Bagnoli, Franco
1998-01-01
An introduction to cellular automata (both deterministic and probabilistic) with examples. Definition of deterministic automata, dynamical properties, damage spreading and Lyapunov exponents; probabilistic automata and Markov processes, nonequilibrium phase transitions, directed percolation, diffusion; simulation techniques, mean field. Investigation themes: life, epidemics, forest fires, percolation, modeling of ecosystems and speciation. They represent my notes for the school "Dynamical Mod...
Cellular automata a parallel model
Mazoyer, J
1999-01-01
Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.
Cellular automata modelling of hantarvirus infection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hantaviruses are a group of viruses which have been identified as being responsible for the outbreak of diseases such as the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. In an effort to understand the characteristics and dynamics of hantavirus infection, mathematical models based on differential equations have been developed and widely studied. However, such models neglect the local characteristics of the spreading process and do not include variable susceptibility of individuals. In this paper, we develop an alternative approach based on cellular automata to analyze and study the spatiotemporal patterns of hantavirus infection.
Cellular automata modelling of hantarvirus infection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdul Karim, Mohamad Faisal [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: faisal@usm.my; Md Ismail, Ahmad Izani [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: izani@cs.usm.my; Ching, Hoe Bee [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: Bee_Ching_Janice_Hoe@dell.com
2009-09-15
Hantaviruses are a group of viruses which have been identified as being responsible for the outbreak of diseases such as the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. In an effort to understand the characteristics and dynamics of hantavirus infection, mathematical models based on differential equations have been developed and widely studied. However, such models neglect the local characteristics of the spreading process and do not include variable susceptibility of individuals. In this paper, we develop an alternative approach based on cellular automata to analyze and study the spatiotemporal patterns of hantavirus infection.
A cellular automata model for ant trails
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sibel Gokce; Ozhan Kayacan
2013-05-01
In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was investigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the model that (i) ant colony consists of two kinds of ants, goodand poor-smelling ants, (ii) ants might make U-turn for some special reasons. For some values of densities of good- and poor-smelling ants, the flux and mean velocity of the colony were studied as a function of density and evaporation rate of pheromone.
Codd, E F
1968-01-01
Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t
Cellular automata modelling of biomolecular networks dynamics.
Bonchev, D; Thomas, S; Apte, A; Kier, L B
2010-01-01
The modelling of biological systems dynamics is traditionally performed by ordinary differential equations (ODEs). When dealing with intracellular networks of genes, proteins and metabolites, however, this approach is hindered by network complexity and the lack of experimental kinetic parameters. This opened the field for other modelling techniques, such as cellular automata (CA) and agent-based modelling (ABM). This article reviews this emerging field of studies on network dynamics in molecular biology. The basics of the CA technique are discussed along with an extensive list of related software and websites. The application of CA to networks of biochemical reactions is exemplified in detail by the case studies of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, the FAS-ligand (FASL)-induced and Bcl-2-related apoptosis. The potential of the CA method to model basic pathways patterns, to identify ways to control pathway dynamics and to help in generating strategies to fight with cancer is demonstrated. The different line of CA applications presented includes the search for the best-performing network motifs, an analysis of importance for effective intracellular signalling and pathway cross-talk. PMID:20373215
Cellular automata modeling of cooperative eutectic growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Olejnik
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The model and results of the 2D simulation of the cooperative growth of two phases in the lamellar eutectic are presented. The pro-posed model takes into account heat transfer, components diffusion and nonstationary concentration distribution in the liquid and solid phases, non-equlibrium nature of the phase transformation and kinetics of the growth, influence of the surface energy and interface curva-ture on the conditions of the thermodynamic equilibrium. For the determination of the phase interface shape the Cellular Automata tech-nique (CA was used. For the calculation of temperature and concentration distribution the numerical solution of the Fourier equation was used. The partial differential equations were solved by Finite Differences Method (FDM. The spatial position and cell sizes of CA lattice and FDM mesh are equal.Proposed model can predict the steady state growth with a constant interlamellar spacing in the regular plate eutectic, as well as some transient processes that bring to the changes of that parameters. Obtained simulation data show the solid-liquid interface changes result in the termination of lamella and enlargement of interlamellar spacing. Another simulation results illustrate a pocket formation in the center of one phase that forestalls nucleation (or intergrowth of the new lamellae of another phase. The data of the solidification study of the transparent material (CBr4 – 8,4% C2Cl6 obtained in the thin layer demonstrate the qualita-tive agreement of the simulation.
Lattice gas cellular automata and lattice Boltzmann models an introduction
Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A
2000-01-01
Lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) and lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) are relatively new and promising methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. The book provides an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Working knowledge of calculus is required and experience in PDEs and fluid dynamics is recommended. Some peculiarities of cellular automata are outlined in Chapter 2. The properties of various LGCA and special coding techniques are discussed in Chapter 3. Concepts from statistical mechanics (Chapter 4) provide the necessary theoretical background for LGCA and LBM. The properties of lattice Boltzmann models and a method for their construction are presented in Chapter 5.
The brittleness model of complex system based on cellular automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN De-ming; JIN Hong-zhang; LI Qi; WU Hong-mei
2004-01-01
Now the research on the complex system is a hot spot. Brittleness is one of the basic characteristics of a complex system. In a complex system, after one of subsystems is struck to be collapsed, the whole system will collapse. Meanwhile, cellular automata is a discrete dynamic system. When the rule is given, the cellular automata could be defined. Then it can imitate the complex action. Cellular automata is used to simulate the brittleness action in this study. Entropy was used to analyze the action and get the rule. Then,three normal brittleness models were given. The result shows that the brittleness of complex system is existent and in addition some important behavior mode of complex system brittleness has been achieved.
Modeling diffusion of innovations with probabilistic cellular automata
Boccara, Nino; Fuks, Henryk
1997-01-01
We present a family of one-dimensional cellular automata modeling the diffusion of an innovation in a population. Starting from simple deterministic rules, we construct models parameterized by the interaction range and exhibiting a second-order phase transition. We show that the number of individuals who eventually keep adopting the innovation strongly depends on connectivity between individuals.
A cellular automata evacuation model considering friction and repulsion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Weiguo; YU Yanfei; FAN Weicheng; Zhang Heping
2005-01-01
There exist interactions among pedestrians and between pedestrian and environment in evacuation. These interactions include attraction, repulsion and friction that play key roles in human evacuation behaviors, speed and efficiency. Most former evacuation models focus on the attraction force, while repulsion and friction are not well modeled. As a kind of multi-particle self-driven model, the social force model introduced in recent years can represent those three forces but with low simulation efficiency because it is a continuous model with complex rules. Discrete models such as the cellular automata model and the lattice gas model have simple rules and high simulation efficiency, but are not quite suitable for interactions' simulation. In this paper, a new cellular automata model based on traditional models is introduced in which repulsion and friction are modeled quantitatively. It is indicated that the model can simulate some basic behaviors, e.g.arching and the "faster-is-slower" phenomenon, in evacuation as multi-particle self-driven models, but with high efficiency as the normal cellular automata model and the lattice gas model.
Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XUN Jing; NING Bin; LI Ke-Ping
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station.Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track.Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered.One is the scheme of "pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track".The other is the scheme of "two tracks play the same role".We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic.Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced.Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values.This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model.
Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bezzi, M. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Florence (Italy)
2001-07-01
In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section.
Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section
An intelligent floor field cellular automata model for pedestrian dynamics
Kirik, Ekaterina; Krouglov, Dmitriy
2009-01-01
A stochastic cellular automata (CA) model for pedestrian dynamics is presented. Our goal is to simulate different types of pedestrian movement, from regular to panic. But here we emphasize regular situations which imply that pedestrians analyze environment and choose their route more carefully. And transition probabilities have to depict such effect. The potentials of floor fields and environment analysis are combined in the model obtained. People patience is included in the model. This makes simulation of pedestrians movement more realistic. Some simulation results are presented and comparison with basic FF-model is made.
Cellular automata model of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling
Kozelov, B. V.; Kozelova, T. V.
2003-01-01
We propose a cellular automata model (CAM) to describe the substorm activity of the magnetospheric-ionospheric system. The state of each cell in the model is described by two numbers that correspond to the energy content in a region of the current sheet in the magnetospheric tail and to the conductivity of the ionospheric domain that is magnetically connected with this region. The driving force of the system is supposed to be provided by the solar wind that is convected along the two b...
Modeling self-organizing traffic lights with elementary cellular automata
Gershenson, Carlos
2009-01-01
There have been several highway traffic models proposed based on cellular automata. The simplest one is elementary cellular automaton rule 184. We extend this model to city traffic with cellular automata coupled at intersections using only rules 184, 252, and 136. The simplicity of the model offers a clear understanding of the main properties of city traffic and its phase transitions. We use the proposed model to compare two methods for coordinating traffic lights: a green-wave method that tries to optimize phases according to expected flows and a self-organizing method that adapts to the current traffic conditions. The self-organizing method delivers considerable improvements over the green-wave method. For low densities, the self-organizing method promotes the formation and coordination of platoons that flow freely in four directions, i.e. with a maximum velocity and no stops. For medium densities, the method allows a constant usage of the intersections, exploiting their maximum flux capacity. For high dens...
Cellular automata modeling of cooperative eutectic growth
E. Olejnik; E. Fraś; D. Gurgul; A. Burbelko
2010-01-01
The model and results of the 2D simulation of the cooperative growth of two phases in the lamellar eutectic are presented. The pro-posed model takes into account heat transfer, components diffusion and nonstationary concentration distribution in the liquid and solid phases, non-equlibrium nature of the phase transformation and kinetics of the growth, influence of the surface energy and interface curva-ture on the conditions of the thermodynamic equilibrium. For the determination of the phase ...
Modeling chemical systems using cellular automata a textbook and laboratory manual
Kier, Lemont B; Cheng, Chao-Kun
2006-01-01
Provides a practical introduction to an exciting modeling paradigm for complex systems. This book discusses the nature of scientific inquiry using models and simulations, and describes the nature of cellular automata models. It gives descriptions of how cellular automata models can be used in the study of a variety of phenomena.
Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled “A New Kind of Science” discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram’s investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations
Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model
Winarno, Nanang; Prima, Eka Cahya; Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu
2016-02-01
This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled "A New Kind of Science" discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram's investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations.
Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winarno, Nanang, E-mail: nanang-winarno@upi.edu; Prima, Eka Cahya [International Program on Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung40154 (Indonesia); Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu [Department of Physics Education, Post Graduate School, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung40154 (Indonesia)
2016-02-08
This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled “A New Kind of Science” discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram’s investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations.
Simulations of Living Cell Origins Using a Cellular Automata Model
Ishida, Takeshi
2014-04-01
Understanding the generalized mechanisms of cell self-assembly is fundamental for applications in various fields, such as mass producing molecular machines in nanotechnology. Thus, the details of real cellular reaction networks and the necessary conditions for self-organized cells must be elucidated. We constructed a 2-dimensional cellular automata model to investigate the emergence of biological cell formation, which incorporated a looped membrane and a membrane-bound information system (akin to a genetic code and gene expression system). In particular, with an artificial reaction system coupled with a thermal system, the simultaneous formation of a looped membrane and an inner reaction process resulted in a more stable structure. These double structures inspired the primitive biological cell formation process from chemical evolution stage. With a model to simulate cellular self-organization in a 2-dimensional cellular automata model, 3 phenomena could be realized: (1) an inner reaction system developed as an information carrier precursor (akin to DNA); (2) a cell border emerged (akin to a cell membrane); and (3) these cell structures could divide into 2. This double-structured cell was considered to be a primary biological cell. The outer loop evolved toward a lipid bilayer membrane, and inner polymeric particles evolved toward precursor information carriers (evolved toward DNA). This model did not completely clarify all the necessary and sufficient conditions for biological cell self-organization. Further, our virtual cells remained unstable and fragile. However, the "garbage bag model" of Dyson proposed that the first living cells were deficient; thus, it would be reasonable that the earliest cells were more unstable and fragile than the simplest current unicellular organisms.
Modeling and simulation for train control system using cellular automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; KePing; GAO; ZiYou; YANG; LiXing
2007-01-01
Train control system plays a key role in railway traffic. Its function is to manage and control the train movement on railway networks. In our previous works, based on the cellular automata (CA) model, we proposed several models and algorithms for simulating the train movement under different control system conditions. However, these models are only suitable for some simple traffic conditions. Some basic factors, which are important for train movement, are not considered. In this paper, we extend these models and algorithms and give a unified formula. Using the proposed method, we analyze and discuss the space-time diagram of railway traffic flow and the trajectories of the train movement. The numerical simulation and analytical results demonstrate that the unified CA model is an effective tool for simulating the train control system.
Robustness of a Cellular Automata Model for the HIV Infection
Figueirêdo, P H; Santos, R M Zorzenon dos
2008-01-01
An investigation was conducted to study the robustness of the results obtained from the cellular automata model which describes the spread of the HIV infection within lymphoid tissues [R. M. Zorzenon dos Santos and S. Coutinho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 168102 (2001)]. The analysis focussed on the dynamic behavior of the model when defined in lattices with different symmetries and dimensionalities. The results illustrated that the three-phase dynamics of the planar models suffered minor changes in relation to lattice symmetry variations and, while differences were observed regarding dimensionality changes, qualitative behavior was preserved. A further investigation was conducted into primary infection and sensitiveness of the latency period to variations of the model's stochastic parameters over wide ranging values. The variables characterizing primary infection and the latency period exhibited power-law behavior when the stochastic parameters varied over a few orders of magnitude. The power-law exponents were app...
From equilibrium spin models to probabilistic cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The general equivalence between D-dimensional probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) and (D + 1)-dimensional equilibrium spin models satisfying a disorder condition is first described in a pedagogical way and then used to analyze the phase diagrams, the critical behavior, and the universality classes of some automato. Diagrammatic representations of time-dependent correlation functions PCA are introduced. Two important classes of PCA are singled out for which these correlation functions simplify: (1) Quasi-Hamiltonian automata, which have a current-carrying steady state, and for which some correlation functions are those of a D-dimensional static model PCA satisfying the detailed balance condition appear as a particular case of these rules for which the current vanishes. (2) Linear (and more generally affine) PCA for which the diagrammatics reduces to a random walk problem closely related to (D + 1)-dimensional directed SAWs: both problems display a critical behavior with mean-field exponents in any dimension. The correlation length and effective velocity of propagation of excitations can be calculated for affine PCA, as is shown on an explicit D = 1 example. The authors conclude with some remarks on nonlinear PCA, for which the diagrammatics is related to reaction-diffusion processes, and which belong in some cases to the universality class of Reggeon field theory
Critical Behavior in a Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model
Morley, P D; Chang, Julius
2003-01-01
Using a cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared on a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock on an infected premise (IP). Those farms that neighbor an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor iteractions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The non-local disease transport probability can be as low as .01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fissio...
Genetic Algorithm Calibration of Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Modeling Mining Permit Activity
Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.
2003-01-01
We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate a spatially and temporally resolved cellular automata to model mining activity on public land in Idaho and western Montana. The genetic algorithm searches through a space of transition rule parameters of a two dimensional cellular automata model to find rule parameters that fit observed mining activity data. Previous work by one of the authors in calibrating the cellular automaton took weeks - the genetic algorithm takes a day and produces rules leading to about the same (or better) fit to observed data. These preliminary results indicate that genetic algorithms are a viable tool in calibrating cellular automata for this application. Experience gained during the calibration of this cellular automata suggests that mineral resource information is a critical factor in the quality of the results. With automated calibration, further refinements of how the mineral-resource information is provided to the cellular automaton will probably improve our model.
Translating partitioned cellular automata into classical type cellular automata
Poupet, Victor
2008-01-01
Partitioned cellular automata are a variant of cellular automata that was defined in order to make it very simple to create complex automata having strong properties such as number conservation and reversibility (which are often difficult to obtain on cellular automata). In this article we show how a partitioned cellular automaton can be translated into a regular cellular automaton in such a way that these properties are conserved.
Cellular-automata model of the dwarf shrubs populations and communities dynamics
A. S. Komarov; E. V. Zubkova; P. V. Frolov
2015-01-01
The probabilistic cellular-automata model of development and long-time dynamics of dwarf shrub populations and communities is developed. It is based on the concept of discrete description of the plant ontogenesis and joint model approaches in terms of probabilistic cellular automata and L-systems by Lindenmayer. Short representation of the basic model allows evaluation of the approach and software implementation. The main variables of the model are a number of partial bushes in clones or area...
A cellular automata-based mathematical model for thymocyte development.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hallan Souza-e-Silva
Full Text Available Intrathymic T cell development is an important process necessary for the normal formation of cell-mediated immune responses. Importantly, such a process depends on interactions of developing thymocytes with cellular and extracellular elements of the thymic microenvironment. Additionally, it includes a series of oriented and tunely regulated migration events, ultimately allowing mature cells to cross endothelial barriers and leave the organ. Herein we built a cellular automata-based mathematical model for thymocyte migration and development. The rules comprised in this model take into account the main stages of thymocyte development, two-dimensional sections of the normal thymic microenvironmental network, as well as the chemokines involved in intrathymic cell migration. Parameters of our computer simulations with further adjusted to results derived from previous experimental data using sub-lethally irradiated mice, in which thymus recovery can be evaluated. The model fitted with the increasing numbers of each CD4/CD8-defined thymocyte subset. It was further validated since it fitted with the times of permanence experimentally ascertained in each CD4/CD8-defined differentiation stage. Importantly, correlations using the whole mean volume of young normal adult mice revealed that the numbers of cells generated in silico with the mathematical model fall within the range of total thymocyte numbers seen in these animals. Furthermore, simulations made with a human thymic epithelial network using the same mathematical model generated similar profiles for temporal evolution of thymocyte developmental stages. Lastly, we provided in silico evidence that the thymus architecture is important in the thymocyte development, since changes in the epithelial network result in different theoretical profiles for T cell development/migration. This model likely can be used to predict thymocyte evolution following therapeutic strategies designed for recovery of the
Some properties of the floor field cellular automata evacuation model
Gwizdałła, Tomasz M.
2015-02-01
We study the process of evacuation of pedestrians from the room with the given arrangement of doors and obstacles by using the cellular automata technique. The technique which became quite popular is characterized by the discretization of time as well as space. For such a discretized space we use so-called floor field model which generally corresponds to the description of every cell by some monotonic function of distance between this cell and the closest exit. We study several types of effects. We start from some general features of model like the kind of a neighborhood or the factors disrupting the motion. Then we analyze the influence of asymmetry and size on the evacuation time. Finally we show characteristics concerning different arrangements of exits and include a particular approach to the proxemics effects. The scaling analyses help us to distinguish these cases which just reflect the geometry of the system and those which depend also on the simulation properties. All calculations are performed for a wide range of initial densities corresponding to different occupation rates as described by the typical crowd counting techniques.
Adaptive stochastic cellular automata: Applications
Qian, S.; Lee, Y. C.; Jones, R. D.; Barnes, C. W.; Flake, G. W.; O'Rourke, M. K.; Lee, K.; Chen, H. H.; Sun, G. Z.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Chen, D.; Giles, C. L.
1990-09-01
The stochastic learning cellular automata model has been applied to the problem of controlling unstable systems. Two example unstable systems studied are controlled by an adaptive stochastic cellular automata algorithm with an adaptive critic. The reinforcement learning algorithm and the architecture of the stochastic CA controller are presented. Learning to balance a single pole is discussed in detail. Balancing an inverted double pendulum highlights the power of the stochastic CA approach. The stochastic CA model is compared to conventional adaptive control and artificial neural network approaches.
Porod, Wolfgang; Lent, Craig S.; Bernstein, Gary H.
1994-06-01
The Notre Dame group has developed a new paradigm for ultra-dense and ultra-fast information processing in nanoelectronic systems. These Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA's) are the first concrete proposal for a technology based on arrays of coupled quantum dots. The basic building block of these cellular arrays is the Notre Dame Logic Cell, as it has been called in the literature. The phenomenon of Coulomb exclusion, which is a synergistic interplay of quantum confinement and Coulomb interaction, leads to a bistable behavior of each cell which makes possible their use in large-scale cellular arrays. The physical interaction between neighboring cells has been exploited to implement logic functions. New functionality may be achieved in this fashion, and the Notre Dame group invented a versatile majority logic gate. In a series of papers, the feasibility of QCA wires, wire crossing, inverters, and Boolean logic gates was demonstrated. A major finding is that all logic functions may be integrated in a hierarchial fashion which allows the design of complicated QCA structures. The most complicated system which was simulated to date is a one-bit full adder consisting of some 200 cells. In addition to exploring these new concepts, efforts are under way to physically realize such structures both in semiconductor and metal systems. Extensive modeling work of semiconductor quantum dot structures has helped identify optimum design parameters for QCA experimental implementations.
Cellular automata model of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. V. Kozelov
Full Text Available We propose a cellular automata model (CAM to describe the substorm activity of the magnetospheric-ionospheric system. The state of each cell in the model is described by two numbers that correspond to the energy content in a region of the current sheet in the magnetospheric tail and to the conductivity of the ionospheric domain that is magnetically connected with this region. The driving force of the system is supposed to be provided by the solar wind that is convected along the two boundaries of the system. The energy flux inside is ensured by the penetration of the energy from the solar wind into the array of cells (magnetospheric tail with a finite velocity. The third boundary (near to the Earth is closed and the fourth boundary is opened, thereby modeling the flux far away from the tail. The energy dissipation in the system is quite similar to other CAM models, when the energy in a particular cell exceeds some pre-defined threshold, and the part of the energy excess is redistributed between the neighbouring cells. The second number attributed to each cell mimics ionospheric conductivity that can allow for a part of the energy to be shed on field-aligned currents. The feedback between "ionosphere" and "magnetospheric tail" is provided by the change in a part of the energy, which is redistributed in the tail when the threshold is surpassed. The control parameter of the model is the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz IMF, "frozen" into the solar wind. To study the internal dynamics of the system at the beginning, this control parameter is taken to be constant. The dynamics of the system undergoes several bifurcations, when the constant varies from - 0.6 to - 6.0. The Bz IMF input results in the periodic transients (activation regions and the inter-transient period decreases with the decrease of Bz. At the same time the onset of activations in the array shifts towards the "Earth". When the modulus of the Bz IMF exceeds some
A Cellular Automata Model for the Study of Landslides
Liucci, Luisa; Suteanu, Cristian; Melelli, Laura
2016-04-01
Power-law scaling has been observed in the frequency distribution of landslide sizes in many regions of the world, for landslides triggered by different factors, and in both multi-temporal and post-event datasets, thus indicating the universal character of this property of landslides and suggesting that the same mechanisms drive the dynamics of mass wasting processes. The reasons for the scaling behavior of landslide sizes are widely debated, since their understanding would improve our knowledge of the spatial and temporal evolution of this phenomenon. Self-Organized Critical (SOC) dynamics and the key role of topography have been suggested as possible explanations. The scaling exponent of the landslide size-frequency distribution defines the probability of landslide magnitudes and it thus represents an important parameter for hazard assessment. Therefore, another - still unanswered - important question concerns the factors on which its value depends. This paper investigates these issues using a Cellular Automata (CA) model. The CA uses a real topographic surface acquired from a Digital Elevation Model to represent the initial state of the system, where the states of cells are defined in terms of altitude. The stability criterion is based on the slope gradient. The system is driven to instability through a temporal decrease of the stability condition of cells, which may be thought of as representing the temporal weakening of soil caused by factors like rainfall. A transition rule defines the way in which instabilities lead to discharge from unstable cells to the neighboring cells, deciding upon the landslide direction and the quantity of mass involved. Both the direction and the transferred mass depend on the local topographic features. The scaling properties of the area-frequency distributions of the resulting landslide series are investigated for several rates of weakening and for different time windows, in order to explore the response of the system to model
Cellular Automata Models Applied to the Study of Landslide Dynamics
Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian
2015-04-01
Landslides are caused by complex processes controlled by the interaction of numerous factors. Increasing efforts are being made to understand the spatial and temporal evolution of this phenomenon, and the use of remote sensing data is making significant contributions in improving forecast. This paper studies landslides seen as complex dynamic systems, in order to investigate their potential Self Organized Critical (SOC) behavior, and in particular, scale-invariant aspects of processes governing the spatial development of landslides and their temporal evolution, as well as the mechanisms involved in driving the system and keeping it in a critical state. For this purpose, we build Cellular Automata Models, which have been shown to be capable of reproducing the complexity of real world features using a small number of variables and simple rules, thus allowing for the reduction of the number of input parameters commonly used in the study of processes governing landslide evolution, such as those linked to the geomechanical properties of soils. This type of models has already been successfully applied in studying the dynamics of other natural hazards, such as earthquakes and forest fires. The basic structure of the model is composed of three modules: (i) An initialization module, which defines the topographic surface at time zero as a grid of square cells, each described by an altitude value; the surface is acquired from real Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). (ii) A transition function, which defines the rules used by the model to update the state of the system at each iteration. The rules use a stability criterion based on the slope angle and introduce a variable describing the weakening of the material over time, caused for example by rainfall. The weakening brings some sites of the system out of equilibrium thus causing the triggering of landslides, which propagate within the system through local interactions between neighboring cells. By using different rates of
Xtoys cellular automata on xwindows
Creutz, M
1995-01-01
Xtoys is a collection of xwindow programs for demonstrating simulations of various statistical models. Included are xising, for the two dimensional Ising model, xpotts, for the q-state Potts model, xautomalab, for a fairly general class of totalistic cellular automata, xsand, for the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfield model of self organized criticality, and xfires, a simple forest fire simulation. The programs should compile on any machine supporting xwindows.
Study of phase separation using liquid-gas model of lattice-gas cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report describes the study of phase separation by the liquid gas model of lattice gas cellular automata. The lattice gas cellular automaton is one model for simulating fluid phenomena which was proposed by Frisch, Hasslacher and Pomeau in 1986. In 1990, Appert and Zaleski added a new long-range interaction to lattice gas cellular automata to construct a model, the liquid-gas model, which could simulate phase separation using lattice-gas cellular automata. Gerits et al formulated the liquid-gas model mathematically using the theory of statistical dynamics in 1993 and explained the mechanism of phase separation in the liquid-gas model using the equation of state. At first this report explains the FHP model of lattice gas cellular automata and derives fluid dynamics equations such as the equation of continuity and the Navier-Stokes equation. Then the equation of state for the liquid-gas model which was derived by Gerits et al is modified by adding the interactions which were proposed by Appert but not considered by Gerits et al. The modified equation of state is verified by the computer simulation using the liquid gas model. The relation between phase separation and the equation of state is discussed. (author)
A study of a main-road cellular automata traffic flow model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄乒花; 孔令江; 刘慕仁
2002-01-01
A main-road cellular automata traffic flow model on two dimensions is presented based on the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic model. Its evolution equations are given and the self-organization and organization cooperation phenomenain this model are also studied by using computer simulation.
Jokar Arsanjani, J.; Helbich, M.; Kainz, W.; Boloorani, A.
2013-01-01
This research analyses the suburban expansion in the metropolitan area of Tehran, Iran. A hybrid model consisting of logistic regression model, Markov chain (MC), and cellular automata (CA) was designed to improve the performance of the standard logistic regression model. Environmental and socio-eco
Kumar, Shailesh
2010-01-01
A cellular automata (CA) configuration is constructed that exhibits emergent failover. The configuration is based on standard Game of Life rules. Gliders and glider-guns form the core messaging structure in the configuration. The blinker is represented as the basic computational unit, and it is shown how it can be recreated in case of a failure. Stateless failover using primary-backup mechanism is demonstrated. The details of the CA components used in the configuration and its working are described, and a simulation of the complete configuration is also presented.
Excellent approach to modeling urban expansion by fuzzy cellular automata: agent base model
Khajavigodellou, Yousef; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Mohammed, Abdulrazak A. S.; Chapi, Kamran
2014-09-01
Recently, the interaction between humans and their environment is the one of important challenges in the world. Landuse/ cover change (LUCC) is a complex process that includes actors and factors at different social and spatial levels. The complexity and dynamics of urban systems make the applicable practice of urban modeling very difficult. With the increased computational power and the greater availability of spatial data, micro-simulation such as the agent based and cellular automata simulation methods, has been developed by geographers, planners, and scholars, and it has shown great potential for representing and simulating the complexity of the dynamic processes involved in urban growth and land use change. This paper presents Fuzzy Cellular Automata in Geospatial Information System and remote Sensing to simulated and predicted urban expansion pattern. These FCA-based dynamic spatial urban models provide an improved ability to forecast and assess future urban growth and to create planning scenarios, allowing us to explore the potential impacts of simulations that correspond to urban planning and management policies. A fuzzy inference guided cellular automata approach. Semantic or linguistic knowledge on Land use change is expressed as fuzzy rules, based on which fuzzy inference is applied to determine the urban development potential for each pixel. The model integrates an ABM (agent-based model) and FCA (Fuzzy Cellular Automata) to investigate a complex decision-making process and future urban dynamic processes. Based on this model rapid development and green land protection under the influences of the behaviors and decision modes of regional authority agents, real estate developer agents, resident agents and non- resident agents and their interactions have been applied to predict the future development patterns of the Erbil metropolitan region.
Model Perubahan Penggunaan Lahan Menggunakan Cellular Automata-Markov Chain di Kawasan Mamminasata
Vera Damayanti Peruge, Tiur
2012-01-01
Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang perubahan penggunaan lahan di kawasan Mamminasata menggunakan model Cellular Automata-Markov Chain. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis perubahan penggunaan lahan melalui peta penggunaan lahan kawasan Mamminasata tahun 2004 dan 2009 untuk memperoleh penggunaan lahan tahun 2012 berbasis Markov Chain dengan analisis probabilitas transisi Markov. Hasil analisis yang diperoleh dilakukan validasi dengan validasi Kappa m...
A cellular automata model for simulating fed-batch penicillin fermentation process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Naigong; Ruan Xiaogang
2006-01-01
A cellular automata model to simulate penicillin fed-batch fermentation process(CAPFM)was established in this study,based on a morphologically structured dynamic penicillin production model,that is in turn based on the growth mechanism of penicillin producing microorganisms and the characteristics of penicillin fed-batch fermentation.CAPFM uses the three-dimensional cellular automata as a growth space,and a Moore-type neighborhood as the cellular neighborhood.The transition roles of CAPFM are designed based on mechanical and structural kinetic models of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes.Every cell of CAPFM represents a single or specific number of penicillin producing microorganisms,and has various state.The simulation experimental results show that CAPFM replicates the evolutionary behavior of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes described by the structured penicillin production kinetic model accordingly.
Directed Percolation arising in Stochastic Cellular Automata
Regnault, Damien
2008-01-01
Cellular automata are both seen as a model of computation and as tools to model real life systems. Historically they were studied under synchronous dynamics where all the cells of the system are updated at each time step. Meanwhile the question of probabilistic dynamics emerges: on the one hand, to develop cellular automata which are capable of reliable computation even when some random errors occur; on the other hand, because synchronous dynamics is not a reasonable assumption to simulate re...
Color Graphs: An Efficient Model For Two-Dimensional Cellular Automata Linear Rules
Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Rout, Sushant Kumar
2008-01-01
Two-dimensional nine neighbor hood rectangular Cellular Automata rules can be modeled using many different techniques like Rule matrices, State Transition Diagrams, Boolean functions, Algebraic Normal Form etc. In this paper, a new model is introduced using color graphs to model all the 512 linear rules. The graph theoretic properties therefore studied in this paper simplifies the analysis of all linear rules in comparison with other ways of its study.
Chaotic behavior in the disorder cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Disordered cellular automata (DCA) represent an intermediate class between elementary cellular automata and the Kauffman network. Recently, Rule 126 of DCA has been explicated: the system can be accurately described by a discrete probability function. However, a means of extending to other rules has not been developed. In this investigation, a density map of the dynamical behavior of DCA is formulated based on Rule 22 and other totalistic rules. The numerical results reveal excellent agreement between the model and original automata. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous situation is also discussed
Parallel Genetic Algorithms for calibrating Cellular Automata models: Application to lava flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cellular Automata are highly nonlinear dynamical systems which are suitable far simulating natural phenomena whose behaviour may be specified in terms of local interactions. The Cellular Automata model SCIARA, developed far the simulation of lava flows, demonstrated to be able to reproduce the behaviour of Etnean events. However, in order to apply the model far the prediction of future scenarios, a thorough calibrating phase is required. This work presents the application of Genetic Algorithms, general-purpose search algorithms inspired to natural selection and genetics, far the parameters optimisation of the model SCIARA. Difficulties due to the elevated computational time suggested the adoption a Master-Slave Parallel Genetic Algorithm far the calibration of the model with respect to the 2001 Mt. Etna eruption. Results demonstrated the usefulness of the approach, both in terms of computing time and quality of performed simulations
A cellular automata model of Ebola virus dynamics
Burkhead, Emily; Hawkins, Jane
2015-11-01
We construct a stochastic cellular automaton (SCA) model for the spread of the Ebola virus (EBOV). We make substantial modifications to an existing SCA model used for HIV, introduced by others and studied by the authors. We give a rigorous analysis of the similarities between models due to the spread of virus and the typical immune response to it, and the differences which reflect the drastically different timing of the course of EBOV. We demonstrate output from the model and compare it with clinical data.
Car Deceleration Considering Its Own Velocity in Cellular Automata Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ke-Ping
2006-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new cellular automaton model, which is based on NaSch traffic model. In our method, when a car has a larger velocity, if the gap between the car and its leading car is not enough large, it will decrease. The aim is that the following car has a buffer space to decrease its velocity at the next time, and then avoid to decelerate too high. The simulation results show that using our model, the car deceleration is realistic, and is closer to thefield measure than that of NaSch model.
Li, Qi-Lang; Wong, S. C.; Min, Jie; Tian, Shuo; Wang, Bing-Hong
2016-08-01
This study examines the cellular automata traffic flow model, which considers the heterogeneity of vehicle acceleration and the delay probability of vehicles. Computer simulations are used to identify three typical phases in the model: free-flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving traffic jam. In the synchronized flow region of the fundamental diagram, the low and high velocity vehicles compete with each other and play an important role in the evolution of the system. The analysis shows that there are two types of bistable phases. However, in the original Nagel and Schreckenberg cellular automata traffic model, there are only two kinds of traffic conditions, namely, free-flow and traffic jams. The synchronized flow phase and bistable phase have not been found.
Cellular automata modelling of phase-change memories
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wanhua Yu; David Wright
2008-01-01
A novel approach to modelling phase-transition processes in phase change materials used for optical and electrical data storage applications is presented. The model is based on a cellular automaton (CA) approach to predict crystallization behaviour that is linked to thermal and electrical simulations to enable the study of the data writing and erasing processes. The CA approach is shown to be able to predict the evolution of the microstructure during the rapid heating and cooling cycles pertinent to data storage technology, and maps crystallization behaviour on the nanoscale. A simple example based on possible future nonvolatile phase-change random access solid-state memory is presented.
Fluctuation in option pricing using cellular automata based market models
Gao, Yuying; Beni, Gerardo
2005-05-01
A new agent-based Cellular Automaton (CA) computational algorithm for option pricing is proposed. CAs have been extensively used in modeling complex dynamical systems but not in modeling option prices. Compared with traditional tools, which rely on guessing volatilities to calculate option prices, the CA model is directly addressing market mechanisms and simulates price fluctuation from aggregation of actions made by interacting individual market makers in a large population. This paper explores whether CA models can provide reasonable good answers to pricing European options. The Black-Scholes model and the Binomial Tree model are used for comparison. Comparison reveals that CA models perform reasonably well in pricing options, reproducing overall characteristics of random walk based model, while at the same time providing plausible results for the 'fat-tail' phenomenon observed in many markets. We also show that the binomial tree model can be obtained from a CA rule. Thus, CA models are suitable tools to generalize the standard theories of option pricing.
Quantum features of natural cellular automata
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2016-03-01
Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schrödinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of “natural” Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l are obtained, which for l → 0 reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement.
Quantum features of natural cellular automata
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2016-01-01
Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schroedinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of "natural" Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, "deformed" quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale $l$ are obtained, which for $l\\rightarrow 0$ reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form "multipartite" systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce...
A generalized cellular automata approach to modeling first order enzyme kinetics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abhishek Dutta; Saurajyoti Kar; Advait Apte; Ingmar Nopens; Denis Constales
2015-04-01
Biochemical processes occur through intermediate steps which are associated with the formation of reaction complexes. These enzyme-catalyzed biochemical reactions are inhibited in a number of ways such as inhibitors competing for the binding site directly, inhibitors deforming the allosteric site or inhibitors changing the structure of active substrate. Using an in silico approach, the concentration of various reaction agents can be monitored at every single time step, which are otherwise difficult to analyze experimentally. Cell-based models with discrete state variables, such as Cellular Automata (CA) provide an understanding of the organizational principles of interacting cellular systems to link the individual cell (microscopic) dynamics wit a particular collective (macroscopic) phenomenon. In this study, a CA model representing a first order enzyme kinetics with inhibitor activity is formulated. The framework of enzyme reaction rules described in this study is probabilistic. An extended von Neumann neighborhood with periodic boundary condition is implemented on a two-dimensional (2D) lattice framework. The effect of lattice-size variation is studied followed by a sensitivity analysis of the model output to the probabilistic parameters which represent various kinetic reaction constants in the enzyme kinetic model. This provides a deeper insight into the sensitivity of the CA model to these parameters. It is observed that cellular automata can capture the essential features of a discrete real system, consisting of space, time and state, structured with simple local rules without making complex implementations but resulting in complex but explainable patterns.
Irregular Cellular Learning Automata.
Esnaashari, Mehdi; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza
2015-08-01
Cellular learning automaton (CLA) is a recently introduced model that combines cellular automaton (CA) and learning automaton (LA). The basic idea of CLA is to use LA to adjust the state transition probability of stochastic CA. This model has been used to solve problems in areas such as channel assignment in cellular networks, call admission control, image processing, and very large scale integration placement. In this paper, an extension of CLA called irregular CLA (ICLA) is introduced. This extension is obtained by removing the structure regularity assumption in CLA. Irregularity in the structure of ICLA is needed in some applications, such as computer networks, web mining, and grid computing. The concept of expediency has been introduced for ICLA and then, conditions under which an ICLA becomes expedient are analytically found. PMID:25291810
Equal Distribution Model of Epidemic Drugs Based on a Cellular Automata Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huang Xinyi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The epidemic spreading of infectious disease is a process of evolution over time. Based on the cellular automata model[1], this paper analyzes the epidemic spreading rules, and establishes an efficient equal distribution model of drugs in a broad sense. For multiple regions, in case of demand of drugs exceeding supply, the drugs shall be distributed according to the proportion of a total number of people in each region, the number of patients, the number of the isolated, and the number of deaths. It is necessary to simulate based on these four schemes to obtain simulation results. The results show that, when the drugs are distributed by the proportion of the number of deaths, it is optimal for controlling over epidemic situations.
Cellular automata model based on GIS and urban sprawl dynamics simulation
Mu, Fengyun; Zhang, Zengxiang
2005-10-01
The simulation of land use change process needs the support of Geographical Information System (GIS) and other relative technologies. While the present commercial GIS lack capabilities of distribution, prediction, and simulation of spatial-temporal data. Cellular automata (CA) provide dynamically modeling "from bottom-to-top" framework and posses the capability of modeling spatial-temporal evolvement process of a complicated geographical system, which is composed of a fourfold: cells, states, neighbors and rules. The simplicity and flexibility make CA have the ability to simulate a variety of behaviors of complex systems. One of the most potentially useful applications of cellular automata from the point of view of spatial planning is their use in simulations of urban sprawl at local and regional level. The paper firstly introduces the principles and characters of the cellular automata, and then discusses three methods of the integration of CA and GIS. The paper analyses from a practical point of view the factors that effect urban activities in the science of spatial decision-making. The status of using CA to dynamic simulates of urban expansion at home and abroad is analyzed. Finally, the problems and tendencies that exist in the application of CA model are detailed discussed, such as the quality of the data that the CA needs, the self-organization of the CA roots in the mutual function among the elements of the system, the partition of the space scale, the time calibration of the CA and the integration of the CA with other modular such as artificial nerve net modular and population modular etc.
Enayatifar, Rasul; Sadaei, Hossein Javedani; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi
2015-08-01
Currently, there are many studies have conducted on developing security of the digital image in order to protect such data while they are sending on the internet. This work aims to propose a new approach based on a hybrid model of the Tinkerbell chaotic map, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cellular automata (CA). DNA rules, DNA sequence XOR operator and CA rules are used simultaneously to encrypt the plain-image pixels. To determine rule number in DNA sequence and also CA, a 2-dimension Tinkerbell chaotic map is employed. Experimental results and computer simulations, both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates outstanding encryption, but also resists various typical attacks.
An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated
An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Qu, Xiaobo [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222 Australia (Australia); Xu, Cheng [Department of Transportation Management Engineering, Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 China (China); College of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China (China); Ma, Dongfang, E-mail: mdf2004@zju.edu.cn [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Wang, Dianhai [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China)
2015-10-16
This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mondry Adrian
2004-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many arrhythmias are triggered by abnormal electrical activity at the ionic channel and cell level, and then evolve spatio-temporally within the heart. To understand arrhythmias better and to diagnose them more precisely by their ECG waveforms, a whole-heart model is required to explore the association between the massively parallel activities at the channel/cell level and the integrative electrophysiological phenomena at organ level. Methods We have developed a method to build large-scale electrophysiological models by using extended cellular automata, and to run such models on a cluster of shared memory machines. We describe here the method, including the extension of a language-based cellular automaton to implement quantitative computing, the building of a whole-heart model with Visible Human Project data, the parallelization of the model on a cluster of shared memory computers with OpenMP and MPI hybrid programming, and a simulation algorithm that links cellular activity with the ECG. Results We demonstrate that electrical activities at channel, cell, and organ levels can be traced and captured conveniently in our extended cellular automaton system. Examples of some ECG waveforms simulated with a 2-D slice are given to support the ECG simulation algorithm. A performance evaluation of the 3-D model on a four-node cluster is also given. Conclusions Quantitative multicellular modeling with extended cellular automata is a highly efficient and widely applicable method to weave experimental data at different levels into computational models. This process can be used to investigate complex and collective biological activities that can be described neither by their governing differentiation equations nor by discrete parallel computation. Transparent cluster computing is a convenient and effective method to make time-consuming simulation feasible. Arrhythmias, as a typical case, can be effectively simulated with the methods
Cellular automata cell structure for modeling heterogeneous traffic
Pal, Dibyendu; C.Mallikarjuna
2010-01-01
Gap maintaining behavior significantly affects the traffic flow modeling under heterogeneous traffic conditions. The clearance between two adjacent moving vehicles varies depending on several traffic conditions. From the data collected on the gap maintaining behavior it has been observed that vehicles maintain different gaps when travelling under different traffic conditions and this is also influenced by lateral position of the vehicle. Mallikarjuna (2007) has found that this variable gap ma...
Calibrating Cellular Automata of Land Use/cover Change Models Using a Genetic Algorithm
Mas, J. F.; Soares-Filho, B.; Rodrigues, H.
2015-08-01
Spatially explicit land use / land cover (LUCC) models aim at simulating the patterns of change on the landscape. In order to simulate landscape structure, the simulation procedures of most computational LUCC models use a cellular automata to replicate the land use / cover patches. Generally, model evaluation is based on assessing the location of the simulated changes in comparison to the true locations but landscapes metrics can also be used to assess landscape structure. As model complexity increases, the need to improve calibration and assessment techniques also increases. In this study, we applied a genetic algorithm tool to optimize cellular automata's parameters to simulate deforestation in a region of the Brazilian Amazon. We found that the genetic algorithm was able to calibrate the model to simulate more realistic landscape in term of connectivity. Results show also that more realistic simulated landscapes are often obtained at the expense of the location coincidence. However, when considering processes such as the fragmentation impacts on biodiversity, the simulation of more realistic landscape structure should be preferred to spatial coincidence performance.
Khan, Muhammad Sadiq Ali; Yousuf, Sidrah
2016-03-01
Cardiac Electrical Activity is commonly distributed into three dimensions of Cardiac Tissue (Myocardium) and evolves with duration of time. The indicator of heart diseases can occur randomly at any time of a day. Heart rate, conduction and each electrical activity during cardiac cycle should be monitor non-invasively for the assessment of "Action Potential" (regular) and "Arrhythmia" (irregular) rhythms. Many heart diseases can easily be examined through Automata model like Cellular Automata concepts. This paper deals with the different states of cardiac rhythms using cellular automata with the comparison of neural network also provides fast and highly effective stimulation for the contraction of cardiac muscles on the Atria in the result of genesis of electrical spark or wave. The specific formulated model named as "States of automaton Proposed Model for CEA (Cardiac Electrical Activity)" by using Cellular Automata Methodology is commonly shows the three states of cardiac tissues conduction phenomena (i) Resting (Relax and Excitable state), (ii) ARP (Excited but Absolutely refractory Phase i.e. Excited but not able to excite neighboring cells) (iii) RRP (Excited but Relatively Refractory Phase i.e. Excited and able to excite neighboring cells). The result indicates most efficient modeling with few burden of computation and it is Action Potential during the pumping of blood in cardiac cycle. PMID:27087101
Cellular automata and self-organized criticality
Creutz, Michael
1996-01-01
Cellular automata provide a fascinating class of dynamical systems capable of diverse complex behavior. These include simplified models for many phenomena seen in nature. Among other things, they provide insight into self-organized criticality, wherein dissipative systems naturally drive themselves to a critical state with important phenomena occurring over a wide range of length and time scales.
Modelling land-use effects of future urbanization using cellular automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglsang, Morten; Münier, B.; Hansen, H.S.
2013-01-01
The modelling of land use change is a way to analyse future scenarios by modelling different pathways. Application of spatial data of different scales coupled with socio-economic data makes it possible to explore and test the understanding of land use change relations. In the EU-FP7 research...... project PASHMINA (Paradigm Shift modelling and innovative approaches), three storylines of future transportation paradigm shifts towards 2040 are created. These storylines are translated into spatial planning strategies and modelled using the cellular automata model LUCIA. For the modelling, an Eastern...... Danish case area was selected, comprising of the Copenhagen metropolitan area and its hinterland. The different scenarios are described using a range of different descriptive GIS datasets. These include mapping of accessibility based on public and private transportation, urban density and structure, and...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
W.H. Yu; E.J. Palmiere; S.P. Banks; J.T. Han
2005-01-01
A novel 2D cellular automata (CA) model has been developed for description of normal grain coarsening and abnormal grain coarsening process. The program reflects the grain coarsening quite well even through the average grain size becomes very large. Follow results have been obtained: (a) The model reflect the normal grain growth kinetics gradually increase with probability and grain growth speed can be controlled. Based on this result, temperature can be coupled in the model. (b) Abnormal grain growth is modelled successfully. (c) Methodology has been put forward to find the relationship between the experiment results and modelling results. The experimental work on the grain coarsening has been carried out. Graphical output matched the realistic microstructure in every detail. Because many physical parameters can be taken into account in the CA programme, this CA model could not only qualitatively demonstrate the grain growth process, but also quantitatively predict and analyse the grain coarsening process.
Numerical study on photoresist etching processes based on a cellular automata model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
For the three-dimensional (3-D) numerical study of photoresist etching processes, the 2-D dynamic cellular automata (CA) model has been successfully extended to a 3-D dynamic CA model. Only the boundary cells will be processed in the 3-D dy-namic CA model and the structure of “if-else” description in the simulation pro-gram is avoided to speed up the simulation. The 3-D dynamic CA model has found to be stable, fast and accurate for the numerical study of photoresist etching processes. The exposure simulation, post-exposure bake (PEB) simulation and etching simulation are integrated together to further investigate the performances of the CA model. Simulation results have been compared with the available ex-perimental results and the simulations show good agreement with the available experiments.
Numerical study on photoresist etching processes based on a cellular automata model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU ZaiFa; HUANG QingAn; LI WeiHua; LU Wei
2007-01-01
For the three-dimensional (3-D) numerical study of photoresist etching processes, the 2-D dynamic cellular automata (CA) model has been successfully extended to a 3-D dynamic CA model. Only the boundary cells will be processed in the 3-D dynamic CA model and the structure of "if-else" description in the simulation program is avoided to speed up the simulation. The 3-D dynamic CA model has found to be stable, fast and accurate for the numerical study of photoresist etching processes. The exposure simulation, post-exposure bake (PEB) simulation and etching simulation are integrated together to further investigate the performances of the CA model. Simulation results have been compared with the available experimental results and the simulations show good agreement with the available experiments.
Advanced spatial metrics analysis in cellular automata land use and cover change modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes an approach for a more effective definition of cellular automata transition rules for landscape change modeling using an advanced spatial metrics analysis. This approach considers a four-stage methodology based on: (i) the search for the appropriate spatial metrics with minimal correlations; (ii) the selection of the appropriate neighborhood size; (iii) the selection of the appropriate technique for spatial metrics application; and (iv) the analysis of the contribution level of each spatial metric for joint use. The case study uses an initial set of 7 spatial metrics of which 4 are selected for modeling. Results show a better model performance when compared to modeling without any spatial metrics or with the initial set of 7 metrics.
Empirical results for pedestrian dynamics and their implications for cellular automata models
Schadschneider, Andreas
2010-01-01
A large number of models for pedestrian dynamics have been developed over the years. However, so far not much attention has been paid to their quantitative validation. Usually the focus is on the reproduction of empirically observed collective phenomena, as lane formation in counterflow. This can give an indication for the realism of the model, but practical applications, e.g. in safety analysis, require quantitative predictions. We discuss the current experimental situation, especially for the fundamental diagram which is the most important quantity needed for calibration. In addition we consider the implications for the modelling based on cellular automata. As specific example the floor field model is introduced. Apart from the properties of its fundamental diagram we discuss the implications of an egress experiment for the relevance of conflicts and friction effects.
Cellular-automata model of the dwarf shrubs populations and communities dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Komarov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The probabilistic cellular-automata model of development and long-time dynamics of dwarf shrub populations and communities is developed. It is based on the concept of discrete description of the plant ontogenesis and joint model approaches in terms of probabilistic cellular automata and L-systems by Lindenmayer. Short representation of the basic model allows evaluation of the approach and software implementation. The main variables of the model are a number of partial bushes in clones or area projective cover. The model allows us to investigate the conditions of self-maintenance and sustainability population under different environmental conditions (inaccessibility of the territory for settlement, mosaic moisture conditions of soil and wealth. The model provides a forecast of the total biomass dynamics shrubs and their fractions (stems, leaves, roots, fine roots, fruits on the basis of the data obtained in the discrete description of ontogenesis and further information on the productivity of the plant fractions. The inclusion of the joint dynamics of biomass of shrubs and soil in EFIMOD models cycle of carbon and nitrogen to evaluate the role of shrubs in these circulations, especially at high impact, such as forest fires and clear cutting, allow forecasting of the dynamics of populations and ecosystem functions of shrubs (regulation of biogeochemical cycles maintaining biodiversity, participation in the creation of non-wood products with changing climatic conditions and strong damaging effects (logging, fires; and application of the models developed to investigate the stability and productivity of shrubs and their participation in the cycle of carbon and nitrogen in different climatic and edaphic conditions.
Modeling of the competition life cycle using the software complex of cellular automata PyCAlab
Berg, D. B.; Beklemishev, K. A.; Medvedev, A. N.; Medvedeva, M. A.
2015-11-01
The aim of the work is to develop a numerical model of the life cycle of competition on the basis of software complex cellular automata PyCAlab. The model is based on the general patterns of growth of various systems in resource-limited settings. At examples it is shown that the period of transition from an unlimited growth of the market agents to the stage of competitive growth takes quite a long time and may be characterized as monotonic. During this period two main strategies of competitive selection coexist: 1) capture of maximum market space with any reasonable costs; 2) saving by reducing costs. The obtained results allow concluding that the competitive strategies of companies must combine two mentioned types of behavior, and this issue needs to be given adequate attention in the academic literature on management. The created numerical model may be used for market research when developing of the strategies for promotion of new goods and services.
A Two-Lane Cellular Automata Model with Influence of Next-Nearest Neighbor Vehicle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we propose a new two-lane cellular automata model in which the influence of the next-nearest neighbor vehicle is considered. The attributes of the traffic system composed of fast-lane and slow-lane are investigated by the new traffic model. The simulation results show that the proposed two-lane traffic model can reproduce some traffic phenomena observed in real traffic, and that maximum flux and critical density are close to the field measurements. Moreover, the initial density distribution of the fast-lane and slow-lane has much influence on the traffic flow states. With the ratio between the densities of slow lane and fast lane increasing the lane changing frequency increases, but maximum flux decreases. Finally, the influence of the sensitivity coefficients is discussed.
Ren, Gang; Jiang, Hang; Chen, Jingxu; Huang, Zhengfeng; Lu, Lili
2016-06-01
This paper presents a cellular automata (CA) model to elucidate the straight-through movements of the heterogeneous bicycle traffic at signalized intersection. The CA model, via simulation, particularly exposits the dispersion phenomenon existing in the straight-through bicycle traffic. The nonlane-based cycling behavior and diverse bicycle properties are also incorporated in the CA model. A series of simulations are conducted to reveal the travel process, bicycles interaction and influence of the dispersion phenomenon. The simulation results show that the dispersion phenomenon significantly results in more bicycles interactions in terms of spilling maneuvers and overtaking maneuvers during the straight-through movements. Meanwhile, the dispersion phenomenon could contribute to the efficiency of the bicycle traffic, and straight-through bicycles need less time to depart the intersection under the circumstance of dispersion phenomenon. The simulation results are able to provide specific guideline for reasonably utilizing the dispersion phenomenon to improve the operational efficiency of straight-through bicycle traffic.
Modeling and Simulation for Urban Rail Traffic Problem Based on Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许琰; 曹成铉; 李明华; 罗金龙
2012-01-01
Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the urban rail traffic flow under moving block system and present a new minimum instantaneous distance formula under pure moving block. We also analyze the characteristics of the urban rail traffic flow under the influence of train density, station dwell times, the length of train, and the train velocity. Train delays can be decreased effectively through flexible departure intervals according to the preceding train type before its departure. The results demonstrate that a suitable adjustment of the current train velocity based on the following train velocity can greatly shorten the minimum departure intervals and then increase the capacity of rail transit.
Cellular Automata Models of Traffic Behavior in Presence of Speed Breaking Structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this article, we study traffic flow in the presence of speed breaking structures. The speed breakers are typically used to reduce the local speed of vehicles near certain institutions such as schools and hospitals. Through a cellular automata model we study the impact of such structures on global traffic characteristics. The simulation results indicate that the presence of speed breakers could reduce the global flow under moderate global densities. However, under low and high global density traffic regime the presence of speed breakers does not have an impact on the global flow. Further the speed limit enforced by the speed breaker creates a phase distinction. For a given global density and slowdown probability, as the speed limit enforced by the speed breaker increases, the traffic moves from the reduced flow phase to maximum flow phase. This underlines the importance of proper design of these structures to avoid undesired flow restrictions. (general)
Computer simulation of a cellular automata model for the immune response in a retrovirus system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Immune response in a retrovirus system is modeled by a network of three binary cell elements to take into account some of the main functional features of T4 cells, T8 cells, and viruses. Two different intercell interactions are introduced, one of which leads to three fixed points while the other yields bistable fixed points oscillating between a healthy state and a sick state in a mean field treatment. Evolution of these cells is studied for quenched and annealed random interactions on a simple cubic lattice with a nearest neighbor interaction using inhomogenous cellular automata. Populations of T4 cells and viral cells oscillate together with damping (with constant amplitude) for annealed (quenched) interaction on increasing the value of mixing probability B from zero to a characteristic value Bca (Bcq). For higher B, the average number of T4 cells increases while that of the viral infected cells decreases monotonically on increasing B, suggesting a phase transition at Bca (Bcq)
Two Phase Flow Simulation Using Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical mathematical treatment of two-phase flows is based on the average of the conservation equations for each phase.In this work, a complementary approach to the modeling of these systems based on statistical population balances of aut omata sets is presented.Automata are entities defined by mathematical states that change following iterative rules representing interactions with the neighborhood.A model of automata for two-phase flow simulation is presented.This model consists of fie lds of virtual spheres that change their volumes and move around a certain environment.The model is more general than the classical cellular automata in two respects: the grid of cellular automata is dismissed in favor of a trajectory generator, and the rules of interaction involve parameters representing the actual physical interactions between phases.Automata simulation was used to study unsolved two-phase flow problems involving high heat flux rates. One system described in this work consists of a vertical channel with saturated water at normal pressure heated from the lower surface.The heater causes water to boil and starts the bubble production.We used cellular automata to describe two-phase flows and the interaction with the heater.General rule s for such cellular automata representing bubbles moving in stagnant liquid were used, with special attention to correct modeling of different mechanisms of heat transfer.The results of the model were compared to previous experiments and correlations finding good agreement.One of the most important findings is the confirmation of Kutateladze's idea about a close relation between the start of critical heat flux and a change in the flow's topology.This was analyzed using a control volume located in the upper surface of the heater.A strong decrease in the interfacial surface just before the CHF start was encountered.The automata describe quite well some characteristic parameters such as the shape of the local void fraction in the
Mathematical Physics of Cellular Automata
Garcia-Morales, Vladimir
2012-01-01
A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA) containing no freely adjustable parameters. The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and its invariances allow to classify all CA rules into equivalence classes. Complexity in 1D systems is then shown to emerge from the weak symmetry breaking of the addition modulo an integer number p. The latter symmetry is possessed by certain rules that produce Pascal simplices in their time evolution. These results elucidate Wolfram's classification of CA dynamics.
Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Zhou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.
Universal map for cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
García-Morales, V., E-mail: vmorales@ph.tum.de [Institute for Advanced Study – Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 2a, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2012-08-20
A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.
Designing beauty the art of cellular automata
Martínez, Genaro
2016-01-01
This fascinating, colourful book offers in-depth insights and first-hand working experiences in the production of art works, using simple computational models with rich morphological behaviour, at the edge of mathematics, computer science, physics and biology. It organically combines ground breaking scientific discoveries in the theory of computation and complex systems with artistic representations of the research results. In this appealing book mathematicians, computer scientists, physicists, and engineers brought together marvelous and esoteric patterns generated by cellular automata, which are arrays of simple machines with complex behavior. Configurations produced by cellular automata uncover mechanics of dynamic patterns formation, their propagation and interaction in natural systems: heart pacemaker, bacterial membrane proteins, chemical rectors, water permeation in soil, compressed gas, cell division, population dynamics, reaction-diffusion media and self-organisation. The book inspires artists to tak...
A Vector-based Cellular Automata Model for Simulating Urban Land Use Change
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Yi; CAO Min; ZHANG Lei
2015-01-01
Cellular Automata (CA) is widely used for the simulation of land use changes.This study applied a vector-based CA model to simulate land use change in order to minimize or eliminate the scale sensitivity in traditional raster-based CA model.The cells of vector-based CA model are presented according to the shapes and attributes of geographic entities,and the transition rules of vector-based CA model are improved by taking spatial variables of the study area into consideration.The vector-based CA model is applied to simulate land use changes in downtown of Qidong City,Jiangsu Province,China and its validation is confirmed by the methods of visual assessment and spatial accuracy.The simulation result of vector-based CA model reveals that nearly 75％ of newly increased urban cells are located in the northwest and southwest parts of the study area from 2002 to 2007,which is in consistent with real land use map.In addition,the simulation results of the vector-based and raster-based CA models are compared to real land use data and their spatial accuracies are found to be 84.0％ and 81.9％,respectively.In conclusion,results from this study indicate that the vector-based CA model is a practical and applicable method for the simulation of urbanization processes.
Geographic Spatiotemporal Dynamic Model using Cellular Automata and Data Mining Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Zuhdi
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Geospatial data and information availability has been increasing rapidly and has provided users with knowledge on entities change and movement in a system. Cellular Geography model applies Cellular Automata on Geographic data by defining transition rules to the data grid. This paper presents the techniques for extracting transition rule(s from time series data grids, using multiple linear regression analysis. Clustering technique is applied to minimize the number of transition rules, which can be offered and chosen to change a new unknown grid. Each centroid of a cluster is associated with a transition rule and a grid of data. The chosen transition rule is associated with grid that has a minimum distance to the new data grid to be simulated. Validation of the model can be provided either quantitatively through an error measurement or qualitatively by visualizing the result of the simulation process. The visualization can also be more informative by adding the error information. Increasing number of cluster may give possibility to improve the simulation accuracy.
Simulation of earthquakes with cellular automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. G. Akishin
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The relation between cellular automata (CA models of earthquakes and the Burridge–Knopoff (BK model is studied. It is shown that the CA proposed by P. Bak and C. Tang,although they have rather realistic power spectra, do not correspond to the BK model. We present a modification of the CA which establishes the correspondence with the BK model.An analytical method of studying the evolution of the BK-like CA is proposed. By this method a functional quadratic in stress release, which can be regarded as an analog of the event energy, is constructed. The distribution of seismic events with respect to this “energy” shows rather realistic behavior, even in two dimensions. Special attention is paid to two-dimensional automata; the physical restrictions on compression and shear stiffnesses are imposed.
Modelling urban growth in the Indo-Gangetic plain using nighttime OLS data and cellular automata
Roy Chowdhury, P. K.; Maithani, Sandeep
2014-12-01
The present study demonstrates the applicability of the Operational Linescan System (OLS) sensor in modelling urban growth at regional level. The nighttime OLS data provides an easy, inexpensive way to map urban areas at a regional scale, requiring a very small volume of data. A cellular automata (CA) model was developed for simulating urban growth in the Indo-Gangetic plain; using OLS data derived maps as input. In the proposed CA model, urban growth was expressed in terms of causative factors like economy, topography, accessibility and urban infrastructure. The model was calibrated and validated based on OLS data of year 2003 and 2008 respectively using spatial metrics measures and subsequently the urban growth was predicted for the year 2020. The model predicted high urban growth in North Western part of the study area, in south eastern part growth would be concentrated around two cities, Kolkata and Howrah. While in the middle portion of the study area, i.e., Jharkhand, Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh, urban growth has been predicted in form of clusters, mostly around the present big cities. These results will not only provide an input to urban planning but can also be utilized in hydrological and ecological modelling which require an estimate of future built up areas especially at regional level.
Vassiliadis, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgoulis, M.; Vlahos, L.
1998-12-01
Cellular automata (CA) models account for the power-law distributions found for solar flare hard X-ray observations, but their physics has been unclear. We examine four of these models and show that their criteria and magnetic field distribution rules can be derived by discretizing the MHD diffusion equation as obtained from a simplified Ohm's law. Identifying the discrete MHD with the CA models leads to an expression for the resistivity as a function of the current on the flux tube boundary, as may be expected from current-driven instabilities. Anisotropic CA models correspond to a nonlinear resistivity η(J), while isotropic ones are associated with hyperresistivity η(▽2J). The discrete equations satisfy the necessary conditions for self-organized criticality (Lu): there is local conservation of a field (magnetic flux), while the nonlinear resistivity provides a rapid dissipation and relaxation mechanism. The approach justifies many features of the CA models that were originally based on intuition.
Discrete geodesics and cellular automata
Arrighi, Pablo
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a dynamical notion of discrete geodesics, understood as straightest trajectories in discretized curved spacetime. The notion is generic, as it is formulated in terms of a general deviation function, but readily specializes to metric spaces such as discretized pseudo-riemannian manifolds. It is effective: an algorithm for computing these geodesics naturally follows, which allows numerical validation---as shown by computing the perihelion shift of a Mercury-like planet. It is consistent, in the continuum limit, with the standard notion of timelike geodesics in a pseudo-riemannian manifold. Whether the algorithm fits within the framework of cellular automata is discussed at length. KEYWORDS: Discrete connection, parallel transport, general relativity, Regge calculus.
Detection and Projection of Forest Changes by Using the Markov Chain Model and Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Griselda Vázquez-Quintero
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The spatio-temporal analysis of land use changes could provide basic information for managing the protection, conservation and production of forestlands, which promotes a sustainable resource use of temperate ecosystems. In this study we modeled and analyzed the spatial and temporal dynamics of land use of a temperate forests in the region of Pueblo Nuevo, Durango, Mexico. Data from the Landsat images Multispectral Scanner (MSS 1973, Thematic Mapper (TM 1990, and Operational Land Imager (OLI 2014 were used. Supervised classification methods were then applied to generate the land use for these years. To validate the land use classifications on the images, the Kappa coefficient was used. The resulting Kappa coefficients were 91%, 92% and 90% for 1973, 1990 and 2014, respectively. The analysis of the change dynamics was assessed with Markov Chains and Cellular Automata (CA, which are based on probabilistic modeling techniques. The Markov Chains and CA show constant changes in land use. The class most affected by these changes is the pine forest. Changes in the extent of temperate forest of the study area were further projected until 2028, indicating that the area of pine forest could be continuously reduced. The results of this study could provide quantitative information, which represents a base for assessing the sustainability in the management of these temperate forest ecosystems and for taking actions to mitigate their degradation.
Modeling and Simulation of Polarization in Internet Group Opinions Based on Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaofeng Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Hot events on Internet always attract many people who usually form one or several opinion camps through discussion. For the problem of polarization in Internet group opinions, we propose a new model based on Cellular Automata by considering neighbors, opinion leaders, and external influences. Simulation results show the following: (1 It is easy to form the polarization for both continuous opinions and discrete opinions when we only consider neighbors influence, and continuous opinions are more effective in speeding the polarization of group. (2 Coevolution mechanism takes more time to make the system stable, and the global coupling mechanism leads the system to consensus. (3 Opinion leaders play an important role in the development of consensus in Internet group opinions. However, both taking the opinion leaders as zealots and taking some randomly selected individuals as zealots are not conductive to the consensus. (4 Double opinion leaders with consistent opinions will accelerate the formation of group consensus, but the opposite opinions will lead to group polarization. (5 Only small external influences can change the evolutionary direction of Internet group opinions.
Computer simulation of a cellular automata model for the immune response in a retrovirus system
Pandey, R. B.
1989-02-01
Immune response in a retrovirus system is modeled by a network of three binary cell elements to take into account some of the main functional features of T4 cells, T8 cells, and viruses. Two different intercell interactions are introduced, one of which leads to three fixed points while the other yields bistable fixed points oscillating between a healthy state and a sick state in a mean field treatment. Evolution of these cells is studied for quenched and annealed random interactions on a simple cubic lattice with a nearest neighbor interaction using inhomogenous cellular automata. Populations of T4 cells and viral cells oscillate together with damping (with constant amplitude) for annealed (quenched) interaction on increasing the value of mixing probability B from zero to a characteristic value B ca ( B cq). For higher B, the average number of T4 cells increases while that of the viral infected cells decreases monotonically on increasing B, suggesting a phase transition at B ca ( B cq).
Vectorized multisite coding for hydrodynamic cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simulating eight lattices for Pomeau's cellular automata simultaneously through bit-per-bit operations, a vectorized Fortran program reached 30 million updates per second and per Cray YMP processor. They authors give the full innermost loops
Chen, Qingcai; Shi, Jianghong; Liu, Xiaowei; Wu, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Hui
2013-03-01
A cellular automata model (CA model) was used to simulate the soil column leaching process of estrogens during the processes of migration and transformation. The results of the simulated leaching experiment showed that the first-order degradation rates of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were 0.131 h- 1 for E2, 0.099 h- 1 for E1 and 0.064 h- 1 for EE2 in the EE2 and E2 leaching process, and the first-order sorption rates were 5.94 h- 1 for E2, 5.63 h- 1 for EE2, 3.125 h- 1 for E1. Their sorption rates were positively correlated with the n-octanol/water partition coefficients. When the diffusion rate was low, its impact on the simulation results was insignificant. The increase in sorption and degradation rates caused the decrease in the total estrogens that leached. In addition, increasing the sorption rate could delay the emerging time of the maximum concentration of estrogen that leached, whereas increasing the degradation rate could shorten the emerging time of the maximum concentration of estrogen that leached. The comparison made between the experimental data and the simulation results of the CA model and the HYDRUS-1D software showed that the establishment of one-component and multi-component CA models could simulate EE2 and E2 soil column leaching processes, and the CA models achieve an intuitive, dynamic, and visual simulation.
Line Complexity Asymptotics of Polynomial Cellular Automata
Stone, Bertrand
2016-01-01
Cellular automata are discrete dynamical systems that consist of patterns of symbols on a grid, which change according to a locally determined transition rule. In this paper, we will consider cellular automata that arise from polynomial transition rules, where the symbols in the automaton are integers modulo some prime $p$. We are principally concerned with the asymptotic behavior of the line complexity sequence $a_T(k)$, which counts, for each $k$, the number of coefficient strings of length...
On the Behavior Characteristics of Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jin-cai; ZHANG Jiang-ling; FENG Dan
2005-01-01
In this paper, the inherent relationships between the running regulations and behavior characteristics of cellular automata are presented; an imprecise taxonomy of such systems is put forward; the three extreme cases of stable systems are discussed; and the illogicalness of evolutional strategies of cellular automata is analyzed. The result is suitable for the emulation and prediction of behavior of discrete dynamics systems; especially it can be taken as an important analysis means of dynamic performance of complex networks.
Simulating debris flows through a hexagonal cellular automata model: SCIDDICA S3–hex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. D’Ambrosio
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Cellular Automata (CA represent a formal frame for dynamical systems, which evolve on the base of local interactions. Some types of landslide, such as debris flows, match well this requirement. The latest hexagonal release (S3–hex of the deterministic model SCIDDICA, specifically developed for simulating debris flows, is described. For CA simulation purposes, landslides can be viewed as a dynamical system, subdivided into elementary parts, whose state evolves exclusively as a consequence of local interactions within a spatial and temporal discretum. Space is the world of the CA, here constituted by hexagonal cells. The attributes of each cell ("substates" describe physical characteristics. For computational reasons, the natural phenomenon is "decomposed" into a number of elementary processes, whose proper composition makes up the "transition function" of the CA. By simultaneously applying this function to all the cells, the evolution of the phenomenon can be simulated in terms of modifications of the substates. SCIDDICA S3–hex exhibits a great flexibility in modelling debris flows. With respect to the previous releases of the model, the mechanism of progressive erosion of the soil cover has been added to the transition function. Considered substates are: altitude; thickness and energy of landslide debris; depth of erodable soil cover; debris outflows. Considered elementary processes are: mobilisation triggering and effect (T1, debris outflows (I1, update of landslide debris thickness and energy (I2, and energy loss (T2. Simulations of real debris flows, occurred in Campania (Southern Italy in May 1998 (Sarno and December 1999 (San Martino V.C. and Cervinara, have been performed for model calibration purposes; some examples of analysis are briefly described. Possible applications of the method are: risk mapping, also based on a statistical approach; evaluating the effects of mitigation actions (e.g. stream deviations, topographic
Huang, Hua-mei; Zhang, Li-quan; Guan, Yu-juan; Wang, Dong-hui
2008-03-01
Biological invasion has received considerable attention recently because of increasing impacts on local ecosystems. Expansion of Spartina alterniflora, a non-native species, on the intertidal mudflats of Jiuduansha Shoals at the Yangtze River Estuary is a prime example of a spatially-structured invasion in a relatively simple habitat, for which strategic control efforts can be modeled and applied. Here, we developed a Cellular Automata (CA) model, in conjunction with Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems, to simulate the expanding process of S. alterniflora for a period of 8 years after being introduced to the new shoals, and to study the interactions between spatial pattern and ecosystem processes for the saltmarsh vegetation. The results showed that the CA model could simulate the population dynamics of S. alterniflora and Phragmites australis on the Jiuduansha Shoals successfully. The results strongly support the hypothesis of space pre-emption as well as range expansion with simple advancing wave fronts for these two species. In the Yangtze River Estuary, the native species P. australis shares the same niche with the exotic species S. alterniflora. However, the range expansion rate of P. australis was much slower than that of S. alterniflora. With the accretion of the Jiuduansha Shoals due to the large quantity of sediments deposited by the Yangtze River, a rapid range expansion of S. alterniflora is predicted to last for a long period into future. This study indicated the potential for this approach to provide valuable insights into population and community ecology of invasive species, which could be very important for wetland biodiversity conservation and resource management in the Yangtze River Estuary and other such impacted areas.
Quantumness of discrete Hamiltonian cellular automata
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Elze Hans-Thomas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We summarize a recent study of discrete (integer-valued Hamiltonian cellular automata (CA showing that their dynamics can only be consistently defined, if it is linear in the same sense as unitary evolution described by the Schrödinger equation. This allows to construct an invertible map between such CA and continuous quantum mechanical models, which incorporate a fundamental scale. Presently, we emphasize general aspects of these findings, the construction of admissible CA observables, and the existence of solutions of the modified dispersion relation for stationary states.
About the embedding of one dimensional cellular automata into hyperbolic cellular automata
Margenstern, Maurice
2010-01-01
In this paper, we look at two ways to implement determinisitic one dimensional cellular automata into hyperbolic cellular automata in three contexts: the pentagrid, the heptagrid and the dodecagrid, these tilings being classically denoted by $\\{5,4\\}$, $\\{7,3\\}$ and $\\{5,3,4\\}$ respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study certain types of Cellular Automata (CA) viewed as an abstraction of large-scale Multi-Agent Systems (MAS). We argue that the classical CA model needs to be modified in several important respects, in order to become a relevant and sufficiently general model for the large-scale MAS, and so that thus generalized model can capture many important MAS properties at the level of agent ensembles and their long-term collective behavior patterns. We specifically focus on the issue of inter-agent communication in CA, and propose sequential cellular automata (SCA) as the first step, and genuinely Asynchronous Cellular Automata (ACA) as the ultimate deterministic CA-based abstract models for large-scale MAS made of simple reactive agents. We first formulate deterministic and nondeterministic versions of sequential CA, and then summarize some interesting configuration space properties (i.e., possible behaviors) of a restricted class of sequential CA. In particular, we compare and contrast those properties of sequential CA with the corresponding properties of the classical (that is, parallel and perfectly synchronous) CA with the same restricted class of update rules. We analytically demonstrate failure of the studied sequential CA models to simulate all possible behaviors of perfectly synchronous parallel CA, even for a very restricted class of non-linear totalistic node update rules. The lesson learned is that the interleaving semantics of concurrency, when applied to sequential CA, is not refined enough to adequately capture the perfect synchrony of parallel CA updates. Last but not least, we outline what would be an appropriate CA-like abstraction for large-scale distributed computing insofar as the inter-agent communication model is concerned, and in that context we propose genuinely asynchronous CA. (author)
SELF-ORGANIZED CRITICALITY AND CELLULAR AUTOMATA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CREUTZ,M.
2007-01-01
Cellular automata provide a fascinating class of dynamical systems based on very simple rules of evolution yet capable of displaying highly complex behavior. These include simplified models for many phenomena seen in nature. Among other things, they provide insight into self-organized criticality, wherein dissipative systems naturally drive themselves to a critical state with important phenomena occurring over a wide range of length and the scales. This article begins with an overview of self-organized criticality. This is followed by a discussion of a few examples of simple cellular automaton systems, some of which may exhibit critical behavior. Finally, some of the fascinating exact mathematical properties of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sand-pile model [1] are discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE; Chunyang; SHI; Peijun; CHEN; Jin; Li; Xiaobing; PAN; Ya
2005-01-01
Modeling land use scenario changes and its potential impacts on the structure and function of the ecosystem in the typical regions are helpful to understanding the interactive mechanism between land use system and ecological system. A Land Use Scenario Dynamics (LUSD) model by the integration of System Dynamics (SD) model and Cellular Automata (CA) model is developed with land use scenario changes in northern China in the next 20 years simulated in this paper. The basic idea of LUSD model is to simulate the land use scenario demands by using SD model at first, then allocate the land use scenario patterns at the local scale with the considerations of land use suitability, inheritance ability and neighborhood effect by using CA model to satisfy the balance between land use scenario demands and supply. The application of LUSD model in northern China suggests that the model has the ability to reflect the complex behavior of land use system at different scales to some extent and is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of land use system on ecological system. In addition, the simulated results also indicate that obvious land use changes will take place in the farming-pastoral zone of northern China in the next 20 years with cultivated land and urban land being the most active land use types.
Traffic jam dynamics in stochastic cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States); Schreckenberg, M. [Univ. Duisburg (Germany)
1995-09-01
Simple models for particles hopping on a grid (cellular automata) are used to simulate (single lane) traffic flow. Despite their simplicity, these models are astonishingly realistic in reproducing start-stop-waves and realistic fundamental diagrams. One can use these models to investigate traffic phenomena near maximum flow. A so-called phase transition at average maximum flow is visible in the life-times of jams. The resulting dynamic picture is consistent with recent fluid-dynamical results by Kuehne/Kerner/Konhaeuser, and with Treiterer`s hysteresis description. This places CA models between car-following models and fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. CA models are tested in projects in Los Alamos (USA) and in NRW (Germany) for large scale microsimulations of network traffic.
Modelling the role of nucleation on recrystallization kinetics: A cellular automata approach
Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Rai, Arun Kumar; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Raju, Subramanian; Saibaba, Saroja
2016-05-01
In present study, a two dimensional cellular automata (CA) simulation has been carried out to study the effect of nucleation mode on the kinetics of recrystallization and microstructure evolution in an austenitic stainless steel. Two different nucleation modes i.e. site saturation and continuous nucleation with interface control growth mechanism has been considered in this modified CA algorithm. The observed Avrami exponent for both nucleation modes shows a better agreement with the theoretical predicted values. The site saturated nucleation mode shows a nearly consistent value of Avrami exponent, whereas in the case of continuous nucleation the exponent shows a little variation during transformation. The simulations in the present work can be applied for the optimization of microstructure and properties in austenitic steels.
Infrared image enhancement using Cellular Automata
Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa
2016-05-01
Image enhancement is a crucial technique for infrared images. The clear image details are important for improving the quality of infrared images in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new enhancement method based on two priors via Cellular Automata. First, we directly learn the gradient distribution prior from the images via Cellular Automata. Second, considering the importance of image details, we propose a new gradient distribution error to encode the structure information via Cellular Automata. Finally, an iterative method is applied to remap the original image based on two priors, further improving the quality of enhanced image. Our method is simple in implementation, easy to understand, extensible to accommodate other vision tasks, and produces more accurate results. Experiments show that the proposed method performs better than other methods using qualitative and quantitative measures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: spm@cdtn.b, E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b, E-mail: seg@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Maria Eugenia S., E-mail: mariaeugenia@iceb.ufop.b [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)
2011-07-01
During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)
Turing degrees of limit sets of cellular automata
Borello, Alex; Cervelle, Julien; Vanier, Pascal
2014-01-01
Cellular automata are discrete dynamical systems and a model of computation. The limit set of a cellular automaton consists of the configurations having an infinite sequence of preimages. It is well known that these always contain a computable point and that any non-trivial property on them is undecidable. We go one step further in this article by giving a full characterization of the sets of Turing degrees of cellular automata: they are the same as the sets of Turing degrees of effectively c...
Vanwalleghem, T.; Jiménez-Hornero, F. J.; Giráldez, J. V.; Laguna, A.
2009-04-01
The process of tillage translocation is well studied and can be described adequately by different existing models. Nevertheless, in complex environments such as olive orchards, characterized by numerous obstacles, application of such conventional tillage erosion models is not straightforward. However, these obstacles have important effects on the spatial pattern of soil redistribution and on resulting soil properties. In this kind of environment, cellular automata could provide a valuable alternative. This study aims at developing a cellular automata model for tillage translocation (CATT) that can take into account such obstacles and at exploring its possibilities and limitations. A simple model was developed, which main parameters are tillage direction, speed and depth. Firstly, the modeĺs outcome was tested against existing 137Cs inventories for a study site in the Belgian loam belt. The observed spatial soil redistribution patterns could be adequately represented by the CATT model. Secondly, a sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the effect of input uncertainty on several selected model outputs. The variance-based extended FAST method was used to determine first and total order sensitivity indices. Tillage depth was identified as the input parameter that determined most of the output variance, followed respectively by tillage direction and speed. The difference between the total and first-order sensitivity indices, between 0.8 and 2, indicated that, in spite of the simple model structure, the model behaves non-linearly with respect to some of the model output variables. Higher-order interactions were especially important for determining the proportion of eroding and deposition cells. Finally, simulations were performed to analyse the model behaviour in complex landscapes, applying it to a field with protruding obstacles (e.g. olive trees). The model adequately represented some morphological features observed in the olive orchards, such as mounds around
Simulating Complex Systems by Cellular Automata
Kroc, Jiri; Hoekstra, Alfons G
2010-01-01
Deeply rooted in fundamental research in Mathematics and Computer Science, Cellular Automata (CA) are recognized as an intuitive modeling paradigm for Complex Systems. Already very basic CA, with extremely simple micro dynamics such as the Game of Life, show an almost endless display of complex emergent behavior. Conversely, CA can also be designed to produce a desired emergent behavior, using either theoretical methodologies or evolutionary techniques. Meanwhile, beyond the original realm of applications - Physics, Computer Science, and Mathematics – CA have also become work horses in very different disciplines such as epidemiology, immunology, sociology, and finance. In this context of fast and impressive progress, spurred further by the enormous attraction these topics have on students, this book emerges as a welcome overview of the field for its practitioners, as well as a good starting point for detailed study on the graduate and post-graduate level. The book contains three parts, two major parts on th...
A Simulation of Oblivious Multi-Head One-Way Finite Automata by Real-Time Cellular Automata
Borello, Alex
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present the simulation of a simple, yet significantly powerful, sequential model by cellular automata. The simulated model is called oblivious multi-head one-way finite automata and is characterized by having its heads moving only forward, on a trajectory that only depends on the length of the input. While the original finite automaton works in linear time, its corresponding cellular automaton performs the same task in real time, that is, exactly the length of the input. Although not truly a speed-up, the simulation may be interesting and reminds us of the open question about the equivalence of linear and real times on cellular automata.
A Parallel Encryption Algorithm for Block Ciphers Based on Reversible Programmable Cellular Automata
Das, Debasis
2010-01-01
A Cellular Automata (CA) is a computing model of complex System using simple rule. In CA the problem space into number of cell and each cell can be one or several final state. Cells are affected by neighbours' to the simple rule. Cellular Automata are highly parallel and discrete dynamical systems, whose behaviour is completely specified in terms of a local relation. This paper deals with the Cellular Automata (CA) in cryptography for a class of Block Ciphers through a new block encryption algorithm based on Reversible Programmable Cellular Automata Theory. The proposed algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric key systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær
2002-01-01
characteristics and lead to different reactor behaviour. A dynamic mathematical model has been developed for the anaerobic digestion of a glucose based synthetic wastewater in UASB reactors. Cellular automata (CA) theory has been applied to simulate the granule development process. The model takes......The advantageous performance of the UASB reactors is due to the immobilisation of the active biomass, since bacteria coagulate forming aggregates usually called granules. Changes in organic loading rate, hydraulic loading rate or influent substrate composition usually result in changes in granule...... into consideration that granule diameter and granule microbial composition are functions of the reactor operational parameters and is capable of predicting the UASB performance and the layer structure of the granules....
A Simulation of Oblivious Multi-head One-way Finite Automata by Real-time Cellular Automata
Borello, Alex
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present the simulation of a simple, yet significantly powerful, sequential model by cellular automata. The simulated model is called oblivious multi-head one-way finite automata and is characterized by having its heads moving only forward, on a trajectory that only depends on the length of the input. While the original finite automaton works in linear time, its corresponding cellular automaton performs the same task in real time, that is, exactly the length of the input. Alt...
Cellular Automata Studies of Vertical Silicon Devices
M. Saraniti; G. Zandler; G. Formicone; S. Goodnick
1998-01-01
We present systematic theoretical Cellular Automata (CA) studies of a novel nanometer scale Si device, namely vertically grown Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) with channel lengths between 65 and 120 nm. The CA simulations predict drain characteristics and output conductance as a function of gate length. The excellent agreement with available experimental data indicates a high quality oxide/semiconductor interface. Impact ionization is shown to be of minor importance. For inhomog...
Cellular automata with majority rule on evolving network
Makowiec, Danuta
2004-01-01
The cellular automata discrete dynamical system is considered as the two-stage process: the majority rule for the change in the automata state and the rule for the change in topological relations between automata. The influence of changing topology to the cooperative phenomena, namely zero-temperature ferromagnetic phase transition, is observed.
Stochastic properties of disturbed Elementary Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cellular automata are class of simple mathematical systems that generate diverse, often complicated behaviour. Evolution of such a system is given by set of local and deterministic rules. However, in spite of simplicity of 'interactions' it's global behaviour can't be, in general, simply predicted or even can not be predicted in time shorter that time of it's strict evolution. We get as, a systems well known 1-dimensional, Wolfram class automata, and connect it into the reservoir consists of some random source (noise). In our experiment we are interested in: a) numeric verification of ergodicity for such a coupled system. b) finding it's probability distribution and evolution. c) finding some analogous for 'real' quantities and behaviour. d) using the dynamical systems and Markov chains theory to describe the system, and to make any predictions of it's behaviour. (author)
Quantum Cloning by Cellular Automata
D'Ariano, G. M.; Macchiavello, C.; M. Rossi
2012-01-01
We introduce a quantum cellular automaton that achieves approximate phase-covariant cloning of qubits. The automaton is optimized for 1-to-2N economical cloning. The use of the automaton for cloning allows us to exploit different foliations for improving the performance with given resources.
Lattice Gas Cellular Automata for Computational Fluid Animation
Giraldi, Gilson A.; Xavier, Adilson V.; Apolinario Jr, Antonio L.; Rodrigues, Paulo S.
2005-01-01
The past two decades showed a rapid growing of physically-based modeling of fluids for computer graphics applications. In this area, a common top down approach is to model the fluid dynamics by Navier-Stokes equations and apply a numerical techniques such as Finite Differences or Finite Elements for the simulation. In this paper we focus on fluid modeling through Lattice Gas Cellular Automata (LGCA) for computer graphics applications. LGCA are discrete models based on point particles that mov...
GCA-w: Global Cellular Automata with Write-Access
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The novel GCA-w model (Global Cellular Automata with Write access) is presented which is based on the GCA (Global Cellular Automata) model. The GCA model is a massively parallel model like the cellular automata model. In the CA model, the cells have static links to their local neighbors whereas in the GCA model, the links are dynamic according to a special local rule. In both models, the access is '' read-only ''. Thereby no write conflict can occur and all cells can update their states independently in parallel. The GCA model is useful for many parallel problems that can be described by a non-local and changing neighborhood. A shortcoming of the GCA model is the missing write access to neighboring cells. Although a write access can be emulated in O(log n) time this slowdown may not be acceptable in some practical applications. Therefore, the GCA-w model was developed. The GCA-w model allows to change the states of the neighboring cells as well as the state of the own cell. Thereby certain parallel algorithms can be described more appropriately and the number of active cells can be controlled by the cells themselves in a decentralized way. Activity control also enables dynamic resource sharing and the reduction of power consumption. The usefulness of the GCA-w model is demonstrated by some fine-grain parallel applications: one-to-all communication, synchronization and moving particles. (author)
Lattice gas cellular automata model for rippling and aggregation in myxobacteria
Alber, Mark S.; Jiang, Yi; Kiskowski, Maria A.
2004-01-01
A lattice-gas cellular automaton (LGCA) model is used to simulate rippling and aggregation in myxobacteria. An efficient way of representing cells of different cell size, shape and orientation is presented that may be easily extended to model later stages of fruiting body formation. This LGCA model is designed to investigate whether a refractory period, a minimum response time, a maximum oscillation period and non-linear dependence of reversals of cells on C-factor are necessary assumptions f...
Behera, Mukunda D.; Borate, Santosh N.; Panda, Sudhindra N.; Behera, Priti R.; Roy, Partha S.
2012-08-01
Improper practices of land use and land cover (LULC) including deforestation, expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development are deteriorating watershed conditions. Here, we have utilized remote sensing and GIS tools to study LULC dynamics using Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov model and predicted the future LULC scenario, in terms of magnitude and direction, based on past trend in a hydrological unit, Choudwar watershed, India. By analyzing the LULC pattern during 1972, 1990, 1999 and 2005 using satellite-derived maps, we observed that the biophysical and socio-economic drivers including residential/industrial development, road-rail and settlement proximity have influenced the spatial pattern of the watershed LULC, leading to an accretive linear growth of agricultural and settlement areas. The annual rate of increase from 1972 to 2004 in agriculture land, settlement was observed to be 181.96, 9.89 ha/year, respectively, while decrease in forest, wetland and marshy land were 91.22, 27.56 and 39.52 ha/year, respectively. Transition probability and transition area matrix derived using inputs of (i) residential/industrial development and (ii) proximity to transportation network as the major causes. The predicted LULC scenario for the year 2014, with reasonably good accuracy would provide useful inputs to the LULC planners for effective management of the watershed. The study is a maiden attempt that revealed agricultural expansion is the main driving force for loss of forest, wetland and marshy land in the Choudwar watershed and has the potential to continue in future. The forest in lower slopes has been converted to agricultural land and may soon take a call on forests occurring on higher slopes. Our study utilizes three time period changes to better account for the trend and the modelling exercise; thereby advocates for better agricultural practices with additional energy subsidy to arrest further forest loss and LULC alternations.
Game of Life Cellular Automata
Adamatzky, Andrew
2010-01-01
In the late 1960s, British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells' states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway's Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanyuan Yang
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Decadal to centennial land use and land cover change has been consistently singled out as a key element and an important driver of global environmental change, playing an essential role in balancing energy use. Understanding long-term human-environment interactions requires historical reconstruction of past land use and land cover changes. Most of the existing historical reconstructions have insufficient spatial and thematic detail and do not consider various land change types. In this context, this paper explored the possibility of using a cellular automata-Markov model in 90 m × 90 m spatial resolution to reconstruct historical land use in the 1930s in Zhenlai County, China. Then the three-map comparison methodology was employed to assess the predictive accuracy of the transition modeling. The model could produce backward projections by analyzing land use changes in recent decades, assuming that the present land use pattern is dynamically dependent on the historical one. The reconstruction results indicated that in the 1930s most of the study area was occupied by grasslands, followed by wetlands and arable land, while other land categories occupied relatively small areas. Analysis of the three-map comparison illustrated that the major differences among the three maps have less to do with the simulation model and more to do with the inconsistencies among the land categories during the study period. Different information provided by topographic maps and remote sensing images must be recognized.
Feliciani, Claudio; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
2016-06-01
In this article we present an improved version of the Cellular Automata floor field model making use of a sub-mesh system to increase the maximum density allowed during simulation and reproduce phenomena observed in dense crowds. In order to calibrate the model's parameters and to validate it we used data obtained from an empirical observation of bidirectional pedestrian flow. A good agreement was found between numerical simulation and experimental data and, in particular, the double outflow peak observed during the formation of deadlocks could be reproduced in numerical simulations, thus allowing the analysis of deadlock formation and dissolution. Finally, we used the developed high density model to compute the flow-ratio dependent fundamental diagram of bidirectional flow, demonstrating the instability of balanced flow and predicting the bidirectional flow behavior at very high densities. The model we presented here can be used to prevent dense crowd accidents in the future and to investigate the dynamics of the accidents which already occurred in the past. Additionally, fields such as granular and active matter physics may benefit from the developed framework to study different collective phenomena.
Single spin measurement using cellular automata techniques
Perez-Delgado, C A; Cory, D G; Mosca, M; Cappellaro, Paola; Cory, David G.; Mosca, Michele; Perez-Delgado, Carlos A.
2006-01-01
We propose an approach for single spin measurement. Our method uses techniques from the theory of quantum cellular automata to correlate a large amount of ancillary spins to the one to be measured. It has the distinct advantage of being efficient, and to a certain extent fault-tolerant. Under ideal conditions, it requires the application of only order of cube root of N steps (each requiring a constant number of rf pulses) to create a system of N correlated spins. It is also fairly robust against pulse errors, imperfect initial polarization of the ancilla spin system, and does not rely on entanglement. We study the scalability of our scheme through numerical simulation.
Single spin measurement using cellular automata techniques
Perez-Delgado, Carlos A.; Mosca, Michele; Cappellaro, Paola; Cory, David G.
2006-01-01
We propose an approach for single spin measurement. Our method uses techniques from the theory of quantum cellular automata to correlate a large amount of ancillary spins to the one to be measured. It has the distinct advantage of being efficient, and to a certain extent fault-tolerant. Under ideal conditions, it requires the application of only order of cube root of N steps (each requiring a constant number of rf pulses) to create a system of N correlated spins. It is also fairly robust agai...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Yang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spatiotemporal simulation of tourist town growth is important for research on land use/cover change under the influence of urbanization. Many scholars have shown great interest in the unique pattern of driving urban development with tourism development. Based on the cellular automata (CA model, we simulated and predicted the spatiotemporal growth of Sanpo town in Hebei Province, using the tourism urbanization growth model. Results showed that (1 average annual growth rate of the entire region was 1.5 Ha2 per year from 2005 to 2010, 4 Ha2 per year from 2010 to 2015, and 2.5 Ha2 per year from 2015 to 2020; (2 urban growth rate increased yearly, with regional differences, and had a high degree of correlation with the Euclidean distance of town center, traffic route, attractions, and other factors; (3 Gougezhuang, an important village center in the west of the town, demonstrated traffic advantages and increased growth rate since 2010; (4 Magezhuang village has the largest population in the region, so economic advantages have driven the development of rural urbanization. It showed that CA had high reliability in simulating the spatiotemporal evolution of tourist town, which assists the study of spatiotemporal growth under urbanization and rational protection of tourism resources.
An overview of quantum computation models: quantum automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Quantum automata,as theoretical models of quantum computers,include quantum finite automata (QFA),quantum sequential machines (QSM),quantum pushdown automata (QPDA),quantum Turing machines (QTM),quantum cellular automata (QCA),and the others,for example,automata theory based on quantum logic (orthomodular lattice-valued automata).In this paper,we try to outline a basic progress in the research on these models,focusing on QFA,QSM,QPDA,QTM,and orthomodular lattice-valued automata.Also,other models closely relative to them are mentioned.In particular,based on the existing results in the literature,we finally address a number of problems to be studied in future.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Górny
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular AutomatonFinite Differences (CA-FD calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grainsgrowth during the ductile iron solidification in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniformtemperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibriumnature of the interphase boundary migration. Calculation of eutectic saturation influence (Sc = 0.9 - 1.1 on microstructure (austenite and graphite fraction, density of austenite and graphite grains and temperature curves in 2 mm wall ductile iron casting has been done.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A thorough simulation study is carried out on thermal and quantum delocalization effects on the feasibility of a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) cell. The occupation correlation of two electrons is modeled with a simple four-site array of harmonic quantum dots (QD). QD sizes range from 20 nm to 40 nm with site separations from 20 nm to 100 nm, relevant for state-of-the-art GaAs/InAs semiconductor technology. The choice of parameters introduces QD overlap, which is only simulated properly with exact treatment of strong Coulombic correlation and thermal equilibrium quantum statistics. These are taken into account with path integral Monte Carlo approach. Thus, we demonstrate novel joint effects of quantum delocalization and decoherence in QCA, but also highly sophisticated quantitative evidence supporting the traditional relations in pragmatic QCA design. Moreover, we show the effects of dimensionality and spin state, and point out the parameter space conditions, where the ‘classical’ treatment becomes invalid. (paper)
Construction of living cellular automata using the Physarum plasmodium
Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Shinji
2015-04-01
The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba that has an amorphous cell body. To clearly observe how the plasmodium makes decisions in its motile and exploratory behaviours, we developed a new experimental system to pseudo-discretize the motility of the organism. In our experimental space that has agar surfaces arranged in a two-dimensional lattice, the continuous and omnidirectional movement of the plasmodium was limited to the stepwise one, and the direction of the locomotion was also limited to four neighbours. In such an experimental system, a cellular automata-like system was constructed using the living cell. We further analysed the exploratory behaviours of the plasmodium by duplicating the experimental results in the simulation models of cellular automata. As a result, it was revealed that the behaviours of the plasmodium are not reproduced by only local state transition rules; and for the reproduction, a kind of historical rule setting is needed.
Recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feldberg, Rasmus; Knudsen, Carsten; Rasmussen, Steen
1994-01-01
as the number of lattice sites is incremented. A proof of lattice size invariance of global cellular-automata mappings is derived from an approximation to the exact recursive definition. The recursive definitions are applied to calculate the fractal dimension of the set of reachable states and of the set......A method for a recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings is presented. The method is based on a graphical representation of global cellular-automata mappings. For a given cellular-automaton rule the recursive algorithm defines the change of the global cellular-automaton mapping...
Cellular automata in image processing and geometry
Adamatzky, Andrew; Sun, Xianfang
2014-01-01
The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of mass...
Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Mondal, Parimal; Barik, Jyotiskona; Chowdhury, S M; Ghosh, Tuhin; Hazra, Sugata
2015-06-01
The composition and assemblage of mangroves in the Bangladesh Sundarbans are changing systematically in response to several environmental factors. In order to understand the impact of the changing environmental conditions on the mangrove forest, species composition maps for the years 1985, 1995 and 2005 were studied. In the present study, 1985 and 1995 species zonation maps were considered as base data and the cellular automata-Markov chain model was run to predict the species zonation for the year 2005. The model output was validated against the actual dataset for 2005 and calibrated. Finally, using the model, mangrove species zonation maps for the years 2025, 2055 and 2105 have been prepared. The model was run with the assumption that the continuation of the current tempo and mode of drivers of environmental factors (temperature, rainfall, salinity change) of the last two decades will remain the same in the next few decades. Present findings show that the area distribution of the following species assemblages like Goran (Ceriops), Sundari (Heritiera), Passur (Xylocarpus), and Baen (Avicennia) would decrease in the descending order, whereas the area distribution of Gewa (Excoecaria), Keora (Sonneratia) and Kankra (Bruguiera) dominated assemblages would increase. The spatial distribution of projected mangrove species assemblages shows that more salt tolerant species will dominate in the future; which may be used as a proxy to predict the increase of salinity and its spatial variation in Sundarbans. Considering the present rate of loss of forest land, 17% of the total mangrove cover is predicted to be lost by the year 2105 with a significant loss of fresh water loving mangroves and related ecosystem services. This paper describes a unique approach to assess future changes in species composition and future forest zonation in mangroves under the 'business as usual' scenario of climate change. PMID:25719448
Evolving Transport Networks With Cellular Automata Models Inspired by Slime Mould.
Tsompanas, Michail-Antisthenis I; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Adamatzky, Andrew I
2015-09-01
Man-made transport networks and their design are closely related to the shortest path problem and considered amongst the most debated problems of computational intelligence. Apart from using conventional or bio-inspired computer algorithms, many researchers tried to solve this kind of problem using biological computing substrates, gas-discharge solvers, prototypes of a mobile droplet, and hot ice computers. In this aspect, another example of biological computer is the plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum (P. polycephalum), which is a large single cell visible by an unaided eye and has been proven as a reliable living substrate for implementing biological computing devices for computational geometry, graph-theoretical problems, and optimization and imitation of transport networks. Although P. polycephalum is easy to experiment with, computing devices built with the living slime mould are extremely slow; it takes slime mould days to execute a computation. Consequently, mapping key computing mechanisms of the slime mould onto silicon would allow us to produce efficient bio-inspired computing devices to tackle with hard to solve computational intelligence problems like the aforementioned. Toward this direction, a cellular automaton (CA)-based, Physarum-inspired, network designing model is proposed. This novel CA-based model is inspired by the propagating strategy, the formation of tubular networks, and the computing abilities of the plasmodium of P. polycephalum. The results delivered by the CA model demonstrate a good match with several previously published results of experimental laboratory studies on imitation of man-made transport networks with P. polycephalum. Consequently, the proposed CA model can be used as a virtual, easy-to-access, and biomimicking laboratory emulator that will economize large time periods needed for biological experiments while producing networks almost identical to the tubular networks of the real-slime mould. PMID
A Parallel Encryption Algorithm for Block Ciphers Based on Reversible Programmable Cellular Automata
Das, Debasis; Ray, Abhishek
2010-01-01
A Cellular Automata (CA) is a computing model of complex System using simple rule. In CA the problem space into number of cell and each cell can be one or several final state. Cells are affected by neighbours' to the simple rule. Cellular Automata are highly parallel and discrete dynamical systems, whose behaviour is completely specified in terms of a local relation. This paper deals with the Cellular Automata (CA) in cryptography for a class of Block Ciphers through a new block encryption al...
Computing by Temporal Order: Asynchronous Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Vielhaber
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Our concern is the behaviour of the elementary cellular automata with state set 0,1 over the cell set Z/nZ (one-dimensional finite wrap-around case, under all possible update rules (asynchronicity. Over the torus Z/nZ (n<= 11,we will see that the ECA with Wolfram rule 57 maps any v in F_2^n to any w in F_2^n, varying the update rule. We furthermore show that all even (element of the alternating group bijective functions on the set F_2^n = 0,...,2^n-1, can be computed by ECA57, by iterating it a sufficient number of times with varying update rules, at least for n <= 10. We characterize the non-bijective functions computable by asynchronous rules.
Particles and Patterns in Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our objective has been to develop tools for studying particle interactions in a class of dynamical systems characterized by discreteness, determinism, local interaction, and an inherently parallel form of evolution. These systems can be described by cellular automata (CA) and the behavior we studied has improved our understanding of the nature of patterns generated by CAs, their ability to perform global computations, and their relationship to continuous dynamical systems. We have also developed a rule-table mathematics that enables one to custom-design CA rule tables to generate patterns of specified types, or to perform specified computational tasks
Knowledge discovery for geographical cellular automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Xia; Anthony; Gar-On; Yeh
2005-01-01
This paper proposes a new method for geographical simulation by applying data mining techniques to cellular automata. CA has strong capabilities in simulating complex systems. The core of CA is how to define transition rules. There are no good methods for defining these transition rules. They are usually defined by using heuristic methods and thus subject to uncertainties. Mathematical equations are used to represent transition rules implicitly and have limitations in capturing complex relationships. This paper demonstrates that the explicit transition rules of CA can be automatically reconstructed through the rule induction procedure of data mining. The proposed method can reduce the influences of individual knowledge and preferences in defining transition rules and generate more reliable simulation results. It can efficiently discover knowledge from a vast volume of spatial data.
Effects of Initial Symmetry on the Global Symmetry of One-Dimensional Legal Cellular Automata
Ikuko Tanaka
2015-01-01
To examine the development of pattern formation from the viewpoint of symmetry, we applied a two-dimensional discrete Walsh analysis to a one-dimensional cellular automata model under two types of regular initial conditions. The amount of symmetropy of cellular automata (CA) models under regular and random initial conditions corresponds to three Wolfram’s classes of CAs, identified as Classes II, III, and IV. Regular initial conditions occur in two groups. One group that makes a broken, regul...
Caracciolo, Domenico; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Noto, Leonardo Valerio; Collins, Scott L.
2016-05-01
Arid and semiarid grasslands of southwestern North America have changed dramatically over the last 150 years as a result of woody plant encroachment. Overgrazing, reduced fire frequency, and climate change are known drivers of woody plant encroachment into grasslands. In this study, relatively simple algorithms for encroachment factors (i.e., grazing, grassland fires, and seed dispersal by grazers) are proposed and implemented in the ecohydrological Cellular-Automata Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS). CATGraSS is used in a 7.3 km2 rectangular domain located in central New Mexico along a zone of grassland to shrubland transition, where shrub encroachment is currently active. CATGraSS is calibrated and used to investigate the relative contributions of grazing, fire frequency, seed dispersal by herbivores and climate change on shrub abundance over a 150-year period of historical shrub encroachment. The impact of future climate change is examined using a model output that realistically represents current vegetation cover as initial condition, in a series of stochastic CATGraSS future climate simulations. Model simulations are found to be highly sensitive to the initial distribution of shrub cover. Encroachment factors more actively lead to shrub propagation within the domain when the model starts with randomly distributed individual shrubs. However, when shrubs are naturally evolved into clusters, the model response to encroachment factors is muted unless the effect of seed dispersal by herbivores is amplified. The relative contribution of different drivers on modeled shrub encroachment varied based on the initial shrub cover condition used in the model. When historical weather data is used, CATGraSS predicted loss of shrub and grass cover during the 1950 s drought. While future climate change is found to amplify shrub encroachment (∼13% more shrub cover by 2100), grazing remains the dominant factor promoting shrub encroachment. When we modeled future climate
Fast cellular automata with restricted inter-cell communication: computational capacity
Kutrib, Martin; Malcher, Andreas
2006-01-01
A d-dimensional cellular automaton with sequential input mode is a d-dimensional grid of interconnected interacting finite automata. The distinguished automaton at the origin, the communication cell, is connected to the outside world and fetches the input sequentially. Often in the literature this model is referred to as iterative array. We investigate d-dimensional iterative arrays and one-dimensional cellular automata operating in real and linear time, whose inter-cell communicati...
The Study Of Properties Of The Word Of Mouth Marketing Using Cellular Automata
Kowalska-Styczeń Agnieszka
2014-01-01
This article presents the possibility of using cellular automata, to study the properties of word of mouth (w-o-m) marketing. Cellular automata allow to analyze the dynamics of changes in views and attitudes in social groups based on local interactions between people in small groups of friends, family members etc. The proposed paper shows the possibility of modelling the dynamics of word of mouth mechanism, if the basic assumptions of this process are: different size groups where this phenome...
Relation between coined quantum walks and quantum cellular automata
Hamada, M; Segawa, E; Hamada, Masatoshi; Konno, Norio; Segawa, Etsuo
2004-01-01
Motivated by the recent work of Patel et al., this letter clarifies a connection between coined quantum walks and quantum cellular automata in a general setting. As a consequence, their result is naturally derived from the connection.
Stylized Facts Generated Through Cellular Automata Models. Case of Study: The Game of Life
Coronel-Brizio, H F; Rodriguez-Achach, M E; Stevens-Ramirez, G A
2007-01-01
In the present work, a geometrical method to generate a two dimensional random walk by means of a bidimensional Cellular Automaton is presented. We illustrate it by means of Conway's Game of Life with periodical borders, with a large lattice of 3000 x 3000 cells. The obtained random walk is of character anomalous, and its projection to a one dimensional random walk is analyzed, showing that it presents some statistical properties similar to the so-called stylized facts observed in financial time series. We consider that the procedure presented here is important not only because of its simplicity, but also because it could help us to understand and shed light on the stylized facts formation mechanism.
On reversibility of cellular automata with periodic boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nobe, Atsushi [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho 1-3, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Yura, Fumitaka [Imai Quantum Computing and Information Project, ERATO, JST, Daini Hongo White Bldg 201, 5-28-3 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2004-06-04
Reversibility of one-dimensional cellular automata with periodic boundary conditions is discussed. It is shown that there exist exactly 16 reversible elementary cellular automaton rules for infinitely many cell sizes by means of a correspondence between elementary cellular automaton and the de Bruijn graph. In addition, a sufficient condition for reversibility of three-valued and two-neighbour cellular automaton is given.
Cellular automata for traffic flow simulation with safety embedded notions
Larraga, M. E.; Alvarez-Icaza, L.
2007-01-01
In this paper a cellular automata model for one-lane traffic flow is presented. A new set of rules is proposed to better capture driver reactions to traffic that are intended to preserve safety on the highway. As a result, drivers behavior is derived from an analysis that determines the most appropriate action for a vehicle based on the distance from the vehicle ahead of it and the velocities of the two neighbor vehicles. The model preserves simplicity of CA rules and at the same time makes t...
ACCESS TO INFORMATION IN WORD OF MOUTH MARKETING WITHIN A CELLULAR AUTOMATA MODEL
AGNIESZKA KOWALSKA-STYCZEŃ; KATARZYNA SZNAJD-WERON
2012-01-01
We propose a simple microscopic model of consumer behavior in which decisions are made solely on the basis of person to person communication. Within our model we determine which factors are important in word of mouth marketing. We provide both Monte Carlo simulations, as well as mean-field analytical calculations and show that both the average decision time and uncertainty of decision grow nonlinearly with the amount of information up to a certain threshold value.
Directed Percolation Phenomena in Asynchronous Elementary Cellular Automata
Fatès, Nazim,
2006-01-01
Cellular automata are discrete dynamical systems that are widely used to model natural systems. Classically they are run with perfect synchrony ; i.e., the local rule is applied to each cell at each time step. A possible modification of the updating scheme consists in applying the rule with a fixed probability, call the synchrony rate. It has been shown in a previous work that varying the synchrony rate continuously could produce a discontinuity in the behaviour of the CA. This works aims at ...
Mondry Adrian; Rajagopal Gunaretnam; Sun Yan; Zhu Hao; Dhar Pawan
2004-01-01
Abstract Background Many arrhythmias are triggered by abnormal electrical activity at the ionic channel and cell level, and then evolve spatio-temporally within the heart. To understand arrhythmias better and to diagnose them more precisely by their ECG waveforms, a whole-heart model is required to explore the association between the massively parallel activities at the channel/cell level and the integrative electrophysiological phenomena at organ level. Methods We have developed a method to ...
Detection and Projection of Forest Changes by Using the Markov Chain Model and Cellular Automata
Griselda Vázquez-Quintero; Raúl Solís-Moreno; Marín Pompa-García; Federico Villarreal-Guerrero; Carmelo Pinedo-Alvarez; Alfredo Pinedo-Alvarez
2016-01-01
The spatio-temporal analysis of land use changes could provide basic information for managing the protection, conservation and production of forestlands, which promotes a sustainable resource use of temperate ecosystems. In this study we modeled and analyzed the spatial and temporal dynamics of land use of a temperate forests in the region of Pueblo Nuevo, Durango, Mexico. Data from the Landsat images Multispectral Scanner (MSS) 1973, Thematic Mapper (TM) 1990, and Operational Land Imager (OL...
Bootstrap Percolation in Cellular Automata on Small-World Directed Network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effects of network topology are studied in a system of cellular automata driven by a totalistic rule. In particular, propagation of a signal is considered in the directed network obtained from a flat (square) lattice by adding directed connections. The model is motivated by features found in human neural system. Cooperation between local dynamics and network organization results in fast stabilization of the system. Simple model of neural pyramidal cell is proposed to stabilize the automata in the oscillating firing patterns form. (author)
Mosquito population dynamics from cellular automata-based simulation
Syafarina, Inna; Sadikin, Rifki; Nuraini, Nuning
2016-02-01
In this paper we present an innovative model for simulating mosquito-vector population dynamics. The simulation consist of two stages: demography and dispersal dynamics. For demography simulation, we follow the existing model for modeling a mosquito life cycles. Moreover, we use cellular automata-based model for simulating dispersal of the vector. In simulation, each individual vector is able to move to other grid based on a random walk. Our model is also capable to represent immunity factor for each grid. We simulate the model to evaluate its correctness. Based on the simulations, we can conclude that our model is correct. However, our model need to be improved to find a realistic parameters to match real data.
Cellular automata simulation of traffic including cars and bicycles
Vasic, Jelena; Ruskin, Heather J.
2012-04-01
As 'greening' of all aspects of human activity becomes mainstream, transportation science is also increasingly focused around sustainability. Modal co-existence between motorised and non-motorised traffic on urban networks is, in this context, of particular interest for traffic flow modelling. The main modelling problems here are posed by the heterogeneity of vehicles, including size and dynamics, and by the complex interactions at intersections. Herein we address these with a novel technique, based on one-dimensional cellular automata components, for modelling network infrastructure and its occupancy by vehicles. We use this modelling approach, together with a corresponding vehicle behaviour model, to simulate combined car and bicycle traffic for two elemental scenarios-examples of components that would be used in the building of an arbitrary network. Results of simulations performed on these scenarios, (i) a stretch of road and (ii) an intersection causing conflict between cars and bicycles sharing a lane, are presented and analysed.
Integration of Neural Networks and Cellular Automata for Urban Planning
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Anthony Gar-on Yeh; LI Xia
2004-01-01
This paper presents a new type of cellular automata (CA) model for the simulation of alternative land development using neural networks for urban planning. CA models can be regarded as a planning tool because they can generate alternative urban growth. Alternative development patterns can be formed by using different sets of parameter values in CA simulation. A critical issue is how to define parameter values for realistic and idealized simulation. This paper demonstrates that neural networks can simplify CA models but generate more plausible results. The simulation is based on a simple three-layer network with an output neuron to generate conversion probability. No transition rules are required for the simulation. Parameter values are automatically obtained from the training of network by using satellite remote sensing data. Original training data can be assessed and modified according to planning objectives. Alternative urban patterns can be easily formulated by using the modified training data sets rather than changing the model.
Cellular automata simulation of medication-induced autoimmune diseases
Stauffer, Dietrich; Proykova, Ana
2004-01-01
We implement the cellular automata model proposed by Stauffer and Weisbuch in 1992 to describe the response of the immune system to antigens in the presence of medications. The model contains two thresholds, θ1 and θ2, suggested by de Boer, Segel, and Perelson to present the minimum field needed to stimulate the proliferation of the receptors and to suppress it, respectively. The influence of the drug is mimicked by increasing the second threshold, thus enhancing the immune response. If this increase is too strong, the immune response is triggered in the whole immune repertoire, causing it to attack the own body. This effect is seen in our simulations to depend both on the ratio of the thresholds and on their absolute values.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kohei Arai
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In the real traffic situations, vehicle would make a braking as the response to avoid collision with another vehicle or avoid some obstacle like potholes, snow, or pedestrian that crosses the road unexpectedly. However, in some cases the spontaneous-braking may occur even though there are no obstacles in front of the vehicle. In some country, the reckless driving behaviors such as sudden-stop by public-buses, motorcycle which changing lane too quickly, or tailgating make the probability of braking getting increase. The new aspect of this paper is the simulation of braking behavior of the driver and presents the new Cellular Automata model for describing this characteristic. Moreover, this paper also examines the impact of lane-changing maneuvers to reduce the number of traffic congestion that caused by spontaneous-braking behavior of the vehicles.
The Study Of Properties Of The Word Of Mouth Marketing Using Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kowalska-Styczeń Agnieszka
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This article presents the possibility of using cellular automata, to study the properties of word of mouth (w-o-m marketing. Cellular automata allow to analyze the dynamics of changes in views and attitudes in social groups based on local interactions between people in small groups of friends, family members etc. The proposed paper shows the possibility of modelling the dynamics of word of mouth mechanism, if the basic assumptions of this process are: different size groups where this phenomenon occurs, and varied access to information. On the competing firms market, the dependence of the w-o-m mechanism dynamics on the model parameters is shown
Transductions Computed by One-Dimensional Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Kutrib
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Cellular automata are investigated towards their ability to compute transductions, that is, to transform inputs into outputs. The families of transductions computed are classified with regard to the time allowed to process the input and to compute the output. Since there is a particular interest in fast transductions, we mainly focus on the time complexities real time and linear time. We first investigate the computational capabilities of cellular automaton transducers by comparing them to iterative array transducers, that is, we compare parallel input/output mode to sequential input/output mode of massively parallel machines. By direct simulations, it turns out that the parallel mode is not weaker than the sequential one. Moreover, with regard to certain time complexities cellular automaton transducers are even more powerful than iterative arrays. In the second part of the paper, the model in question is compared with the sequential devices single-valued finite state transducers and deterministic pushdown transducers. It turns out that both models can be simulated by cellular automaton transducers faster than by iterative array transducers.
Quantum state transfer through noisy quantum cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We model the transport of an unknown quantum state on one dimensional qubit lattices by means of a quantum cellular automata (QCA) evolution. We do this by first introducing a class of discrete noisy dynamics, in the first excitation sector, in which a wide group of classical stochastic dynamics is embedded within the more general formalism of quantum operations. We then extend the Hilbert space of the system to accommodate a global vacuum state, thus allowing for the transport of initial on-site coherences besides excitations, and determine the dynamical constraints that define the class of noisy QCA in this subspace. We then study the transport performance through numerical simulations, showing that for some instances of the dynamics perfect quantum state transfer is attainable. Our approach provides one with a natural description of both unitary and open quantum evolutions, where the homogeneity and locality of interactions allow one to take into account several forms of quantum noise in a plausible scenario. (paper)
Simple cellular automata to mimic foraging ants submitted to abduction
Tejera, F
2015-01-01
Many species of ants forage by building up two files: an outbound one moving from the nest to the foraging area, and a nestbound one, returning from it to the nest. Those files are eventually submitted to different threats. If the danger is concentrated at one point of the file, one might expect that ants returning to the nest will pass danger information to their nestmates moving in the opposite direction towards the danger area. In this paper, we construct simple cellular automata models for foraging ants submitted to localized abduction, were danger information is transmitted using different protocols, including the possibility of no transmission. The parameters we have used in the simulations have been estimated from actual experiments under natural conditions. So, it would be easy to test our information-transmission hypothese in real experiments. Preliminary experimental results published elsewhere suggest that the behavior of foraging ants of the species Atta insularis is best described using the hypot...
Cellular automata simulation of nanometre-scale MOSFETs
Saraniti, M.; Zandler, G.; Formicone, G.; Wigger, S.; Goodnick, S.
1998-08-01
We present systematic theoretical cellular automata studies of vertically grown, nanometre-scale, MOSFETs. The predicted drain characteristics and output conductance are in excellent agreement with experimental data from fabricated devices. The inclusion of an inhomogeneous p-doping profiles along the channel is investigated, which is shown to improve current saturation and therefore allows the reduction of the device dimensions.
Boolean linear differential operators on elementary cellular automata
Martín Del Rey, Ángel
2014-12-01
In this paper, the notion of boolean linear differential operator (BLDO) on elementary cellular automata (ECA) is introduced and some of their more important properties are studied. Special attention is paid to those differential operators whose coefficients are the ECA with rule numbers 90 and 150.
Return of the Quantum Cellular Automata: Episode VI
Carr, Lincoln D.; Hillberry, Logan E.; Rall, Patrick; Halpern, Nicole Yunger; Bao, Ning; Montangero, Simone
2016-05-01
There are now over 150 quantum simulators or analog quantum computers worldwide. Although exploring quantum phase transitions, many-body localization, and the generalized Gibbs ensemble are exciting and worthwhile endeavors, there are totally untapped directions we have not yet pursued. One of these is quantum cellular automata. In the past a principal goal of quantum cellular automata was to reproduce continuum single particle quantum physics such as the Schrodinger or Dirac equation from simple rule sets. Now that we begin to really understand entanglement and many-body quantum physics at a deeper level, quantum cellular automata present new possibilities. We explore several time evolution schemes on simple spin chains leading to high degrees of quantum complexity and nontrivial quantum dynamics. We explain how the 256 known classical elementary cellular automata reduce to just a few exciting quantum cases. Our analysis tools include mutual information based complex networks as well as more familiar quantifiers like sound speed and diffusion rate. Funded by NSF and AFOSR.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chudech Losiri
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Urban expansion is considered as one of the most important problems in several developing countries. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR is the urbanized and agglomerated area of Bangkok Metropolis (BM and its vicinity, which confronts the expansion problem from the center of the city. Landsat images of 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2011 were used to detect the land use and land cover (LULC changes. The demographic and economic data together with corresponding maps were used to determine the driving factors for land conversions. This study applied Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain (MLP-MC to model LULC and urban expansions. The performance of the CA-MC and MLP-MC yielded more than 90% overall accuracy to predict the LULC, especially the MLP-MC method. Further, the annual population and economic growth rates were considered to produce the land demand for the LULC in 2014 and 2035 using the statistical extrapolation and system dynamics (SD. It was evident that the simulated map in 2014 resulting from the SD yielded the highest accuracy. Therefore, this study applied the SD method to generate the land demand for simulating LULC in 2035. The outcome showed that urban occupied the land around a half of the BMR.
Transductions Computed by One-Dimensional Cellular Automata
Martin Kutrib; Andreas Malcher
2012-01-01
Cellular automata are investigated towards their ability to compute transductions, that is, to transform inputs into outputs. The families of transductions computed are classified with regard to the time allowed to process the input and to compute the output. Since there is a particular interest in fast transductions, we mainly focus on the time complexities real time and linear time. We first investigate the computational capabilities of cellular automaton transducers by comparing them to it...
The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata
Shuiping Zhang; Huijune Luo
2012-01-01
The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimen...
Quantum dot spin cellular automata for realizing a quantum processor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show how single quantum dots, each hosting a singlet–triplet qubit, can be placed in arrays to build a spin quantum cellular automaton. A fast (∼10 ns) deterministic coherent singlet–triplet filtering, as opposed to current incoherent tunneling/slow-adiabatic based quantum gates (operation time ∼300 ns), can be employed to produce a two-qubit gate through capacitive (electrostatic) couplings that can operate over significant distances. This is the coherent version of the widely discussed charge and nano-magnet cellular automata, and would increase speed, reduce dissipation, and perform quantum computation while interfacing smoothly with its classical counterpart. This combines the best of two worlds—the coherence of spin pairs known from quantum technologies, and the strength and range of electrostatic couplings from the charge-based classical cellular automata. Significantly our system has zero electric dipole moment during the whole operation process, thereby increasing its charge dephasing time. (paper)
Bello, S.; de Rienzo, F.; Nardi, G.
2003-04-01
The Turin (Italy) subsoil is mainly made up by alluvial gravels and sands (Pleistocene), characterised by high cementation degree variability, covered by a thin thickness of loess. These alluvial sediments, of about 40 m deep, overlay lacustrine clays (Villafranchiano), locally heteropic with marine sandstones (Pliocene). The reconstruction of the areal distribution of cementation phenomena of the Turin urban subsoil is of fundamental importance within the context of planning and carrying out works in the city subsoil, as well as for preliminary evaluating the stability of such underground works. Moreover, analyses of spatial distribution of soil cementation could be usefully applied for estimating the propagation of waste-polluted fluids, and for reducing either the natural or human-induced risk, related to the overworking of urban area subsoils. The development of mathematical models commonly needs to deal with several interacting physical and chemical phenomena. A deterministic Cellular Automata (CA) model for the evaluation of cementation processes in the conglomerates of the Turin urban subsoil has recently been developed, by using a three-dimensional geological model of the city subsoil based on boreholes data. The model is able to simulate the spatial distribution of the cementation process in the studied area: it has been derived from two pre-existing CA models, i.e. SCAVATU and CABOTO. Geological, mineralogical-petrographic and sedimentological studies of the soil cementation, and a chemical-physical study of the carbonatic equilibria, have first been carried out. These studies pointed out the presence of meniscus cements (which suggest a meteoric diagenesis) and gave fundamental cues for the development of base hypothesis on the genesis of cementation in the considered area. A macroscopic Cellular Automata model has accordingly been developed, in order to simulate the principal phenomena which take place during the cementation process. The model has a
Self-Learning Cellular Automata for Forecasting Precipitation from Radar Images
Li, H.; Corzo Perez, G.A.; Martinez, C.A.; Mynett, A.E.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new forecasting methodology that uses self-learning cellular automata (SLCA) for including variables that consider the spatial dynamics of the mass of precipitation in a radar forecast model. Because the meteorological conditions involve nonlinear dynamic behavior, an automatic
Definition and evolution of quantum cellular automata with two qubits per cell
Karafyllidis, Ioannis G.
2008-01-01
Studies of quantum computer implementations suggest cellular quantum computer architectures. These architectures can simulate the evolution of quantum cellular automata, which can possibly simulate both quantum and classical physical systems and processes. It is however known that except for the trivial case, unitary evolution of one-dimensional homogeneous quantum cellular automata with one qubit per cell is not possible. Quantum cellular automata that comprise two qubits per cell are define...
Neural networks and cellular automata in experimental high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Within the past few years, two novel computing techniques, cellular automata and neural networks, have shown considerable promise in the solution of problems of a very high degree of complexity, such as turbulent fluid flow, image processing, and pattern recognition. Many of the problems faced in experimental high energy physics are also of this nature. Track reconstruction in wire chambers and cluster finding in cellular calorimeters, for instance, involve pattern recognition and high combinatorial complexity since many combinations of hits or cells must be considered in order to arrive at the final tracks or clusters. Here we examine in what way connective network methods can be applied to some of the problems of experimental high physics. It is found that such problems as track and cluster finding adapt naturally to these approaches. When large scale hardwired connective networks become available, it will be possible to realize solutions to such problems in a fraction of the time required by traditional methods. For certain types of problems, faster solutions are already possible using model networks implemented on vector or other massively parallel machines. It should also be possible, using existing technology, to build simplified networks that will allow detailed reconstructed event information to be used in fast trigger decisions
Feedback Shift Registers as Cellular Automata Boundary Conditions
Salman, K.
2013-01-01
We present a new design for random number generatio n. The outputs of linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) act as continuous inputs to the t wo boundaries of a one-dimensional (1-D) Elementary Cellular Automata (ECA). The results sho w superior randomness features and the output string has passed the Diehard statistical ba ttery of tests. The design is good candidate for parallel random number generation, ...
Nanosensor Data Processor in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
Fenghui Yao; Mohamed Saleh Zein-Sabatto; Guifeng Shao; Mohammad Bodruzzaman; Mohan Malkani
2014-01-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is an attractive nanotechnology with the potential alterative to CMOS technology. QCA provides an interesting paradigm for faster speed, smaller size, and lower power consumption in comparison to transistor-based technology, in both communication and computation. This paper describes the design of a 4-bit multifunction nanosensor data processor (NSDP). The functions of NSDP contain (i) sending the preprocessed raw data to high-level processor, (ii) counting...
Evolution of Cellular Automata using Lindenmayer Systems and Fourier Transforms
Berg, Sivert
2013-01-01
Cellular automata (CAs) are a class of highly parallel computing systems consisting of many simple computing elements called cells. The cells can only communicate with neighboring cells, meaning there is no global communication in the system. Programming such a system to solve complex problems can be a daunting task, and indirect methods are often applied to make it easier. In this thesis we use evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to evolve CAs. We also look at the possibility of employing L-system...
Improving Quality of Clustering using Cellular Automata for Information retrieval
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P. K. Sree
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Clustering has been widely applied to Information Retrieval (IR on the grounds of its potential improved effectiveness over inverted file search. Clustering is a mostly unsupervised procedure and the majority of the clustering algorithms depend on certain assumptions in order to define the subgroups present in a data set .A clustering quality measure is a function that, given a data set and its partition into clusters, returns a non-negative real number representing the quality of that clustering. Moreover, they may behave in a different way depending on the features of the data set and their input parameters values. Therefore, in most applications the resulting clustering scheme requires some sort of evaluation as regards its validity. The quality of clustering can be enhanced by using a Cellular Automata Classifier for information retrieval. In this study we take the view that if cellular automata with clustering is applied to search results (query-specific clustering, then it has the potential to increase the retrieval effectiveness compared both to that of static clustering and of conventional inverted file search. We conducted a number of experiments using ten document collections and eight hierarchic clustering methods. Our results show that the effectiveness of query-specific clustering with cellular automata is indeed higher and suggest that there is scope for its application to IR.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Liu
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Flash floods have occurred frequently and severely in the urban areas of South China. An effective process-oriented urban flood inundation model becomes an urgent demand for urban storm water and emergency management. This study develops an effective and flexible cellular automaton (CA model to simulate storm water runoff and the flood inundation process during extreme storm events. The process of infiltration, inlets discharge and flow dynamic can be simulated only with little pre-processing on commonly available basic urban geographic data. In this model, a set of gravitational diverging rules are implemented in a cellular automation (CA model to govern the water flow in a 3 x 3 cell template of a raster layer. The model is calibrated by one storm event and validated by another in a small urban catchment in Guangzhou of Southern China. The depth of accumulated water at the catchment outlet is interpreted from street monitoring sensors and verified by on-site survey. A good level of agreement between the simulated process and the reality is reached for both storm events. The model reproduces the changing extent and depth of flooded areas at the catchment outlet with an accuracy of 4 cm in water depth. Comparisons with a physically-based 2-D model (FloodMap results show that the model have the capability of simulating flow dynamics. The high computational efficiency of CA model can satisfy the demand of city emergency management. The encouraging results of the simulations demonstrate that the CA-based approach is capable of effectively representing the key processes associated with a storm event and reproducing the process of water accumulation at the catchment outlet for making process-considered city emergency management decisions.
The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata
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Shuiping Zhang
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimensional chaotic systems, parameters, two-dimensional cellular automata local evolution rules f and iterations n. Experimental results shows that the algorithm has features that high efficiency, better security, sensitivity to the key and so on.
Using cellular automata for parking recommendations in smart environments.
Horng, Gwo-Jiun
2014-01-01
In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR) model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space. PMID:25153671
The Consensus Problem, Cellular Automata, and Self- replicating Structures
Griffin, David
2016-01-01
Over The course of the last four years I have researched the consensus problem. I have done so by studying how cellular automata following the 2DGKL rule are able to reach consensus in a verity of ways. There are only certain structures that can form within a network, and these structures can be described and examined directly from the rules that make them up. I have also explored a variety of methods to study the rule including, graph theory and liner algebra representations of the cellular ...
Generalized Cayley Graphs and Cellular Automata over them
Arrighi, Pablo; Nesme, Vincent
2012-01-01
Cayley graphs have a number of useful features: the ability to graphically represent finitely generated group elements and their equality; to name all vertices relative to a point; the fact that they have a well-defined notion of translation, and that they can be endowed with a compact metric. We propose a notion of graph associated to a language, which conserves or generalizes these features. Whereas Cayley graphs are regular; associated graphs are arbitrary, although of a bounded degree. Moreover, it is well-known that cellular automata can be characterized as the set of translation-invariant continuous functions for a distance on the set of configurations that makes it a compact metric space; this point of view makes it easy to extend their definition from grids to Cayley graphs. Similarly, we extend their definition to these arbitrary, bounded degree, time-varying graphs. KEYWORDS: Causal Graph Dynamics, Curtis-Hedlund-Lynden, Dynamical networks, Boolean networks, Generative networks automata, Graph Autom...
Bacani, Vitor Matheus; Sakamoto, Arnaldo Yoso; Quénol, Hervé; Vannier, Clémence; Corgne, Samuel
2016-01-01
The dynamics of land use/land cover change in the Lower Nhecolândia wetland are marked by deforestation for pasture expansion, resulting in a real threat to the ecological stability. The aim of our work was to analyze the spatial distribution of land cover changes in the Lower Nhecolândia from 1985 to 2013 and to predict changes in trends for 2040. The mapping of land cover changes was developed using Landsat satellite images of 1985, 1999, 2007, and 2013, based on geographic object-based image analysis approach. This study uses integrated Markov chains and cellular automata modeling and multicriteria evaluation techniques to produce transition probability maps and describe the trajectory analysis methodology to construct a continuity of spatial and temporal changes for the wetland. The results of the multitemporal change detection classification show that, from 1985 to 2013, the forest woodland decreased by 6.89% and the grassland class increased by 18.29%. On the other hand, all water bodies showed a reducing trend, while the bare soil class increased compared to 1985, but did not present a regular trend of increase or decrease. From the present day, the trend for the future is a reduction of almost 6.4% by 2040. We found that deforestation actions will be concentrated in the areas with the highest concentration of saline lakes, constituting a serious threat to the natural functioning of this environmental system.
Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Yu, D.; Liu, K.; Huang, H.; Hu, G.
2015-03-01
Flash floods have occurred frequently in the urban areas of southern China. An effective process-oriented urban flood inundation model is urgently needed for urban storm-water and emergency management. This study develops an efficient and flexible cellular automaton (CA) model to simulate storm-water runoff and the flood inundation process during extreme storm events. The process of infiltration, inlets discharge and flow dynamics can be simulated with little preprocessing on commonly available basic urban geographic data. In this model, a set of gravitational diverging rules are implemented to govern the water flow in a rectangular template of three cells by three cells of a raster layer. The model is calibrated by one storm event and validated by another in a small urban catchment in Guangzhou of southern China. The depth of accumulated water at the catchment outlet is interpreted from street-monitoring closed-circuit television (CCTV) videos and verified by on-site survey. A good level of agreement between the simulated process and the reality is reached for both storm events. The model reproduces the changing extent and depth of flooded areas at the catchment outlet with an accuracy of 4 cm in water depth. Comparisons with a physically based 2-D model (FloodMap) show that the model is capable of effectively simulating flow dynamics. The high computational efficiency of the CA model can meet the needs of city emergency management.
Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers
Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika
2012-01-01
In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.
Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin
2016-06-01
Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.
Cellular automata approach to three-phase traffic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The cellular automata (CA) approach to traffic modelling is extended to allow for spatially homogeneous steady state solutions that cover a two-dimensional region in the flow-density plane. Hence these models fulfil a basic postulate of a three-phase traffic theory proposed by Kerner. This is achieved by a synchronization distance, within which a vehicle always tries to adjust its speed to that of the vehicle in front. In the CA models presented, the modelling of the free and safe speeds, the slow-to-start rules as well as some contributions to noise are based on the ideas of the Nagel-Schreckenberg-type modelling. It is shown that the proposed CA models can be very transparent and still reproduce the two main types of congested patterns (the general pattern and the synchronized flow pattern) as well as their dependence on the flows near an on-ramp, in qualitative agreement with the recently developed continuum version of the three-phase traffic theory (Kerner B S and Klenov S L 2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 L31 ). These features are qualitatively different from those in previously considered CA traffic models. The probability of the breakdown phenomenon (i.e. of the phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow) as function of the flow rate to the on-ramp and of the flow rate on the road upstream of the on-ramp is investigated. The capacity drops at the on-ramp which occur due to the formation of different congested patterns are calculated
The linearity of quantum mechanics from the perspective of Hamiltonian cellular automata
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2014-01-01
We discuss the action principle and resulting Hamiltonian equations of motion for a class of integer-valued cellular automata introduced recently [1]. Employing sampling theory, these deterministic finite-difference equations are mapped reversibly on continuum equations describing a set of bandwidth limited harmonic oscillators. They represent the Schroedinger equation. However, modifications reflecting the bandwidth limit are incorporated, i.e., the presence of a time (or length) scale. When this discreteness scale is taken to zero, the usual results are obtained. Thus, the linearity of quantum mechanics can be traced to the postulated action principle of such cellular automata and its conservation laws to discrete ones. The cellular automaton conservation laws are in one-to-one correspondence with those of the related quantum mechanical model, while admissible symmetries are not.
The linearity of quantum mechanics from the perspective of Hamiltonian cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the action principle and resulting Hamiltonian equations of motion for a class of integer-valued cellular automata introduced recently [1]. Employing sampling theory, these deterministic finite-difference equations are mapped reversibly on continuum equations describing a set of bandwidth limited harmonic oscillators. They represent the Schrödinger equation. However, modifications reflecting the bandwidth limit are incorporated, i.e., the presence of a time (or length) scale. When this discreteness scale is taken to zero, the usual results are obtained. Thus, the linearity of quantum mechanics can be traced to the postulated action principle of such cellular automata and its conservation laws to discrete ones. The cellular automaton conservation laws are in one-to-one correspondence with those of the related quantum mechanical model, while admissible symmetries are not.
Caracciolo, Domenico; Noto, Leonardo Valerio; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Fatichi, Simone; Zhou, Xiaochi
2014-11-01
Regions of vegetation transitions (ecotones) are known to be highly sensitive to climate fluctuations. In this study, the Cellular-Automata Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) has been modified, calibrated and used with downscaled future climate scenarios to examine the role of climate change on vegetation patterns in a steep mountainous catchment (1.3 km2) located in Sicily, Italy. In the catchment, north-facing slopes are mostly covered by trees and grass, and south-facing slopes by Indian Fig opuntia and grass, with grasses dominating as elevation grows. CATGraSS simulates solar radiation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture in space and time. Each model cell can hold a single plant type or can be bare soil. Plant competition is modeled explicitly through mortality and the establishment of individual plants in open spaces. In this study, CATGraSS is modified to account for heterogeneity in soil thickness and tested in the study catchment using the historical climate of the region. Predicted vegetation patterns are compared with those obtained from satellite images. Results of model under current climate underscore the importance of solar irradiance and soil thickness, especially in the uplands where soil is shallow, in determining vegetation composition over complex terrain. A stochastic weather generator is used to generate future climate change scenarios for the catchment by downscaling GCM realizations in space and time. Future increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration was considered through modifying the vegetation water use efficiency and stomatal resistance for our study site. Model results suggest that vegetation pattern is highly sensitive to temperature and rainfall variations provided by climate scenarios (30% reduction of the annual precipitation and a 2.8 °C increase of the mean annual temperature). Future climate change is predicted to bring a considerable reorganization of the plant composition following topographic patterns, leading to a
Validating Cellular Automata Lava Flow Emplacement Algorithms with Standard Benchmarks
Richardson, J. A.; Connor, L.; Charbonnier, S. J.; Connor, C.; Gallant, E.
2015-12-01
A major existing need in assessing lava flow simulators is a common set of validation benchmark tests. We propose three levels of benchmarks which test model output against increasingly complex standards. First, imulated lava flows should be morphologically identical, given changes in parameter space that should be inconsequential, such as slope direction. Second, lava flows simulated in simple parameter spaces can be tested against analytical solutions or empirical relationships seen in Bingham fluids. For instance, a lava flow simulated on a flat surface should produce a circular outline. Third, lava flows simulated over real world topography can be compared to recent real world lava flows, such as those at Tolbachik, Russia, and Fogo, Cape Verde. Success or failure of emplacement algorithms in these validation benchmarks can be determined using a Bayesian approach, which directly tests the ability of an emplacement algorithm to correctly forecast lava inundation. Here we focus on two posterior metrics, P(A|B) and P(¬A|¬B), which describe the positive and negative predictive value of flow algorithms. This is an improvement on less direct statistics such as model sensitivity and the Jaccard fitness coefficient. We have performed these validation benchmarks on a new, modular lava flow emplacement simulator that we have developed. This simulator, which we call MOLASSES, follows a Cellular Automata (CA) method. The code is developed in several interchangeable modules, which enables quick modification of the distribution algorithm from cell locations to their neighbors. By assessing several different distribution schemes with the benchmark tests, we have improved the performance of MOLASSES to correctly match early stages of the 2012-3 Tolbachik Flow, Kamchakta Russia, to 80%. We also can evaluate model performance given uncertain input parameters using a Monte Carlo setup. This illuminates sensitivity to model uncertainty.
Two Novel Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Full Adders
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Mahdie Qanbari
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is an efficient technology to create computing devices. QCA is a suitable candidate for the next generation of digital systems. Full adders are the main member of computational systems because other operations can be implemented by adders. In this paper, two QCA full adders are introduced. The first one is implemented in one layer, and the second one is implemented in three layers. Five-input majority gate is used in both of them. These full adders are better than pervious designs in terms of area, delay, and complexity.
Nanosensor Data Processor in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
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Fenghui Yao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is an attractive nanotechnology with the potential alterative to CMOS technology. QCA provides an interesting paradigm for faster speed, smaller size, and lower power consumption in comparison to transistor-based technology, in both communication and computation. This paper describes the design of a 4-bit multifunction nanosensor data processor (NSDP. The functions of NSDP contain (i sending the preprocessed raw data to high-level processor, (ii counting the number of the active majority gates, and (iii generating the approximate sigmoid function. The whole system is designed and simulated with several different input data.
Do integrable cellular automata have the confinement property?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grammaticos, B. [IMNC, Universite Paris VII-Paris XI, CNRS, UMR 8165, Bat. 104, 91406 Orsay (France); Ramani, A. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Tamizhmani, K.M. [Departement of Mathematics, Pondicherry University, Kalapet, 605014 Puducherry (India); Tamizhmani, T. [Department of Mathematics, Kanchi Mamunivar Centre for Postgraduate Studies, Puducherry (India); Carstea, A.S. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 407 Atomistilor, Magurele, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)
2007-07-27
We analyse a criterion, introduced by Joshi and Lafortune, for the integrability of cellular automata obtained from discrete systems through the ultradiscretization procedure. We show that while this criterion can be used in order to single out integrable ultradiscrete systems, there do exist cases where the system is nonintegrable and still the criterion is satisfied. Conversely we show that for ultradiscrete systems that are derived from linearizable mappings the criterion is not satisfied. We investigate this phenomenon further in the case of a mapping which includes a linearizable subcase and show how the violation of the criterion comes to be. Finally, we comment on the growth properties of ultradiscrete systems. (fast track communication)
Do integrable cellular automata have the confinement property?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyse a criterion, introduced by Joshi and Lafortune, for the integrability of cellular automata obtained from discrete systems through the ultradiscretization procedure. We show that while this criterion can be used in order to single out integrable ultradiscrete systems, there do exist cases where the system is nonintegrable and still the criterion is satisfied. Conversely we show that for ultradiscrete systems that are derived from linearizable mappings the criterion is not satisfied. We investigate this phenomenon further in the case of a mapping which includes a linearizable subcase and show how the violation of the criterion comes to be. Finally, we comment on the growth properties of ultradiscrete systems. (fast track communication)
Effect of asynchronous updating on the stability of cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► An upper bound on the Lyapunov exponent of asynchronously updated CA is established. ► The employed update method has repercussions on the stability of CAs. ► A decision on the employed update method should be taken with care. ► Substantial discrepancies arise between synchronously and asynchronously updated CA. ► Discrepancies between different asynchronous update schemes are less pronounced. - Abstract: Although cellular automata (CAs) were conceptualized as utter discrete mathematical models in which the states of all their spatial entities are updated simultaneously at every consecutive time step, i.e. synchronously, various CA-based models that rely on so-called asynchronous update methods have been constructed in order to overcome the limitations that are tied up with the classical way of evolving CAs. So far, only a few researchers have addressed the consequences of this way of updating on the evolved spatio-temporal patterns, and the reachable stationary states. In this paper, we exploit Lyapunov exponents to determine to what extent the stability of the rules within a family of totalistic CAs is affected by the underlying update method. For that purpose, we derive an upper bound on the maximum Lyapunov exponent of asynchronously iterated CAs, and show its validity, after which we present a comparative study between the Lyapunov exponents obtained for five different update methods, namely one synchronous method and four well-established asynchronous methods. It is found that the stability of CAs is seriously affected if one of the latter methods is employed, whereas the discrepancies arising between the different asynchronous methods are far less pronounced and, finally, we discuss the repercussions of our findings on the development of CA-based models.
Reversible computing and cellular automata - A survey
Morita, Kenichi
2008-01-01
Reversible computing is a paradigm where computing models are defined so that they reflect physical reversibility, one of the fundamental microscopic physical property of Nature. In this survey/tutorial paper, we discuss how computation can be carried out in a reversible system, how a universal reversible computer can be constructed by reversible logic elements, and how such logic elements are related to reversible physical phenomena. We shall see that, in reversible systems, computation can ...
Cellular Automata Simulations - Tools and Techniques
Fuks, Henryk
2010-01-01
We presented an overview of basic issues associated with CA simulations, concentrating on selected problems which, in the mind of the author, deserve closer attention. We also demonstrated how HCELL can be used to perform some typical CA simulation tasks. Obviously, many important topics have been omitted. In particular, the issue of dimensionality of space has not been addressed, and yet many important CA models require 2D, 3D, and higher dimensional lattices. Some collective phenomena in CA...
A comparison of Monte Carlo and cellular automata approaches for semiconductor device simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zandler, G.; Di Carlo, A.; Kometer, K.; Lugli, P.; Vogl, P.; Gornik, E. (Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany))
1993-02-01
The authors present a detailed comparison of Monte Carlo and cellular automata approaches as applied to the study of nonequilibrium transport and semiconductor device simulation. They show that the novel cellular automata (CA) technique enjoys all benefits of the more traditional Monte Carlo (MC) method, while at the same time allowing considerably higher performances.
Effects of Initial Symmetry on the Global Symmetry of One-Dimensional Legal Cellular Automata
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Ikuko Tanaka
2015-09-01
Full Text Available To examine the development of pattern formation from the viewpoint of symmetry, we applied a two-dimensional discrete Walsh analysis to a one-dimensional cellular automata model under two types of regular initial conditions. The amount of symmetropy of cellular automata (CA models under regular and random initial conditions corresponds to three Wolfram’s classes of CAs, identified as Classes II, III, and IV. Regular initial conditions occur in two groups. One group that makes a broken, regular pattern formation has four types of symmetry, whereas the other group that makes a higher hierarchy pattern formation has only two types. Additionally, both final pattern formations show an increased amount of symmetropy as time passes. Moreover, the final pattern formations are affected by iterations of base rules of CA models of chaos dynamical systems. The growth design formations limit possibilities: the ratio of developing final pattern formations under a regular initial condition decreases in the order of Classes III, II, and IV. This might be related to the difference in degree in reference to surrounding conditions. These findings suggest that calculations of symmetries of the structures of one-dimensional cellular automata models are useful for revealing rules of pattern generation for animal bodies.
Synchronous networks for bio-environmental surveillance based on cellular automata
Bao Hoai Lam; Hiep Xuan Huynh; Bernard Pottier
2016-01-01
The paper proposes a new approach to model a bio-environmental surveillance network as synchronous network systems, systems consist of components running simultaneously. In the network, bio-environmental factors compose a physical system of which executions proceed concurrently in synchronous rounds. This system is synchronized with a synchronous wireless sensor network, the observation network. Topology of the surveillance network is based on cellular automata to depict its concurrent charac...
Progresses in the Analysis of Stochastic 2D Cellular Automata: a Study of Asynchronous 2D Minority
Regnault, Damien; Thierry, Éric
2007-01-01
Cellular automata are often used to model systems in physics, social sciences, biology that are inherently asynchronous. Over the past 20 years, studies have demonstrated that the behavior of cellular automata drastically changed under asynchronous updates. Still, the few mathematical analyses of asynchronism focus on one-dimensional probabilistic cellular automata, either on single examples or on specific classes. As for other classic dynamical systems in physics, extending known methods from one- to two-dimensional systems is a long lasting challenging problem. In this paper, we address the problem of analysing an apparently simple 2D asynchronous cellular automaton: 2D Minority where each cell, when fired, updates to the minority state of its neighborhood. Our experiments reveal that in spite of its simplicity, the minority rule exhibits a quite complex response to asynchronism. By focusing on the fully asynchronous regime, we are however able to describe completely the asymptotic behavior of this dynamics...
Exploring Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Reversible Circuit
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Saroj Kumar Chandra
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA is a new technology for development of logic circuits based on nanotechnology, and it is an one of the alternative for designing high performance computing over existing CMOS technology. The basic logic in QCA does not use voltage level for logic representation rather it represent binary state by polarization of electrons on the Quantum Cell which is basic building block of QCA. Extensive work is going on QCA for circuit design due to low power consumption and regularity in the circuit.. Clocking is used in QCA circuit to synchronize and control the information flow and to provide the power to run the circuit. Reversible logic design is a well-known paradigm in digital computation, and if circuit developed is reversible then it consumes very low power . Here, in this paper we are presenting a Reversible Universal Gate (RUG based on Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA. The RUG implemented by QCA Designer tool and also its behavior is simulated by it.
The Improved Cellular Automata and Its Application in Delineation of Urban Spheres of Influence
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Yu Deng
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The issue of spatial diffusion and pattern division of traditional cellular automata (CA has drawn widespread attention and generated extensive work by scholars. However, there are many deficiencies in traditional configurations of CA neighborhoods, which reduce simulation accuracy. The effect of improved methods of traditional configurations of CA neighborhoods is not obvious, and its interoperability is not strong. Therefore, this paper firstly puts forward the concept of the circular neighborhood of CA constrained by the space metric method based on map algebra, and compares the spatial division pattern and anisotropy of different types of neighborhoods in detail. Then, the CA’s weighted diffusion model is discussed to delineate urban spheres of influence in Henan Province. Finally, Weibo data is used to justify a reasonable delineation of urban spheres of influence and can correctly reflect the state of regional development, further proving that improved cellular automata in algorithms and applications have great significance.
Vanag, Vladimir K.
1999-05-01
Spatially extended dynamical systems are ubiquitous and include such things as insect and animal populations; complex chemical, technological, and geochemical processes; humanity itself, and much more. It is clearly desirable to have a certain universal tool with which the highly complex behaviour of nonlinear dynamical systems can be analyzed and modelled. For this purpose, cellular automata seem to be good candidates. In the present review, emphasis is placed on the possibilities that various types of probabilistic cellular automata (PCA), such as DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) and LGCA (lattice-gas cellular automata), offer. The methods are primarily designed for modelling spatially extended dynamical systems with inner fluctuations accounted for. For the Willamowskii-Roessler and Oregonator models, PCA applications to the following problems are illustrated: the effect of fluctuations on the dynamics of nonlinear systems; Turing structure formation; the effect of hydrodynamic modes on the behaviour of nonlinear chemical systems (stirring effects); bifurcation changes in the dynamical regimes of complex systems with restricted geometry or low spatial dimension; and the description of chemical systems in microemulsions.
Lorentz symmetry for 3d Quantum Cellular Automata
Bisio, Alessandro; Perinotti, Paolo
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of Lorentz transformations in the framework of quantum cellular automata. Our definition does not require space-time, and retains the usual interpretation in the emergent one. The definition is group theoretical, with flatness of space-time corresponding to Abelianity of the cellular automaton group. We consider the covariance in the case of the Weyl automaton. The notion of particle as Poincar\\'e irreducible representation survives at all scales. The interpolation of the Lorentz symmetry from the discrete to the continuum scale occurs through a nonlinear representation. We also discuss the connection of the nonlinear Lorentz transformations with the Poincar\\'e and k-Poincar\\'e Hopf algebra, the emerging non-commutative space-time, and the deformed Heisenberg commutation relations.
Quantifying a cellular automata simulation of electric vehicles
Hill, Graeme; Bell, Margaret; Blythe, Phil
2014-12-01
Within this work the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) cellular automata is used to simulate a basic cyclic road network. Results from SwitchEV, a real world Electric Vehicle trial which has collected more than two years of detailed electric vehicle data, are used to quantify the results of the NS automata, demonstrating similar power consumption behavior to that observed in the experimental results. In particular the efficiency of the electric vehicles reduces as the vehicle density increases, due in part to the reduced efficiency of EVs at low speeds, but also due to the energy consumption inherent in changing speeds. Further work shows the results from introducing spatially restricted speed restriction. In general it can be seen that induced congestion from spatially transient events propagates back through the road network and alters the energy and efficiency profile of the simulated vehicles, both before and after the speed restriction. Vehicles upstream from the restriction show a reduced energy usage and an increased efficiency, and vehicles downstream show an initial large increase in energy usage as they accelerate away from the speed restriction.
Geetha, P
2010-01-01
In this paper, Deterministic Cellular Automata (DCA) based video shot classification and retrieval is proposed. The deterministic 2D Cellular automata model captures the human facial expressions, both spontaneous and posed. The determinism stems from the fact that the facial muscle actions are standardized by the encodings of Facial Action Coding System (FACS) and Action Units (AUs). Based on these encodings, we generate the set of evolutionary update rules of the DCA for each facial expression. We consider a Person-Independent Facial Expression Space (PIFES) to analyze the facial expressions based on Partitioned 2D-Cellular Automata which capture the dynamics of facial expressions and classify the shots based on it. Target video shot is retrieved by comparing the similar expression is obtained for the query frame's face with respect to the key faces expressions in the database video. Consecutive key face expressions in the database that are highly similar to the query frame's face, then the key faces are use...
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G. Iovine
2003-01-01
Full Text Available On 15–16 December 1999, heavy rainfall severely stroke Campania region (southern Italy, triggering numerous debris flows on the slopes of the San Martino Valle Caudina-Cervinara area. Soil slips originated within the weathered volcaniclastic mantle of soil cover overlying the carbonate skeleton of the massif. Debris slides turned into fast flowing mixtures of matrix and large blocks, downslope eroding the soil cover and increasing their original volume. At the base of the slopes, debris flows impacted on the urban areas, causing victims and severe destruction (Vittori et al., 2000. Starting from a recent study on landslide risk conditions in Campania, carried out by the Regional Authority (PAI –Hydrogeological setting plan, in press, an evaluation of the debris-flow susceptibility has been performed for selected areas of the above mentioned villages. According to that study, such zones would be in fact characterised by the highest risk levels within the administrative boundaries of the same villages ("HR-zones". Our susceptibility analysis has been performed by applying SCIDDICA S3–hex – a hexagonal Cellular Automata model (von Neumann, 1966, specifically developed for simulating the spatial evolution of debris flows (Iovine et al., 2002. In order to apply the model to a given study area, detailed topographic data and a map of the erodable soil cover overlying the bedrock of the massif must be provided (as input matrices; moreover, extent and location of landslide source must also be given. Real landslides, selected among those triggered on winter 1999, have first been utilised for calibrating SCIDDICA S3–hex and for defining "optimal" values for parameters. Calibration has been carried out with a GIS tool, by quantitatively comparing simulations with actual cases: optimal values correspond to best simulations. Through geological evaluations, source locations of new phenomena have then been hypothesised within the HR-zones. Initial
Synchronization, TIGoRS, and Information Flow in Complex Systems: Dispositional Cellular Automata.
Sulis, William H
2016-04-01
Synchronization has a long history in physics where it refers to the phase matching of two identical oscillators. This notion has been extensively studied in physics as well as in biology, where it has been applied to such widely varying phenomena as the flashing of fireflies and firing of neurons in the brain. Human behavior, however, may be recurrent but it is not oscillatory even though many physiological systems do exhibit oscillatory tendencies. Moreover, much of human behaviour is collaborative and cooperative, where the individual behaviours may be distinct yet contemporaneous (if not simultaneous) and taken collectively express some functionality. In the context of behaviour, the important aspect is the repeated co-occurrence in time of behaviours that facilitate the propagation of information or of functionality, regardless of whether or not these behaviours are similar or identical. An example of this weaker notion of synchronization is transient induced global response synchronization (TIGoRS). Previous work has shown that TIGoRS is a ubiquitous phenomenon among complex systems, enabling them to stably parse environmental transients into salient units to which they stably respond. This leads to the notion of Sulis machines, which emergently generate a primitive linguistic structure through their dynamics. This article reviews the notion of TIGoRS and its expression in several complex systems models including tempered neural networks, driven cellular automata and cocktail party automata. The emergent linguistics of Sulis machines are discussed. A new class of complex systems model, the dispositional cellular automaton is introduced. A new metric for TIGoRS, the excess synchronization, is introduced and applied to the study of TIGoRS in dispositional cellular automata. It is shown that these automata exhibit a nonlinear synchronization response to certain perturbing transients. PMID:27033136
Evolving localizations in reaction-diffusion cellular automata
Adamatzky, Andrew; Collet, Pierre; Sapin, Emmanuel
2007-01-01
We consider hexagonal cellular automata with immediate cell neighbourhood and three cell-states. Every cell calculates its next state depending on the integral representation of states in its neighbourhood, i.e. how many neighbours are in each one state. We employ evolutionary algorithms to breed local transition functions that support mobile localizations (gliders), and characterize sets of the functions selected in terms of quasi-chemical systems. Analysis of the set of functions evolved allows to speculate that mobile localizations are likely to emerge in the quasi-chemical systems with limited diffusion of one reagent, a small number of molecules is required for amplification of travelling localizations, and reactions leading to stationary localizations involve relatively equal amount of quasi-chemical species. Techniques developed can be applied in cascading signals in nature-inspired spatially extended computing devices, and phenomenological studies and classification of non-linear discrete systems.
Komatsuzaki, Toshihiko; Iwata, Yoshio
2016-01-01
A particle impact damper is a vibration absorber type that consists of a container attached to a primary vibrating structure. It also contains many particles that are constrained to move inside the container, whereby the damping effect can be obtained by collision between particles and the container. The discrete element method (DEM) has been developed for modeling granular systems, where the kinematics of each particle are calculated numerically using the equations of motion. However, the co...
Cellular Automata-Based Parallel Random Number Generators Using FPGAs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David H. K. Hoe
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Cellular computing represents a new paradigm for implementing high-speed massively parallel machines. Cellular automata (CA, which consist of an array of locally connected processing elements, are a basic form of a cellular-based architecture. The use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs for implementing CA accelerators has shown promising results. This paper investigates the design of CA-based pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs using an FPGA platform. To improve the quality of the random numbers that are generated, the basic CA structure is enhanced in two ways. First, the addition of a superrule to each CA cell is considered. The resulting self-programmable CA (SPCA uses the superrule to determine when to make a dynamic rule change in each CA cell. The superrule takes its inputs from neighboring cells and can be considered itself a second CA working in parallel with the main CA. When implemented on an FPGA, the use of lookup tables in each logic cell removes any restrictions on how the super-rules should be defined. Second, a hybrid configuration is formed by combining a CA with a linear feedback shift register (LFSR. This is advantageous for FPGA designs due to the compactness of the LFSR implementations. A standard software package for statistically evaluating the quality of random number sequences known as Diehard is used to validate the results. Both the SPCA and the hybrid CA/LFSR were found to pass all the Diehard tests.
Linear Parametric Model Checking of Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hune, Tohmas Seidelin; Romijn, Judi; Stoelinga, Mariëlle; Vaandrager, Frits W.
We present an extension of the model checker Uppaal capable of synthesize linear parameter constraints for the correctness of parametric timed automata. The symbolic representation of the (parametric) state-space is shown to be correct. A second contribution of this paper is the identication of a...
Action principle for cellular automata and the linearity of quantum mechanics
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2014-01-01
We introduce an action principle for a class of integer valued cellular automata and obtain Hamiltonian equations of motion. Employing sampling theory, these discrete deterministic equations are invertibly mapped on continuum equations for a set of bandwidth limited harmonic oscillators, which encode the Schr\\"odinger equation. Thus, the linearity of quantum mechanics is related to the action principle of such cellular automata and its conservation laws to discrete ones.
Stair evacuation simulation based on cellular automata considering evacuees’ walk preferences
Ding, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Tao; Peter, B. Luh
2015-06-01
As a physical model, the cellular automata (CA) model is widely used in many areas, such as stair evacuation. However, existing CA models do not consider evacuees’ walk preferences nor psychological status, and the structure of the basic model is unapplicable for the stair structure. This paper is to improve the stair evacuation simulation by addressing these issues, and a new cellular automata model is established. Several evacuees’ walk preference and how evacuee’s psychology influences their behaviors are introduced into this model. Evacuees’ speeds will be influenced by these features. To validate this simulation, two fire drills held in two high-rise buildings are video-recorded. It is found that the simulation results are similar to the fire drill results. The structure of this model is simple, and it is easy to further develop and utilize in different buildings with various kinds of occupants. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB719705) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91224008, 91024032, and 71373139).
Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata
Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi
2010-01-01
This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinci...
Decentralized Cooperation Strategies in Two-Dimensional Traffic of Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the two-dimensional traffic of cellular automata using computer simulation. We propose two type of decentralized cooperation strategies, which are called stepping aside (CS-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CS-CAR) respectively. We introduce them into an existing two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model. CS-SA is designed to prohibit a kind of ping-pong jump when two objects standing together try to move in opposite directions. CS-CAR is designed to change the solution of conflict in parallel update. CS-CAR encourages the objects involved in parallel conflicts choose their alternative routes instead of waiting. We also combine the two cooperation strategies (CS-SA-CAR) to test their combined effects. It is found that the system keeps on a partial jam phase with nonzero velocity and flow until the density reaches one. The ratios of the ping-pong jump and the waiting objects involved in conflict are decreased obviously, especially at the free phase. And the average flow is improved by the three cooperation strategies. Although the average travel time is lengthened a bit by CS-CAR, it is shorten by CS-SA and CS-SA-CAR. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized cooperation modeling.
Fuel management optimization based on power profile by Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuel management in PWR nuclear reactors is comprised of a collection of principles and practices required for the planning, scheduling, refueling, and safe operation of nuclear power plants to minimize the total plant and system energy costs to the extent possible. Despite remarkable advancements in optimization procedures, inherent complexities in nuclear reactor structure and strong inter-dependency among the fundamental parameters of the core make it necessary to evaluate the most efficient arrangement of the core. Several patterns have been presented so far to determine the best configuration of fuels in the reactor core by emphasis on minimizing the local power peaking factor (Pq). In this research, a new strategy for optimizing the fuel arrangements in a VVER-1000 reactor core is developed while lowering the Pq is considered as the main target. For this purpose, a Fuel Quality Factor, Z(r), served to depict the reactor core pattern. Mapping to ideal pattern is tracked over the optimization procedure in which the ideal pattern is prepared with considering the Z(r) constraints and their effects on flux and Pq uniformity. For finding the best configuration corresponding to the desired pattern, Cellular Automata (CA) is applied as a powerful and reliable tool on optimization procedure. To obtain the Z(r) constraints, the MCNP code was used and core calculations were performed by WIMS and CITATION codes. The results are compared with the predictions of a Neural Network as a smart optimization method, and the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as a reference proposed by the designer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rashmi Pandey
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (QCA is an advanced nanotechnology that attempts to create general computational at the nano-scale by controlling the position of single electrons. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA defines a new device architecture that permits the innovative design of digital systems. QCA technology has large potential in terms of high space density and power dissipation with the development of the faster computer with smaller size & low power consumption.QCA help us to overcome the limitations of CMOS technology. In this paper, A design 16-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU based on the Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is presented. The simulation result of 16 bit ALU is verified using QCA Designer tool.
CCABC: Cyclic Cellular Automata Based Clustering For Energy Conservation in Sensor Networks
Banerjee, Indrajit; Rahaman, Hafizur
2011-01-01
Sensor network has been recognized as the most significant technology for next century. Despites of its potential application, wireless sensor network encounters resource restriction such as low power, reduced bandwidth and specially limited power sources. This work proposes an efficient technique for the conservation of energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN) by forming an effective cluster of the network nodes distributed over a wide range of geographical area. The clustering scheme is developed around a specified class of cellular automata (CA) referred to as the modified cyclic cellular automata (mCCA). It sets a number of nodes in stand-by mode at an instance of time without compromising the area of network coverage and thereby conserves the battery power. The proposed scheme also determines an effective cluster size where the inter-cluster and intra-cluster communication cost is minimum. The simulation results establish that the cyclic cellular automata based clustering for energy conservation in sens...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marc-Thorsten Hütt
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Cellular automata (CA are a remarkably efficient tool for exploring general properties of complex systems and spatiotemporal patterns arising from local rules. Totalistic cellular automata, where the update rules depend only on the density of neighboring states, are at the same time a versatile tool for exploring dynamical processes on graphs. Here we briefly review our previous results on cellular automata on graphs, emphasizing some systematic relationships between network architecture and dynamics identified in this way. We then extend the investigation towards graphs obtained in a simulated-evolution procedure, starting from Erdő s–Rényi (ER graphs and selecting for low entropies of the CA dynamics. Our key result is a strong association of low Shannon entropies with a broadening of the graph’s degree distribution.
Is there a sharp phase transition for deterministic cellular automata?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Previous work has suggested that there is a kind of phase transition between deterministic automata exhibiting periodic behavior and those exhibiting chaotic behavior. However, unlike the usual phase transitions of physics, this transition takes place over a range of values of the parameter rather than at a specific value. The present paper asks whether the transition can be made sharp, either by taking the limit of an infinitely large rule table, or by changing the parameter in terms of which the space of automata is explored. We find strong evidence that, for the class of automata we consider, the transition does become sharp in the limit of an infinite number of symbols, the size of the neighborhood being held fixed. Our work also suggests an alternative parameter in terms of which it is likely that the transition will become fairly sharp even if one does not increase the number of symbols. In the course of our analysis, we find that mean field theory, which is our main tool, gives surprisingly good predictions of the statistical properties of the class of automata we consider. 18 refs., 6 figs
A comparative analysis of electronic and molecular quantum dot cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a comparative analysis of electronic quantum-dot cellular automata (EQCA) and Magnetic quantum dot Cellular Automata (MQCA). QCA is a computing paradigm that encodes and processes information by the position of individual electrons. To enhance the high dense and ultra-low power devices, various researches have been actively carried out to find an alternative way to continue and follow Moore’s law, so called “beyond CMOS technology”. There have been several proposals for physically implementing QCA, EQCA and MQCA are the two important QCAs reported so far. This paper provides a comparative study on these two QCAs
A Characterization of Cellular Automata Generated by Idempotents on the Full Shift
Salo, Ville
2012-01-01
In this article, we discuss the family of cellular automata generated by so-called idempotent cellular automata (CA G such that G^2 = G) on the full shift. We prove a characterization of products of idempotent CA, and show examples of CA which are not easy to directly decompose into a product of idempotents, but which are trivially seen to satisfy the conditions of the characterization. Our proof uses ideas similar to those used in the well-known Embedding Theorem and Lower Entropy Factor Theorem in symbolic dynamics. We also consider some natural decidability questions for the class of products of idempotent CA.
A comparative analysis of electronic and molecular quantum dot cellular automata
Umamahesvari, H.; Ajitha, D.
2015-06-01
This paper presents a comparative analysis of electronic quantum-dot cellular automata (EQCA) and Magnetic quantum dot Cellular Automata (MQCA). QCA is a computing paradigm that encodes and processes information by the position of individual electrons. To enhance the high dense and ultra-low power devices, various researches have been actively carried out to find an alternative way to continue and follow Moore's law, so called "beyond CMOS technology". There have been several proposals for physically implementing QCA, EQCA and MQCA are the two important QCAs reported so far. This paper provides a comparative study on these two QCAs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Xia(黎夏); YEH; Gar-On(叶嘉安)
2002-01-01
This paper discusses the issues about the correlation of spatial variables during spatial decisionmaking using multicriteria evaluation (MCE) and cellular automata (CA). The correlation of spatial variables can cause the malfunction of MCE. In urban simulation, spatial factors often exhibit a high degree of correlation which is considered as an undesirable property for MCE. This study uses principal components analysis (PCA) to remove data redundancy among a large set of spatial variables and determine 'ideal points' for land development. PCA is integrated with cellular automata and geographical information systems (GIS) for the simulation of idealized urban forms for planning purposes.
Cellular automata-based artificial life system of horizontal gene transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji-xin Liu
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Mutation and natural selection is the core of Darwin's idea about evolution. Many algorithms and models are based on this idea. However, in the evolution of prokaryotes, more and more researches have indicated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT would be much more important and universal than the authors had imagined. Owing to this mechanism, the prokaryotes not only become adaptable in nearly any environment on Earth, but also form a global genetic bank and a super communication network with all the genes of the prokaryotic world. Under this background, they present a novel cellular automata model general gene transfer to simulate and study the vertical gene transfer and HGT in the prokaryotes. At the same time, they use Schrodinger's life theory to formulate some evaluation indices and to discuss the intelligence and cognition of prokaryotes which is derived from HGT.
Special Relativity Derived from Cellular Automata Theory The Origin of the Universal Speed Limit
Ostoma, T
1998-01-01
A new formulation of Special Relativity is described. It is based on Cellular Automata theory and on a new theory of inertia called Quantum Inertia. The universe consists of a huge 3D array of cells given by C(x,y,z), whose numeric states are updated by every new CA clock period. The numeric state of the cells depends on the contents of the imediate neigbours and on the mathematical rules of the cell, with each cell containing the same set of rules. Photon motion on the CA is represented by information patterns 'shifting' from cell to adjacent cell at every clock cycle, and this represents the universal speed limit. The Lorentz Transformations follow directly from this model of light motion. The concept of mass and inertia is revised to be compatible with the CA model.
A federation of simulations based on cellular automata in cyber-physical systems
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Hoang Van Tran
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In cyber-physical system (CPS, cooperation between a variety of computational and physical elements usually poses difficulties to current modelling and simulation tools. Although much research has proposed to address those challenges, most solutions do not completely cover uncertain interactions in CPS. In this paper, we present a new approach to federate simulations for CPS. A federation is a combination of, and coordination between simulations upon a standard of communication. In addition, a mixed simulation is defined as several parallel simulations federated in a common time progress. Such simulations run on the models of physical systems, which are built based on cellular automata theory. The experimental results are performed on a federation of three simulations of forest fire spread, river pollution diffusion and wireless sensor network. The obtained results can be utilized to observe and predict the behaviours of physical systems in their interactions.
Cellular automata approach to investigation of high burn-up structures in nuclear reactor fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Micrographs of uranium dioxide (UO2) corresponding to exposure times in reactor during 323, 953, 971, 1266 and 1642 full power days were investigated. The micrographs were converted into digital files isomorphous to cellular automata (CA) checkerboards. Such a representation of the fuel structure provides efficient tools for its dynamics simulation in terms of primary 'entities' imprinted in the micrographs. Besides, it also ensures a possibility of very effective micrograph processing by CA means. Interconnection between the description of fuel burn-up development and some exactly soluble models is ascertained. Evidences for existence of self-organization in the fuel at high burn-ups were established. The fractal dimension of microstructures is found to be an important characteristic describing the degree of radiation destructions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is the first part of a series devoted to the study of thermodynamic behavior of large dynamical systems with the use of a family of full-discrete and conservative models named elementary reversible cellular automata (ERCAs). In this paper, basic properties such as conservation laws and phase space structure are investigated in preparation for the later studies. ERCAs are a family of one-dimensional reversible cellular automata having two Boolean variables on each site. Reflection and Boolean conjugation symmetries divide them into 88 equivalence classes. For each rule, additive conserved quantities written in a certain form are regarded as a kind of energy, if they exist. By the aid of the discreteness of the variables, every ERCA satisfies the Liouville theorem or the preservation of phase space volume. Thus, if an energy exists in the above sense, statistical mechanics of the model can formally be constructed. If a locally defined quantity is conserved, however, it prevents the realization of statistical mechanics. The existence of such a quantity is examined for each class and a number of rules which have at least one energy but no local conservation laws are selected as hopeful candidates for the realization of thermodynamic behavior. In addition, the phase space structure of ERCAs is analyzed by enumerating cycles exactly in the phase space for systems of comparatively small sizes. As a result, it is revealed that a finite ERCA is not ergodic, that is, a large number of orbits coexist on an energy surface. It is argued that this fact does not necessarily mean the failure of thermodynamic behavior on the basis of an analogy with the ergodic nature of infinite systems
Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi
which describe the cows' activity in the two regarded behavioural scenarios, non-lame and lame. Using the experimental measurement data the different behavioural relations for the two regarded behavioural scenarios are assessed. The three models comprise activity within last hour, activity within last......This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life for the...... hour suplying with information on which hour of the day it is and lastly modelling the general activity level. Diagnosis algorithms for the three approaches are implemented and tested using the real data measurements and show that the diagnosis algorithm can distinguish between data belonging to...
A particle displacement representation for conservation laws in two-dimensional cellular automata
Kari, Jarkko; Taati, Siamak
2008-01-01
The problem of describing the dynamics of a conserved energy in a cellular automaton in terms of local movements of "particles" (quanta of that energy) has attracted some people's attention. The one-dimensional case was already solved by Fukś (2000) and Pivato (2002). For the two-dimensional cellular automata, we show that every (context-free) conservation law can be expressed in terms of such particle displacements.
A new small-world network created by Cellular Automata
Ruan, Yuhong; Li, Anwei
2016-08-01
In this paper, we generate small-world networks by the Cellular Automaton based on starting with one-dimensional regular networks. Besides the common properties of small-world networks with small average shortest path length and large clustering coefficient, the small-world networks generated in this way have other properties: (i) The edges which are cut in the regular network can be controlled that whether the edges are reconnected or not, and (ii) the number of the edges of the small-world network model equals the number of the edges of the original regular network. In other words, the average degree of the small-world network model equals to the average degree of the original regular network.
Studies of vehicle lane-changing to avoid pedestrians with cellular automata
Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao
2015-11-01
This paper presents studies of interactions between vehicles and crossing pedestrians. A cellular automata system model of the traffic is developed, which includes a number of subsystem models such as the single-lane vehicle model, pedestrian model, interaction model and lane-changing model. The random street crossings of pedestrians are modeled as a Poisson process. The drivers of the passing vehicles are assumed to follow a safety-rule in order not to hit the pedestrians. The results of both single and multiple car simulations are presented. We have found that in general, the traffic can benefit from vehicle lane-changing to avoid road-crossing pedestrians. The traffic flow and average vehicle speed can be increased, which leads to higher traffic efficiency. The interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are reduced, which results in shorter vehicle decelerating time due to pedestrians and less switches of the driving mode, thus leads to the better energy economy. The traffic safety can be improved in the perspective of both vehicles and pedestrians. Finally, pedestrians can cross road faster. The negative effect of lane-changing is that pedestrians have to stay longer between the lanes in the crossing.
Threshold-Range Scaling of Excitable Cellular Automata
Fisch, R; Griffeath, D; Fisch, Robert; Gravner, Janko; Griffeath, David
1993-01-01
Each cell of a two-dimensional lattice is painted one of k colors, arranged in a "color wheel." The colors advance (0 to k-1 mod k) either automatically or by contact with at least a threshold number of successor colors in a prescribed local neighborhood. Discrete-time parallel systems of this sort in which color 0 updates by contact and the rest update automatically are called Greenberg-Hastings (GH) rules. A system in which all colors update by contact is called a cyclic cellular automaton (CCA). Started from appropriate initial conditions these models generate periodic traveling waves. Started from random configurations the same rules exhibit complex self-organization, typically characterized by nucleation of locally periodic "ram's horns" or spirals. Corresponding random processes give rise to a variety of "forest fire" equilibria that display large-scale stochastic wave fronts. This article describes a framework, theoretically based, but relying on extensive interactive computer graphics experimentation,...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Srinivasa Rao
2015-06-01
Full Text Available As clustering techniques are gaining more important today, we propose a new clustering technique by means of ACFO and cellular automata. The cellular automata uniquely characterizes the condition of a cell at a specific moment by employing the data like the conditions of a reference cell together with its adjoining cell, total number of cells, restraint, transition function and neighbourhood calculation. With an eye on explaining the condition of the cell, morphological functions are executed on the image. In accordance with the four stages of the morphological process, the rural and the urban areas are grouped separately. In order to steer clear of the stochastic turbulences, the threshold is optimized by means of the ACFO. The test outcomes obtained vouchsafe superb performance of the innovative technique. The accomplishment of the new-fangled technique is assessed by using additional number of images and is contrasted with the traditional methods like CFO (Central Force Optimization and PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization.
Combining cellular automata and Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate three-dimensional grain growth
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Wei; CHEN Ju-hua; GUO Pei-quan; ZHAO Ping
2006-01-01
A 3-D simulation of grain growth was conducted by utilizing cellular automata (CA) and Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. In the simulating procedure, the three-dimensional space is divided into a large number of 2-D isometric planes. Then, each of the planes is divided into identical square cells. Finally, the cellular automata and Monte Carlo algorithm are combined together to simulate the grain growth. Through an evolutionary simulation, the recrystallized microstructure, the grain growth rate and the grain size distribution are acceptably predicted. The simulation routine can be used to simulate the real physical-metallurgy processes and to predict quantitative dynamic information of the evolution of microstructure. Further more, the method is also useful for optimization of materials properties by controlling the microstructure evolution.
Wang, Xianmin; Niu, Ruiqing; Wu, Ke
2011-07-01
Remote sensing provides a new idea and an advanced method for lithology identification, but lithology identification by remote sensing is quite difficult because 1. the disciplines of lithology identification in a concrete region are often quite different from the experts' experience; 2. in the regions with flourishing vegetation, lithology information is poor, so it is very difficult to identify the lithologies by remote sensing images. At present, the studies on lithology identification by remote sensing are primarily conducted on the regions with low vegetation coverage and high rock bareness. And there is no mature method of lithology identification in the regions with flourishing vegetation. Traditional methods lacking in the mining and extraction of the various complicated lithology information from a remote sensing image, often need much manual intervention and possess poor intelligence and accuracy. An intelligent method proposed in this paper for lithology identification based on support vector machine (SVM) and adaptive cellular automata (ACA) is expected to solve the above problems. The method adopted Landsat-7 ETM+ images and 1:50000 geological map as the data origins. It first derived the lithology identification factors on three aspects: 1. spectra, 2. texture and 3. vegetation cover. Second, it plied the remote sensing images with the geological map and established the SVM to obtain the transition rules according to the factor values of the samples. Finally, it established an ACA model to intelligently identify the lithologies according to the transition and neighborhood rules. In this paper an ACA model is proposed and compared with the traditional one. Results of 2 real-world examples show that: 1. The SVM-ACA method obtains a good result of lithology identification in the regions with flourishing vegetation; 2. it possesses high accuracies of lithology identification (with the overall accuracies of 92.29% and 85.54%, respectively, in the two
Neighborhood Selection and Rules Identification for Cellular Automata: A Rough Sets Approach
Placzek, Bartlomiej
2014-01-01
In this paper a method is proposed which uses data mining techniques based on rough sets theory to select neighborhood and determine update rule for cellular automata (CA). According to the proposed approach, neighborhood is detected by reducts calculations and a rule-learning algorithm is applied to induce a set of decision rules that define the evolution of CA. Experiments were performed with use of synthetic as well as real-world data sets. The results show that the introduced method allow...
Learning emergence: adaptive cellular automata façade trained by artificial neural networks
Skavara, M. M. E.
2009-01-01
This thesis looks into the possibilities of controlling the emergent behaviour of Cellular Automata (CA) to achieve specific architectural goals. More explicitly, the objective is to develop a performing, adaptive building facade, which is fed with the history of its achievements and errors, to provide optimum light conditions in buildings’ interiors. To achieve that, an artificial Neural Network (NN) is implemented. However, can an artificial NN cope with the complexity of suc...
Zakhama, R.
2009-01-01
Topology optimisation of continuum structures has become mature enough to be often applied in industry and continues to attract the attention of researchers and software companies in various engineering fields. Traditionally, most available algorithms for solving topology optimisation problems are based on the global solution approach and require a large number of costly analyses. An alternative methodology, based on cellular automata (CA) and accelerated with a multigrid discretisation schem...
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume I – Number III
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume V – Number I
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume III – Number IV
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume I – Number II
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume IV – Number IV
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume III – Number II
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume II – Number V
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume IV – Number III
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume I – Number V
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume IV – Number I
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Blázquez, J.S.; Conde, C. F.; Conde, A.
2011-01-01
Cellular automata simulations have been performed to simulate the crystallization process under a limited growth approximation. This approximation resembles several characteristics exhibited by nanocrystalline microstructures and nanocrystallization kinetics. Avrami exponent decreases from a value n = 4 indicating interface controlled growth and constant nucleation rate to a value n ~ 1 indicating absence of growth. A continuous change of the growth contribution to the Avrami exponent from ze...
Efficient Design of Reversible Code Converters Using Quantum Dot Cellular Automata
Javeed Iqbal Reshi; M. Tariq Banday
2016-01-01
Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is an attractive field of nano-technology which offers the various advantages over existing CMOS technology for the development of logic circuits. Contradictory to other technologies which use the voltage levels for logic representation, QCA utilizes the polarization of electrons for representing the binary states in the QCA Cell. Conventional logic circuits are not energy efficient as they are not reversible in nature and hence lead to energy dissipation. ...
Makovetskiy, S D
2008-01-01
We report some qualitatively new features of emergence, competition and dynamical stabilization of dissipative rotating spiral waves (RSWs) in the cellular-automaton model of laser-like excitable media proposed in arXiv:cond-mat/0410460v2 ; arXiv:cond-mat/0602345 . Part of the observed features are caused by unusual mechanism of excitation vorticity when the RSW's core get into the surface layer of an active medium. Instead of the well known scenario of RSW collapse, which takes place after collision of RSW's core with absorbing boundary, we observed complicated transformations of the core leading to regeneration (nonlinear "reflection" from the boundary) of the RSW or even to birth of several new RSWs in the surface layer. Computer experiments on bottlenecked evolution of such the RSW-ensembles (vortex matter) are reported and a possible explanation of real experiments on spin-lattice relaxation in dilute paramagnets is proposed on the basis of an analysis of the RSWs dynamics. Chimera states in RSW-ensemble...
Noto, L. V.; Caracciolo, D.; Fatichi, S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.
2013-12-01
Understanding and predicting vegetation change along ecosystem boundaries is among paramount challenges in ecohydrology. In this study, Cellular-Automaton Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) is implemented in a small upland catchment in Sicily, IT, where north-facing slopes are characterized by quercus (trees), and south-facing slopes exhibit plant coexistence, composed of Opuntia ficus-indaca (shrub) and grasses, to examine the control of solar radiation on plant development and predict potential trajectories of vegetation change under the stress of global warming. CATGraSS is driven by stochastic rainfall and variable solar radiation on topography, represented by a fine-scale gridded domain where vegetation type at each cell is represented individually. In the model, each cell can hold a single plant type or remain empty. Plant competition is modeled explicitly by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants, both calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. Spatially explicit treatment of solar radiation, and a lower limit to soil moisture storage imposed by bedrock depth lead to spatial organization in evapotranspiration, soil moisture, runoff, and plant type. CATGraSS is first calibrated at the field site driven by stochastic climate that represent the current climate at the study site. Calibrated model results are examined against Google-Earth images. Implications of future climate change are examined using the advanced weather generator (AWE-GEN). AWE-GEN characterizes the statistical characteristics of selected climate variables and their change over time based on a multi-model ensemble of outputs from General Circulation Models (GCMs). Stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of twelve GCMs adopted in the IPCC 4AR, A1B emission scenario for the future scenarios 2046-2065 and 2081-2100. Future vegetation changed is predicted to bring a dramatic reorganization of the plant composition based mainly on the topography
Calculation of impulse responses with a cellular automata algorithm
Barjau, Ana
2001-05-01
The air columns in musical instruments usually have a predominant dimension and thus are very often modeled as 1D systems where uniparametric waves propagate. Different algorithms can be found in the literature to simulate this propagation. The more widely used are finite difference schemes and delay lines. A finite difference scheme (FD) is a numerical integration of a differential formulation (the wave equation), while delay lines (DL) use analytical exact solutions of the wave equation over finite lengths. A new and different approach is that of a cellular automaton (CA) scheme. The underlying philosophy is opposite those of FD and DL, as the starting point is not the wave equation. In a CA approach, the phenomenon to be studied is reduced to a few simple physical laws that are applied to a set of cells representing the physical system (in the present case, the propagation medium). In this paper, a CA will be proposed to obtain the impulse response of different bore geometries. The results will be compared to those obtained with other algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenneth Mubea
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This research explores urban growth based scenarios for the city of Nairobi using a cellular automata urban growth model (UGM. African cities have experienced rapid urbanization over the last decade due to increased population growth and high economic activities. We used multi-temporal Landsat imageries for 1976, 1986, 2000 and 2010 to investigate urban land-use changes in Nairobi. Our UGM used data from urban land-use of 1986 and 2010, road data, slope data and exclusion layer. Monte-Carlo technique was used for model calibration and Multi Resolution Validation (MRV technique for validation. Simulation of urban land-use was done up to the year 2030 when Kenya plans to attain Vision 2030. Three scenarios were explored in the urban modelling process; unmanaged growth with no restriction on environmental areas, managed growth with moderate protection, and a managed growth with maximum protection on forest, agricultural areas, and urban green. Thus alternative scenario development using UGM is useful for planning purposes so as to ensure sustainable development is achieved. UGM provides quantitative, visual, spatial and temporal information which aid policy and decision makers can make informed decisions.
Aono, Masashi; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio
2004-08-01
How can non-algorithmic/non-deterministic computational syntax be computed? "The hyperincursive system" introduced by Dubois is an anticipatory system embracing the contradiction/uncertainty. Although it may provide a novel viewpoint for the understanding of complex systems, conventional digital computers cannot run faithfully as the hyperincursive computational syntax specifies, in a strict sense. Then is it an imaginary story? In this paper we try to argue that it is not. We show that a model of complex systems "Elementary Conflictable Cellular Automata (ECCA)" proposed by Aono and Gunji is embracing the hyperincursivity and the nonlocality. ECCA is based on locality-only type settings basically as well as other CA models, and/but at the same time, each cell is required to refer to globality-dominant regularity. Due to this contradictory locality-globality loop, the time evolution equation specifies that the system reaches the deadlock/infinite-loop. However, we show that there is a possibility of the resolution of these problems if the computing system has parallel and/but non-distributed property like an amoeboid organism. This paper is an introduction to "the slime mold computing" that is an attempt to cultivate an unconventional notion of computation.
TRAFFIC FLOW MODEL BASED ON CELLULAR AUTOMATION WITH ADAPTIVE DECELERATION
Shinkarev, A. A.
2016-01-01
This paper describes continuation of the authors’ work in the field of traffic flow mathematical models based on the cellular automata theory. The refactored representation of the multifactorial traffic flow model based on the cellular automata theory is used for a representation of an adaptive deceleration step implementation. The adaptive deceleration step in the case of a leader deceleration allows slowing down smoothly but not instantly. Concepts of the number of time steps without confli...
Modelling Social-Technical Attacks with Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
David, Nicolas; David, Alexandre; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;
2015-01-01
Attacks on a system often exploit vulnerabilities that arise from human behaviour or other human activity. Attacks of this type, so-called socio-technical attacks, cover everything from social engineering to insider attacks, and they can have a devastating impact on an unprepared organisation. In...... this paper we develop an approach towards modelling socio-technical systems in general and socio-technical attacks in particular, using timed automata and illustrate its application by a complex case study. Thanks to automated model checking and automata theory, we can automatically generate possible...... attacks in our model and perform analysis and simulation of both model and attack, revealing details about the specific interaction between attacker and victim. Using timed automata also allows for intuitive modelling of systems, in which quantities like time and cost can be easily added and analysed....
Nanopatterned graphene quantum dots as building blocks for quantum cellular automata
Wang, Z. F.; Liu, Feng
2011-10-01
Quantum cellular automata (QCA) is an innovative approach that incorporates quantum entities in classical computation processes. Binary information is encoded in different charge states of the QCA cells and transmitted by the inter-cell Coulomb interaction. Despite the promise of QCA, however, it remains a challenge to identify suitable building blocks for the construction of QCA. Graphene has recently attracted considerable attention owing to its remarkable electronic properties. The planar structure makes it feasible to pattern the whole device architecture in one sheet, compatible with the existing electronics technology. Here, we demonstrate theoretically a new QCA architecture built upon nanopatterned graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Using the tight-binding model, we determine the phenomenological cell parameters and cell-cell response functions of the GQD-QCA to characterize its performance. Furthermore, a GQD-QCA architecture is designed to demonstrate the functionalities of a fundamental majority gate. Our results show great potential in manufacturing high-density ultrafast QCA devices from a single nanopatterned graphene sheet.
Application of neural networks and cellular automata to calorimetric problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brenton, V.; Fonvieille, H.; Guicheney, C.; Jousset, J.; Roblin, Y.; Tamin, F.; Grenier, P.
1994-09-01
Computing techniques based on parallel processing have been used to treat the information from the electromagnetic calorimeters in SLAC experiments E142/E143. Cluster finding and separation of overlapping showers are performed by a cellular automaton, pion and electron identification is done by using a multilayered neural network. Both applications are presented and their resulting performances are shown to be improved compared to more standard approaches. (author). 9 refs.; Submitted to Nuclear Instruments and Methods (NL).
Exploring the Possibilities of a Cellular Automata in Minecraft
Saunders, Stephen
2014-01-01
Complex systems are not always generated by complex individuals. Simple, cell-like individuals can produce sophisticated outcomes. Structures implementing this nature area called cellular automation. In this paper, we discuss the difficulties associated with the creation of one such automation in a pre-existing environment, in this case the game MineCraft. A subsequent study of the behavior of this automation is presented, using an objective information measure called set complexity.
SPATIAL DEFORESTATION MODELILNG USING CELLULAR AUTOMATA (CASE STUDY: CENTRAL ZAGROS FORESTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Naghdizadegan
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Forests have been highly exploited in recent decades in Iran and deforestation is going to be the major environmental concern due to its role in destruction of natural ecosystem and soil cover. Therefore, finding the effective parameters in deforestation and simulation of this process can help the management and preservation of forests. It helps predicting areas of deforestation in near future which is a useful tool for making socioeconomic disciplines in order to prevent deforestation in the area. Recently, GIS technologies are widely employed to support public policies in order to preserve ecosystems from undesirable human activities. The aim of this study is modelling the distribution of forest destruction in part of Central Zagros Mountains and predicting its process in future. In this paper we developed a Cellular Automata (CA model for deforestation process due to its high performance in spatial modelling, land cover change prediction and its compatibility with GIS. This model is going to determine areas with deforestation risk in the future. Land cover maps were explored using high spatial resolution satellite imageries and the forest land cover was extracted. In order to investigate the deforestation modelling, major elements of forest destruction relating to human activity and also physiographic parameters was explored and the suitability map was produced. Then the suitability map in combination with neighbourhood parameter was used to develop the CA model. Moreover, neighbourhood, suitability and stochastic disturbance term were calibrated in order to improve the simulation results. Regarding this, several neighbourhood configurations and different temporal intervals were tested. The accuracy of model was evaluated using satellite image. The results showed that the developed CA model in this research has proper performance in simulation of deforestation process. This model also predicted the areas with high potential for future
Symbolic Computation Using Cellular Automata-Based Hyperdimensional Computing.
Yilmaz, Ozgur
2015-12-01
This letter introduces a novel framework of reservoir computing that is capable of both connectionist machine intelligence and symbolic computation. A cellular automaton is used as the reservoir of dynamical systems. Input is randomly projected onto the initial conditions of automaton cells, and nonlinear computation is performed on the input via application of a rule in the automaton for a period of time. The evolution of the automaton creates a space-time volume of the automaton state space, and it is used as the reservoir. The proposed framework is shown to be capable of long-term memory, and it requires orders of magnitude less computation compared to echo state networks. As the focus of the letter, we suggest that binary reservoir feature vectors can be combined using Boolean operations as in hyperdimensional computing, paving a direct way for concept building and symbolic processing. To demonstrate the capability of the proposed system, we make analogies directly on image data by asking, What is the automobile of air? PMID:26496041
Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Juan Collados Lara, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, David
2016-04-01
The snow availability in Alpine catchments is essential for the economy of these areas. It plays an important role in tourist development but also in the management of the Water Resources Snow is an important water resource in many river basins with mountains in the catchment area. The determination of the snow water equivalent requires the estimation of the evolution of the snow pack (cover area, thickness and snow density) along the time. Although there are complex physical models of the dynamics of the snow pack, sometimes the data available are scarce and a stochastic model like the cellular automata (CA) can be of great practical interest. CA can be used to model the dynamics of growth and wane of the snow pack. The CA is calibrated with historical data. This requires the determination of transition rules that are capable of modeling the evolution of the spatial pattern of snow cover area. Furthermore, CA requires the definition of states and neighborhoods. We have included topographical variables and climatological variables in order to define the state of each pixel. The evolution of snow cover in a pixel depends on its state, the state of the neighboring pixels and the transition rules. The calibration of the CA is done using daily MODIS data, available for the period 24/02/2002 to present with a spatial resolution of 500 m, and the LANDSAT information available with a sixteen-day periodicity from 1984 to the present and with spatial resolution of 30 m. The methodology has been applied to estimation of the snow cover area of Sierra Nevada mountain range in the Southern of Spain to obtain snow cover area daily information with 500 m spatial resolution for the period 1980-2014. Acknowledgments: This research has been partially supported by the GESINHIMPADAPT project (CGL2013-48424-C2-2-R) with Spanish MINECO funds. We would also like to thank NASA DAAC and LANDSAT project for the data provided for this study.
Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata
Li, X. W.; Kim, D. H.; Cho, S. J.; Kim, S. T.
2013-01-01
A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blazquez, J.S.; Millan, M.; Conde, C.F.; Conde, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla-ICMSE, P.O. Box 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)
2010-05-15
Nanocrystallization kinetics is analyzed in the frame of instantaneous growth approximation, which implies that the time required for a crystallite to reach its final size is negligible with respect to the time required for the nanocrystallization process. This approach strongly simplifies the kinetic analysis and allows us to obtain the nucleation rate from both isothermal and non-isothermal nanocrystallization processes. Moreover, as no constraining mechanism is considered but the absence of growth, the results could be discussed in the frame of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theory with a growth index equal to zero. Cellular automata simulations are in agreement with the observed kinetics and microstructure. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Sub-classes and evolution stability of Wolfram's classesin the total-rule cellular automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Guangwu; TIAN Feng; DONG Yinfeng
2004-01-01
In this paper, we propose a concept of sub-classes and its evolution stability for the Wolfram's classes. Firstly, we obtain the sub-classes of the Wolfram's class IV, gene-piece of these sub-classes and their existing circumstance. Secondly, we introduce a new concept, the evolution stability, for the Wolfram's classes and sub-classes of Wolfram's class IV. Lastly, we find that Wolfram's classes I, II, and III have the evolution stability, but sub-classes of the Wolfram's class IV have not the evolution stability for the total rule cellular automata.
Modelling and simulating in-stent restenosis with complex automata
A.G. Hoekstra; P. Lawford; R. Hose
2010-01-01
In-stent restenosis, the maladaptive response of a blood vessel to injury caused by the deployment of a stent, is a multiscale system involving a large number of biological and physical processes. We describe a Complex Automata Model for in-stent restenosis, coupling bulk flow, drug diffusion, and s
Application of cellular automata approach for cloud simulation and rendering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christopher Immanuel, W. [Department of Physics, Vel Tech High Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, Chennai 600 062 (India); Paul Mary Deborrah, S. [Research Department of Physics, The American College, Tamil Nadu, Madurai 625 002 (India); Samuel Selvaraj, R. [Research Department of Physics, Presidency College, Tamil Nadu, Chennai 600 005 (India)
2014-03-15
Current techniques for creating clouds in games and other real time applications produce static, homogenous clouds. These clouds, while viable for real time applications, do not exhibit an organic feel that clouds in nature exhibit. These clouds, when viewed over a time period, were able to deform their initial shape and move in a more organic and dynamic way. With cloud shape technology we should be able in the future to extend to create even more cloud shapes in real time with more forces. Clouds are an essential part of any computer model of a landscape or an animation of an outdoor scene. A realistic animation of clouds is also important for creating scenes for flight simulators, movies, games, and other. Our goal was to create a realistic animation of clouds.
Design and Analysis of Adders using Nanotechnology Based Quantum dot Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Lakshmi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The area and complexity are the major issues in circuit design. Here, we propose different types of adder designs based on Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA that reduces number of QCA cells and area compare to previous designs. The quantum dot cellular automata is a novel computing paradigm in nanotechnology that can implement digital circuits with faster speed, smaller size and low power consumption. By taking the advantages of QCA we are able to design interesting computational architectures. The QCA cell is a basic building block of nanotechnology that can be used to make gates, wires and memories. The basic logic circuits used in this technology are the inverter and the Majority Gate (MG, using this other logical circuits can be designed. Approach: In this paper, the adders such as half, full and serial bit were designed and analyzed. These structures were designed with minimum number of cells by using cell minimization techniques. The techniques are (1 using two cells inverter and (2 suitable arrangement of cells without overlapping of neighboring cells. The proposed method can be used to minimize area and complexity. Results: These circuits were designed by majority gate and implemented by QCA cells. Then, they simulated using QCA Designer. The simulated results were verified according to the truth table. Conclusion: The performance analyses of those circuits are compared according to complexity, area and number of clock cycles and are also compared with previous designs.
元胞自动机(CA)模型在土地利用领域的研究综述%The Research Summary of Land use with the Model of Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周嵩山; 李红波
2012-01-01
通过模型对区域土地利用/覆盖变化(LUCC)进行分析已经成为了当前全球的研究主要内容之一.元胞自动机(CA)模型是一种通过定义局部的简单的计算规则来模拟和表示整个系统中复杂现象的时空动态模型,其“自下而上”的研究思路,强大的复杂计算功能及高度动态,使得它在模拟空间复杂系统的时空动态演变方面具有很强的能力.CA模型通过与其他模型相结合,在综合考虑各种限制因素和转换规则的前提下,通过反复迭代综合空间分析与非空间分析,模拟土地利用变化情景,在国内外已经形成了较为成熟的研究模型.本文首先提出了CA模型在土地利用变化中应用的背景及其特点；然后,分析了CA模型的构成原理以及在国内外的应用进展与现状;最后,详细阐述了CA模型在土地利用变化中的发展趋势及今后研究工作中应注意的问题.%The model of the regional land use /cover change (I.UCC) has become main content of global research. Cellular automata (CA) model is a temporal and spatial dynamic model to simulate and represent complex phenomena in the entire system by definition of local simple calculation rules, its "bottom up" research approach, strong functions of complexity computing and highly dynamic, make it has a strong ability in the evolution of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the simulated space complex systems. CA model by combining with other models in the premise of considering the various constraints and transformation rules through iterative comprehensive spatial analysis and non-spatial analysis, for the simulation of land-use change scenarios, both at home and abroad it has been a comparatively mature research model. In this paper we first give the background and characteristics of the CA model in the application of land-use change; then analyzing the composition principles of the CA model and application condition and progress at home and
A Novel Seven Input Majority Gate in Quantum-dot Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keivan Navi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A Quantum Cellular Automaton (QCA is a nanotechnology which is an attractive alternative for transistor based technologies in the near future. A new seven input majority gate in quantum dot cellular automata is proposed in this paper. The basic elements in QCA are majority and inverter gates, therefore using a majority gate with more inputs in QCA circuit will cause reduction in cell count, latency and complexity. Furthermore, by using the proposed seven input majority gate we can design four inputs AND gate and OR gate in only two clock phases. By applying these kinds of gates QCA circuits could be simplified and optimized. In order to prove the functionality of the proposed device, QCADesigner tool and some physical proofs are utilized.
Vafaee Sharbaf, Fatemeh; Mosafer, Sara; Moattar, Mohammad Hossein
2016-06-01
This paper proposes an approach for gene selection in microarray data. The proposed approach consists of a primary filter approach using Fisher criterion which reduces the initial genes and hence the search space and time complexity. Then, a wrapper approach which is based on cellular learning automata (CLA) optimized with ant colony method (ACO) is used to find the set of features which improve the classification accuracy. CLA is applied due to its capability to learn and model complicated relationships. The selected features from the last phase are evaluated using ROC curve and the most effective while smallest feature subset is determined. The classifiers which are evaluated in the proposed framework are K-nearest neighbor; support vector machine and naïve Bayes. The proposed approach is evaluated on 4 microarray datasets. The evaluations confirm that the proposed approach can find the smallest subset of genes while approaching the maximum accuracy. PMID:27154739
A hierarchy of compositional models of I/O-Automata
Jonsson, Bengt
1991-01-01
A semantic model of computer systems is compositional if it adequately represents the behavior of the modeled systems in a context of other systems. A compositional model is thus a good basis for specifying and reasoning about systems in a modular fashion. I/O-automata is a class of communicating system which can represent several types of asyncronously communicating systems, such as message-passing distributed systems, systems with broadcast communication, and systems with shared variables. ...
Dynamical phase transitions in spin models and automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some of the models and methods developed in the study of the dynamics of spin models and automata are described. Special attention is given to the distance method which consists of comparing the time evolution of two configurations. The method is used to obtain the phase boundary between a frozen and a chaotic phase in the case of deterministic models. For stochastic systems the method is used to obtain dynamical phase transitions
Hologram authentication based on a secure watermarking algorithm using cellular automata.
Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Chan, Hao-Tang; Cheng, Chau-Jern
2014-09-20
A secure watermarking algorithm for hologram authentication is presented in this paper. The algorithm exploits the noise-like feature of holograms to randomly embed a watermark in the domain of the discrete cosine transform with marginal degradation in transparency. The pseudo random number (PRN) generators based on a cellular automata algorithm with asymmetrical and nonlocal connections are used for the random hiding. Each client has its own unique PRN generators for enhancing the watermark security. In the proposed algorithm, watermarks are also randomly generated to eliminate the requirements of prestoring watermarks in the clients and servers. An authentication scheme is then proposed for the algorithm with random watermark generation and hiding. PMID:25322138
Efficient Design of Reversible Code Converters Using Quantum Dot Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javeed Iqbal Reshi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA is an attractive field of nano-technology which offers the various advantages over existing CMOS technology for the development of logic circuits. Contradictory to other technologies which use the voltage levels for logic representation, QCA utilizes the polarization of electrons for representing the binary states in the QCA Cell. Conventional logic circuits are not energy efficient as they are not reversible in nature and hence lead to energy dissipation. Thus there is a need of a serious effort that will provide an efficient paradigm for designing the circuits which does not dissipation the energy and hence will preserve the information. This paper offers the efficient design of various QCA reversible code converters which prove to be efficient in term of cell Area, cell count, total area, latency and complexity. All the proposed reversible code converter designs were simulated and their credibility was successfully verified with the QCADesigner tool
Multifractal properties of elementary cellular automata in a discrete wavelet approach of MF-DFA
Murguia, J S; Rosu, H C; 10.1209/0295-5075/87/28003
2009-01-01
In 2005, Nagler and Claussen (Phys. Rev. E 71 (2005) 067103) investigated the time series of the elementary cellular automata (ECA) for possible (multi)fractal behavior. They eliminated the polynomial background at^b through the direct fitting of the polynomial coefficients a and b. We here reconsider their work eliminating the polynomial trend by means of the multifractal-based detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) in which the wavelet multiresolution property is employed to filter out the trend in a more speedy way than the direct polynomial fitting and also with respect to the wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) procedure. In the algorithm, the discrete fast wavelet transform is used to calculate the trend as a local feature that enters the so-called details signal. We illustrate our result for three representative ECA rules: 90, 105, and 150. We confirm their multifractal behavior and provide our results for the scaling parameters
Non-probabilistic cellular automata-enhanced stereo vision simultaneous localization and mapping
Nalpantidis, Lazaros; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Gasteratos, Antonios
2011-11-01
In this paper, a visual non-probabilistic simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm suitable for area measurement applications is proposed. The algorithm uses stereo vision images as its only input and processes them calculating the depth of the scenery, detecting occupied areas and progressively building a map of the environment. The stereo vision-based SLAM algorithm embodies a stereo correspondence algorithm that is tolerant to illumination differentiations, the robust scale- and rotation-invariant feature detection and matching speeded-up robust features method, a computationally effective v-disparity image calculation scheme, a novel map-merging module, as well as a sophisticated cellular automata-based enhancement stage. A moving robot equipped with a stereo camera has been used to gather image sequences and the system has autonomously mapped and measured two different indoor areas.
Non-probabilistic cellular automata-enhanced stereo vision simultaneous localization and mapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a visual non-probabilistic simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm suitable for area measurement applications is proposed. The algorithm uses stereo vision images as its only input and processes them calculating the depth of the scenery, detecting occupied areas and progressively building a map of the environment. The stereo vision-based SLAM algorithm embodies a stereo correspondence algorithm that is tolerant to illumination differentiations, the robust scale- and rotation-invariant feature detection and matching speeded-up robust features method, a computationally effective v-disparity image calculation scheme, a novel map-merging module, as well as a sophisticated cellular automata-based enhancement stage. A moving robot equipped with a stereo camera has been used to gather image sequences and the system has autonomously mapped and measured two different indoor areas
Explicit implementation of quantum circuits on a quantum-cellular-automata-like architecture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an efficient strategy to translate a normal quantum algorithm into a sequence of operations on the quantum-cellular-automata-like architecture (QCALA) originally proposed by Lloyd. The QCALA assumes arrays of weakly coupled quantum systems where an interaction exists only between neighboring qubits and can only perform the same quantum operation onto all the qubits. The sequence obtained by the strategy proposed by Lloyd needs at most 12n operations, where n is the number of qubits for the original circuit. The sequence obtained by our strategy needs at most 6n operations. We also clarified the relations between the upper bound of the number of translated operations and the period of the QCALA and between the upper bound of the number of qubits and the period of the QCALA
Cellular Automata as a learning process in Architecture and Urban design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mads Brath; Foged, Isak Worre
This paper explores the application of cellular automata as method for investigating the dynamic parameters and interrelationships that constitute the urban space. With increasing aspects needed for integration during the architectural and urban design process with the relations between these...... design approach on a master level urban design studio this paper will discuss the strategies for dealing with complexity at an urban scale as well as the pedagogical considerations behind applying computational tools and methods to a urban design education....... aspects growing in parallel, complexity of the design process and design solution increases. Additionally, aspects and relations are of a transformative character in that they change over time and therefore construct a time-based condition for which problems are presented and solutions are sought. An...
A Compact Self-organizing Cellular Automata-based Genetic Algorithm
Barmpoutis, Vasileios
2007-01-01
A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed in which each member of the population can change schemata only with its neighbors according to a rule. The rule methodology and the neighborhood structure employ elements from the Cellular Automata (CA) strategies. Each member of the GA population is assigned to a cell and crossover takes place only between adjacent cells, according to the predefined rule. Although combinations of CA and GA approaches have appeared previously, here we rely on the inherent self-organizing features of CA, rather than on parallelism. This conceptual shift directs us toward the evolution of compact populations containing only a handful of members. We find that the resulting algorithm can search the design space more efficiently than traditional GA strategies due to its ability to exploit mutations within this compact self-organizing population. Consequently, premature convergence is avoided and the final results often are more accurate. In order to reinforce the superior mutation capability, ...
基于元胞自动机模型的开采沉陷模拟%Simulation of Coal Mining Subsidence Based on the Model of Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈秋计
2013-01-01
The simulation of mining subsidence plays an important role in mining environmental management and ecological restoration. Based on the GIS platform, the mining subsidence theory and geographical Cellular Automata (CA) are combined with each other, and then the mining subsidence cellular space is constructed by using the development tool of object-oriented method with the help of software of VS2010. The mining subsidence frame structure of CA model and realization method is discussed, and the mining subsidence simulation object relation graph is constructed. The evolution model of CA for mining subsidence is established based on the research result. Finally, the prototype system of mining subsidence CA is developed by taking a coal mine in Shanxi Province as an example. Based on the coal seam condition and mining method of the study area, the evolution of mining subsidence in the future is simulated usi ng the prototype system in order to provide the basis for land reclamation and ecological restoration. The results show that object-oriented method is good for the analysis and exploitation of mining subsidence simulation system, and mining subsidence simulation based on GIS and CA, which is facilitated to the development of the system and has good compatibility, is able to show more spatiotemporal information, facilitating data management. In space division, the CA model could organically integrate into traditional method, and is able to accurately predict the future of surface subsidence damage, providing the basis for the treatment for subsidence area. Since mining subsidence relates to many subjects, there are many works need to be down in the future for further perfecting evolution model, exploring the evolution process of system in three-dimensional space, and enhancing the reality and practicability of simulation.%开采沉陷模拟对矿区的环境治理和生态恢复具有重要意义.本文将开采沉陷理论与地理元胞自动
Phenomenological study of irregular cellular automata based on Lyapunov exponents and Jacobians.
Baetens, Jan M; De Baets, Bernard
2010-09-01
Originally, cellular automata (CA) have been defined upon regular tessellations of the n-dimensional Euclidean space, while CA on irregular tessellations have received only little attention from the scientific community, notwithstanding serious shortcomings are associated with the former manner of subdividing Rn. In this paper we present a profound phenomenological study of two-state, two-dimensional irregular CA from a dynamical systems viewpoint. We opted to exploit properly defined quantitative measures instead of resorting to qualitative methods for discriminating between behavioral classes. As such, we employ Lyapunov exponents, measuring the divergence rate of close trajectories in phase space, and Jacobians, formulated using Boolean derivatives and expressing the sensitivity of a cellular automaton to its inputs. Both are stated for two-state CA on irregular tessellations, enabling us to characterize these discrete dynamical systems, and advancing us to propose a classification scheme for this CA family. In addition, a relationship between these quantitative measures is established in extension of the insights already developed for the classical CA paradigm. Finally, we discuss the repercussions on the CA dynamics that arise when the geometric variability of the spatial entities is taken into account during the CA simulation. PMID:20887052
Modelling discrete longitudinal data using acyclic probabilistic finite automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anantharama Ankinakatte, Smitha; Edwards, David
2015-01-01
Acyclic probabilistic finite automata (APFA) constitute a rich family of models for discrete longitudinal data. An APFA may be represented as a directed multigraph, and embodies a set of context-specific conditional independence relations that may be read off the graph. A model selection algorith...... assessed using cross-validation. The comparisons are based on three data sets, two from molecular genetics and one from social science. The proposed algorithm performs at least as well as the algorithm in Beagle in both respects...
Cellular Automata in Modular Space : Rigid Systems – Volume I – Number I
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2015-01-01
This book series presents a new type of cellular automata for 2D pattern generation, characterized by a high reproduction rate, in combination with the application of a small-sized 2D modular square lattice. The presented patterns are in the spirit of mathematical minimalism, generated from rudimentary kernels and a minimal set of rules. In similarity with fractals, this new concept could provide for the generation of patterns and geometries with applications in areas such as, visual arts, lo...
Moustafa, Ahmed; Younes, Ahmed; Hassan, Yasser F.
2015-01-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are nanoscale digital logic constructs that use electrons in arrays of quantum dots to carry out binary operations. In this paper, a basic building block for QCA will be proposed. The proposed basic building block can be customized to implement classical gates, such as XOR and XNOR gates, and reversible gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli gates, with less cell count and/or better latency than other proposed designs. PMID:26345412
Somsak Panyakeow
2010-01-01
Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs) called quantum dot molecules (QDMs) are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs) created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs) and quantum dot rings (QDRs). Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) is late...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaolin Liu
Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS and cellular automata (CA. The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.
Small universal cellular automata in hyperbolic spaces a collection of jewels
Margenstern, Maurice
2013-01-01
Hyperbolic geometry is an essential part of theoretical astrophysics and cosmology. Besides specialists of these domains, many specialists of new domains start to show a growing interest both to hyperbolic geometry and to cellular automata. This is especially the case in biology and computer science. This book gives the reader a deep and efficient introduction to an algorithmic approach to hyperbolic geometry. It focuses the attention on the possibilities to obtain in this frame the power of computing everything a computer can compute, that is to say: universality. The minimal ways to get universality are invistigated in a large family of tilings of the hyperbolic plane. In several cases the best results are obtained.In all cases, the results are close to the theoretical best values. This gives rise to fantastic illustrations: the results are jewels in all meanings of the word. ------------------------ Maurice MARGENSTERN is professor emeritus at the University of Lorraine, he is a member of LI...
Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. W. Li
2013-08-01
Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.
Genetic algorithms for determining the parameters of cellular automata in urban simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Xia; YANG; QingSheng; LIU; XiaoPing
2007-01-01
This paper demonstrates that cellular automata (CA) can be a useful tool for analyzing the process of many geographical phenomena. There are many studies on using CA to simulate the evolution of cites. Urban dynamics is determined by many spatial variables. The contribution of each spatial variable to the simulation is quantified by its parameter or weight. Calibration procedures are usually required for obtaining a suitable set of parameters so that the realistic urban forms can be simulated. Each parameter has a unique role in controlling urban morphology in the simulation. In this paper, these parameters for urban simulation are determined by using empirical data. Genetic algorithms are used to search for the optimal combination of these parameters. There are spatial variations for urban dynamics in a large region. Distinct sets of parameters can be used to represent the unique features of urban dynamics for various subregions. A further experiment is to evaluate each set of parameters based on the theories of compact cities. It is considered that the better set of parameters can be identified according to the utility function in terms of compact development. This set of parameters can be cloned to other regions to improve overall urban morphology. The original parameters can be also modified to produce more compact urban forms for planning purposes. This approach can provide a useful exploratory tool for testing various planning scenarios for urban development.
Bennett clocking of quantum-dot cellular automata and the limits to binary logic scaling
Lent, Craig S.; Liu, Mo; Lu, Yuhui
2006-08-01
We examine power dissipation in different clocking schemes for molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) circuits. 'Landauer clocking' involves the adiabatic transition of a molecular cell from the null state to an active state carrying data. Cell layout creates devices which allow data in cells to interact and thereby perform useful computation. We perform direct solutions of the equation of motion for the system in contact with the thermal environment and see that Landauer's Principle applies: one must dissipate an energy of at least kBT per bit only when the information is erased. The ideas of Bennett can be applied to keep copies of the bit information by echoing inputs to outputs, thus embedding any logically irreversible circuit in a logically reversible circuit, at the cost of added circuit complexity. A promising alternative which we term 'Bennett clocking' requires only altering the timing of the clocking signals so that bit information is simply held in place by the clock until a computational block is complete, then erased in the reverse order of computation. This approach results in ultralow power dissipation without additional circuit complexity. These results offer a concrete example in which to consider recent claims regarding the fundamental limits of binary logic scaling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandini, S. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienza dell' Informazione); Casati, R.; Milani, M. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica)
1998-10-01
The prey-predator competition is a typical problem exhibited by the dynamics of phytophagous and predaceous mite population. Biological parameters of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Amblyseius californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are set up in order to establish the fundamental aspects to be embodied into a simulation model. The paper introduces the Lotka-Volterra differential equations as the classical approach to the problem and present the Cellular-Automata (CA) approach as an alternative one. It reports preliminary results which account for a number of interesting features such as: 1) oscillations in time of the population, 2) a link between the populations' initial conditions and the obtained solution, 3) the appearance of spatial structures, and 4) the effect on the population dynamics of parameters which may be linked to photoperiodic and circadian features. Furthermore, it is shown that several sophisticated features affecting populations evolution, such as the egg opening time, the sexual maturation time, the limited lifetime, the limited survival capability of predators in fasting condition and juvenile mortality can be easily included in a CA-based model.
Learning automata an introduction
Narendra, Kumpati S
2012-01-01
This self-contained introductory text on the behavior of learning automata focuses on how a sequential decision-maker with a finite number of choices responds in a random environment. Topics include fixed structure automata, variable structure stochastic automata, convergence, 0 and S models, nonstationary environments, interconnected automata and games, and applications of learning automata. A must for all students of stochastic algorithms, this treatment is the work of two well-known scientists and is suitable for a one-semester graduate course in automata theory and stochastic algorithms.
Reaction-Diffusion Automata Phenomenology, Localisations, Computation
Adamatzky, Andrew
2013-01-01
Reaction-diffusion and excitable media are amongst most intriguing substrates. Despite apparent simplicity of the physical processes involved the media exhibit a wide range of amazing patterns: from target and spiral waves to travelling localisations and stationary breathing patterns. These media are at the heart of most natural processes, including morphogenesis of living beings, geological formations, nervous and muscular activity, and socio-economic developments. This book explores a minimalist paradigm of studying reaction-diffusion and excitable media using locally-connected networks of finite-state machines: cellular automata and automata on proximity graphs. Cellular automata are marvellous objects per se because they show us how to generate and manage complexity using very simple rules of dynamical transitions. When combined with the reaction-diffusion paradigm the cellular automata become an essential user-friendly tool for modelling natural systems and designing future and emergent computing arch...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Sosa
2011-03-01
Full Text Available One of the main interdisciplinary challenges today is to understand and change the dominant social perceptions and values that support and perpetuate unsustainable practices. Social computational simulations have been conceived in recent years to understand emergent results from complex systems. These dynamic social models are of interest to sustainability researchers because they provide a means to implement hypotheses and explore scenarios that could help extend our understanding of the future role of change agency in society. Change agents are individuals who directly or indirectly enable sustainable behaviors or inhibit practices that damage the environment and large social groups. Evidence-based strategies, guidelines and methods are necessary in order to manage creative change agency more effectively. This paper presents work with computational simulations, known as cellular automata, in order to explore the role of timing in triggering social change through uncoordinated, autonomous individual action. The paper identifies a number of issues related to creative change agency and proposes associated guidelines for practitioners. As a means of early validation, these findings are portrayed against empirical studies in the literature.
Chen, Qun; Wang, Yan
2015-08-01
This paper discusses the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on uncontrolled low-grade roads or branch roads without separating barriers in cities where pedestrians may cross randomly from any location on both sides of the road. The rules governing pedestrian street crossings are analyzed, and a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings is proposed. The influence of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on the volume and travel time of the vehicle flow and the average wait time for pedestrians to cross is investigated through simulations. The main results of the simulation are as follows: (1) The vehicle flow volume decreases because of interruption from pedestrian crossings, but a small number of pedestrian crossings do not cause a significant delay to vehicles. (2) If there are many pedestrian crossings, slow vehicles will have little chance to accelerate, causing travel time to increase and the vehicle flow volume to decrease. (3) The average wait time for pedestrians to cross generally decreases with a decrease in vehicle flow volume and also decreases with an increase in the number of pedestrian crossings. (4) Temporal and spatial characteristics of vehicle flows and pedestrian flows and some interesting phenomena such as "crossing belt" and "vehicle belt" are found through the simulations.
Automata-Based CSL Model Checking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming; Hermanns, Holger
For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996. The presented decision procedure, however, has exponential complexity. In this paper, we...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cellular Automata are discrete-time dynamical systems on a spatially extended discrete space which provide paradigmatic examples of nonlinear phenomena. Their stochastic generalizations, i.e., Probabilistic Cellular Automata (PCA), are discrete time Markov chains on lattice with finite single-cell states whose distinguishing feature is the parallel character of the updating rule. We study the ground states of the Hamiltonian and the low-temperature phase diagram of the related Gibbs measure naturally associated with a class of reversible PCA, called the cross PCA. In such a model the updating rule of a cell depends indeed only on the status of the five cells forming a cross centered at the original cell itself. In particular, it depends on the value of the center spin (self-interaction). The goal of the paper is that of investigating the role played by the self-interaction parameter in connection with the ground states of the Hamiltonian and the low-temperature phase diagram of the Gibbs measure associated with this particular PCA
Computer Models and Automata Theory in Biology and Medicine
Baianu, I C
2004-01-01
The applications of computers to biological and biomedical problem solving goes back to the very beginnings of computer science, automata theory [1], and mathematical biology [2]. With the advent of more versatile and powerful computers, biological and biomedical applications of computers have proliferated so rapidly that it would be virtually impossible to compile a comprehensive review of all developments in this field. Limitations of computer simulations in biology have also come under close scrutiny, and claims have been made that biological systems have limited information processing power [3]. Such general conjectures do not, however, deter biologists and biomedical researchers from developing new computer applications in biology and medicine. Microprocessors are being widely employed in biological laboratories both for automatic data acquisition/processing and modeling; one particular area, which is of great biomedical interest, involves fast digital image processing and is already established for rout...
Behavioral Modeling Based on Probabilistic Finite Automata: An Empirical Study.
Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J; Pardo, Luis M
2016-01-01
Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches. PMID:27347956
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Rangel Rios
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The effect of non-random nuclei location and the efficiency of microstructural descriptors in assessing such a situation are studied. Cellular automata simulation of recrystallization in two dimensions is carried out to simulate microstrutural evolution for nuclei distribution ranging from a periodic arrangement to clusters of nuclei. The simulation results are compared in detail with microstrutural descriptors normally used to follow transformation evolution. It is shown that the contiguity is particularly relevant to detect microstructural deviations from randomness. This work focuses on recrystallization but its results are applicable to any nucleation and growth transformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc. - qualitative as well as quantitative - depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies
Average Analysis of Glushkov Automata under a BST-Like Model
Nicaud, Cyril; Pivoteau, Carine; Razet, Benoît
2010-01-01
We study the average number of transitions in Glushkov automata built from random regular expressions. This statistic highly depends on the probabilistic distribution set on the expressions. A recent work shows that, under the uniform distribution, regular expressions lead to automata with a linear number of transitions. However, uniform regular expressions are not necessarily a satisfying model. Therefore, we rather focus on an other model, inspired from random binary search trees (BST), whi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Govinda.K
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The information housed on the cloud is often seen as valuable to individuals with malicious intent. There is a lot of personal information and potentially secure data that people store on theircomputers, and this information is now being transferred to the cloud. This makes it critical for you to understand the security measures that your cloud provider has in place, and it is equally important to take personal precautions to secure your data. In the world of cloud computing, security is the big issue because of open system architecture. The data transferred through cloud should be secure and there is a possible to attack the data in middle. In this paper, we deal with key exchange between cloud user’s using cellular automata. It is hard to trace the key by man-in-the-middle-attack because of Strong encryption algorithm (Triple-DES with CA (Cellular Automata Rules. Besides CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check is done to ensure data integrity at the user’s end.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reversible cellular automata are invertible discrete dynamical systems which have been widely studied both for analysing interesting theoretical questions and for obtaining relevant practical applications, for instance, simulating invertible natural systems or implementing data coding devices. An important problem in the theory of reversible automata is to know how the local behaviour which is not invertible is able to yield a reversible global one. In this sense, symbolic dynamics plays an important role for obtaining an adequate representation of a reversible cellular automaton. In this paper we prove the equivalence between a reversible automaton where the ancestors only differ at one side (technically with one of the two Welch indices equal to 1) and a full shift. We represent any reversible automaton by a de Bruijn diagram, and we characterize the way in which the diagram produces an evolution formed by undefined repetitions of two states. By means of amalgamations, we prove that there is always a way of transforming a de Bruijn diagram into the full shift. Finally, we provide an example illustrating the previous results
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Deepak D’Souza; P S Thiagarajan
2002-04-01
We identify a subclass of timed automata called product interval automata and develop its theory. These automata consist of a network of timed agents with the key restriction being that there is just one clock for each agent and the way the clocks are read and reset is determined by the distribution of shared actions across the agents. We show that the resulting automata admit a clean theory in both logical and language theoretic terms. We also show that product interval automata are expressive enough to model the timed behaviour of asynchronous digital circuits.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This paper presents a development of the extended Cellular Automata (CA), based on relational databases(RDB), to model dynamic interactions among spatial objects. The integration of Geographical Information System (GIS)and CA has the great advantage of simulating geographical processes. But standard CA has some restrictions in cellularshape and neighbourhood and neighbour rules, which restrict the CA's ability to simulate complex, real world environ-ments. This paper discusses a cell's spatial relation based on the spatial object's geometrical and non-geometrical characteris-tics, and extends the cell' s neighbour definition, and considers that the cell' s neighbour lies in the forms of not only spa-tial adjacency but also attribute correlation. This paper then puts forward that spatial relations between two different cellscan be divided into three types, including spatial adjacency, neighbourhood and complicated separation. Based on tradition-al ideas, it is impossible to settle CA's restrictions completely. RDB-based CA is an academic experiment, in whichsome fields are designed to describe the essential information needed to define and select a cell's neighbour. The cultureinnovation diffusion system has multiple forms of space diffusion and inherited characteristics that the RDB-based CA iscapable of simulating more effectively. Finally this paper details a successful case study on the diffusion of fashion weartrends. Compared to the original CA, the RDB-based CA is a more natural and efficient representation of human knowl-edge over space, and is an effective tool in simulating complex systems that have multiple forms of spatial diffusion.
An Automata-Based Symbolic Approach for Verifying Programs on Relaxed Memory Models
Linden, Alexander; Wolper, Pierre
2010-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of verifying programs for the relaxed memory models implemented in modern processors. Specifically, it considers the TSO (Total Store Order) relaxation, which corresponds to the use of store buffers. The proposed approach proceeds by using finite automata to symbolically represent the possible contents of the store buffers. Store, load and commit operations then correspond to operations on these finite automata. The advantage of this approa...
A compact topology for sand automata
Dennunzio, Alberto; Masson, Benoît
2008-01-01
In this paper, we exhibit a strong relation between the sand automata configuration space and the cellular automata configuration space. This relation induces a compact topology for sand automata, and a new context in which sand automata are homeomorphic to cellular automata acting on a specific subshift. We show that the existing topological results for sand automata, including the Hedlund-like representation theorem, still hold. In this context, we give a characterization of the cellular automata which are sand automata, and study some dynamical behaviors such as equicontinuity. Furthermore, we deal with the nilpotency. We show that the classical definition is not meaningful for sand automata. Then, we introduce a suitable new notion of nilpotency for sand automata. Finally, we prove that this simple dynamical behavior is undecidable.
Parametric Linear Hybrid Automata for Complex Environmental Systems Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samar Hayat Khan Tareen
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Environmental systems, whether they be weather patterns or predator-prey relationships, are dependent on a number of different variables, each directly or indirectly affecting the system at large. Since not all of these factors are known, these systems take on non-linear dynamics, making it difficult to accurately predict meaningful behavioral trends far into the future. However, such dynamics do not warrant complete ignorance of different efforts to understand and model close approximations of these systems. Towards this end, we have applied a logical modeling approach to model and analyze the behavioral trends and systematic trajectories that these systems exhibit without delving into their quantification. This approach, formalized by René Thomas for discrete logical modeling of Biological Regulatory Networks (BRNs and further extended in our previous studies as parametric biological linear hybrid automata (Bio-LHA, has been previously employed for the analyses of different molecular regulatory interactions occurring across various cells and microbial species. As relationships between different interacting components of a system can be simplified as positive or negative influences, we can employ the Bio-LHA framework to represent different components of the environmental system as positive or negative feedbacks. In the present study, we highlight the benefits of hybrid (discrete/continuous modeling which lead to refinements among the fore-casted behaviors in order to find out which ones are actually possible. We have taken two case studies: an interaction of three microbial species in a freshwater pond, and a more complex atmospheric system, to show the applications of the Bio-LHA methodology for the timed hybrid modeling of environmental systems. Results show that the approach using the Bio-LHA is a viable method for behavioral modeling of complex environmental systems by finding timing constraints while keeping the complexity of the model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Gerardi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Flooding is an ongoing and complex problem in Italy. Very large floods caused inundation of the closest areas to the city centre in Rome in 1937, 1976, 1992, 2005 and most recently in 2008. Rome is located at the bottom of the Tiber River catchment, which cover an area of 16 000 km2. Intense precipitations struck the Tyrrhenian Sea side of the peninsula inducing a flood event on the Tiber and Aniene's (Tiber's tributary basins – which captured the attention of the national and international media. Actually there is no validated model in operation for real-time flood forecasting. This research aims at comparing the Cellular Model CAESAR (Cellular Automation Evolutionary Slope And River application on a reach of the Aniene River with Earth Observation Systems. The main result expected is the prediction of future channel dynamics on short and medium time scale.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Subrata Nandi
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this modern era, biometrics incorporate various mechanisms to recognize inimitable features of human beings by utilizing their biological and evident features. This paper proposes a novel technique for constructing a resilient and secure biometric recognition system. In this paper, an ECG-hash code of two distinct individuals has been formed by taking dot product of electrocardiogram (ECG feature matrices of two persons located at two different sites at respective databases. The validity of the system increases as samples from both persons, between whom the transmission takes place, are essential. Besides, electrocardiogram is such a unique feature of an individual that could not be compromised at any circumstance as contradictory to other features like fingerprints, face recognition etc. Moreover, the ECG-hash code is encrypted using rule vector of cellular automata that gives better security in terms of randomness of generated cipher text.
Christie, John A; Forrest, Ryan P; Corcelli, Steven A; Wasio, Natalie A; Quardokus, Rebecca C; Brown, Ryan; Kandel, S Alex; Lu, Yuhui; Lent, Craig S; Henderson, Kenneth W
2015-12-14
The preparation of 7-Fc(+) -8-Fc-7,8-nido-[C2 B9 H10 ](-) (Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) ) demonstrates the successful incorporation of a carborane cage as an internal counteranion bridging between ferrocene and ferrocenium units. This neutral mixed-valence Fe(II) /Fe(III) complex overcomes the proximal electronic bias imposed by external counterions, a practical limitation in the use of molecular switches. A combination of UV/Vis-NIR spectroscopic and TD-DFT computational studies indicate that electron transfer within Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) is achieved through a bridge-mediated mechanism. This electronic framework therefore provides the possibility of an all-neutral null state, a key requirement for the implementation of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) molecular computing. The adhesion, ordering, and characterization of Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) on Au(111) has been observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. PMID:26516063
Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows using Automata Modelling and Diagnosis Techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Caponetti, Fabio; Blanke, Mogens;
2009-01-01
This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using automata-based modelling and diagnosis. Measuring lying/standing behaviour of the cows by a sensor attached to the cows hindleg, lying/standing behaviour is modelled as a stochastic automaton. The paper introduces a cow's lying......-balance as a biologically inspired quantity describing how much the cow has been resting for a preceding period. A dynamic lying-balance model is identified from real data and the lying balance is used as input, together with lying/standing sensor measurements. Using different automata models for oestrus and...... non-oestrus conditions, with state transition probability densities identified from observations, diagnosis theory for stochastic automata is employed to obtain diagnoses of oestrus. The oestrus cases are detected using consistency based diagnosis on real data....
Robust tracking by cellular automata and neural networks with nonlocal weights
Ososkov, Gennadii A.
1995-04-01
A modified rotor model of the Hopfield neural networks (HNN) is proposed for finding tracks in multiwire proportional chambers. That requires us to apply both raw data prefiltering by cellular automaton and HNN weights furnishing by a special robust multiplier. Then this model is developed to be applicable for a more general type of data and detectors. As an example, data processing of ionospheric measurements are considered. For handling tracks detected by high pressure drift chambers with their up-down ambiguity a modification of deformable templates method is proposed. A new concept of controlled HNN is proposed for solving the so-called track-match problem.
Tau -- a lightweight tool for specifying and verifying tiny automata models
Holzmann, Gerard,
2015-01-01
Tau is a small Tcl/Tk application that can be used to quickly specify and formally verify small automata models (the name 'tau' is short for 'tiny automata'). It is used as a teaching aid in CS118, a course on the formal verification of asynchronous software systems using logic model checking. Tau requires the availability of a standard C compiler (e.g., gcc) and a recent version of the Spin model checker (e.g., Version 6.4.3 or later) as background tools.
Stochastic Semantics and Statistical Model Checking for Networks of Priced Timed Automata
David, Alexandre; Legay, Axel; Mikučionis, Marius; Poulsen, Danny Bøgsted; van Vliet, Jonas; Wang, Zheng
2011-01-01
This paper offers a natural stochastic semantics of Networks of Priced Timed Automata (NPTA) based on races between components. The semantics provides the basis for satisfaction of probabilistic Weighted CTL properties (PWCTL), conservatively extending the classical satisfaction of timed automata with respect to TCTL. In particular the extension allows for hard real-time properties of timed automata expressible in TCTL to be refined by performance properties, e.g. in terms of probabilistic guarantees of time- and cost-bounded properties. A second contribution of the paper is the application of Statistical Model Checking (SMC) to efficiently estimate the correctness of non-nested PWCTL model checking problems with a desired level of confidence, based on a number of independent runs of the NPTA. In addition to applying classical SMC algorithms, we also offer an extension that allows to efficiently compare performance properties of NPTAs in a parametric setting. The third contribution is an efficient tool implem...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Rehkopf
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Transmission of the agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is dependent on social context. A discrete spatial model representing neighborhoods segregated by levels of crowding and immunocompetence is constructed and used to evaluate prevention strategies, based on a number of assumptions about the spatial dynamics of tuberculosis. A cellular automata model is used to (a construct neighborhoods of different densities, (b model stochastically local interactions among individuals, and (c model the spread of tuberculosis within and across neighborhoods over time. Since infected people may become progressively sick but also heal through treatment, the transition among stages was modeled with transition probabilities. A moderate level of successful treatment (40% dramatically reduced the number of infections across all neighborhoods. Increasing the treatment in neighborhoods of a lower socioeconomic level from 40% to 90% results in an additional decrease of approximately 25% in the number of infected individuals overall. In conclusion, we find that a combination of a moderate level of successful treatment across all areas with more focused treatment efforts in lower socioeconomic areas resulted in the least number of infections over time.
Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechsteleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ; Wolf, D.E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechstleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ]|[Gerhard-Mercator-Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Theoretische Physik; Wagner, P. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Zentrum Fuer Paralleles Rechnen]|[Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Simon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1997-11-05
Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.
McCoy, Sophie J; Allesina, Stefano; Pfister, Catherine A
2016-03-16
Historical ecological datasets from a coastal marine community of crustose coralline algae (CCA) enabled the documentation of ecological changes in this community over 30 years in the Northeast Pacific. Data on competitive interactions obtained from field surveys showed concordance between the 1980s and 2013, yet also revealed a reduction in how strongly species interact. Here, we extend these empirical findings with a cellular automaton model to forecast ecological dynamics. Our model suggests the emergence of a new dominant competitor in a global change scenario, with a reduced role of herbivory pressure, or trophic control, in regulating competition among CCA. Ocean acidification, due to its energetic demands, may now instead play this role in mediating competitive interactions and thereby promote species diversity within this guild. PMID:26936244
Cellular Automaton Model for Immunology of Tumor Growth
Voitikova, M
1998-01-01
The stochastic discrete space-time model of an immune response on tumor spreading in a two-dimensional square lattice has been developed. The immunity-tumor interactions are described at the cellular level and then transferred into the setting of cellular automata (CA). The multistate CA model for system, in which all statesoflattice sites, composing of both immune and tumor cells populations, are the functions of the states of the 12 nearest neighbors. The CA model incorporates the essential featuresof the immunity-tumor system. Three regimes of neoplastic evolution including metastatic tumor growth and screen effect by inactive immune cells surrounding a tumor have been predicted.
Conway's game of life is a near-critical metastable state in the multiverse of cellular automata
Reia, Sandro M.; Kinouchi, Osame
2014-05-01
Conway's cellular automaton Game of Life has been conjectured to be a critical (or quasicritical) dynamical system. This criticality is generally seen as a continuous order-disorder transition in cellular automata (CA) rule space. Life's mean-field return map predicts an absorbing vacuum phase (ρ =0) and an active phase density, with ρ =0.37, which contrasts with Life's absorbing states in a square lattice, which have a stationary density of ρ2D≈0.03. Here, we study and classify mean-field maps for 6144 outer-totalistic CA and compare them with the corresponding behavior found in the square lattice. We show that the single-site mean-field approach gives qualitative (and even quantitative) predictions for most of them. The transition region in rule space seems to correspond to a nonequilibrium discontinuous absorbing phase transition instead of a continuous order-disorder one. We claim that Life is a quasicritical nucleation process where vacuum phase domains invade the alive phase. Therefore, Life is not at the "border of chaos," but thrives on the "border of extinction."
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王丽萍; 金晓斌; 杜心栋; 周寅康
2012-01-01
LUCC model is an efficient tool to analysis the processes and consequences of land use systems, and to support land use planning and policy. According to the problem that constructive land expansion is the main reason for land use change in Foshan city, based on remote sensing data of land use change with spatial resolution of 30 m, the paper choose grey model as quantitative model and the cellular automata model as spatial model to simulate the land use pattern of 2015 by setting different scenario conditions. Results showed that in three kinds of expansion circumstances of.constructive land, the area of constructive land increased 27 830 、 21 645 and 15 461 hm2 respectively, the corresponding proportion of the cultivated land was 42.28%, 48.38% and 55.96% respectively. This indicates that cultivated land is still the main source of constructive land expansion, the contradiction between cultivated land protection and economic development will further expend.%通过模拟土地利用变化情景,了解土地利用变化趋势,可为制定科学的土地利用管理策略提供支持,根据近年来建设用地扩张在佛山市土地利用类型变化中占主导地位的特点,选择灰色模型作为数量模型,元胞自动机模型作为空间模型,设定3种建设用地扩张情景:适度约束、中度约束和强力约束,结合数量模型和空间模型的优点,模拟2015年土地利用空间布局.研究结果表明:在设定的3种建设用地扩张情景下,建设用地增加的面积分别为278.3、216.5和154.6 km2,相应来源于耕地的比率分别为42.28％、48.38％和55.96％,说明耕地仍然是建设用地增加的主要来源,也即耕地保护和经济发展的矛盾将会进一步增大,可为政府和土地管理部门制定政策提供一定的参考,从而采取更有针对性的措施.
Visualization of Patterns and Self-organization of Cellular Automata in Urban Traffic Situations
Zhou, Lei; Brian, Schwartz
2001-06-01
The use of cellular automaton (CA) techniques is very good at modeling complex or nonlinear systems. In dynamic system within the context of discrete mathematical steps for CA simulations, simple local rules produce complex global rules. The simplicity of CA rules enables us to model and investigate more realistic models for the behavior traffic in two-dimensional flow systems. Our numerical solution presents self-organization behavior, which is called grid-lock for urban city street traffic and a phase transitions in the fundamental flow rate vs. density diagrams. We present calculations, which demonstrate the effects of micro CA rules and traffic parameters on the macro properties of traffic flow and behavior. We modified the stochastic parameter p, which is constant in the original CA rules, to a variable depending on the state of the vehicles. This structure of path dependence on history for traffic properties is in many cases analogous to solutions obtained for interactive magnetic systems. Using 3D ray tracer software, we are able to render the visualization of patterns of grid-lock into a 3D virtual urban environment.
Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach
Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.
2015-07-01
The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(II) + 2Ru(III)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsukerblat, Boris, E-mail: tsuker@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Palii, Andrew, E-mail: tsuker@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular (ICMol), Universidad de Valencia, Paterna (Spain)
2015-10-07
Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(II) + 2Ru(III)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between
Tsukerblat, Boris; Palii, Andrew; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio
2015-10-01
Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(ii) + 2Ru(iii)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper introduces a design methodology in the context of finding new and innovative design principles by means of optimization techniques. In this method cellular automata (CA) and simulated annealing (SA) were combined and used for solving the optimization problem. This method contains two principles that are neighboring concept from CA and accepting each displacement basis on decreasing of objective function and Boltzman distribution from SA that plays role of transition rule. Proposed method was used for solving fuel management optimization problem in VVER-1000 Russian reactor. Since the fuel management problem contains a huge amount of calculation for finding the best configuration for fuel assemblies in reactor core this method has been introduced for reducing the volume of calculation. In this study reducing of power peaking factor inside the reactor core of Bushehr NPP is considered as the objective function. The proposed optimization method is compared with Hopfield neural network procedure that was used for solving this problem and has been shown that the result, velocity and qualification of new method are comparable with that. Besides, the result is the optimum configuration, which is in agreement with the pattern proposed by the designer.
Heterogenous motorised traffic flow modelling using cellular automata
Deo, Puspita
2007-01-01
Traffic congestion is a major problem in most major cities around the world with few signs that this is diminishing, despite management efforts. In planning traffic management and control strategies at urban and inter urban level, understanding the factors involved in vehicular progression is vital. Most work to date has, however, been restricted to single vehicle-type traffic. Study of heterogeneous traffic movements for urban single and multi-lane roads has been limited, even for developed ...
Cellular automata pedestrian movement model considering human behavior
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Lizhong; FANG Weifeng; LI Jian; HUANG Rui; FAN Weicheng
2003-01-01
The pedestrian movement is more complex than vehicular flow for the reason that people are more flexible and intelligent than car. Without the limit of "lanes" pedestrian movement is loose and free. Furthermore, they are easily affected by other walkers as well as the environment around. In this paper some special technique is introduced considering human behavior to make the rules more reasonable. By simulating the two-dimension pedestrian movement, the phase transition phenomena of pedestrian movement, including the up walkers moving from the bottom to the upper boundary and the right walkers moving from the left to the right boundary, are presented. Studying on the effect of the system size on the critical density shows that the critical density is independent of the system size in the scope studied in this paper.
Attractiveness of the Haar measure for linear cellular automata on Markov subgroups
Maass, Alejandro; Mart\\'{ı}nez, Servet; Pivato, Marcus; Yassawi, Reem
2006-01-01
For the action of an algebraic cellular automaton on a Markov subgroup, we show that the Ces\\`{a}ro mean of the iterates of a Markov measure converges to the Haar measure. This is proven by using the combinatorics of the binomial coefficients on the regenerative construction of the Markov measure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Tokunaga
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of signal transmission through metal complexes [L5M-BL-ML5]5+ (M=Fe, Ru, Os, BL=pyrazine (py, 4,4’-bipyridine (bpy, L=NH3, which are simplified models of the molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (molecular QCA, is discussed from the viewpoint of one-electron theory, density functional theory. It is found that for py complexes, the signal transmission time (tst is Fe(0.6 fs < Os(0.7 fs < Ru(1.1 fs and the signal amplitude (A is Fe(0.05 e < Os(0.06 e < Ru(0.10 e. For bpy complexes, tst and A are Fe(1.4 fs < Os(1.7 fs < Ru(2.5 fs and Os(0.11 e < Ru(0.12 e
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somsak Panyakeow
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.
Automata and Quantum Computing
Ambainis, Andris; Yakaryilmaz, Abuzer
2015-01-01
Quantum computing is a new model of computation, based on quantum physics. Quantum computers can be exponentially faster than conventional computers for problems such as factoring. Besides full-scale quantum computers, more restricted models such as quantum versions of finite automata have been studied. In this paper, we survey various models of quantum finite automata and their properties. We also provide some open questions and new directions for researchers.
PAutomaC: a probabilistic automata and hidden Markov models learning competition
Verwer, S.E.; Eyraud, R.M.; Higuera, C. de la
2013-01-01
Approximating distributions over strings is a hard learning problem. Typical techniques involve using finite state machines as models and attempting to learn these; these machines can either be hand built and then have their weights estimated, or built by grammatical inference techniques: the structure and the weights are then learned simultaneously. The Probabilistic Automata learning Competition (PAutomaC), run in 2012, was the first grammatical inference challenge that allowed the comparis...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Thirumaran
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Incorporating changes into the logics of composed services dynamically and successfully is a challenge for sustaining a business’ image and profit in the society, especially when the change is expected to be made immediately at low cost. In this paper, we address this challenge by proposing a change impact analysis framework for long term composed services (LCS which: (i enables the business people to implement the changes by themselves through their analysts, (ii reduces cost and time by eliminating the dependence on IT developers once the application services are developed and delivered, (iii ensures effective incorporation of the changes made by using standard methodologies for evaluation – finite state automaton for verifying the runtime compatibilities and change evaluation and probabilistic cellular automaton for impact analysis and prediction. Through the evaluated probability measures and effective incident matching, the knowledge gained by the analyst over his service logics and the efficiency of incorporating changes are increased.
Adamatzky, Andrew
2015-01-01
The book gives a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research and engineering in theory and application of Lattice Automata in design and control of autonomous Robots. Automata and robots share the same notional meaning. Automata (originated from the latinization of the Greek word “αυτόματον”) as self-operating autonomous machines invented from ancient years can be easily considered the first steps of robotic-like efforts. Automata are mathematical models of Robots and also they are integral parts of robotic control systems. A Lattice Automaton is a regular array or a collective of finite state machines, or automata. The Automata update their states by the same rules depending on states of their immediate neighbours. In the context of this book, Lattice Automata are used in developing modular reconfigurable robotic systems, path planning and map exploration for robots, as robot controllers, synchronisation of robot collectives, robot vision, parallel robotic actuators. All chapters are...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Testing the applicability of mathematical models with carefully designed experiments is a powerful tool in the investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation on cells. The modeling and cellular studies complement each other, for modeling provides guidance for designing critical experiments which must provide definitive results, while the experiments themselves provide new input to the model. Based on previous experimental results the model for the accumulation of damage in Chlamydomonas reinhardi has been extended to include various multiple two-event combinations. Split dose survival experiments have shown that models tested to date predict most but not all the observed behavior. Stationary-phase mammalian cells, required for tests of other aspects of the model, have been shown to be at different points in the cell cycle depending on how they were forced to stop proliferating. These cultures also demonstrate different capacities for repair of sublethal radiation damage
The MIRELA framework: modeling and analyzing mixed reality applications using timed automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bachir Djafri
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Mixed Reality (MR aims to link virtual entities with the real world and has many applications such as military and medical ones. In many MR systems and more precisely in augmented scenes, one needs the application to render the virtual part accurately at the right time. To achieve this, such systems acquire data related to the real world from a set of sensors before rendering virtual entities. A suitable system architecture should minimize the delays to keep the overall system delay (also called end-to-end latency within the requirements for real-time performance. In this context, we propose a compositional modeling framework for MR software architectures in order to specify, simulate and validate formally the time constraints of such systems. Our approach is first based on a functional decomposition of such systems into generic components. The obtained elements as well as their typical interactions give rise to generic representations in terms of timed automata. A whole system is then obtained as a composition of such defined components.To write specifications, a textual language named MIRELA (MIxed REality LAnguage is proposed along with the corresponding compilation tools. The generated output contains timed automata in UPPAAL format for simulation and verification of time constraints. These automata may also be used to generate source code skeletons for an implementation on a MR platform.The approach is illustrated first on a small example. A realistic case study is also developed. It is modeled by several timed automata synchronizing through channels and including a large number of time constraints. Both systems have been simulated in UPPAAL and checked against the required behavioral properties.
Simulation of Forest Fire Spreading Based on Geographic Cellular Automata%林火蔓延地理元胞自动机仿真模拟
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
湛玉剑; 张帅; 张磊; 刘学军
2013-01-01
On the basis of geographical cellular automata, a forest fire spread simulation model which applied in the complex diversity of tree species is proposed for the complexity of the impact of forest fire spread factors in this paper. Meanwhile ,GIS technology, which is convenient to CA forest fire spread model for its ability to handle and analysis raster data and other abilities, is used to design and achieve a dynamic simulation of the spread model in this paper. Simulation results show that the model can simulate forest fire spread of different environments, and is suitable for simulation analyzing forest fire spread under the combined effects of various factors ,and also can provide technical support for prediction analysis of fire spread,estimating fire shape,burned area and the rate of spread and optimizing fire suppression decision-making.%针对林火蔓延影响因子的复杂性,在地理元胞自动机的基础上,提出一种应用于具有复杂树种多样性的林火蔓延模拟模型,同时借助GIS技术实现了蔓延模型的动态模拟.实验结果表明,模型可以模拟不同环境下的林火蔓延,适用于仿真分析多种因素综合作用下的林火蔓延,能够为预测分析火势蔓延趋势,估算火场形状、过火面积、蔓延速度以及优化灭火决策等提供技术支持.
Query Monitoring and Analysis for Database Privacy - A Security Automata Model Approach
Kumar, Anand; Ligatti, Jay; Tu, Yi-Cheng
2015-01-01
Privacy and usage restriction issues are important when valuable data are exchanged or acquired by different organizations. Standard access control mechanisms either restrict or completely grant access to valuable data. On the other hand, data obfuscation limits the overall usability and may result in loss of total value. There are no standard policy enforcement mechanisms for data acquired through mutual and copyright agreements. In practice, many different types of policies can be enforced in protecting data privacy. Hence there is the need for an unified framework that encapsulates multiple suites of policies to protect the data. We present our vision of an architecture named security automata model (SAM) to enforce privacy-preserving policies and usage restrictions. SAM analyzes the input queries and their outputs to enforce various policies, liberating data owners from the burden of monitoring data access. SAM allows administrators to specify various policies and enforces them to monitor queries and control the data access. Our goal is to address the problems of data usage control and protection through privacy policies that can be defined, enforced, and integrated with the existing access control mechanisms using SAM. In this paper, we lay out the theoretical foundation of SAM, which is based on an automata named Mandatory Result Automata. We also discuss the major challenges of implementing SAM in a real-world database environment as well as ideas to meet such challenges. PMID:26997936
Cellular automata for the spreading of technologies in socio-economic systems
Kun, Ferenc; Kocsis, Gergely; Farkas, Janos
2008-01-01
We introduce an agent-based model for the spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems where the technology is mainly used for the collaboration/interaction of agents. Agents use products of different technologies to collaborate with each other which induce costs proportional to the difference of technological levels. Additional costs arise when technologies of different providers are used. Agents can adopt technologies and providers of their interacting partners in order...
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Benny N.
2000-01-01
There has been significant improvement in the performance of VLSI devices, in terms of size, power consumption, and speed, in recent years and this trend may also continue for some near future. However, it is a well known fact that there are major obstacles, i.e., physical limitation of feature size reduction and ever increasing cost of foundry, that would prevent the long term continuation of this trend. This has motivated the exploration of some fundamentally new technologies that are not dependent on the conventional feature size approach. Such technologies are expected to enable scaling to continue to the ultimate level, i.e., molecular and atomistic size. Quantum computing, quantum dot-based computing, DNA based computing, biologically inspired computing, etc., are examples of such new technologies. In particular, quantum-dots based computing by using Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) has recently been intensely investigated as a promising new technology capable of offering significant improvement over conventional VLSI in terms of reduction of feature size (and hence increase in integration level), reduction of power consumption, and increase of switching speed. Quantum dot-based computing and memory in general and QCA specifically, are intriguing to NASA due to their high packing density (10(exp 11) - 10(exp 12) per square cm ) and low power consumption (no transfer of current) and potentially higher radiation tolerant. Under Revolutionary Computing Technology (RTC) Program at the NASA/JPL Center for Integrated Space Microelectronics (CISM), we have been investigating the potential applications of QCA for the space program. To this end, exploiting the intrinsic features of QCA, we have designed novel QCA-based circuits for co-planner (i.e., single layer) and compact implementation of a class of data permutation matrices, a class of interconnection networks, and a bit-serial processor. Building upon these circuits, we have developed novel algorithms and QCA
Modeling the topological organization of cellular processes.
Giavitto, Jean-Louis; Michel, Olivier
2003-07-01
The cell as a dynamical system presents the characteristics of having a dynamical structure. That is, the exact phase space of the system cannot be fixed before the evolution and integrative cell models must state the evolution of the structure jointly with the evolution of the cell state. This kind of dynamical systems is very challenging to model and simulate. New programming concepts must be developed to ease their modeling and simulation. In this context, the goal of the MGS project is to develop an experimental programming language dedicated to the simulation of this kind of systems. MGS proposes a unified view on several computational mechanisms (CHAM, Lindenmayer systems, Paun systems, cellular automata) enabling the specification of spatially localized computations on heterogeneous entities. The evolution of a dynamical structure is handled through the concept of transformation which relies on the topological organization of the system components. An example based on the modeling of spatially distributed biochemical networks is used to illustrate how these notions can be used to model the spatial and temporal organization of intracellular processes. PMID:12915272
Self-organized criticality in solar flares: a cellular automata approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. F. Morales
2010-07-01
Full Text Available We give an overview of a novel lattice-based avalanche model that reproduces well a number of observed statistical properties of solar flares. The anisotropic lattice is defined as a network of vertically-connected nodes subjected to horizontal random displacements mimicking the kinks introduced by random motions of the photospheric footpoints of magnetic fieldlines forming a coronal loop. We focus here on asymmetrical driving displacements, which under our geometrical interpretation of the lattice correspond to a net direction of twist of the magnetic fieldlines about the loop axis. We show that a net vertical electrical current density does build up in our lattice, as one would expect from systematic twisting of a loop-like magnetic structure, and that the presence of this net current has a profound impact on avalanche dynamics. The presence of an additional energy reservoir tends to increase the mean energy released by avalanches, and yield a probability distribution of released energy in better agreement with observational inferences than in its absence. Symmetrical driving displacements are in better conceptual agreement with a random shuffling of photospheric footpoint, and yield a power-law distribution of energy release with exponent larger than 2, as required in Parker's nanoflare model of coronal heating. On the other hand, moderate asymmetrical driving generate energy distribution exponents that are similar to those obtained from SOHO EUV observations.
Cellular automata with inertia: species competition, spatial patterns, and survival in ecotones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a two-dimensional CA model with three possible states for the system individual cells, 0 and ±. As for the dynamical rules, only ± can exert pressure to change the cells actual states. In this way, the 0 state is neutral and in some sense competitively weaker than the other two states. We further assume an inner property, the inertia, which is an intrinsic resistance to changes in the system. We evolve an ensemble of initial configurations for the CA until reaching steady states. By calculating averages over some relevant quantities for the final stationary configurations, we discuss how certain features of the problem, namely, initial states population and degree of aggregation as well as the values of inertia, can determine the different characteristics of the spatio-temporal pattern created by the CA evolution. We finally discuss how our findings may be relevant in the understanding of structures formation due to species competition in biology, specially in the transition regions between different biomes, the so called ecotones.
Varieties of Learning automata: An Overview
Thathachar, MLA; Sastry, PS
2002-01-01
Automata models of learning systems introduced in the 1960s were popularized as learning automata (LA) in a survey paper 1974 [1]. Since then, there have been many fundamental advances in the theory as well as applications of these learning models. In the past few years, the structure of LA, has been modified in several directions to suit different applications. Concepts such as parameterized learning automata (PLA), generalized learning,automata (GLA), and continuous action-set learning auto...
Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger
2001-01-01
Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.
Faulkner, Nicholas
2012-01-01
We study some dynamical properties of a family of two-dimensional cellular automata: those that arise from an underlying one dimensional sand automaton whose local rule is obtained using a latin square. We identify a simple sand automaton G whose local rule is algebraic, and classify this automaton as having equicontinuity points, but not being equicontinuous. We also show it is not surjective. We generalise some of these results to a wider class of sand automata.
Cellular automaton for realistic modelling of landslides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Segre
1995-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical model is developed for the simulation of debris flow in landslides over a complex three dimensional topography. The model is then validated by comparing a simulation with reported field data. Our model is in fact a realistic elaboration of simpler "sandpile automata", which have in recent years been studied as supposedly paradigmatic of "self-organized criticality". Statistics and scaling properties of the simulation are examined, and show that the model has an intermittent behaviour.
基于细胞自动机的安全图像加密算法%Secure Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Cellular Automata
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
熊永红; 廖晓峰; 周庆
2011-01-01
In order to solve the problems that the cipher image encrypted by encryption algorithm based on the merit of the state attractors of Elementary Cellular Automata(ECA) can still discern part outline of the original image, and the plaintext sensitivity is poor, this paper proposes a secure image encryption algorithm. It employs the method which encrypts every bit plane with period two 2D Cellular Automata(CA), and then uses state attractors to encrypt the image, to achieve the effect that I bit change in the plaintext can be spreaded to the whole cipher image. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm is more sensitive, has larger key space, and easy to implement.%利用初等细胞自动机状态环性质进行加密后的密文图像仍可看出原图像的部分轮廓,且明文敏感性差.由此提出一种安全的图像加密算法,采用周期为2的二维细胞自动机对图像进行位平面加密,再通过状态环加密的方法使明文改变1 bit即可影响整个密文图像.仿真结果表明,改进算法敏感性更高,密钥空间更大,且加密速度较快.
Oku, Makito; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2010-11-01
A modularly-structured neural network model is considered. Each module, which we call a ‘cell’, consists of two parts: a Hopfield neural network model and a multilayered perceptron. An array of such cells is used to simulate the Rule 110 cellular automaton with high accuracy even when all the units of neural networks are replaced by stochastic binary ones. We also find that noise not only degrades but also facilitates computation if the outputs of multilayered perceptrons are below the threshold required to update the states of the cells, which is a stochastic resonance in computation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum
2004-01-01
This contribution reports on the considerable effort made recently towards extending and applying well-established timed automata technology to optimal scheduling and planning problems. The effort of the authors in this direction has to a large extent been carried out as part of the European proj...... projects VHS [22] and AMETIST [17] and are available in the recently released UPPAAL CORA [12], a variant of the real-time verification tool UPPAAL [20,5] specialized for cost-optimal reachability for the extended model of priced timed automata....
Global Network Model based on Earth Grid and Cellular
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongqi Lu
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We aim to understand the current health state of the Earth and find how human activities influence it. Based on the theory of Earth’s Grid and Cellular Automata, we define and test a global network model, analyze the mutual interactions and feedbacks of ecosystem, hydrologic circle and atmosphere. In addition, we consult a lot of data to find a benchmark for the “Earth Health Map”, with the ecosystem distribution on it, which can be helpful for making a strategic decision for policy makers and prediction. Our model can be extended to other similar fields. In the end, we discuss the sensitivity of parameters selection, and the superiorities and weaknesses of our model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A cellular automaton simulation which is able to predict the geometry of micro-features etched into ductile erosive targets, as a result of abrasive jet micromachining (AJM), is presented. Similar to a previous simulation for the AJM of brittle erosive targets, the movement of individual erodent particles is tracked in a simulated environment, including their collisions with, and ricochet from, the mask and target substrate modeled as cellular-automatons. A new cell erosion algorithm is presented in order to allow the previous simulation to be applied to the AJM of ductile materials. A previously published empirical erosion rule, which related the erosion rate of ductile substrates caused by a jet, was also proven to be applicable, to a good approximation, to single particle impacts. With this new cell erosion algorithm, the predictions of the model compared well with measurements of the surface evolution of unmasked channels, masked micro-holes and micro-channels machined in polymethyl-methacrylate. The results also highlight the importance of modeling the effect of particle size on the prediction of the size and shape of features fabricated in ductile erosive materials using AJM
Automata, universality, computation tribute to Maurice Margenstern
2015-01-01
This book is an intellectually stimulating excursion into mathematical machines and structures capable for a universal computation. World top experts in computer science and mathematics overview exciting and intriguing topics of logical theory of monoids, geometry of Gauss word, philosophy of mathematics in computer science, asynchronous and parallel P-systems, decidability in cellular automata, splicing systems, reversible Turing machines, information flows in two-way finite automata, prime generators in automaton arrays, Grossone and Turing machines, automaton models of atomic lattices. The book is full of visually attractive examples of mathematical machines, open problems and challenges for future research. Those interested in the advancement of a theory of computation, philosophy of mathematics, future and emergent computing paradigms, architectures and implementations will find the book vital for their research and development.
Weighted Watson-Crick automata
Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku
2014-07-01
There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.
Weighted Watson-Crick automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd [Department of Information System, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia); Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku [Department of Computer Science, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia)
2014-07-10
There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.
A Multi-Teacher Learning Automata Computing Model for Graph Partitioning Problems
Ikebo, Shigeya; Qian, Fei; Hirata, Hironori
Graph partitioning is an important problem that has extensive applications in many areas, including VLSI design, scientific computing, data mining, geographical information systems and job scheduling. The graph partitioning problem (GPP) is NP-complete. There are several heuristic algorithms developed finding a reasonably good resolution. The most famous partitioning methods are simulated annealing (SA) and mean field algorithm (MFA) known to produce good partition for a wide class of problems, and they are used quite extensively. However these methods are very expensive in time and very sensitive in parameters tuning methods. In this paper, a new parameter-free algorithm for GPP has been proposed. The algorithm has been constructed using the S-model learning automata with multi-teacher random environments. As shown in our experiments, the proposed algorithm has some advantages superior to SA, MFA and ParMeTiS.
Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri
We define the notion of height-deterministic pushdown automata, a model where for any given input string the stack heights during any (nondeterministic) computation on the input are a priori fixed. Different subclasses of height-deterministic pushdown automata, strictly containing the class of...... regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...
Predictive Modelling of Cellular Load
Carolan, Emmett; McLoone, Seamus; Farrell, Ronan
2015-01-01
This work examines the temporal dynamics of cellular load in four Irish regions. Large scale underutilisation of network resources is identified both at the regional level and at the level of individual cells. Cellular load is modeled and prediction intervals are generated. These prediction intervals are used to put an upper bound on usage in a particular cell at a particular time. Opportunities for improvements in network utilization by incorporating these upper bounds on usage are identifie...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Zou
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Reconciling competing desires to build urban models that can be simple and complicated is something of a grand challenge for urban simulation. It also prompts difficulties in many urban policy situations, such as urban sprawl, where simple, actionable ideas may need to be considered in the context of the messily complex and complicated urban processes and phenomena that work within cities. In this paper, we present a novel architecture for achieving both simple and complicated realizations of urban sprawl in simulation. Fine-scale simulations of sprawl geography are run using geographic automata to represent the geographical drivers of sprawl in intricate detail and over fine resolutions of space and time. We use Equation-Free computing to deploy population as a coarse observable of sprawl, which can be leveraged to run automata-based models as short-burst experiments within a meta-simulation framework.
A Proliferation of Air Pollution Simulation System base on Cellular Automata%基于元胞自动机的污染气体扩散模拟系统
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
秦弋丰; 杨雨诚; 谢育武; 李俚; 吴皆强
2015-01-01
元胞自动机模型( Cellular Automation Model, CA模型)是一种用于模拟离散动力系统内部的各独立单元间因为强烈非线性作用而引发的系统自组织演化过程的建模方式,规则的局部性和时空离散化是CA模型的主要特征.本系统基于当今城市最为严重的空气污染问题展开研究,主要通过在地图上确定污染源位置,并录入污染源数据,通过元胞自动机原理,模拟在有风和无风状态下污染气体元胞的运动状况,从微观到宏观,系统地描述污染气体的运动状况.%Cellular Automation Model(CA) is a modeling method used to simulate the internal unit between discrete dynamic system that caused the evolution of a self-organization in system because of nonlinear function. Temporal discretization and local rule is it main feature. We developed this system according to the one of the most serious problems of our city in these days which is air pollution. By pain point the source of pollution on the map and input the pollution data, through the principle of the Cellular automata, stimulated the movement of pollution gas cell under condition of both windy calm. Describe the motion of the pollution gas from micro to macro.
Learning communicating and nondeterministic automata
Kern, Carsten
2009-01-01
The results of this dissertation are two-fold. On the one hand, inductive learning techniques are extended and two new inference algorithms for inferring nondeterministic, and universal, respectively, finite-state automata are presented. On the other hand, certain learning techniques are employed and enhanced to semi-automatically infer communicating automata (also called design models in the software development cycle). For both topics, theoretical results on the feasibility of the approache...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes a novel design paradigm for circuits designed in quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) technology. Previously reported QCA circuits in the literature have generally been designed in a single layer which is the main logical block in which the inverter and majority gate are on the base layer, except for the parts where multilayer wire crossing was used. In this paper the concept of multilayer wire crossing has been extended to design logic gates in multilayers. Using a 5-input majority gate in a multilayer, a 1-bit and 2-bit adder have been designed in the proposed multilayer gate design paradigm. A comparison has been made with some adders reported previously in the literature and it has been shown that circuits designed in the proposed design paradigm are much more efficient in terms of area, the requirement of QCA cells in the design and the input–output delay of the circuit. Over all, the availability of one additional spatial dimension makes the design process much more flexible and there is scope for the customizability of logic gate designs to make the circuit compact. (paper)
Energy Games in Multiweighted Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fahrenberg, U.; Juhl, L.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, J.
2011-01-01
Energy games have recently attracted a lot of attention. These are games played on finite weighted automata and concern the existence of infinite runs subject to boundary constraints on the accumulated weight, allowing e.g only for behaviours where a resource is always available (nonnegative...... accumulated weight), yet does not exceed a given maximum capacity. We extend energy games to a multiweighted and parameterized setting, allowing us to model systems with multiple quantitative aspects. We present reductions between Petri nets and multiweighted automata and among different types of...... multiweighted automata and identify new complexity and (un)decidability results for both one- and two-player games. We also investigate the tractability of an extension of multiweighted energy games in the setting of timed automata....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Capiluppi
2013-08-01
Full Text Available We propose an extension of Hybrid I/O Automata (HIOAs to model agent systems and their implicit communication through perturbation of the environment, like localization of objects or radio signals diffusion and detection. The new object, called World Automaton (WA, is built in such a way to preserve as much as possible of the compositional properties of HIOAs and its underlying theory. From the formal point of view we enrich classical HIOAs with a set of world variables whose values are functions both of time and space. World variables are treated similarly to local variables of HIOAs, except in parallel composition, where the perturbations produced by world variables are summed. In such way, we obtain a structure able to model both agents and environments, thus inducing a hierarchy in the model and leading to the introduction of a new operator. Indeed this operator, called inplacement, is needed to represent the possibility of an object (WA of living inside another object/environment (WA.
Bisimulations for fuzzy automata
Ćirić, Miroslav; Ignjatović, Jelena; Damljanović, Nada; Bašić, Milan
2011-01-01
Bisimulations have been widely used in many areas of computer science to model equivalence between various systems, and to reduce the number of states of these systems, whereas uniform fuzzy relations have recently been introduced as a means to model the fuzzy equivalence between elements of two possible different sets. Here we use the conjunction of these two concepts as a powerful tool in the study of equivalence between fuzzy automata. We prove that a uniform fuzzy relation between fuzzy a...
Modelling Implicit Communication in Multi-Agent Systems with Hybrid Input/Output Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Capiluppi
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We propose an extension of Hybrid I/O Automata (HIOAs to model agent systems and their implicit communication through perturbation of the environment, like localization of objects or radio signals diffusion and detection. To this end we decided to specialize some variables of the HIOAs whose values are functions both of time and space. We call them world variables. Basically they are treated similarly to the other variables of HIOAs, but they have the function of representing the interaction of each automaton with the surrounding environment, hence they can be output, input or internal variables. Since these special variables have the role of simulating implicit communication, their dynamics are specified both in time and space, because they model the perturbations induced by the agent to the environment, and the perturbations of the environment as perceived by the agent. Parallel composition of world variables is slightly different from parallel composition of the other variables, since their signals are summed. The theory is illustrated through a simple example of agents systems.
Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Extended Two-dimensional Cellular Automata%基于扩展型二维CA的图像加密算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗小刚; 李轩; 彭承琳; 侯长军; 霍丹群
2009-01-01
根据数字图像的存储特点,提出一种基于扩展型二维元胞自动机的图像加密算法,将二维元胞自动机与图像加密技术结合,利用元胞自动机生成数值范围在0～255区间的二维伪随机数矩阵,截取与图像大小相等的伪随机数矩阵作为密码对图像像素进行加密,解密为加密的逆过程.实验结果表明,该算法能快速产生密码,加密形式简单,具有较好的抗攻击能力,适合对数据量大的数字图像进行加密.%According to the storage characteristics of digital image, an image encryption algorithm based on extended two-dimensional Cellular Automata(CA) is proposed in this paper. It combines the two-dimensional CA with the technology of image encryption, which uses CA to generate a two-dimensional matrix pseudo-random number ranged from 0 to 255 automatically and takes a part of this matrix as the code to enerypt image pixels, and the size of this matrix is the same as the image. The decryption is the converse process of encryption. Experimental results demonstrate this algorithm can generate cryptogram rapidly and has a simple encrypt form as well as a better performance against attacks. It is suitable for encrypting digital images with huge data.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴义虎; 李意芬; 喻伟; 喻丹
2014-01-01
The behavior of the driver was considered as the rule of the driver change of lanes,and the new rule of the changes of lanes with the combination between the driver behavior and the coincidental traffic was put forward,then a improved cellular automa-ton model was put forward,the model was proposed to describe the characteristics of co-incidental traffic j ams.By the proposed model,the velocity of traffic flow and the length of vehicle lines by coincidental traffic j ams was simulated,and the results of the simula-tion was proposed.%以元胞自动机模型为基础，在传统的车辆换道规则上，引入驾驶人行为因素，根据不同区域交通流特点和驾驶行为特点，给出了不同的车辆换道规则，建立了一种适用于城市道路偶发性拥堵交通流行为分析的元胞自动机改进模型。并利用该模型，模拟分析了偶发性拥堵发生时不同车流密度的车辆排队和平均车速情况。
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A neural-network (NN) approach for neutrino interaction vertex reconstruction in the OPERA experiment with the help of the Target Tracker (TT) detector is described. A feed-forward NN with the standard back propagation option is used. The energy functional minimization of the network is performed by the method of conjugate gradients. Data preprocessing by means of cellular automaton algorithm is performed. The Hough transform is applied for muon track determination and the robust fitting method is used for shower axis reconstruction. A comparison of the proposed approach with earlier studies, based on the use of the neural network package SNNS, shows their similar performance. The further development of the approach is underway
Parrondo games as lattice gas automata
Meyer, David A.; Blumer, Heather
2001-01-01
Parrondo games are coin flipping games with the surprising property that alternating plays of two losing games can produce a winning game. We show that this phenomenon can be modelled by probabilistic lattice gas automata. Furthermore, motivated by the recent introduction of quantum coin flipping games, we show that quantum lattice gas automata provide an interesting definition for quantum Parrondo games.
Case Study of Phase Transition in Cellular Models of Pedestrian Flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bukáček, M.; Hrabák, Pavel
Cham : Springer, 2014 - (Was, J.; Sirakoulis, G.; Bandini, S.), s. 508-517 ISBN 978-3-319-11519-1. ISSN 0302-9743. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 8751). [ACRI 2014. International Conference on Cellular Automata for Research and Industry /11./. Krakov (PL), 22.09.2014-25.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Floor field model * phase transition * travel time * bounds principle * asynchronous update Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/hrabak-0432244.pdf
Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C. A.
2004-01-01
We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahr, Patrick
2012-01-01
Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...
Model Skinner Operant Conditioning automata i bionički naučeno upravljanje robota
Cai, Jianxian; Hong, Li; Cheng, Lina; Yu, Ruihong
2016-01-01
Fuzzy Skinner Operant Conditioning Automaton (FSOCA) sastavljen je na temelju Operant Conditioning mehanizma primjenom teorije neizrazitih skupova. Osnovno obilježje automata FSOCA je sljedeće: neizraziti rezultati stanja pomoću Gausove funkcije koriste se kao skupovi neizrazitog stanja; neizrazita pravila preslikavanja (fuzzy mapping rules) kod fuzzy-conditioning-operacije zamjenjuju stohastičke "conditioning-operant" skupove preslikavanja. Stoga se automat FSOCA može koristiti za opisivanje...
Simultaneous Finite Automata: An Efficient Data-Parallel Model for Regular Expression Matching
Sin'ya, Ryoma; Matsuzaki, Kiminori; Sassa, Masataka
2014-01-01
Automata play important roles in wide area of computing and the growth of multicores calls for their efficient parallel implementation. Though it is known in theory that we can perform the computation of a finite automaton in parallel by simulating transitions, its implementation has a large overhead due to the simulation. In this paper we propose a new automaton called simultaneous finite automaton (SFA) for efficient parallel computation of an automaton. The key idea is to extend an automat...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘天卓; 孙伟然; 杨靖
2011-01-01
在企业所面临的不同类型的危机中，产品质量危机所占的比重最大。本文从群体行为的角度研究企业产品质量危机的形成机理，利用元胞自动机的定性模拟理论和方法，建立消费者对产品的购买行为的演化模型，通过基于不同的从众系数和演化规则的演化，揭示群体从众行为与企业危机公关与企业产品质量危机的形成之间的关系，并在此基础上提出了基于消费者信任修复理论的管理思路，对现代企业的危机管理有一定的借鉴与指导意义。%In modem society, exigencies happen frequently, and if not handled properly in the incident, the influence that does not digest and relieve the crisis will result in formation. In the different types of crisis the corporation faced, the most proportion is product quality crisis. We research the formation mechanism of enterprise manufacture crisis from the point of group behaviour, utilize the theory and method of qualitative simulation of cellular automata, build the buying behaviour evolution model of customers, by the evolution based different conformity ratio and evolution rule, reveal the relationship between the group behaviour and business crisis public relation and enterprise production crisis, and based on that we propose management thread based on the consumer confidence restore model, which can guide the crisis management for companies.
Degeling, K.; Koffijberg, H.; Schivo, S.; Langerak, R.; IJzerman, M.J.
2015-01-01
Objectives The aim of this study is to compare the usefulness of two promising alternative modeling techniques, Timed Automata (TA) originating from informatics, and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) known in operations research, for modeling todays complex and personalized treatment decisions over ti
Cellular automaton for chimera states
García-Morales, Vladimir
2016-01-01
A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mindaugas Snipas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The primary goal of this work was to study advantages of numerical methods used for the creation of continuous time Markov chain models (CTMC of voltage gating of gap junction (GJ channels composed of connexin protein. This task was accomplished by describing gating of GJs using the formalism of the stochastic automata networks (SANs, which allowed for very efficient building and storing of infinitesimal generator of the CTMC that allowed to produce matrices of the models containing a distinct block structure. All of that allowed us to develop efficient numerical methods for a steady-state solution of CTMC models. This allowed us to accelerate CPU time, which is necessary to solve CTMC models, ∼20 times.
Automata Networks Model of Memory Loss Effects on the Formation of Linguistic Conventions
Vera, Javier
2015-01-01
This paper proposes an Automata Networks approach to address the influence of memory loss on the formation of shared conventions. We focus our analysis on a numerical description of the dynamics over one and two dimensional periodic lattices, through an energy function that measures the local agreement between the individuals. For the two dimensional case, it exhibits a sharp transition on the relation between the energy and the parameter defined to measure the amount of memory loss. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications for the formation of language.
Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould
Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.
2015-04-01
In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned
Probabilistic weighted automata
Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent; Henzinger, Thomas A.
2009-01-01
Nondeterministic weighted automata are finite automata with numerical weights on transitions. They define quantitative languages $L$ that assign to each word $w$ a real number $L(w)$. The value of an infinite word $w$ is computed as the maximal value of all runs over $w$, and the value of a run as the maximum, limsup, liminf, limit average, or discounted sum of the transition weights. We introduce probabilistic weighted automata, in which the transitions are chosen in a randomized (rather ...
Combinatorics of Boolean automata circuits dynamics
Demongeot, Jacques; Noual, Mathilde; Sené, Sylvain
2012-01-01
International audience In line with fields of theoretical computer science and biology that study Boolean automata networks to model regulation networks, we present some results concerning the dynamics of networks whose underlying structures are oriented cycles, that is, Boolean automata circuits. In the context of biological regulation, former studies have highlighted the importance of circuits on the asymptotic dynamical behaviour of the biological networks that contain them. Our work fo...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈永; 王晓明; 党建武
2012-01-01
交通运输能源消耗已经成为决策管理者高度关注的信息.采用元胞自动机(CA)理论研究了快速公交系统能耗问题,以元胞自动机NaSch交通流模型为基础,通过结合动能定理,建立了快速公交系统的元胞自动机能耗动力学仿真模型.并以目前建设的兰州市快速公交系统为例,仿真研究了周期性边界条件下,不同行车密度、不同停靠站时间以及驾驶员行为差异下随机慢化对快速公交车系统能耗的影响,得到了相应的定量分析结论.仿真结果表明,快速公交车辆停靠站时间越长,拥堵的范围越大,路面交通流能耗损失越小,对应的流量、速度也越小,系统越早进入堵塞相.%Transportation energy consumption has aroused high attention of the decision-makers. In this case, an energy consumption of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Cellular Automata (CA) model was designed, which was based on NaSch traffic model and Kinetic energy theorem. Taking Lanzhou city bus rapid transit traffic system as an example, the effects of BRT vehicle random slowness in the different traffic density, different road condition and drivers' behavior under periodic boundary conditions was studied. And corresponding quantitative analysis conclusion was get. The simulation results show that the rapid transit vehicle stops longer, the greater the range of congestion and the smaller the energy loss of the road traffic flow. Besides, the corresponding flow rate is also smaller, thus the system is plugged into congestion phase earlier.
Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2004-01-01
We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of
Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2008-01-01
We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of
Priced Timed Automata: Theory and Tools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
Priced timed automata are emerging as useful formalisms for modeling and analysing a broad range of resource allocation problems. In this extended abstract, we highlight recent (un)deci\\-dability results related to priced timed automata as well as point to a number of open problems.......Priced timed automata are emerging as useful formalisms for modeling and analysing a broad range of resource allocation problems. In this extended abstract, we highlight recent (un)deci\\-dability results related to priced timed automata as well as point to a number of open problems....
Deterministic recognizability of picture languages with Wang automata
V. Lonati; M. Pradella
2010-01-01
special issue dedicated to the second edition of the conference AutoMathA: from Mathematics to Applications International audience We present a model of automaton for picture language recognition, called Wang automaton, which is based on labeled Wang tiles. Wang automata combine features of both online tessellation acceptors and 4-way automata: as in online tessellation acceptors, computation assigns states to each picture position; as in 4-way automata, the input head visits the pictur...
Percolation games, probabilistic cellular automata, and the hard-core model
Holroyd, Alexander E; Marcovici, Irène; Martin, James B.
2015-01-01
Let each site of the square lattice $Z^2$ be independently declared closed with probability $p$, and otherwise open. Consider the following game: a token starts at the origin, and the two players take turns to move it from its current site $x$ to an open site in $\\{x+(0,1), x+(1,0)\\}$; if both these sites are closed, then the player to move loses the game. Is there positive probability that the game is drawn with best play - i.e. that neither player can force a win? This is equivalent to the ...
Understanding cisplatin resistance using cellular models.
STORDAL, BRITTA KRISTINA
2007-01-01
PUBLISHED Many mechanisms of cisplatin resistance have been proposed from studies of cellular models of resistance including changes in cellular drug accumulation, detoxification of the drug, inhibition of apoptosis and repair of the DNA adducts. A series of resistant models were developed from CCRF-CEM leukaemia cells with increasing doses of cisplatin from 100 ng/ml. This produced increasing resistance up to 7-fold with a treatment dose of 1.6 ?g/ml. Cisplatin resistance i...
Understanding cisplatin resistance using cellular models
Stordal, Britta; Davey, Mary
2007-01-01
Many mechanisms of cisplatin resistance have been proposed from studies of cellular models of resistance including changes in cellular drug accumulation, detoxification of the drug, inhibition of apoptosis and repair of the DNA adducts. A series of resistant models were developed from CCRF-CEM leukaemia cells with increasing doses of cisplatin from 100 ng/ml. This produced increasing resistance up to 7-fold with a treatment dose of 1.6 microg/ml. Cisplatin resistance in these cells correlated...
Deterministic Timed AFA: A New Class of Timed Alternating Finite Automata
Abdelaziz Fellah; Zachary Friggstad; Soufiane Noureddine
2007-01-01
Timed Alternating Finite Automata (TAFA), a natural generalization of Timed Finite Automata (TFA), are synchronous and powerful models for real-time computations. They become an effective and expressive model for developing embedded systems with real-time constraint computations which are required in many applications. We introduce Deterministic Timed Alternating Finite Automata (DTAFA), a new class of timed alternating finite automata, extended with a finite set of restricted and mutually ex...
Designing and implementing a regional urban modeling system using the SLEUTH cellular urban model
Jantz, C.A.; Goetz, S.J.; Donato, D.; Claggett, P.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a fine-scale (30 meter resolution) regional land cover modeling system, based on the SLEUTH cellular automata model, that was developed for a 257000 km2 area comprising the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin in the eastern United States. As part of this effort, we developed a new version of the SLEUTH model (SLEUTH-3r), which introduces new functionality and fit metrics that substantially increase the performance and applicability of the model. In addition, we developed methods that expand the capability of SLEUTH to incorporate economic, cultural and policy information, opening up new avenues for the integration of SLEUTH with other land-change models. SLEUTH-3r is also more computationally efficient (by a factor of 5) and uses less memory (reduced 65%) than the original software. With the new version of SLEUTH, we were able to achieve high accuracies at both the aggregate level of 15 sub-regional modeling units and at finer scales. We present forecasts to 2030 of urban development under a current trends scenario across the entire Chesapeake Bay drainage basin, and three alternative scenarios for a sub-region within the Chesapeake Bay watershed to illustrate the new ability of SLEUTH-3r to generate forecasts across a broad range of conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
Membrane Automata with Priorities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Luděk Cienciala; Lucie Ciencialová
2004-01-01
In this paper the one-way P automata with priorities are introduced. Such automata are P systemshere the membranes are only allowed to consume objects from parent membranes, under the given conditions. The result of computation of these systems is the set of multiset sequences consumed by skin membrane intc the system. The rules associated in some order with each membrane cannot modify any objects, they can only move them through membrane. We show that P automata with priorities and two membranes can accept every recursively enumerated language.
Havelund, Klaus
2014-01-01
We present a form of automaton, referred to as data automata, suited for monitoring sequences of data-carrying events, for example emitted by an executing software system. This form of automata allows states to be parameterized with data, forming named records, which are stored in an efficiently indexed data structure, a form of database. This very explicit approach differs from other automaton-based monitoring approaches. Data automata are also characterized by allowing transition conditions to refer to other parameterized states, and by allowing transitions sequences. The presented automaton concept is inspired by rule-based systems, especially the Rete algorithm, which is one of the well-established algorithms for executing rule-based systems. We present an optimized external DSL for data automata, as well as a comparable unoptimized internal DSL (API) in the Scala programming language, in order to compare the two solutions. An evaluation compares these two solutions to several other monitoring systems.
Barrio-Parra, Fernando; Rodríguez-Santalla, Inmaculada
2016-08-01
Coastal dunes are sedimentary environments characterized by their high dynamism. Their evolution is determined by sedimentary exchanges between the beach-dune subsystems and the dune dynamics itself. Knowledge about these exchanges is important to prioritize management and conservation strategies of these environments. The aim of this work is the inclusion of the aeolian transport rates obtained using a calibrated cellular automaton to estimate the beach-dune sediment exchange rates in a real active dune field at El Fangar Spit (Ebro Delta, Spain). The dune dynamics model is able to estimate average aeolian sediment fluxes. These are used in combination with the observed net sediment budget to obtain a quantitative characterization of the sediment exchange interactions. The methods produce a substantial improvement in the understanding of coastal sedimentary systems that could have major implications in areas where the management and conservation of dune fields are of concern.
Algebraic and structural automata theory
Mikolajczak, B
1991-01-01
Automata Theory is part of computability theory which covers problems in computer systems, software, activity of nervous systems (neural networks), and processes of live organisms development.The result of over ten years of research, this book presents work in the following areas of Automata Theory: automata morphisms, time-varying automata, automata realizations and relationships between automata and semigroups.Aimed at those working in discrete mathematics and computer science, parts of the book are suitable for use in graduate courses in computer science, electronics, telecommunications, and control engineering. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the basic concepts of algebra and graph theory.
Katja, Verbeeck; Ann, Nowe; Peter, Vrancx; Maarten, Peeters
2008-01-01
In this chapter we have demonstrated that Learning Automata are interesting building blocks for multi-agent Reinforcement learning algorithms. LA can be viewed as policy iterators, that update their action probabilities based on private information only. Even in multi-automaton settings, each LA is updated using only the environment response, and not on the basis of any knowledge regarding the other automata, i.e. nor their strategies, nor their feedback. As such LA based agent algorithms are...
Animal and cellular models of human disease
Arends, Mark; White, Eric; Whitelaw, Christopher
2016-01-01
In this eighteenth (2016) Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology, we present a collection of 19 invited review articles that cover different aspects of cellular and animal models of disease. These include genetically-engineered models, chemically-induced models, naturally-occurring models, and combinations thereof, with the focus on recent methodological and conceptual developments across a wide range of human diseases.
Using Learning Automata in Coordination Among Heterogeneous Agents in a Complex Multi-Agent Domain
Mohammadreza Khojasteh; Aida Kazimi
2012-01-01
This paper describes our use of Learning Automata as a reinforcement learning method in coordination among three heterogeneous teams of agents acting in RoboCup Rescue Simulation environment. We provide a brief introduction to Learning Automata and Cellular Learning Automata, the reinforcement machine learning methods that we have used in lots of parts of our agents’ development. Then we will describe the major challenges each team of agents should be concerned about in such a complex domain ...
A Modified Sensitive Driving Cellular Automaton Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GE Hong-Xia; DAI Shi-Qiang; DONG Li-Yun; LEI Li
2005-01-01
A modified cellular automaton model for traffic flow on highway is proposed with a novel concept about the variable security gap. The concept is first introduced into the original Nagel-Schreckenberg model, which is called the non-sensitive driving cellular automaton model. And then it is incorporated with a sensitive driving NaSch model,in which the randomization brake is arranged before the deterministic deceleration. A parameter related to the variable security gap is determined through simulation. Comparison of the simulation results indicates that the variable security gap has different influence on the two models. The fundamental diagram obtained by simulation with the modified sensitive driving NaSch model shows that the maximumflow are in good agreement with the observed data, indicating that the presented model is more reasonable and realistic.
Bus Automata For Intelligent Robots And Computer Vision
Rothstein, Jerome
1988-02-01
Bus automata (BA's) are arrays of automata, each controlling a module of a global interconnection network, an automaton and its module constituting a cell. Connecting modules permits cells to become effectively nearest neighbors even when widely separated. This facilitates parallelism in computation far in excess of that allowed by the "bucket-brigade" communication bottleneck of traditional cellular automata (CA's). Distributed information storage via local automaton states permits complex parallel data processing for rapid pattern recognition, language parsing and other distributed computation at systolic array rates. Global BA architecture can be entirely changed in the time to make one cell state transition. The BA is thus a neural model (cells correspond to neurons) with network plasticity attractive for brain models. Planar (chip) BA's admitting optical input (phototransistors) become powerful retinal models. The distributed input pattern is optically fed directly to distributed local memory, ready for distributed processing, both "retinally" and cooperatively with other BA chips ("brain"). This composite BA can compute control signals for output organs, and sensory inputs other than visual can be utilized similarly. In the BA retina is essentially brain, as in mammals (retina and brain are embryologically the same). The BA can also model opto-motor response (frogs, insects) or sonar response (dolphins, bats), and is proposed as the model of choice for the brains of future intelligent robots and for computer eyes with local parallel image processing capability. Multidimensional formal languages are introduced, corresponding to BA's and patterns the way generative grammars correspond to sequential machines, and applied to fractals and their recognition by BA's.
Theory of automata, formal languages and computation
Xavier, SPE
2004-01-01
This book is aimed at providing an introduction to the basic models of computability to the undergraduate students. This book is devoted to Finite Automata and their properties. Pushdown Automata provides a class of models and enables the analysis of context-free languages. Turing Machines have been introduced and the book discusses computability and decidability. A number of problems with solutions have been provided for each chapter. A lot of exercises have been given with hints/answers to most of these tutorial problems.
Canalization and control in automata networks: body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Marques-Pita
Full Text Available We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level, which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level. This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics--a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks, identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought, the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized control that orchestrates cellular activity--with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues 'compute'.
Automata Learning through Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarts, Fides; Heidarian, Faranak; Kuppens, Harco;
2012-01-01
Abstraction is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems. Hence, in most practical applications where automata learning is used to construct models of software components, researchers manually define abstractions which, depending on the history, map a large set of concrete even...
Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Margaria, Tiziana (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor); Steffen, Bernard (Inventor)
2010-01-01
Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, automata learning algorithms and techniques are implemented to generate a more complete set of scenarios for requirements based programming. More specifically, a CSP-based, syntax-oriented model construction, which requires the support of a theorem prover, is complemented by model extrapolation, via automata learning. This may support the systematic completion of the requirements, the nature of the requirement being partial, which provides focus on the most prominent scenarios. This may generalize requirement skeletons by extrapolation and may indicate by way of automatically generated traces where the requirement specification is too loose and additional information is required.
Cellular automaton for chimera states
García-Morales, Vladimir
2016-04-01
A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the system spontaneously splitting into stable domains separated by static boundaries, some synchronously oscillating and the others incoherent. When the coupling range is local, nontrivial coherent structures with different periodicities are formed.
A Mathematical Model for Cisplatin Cellular Pharmacodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ardith W. El-Kareh
2003-03-01
Full Text Available A simple theoretical model for the cellular pharmacodynamics of cisplatin is presented. The model, which takes into account the kinetics of cisplatin uptake by cells and the intracellular binding of the drug, can be used to predict the dependence of survival (relative to controls on the time course of extracellular exposure. Cellular pharmacokinetic parameters are derived from uptake data for human ovarian and head and neck cancer cell lines. Survival relative to controls is assumed to depend on the peak concentration of DNA-bound intracellular platinum. Model predictions agree well with published data on cisplatin cytotoxicity for three different cancer cell lines, over a wide range of exposure times. In comparison with previously published mathematical models for anticancer drug pharmacodynamics, the present model provides a better fit to experimental data sets including long exposure times (∼100 hours. The model provides a possible explanation for the fact that cell kill correlates well with area under the extracellular concentration-time curve in some data sets, but not in others. The model may be useful for optimizing delivery schedules and for the dosing of cisplatin for cancer therapy.
Lattice-gas automata for the Navier-Stokes equation
Frisch, U.; Hasslacher, B.; Pomeau, Y.
1986-04-01
It is shown that a class of deterministic lattice gases with discrete Boolean elements simulates the Navier-Stokes equations, and can be used to design simple, massively parallel computing machines. A hexagonal lattice gas (HLG) model consisting of a triangular lattice with hexagonal symmetry is developed, and is shown to lead to the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The three-dimensional formulation is obtained by a splitting method in which the nonlinear term in the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation is recasts as the sum of two terms, each containing spurious elements and each realizable on a different lattice. Freed slip and rigid boundary conditions are easily implemented. It is noted that lattice-gas models must be run at moderate Mach numbers to remain incompressible, and to avoid spurious high-order nonlinear terms. The model gives a concrete hydrodynamical example of how cellular automata can be used to simulate classical nonlinear fields.
Havelund, Klaus
2014-01-01
The field of runtime verification has during the last decade seen a multitude of systems for monitoring event sequences (traces) emitted by a running system. The objective is to ensure correctness of a system by checking its execution traces against formal specifications representing requirements. A special challenge is data parameterized events, where monitors have to keep track of the combination of control states as well as data constraints, relating events and the data they carry across time points. This poses a challenge wrt. efficiency of monitors, as well as expressiveness of logics. Data automata is a form of automata where states are parameterized with data, supporting monitoring of data parameterized events. We describe the full details of a very simple API in the Scala programming language, an internal DSL (Domain-Specific Language), implementing data automata. The small implementation suggests a design pattern. Data automata allow transition conditions to refer to other states than the source state, and allow target states of transitions to be inlined, offering a temporal logic flavored notation. An embedding of a logic in a high-level language like Scala in addition allows monitors to be programmed using all of Scala's language constructs, offering the full flexibility of a programming language. The framework is demonstrated on an XML processing scenario previously addressed in related work.
Bisimulations meet PCTL equivalences for probabilistic automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun; Godskesen, Jens Chr.; Nielson, Flemming
2013-01-01
Probabilistic automata (PAs) have been successfully applied in formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on probabilistic computation tree logic (PCTL) and its...
Towards a theory of modelling with Boolean automata networks - I. Theorisation and observations
Noual, Mathilde
2011-01-01
Although models are built on the basis of some observations of reality, the concepts that derive theoretically from their definitions as well as from their characteristics and properties are not necessarily direct consequences of these initial observations. Indeed, many of them rather follow from chains of theoretical inferences that are only based on the precise model definitions and rely strongly, in addition, on some consequential working hypotheses. Thus, it is important to address the question of which features of a model effectively carry some modelling meaning and which only result from the task of formalising observations of reality into a mathematical language. In this article, we address this question with a theoretical point view that sets our discussion strictly between the two stages of the modelling process that require knowledge of real systems, that is, between the initial stage that chooses a global theoretical framework to build the model and the final stage that exploits its formal predicti...
Spatial game in cellular automaton evacuation model
von Schantz, Anton; Ehtamo, Harri
2015-11-01
For numerical simulations of crowd dynamics in an evacuation we need a computationally light environment, such as the cellular automaton model (CA). By choosing the right model parameters, different types of crowd behavior and collective effects can be produced. But the CA does not answer why, when, and how these different behaviors and collective effects occur. In this article, we present a model, where we couple a spatial evacuation game to the CA. In the game, an agent chooses its strategy by observing its neighbors' strategies. The game matrix changes with the distance to the exit as the evacuation conditions develop. In the resulting model, an agent's strategy choice alters the parameters that govern its behavior in the CA. Thus, with our model, we are able to simulate how evacuation conditions affect the behavior of the crowd. Also, we show that some of the collective effects observed in evacuations are a result of the simple game the agents play.
Position Automata for Kleene Algebra with Tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Silva
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Kleene algebra with tests (KAT is an equational system that combines Kleene and Boolean algebras. One can model basic programming constructs and assertions in KAT, which allowed for its application in compiler optimization, program transformation and dataflow analysis. To provide semantics for KAT expressions, Kozen first introduced emph{automata on guarded strings}, showing that the regular sets of guarded strings plays the same role in KAT as regular languages play in Kleene algebra. Recently, Kozen described an elegant algorithm, based on ``derivatives'', to construct a deterministic automaton that accepts the guarded strings denoted by a KAT expression. This algorithm generalizes Brzozowski's algorithm for regular expressions and inherits its inefficiency arising from the explicit computation of derivatives. In the context of classical regular expressions, many efficient algorithms to compile expressions to automata have been proposed. One of those algorithms was devised by Berry and Sethi in the 80's (we shall refer to it as Berry-Sethi construction/algorithm, but in the literature it is also referred to as position or Glushkov automata algorithm. In this paper, we show how the Berry-Sethi algorithm can be used to compile a $KAT$ expression to an automaton on guarded strings. Moreover, we propose a new automata model for KAT expressions and adapt the construction of Berry and Sethi to this new model.
Cellular Automation of Galactic Habitable Zone
Vukotic, Branislav
2010-01-01
We present a preliminary results of our Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) 2D probabilistic cellular automata models. The relevant time-scales (emergence of life, it's diversification and evolution influenced with the global risk function) are modeled as the probability matrix elements and are chosen in accordance with the Copernican principle to be well-represented by the data inferred from the Earth's fossil record. With Fermi's paradox as a main boundary condition the resulting histories of astrobiological landscape are discussed.
Mulia, Rachmat; Dupraz, Christian; van Noordwijk, Meine
2010-01-01
Dynamic models of tree root growth and function have to reconcile the architectural rules for coarse root topology with the dynamics of fine root growth (and decay) in order to predict the strategic plus opportunistic behaviour of a tree root system in a heterogeneous soil. We present an algorithm for a 3D model based on both local (soil voxel level) and global (tree level) controls of root growth, with development of structural roots as a consequence of fine root function, rather than as dri...
Performance analysis of probabilistic timed automata using digital clocks
M. Kwiatkowska; G Norman; Parker, D.; Sproston, J.
2006-01-01
Probabilistic timed automata, a variant of timed automata extended with discrete probability distributions, is a modelling formalism suitable for describing formally both nondeterministic and probabilistic aspects of real-time systems, and is amenable to model checking against probabilistic timed temporal logic properties. However, the previously developed verification algorithms either suffer from high complexity, give only approximate results, or are restricted to a limited class of propert...
Compositions of (max, +) automata
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lahaye, S.; Komenda, Jan; Boimond, J.-L.
2015-01-01
Roč. 25, 1-2 (2015), s. 323 -344. ISSN 0924-6703 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : (max,+) automata * synchronous product * asynchronous product Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10626-014-0186-6
Biehl, L. Charles
1999-01-01
Presents an activity that utilizes the mathematical models of forest fires and oil spills that were generated (in the first part of this activity, published in the November 1998 issue) by students using probability and cellular automata. (ASK)
On the number of attractors of Boolean automata circuits
Demongeot, Jacques; Noual, Mathilde; Sené, Sylvain
2009-01-01
In line with fields of theoretical computer science and biology that study Boolean automata networks often seen as models of regulation networks, we present some results concerning the dynamics of networks whose underlying interaction graphs are circuits, that is Boolean automata circuits. In the context of biological regulation, former studies have highlighted the importance of circuits on the asymptotic dynamical behaviour of the biological networks that contain them. Our work focuses on th...
Achieving of Fuzzy Automata for Processing Fuzzy Logic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHU Lan; WU Qing-e
2005-01-01
At present, there has been an increasing interest in neuron-fuzzy systems, the combinations of artificial neural networks with fuzzy logic. In this paper, a definition of fuzzy finite state automata (FFA) is introduced and fuzzy knowledge equivalence representations between neural networks, fuzzy systems and models of automata are discussed. Once the network has been trained, we develop a method to extract a representation of the FFA encoded in the recurrent neural network that recognizes the training rules.
Effect of Driver Scope Awareness in the Lane Changing Maneuvers Using Cellular Automaton Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kohei Arai
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of drivers’ visibility and their perception (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle on the lane changing maneuver. The term of scope awareness was used to describe the visibility required by the driver to make a perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that exist in that road. A computer simulation model was conducted to show this driver awareness behavior. This studying attempt to precisely catching the lane changing behavior and illustrate the scope awareness parameter that reflects driver behavior. This paper proposes a simple cellular automata model for studying driver visibility effects of lane changing maneuver and driver perception of estimated speed. Different values of scope awareness were examined to capture its effect on the traffic flow. Simulation results show the ability of this model to capture the important features of lane changing maneuver and revealed the appearance of the short-thin solid line jam and the wide solid line jam in the traffic flow as the consequences of lane changing maneuver.
Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.
Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John
2010-02-01
This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the
Modelling Morphogenesis: From Single Cells to Crawling Slugs
Savill, N.J.; Hogeweg, P.
2002-01-01
We present a three-dimensional hybrid cellular automata (CA)/partial differential equation (PDE) model that allows for the study of morphogenesis in simple cellular systems. We apply the model to the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum "from single cells to crawling slug". Using simple loca
Event-Clock Automata: From Theory to Practice
Geeraerts, Gilles; Sznajder, Nathalie
2011-01-01
Event clock automata (ECA) are a model for timed languages that has been introduced by Alur, Fix and Henzinger as an alternative to timed automata, with better theoretical properties (for instance, ECA are determinizable while timed automata are not). In this paper, we revisit and extend the theory of ECA. We first prove that no finite time abstract language equivalence exists for ECA, thereby disproving a claim in the original work on ECA. This means in particular that regions do not form a time abstract bisimulation. Nevertheless, we show that regions can still be used to build a finite automaton recognizing the untimed language of an ECA. Then, we extend the classical notions of zones and DBMs to let them handle event clocks instead of plain clocks (as in timed automata) by introducing event zones and Event DBMs (EDBMs). We discuss algorithms to handle event zones represented as EDBMs, as well as (semi-) algorithms based on EDBMs to decide language emptiness of ECA.
Automata for the verification of monadic second-order graph properties
Courcelle, Bruno; Durand, Irène
2012-01-01
The model-checking problem for monadic second-order logic on graphs is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to tree-width and clique-width. The proof constructs finite automata from monadic second-order sentences. These automata recognize the terms over fixed finite signatures that define graphs satisfying the given sentences. However, this construction produces automata of hyper-exponential sizes, and is thus impossible to use in practice in many cases. To overcome this difficulty, we prop...
Modeling of Magnetostriction of Soft Elastomer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Small magnetic particles placed in a relatively soft polymer (with elastic modulus E ∼ 10 ÷ 100 kPa) are magnetically soft elastomers. The external magnetic field acts on each particle which leads to microscopic deformation of the material and consequently to changing of its shape – magnetostriction. For purposes of studying of magnetostriction the model of movable cellular automata (MCA), in which a real heterogeneous material is an ensemble of interacting elements of finite size – automata, is used. It's supposed to be that the motion of each automata can be described by Newton's Second law. The force acting on the i-th automata consists of the following components: volume-dependent force acting on the automata i which is caused by pressure from the surrounding automata; force of an external magnetic field acting on the i-th automata with some magnetic moment; and normal and tangential interaction force between a pair of i and j automata. This approach was used for modeling of magnetostriction elastomer
Modeling of Magnetostriction of Soft Elastomer
Petr, Andriushchenko; Leonid, Afremov; Mariya, Chernova
2014-03-01
Small magnetic particles placed in a relatively soft polymer (with elastic modulus E ~ 10 ÷ 100 kPa) are magnetically soft elastomers. The external magnetic field acts on each particle which leads to microscopic deformation of the material and consequently to changing of its shape - magnetostriction. For purposes of studying of magnetostriction the model of movable cellular automata (MCA), in which a real heterogeneous material is an ensemble of interacting elements of finite size - automata, is used. It's supposed to be that the motion of each automata can be described by Newton's Second law. The force acting on the i-th automata consists of the following components: volume-dependent force acting on the automata i which is caused by pressure from the surrounding automata; force of an external magnetic field acting on the i-th automata with some magnetic moment; and normal and tangential interaction force between a pair of i and j automata. This approach was used for modeling of magnetostriction elastomer.
Modeling cellular effects of coal pollutants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goal of this project is to develop and test models for the dose and dose-rate dependence of biological effects of coal pollutants on mammalian cells in tissue culture. Particular attention is given to the interaction of pollutants with the genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid, or NDA) in the cell. Unlike radiation, which can interact directly with chromatin, chemical pollutants undergo numerous changes before the ultimate carcinogen becomes covalently bound to the DNA. Synthetic vesicles formed from a phospholipid bilayer are being used to investigate chemical transformations that may occur during the transport of pollutants across cellular membranes. The initial damage to DNA is rapidly modified by enzymatic repair systems in most living organisms. A model has been developed for predicting the effects of excision repair on the survival of human cells exposed to chemical carcinogens. In addition to the excision system, normal human cells also have tolerance mechanisms that permit continued growth and division of cells without removal of the damage. We are investigating the biological effect of damage passed to daughter cells by these tolerance mechanisms
Analytical Modeling of Uplink Cellular Networks
Novlan, Thomas D; Andrews, Jeffrey G
2012-01-01
Cellular uplink analysis has typically been undertaken by either a simple approach that lumps all interference into a single deterministic or random parameter in a Wyner-type model, or via complex system level simulations that often do not provide insight into why various trends are observed. This paper proposes a novel middle way that is both accurate and also results in easy-to-evaluate integral expressions based on the Laplace transform of the interference. We assume mobiles and base stations are randomly placed in the network with each mobile pairing up to its closest base station. The model requires two important changes compared to related recent work on the downlink. First, dependence is introduced between the user and base station point processes to make sure each base station serves a single mobile in the given resource block. Second, per-mobile power control is included, which further couples the locations of the mobiles and their receiving base stations. Nevertheless, we succeed in deriving the cov...
Lateral Drift Behavior Analysis in Mixed Bicycle Traffic: A Cellular Automaton Model Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xue Feng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Bicycle movements are always associated with lateral drifts. However, the impacts of lateral drift behavior, as well as variable lateral clearance maintaining behavior due to the variation of drift intensity, on mixed bicycle flow are not clear. This paper establishes a new cellular automata model to study typical characteristics of mixed bicycle traffic induced by lateral drift and its accompanying behavior. Based on derived positive correlation between passing speed and drift speed through survey, the occurrence probability of lateral drift and the degree of maintained lateral clearance are both introduced in accordance with the variance of passing speed. Then, in whole density region, firm conformity between simulation results and actual survey data is reached, which has seldom been achieved in previous studies. It is further verified that speed distortions in intermediate and high density region induced by assumption of constant lateral clearance requirements can be revised by introducing its variability characteristics. In addition, two contrastive impacts of lateral drift behavior are observed. That is, it causes speed fluctuation in low density while alleviating the speed fluctuation in relatively high density. These results are expected to be helpful to improve the simulation performance of mixed bicycle flow as well as depict more realistic vehicle-bicycle conflicts and so on.
Borowik, Bohdan; Lahno, Valery; Petrov, Oleksandr
2013-01-01
This book serves a dual purpose: firstly to combine the treatment of circuits and digital electronics, and secondly, to establish a strong connection with the contemporary world of digital systems. The need for this approach arises from the observation that introducing digital electronics through a course in traditional circuit analysis is fast becoming obsolete. Our world has gone digital. Automata theory helps with the design of digital circuits such as parts of computers, telephone systems and control systems. A complete perspective is emphasized, because even the most elegant computer architecture will not function without adequate supporting circuits. The focus is on explaining the real-world implementation of complete digital systems. In doing so, the reader is prepared to immediately begin design and implementation work. This work serves as a bridge to take readers from the theoretical world to the everyday design world where solutions must be complete to be successful.
Typhoid fever as cellular microbiological model
Andrade Dahir Ramos de; Andrade Júnior Dahir Ramos de
2003-01-01
The knowledge about typhoid fever pathogenesis is growing in the last years, mainly about the cellular and molecular phenomena that are responsible by clinical manifestations of this disease. In this article are discussed several recent discoveries, as follows: a) Bacterial type III protein secretion system; b) The five virulence genes of Salmonella spp. that encoding Sips (Salmonella invasion protein) A, B, C, D and E, which are capable of induce apoptosis in macrophages; c) The function of ...
L.A.U.D.E: Learning Automata for Urban Development Exploration. The Case Study of Rome Urban System
Rabino, Giovanni A.; Papini, Lorenzo; Silvana T. Lombardo; Colonna, Antonio; Stefano, Vittorio Di
1998-01-01
This paper deals with urban cellular automata. It is organized in two parts. The first one is concerning theory, methodology and operational aspects of the application of cellular automata to the simulation of dynamics of urban systems. Starting with a review of the literature on this research field (Batty, Cecchini, Couclelis, White et al.) we present: ? as to theoretical foundation of the approach, a clarification on the distinction between global and local description (the traditional mode...
Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin;
2001-01-01
This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine the...... minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques and a...... new notion of priced regions. The latter allows symbolic representation and manipulation of reachable states together with the cost of reaching them....
Typhoid fever as cellular microbiological model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrade Dahir Ramos de
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The knowledge about typhoid fever pathogenesis is growing in the last years, mainly about the cellular and molecular phenomena that are responsible by clinical manifestations of this disease. In this article are discussed several recent discoveries, as follows: a Bacterial type III protein secretion system; b The five virulence genes of Salmonella spp. that encoding Sips (Salmonella invasion protein A, B, C, D and E, which are capable of induce apoptosis in macrophages; c The function of Toll R2 and Toll R4 receptors present in the macrophage surface (discovered in the Drosophila. The Toll family receptors are critical in the signalizing mediated by LPS in macrophages in association with LBP and CD14; d The lines of immune defense between intestinal lumen and internal organs; e The fundamental role of the endothelial cells in the inflammatory deviation from bloodstream into infected tissues by bacteria. In addition to above subjects, the authors comment the correlation between the clinical features of typhoid fever and the cellular and molecular phenomena of this disease, as well as the therapeutic consequences of this knowledge.
Typhoid fever as cellular microbiological model.
de Andrade, Dahir Ramos; de Andrade Júnior, Dahir Ramos
2003-01-01
The knowledge about typhoid fever pathogenesis is growing in the last years, mainly about the cellular and molecular phenomena that are responsible by clinical manifestations of this disease. In this article are discussed several recent discoveries, as follows: a) Bacterial type III protein secretion system; b) The five virulence genes of Salmonella spp. that encoding Sips (Salmonella invasion protein) A, B, C, D and E, which are capable of induce apoptosis in macrophages; c) The function of Toll R2 and Toll R4 receptors present in the macrophage surface (discovered in the Drosophila). The Toll family receptors are critical in the signalizing mediated by LPS in macrophages in association with LBP and CD14; d) The lines of immune defense between intestinal lumen and internal organs; e) The fundamental role of the endothelial cells in the inflammatory deviation from bloodstream into infected tissues by bacteria. In addition to above subjects, the authors comment the correlation between the clinical features of typhoid fever and the cellular and molecular phenomena of this disease, as well as the therapeutic consequences of this knowledge. PMID:14502344
Two-tape finite automata with quantum and classical states
Zheng, Shenggen; Qiu, Daowen
2011-01-01
{\\it Two-way finite automata with quantum and classical states} (2QCFA) were introduced by Ambainis and Watrous, and {\\it two-way two-tape deterministic finite automata} (2TFA) were introduced by Rabin and Scott. In this paper we study 2TFA and propose a new computing model called {\\it two-way two-tape finite automata with quantum and classical states} (2TQCFA). First, we give efficient 2TFA algorithms for recognizing languages which can be recognized by 2QCFA. Second, we give efficient 2TQCFA algorithms to recognize several languages whose status vis-a-vis 2QCFA have been posed as open questions, such as $L_{square}=\\{a^{n}b^{n^{2}}\\mid n\\in \\mathbf{N}\\}$. Third, we show that $\\{a^{n}b^{n^{k}}\\mid n\\in \\mathbf{N}\\}$ can be recognized by {\\it $(k+1)$-tape deterministic finite automata} ($(k+1)$TFA). Finally, we introduce {\\it $k$-tape automata with quantum and classical states} ($k$TQCFA) and prove that $\\{a^{n}b^{n^{k}}\\mid n\\in \\mathbf{N}\\}$ can be recognized by $k$TQCFA.
Automata theory and its applications
Khoussainov, Bakhadyr
2001-01-01
The theory of finite automata on finite stings, infinite strings, and trees has had a dis tinguished history. First, automata were introduced to represent idealized switching circuits augmented by unit delays. This was the period of Shannon, McCullouch and Pitts, and Howard Aiken, ending about 1950. Then in the 1950s there was the work of Kleene on representable events, of Myhill and Nerode on finite coset congruence relations on strings, of Rabin and Scott on power set automata. In the 1960s, there was the work of Btichi on automata on infinite strings and the second order theory of one successor, then Rabin's 1968 result on automata on infinite trees and the second order theory of two successors. The latter was a mystery until the introduction of forgetful determinacy games by Gurevich and Harrington in 1982. Each of these developments has successful and prospective applications in computer science. They should all be part of every computer scientist's toolbox. Suppose that we take a computer scientist's ...
Using Learning Automata in Coordination Among Heterogeneous Agents in a Complex Multi-Agent Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammadreza Khojasteh
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes our use of Learning Automata as a reinforcement learning method incoordination among three heterogeneous teams of agents acting in RoboCup Rescue Simulationenvironment. We provide a brief introduction to Learning Automata and Cellular LearningAutomata, the reinforcement machine learning methods that we have used in lots of parts of ouragents’ development. Then we will describe the major challenges each team of agents should beconcerned about in such a complex domain and for each challenge, we propose our approachesto develop cooperative teams. Finally, some results of using Learning Automata in coordinatingthese heterogeneous teams of agents that cooperate to mitigate the disastrous damages in asimulated city are evaluated.
Using Learning Automata in Coordination Among Heterogeneous Agents in a Complex Multi-Agent Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammadreza Khojasteh
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes our use of Learning Automata as a reinforcement learning method in coordination among three heterogeneous teams of agents acting in RoboCup Rescue Simulation environment. We provide a brief introduction to Learning Automata and Cellular Learning Automata, the reinforcement machine learning methods that we have used in lots of parts of our agents’ development. Then we will describe the major challenges each team of agents should be concerned about in such a complex domain and for each challenge, we propose our approaches to develop cooperative teams. Finally, some results of using Learning Automata in coordinating these heterogeneous teams of agents that cooperate to mitigate the disastrous damages in a simulated city are evaluated.
Modeling In Vitro Cellular Responses to Silver Nanoparticles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dwaipayan Mukherjee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Engineered nanoparticles (NPs have been widely demonstrated to induce toxic effects to various cell types. In vitro cell exposure systems have high potential for reliable, high throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity, allowing focusing on particular pathways while excluding unwanted effects due to other cells or tissue dosimetry. The work presented here involves a detailed biologically based computational model of cellular interactions with NPs; it utilizes measurements performed in human cell culture systems in vitro, to develop a mechanistic mathematical model that can support analysis and prediction of in vivo effects of NPs. The model considers basic cellular mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, and production of cytokines in response to NPs. This new model is implemented for macrophages and parameterized using in vitro measurements of changes in cellular viability and mRNA levels of cytokines: TNF, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. The model includes in vitro cellular dosimetry due to nanoparticle transport and transformation. Furthermore, the model developed here optimizes the essential cellular parameters based on in vitro measurements, and provides a “stepping stone” for the development of more advanced in vivo models that will incorporate additional cellular and NP interactions.
Oh, Eung Seok; Heo, Chaejeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Min
2013-05-01
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss in the substantianigra (SN) and elevated iron levels demonstrated by autopsy and with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Direct visualization of iron with live imaging techniques has not yet been successful. The aim of this study is to visualize and quantify the distribution of cellular iron using an intrinsic iron hyperspectral fluorescence signal. The 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cellular model of PD was established in SHSY5Y cells. The cells were exposed to iron by treatment with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, 100 μM) for up to 6 hours. The hyperspectral fluorescence imaging signal of iron was examined usinga high- resolution dark-field optical microscope system with signal absorption for the visible/ near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. The 6-hour group showed heavy cellular iron deposition compared with the small amount of iron accumulation in the 1-hour group. The cellular iron was dispersed in a small, particulate form, whereas extracellular iron was detected in an aggregated form. In addition, iron particles were found to be concentrated on the cell membrane/edge of shrunken cells. The cellular iron accumulation readily occurred in MPP+-induced cells, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating elevated iron levels in the SN in PD. This direct iron imaging methodology could be applied to analyze the physiological role of iron in PD, and its application might be expanded to various neurological disorders involving other metals, such as copper, manganese or zinc.
Team Automata for Security Analysis of Multicast/Broadcast Communication
Beek, ter Maurice; Lenzini, Gabriele; Petrocchi, Marinella; Busi, N.; Gorrieri, R.; Martinelli, F.
2003-01-01
We show that team automata (TA) are well suited to model secure multicast/broadcast communication with possible packet loss. This is a consequence of the natural way in which one-to-many (one-to-all) transmissions typical of multicast (broadcast) sessions can be modelled as communications between th
Body composition analysis: Cellular level modeling of body component ratios
Z. Wang; Heymsfield, S. B.; PI-SUNYER, F.X.; Gallagher, D.; PIERSON, R.N.
2008-01-01
During the past two decades, a major outgrowth of efforts by our research group at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital is the development of body composition models that include cellular level models, models based on body component ratios, total body potassium models, multi-component models, and resting energy expenditure-body composition models. This review summarizes these models with emphasis on component ratios that we believe are fundamental to understanding human body composition during growt...
Application of Fuzzy Algebra in Automata theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kharatti Lal
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In our first application we consider strings of fuzzy singletons as input to a fuzzy finite state machine. The notion of fuzzy automata was introduced in [58]. There has been considerable growth in the area [18]. In this section present a theory of free fuzzy monoids and apply the results to the area of fuzzy automata. In fuzzy automata, the set of strings of input symbols can be considered to be a free monoid. We introduced the motion of fuzzy strings of input symbols, where the fuzzy strings from free fuzzy submonoids of the free monoids of input strings. We show that fuzzy automata with fuzzy input are equivalent to fuzzy automata with crisp input. Hence the result of fuzzy automata theory can be immediately applied to those of fuzzy automata theory with fuzzy input. The result are taken from [7] and [34].
Modeling cellular deformations using the level set formalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Liu
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many cellular processes involve substantial shape changes. Traditional simulations of these cell shape changes require that grids and boundaries be moved as the cell's shape evolves. Here we demonstrate that accurate cell shape changes can be recreated using level set methods (LSM, in which the cellular shape is defined implicitly, thereby eschewing the need for updating boundaries. Results We obtain a viscoelastic model of Dictyostelium cells using micropipette aspiration and show how this viscoelastic model can be incorporated into LSM simulations to recreate the observed protrusion of cells into the micropipette faithfully. We also demonstrate the use of our techniques by simulating the cell shape changes elicited by the chemotactic response to an external chemoattractant gradient. Conclusion Our results provide a simple but effective means of incorporating cellular deformations into mathematical simulations of cell signaling. Such methods will be useful for simulating important cellular events such as chemotaxis and cytokinesis.
Stochastic transition model for pedestrian dynamics
Schultz, Michael
2012-01-01
The proposed stochastic model for pedestrian dynamics is based on existing approaches using cellular automata, combined with substantial extensions, to compensate the deficiencies resulting of the discrete grid structure. This agent motion model is extended by both a grid-based path planning and mid-range agent interaction component. The stochastic model proves its capabilities for a quantitative reproduction of the characteristic shape of the common fundamental diagram of pedestrian dynamics. Moreover, effects of self-organizing behavior are successfully reproduced. The stochastic cellular automata approach is found to be adequate with respect to uncertainties in human motion patterns, a feature previously held by artificial noise terms alone.
Computational model of cellular metabolic dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Yanjun; Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M;
2010-01-01
Identifying the mechanisms by which insulin regulates glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle is critical to understanding the etiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Our knowledge of these mechanisms is limited by the difficulty of obtaining in vivo intracellular data. To quantitatively...... cytosol and mitochondria. The model simulated skeletal muscle metabolic responses to insulin corresponding to human hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Insulin-mediated rate of glucose disposal was the primary model input. For model validation, simulations were compared with experimental data...... type 2 diabetes....
Modeling cellular deformations using the level set formalism
Yang Liu; Effler Janet C; Kutscher Brett L; Sullivan Sarah E; Robinson Douglas N; Iglesias Pablo A
2008-01-01
Abstract Background Many cellular processes involve substantial shape changes. Traditional simulations of these cell shape changes require that grids and boundaries be moved as the cell's shape evolves. Here we demonstrate that accurate cell shape changes can be recreated using level set methods (LSM), in which the cellular shape is defined implicitly, thereby eschewing the need for updating boundaries. Results We obtain a viscoelastic model of Dictyostelium cells using micropipette aspiratio...
Development and validation of computational models of cellular interaction
Smallwood, R H; Holcombe, W.M.L.; Walker, D C
2004-01-01
In this paper we take the view that computational models of biological systems should satisfy two conditions – they should be able to predict function at a systems biology level, and robust techniques of validation against biological models must be available. A modelling paradigm for developing a predictive computational model of cellular interaction is described, and methods of providing robust validation against biological models are explored, followed by a consideration of soft...
Computer generation of initial spatial distribution for cell automata
GuangHua Liu; WenJun Zhang
2011-01-01
The algorithm to generate spatial distribution patterns was developed and presented in this study. Three typical spatial distribution patterns, i.e., Poisson distribution, binomial distribution, and negative binomial distribution were included in the algorithm. The Java program was also provided. The algorithm can be used to generate initial distribution in cell automata modeling.
Automata in SageMath---Combinatorics meet Theoretical Computer Science
Heuberger, Clemens; Krenn, Daniel; Kropf, Sara
2014-01-01
The new finite state machine package in the mathematics software system SageMath is presented and illustrated by many examples. Several combinatorial problems, in particular digit problems, are introduced, modeled by automata and transducers and solved using SageMath. In particular, we compute the asymptotic Hamming weight of a non-adjacent-form-like digit expansion, which was not known before.
A two-lane cellular automaton traffic flow model with the influence of driver, vehicle and road
Zhao, Han-Tao; Nie, Cen; Li, Jing-Ru; Wei, Yu-Ao
2016-07-01
On the basis of one-lane comfortable driving model, this paper established a two-lane traffic cellular automata model, which improves the slow randomization effected by brake light. Considering the driver psychological characteristics and mixed traffic, we studied the lateral influence between vehicles on adjacent lanes. Through computer simulation, the space-time diagram and the fundamental figure under different conditions are obtained. The study found that aggressive driver makes a slight congestion in low-density traffic and improves the capacity of high-density traffic, when the density exceeds 20pcu/km the more aggressive drivers the greater the flow, when the density below 40pcu/km driver character makes an effect, the more cautious driver, the lower the flow. The ratio of big cars has the same effect as the ratio of aggressive drivers. Brake lights have the greatest impact on traffic flow and when the density exceeds 10pcu/km the traffic flow fluctuates. Under periodic boundary conditions, the disturbance of road length on traffic is minimal. The lateral influence only play a limited role in the medium-density conditions, and only affect the average speed of traffic at low density.
Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalie Berestovsky
Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them
WWW Business Applications Based on the Cellular Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Toshio Kodama; Tosiyasu L. Kunii; Yoichi Seki
2008-01-01
A cellular model based on the Incrementally Modular Abstraction Hierarchy (IMAH) is a novel model that can represent the architecture of and changes in cyberworlds, preserving invariants from a general level to a specific one. We have developed a data processing system called the Cellular Data System (CDS). In the development of business applications, you can prevent combinatorial explosion in the process of business design and testing by using CDS. In this paper, we have first designed and implemented wide-use algebra on the presentation level. Next, we have developed and verified the effectiveness of two general business applications using CDS: 1) a customer information management system, and 2) an estimate system.
Application of Automata-Based Programming for Construction of Business Processes Management Systems
Evgeny, Andreevich; Vladimir, Anatolievich
2009-01-01
In this article the problem of business processes modeling languages consolidation in a uniform management system is considered. It will be shown that it is reasonable to use automata-based programs as a base for proposed system.
A sub-cellular viscoelastic model for cell population mechanics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yousef Jamali
Full Text Available Understanding the biomechanical properties and the effect of biomechanical force on epithelial cells is key to understanding how epithelial cells form uniquely shaped structures in two or three-dimensional space. Nevertheless, with the limitations and challenges posed by biological experiments at this scale, it becomes advantageous to use mathematical and 'in silico' (computational models as an alternate solution. This paper introduces a single-cell-based model representing the cross section of a typical tissue. Each cell in this model is an individual unit containing several sub-cellular elements, such as the elastic plasma membrane, enclosed viscoelastic elements that play the role of cytoskeleton, and the viscoelastic elements of the cell nucleus. The cell membrane is divided into segments where each segment (or point incorporates the cell's interaction and communication with other cells and its environment. The model is capable of simulating how cells cooperate and contribute to the overall structure and function of a particular tissue; it mimics many aspects of cellular behavior such as cell growth, division, apoptosis and polarization. The model allows for investigation of the biomechanical properties of cells, cell-cell interactions, effect of environment on cellular clusters, and how individual cells work together and contribute to the structure and function of a particular tissue. To evaluate the current approach in modeling different topologies of growing tissues in distinct biochemical conditions of the surrounding media, we model several key cellular phenomena, namely monolayer cell culture, effects of adhesion intensity, growth of epithelial cell through interaction with extra-cellular matrix (ECM, effects of a gap in the ECM, tensegrity and tissue morphogenesis and formation of hollow epithelial acini. The proposed computational model enables one to isolate the effects of biomechanical properties of individual cells and the
Model of information diffusion
Lande, D V
2008-01-01
The system of cellular automata, which expresses the process of dissemination and publication of the news among separate information resources, has been described. A bell-shaped dependence of news diffusion on internet-sources (web-sites) coheres well with a real behavior of thematic data flows, and at local time spans - with noted models, e.g., exponential and logistic ones.
On path hypercompositions in graphs and automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massouros Christos G.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paths in graphs define hypercompositions in the set of their vertices and therefore it is feasible to associate hypercompositional structures to each graph. Similarly, the strings of letters from their alphabet, define hypercompositions in the automata, which in turn define the associated hypergroups to the automata. The study of the associated hypercompositional structures gives results in both, graphs and automata theory.
Active automata learning for real life applications
Merten, Maik
2013-01-01
Automata learning is a concept discussed in the literature for decades. Accordingly, the theoretical framework for learning automata from observations has been in place already for a considerable time. Despite the ever-increasing theoretical maturity of the field, real-life applications are few and far between. In part this can certainly be attributed to the lack of ready-made infrastructure, e.g., frameworks that support automata learning with the goal of learning realistic systems....
Cellular worlds: a framework for modeling micro - macro dynamics
H Couclelis
1985-01-01
Cellular spaces have recently received a lot of attention in computer science and elsewhere as models capable of bridging the gap between disaggregate and aggregate description. Despite their obvious spatial interpretation, standard cell-space models are too constrained by their background conventions to be useful in realistic geographic applications. In this paper, a generalization of the cell-space principle is presented, based on discrete model theory, and then applied to a hypothetical bu...
A Modified Cellular Automaton Model for Traffic Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
葛红霞; 董力耘; 雷丽; 戴世强
2004-01-01
A modified cellular automaton model for traffic flow was proposed. A novel concept about the changeable security gap was introduced and a parameter related to the variable security gap was determined. The fundamental diagram obtained by simulation shows that the maximum flow more approaches to the observed data than that of the NaSch model, indicating that the presented model is more reasonable and realistic.
Interface Input/Output Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej
2006-01-01
Building on the theory of interface automata by de Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch’s I/O, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit separation of assumptions...... from guarantees not yet seen in other behavioral interface theories. Moreover we derive the composition operator systematically and formally, guaranteeing that the resulting compositions are always the weakest in the sense of assumptions, and the strongest in the sense of guarantees. We also present a...... method for solving systems of relativized behavioral inequalities as used in our setup and draw a formal correspondence between our work and interface automata....
Parallel adaptive finite state automata
Rocha, Ricardo L.; Garanhani, César E.C.
2006-01-01
The interest on parallelism has grown in many areas of technology. Hardware development has evolved greatly in the last years, leaving to software developers the goal of building better tools and compilers for parallel computation. Also, symbolic computation must take advantage of parallel computation. The proposal contained in this paper is to use functional languages as a tool to implement adaptive automata using the concepts of symbolic computation
On the Number of Attractors of Positive and Negative Boolean Automata Circuits.
Demongeot, Jacques; Noual, Mathilde; Sené, Sylvain
2010-01-01
International audience In line with fields of theoretical computer science and biology that study Boolean automata networks often seen as models of regulation networks, we present some results concerning the dynamics of networks whose underlying interaction graphs are circuits, that is, Boolean automata circuits. In the context of biological regulation, former studies have highlighted the importance of circuits on the asymptotic dynamical behaviour of the biological networks that contain t...
Fire Spread Model for Old Towns Based on Cellular Automaton
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Nan; WENG Wenguo; MA Wei; NI Shunjiang; HUANG Quanyi; YUAN Hongyong
2008-01-01
Old towns like Lijiang have enormous historic,artistic,and architectural value.The buildings in such old towns are usually made of highly combustible materials,such as wood and grass.If a fire breaks out,it will spread to multiple buildings,so fire spreading and controlling in old towns need to be studied.This paper presents a fire spread model for old towns based on cellular automaton.The cellular automaton rules were set according to historical fire data in empirical formulas.The model also considered the effects of climate.The simulation results were visualized in a geography information system.An example of a fire spread in Lijiang was investigated with the results showing that this model provides a realistic tool for predicting fire spread in old towns.Fire brigades can use this tool to predict when and how a fire spreads to minimize the losses.
Constraint LTL Satisfiability Checking without Automata
Bersani, Marcello M; Morzenti, Angelo; Pradella, Matteo; Rossi, Matteo; Pietro, Pierluigi San
2012-01-01
This paper introduces a novel technique to decide the satisfiability of formulae written in the language of Linear Temporal Logic with Both future and past operators and atomic formulae belonging to constraint system D (CLTLB(D) for short). The technique is based on the concept of bounded satisfiability, and hinges on an encoding of CLTLB(D) formulae into QF-EUD, the theory of quantifier-free equality and uninterpreted functions combined with D. Similarly to standard LTL, where bounded model-checking and SAT-solvers can be used as an alternative to automata-theoretic approaches to model-checking, our approach allows users to solve the satisfiability problem for CLTLB(D) formulae through SMT-solving techniques, rather than by checking the emptiness of the language of a suitable automaton A{\\phi}. The technique is effective, and it has been implemented in our Zot formal verification tool.
An extinction-survival-type phase transition in the probabilistic cellular automaton p182-q200
Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.; de Oliveira, Mário J.
2010-01-01
We investigate the critical behaviour of a probabilistic mixture of cellular automata (CA) rules 182 and 200 (in Wolfram's enumeration scheme) by mean-field analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. We found that as we switch off one CA and switch on the other by the variation of the single paramenter of the model the probabilistic CA (PCA) goes through an extinction-survival-type phase transition, and the numerical data indicate that it belongs to the directed percolation universality class of c...
Mathematical model for flood routing based on cellular automaton
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin CAI
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Increasing frequency and severity of flooding have caused tremendous damage in China, requiring more essential countermeasures to alleviate the damage. In this study, the dynamic simulation property of a cellular automaton was used to make further progress in flood routing. In consideration of terrain’s influence on flood routing, we regarded the terrain elevation as an auxiliary attribute of a two-dimensional cellular automaton in path selection for flood routing and developed a mathematical model based on a cellular automaton. A numerical case of propagation of an outburst flood in an area of the lower Yangtze River was analyzed with both the fixed-step and variable-step models. The results show that the flood does not spread simultaneously in all directions, but flows into the lower place first, and that the submerged area grows quickly at the beginning, but slowly later on. The final submerged areas obtained from the two different models are consistent, and the flood volume balance test shows that the flood volume meets the requirement of the total volume balance. The analysis of the case shows that the proposed model can be a valuable tool for flood routing.
A Cellular Model for Screening Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors
Fang, Jianguo; Silverman, Richard B.
2009-01-01
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors are potential drug candidates because it has been well demonstrated that excessive production of NO critically contributes to a range of diseases. Most inhibitors have been screened in vitro using recombinant enzymes, leading to the discovery of a variety of potent compounds. To make inhibition studies more physiologically relevant and bridge the gap between the in vitro assay and in vivo studies, we report here a cellular model for screening NOS inhibit...
Cellular-Based Statistical Model for Mobile Dispersion
Abdulla, Mouhamed; Shayan, Yousef R.
2013-01-01
While analyzing mobile systems we often approximate the actual coverage surface and assume an ideal cell shape. In a multi-cellular network, because of its tessellating nature, a hexagon is more preferred than a circular geometry. Despite this reality, perhaps due to the inherent simplicity, only a model for circular based random spreading is available. However, if used, this results an unfair terminal distribution for non-circular contours. Therefore, in this paper we specifically derived an...
Analysis for Embedded Systems: Experiments with Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ovatman, Tolga; Brekling, Aske Wiid; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
2010-01-01
Analysis of resource consumption of embedded systems is a major challenge in the industry since the number of components that can be included in a single chip keeps getting bigger. In this paper, we consider simple models of embedded systems and the automated analysis about timing and memory access...... priced timed automata and Uppaal Cora as a model checking tool in reasoning about resource consumption of embedded systems....
On the secure obfuscation of deterministic finite automata.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, William Erik
2008-06-01
In this paper, we show how to construct secure obfuscation for Deterministic Finite Automata, assuming non-uniformly strong one-way functions exist. We revisit the software protection approaches originally proposed by [5, 10, 12, 17] and revise them to the current obfuscation setting of Barak et al. [2]. Under this model, we introduce an efficient oracle that retains some 'small' secret about the original program. Using this secret, we can construct an obfuscator and two-party protocol that securely obfuscates Deterministic Finite Automata against malicious adversaries. The security of this model retains the strong 'virtual black box' property originally proposed in [2] while incorporating the stronger condition of dependent auxiliary inputs in [15]. Additionally, we show that our techniques remain secure under concurrent self-composition with adaptive inputs and that Turing machines are obfuscatable under this model.
双目标推动下群体行为的元胞自动机模拟%Cellular automata simulation of group behavior driven by dual-targets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姚灿中; 杨建梅
2012-01-01
采用元胞自动机对自推动粒子改进模型进行模拟,在此基础上分别探讨无目标与双目标群体行为的演化特征.无目标条件下群体行为的元胞模拟结果显示低密度环境下大部分个体处于动态均衡,高密度环境下大部分个体处于静态均衡,中等密度下两种均衡均存在.基于双目标吸引力的群体行为模拟结果显示当智能体的理性程度较低时系统演化能够产生一定的集聚效应,处于吸引源以外的智能体与吸引源保持一定距离并呈湍流式运动,而当智能体具备小概率全局理性判断能力时,群体行为的演化结果为大部分智能体都聚集在吸引源附近.%This paper improves the self-propelled particle models by cellular automaton; through this model, the evolution characteristic of group behaviors is further studied in the conditions of non-target and dual-targets. The group behaviors simulation under the non-target condition shows that most individuals reach the dynamic equilibrium in low-density environment, most individuals are in static equilibrium in high-density environment, and both the static and the dynamic equilibrium exist in medium-density environment. The simulation results of group behaviors based on dual-targets attractiveness model show that when the agent's rational level is low, the system evolution can produce the concentration effect to a certain extent, and the agents outside the attracted source region maintain a certain distance with the source and the movement is turbulent. When the agents have the small probability of global rationality, the evolution results of group behaviors show that most agents gather in the vicinity of the attractive source.
Simulation of plant communities with a cellular automaton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gassmann, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
With a modelling approach based on cellular automata, five observed types of plant development can be simulated. In addition, the proposed model shows a strong tendency towards the formation of patches and a high degree of dynamical and structural instability leading to limits of predictability for the asymptotic solution chosen by the system among several possible metastable patterns (multistability). Further, external fluctuations can be shown to have advantages for certain plant types. The presented model unifies the fundamental dichotomy in vegetation dynamics between determinism (understood as predictability) and disorder (chance effects) by showing the outcome of both classical theories as special cases. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.
Towards reversibility in a JJL qubit qualitative model by means of CAN2 paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reversibility is a concept widely studied in physics and computer science. Quantum systems evolution is described by the time evolution operator U, which is unitary and then invertible. Likewise, reversible computation is characterized by means of invertible properties. Reversible/invertible cellular automata (CA) are one of the most relevant reversible computational models. Here we introduce a model for a Josephson junction ladder (JJL) device which turns out to be reversible: it is based on a hybrid cellular automata network (CAN), the CAN2 one
Modelling of detonation cellular structure in aluminium suspensions
Briand, A.; Veyssiere, B.; Khasainov, B. A.
2010-12-01
Heterogeneous detonations involving aluminium suspensions have been studied for many years for industrial safety policies, and for military and propulsion applications. Owing to their weak detonability and to the lack of available experimental results on the detonation cellular structure, numerical simulations provide a convenient way to improve the knowledge of such detonations. One major difficulty arising in numerical study of heterogeneous detonations involving suspensions of aluminium particles in oxidizing atmospheres is the modelling of aluminium combustion. Our previous two-step model provided results on the effect on the detonation cellular structure of particle diameter and characteristic chemical lengths. In this study, a hybrid model is incorporated in the numerical code EFAE, combining both kinetic and diffusion regimes in parallel. This more realistic model provides good agreement with the previous two-step model and confirms the correlations found between the detonation cell width, and particle diameter and characteristic lengths. Moreover, the linear dependence found between the detonation cell width and the induction length remains valid with the hybrid model.
A cellular automaton model for tumor growth in heterogeneous environment
Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Sal
2011-03-01
Cancer is not a single disease: it exhibits heterogeneity on different spatial and temporal scales and strongly interacts with its host environment. Most mathematical modeling of malignant tumor growth has assumed a homogeneous host environment. We have developed a cellular automaton model for tumor growth that explicitly incorporates the structural heterogeneity of the host environment such as tumor stroma. We show that these structural heterogeneities have non-trivial effects on the tumor growth dynamics and prognosis. Y. J. is supported by PSOC, NCI.
A Realistic Cellular Automaton Model for Synchronized Traffic Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Bo-Han; HU Mao-Bin; JIANG Rui; WU Qing-Song
2009-01-01
A cellular automaton model is proposed to consider the anticipation effect in drivers' behavior. It is shown that the anticipation effect can be one of the origins of synchronized traffic flow. With anticipation effect, the congested traffic flow simulated by the model exhibits the features of synchronized flow. The spatiotemporal patterns induced by an on-ramp are also consistent with the three-phaee traffic theory. Since the origin of synchronized flow is still controversial, our work can shed some light on the mechanism of synchronized flow.
Edit Distance for Pushdown Automata
Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Otop, Jan
2015-01-01
The edit distance between two words $w_1, w_2$ is the minimal number of word operations (letter insertions, deletions, and substitutions) necessary to transform $w_1$ to $w_2$. The edit distance generalizes to languages ${\\cal L}_1, {\\cal L}_2$, where the edit distance is the minimal number $k$ such that for every word from ${\\cal L}_1$ there exists a word in ${\\cal L}_2$ with edit distance at most $k$. We study the edit distance computation problem between pushdown automata and their subclas...
Learning automata theory and applications
Najim, K
1994-01-01
Learning systems have made a significant impact on all areas of engineering problems. They are attractive methods for solving many problems which are too complex, highly non-linear, uncertain, incomplete or non-stationary, and have subtle and interactive exchanges with the environment where they operate. The main aim of the book is to give a systematic treatment of learning automata and to produce a guide to a wide variety of ideas and methods that can be used in learning systems, including enough theoretical material to enable the user of the relevant techniques and concepts to understand why
Compositions of (max+)-automata
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lahaye, S.; Komenda, Jan; Boimond, J.-L.
Guadalajara : IFAC, 2012 - (Ramírez-Treviño, A.; López-Mellado, E.; Lesage, J.), s. 61-66 ISBN 978-3-902823-28-1. [11th International Workshop on Discrete Event Systems (WODES 2012). Guadalajara (MX), 03.10.2012-05.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : (max,+) automata * synchronous composition * asynchronous composition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.ifac-papersonline.net/Detailed/58159.html
Cellular automaton model considering headway-distance effect
Hu, Shou-Xin; Gao, Kun; Wang, Bing-Hong; Lu, Yu-Feng
2008-05-01
This paper presents a cellular automaton model for single-lane traffic flow. On the basis of the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model, it further considers the effect of headway-distance between two successive cars on the randomization of the latter one. In numerical simulations, this model shows the following characteristics. (1) With a simple structure, this model succeeds in reproducing the hysteresis effect, which is absent in the NS model. (2) Compared with the slow-to-start models, this model exhibits a local fundamental diagram which is more consistent to empirical observations. (3) This model has much higher efficiency in dissolving congestions compared with the so-called NS model with velocity-dependent randomization (VDR model). (4) This model is more robust when facing traffic obstructions. It can resist much longer shock times and has much shorter relaxation times on the other hand. To summarize, compared with the existing models, this model is quite simple in structure, but has good characteristics.