in SC/PANDAS. PMID:27110222
Investigation of cellular and molecular responses to pulsed focused ultrasound in a mouse model.
Scott R Burks
Full Text Available Continuous focused ultrasound (cFUS has been widely used for thermal ablation of tissues, relying on continuous exposures to generate temperatures necessary to induce coagulative necrosis. Pulsed FUS (pFUS employs non-continuous exposures that lower the rate of energy deposition and allow cooling to occur between pulses, thereby minimizing thermal effects and emphasizing effects created by non-thermal mechanisms of FUS (i.e., acoustic radiation forces and acoustic cavitation. pFUS has shown promise for a variety of applications including drug and nanoparticle delivery; however, little is understood about the effects these exposures have on tissue, especially with regard to cellular pro-homing factors (growth factors, cytokines, and cell adhesion molecules. We examined changes in murine hamstring muscle following pFUS or cFUS and demonstrate that pFUS, unlike cFUS, has little effect on the histological integrity of muscle and does not induce cell death. Infiltration of macrophages was observed 3 and 8 days following pFUS or cFUS exposures. pFUS increased expression of several cytokines (e.g., IL-1α, IL-1β, TNFα, INFγ, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and GMCSF creating a local cytokine gradient on days 0 and 1 post-pFUS that returns to baseline levels by day 3 post-pFUS. pFUS exposures induced upregulation of other signaling molecules (e.g., VEGF, FGF, PlGF, HGF, and SDF-1α and cell adhesion molecules (e.g., ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on muscle vasculature. The observed molecular changes in muscle following pFUS may be utilized to target cellular therapies by increasing homing to areas of pathology.
Sina Haas
Full Text Available Proteomic analysis of myocardial tissue from patient population is suited to yield insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms taking place in cardiovascular diseases. However, it has been limited by small sized biopsies and complicated by high variances between patients. Therefore, there is a high demand for suitable model systems with the capability to simulate ischemic and cardiotoxic effects in vitro, under defined conditions. In this context, we established an in vitro ischemia/reperfusion cardiac disease model based on the contractile HL-1 cell line. To identify pathways involved in the cellular alterations induced by ischemia and thereby defining disease-specific biomarkers and potential target structures for new drug candidates we used fluorescence 2D-difference gel electrophoresis. By comparing spot density changes in ischemic and reperfusion samples we detected several protein spots that were differentially abundant. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and ESI-MS the proteins were identified and subsequently grouped by functionality. Most prominent were changes in apoptosis signalling, cell structure and energy-metabolism. Alterations were confirmed by analysis of human biopsies from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.With the establishment of our in vitro disease model for ischemia injury target identification via proteomic research becomes independent from rare human material and will create new possibilities in cardiac research.
Cao, Yuli; Risling, Mårten; Malm, Elisabeth; Sondén, Anders; Bolling, Magnus Frödin; Sköld, Mattias K
2016-01-01
The mechanisms involved in traumatic brain injury have yet to be fully characterized. One mechanism that, especially in high-energy trauma, could be of importance is cavitation. Cavitation can be described as a process of vaporization, bubble generation, and bubble implosion as a result of a decrease and subsequent increase in pressure. Cavitation as an injury mechanism is difficult to visualize and model due to its short duration and limited spatial distribution. One strategy to analyze the cellular response of cavitation is to employ suitable in vitro models. The flyer-plate model is an in vitro high-energy trauma model that includes cavitation as a trauma mechanism. A copper fragment is accelerated by means of a laser, hits the bottom of a cell culture well causing cavitation, and shock waves inside the well and cell medium. We have found the flyer-plate model to be efficient, reproducible, and easy to control. In this study, we have used the model to analyze the cellular response to microcavitation in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma, Caco-2, and C6 glioma cell lines. Mitotic activity in neuroblastoma and glioma was investigated with BrdU staining, and cell numbers were calculated using automated time-lapse imaging. We found variations between cell types and between different zones surrounding the lesion with these methods. It was also shown that the injured cell cultures released S-100B in a dose-dependent manner. Using gene expression microarray, a number of gene families of potential interest were found to be strongly, but differently regulated in neuroblastoma and glioma at 24 h post trauma. The data from the gene expression arrays may be used to identify new candidates for biomarkers in cavitation trauma. We conclude that our model is useful for studies of trauma in vitro and that it could be applied in future treatment studies.
Study of cellular retention of HMPAO and ECD in a model simulating the blood-brain barrier
Ponce, C.; Pittet, N.; Slosman, D.O.
1997-01-01
The HMPAO and ECD are two technetium-labelled lipophilic agents clinically used in the imagery of cerebral perfusion. These molecules cross the membranes and are retained inside the cell after being converted to a hydrophilic form. The aim of this study is to establish the distribution of this retention at the level of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and nerve cells. The incorporation of HMPAO or ECD was studied on a model of co-culture simulating the BBB by means of a T84 single-cell layer of tight junction separated from another layer of U373 astrocyte cells. The cell quality and tight junction permeability were evaluated by the cellular retention of 111-indium chloride and by para-cellular diffusion of 14 C mannitol,d-1. The values reported below were obtained at 180 minutes when the radiotracers were added near the 'T84 layer'. The cell quality is validated by the low cellular retention of the indium chloride(2.3±0.3 μg -1 for the T84 cells and 8.2±5.8 μg -1 for the U373 cells). The activity of 14 C mannitol,d-1 diminishes by 23 ± 5 % in the added compartment. The retention of ECD by the U373 cells is significantly higher (20.7 ±4.5 g -1 ) than that of T84 cells (2.9 ± 0.2 μg -1 ). For HMPAO a non-significant tendency could be observed (49 ± 34 μg -1 for the U373 cells and 38 ± 25 μg -1 for the T84 cells)> The results of cellular retention of indium by HMPAO or ECD when added near 'U373 layer' are not significantly different.In conclusion, independently of the side exposed to the radiotracers, one observes an enhanced incorporation of the U373 cells. The ensemble of these results represent additional arguments in favour of a specific cellular incorporation of the radiotracers, independent of the BBB permittivity
Mark A. Wallet
2017-10-01
Full Text Available At least 57 independent loci within the human genome confer varying degrees of risk for the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D. The majority of these variants are thought to contribute to overall genetic risk by modulating host innate and adaptive immune responses, ultimately resulting in a loss of immunological tolerance to β cell antigens. Early efforts to link specific risk variants with functional alterations in host immune responses have employed animal models or genotype-selected individuals from clinical bioresource banks. While some notable genotype:phenotype associations have been described, there remains an urgent need to accelerate the discovery of causal variants and elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which susceptible alleles alter immune functions. One significant limitation has been the inability to study human T1D risk loci on an isogenic background. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and genome-editing technologies have made it possible to address a number of these outstanding questions. Specifically, the ability to drive multiple cell fates from iPSC under isogenic conditions now facilitates the analysis of causal variants in multiple cellular lineages. Bioinformatic analyses have revealed that T1D risk genes cluster within a limited number of immune signaling pathways, yet the relevant immune cell subsets and cellular activation states in which candidate risk genes impact cellular activities remain largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the functional impact of several candidate risk variants on host immunity in T1D and present an isogenic disease-in-a-dish model system for interrogating risk variants, with the goal of expediting precision therapeutics in T1D.
Mendonça, J. R. G.
2018-04-01
We propose and investigate a one-parameter probabilistic mixture of one-dimensional elementary cellular automata under the guise of a model for the dynamics of a single-species unstructured population with nonoverlapping generations in which individuals have smaller probability of reproducing and surviving in a crowded neighbourhood but also suffer from isolation and dispersal. Remarkably, the first-order mean field approximation to the dynamics of the model yields a cubic map containing terms representing both logistic and weak Allee effects. The model has a single absorbing state devoid of individuals, but depending on the reproduction and survival probabilities can achieve a stable population. We determine the critical probability separating these two phases and find that the phase transition between them is in the directed percolation universality class of critical behaviour.
He Yizhu; Ding Hanlin; Liu Liufa; Shin, Keesam
2006-01-01
The morphology, topology and kinetics of normal grain growth in two-dimension were studied by computer simulation using a cellular automata (Canada) model based on the lowest energy principle. The thermodynamic energy that follows Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics has been introduced into this model for the calculation of energy change. The transition that can reduce the system energy to the lowest level is chosen to occur when there is more than one possible transition direction. The simulation results show that the kinetics of normal grain growth follows the Burke equation with the growth exponent m = 2. The analysis of topology further indicates that normal grain growth can be simulated fairly well by the present CA model. The vanishing of grains with different number of sides is discussed in the simulation
Continuous limit of a crowd motion and herding model: Analysis and numerical simulations
Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik; Markowich, Peter Alexander; Burger, Martin
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the continuum limit of a cellular automaton model used for simulating human crowds with herding behaviour. We derive a system of non-linear partial differential equations resembling the Keller-Segel model for chemotaxis, however with a non-monotone interaction. The latter has interesting consequences on the behaviour of the model's solutions, which we highlight in its analysis. In particular we study the possibility of stationary states, the formation of clusters and explore their connection to congestion. We also introduce an efficient numerical simulation approach based on an appropriate hybrid discontinuous Galerkin method, which in particular allows flexible treatment of complicated geometries. Extensive numerical studies also provide a better understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of the herding model, in particular we examine trapping effects of crowds behind nonconvex obstacles. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.
Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Lo, Jiao; Liu, Yiming; Chang, Shih-Hao; Merabti, Madjid; Ng, Felix, C. K.; Wu, C. H.
2017-10-01
The rapid development of the internet has brought huge benefits and social impacts; however, internet security has also become a great problem for users, since traditional approaches to packet classification cannot achieve satisfactory detection performance due to their low accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, a new stateful packet inspection method is introduced, which can be embedded in the network gateway and used by a streaming application detection system. This new detection method leverages the inexact automaton approach, using part of the header field and part of the application layer data of a packet. Based on this approach, an advanced detection system is proposed for streaming applications. The workflow of the system involves two stages: the training stage and the detection stage. In the training stage, the system initially captures characteristic patterns from a set of application packet flows. After this training is completed, the detection stage allows the user to detect the target application by capturing new application flows. This new detection approach is also evaluated using experimental analysis; the results of this analysis show that this new approach not only simplifies the management of the state detection system, but also improves the accuracy of data flow detection, making it feasible for real-world network applications.
Evaluation tests on controbloc, a programmable automaton for nuclear power plants
Pralus, B.; Bourassin, J.L.; Varaldi, G.
1983-01-01
Controbloc is the programmable automaton used by Electricite de France (EDF) to equip its 1300 MW range of power plants. EDF and the designer CGEE Alsthom have conducted a large number of tests on prototype series equipment to determine whether it matches its specifications. These tests were performed in various laboratories in the Paris area and were concerned with: (1) verifying performance (acquisition, processing and retrieval cycle times - multiplexed exchange performance); (2) the robustness of equipment and its behaviour in industrial conditions (climatic tests in line with IEC regulations - earthquake resistance in particularly severe conditions - resistance to industrial interference); (3) behaviour when internal faults occur, an aspect of particular importance in view of the role played by Controbloc in nuclear power plants; in the event of a failure, safety (incorrect commands must not be given) and availability (resumption of operation) must be guaranteed. A large number of checks have been carried out both by the designer and EDF, the latter having put into operation an original method which is described in the paper. Controbloc has been thoroughly tested and its modular construction has facilitated the performance of these tests. Some shortcomings have been revealed which the designer or EDF has remedied. (author)
Divya Selvaraj
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Packet content scanning is one of the crucial threats to network security and network monitoring applications. In monitoring applications, payload of packets in a network is matched against the set of patterns in order to detect attacks like worms, viruses, and protocol definitions. During network transfer, incoming and outgoing packets are monitored in depth to inspect the packet payload. In this paper, the regular expressions that are basically string patterns are analyzed for packet payloads in detecting worms. Then the grouping scheme for regular expression matching is rewritten using Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA. DFA achieves better processing speed during regular expression matching. DFA requires more memory space for each state. In order to reduce memory utilization, decompression technique is used. Delayed Dictionary Compression (DDC is applied for achieving better speeds in the communication links. DDC achieves decoding latency during compression of payload packets in the network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides better time consumption and memory utilization during detection of Internet worm attacks.
Structural-mechanical model of wax crystal networks—a mesoscale cellular solid approach
Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Marangoni, Alejandro G
2014-01-01
Mineral waxes are widely used materials in industrial applications; however, the relationship between structure and mechanical properties is poorly understood. In this work, mineral wax-oil networks were characterized as closed-cell cellular solids, and differences in their mechanical response predicted from structural data. The systems studied included straight-chain paraffin wax (SW)-oil mixtures and polyethylene wax (PW)-oil mixtures. Analysis of cryogenic-SEM images of wax-oil networks allowed for the determination of the length (l) and thickness (t) of the wax cell walls as a function of wax mass fraction (Φ). A linear relationship between t/l and Φ (t/l ∼ Φ 0.89 ) suggested that wax-oil networks were cellular solids of the closed-cell type. However, the scaling behavior of the elastic modulus with the volume fraction of solids did not agree with theoretical predictions, yielding the same scaling exponent, μ = 0.84, for both waxes. This scaling exponent obtained from mechanical measurements could be predicted from the scaling behavior of the effective wax cell size as a function of wax mass fraction in oil obtained by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy studies allowed us to propose that wax-oil networks are structured as an ensemble of close-packed spherical cells filled with oil, and that it is the links between cells that yield under simple uniaxial compression. Thus, the Young’s moduli for the links between cells in SW and PW wax systems could be estimated as E L (SW) = 2.76 × 10 9 Pa and E L (PW) = 1.64 × 10 9 Pa, respectively. The structural parameter responsible for the observed differences in the mechanical strength between the two wax-oil systems is the size of the cells. Polyethylene wax has much smaller cell sizes than the straight chain wax and thus displays a higher Young’s modulus and yield stress. (papers)
Fuqian Shi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Emotional cellular (EC, proposed in our previous works, is a kind of semantic cell that contains kernel and shell and the kernel is formalized by a triple- L = , where P denotes a typical set of positive examples relative to word-L, d is a pseudodistance measure on emotional two-dimensional space: valence-arousal, and δ is a probability density function on positive real number field. The basic idea of EC model is to assume that the neighborhood radius of each semantic concept is uncertain, and this uncertainty will be measured by one-dimensional density function δ. In this paper, product form features were evaluated by using ECs and to establish the product style database, fuzzy case based reasoning (FCBR model under a defined similarity measurement based on fuzzy nearest neighbors (FNN incorporating EC was applied to extract product styles. A mathematical formalized inference system for product style was also proposed, and it also includes uncertainty measurement tool emotional cellular. A case study of style acquisition of mobile phones illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Bamne, Mikhil N; Ponder, Christine A; Wood, Joel A; Mansour, Hader; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J; Young, Michael W; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L
2013-09-01
Disruption of circadian function has been observed in several human disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD). Research into these disorders can be facilitated by human cellular models that evaluate external factors (zeitgebers) that impact circadian pacemaker activity. Incorporating a firefly luciferase reporter system into human fibroblasts provides a facile, bioluminescent readout that estimates circadian phase, while leaving the cells intact. We evaluated whether this system can be adapted to clinical BD research and whether it can incorporate zeitgeber challenge paradigms. Fibroblasts from patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) (n = 13) and controls (n = 12) were infected ex vivo with a lentiviral reporter incorporating the promoter sequences for Bmal1, a circadian gene to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Following synchronization, the bioluminescence was used to estimate period length. Phase response curves (PRCs) were also generated following forskolin challenge and the phase response patterns were characterized. Period length and PRCs could be estimated reliably from the constructs. There were no significant case-control differences in period length, with a nonsignificant trend for differences in PRCs following the phase-setting experiments. An ex vivo cellular fibroblast-based model can be used to investigate circadian function in BD-I. It can be generated from specific individuals and this could usefully complement ongoing circadian clinical research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Salvatori, Francesca; Pappadà, Mariangela; Breveglieri, Giulia; D'Aversa, Elisabetta; Finotti, Alessia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Gambari, Roberto; Borgatti, Monica
2018-05-15
Nonsense mutations promote premature translational termination, introducing stop codons within the coding region of mRNAs and causing inherited diseases, including thalassemia. For instance, in β 0 39 thalassemia the CAG (glutamine) codon is mutated to the UAG stop codon, leading to premature translation termination and to mRNA destabilization through the well described NMD (nonsense-mediated mRNA decay). In order to develop an approach facilitating translation and, therefore, protection from NMD, ribosomal read-through molecules, such as aminoglycoside antibiotics, have been tested on mRNAs carrying premature stop codons. These findings have introduced new hopes for the development of a pharmacological approach to the β 0 39 thalassemia therapy. While several strategies, designed to enhance translational read-through, have been reported to inhibit NMD efficiency concomitantly, experimental tools for systematic analysis of mammalian NMD inhibition by translational read-through are lacking. We developed a human cellular model of the β 0 39 thalassemia mutation with UPF-1 suppressed and showing a partial NMD suppression. This novel cellular model could be used for the screening of molecules exhibiting preferential read-through activity allowing a great rescue of the mutated transcripts.
Wu, Yanqing; Wang, Fang; Fu, Mao; Wang, Cheng; Quon, Michael J.
2015-01-01
Increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in women of childbearing age has led to a higher incidence of diabetes-associated birth defects. We established a model of type 2 diabetic embryopathy by feeding 4-week-old female mice a high-fat diet (HFD) (60% fat). After 15 weeks on HFD, the mice showed characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and were mated with lean male mice. During pregnancy, control dams fed a normal diet (10% fat) were maintained on either normal diet or HFD, serving as a control group with elevated circulating free fatty acids. DM dams produced offspring at a rate of 11.3% for neural tube defect (NTD) formation, whereas no embryos in the control groups developed NTDs. Elevated markers of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, caspase activation, and neuroepithelial cell apoptosis (causal events in type 1 diabetic embryopathy) were observed in embryos of DM dams. DM dams treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water ameliorated fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance with consequent reduction of cellular stress, apoptosis, and NTDs in their embryos. We conclude that cellular stress and apoptosis occur and that metformin effectively reduces type 2 diabetic embryopathy in a useful rodent model. PMID:25720389
A New Noncanonical Anionic Peptide That Translocates a Cellular Blood–Brain Barrier Model
Sara Neves-Coelho
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The capacity to transport therapeutic molecules across the blood–brain barrier (BBB represents a breakthrough in the development of tools for the treatment of many central nervous system (CNS-associated diseases. The BBB, while being protective against infectious agents, hinders the brain uptake of many drugs. Hence, finding safe shuttles able to overcome the BBB is of utmost importance. Herein, we identify a new BBB-translocating peptide with unique properties. For years it was thought that cationic sequences were mandatory for a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP to achieve cellular internalization. Despite being anionic at physiological pH, PepNeg (sequence (SGTQEEY is an efficient BBB translocator that is able to carry a large cargo (27 kDa, while maintaining BBB integrity. In addition, PepNeg is able to use two distinct methods of translocation, energy-dependent and -independent, suggesting that direct penetration might occur when low concentrations of peptide are presented to cells. The discovery of this new anionic trans-BBB peptide allows the development of new delivery systems to the CNS and contributes to the need to rethink the role of electrostatic attraction in BBB-translocation.
Hu, X.; Li, X.; Lu, L.
2017-12-01
Land use/cover change (LUCC) is an important subject in the research of global environmental change and sustainable development, while spatial simulation on land use/cover change is one of the key content of LUCC and is also difficult due to the complexity of the system. The cellular automata (CA) model had an irreplaceable role in simulating of land use/cover change process due to the powerful spatial computing power. However, the majority of current CA land use/cover models were binary-state model that could not provide more general information about the overall spatial pattern of land use/cover change. Here, a multi-state logistic-regression-based Markov cellular automata (MLRMCA) model and a multi-state artificial-neural-network-based Markov cellular automata (MANNMCA) model were developed and were used to simulate complex land use/cover evolutionary process in an arid region oasis city constrained by water resource and environmental policy change, the Zhangye city during the period of 1990-2010. The results indicated that the MANNMCA model was superior to MLRMCA model in simulated accuracy. These indicated that by combining the artificial neural network with CA could more effectively capture the complex relationships between the land use/cover change and a set of spatial variables. Although the MLRMCA model were also some advantages, the MANNMCA model was more appropriate for simulating complex land use/cover dynamics. The two proposed models were effective and reliable, and could reflect the spatial evolution of regional land use/cover changes. These have also potential implications for the impact assessment of water resources, ecological restoration, and the sustainable urban development in arid areas.
Wang, Feixiang; Jia, Yali; Liu, Jiajing; Zhai, Jinglei; Cao, Ning; Yue, Wen; He, Huixia; Pei, Xuetao
2017-06-01
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease and many types of stem cells have been used in AD therapy with some favorable effects. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutical effects of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) on AD cellular model which established by okadaic acid (OA)-induced damage to human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, in vitro for 24 h. After confirmed the AD cellular model, the cells were co-culture with hDPSCs by transwell co-culture system till 24 h for treatment. Then the cytomorphology of the hDPSCs-treated cells were found to restore gradually with re-elongation of retracted dendrites. Meanwhile, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Hoechst 33258 staining showed that hDPSCs caused significant increase in the viability and decrease in apoptosis of the model cells, respectively. Observation of DiI labeling also exhibited the prolongation dendrites in hDPSCs-treated cells which were obviously different from the retraction dendrites in AD model cells. Furthermore, specific staining of α-tubulin and F-actin demonstrated that the hDPSCs-treated cells had the morphology of restored neurons, with elongated dendrites, densely arranged microfilaments, and thickened microtubular fibrils. In addition, results from western blotting revealed that phosphorylation at Ser 396 of Tau protein was significantly suppressed by adding of hDPSCs. These results indicate that hDPSCs may promote regeneration of damaged neuron cells in vitro model of AD and may serve as a useful cell source for treatment of AD. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.
Wenjun Zhao
Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying acute myeloid leukemia (AML treatment failure are not clear. Here, we established a mouse model of AML by syngeneic transplantation of BXH-2 derived myeloid leukemic cells and developed an efficacious Ara-C-based regimen for treatment of these mice. We proved that leukemic cell load was correlated with survival. We also demonstrated that the susceptibility of leukemia cells to Ara-C could significantly affect the survival. To examine the molecular alterations in cells with different sensitivity, genome-wide expression of the leukemic cells was profiled, revealing that overall 366 and 212 genes became upregulated or downregulated, respectively, in the resistant cells. Many of these genes are involved in the regulation of cell cycle, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. Some of them were further validated by quantitative PCR. Interestingly, the Ara-C resistant cells retained the sensitivity to ABT-737, an inhibitor of anti-apoptosis proteins, and treatment with ABT-737 prolonged the life span of mice engrafted with resistant cells. These results suggest that leukemic load and intrinsic cellular resistance can affect the outcome of AML treated with Ara-C. Incorporation of apoptosis inhibitors, such as ABT-737, into traditional cytotoxic regimens merits consideration for the treatment of AML in a subset of patients with resistance to Ara-C. This work provided direct in vivo evidence that leukemic load and intrinsic cellular resistance can affect the outcome of AML treated with Ara-C, suggesting that incorporation of apoptosis inhibitors into traditional cytotoxic regimens merits consideration for the treatment of AML in a subset of patients with resistance to Ara-C.
Jokar Arsanjani, Taghi; Javidan, Reza; Nazemosadat, Mohamad Jafar; Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Vaz, Eric
2015-05-01
Recent developments of geospatial technologies and models have provided environmentalists and naturalists with a wide variety of facilities and approaches for improved monitoring and management of environmental resources. Rich temporal remote sensing datasets, e.g., Landsat imagery as well as geospatial modeling techniques, facilitate the process of monitoring and modeling environmental phenomena. The main objective of this paper is to monitor the spatiotemporal patterns of fluctuations of a dynamic lake in the south of Iran - Bakhtegan Lake - which has been influenced by extreme climate change conditions. To do so, a temporal coverage of 12 Landsat images from 1973 to 2013, was used to delineate the boundaries of the lake over time and analyze the occurred changes. Next, a cellular automata (CA) approach was adopted for simulating two main processes: 'lake expansion' and 'lake shrinkage'. The CA model was then calibrated based on a statistical comparison of the simulated and actual images of one timestamp. Application of Kappa index analysis measures the performance of the model at a value of 83 percent. The calibrated CA model was then applied and the future status of the lake (by 2017) was modeled; this suggested a further 45 percent shrinkage in addition to its recent 42 percent shrinkage. In conclusion, the socio-ecological impacts and consequences of the lake's fluctuations are discussed in detail and some complementary recommendations are proposed.
Rohrbach, F; Vesztergombi, G
1997-01-01
In the near future, the computer performance will be completely determined by how long it takes to access memory. There are bottle-necks in memory latency and memory-to processor interface bandwidth. The IRAM initiative could be the answer by putting Processor-In-Memory (PIM). Starting from the massively parallel processing concept, one reached a similar conclusion. The MPPC (Massively Parallel Processing Collaboration) project and the 8K processor ASTRA machine (Associative String Test bench for Research \\& Applications) developed at CERN \\cite{kuala} can be regarded as a forerunner of the IRAM concept. The computing power of the ASTRA machine, regarded as an IRAM with 64 one-bit processors on a 64$\\times$64 bit-matrix memory chip machine, has been demonstrated by running statistical physics algorithms: one-dimensional stochastic cellular automata, as a simple model for dynamical phase transitions. As a relevant result for physics, the damage spreading of this model has been investigated.
Astrocytic gap junctional networks suppress cellular damage in an in vitro model of ischemia
Shinotsuka, Takanori; Yasui, Masato; Nuriya, Mutsuo, E-mail: mnuriya@z2.keio.jp
2014-02-07
Highlights: • Astrocytes exhibit characteristic changes in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} under OGD. • Astrocytic [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase is synchronized with a neuronal anoxic depolarization. • Gap junctional couplings protect neurons as well as astrocytes during OGD. - Abstract: Astrocytes play pivotal roles in both the physiology and the pathophysiology of the brain. They communicate with each other via extracellular messengers as well as through gap junctions, which may exacerbate or protect against pathological processes in the brain. However, their roles during the acute phase of ischemia and the underlying cellular mechanisms remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we imaged changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in astrocytes in mouse cortical slices under oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) condition using two-photon microscopy. Under OGD, astrocytes showed [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} oscillations followed by larger and sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases. While the pharmacological blockades of astrocytic receptors for glutamate and ATP had no effect, the inhibitions of gap junctional intercellular coupling between astrocytes significantly advanced the onset of the sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase after OGD exposure. Interestingly, the simultaneous recording of the neuronal membrane potential revealed that the onset of the sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase in astrocytes was synchronized with the appearance of neuronal anoxic depolarization. Furthermore, the blockade of gap junctional coupling resulted in a concurrent faster appearance of neuronal depolarizations, which remain synchronized with the sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase in astrocytes. These results indicate that astrocytes delay the appearance of the pathological responses of astrocytes and neurons through their gap junction-mediated intercellular network under OGD. Thus, astrocytic gap junctional networks provide protection against tissue damage