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  1. A novel pleiotropic effect of aspirin: Beneficial regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in microglial cells.

    Kata, Diana; Földesi, Imre; Feher, Liliana Z; Hackler, Laszlo; Puskas, Laszlo G; Gulya, Karoly

    2017-06-01

    Aspirin, one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has extensively studied effects on the cardiovascular system. To reveal further pleiotropic, beneficial effects of aspirin on a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial mechanisms, we performed morphometric and functional studies relating to phagocytosis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10, respectively) and analyzed the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes, including those related to the above functions, in pure microglial cells. We examined the effects of aspirin (0.1mM and 1mM) in unchallenged (control) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged secondary microglial cultures. Aspirin affected microglial morphology and functions in a dose-dependent manner as it inhibited LPS-elicited microglial activation by promoting ramification and the inhibition of phagocytosis in both concentrations. Remarkably, aspirin strongly reduced the pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α production, while it increased the anti-inflammatory IL-10 level in LPS-challenged cells. Moreover, aspirin differentially regulated the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes as it downregulated such pro-inflammatory genes as Nos2, Kng1, IL1β, Ptgs2 or Ccr1, while it upregulated some anti-inflammatory genes such as IL10, Csf2, Cxcl1, Ccl5 or Tgfb1. Thus, the use of aspirin could be beneficial for the prophylaxis of certain neurodegenerative disorders as it effectively ameliorates inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pro-apoptotic protein Noxa regulates memory T cell population size and protects against lethal immunopathology

    Wensveen, Felix M.; Klarenbeek, Paul L.; van Gisbergen, Klaas P. J. M.; Pascutti, Maria F.; Derks, Ingrid A. M.; van Schaik, Barbera D. C.; ten Brinke, Anja; de Vries, Niek; Cekinovic, Durdica; Jonjic, Stipan; van Lier, René A. W.; Eldering, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Memory T cells form a highly specific defense layer against reinfection with previously encountered pathogens. In addition, memory T cells provide protection against pathogens that are similar, but not identical to the original infectious agent. This is because each T cell response harbors multiple

  3. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Microvesicles Regulate an Internal Pro-Inflammatory Program in Activated Macrophages

    Juan S. Henao Agudelo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are multipotent cells with abilities to exert immunosuppressive response promoting tissue repair. Studies have shown that MSCs can secrete extracellular vesicles (MVs-MSCs with similar regulatory functions to the parental cells. Furthermore, strong evidence suggesting that MVs-MSCs can modulate several immune cells (i.e., Th1, Th17, and Foxp3+ T cells. However, their precise effect on macrophages (Mϕs remains unexplored. We investigated the immunoregulatory effect of MVs-MSCs on activated M1-Mϕs in vitro and in vivo using differentiated bone marrow Mϕs and an acute experimental model of thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, respectively. We observed that MVs-MSCs shared surface molecules with MSCs (CD44, CD105, CD90, CD73 and expressed classical microvesicle markers (Annexin V and CD9. The in vitro treatment with MVs-MSCs exerted a regulatory-like phenotype in M1-Mϕs, which showed higher CD206 level and reduced CCR7 expression. This was associated with decreased levels of inflammatory molecules (IL-1β, IL-6, nitric oxide and increased immunoregulatory markers (IL-10 and Arginase in M1-Mϕs. In addition, we detected that MVs-MSCs promoted the downregulation of inflammatory miRNAs (miR-155 and miR-21, as well as, upregulated its predicted target gene SOCS3 in activated M1-Mϕs. In vivo MVs-MSCs treatment reduced the Mϕs infiltrate in the peritoneal cavity inducing a M2-like regulatory phenotype in peritoneal Mϕs (higher arginase activity and reduced expression of CD86, iNOS, IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 molecules. This in vivo immunomodulatory effect of MVs-MSCs on M1-Mϕs was partially associated with the upregulation of CX3CR1 in F4/80+/Ly6C+/CCR2+ Mϕs subsets. In summary, our findings indicate that MVs-MSCs can modulate an internal program in activated Mϕs establishing an alternative regulatory-like phenotype.

  4. Cyclic mechanical stretch down-regulates cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression and activates a pro-inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Harpa Karadottir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV of patients can cause damage to bronchoalveolar epithelium, leading to a sterile inflammatory response, infection and in severe cases sepsis. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of MV on the innate immune defense system in the human lung. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP gene expression. We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37. Further, we observed an increase in pro-inflammatory responses in the VA10 cell line subjected to cyclic stretch. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β was increased after cyclic stretching, where as a decrease in gene expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES was observed. Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative stress in the VA10 cells. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor (TLR 3, TLR5 and TLR8 was reduced, while the gene expression of TLR2 was increased in VA10 cells after cyclic stretch. In conclusion, our in vitro results indicate that cyclic stretch may differentially modulate innate immunity by down-regulation of antimicrobial peptide expression and increase in pro-inflammatory responses.

  5. TNF-α-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is reduced by phosphatidylcholine in intestinal epithelial cells

    Griffiths Gareth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylcholine (PC is a major lipid of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. We recently showed that mucus from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis has low levels of PC. Clinical studies reveal that the therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus using slow release preparations is beneficial. The positive role of PC in this disease is still unclear; however, we have recently shown that PC has an intrinsic anti-inflammatory property. It could be demonstrated that the exogenous application of PC inhibits membrane-dependent actin assembly and TNF-α-induced nuclear NF-κB activation. We investigate here in more detail the hypothesis that the exogenous application of PC has anti-inflammatory properties. Methods PC species with different fatty acid side chains were applied to differentiated and non-differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with TNF-α to induce a pro-inflammatory response. We analysed TNF-α-induced NF-κB-activation via the transient expression of a NF-κB-luciferase reporter system. Pro-inflammatory gene transcription was detected with the help of a quantitative real time (RT-PCR analysis. We assessed the binding of TNF-α to its receptor by FACS and analysed lipid rafts by isolating detergent resistant membranes (DRMs. Results The exogenous addition of all PC species tested significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory signalling. The expression levels of IL-8, ICAM-1, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α and MMP-1 were significantly reduced after PC pre-treatment for at least two hours. The effect was comparable to the inhibition of NF-kB by the NF-kB inhibitor SN 50 and was not due to a reduced binding of TNF-α to its receptor or a decreased surface expression of TNF-α receptors. PC was also effective when applied to the apical side of polarised Caco-2 cultures if cells were stimulated from the basolateral side. PC treatment changed the compartmentation of the TNF-α-receptors 1 and 2 to DRMs. Conclusion PC

  6. Activation of p38 MAPK by feline infectious peritonitis virus regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells.

    Regan, Andrew D; Cohen, Rebecca D; Whittaker, Gary R

    2009-02-05

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an invariably fatal disease of cats caused by systemic infection with a feline coronavirus (FCoV) termed feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). The lethal pathology associated with FIP (granulomatous inflammation and T-cell lymphopenia) is thought to be mediated by aberrant modulation of the immune system due to infection of cells such as monocytes and macrophages. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines occurs in cats with FIP, and has been suggested to play a significant role in the disease process. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. Here we show that infection of primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells by FIPV WSU 79-1146 and FIPV-DF2 leads to rapid activation of the p38 MAPK pathway and that this activation regulates production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). FIPV-induced p38 MAPK activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production was inhibited by the pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors SB 203580 and SC 409 in a dose-dependent manner. FIPV-induced p38 MAPK activation was observed in primary feline blood-derived mononuclear cells individually purified from multiple SPF cats, as was the inhibition of TNF-alpha production by pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors.

  7. Synthetic polymeric substrates as potent pro-oxidant versus anti-oxidant regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling and cell apoptosis.

    Sung, Hak-Joon; Chandra, Prafulla; Treiser, Matthew D; Liu, Er; Iovine, Carmine P; Moghe, Prabhas V; Kohn, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell signal transduction pathways emanating from engineered cell substrates remains unclear. To elucidate the role, polymers derived from the amino acid L-tyrosine were used as synthetic matrix substrates. Variations in their chemical properties were created by co-polymerizing hydrophobic L-tyrosine derivatives with uncharged hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mw = 1,000 Da), and negatively charged desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT). These substrates were characterized for their intrinsic ability to generate ROS, as well as their ability to elicit Saos-2 cell responses in terms of intracellular ROS production, actin remodeling, and apoptosis. PEG-containing substrates induced both exogenous and intracellular ROS production, whereas the charged substrates reduced production of both types, indicating a coupling of exogenous ROS generation and intracellular ROS production. Furthermore, PEG-mediated ROS induction caused nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and an increase in caspase-3 activity, confirming a link with apoptosis. PEG-rich pro-oxidant substrates caused cytoskeletal actin remodeling through beta-actin cleavage by caspase-3 into fractins. The fractins co-localized to the mitochondria and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. The remnant cytosolic beta-actin was polymerized and condensed, events consistent with apoptotic cell shrinkage. The cytoskeletal remodeling was integral to the further augmentation of intracellular ROS production. Conversely, the anti-oxidant DT-containing charged substrates suppressed the entire cascade of apoptotic progression. We demonstrate that ROS activity serves an important role in "outside-in" signaling for cells grown on substrates: the ROS activity couples exogenous stress, driven by substrate composition, to changes in intracellular signaling. This signaling causes cell apoptosis, which is mediated by actin remodeling.

  8. Caspase-8 regulates the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Moen, Siv H; Westhrin, Marita; Zahoor, Muhammad; Nørgaard, Nikolai N; Hella, Hanne; Størdal, Berit; Sundan, Anders; Nilsen, Nadra J; Sponaas, Anne-Marit; Standal, Therese

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells, also called mesenchymal stromal cells, MSCs, have great potential in stem cell therapy partly due to their immunosuppressive properties. How these cells respond to chronic inflammatory stimuli is therefore of importance. Toll-like receptors (TLR)s are innate immune receptors that mediate inflammatory signals in response to infection, stress, and damage. Caspase-8 is involved in activation of NF-kB downstream of TLRs in immune cells. Here we investigated the role of caspase-8 in regulating TLR-induced cytokine production from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). Cytokine expression in hBMCs in response to poly(I:C) and LPS was evaluated by PCR, multiplex cytokine assay, and ELISA. TLR3, TRIF, and caspase-8 were silenced using siRNA. Caspase-8 was also inhibited using a caspase-8 inhibitor, z-IEDT. We found that TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) and TLR4 agonist LPS induced secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in a TLR-dependent manner which required the TLR signaling adaptor molecule TRIF. Further, poly(I:C) reduced the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines HGF and TGFβ whereas LPS reduced HGF expression only. Notably, caspase-8 was involved in the induction of IL- IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL10, and in the inhibition of HGF and TGFβ. Caspase-8 appears to modulate hBMSCs into gaining a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, inhibiting caspase-8 in hBMSCs might promote an immunosuppressive phenotype which could be useful in clinical applications to treat inflammatory disorders.

  9. NRF2 Signaling Negatively Regulates Phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate (PMA-Induced Differentiation of Human Monocytic U937 Cells into Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages.

    Min-Gu Song

    Full Text Available Blood monocytes are recruited to injured tissue sites and differentiate into macrophages, which protect against pathogens and repair damaged tissues. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are known to be an important contributor to monocytes' differentiation and macrophages' function. NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2, a transcription factor regulating cellular redox homeostasis, is known to be a critical modulator of inflammatory responses. We herein investigated the role of NRF2 in macrophage differentiation using the human monocytic U937 cell line and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA. In U937 cells with NRF2 silencing, PMA-stimulated cell adherence was significantly facilitated when compared to control U937 cells. Both transcript and protein levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukine-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα were highly elevated in PMA-stimulated NRF2-silenced U937 compared to the control. In addition, PMA-inducible secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 was significantly high in NRF2-silenced U937. As an underlying mechanism, we showed that NRF2-knockdown U937 retained high levels of cellular ROS and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers expression; and subsequently, PMA-stimulated levels of Ca2+ and PKCα were greater in NRF2-knockdown U937 cells, which caused enhanced nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-ҡB (NFҡB p50 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Whereas the treatment of NRF2-silenced U937 cells with pharmacological inhibitors of NFҡB or ERK1/2 largely blocked PMA-induced IL-1β and IL-6 expression, indicating that these pathways are associated with cell differentiation. Taken together, our results suggest that the NRF2 system functions to suppress PMA-stimulated U937 cell differentiation into pro-inflammatory macrophages and provide evidence that the ROS-PKCα-ERK-NFҡB axis is involved in PMA-facilitated differentiation of NRF2-silenced U937

  10. Constitutively active ErbB2 regulates cisplatin-induced cell death in breast cancer cells via pro- and antiapoptotic mechanisms

    Sigurðsson, Haraldur H; Olesen, Christina Wilkens; Dybboe, Rie

    2015-01-01

    cancer cell death, and determine how NHE1 regulates this process. Cisplatin treatment elicited apoptosis, ATM phosphorylation, upregulation of p53, Noxa (PMAIP1), and PUMA (BBC3), and cleavage of caspase-9, -7, fodrin, and PARP-1 in MCF-7 cells. Inducible ΔNErbB2 expression strongly reduced cisplatin...

  11. Overexpression of pro-gastrin releasing peptide promotes the cell proliferation and progression in small cell lung cancer

    Gong, Zhiyun; Lu, Renquan; Xie, Suhong; Jiang, Minglei; Liu, Kai; Xiao, Ran; Shen, Jiabin; Wang, Yanchun; Guo, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) plays the role of oncogene in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this study, we aim to explore the biological function of ProGRP in SCLC cells and its potential mechanism. Expression of ProGRP in SCLC tissues and cell lines were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, respectively. The transduced cell lines with ProGRP down-regulation were established using RNA interference technology. Cell viability, cologenic, apoptosis-associated assay and the biomarker levels determination for cell supernatant were performed in the transduced cells to elucidate the biological functions and mechanisms of ProGRP in SCLC cells. Our data showed that ProGRP protein was demonstrated a higher level in SCLC tissues and cells compared with the control, and its diagnostic efficiency was better than NSE, further, the higher levels of ProGRP were detected in the patients with extensive disease stage (P < 0.05), were also the unfavorable factor to the prognosis of SCLC patients. Additionally, the concentration of serum ProGRP is a useful biomarker in disease-monitoring of the patients with SCLC. Down-regulation of ProGRP significantly reduced SCLC cell growth, repressed colony formation, but increased cancer cell apoptosis. Additionally, repression of ProGRP also induced change in the cell cycle and output of NSE. Our data indicated that ProGRP serve as the useful biomarker in the management of SCLC and might be a potential therapeutic target. - Highlights: • ProGRP is overexpressed in the tissues and sera of the patients with SCLC. • Down-regulation of ProGRP inhibited cell proliferation. • Inhibition of ProGRP altered cell cycle distribution and triggers the apoptosis of lung cancer cells.

  12. The pestivirus N terminal protease N(pro redistributes to mitochondria and peroxisomes suggesting new sites for regulation of IRF3 by N(pro..

    Matthew Jefferson

    Full Text Available The N-terminal protease of pestiviruses, N(pro is a unique viral protein, both because it is a distinct autoprotease that cleaves itself from the following polyprotein chain, and also because it binds and inactivates IRF3, a central regulator of interferon production. An important question remains the role of N(pro in the inhibition of apoptosis. In this study, apoptotic signals induced by staurosporine, interferon, double stranded RNA, sodium arsenate and hydrogen peroxide were inhibited by expression of wild type N(pro, but not by mutant protein N(pro C112R, which we show is less efficient at promoting degradation of IRF3, and led to the conclusion that N(pro inhibits the stress-induced intrinsic mitochondrial pathway through inhibition of IRF3-dependent Bax activation. Both expression of N(pro and infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV prevented Bax redistribution and mitochondrial fragmentation. Given the role played by signaling platforms during IRF3 activation, we have studied the subcellular distribution of N(pro and we show that, in common with many other viral proteins, N(pro targets mitochondria to inhibit apoptosis in response to cell stress. N(pro itself not only relocated to mitochondria but in addition, both N(pro and IRF3 associated with peroxisomes, with over 85% of N(pro puncta co-distributing with PMP70, a marker for peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisomes containing N(pro and IRF3 associated with ubiquitin. IRF3 was degraded, whereas N(pro accumulated in response to cell stress. These results implicate mitochondria and peroxisomes as new sites for IRF3 regulation by N(pro, and highlight the role of these organelles in the anti-viral pathway.

  13. The pestivirus N terminal protease N(pro) redistributes to mitochondria and peroxisomes suggesting new sites for regulation of IRF3 by N(pro.).

    Jefferson, Matthew; Whelband, Matthew; Mohorianu, Irina; Powell, Penny P

    2014-01-01

    The N-terminal protease of pestiviruses, N(pro) is a unique viral protein, both because it is a distinct autoprotease that cleaves itself from the following polyprotein chain, and also because it binds and inactivates IRF3, a central regulator of interferon production. An important question remains the role of N(pro) in the inhibition of apoptosis. In this study, apoptotic signals induced by staurosporine, interferon, double stranded RNA, sodium arsenate and hydrogen peroxide were inhibited by expression of wild type N(pro), but not by mutant protein N(pro) C112R, which we show is less efficient at promoting degradation of IRF3, and led to the conclusion that N(pro) inhibits the stress-induced intrinsic mitochondrial pathway through inhibition of IRF3-dependent Bax activation. Both expression of N(pro) and infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) prevented Bax redistribution and mitochondrial fragmentation. Given the role played by signaling platforms during IRF3 activation, we have studied the subcellular distribution of N(pro) and we show that, in common with many other viral proteins, N(pro) targets mitochondria to inhibit apoptosis in response to cell stress. N(pro) itself not only relocated to mitochondria but in addition, both N(pro) and IRF3 associated with peroxisomes, with over 85% of N(pro) puncta co-distributing with PMP70, a marker for peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisomes containing N(pro) and IRF3 associated with ubiquitin. IRF3 was degraded, whereas N(pro) accumulated in response to cell stress. These results implicate mitochondria and peroxisomes as new sites for IRF3 regulation by N(pro), and highlight the role of these organelles in the anti-viral pathway.

  14. Pro-Resolving Mediators in Regulating and Conferring Macrophage Function

    Jesmond Dalli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are central in coordinating the host response to both sterile and infective insults. Clearance of apoptotic cells and cellular debris is a key biological action preformed by macrophages that paves the way to the resolution of local inflammation, repair and regeneration of damaged tissues, and re-establishment of function. The essential fatty acid-derived autacoids termed specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM play central roles in promoting these processes. In the present article, we will review the role of microvesicles in controlling macrophage efferocytosis and SPM production. We will also discuss the role of both apoptotic cells and microvesicles in providing substrate for transcellular biosynthesis of several SPM families during efferocyotsis. In addition, this article will discuss the biological actions of the recently uncovered macrophage-derived SPM termed maresins. These mediators are produced via 14-lipoxygenation of docosahexaenoic acid that is either enzymatically converted to mediators carrying two hydroxyl groups or to autacoids that are peptide-lipid conjugates, coined maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration. The formation of these mediators is temporally regulated during acute self-limited infectious-inflammation where they promote the uptake and clearance of apoptotic cells, regulate several aspects of the tissue repair and regeneration, and display potent anti-nociceptive actions.

  15. [NRH2 induces cell apoptosis of cerebral tissues around hematomas after intracerebral hemorrhage through up-regulating proNGF, sortilin and p75NTR expressions].

    Zeng, Zhiqing; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Di

    2015-04-01

    To observe the expressions of neurotrophin receptor homolog 2 (NRH2), nerve growth factor precursor (proNGF), sortilin and neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR) in cerebral tissues around hematomas in the different periods after intracerebral hemorrhage, and explore their relationships to cell apoptosis. The specimens of cerebral tissues around hematomas were collected from the patients undergoing hematoma removal operation after intracerebral hemorrhage. These specimens were divided into four groups, namely ≤ 6 hours, 6-24 hours(including 24 hours), 24-72 hours (including 72 hours) and over 72 hours according to the time from intracerebral hemorrhage to specimen collection. At the same time, 10 brain tissues distant to hemorrhage that dropped in the operative process were collected as a control group. Apoptosis index (AI) was examined in brain cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL). The expressions of NRH2, proNGF, sortilin and p75NTR mRNAs and proteins in brain tissues were detected through real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Also, the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax in brain tissues were analyzed using Western blotting. In vitro cultured astrocytes of rat cortex were transfected by NRH2 siRNA or scramble siRNA. The expressions of proNGF, sortilin and p75NTR proteins were detected using Western blotting. AI was higher in all groups of hemorrhage for 6 hours or longer than that in control and ≤ 6 hours groups, and AI in the group of 24-72 hours after intracerebral hemorrhage was the highest. However, there was no significant difference in AI between ≤ 6 hours group and control group. With the extension of intracerebral hemorrhage time, the expression levels of proNGF and p75NTR mRNAs and proteins were gradually elevated, reached the peak in 24-72 hours, and maintained a higher level after 72 hours, whereas there were no significant differences in the above indicators

  16. Ethyl acetate extract of Chinese medicinal herb Sarcandra glabra induces growth inhibition on human leukemic HL-60 cells, associated with cell cycle arrest and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.

    Li, W Y; Chiu, Lawrence C M; Lam, W S; Wong, W Y; Chan, Y T; Ho, Y P; Wong, Elaine Y L; Wong, Y S; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2007-02-01

    Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai, colloquially known as Caoshanhu, is a Chinese medicinal herb with reported anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and non-specific immunoenhancing properties. Although the plant has been clinically used for treating a variety of diseases, its bioactive ingredients are largely unknown and its mode of action has never been investigated. In this study, the anti-tumor property of ethyl acetate (EA) extract of S. glabra was investigated by determining its in vitro growth-inhibitory effects on a panel of human cancer cell lines of different histotypes. Growth inhibition of the EA extract on the cancer cells seemed to be selective, and the leukemic HL-60 was found to be the most responsive after 48 h of treatment (IC50=58 microg/ml). Flow cytometric studies further illustrated that the extract might interfere with DNA replication and thus arrested the cell cycle at S phase in the leukemic cells, followed by DNA fragmentation and loss of phospholipid asymmetry in the plasma membrane after 72 h of treatment. Concurrently, the pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was also up-regulated by more than 178% of the control level. All these findings suggested that the extract had initiated apoptosis to kill the leukemic cells. Results from this pioneer study help to establish a scientific foundation for future research and development of the bioactive ingredients in EA extract of S. glabra as efficacious anti-cancer agents.

  17. Regulation of pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin synthesis and secretion in cultured neonatal rat anterior pituitary

    Sato, S.M.; Mains, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Previous work demonstrated that newborn rat anterior pituitary corticotropes display processing patterns for pro-ACTH/endorphin that are different from the adult. The synthesis and release of beta-endorphin-related peptides was examined in dispersed cell and explant cultures of newborn anterior pituitary to investigate corticotrope development further. The temporal pattern of pro-ACTH/endorphin processing differed significantly from adult rat melanotropes and AtT-20 cells. While pro-ACTH/endorphin processing begins within 30 min of synthesis in adult melanotropes and AtT-20 cells, pulse-labeling of newborn corticotropes in culture indicated that pro-ACTH/endorphin remained uncleaved for at least 90 min after synthesis. With further incubation, there was a decrease in radioactivity associated with the precursor and an equivalent rise in the radioactivity associated with beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. However, unprocessed precursor still remained in the cultured newborn anterior pituitary cells after a 25-h chase. Although intact pro-ACTH/endorphin from newborn corticotropes was very long-lived, the precursor did undergo oligosaccharide maturation and became endoglycosidase H resistant within 1 h after synthesis. Similar to the adult, pro-ACTH/endorphin synthesis was doubled in cultures of newborn anterior pituitary chronically treated with 10 nM CRF resulting in a 3- to 4-fold stimulation of secretion over the basal rate. However, unlike the AtT-20 cell or adult rat corticotrope, the proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the newborn corticotrope was altered by chronic secretagogue treatment; less pro-ACTH/endorphin was converted to beta-endorphin in secretagogue-treated corticotropes than in controls. Thus processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the corticotrope is not mature by birth and can be regulated by chronic CRF treatment.

  18. Regulation of pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin synthesis and secretion in cultured neonatal rat anterior pituitary

    Sato, S.M.; Mains, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that newborn rat anterior pituitary corticotropes display processing patterns for pro-ACTH/endorphin that are different from the adult. The synthesis and release of beta-endorphin-related peptides was examined in dispersed cell and explant cultures of newborn anterior pituitary to investigate corticotrope development further. The temporal pattern of pro-ACTH/endorphin processing differed significantly from adult rat melanotropes and AtT-20 cells. While pro-ACTH/endorphin processing begins within 30 min of synthesis in adult melanotropes and AtT-20 cells, pulse-labeling of newborn corticotropes in culture indicated that pro-ACTH/endorphin remained uncleaved for at least 90 min after synthesis. With further incubation, there was a decrease in radioactivity associated with the precursor and an equivalent rise in the radioactivity associated with beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. However, unprocessed precursor still remained in the cultured newborn anterior pituitary cells after a 25-h chase. Although intact pro-ACTH/endorphin from newborn corticotropes was very long-lived, the precursor did undergo oligosaccharide maturation and became endoglycosidase H resistant within 1 h after synthesis. Similar to the adult, pro-ACTH/endorphin synthesis was doubled in cultures of newborn anterior pituitary chronically treated with 10 nM CRF resulting in a 3- to 4-fold stimulation of secretion over the basal rate. However, unlike the AtT-20 cell or adult rat corticotrope, the proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the newborn corticotrope was altered by chronic secretagogue treatment; less pro-ACTH/endorphin was converted to beta-endorphin in secretagogue-treated corticotropes than in controls. Thus processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the corticotrope is not mature by birth and can be regulated by chronic CRF treatment

  19. JS-K, a nitric oxide pro-drug, regulates growth and apoptosis through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in prostate cancer cells.

    Tan, Guobin; Qiu, Mingning; Chen, Lieqian; Zhang, Sai; Ke, Longzhi; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-05-26

    In view of the fact that JS-K might regulate ubiquitin E3 ligase and that ubiquitin E3 ligase plays an important role in the mechanism of CRPC formation, the goal was to investigate the probable mechanism by which JS-K regulates prostate cancer cells. Proliferation inhibition by JS-K on prostate cancer cells was examined usingCCK-8 assays. Caspase 3/7 activity assays and flow cytometry were performed to examine whether JS-K induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation analyses investigated JS-K's effects on the associated apoptosis mechanism. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to assess JS-K's effect on transcription of specific AR target genes. Western blotting was also performed to detect Siah2 and AR protein concentrations and co-immunoprecipitation to detect interactions of Siah2 and AR, NCoR1 and AR, and p300 and AR. JS-K inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. JS-K increased p53 and Mdm2 concentrations and regulated the caspase cascade reaction-associated protein concentrations. JS-K inhibited transcription of AR target genes and down-regulated PSA protein concentrations. JS-K inhibited Siah2 interactions and also inhibited the ubiquitination of AR. With further investigation, JS-K was found to stabilize AR and NCoR1 interactions and diminish AR and p300 interactions. The present results suggested that JS-K might have been able to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis via regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway, which represented a promising platform for the development of new compounds for PCa treatments.

  20. Anti-inflammatory drugs suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis through altering expressions of cell cycle regulators and pro-apoptotic factors in cultured human osteoblasts

    Chang, J.-K.; Li, C.-J.; Liao, H.-J.; Wang, C.-K.; Wang, G.-J.; Ho, M.-L.

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that anti-inflammatory drugs (AIDs) inhibited bone repair in animal studies, and suppressed proliferation and induced cell death in rat osteoblast cultures. In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanisms of AID effects on proliferation and cell death in human osteoblasts (hOBs). We examined the effects of dexamethasone (10 -7 and 10 -6 M), non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): indomethacin, ketorolac, piroxicam and diclofenac (10 -5 and 10 -4 M), and COX-2 inhibitor: celecoxib (10 -6 and 10 -5 M) on proliferation, cytotoxicity, cell death, and mRNA and protein levels of cell cycle and apoptosis-related regulators in hOBs. All the tested AIDs significantly inhibited proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase in hOBs. Celecoxib and dexamethasone, but not non-selective NSAIDs, were found to have cytotoxic effects on hOB, and further demonstrated to induce apoptosis and necrosis (at higher concentration) in hOBs. We further found that indomethacin, celecoxib and dexamethasone increased the mRNA and protein expressions of p27 kip1 and decreased those of cyclin D2 and p-cdk2 in hOBs. Bak expression was increased by celecoxib and dexamethasone, while Bcl-XL level was declined only by dexamethasone. Furthermore, the replenishment of PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2α did not reverse the effects of AIDs on proliferation and expressions of p27 kip1 and cyclin D2 in hOBs. We conclude that the changes in expressions of regulators of cell cycle (p27 kip1 and cyclin D2) and/or apoptosis (Bak and Bcl-XL) by AIDs may contribute to AIDs caused proliferation suppression and apoptosis in hOBs. This effect might not relate to the blockage of prostaglandin synthesis by AIDs

  1. Expression and nutritional regulation of the (pro)renin receptor in rat visceral adipose tissue.

    Achard, V; Tassistro, V; Boullu-Ciocca, S; Grino, M

    2011-12-01

    Early life nutritional environment plays an important role in the development of visceral adipose tissue and interacts with nutritional regulations in adulthood, leading to metabolic dysregulations. We hypothesized that the renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the programming-induced development of visceral adipose tissue. We studied, using a model of programming of overweight and glucose intolerance, obtained by post-natal overfeeding with consecutive highfat diet, the status of plasma renin activity and mesenteric adipose renin-angiotensin system, including the recently identified (pro)renin receptor, in adult rats. Post-natal overfeeding or high-fat feeding lead to overweight with increased visceral fat mass and adipocytes surface. When both paradigms were associated, adipocytes surface showed a disproportionate increase. A strong immunoreactivity for (pro)renin receptor was found in stromal cells. Plasma renin activity increased in programmed animals whereas (pro)renin receptor expressing cells density was stimulated by high-fat diet. There was a positive, linear relationship between plasma renin activity and (pro)renin receptor expressing cells density and adipocytes surface. Our experiments demonstrate that association of post-natal overfeeding and high-fat diet increased plasma renin activity and adipose (pro)renin receptor expression. Such phenomenon could explain, at least in part, the associated disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy and its accompanying increased glucose intolerance.

  2. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide,...

  3. Proline oxidase silencing induces proline-dependent pro-survival pathways in MCF-7 cells

    Zareba, Ilona; Celinska-Janowicz, Katarzyna; Surazynski, Arkadiusz; Miltyk, Wojciech; Palka, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Proline degradation by proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) contributes to apoptosis or autophagy. The identification of specific pathway of apoptosis/survival regulation is the aim of this study. We generated knocked-down PRODH/POX MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7shPRODH/POX). PRODH/POX silencing did not affect cell viability. However, it contributed to decrease in DNA and collagen biosynthesis, increase in prolidase activity and intracellular proline concentration as well as increase in the expression of iNOS, NF-κB, mTOR, HIF-1α, COX-2, AMPK, Atg7 and Beclin-1 in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. In these cells, glycyl-proline (GlyPro, substrate for prolidase) further inhibited DNA and collagen biosynthesis, maintained high prolidase activity, intracellular concentration of proline and up-regulated HIF-1α, AMPK, Atg7 and Beclin-1, compared to GlyPro-treated MCF-7 cells. In MCF-7 cells, GlyPro increased collagen biosynthesis, concentration of proline and expression of caspase-3, cleaved caspases -3 and -9, iNOS, NF-κB, COX-2 and AMPKβ. PRODH/POX knock-down contributed to pro-survival autophagy pathways in MCF-7 cells and GlyPro-derived proline augmented this process. However, GlyPro induced apoptosis in PRODH/POX-expressing MCF-7 cells as detected by up-regulation of active caspases -3 and -9. The data suggest that PRODH/POX silencing induces autophagy in MCF-7 cells and GlyPro-derived proline supports this process. PMID:29568391

  4. Changes in proHB-EGF expression after functional activation of the immune system cells

    T. O. Chudina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of proHB-EGF expression on J774, Raji, KG-1 cells derived from different types of human and mouse immune system cells under the standard in vitro culture conditions and during functional activation of these cells was investigated. Changes in the proHB-EGF expression on the cell surface were found to depend on the density of cell population, the content of fetal bovine serum in the culture medium, the effect of mitogenic factors – bacterial lipopolysaccharide, an inactive full-size form of diphtheria toxin (CRM197 and recombinant soluble HB-EGF – rsHB-EGF. The results obtained are important for the understanding of the functional role of proHB-EGF receptor on the surface of macrophage-like cells and B lymphocytes and indicate the involvement of this receptor in immune response regulation in an organism.

  5. Suppression of pro-inflammatory T-cell responses by human mesothelial cells.

    Lin, Chan-Yu; Kift-Morgan, Ann; Moser, Bernhard; Topley, Nicholas; Eberl, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    Human γδ T cells reactive to the microbial metabolite (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP) contribute to acute inflammatory responses. We have previously shown that peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated infections with HMB-PP producing bacteria are characterized by locally elevated γδ T-cell frequencies and poorer clinical outcome compared with HMB-PP negative infections, implying that γδ T cells may be of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic value in acute disease. The regulation by local tissue cells of these potentially detrimental γδ T-cell responses remains to be investigated. Freshly isolated γδ or αβ T cells were cultured with primary mesothelial cells derived from omental tissue, or with mesothelial cell-conditioned medium. Stimulation of cytokine production and proliferation by peripheral T cells in response to HMB-PP or CD3/CD28 beads was assessed by flow cytometry. Resting mesothelial cells were potent suppressors of pro-inflammatory γδ T cells as well as CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells. The suppression of γδ T-cell responses was mediated through soluble factors released by primary mesothelial cells and could be counteracted by SB-431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-β and activin signalling. Recombinant TGF-β1 but not activin-A mimicked the mesothelial cell-mediated suppression of γδ T-cell responses to HMB-PP. The present findings indicate an important regulatory function of mesothelial cells in the peritoneal cavity by dampening pro-inflammatory T-cell responses, which may help preserve the tissue integrity of the peritoneal membrane in the steady state and possibly during the resolution of acute inflammation.

  6. Leptin regulates the pro-inflammatory response in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Lee, Moonyoung; Lee, Eunyoung; Jin, Sun Hee; Ahn, Sungjin; Kim, Sae On; Kim, Jungmin; Choi, Dalwoong; Lim, Kyung-Min; Lee, Seung-Taek; Noh, Minsoo

    2018-05-01

    The role of leptin in cutaneous wound healing process has been suggested in genetically obese mouse studies. However, the molecular and cellular effects of leptin on human epidermal keratinocytes are still unclear. In this study, the whole-genome-scale microarray analysis was performed to elucidate the effect of leptin on epidermal keratinocyte functions. In the leptin-treated normal human keratinocytes (NHKs), we identified the 151 upregulated and 53 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis with the leptin-induced DEGs suggests that leptin regulates NHKs to promote pro-inflammatory responses, extracellular matrix organization, and angiogenesis. Among the DEGs, the protein expression of IL-8, MMP-1, fibronectin, and S100A7, which play roles in which is important in the regulation of cutaneous inflammation, was confirmed in the leptin-treated NHKs. The upregulation of the leptin-induced proteins is mainly regulated by the STAT3 signaling pathway in NHKs. Among the downregulated DEGs, the protein expression of nucleosome assembly-associated centromere protein A (CENPA) and CENPM was confirmed in the leptin-treated NHKs. However, the expression of CENPA and CENPM was not coupled with those of other chromosome passenger complex like Aurora A kinase, INCENP, and survivin. In cell growth kinetics analysis, leptin had no significant effect on the cell growth curves of NHKs in the normal growth factor-enriched condition. Therefore, leptin-dependent downregulation of CENPA and CENPM in NHKs may not be directly associated with mitotic regulation during inflammation.

  7. Chitosan drives anti-inflammatory macrophage polarisation and pro-inflammatory dendritic cell stimulation

    MI Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC share the same precursor and play key roles in immunity. Modulation of their behaviour to achieve an optimal host response towards an implanted device is still a challenge. Here we compare the differentiation process and polarisation of these related cell populations and show that they exhibit different responses to chitosan (Ch, with human monocyte-derived macrophages polarising towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype while their DC counterparts display pro-inflammatory features. Macrophages and DC, whose interactions with biomaterials are frequently analysed using fully differentiated cells, were cultured directly on Ch films, rather than exposed to the polymer after complete differentiation. Ch was the sole stimulating factor and activated both macrophages and DC, without leading to significant T cell proliferation. After 10 d on Ch, macrophages significantly down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory markers, CD86 and MHCII. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-α, decreased with time for cells cultured on Ch, while anti-inflammatory IL-10 and TGF-β1, significantly increased. Altogether, these results suggest an M2c polarisation. Also, macrophage matrix metalloproteinase activity was augmented and cell motility was stimulated by Ch. Conversely, DC significantly enhanced CD86 expression, reduced IL-10 secretion and increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Our findings indicate that cells with a common precursor may display different responses, when challenged by the same biomaterial. Moreover, they help to further comprehend macrophage/DC interactions with Ch and the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signals associated with implant biomaterials. We propose that an overall pro-inflammatory reaction may hide the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, likely relevant for tissue repair/regeneration.

  8. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 All antigens Blood Pro-B cells SRX1553109,SRX15531...3,SRX1143907 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 Histone Blood Pro-B cells SRX668836,SRX1184113,SRX...09,SRX759800,SRX1143916,SRX1143902 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 Histone Blood Pro-B cells SRX668836,SRX1184113,SRX...9,SRX1143910,SRX1143916,SRX1143902 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  11. Platelet adhesion and degranulation induce pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signalling in ovarian cancer cells.

    Karl Egan

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells.

  12. ProBDNF Signaling Regulates Depression-Like Behaviors in Rodents under Chronic Stress.

    Bai, Yin-Yin; Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Chun-Rui; Li, Jia-Yi; Kang, Zhi-Long; Zhou, Li; Liu, Dennis; Zeng, Yue-Qing; Wang, Ting-Hua; Tian, Chang-Fu; Liao, Hong; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2016-11-01

    Chronic exposure to stressful environment is a key risk factor contributing to the development of depression. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) has long been investigated for its positive role in regulation of mood, although the role of its precursor, proBDNF, in regulation of mood is not known. In this study, using an unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) paradigm we found that the protein levels of proBDNF were increased in the neocortex and hippocampus of stressed mice and this UCMS-induced upregulation of proBDNF was abolished by chronic administration of fluoxetine. We then established a rat model of UCMS and found that the expression of proBDNF/p75 NTR /sortilin was upregulated, whereas the expression of mature BDNF and TrkB was downregulated in both neocortex and hippocampus of chronically stressed rats. Finally, we found that the injection of anti-proBDNF antibody via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) approaches into the UCMS rats significantly reversed the stress-induced depression-like behavior and restored the exploratory activity and spine growth. Although intramuscular injection of AAV-proBDNF did not exacerbate the UCMS-elicited rat mood-related behavioral or pathological abnormalities, i.c.v. injection of AAV-proBDNF increased the depression-like behavior in naive rats. Our findings suggest that proBDNF plays a role in the development of chronic stress-induced mood disturbances in rodents. Central (i.c.v.) or peripheral (i.p.) inhibition of proBDNF by injecting specific anti-proBDNF antibodies may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of stress-related mood disorders.

  13. Cell model for the study of receptor and regulatory functions of human proHB-EGF

    N. V. Korotkevych

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing of new models and approaches, particularly with fluorescent techniques, for investigation of intracellular transport of proHB-EGF and its ligand-receptor complexes is strongly required. In order to create a model for studying proHB-EGF functions the genetic construction pEGFP-N1-proHB-EGF, encoding proHB-EGF-EGFP which is fluorescent-labeled form of proHB-EGF with enhanced green fluorescent protein EGFP in the cytoplasmic terminus of the molecule, was obtained. Eukaryotic cells expressing fusion protein proHB-EGF-EGFP on the cell surface were obtained by transfection with pEGFP-N1-proHB-EGF. Expressed in the Vero cells proHB-EGF-EGFP could bind fluorescent derivative of nontoxic receptor-binding subunit B of diphtheria toxin mCherry-SubB. After stimulation of transfected cells with TPA (12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, proHB-EGF-EGFP formed a fluorescentl-labeled C-terminal fragment of the molecule – CTF-EGFP. Thus, the obtained genetic construction pEGFP-N1-proHB-EGF could be helpful in visualization of molecules proHB-EGF and CTF in cells, may open new possibilities for the studying of their functions, such as receptor function of proHB-EGF for diphtheria toxin, intracellular translocation of CTF and provide possibilities for natural proHB-EGF ligands search.

  14. Minocycline counter-regulates pro-inflammatory microglia responses in the retina and protects from degeneration.

    Scholz, Rebecca; Sobotka, Markus; Caramoy, Albert; Stempfl, Thomas; Moehle, Christoph; Langmann, Thomas

    2015-11-17

    retina and down-regulated the expression of the microglial activation marker translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), CD68, and activated microglia/macrophage whey acidic protein (AMWAP) already 1 day after light exposure. Furthermore, RNA-seq analyses revealed the potential of minocycline to globally counter-regulate pro-inflammatory gene transcription in the light-damaged retina. The severe thinning of the outer retina and the strong induction of photoreceptor apoptosis induced by light challenge were nearly completely prevented by minocycline treatment as indicated by a preserved retinal structure and a low number of apoptotic cells. Minocycline potently counter-regulates microgliosis and light-induced retinal damage, indicating a promising concept for the treatment of retinal pathologies.

  15. Regulation of intestinal immune responses through TLR activation: implications for pro- and prebiotics

    Sander eDe Kivit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosa is constantly facing a high load of antigens including bacterial antigens derived from the microbiota and food. Despite this, the immune cells present in the gastrointestinal tract do not initiate a pro-inflammatory immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are pattern recognition receptors expressed by various cells in the gastrointestinal tract, including intestinal epithelial cells (IEC and resident immune cells in the lamina propria. Many diseases, including chronic intestinal inflammation (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, allergic gastroenteritis (e.g. eosinophilic gastroenteritis and allergic IBS and infections are nowadays associated with a deregulated microbiota. The microbiota may directly interact with TLR. In addition, differences in intestinal TLR expression in health and disease may suggest that TLR play an essential role in disease pathogenesis and may be novel targets for therapy. TLR signaling in the gut is involved in either maintaining intestinal homeostasis or the induction of an inflammatory response. This mini review provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding the contribution of intestinal epithelial TLR signaling in both tolerance induction or promoting intestinal inflammation, with a focus on food allergy. We will also highlight a potential role of the microbiota in regulating gut immune responses, especially through TLR activation.

  16. Macrophage pro-inflammatory response to Francisella novicida infection is regulated by SHIP.

    Kishore V L Parsa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen infecting principally macrophages and monocytes, is the etiological agent of tularemia. Macrophage responses to F. tularensis infection include the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-12, which is critical for immunity against infection. Molecular mechanisms regulating production of these inflammatory mediators are poorly understood. Herein we report that the SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP is phosphorylated upon infection of primary murine macrophages with the genetically related F. novicida, and negatively regulates F. novicida-induced cytokine production. Analyses of the molecular details revealed that in addition to activating the MAP kinases, F. novicida infection also activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway in these cells. Interestingly, SHIP-deficient macrophages displayed enhanced Akt activation upon F. novicida infection, suggesting elevated PI3K-dependent activation pathways in absence of SHIP. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt resulted in suppression of F. novicida-induced cytokine production through the inhibition of NFkappaB. Consistently, macrophages lacking SHIP displayed enhanced NFkappaB-driven gene transcription, whereas overexpression of SHIP led to decreased NFkappaB activation. Thus, we propose that SHIP negatively regulates F. novicida-induced inflammatory cytokine response by antagonizing the PI3K/Akt pathway and suppressing NFkappaB-mediated gene transcription. A detailed analysis of phosphoinositide signaling may provide valuable clues for better understanding the pathogenesis of tularemia.

  17. System-level modeling and simulation of the cell culture microfluidic biochip ProCell

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips offer a promising alternative to a conventional biochemical laboratory. There are two technologies for the microfluidic biochips: droplet-based and flow-based. In this paper we are interested in flow-based microfluidic biochips, where the liquid flows continuously through pre......-defined micro-channels using valves and pumps. We present an approach to the system-level modeling and simulation of a cell culture microfluidic biochip called ProCell, Programmable Cell Culture Chip. ProCell contains a cell culture chamber, which is envisioned to run 256 simultaneous experiments (viewed...

  18. Resveratrol post-transcriptionally regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression via regulation of KSRP RNA binding activity

    Bollmann, Franziska; Art, Julia; Henke, Jenny; Schrick, Katharina; Besche, Verena; Bros, Matthias; Li, Huige; Siuda, Daniel; Handler, Norbert; Bauer, Florian; Erker, Thomas; Behnke, Felix; Mönch, Bettina; Härdle, Lorena; Hoffmann, Markus; Chen, Ching-Yi; Förstermann, Ulrich; Dirsch, Verena M.; Werz, Oliver; Kleinert, Hartmut; Pautz, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol shows beneficial effects in inflammation-based diseases like cancer, cardiovascular and chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory resveratrol effects deserve more attention. In human epithelial DLD-1 and monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells resveratrol decreased the expression of iNOS, IL-8 and TNF-α by reducing mRNA stability without inhibition of the promoter activity. Shown by pharmacological and siRNA-mediated inhibition, the observed effects are SIRT1-independent. Target-fishing and drug responsive target stability experiments showed selective binding of resveratrol to the RNA-binding protein KSRP, a central post-transcriptional regulator of pro-inflammatory gene expression. Knockdown of KSRP expression prevented resveratrol-induced mRNA destabilization in human and murine cells. Resveratrol did not change KSRP expression, but immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that resveratrol reduces the p38 MAPK-related inhibitory KSRP threonine phosphorylation, without blocking p38 MAPK activation or activity. Mutation of the p38 MAPK target site in KSRP blocked the resveratrol effect on pro-inflammatory gene expression. In addition, resveratrol incubation enhanced KSRP-exosome interaction, which is important for mRNA degradation. Finally, resveratrol incubation enhanced its intra-cellular binding to the IL-8, iNOS and TNF-α mRNA. Therefore, modulation of KSRP mRNA binding activity and, thereby, enhancement of mRNA degradation seems to be the common denominator of many anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. PMID:25352548

  19. Scleroderma dermal microvascular endothelial cells exhibit defective response to pro-angiogenic chemokines

    Rabquer, Bradley J.; Ohara, Ray A.; Stinson, William A.; Campbell, Phillip L.; Amin, M. Asif; Balogh, Beatrix; Zakhem, George; Renauer, Paul A.; Lozier, Ann; Arasu, Eshwar; Haines, G. Kenneth; Kahaleh, Bashar; Schiopu, Elena; Khanna, Dinesh; Koch, Alisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Angiogenesis plays a critical role in SSc (scleroderma). The aim of this study was to examine the expression of growth-regulated protein-γ (Gro-γ/CXCL3), granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2/CXCL6) and their receptor CXCR2 in endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from SSc skin and determine whether these cells mount an angiogenic response towards pro-angiogenic chemokines. The downstream signalling pathways as well as the pro-angiogenic transcription factor inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 1 (Id-1) were also examined. Methods. Skin biopsies were obtained from patients with dcSSc. ECs were isolated via magnetic positive selection. Angiogenesis was measured by EC chemotaxis assay. Results. Gro-γ/CXCL3 and GCP-2/CXCL6 were minimally expressed in both skin types but elevated in SSc serum. Pro-angiogenic chemokine mRNA was greater in SSc ECs than in normal ECs. SSc ECs did not migrate to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Gro-γ/CXCL3, GCP-2/CXCL6 or CXCL16. The signalling pathways stimulated by these chemokines were also dysregulated. Id-1 mRNA in SSc ECs was lower compared with normal ECs, and overexpression of Id-1 in SSc ECs increased their ability to migrate towards VEGF and CXCL16. Conclusion. Our results show that SSc ECs are unable to respond to pro-angiogenic chemokines despite their increased expression in serum and ECs. This might be due to the differences in the signalling pathways activated by these chemokines in normal vs SSc ECs. In addition, the lower expression of Id-1 also decreases the angiogenic response. The inability of pro-angiogenic chemokines to promote EC migration provides an additional mechanism for the impaired angiogenesis that characterizes SSc. PMID:26705326

  20. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression in response to palmitate and TNF alpha in human placenta cells and is induced in obese placenta

    Maternal obesity has been hypothesized to induce a pro-inflammatory response in the placenta. However, the specific factors contributing to this pro-infalmmatory response are yet to be determined. Our objective was to examine the effects of palmitic acid (PA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alph...

  1. Targeting multiple pro-apoptotic signaling pathways with curcumin in prostate cancer cells

    Rivera, Mariela; Ramos, Yanilda; Rodríguez-Valentín, Madeline; López-Acevedo, Sheila; Cubano, Luis A.; Zou, Jin; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Guangdi

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, an extract from the turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa), is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Accumulative data indicate that curcumin may induce cancer cell death. However, the detailed mechanism underlying its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer effects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the signaling pathways triggered by curcumin, specifically, the exact molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis in highly metastatic human prostate cancer cells. The effect of curcumin was evaluated using for the first time in prostate cancer, a gel-free shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis coupled with Tandem Mass Tag isobaric labeling-based-signaling networks. Results were confirmed at the gene expression level by qRT-PCR and at the protein expression level by western blot and flow cytometry. Our findings revealed that curcumin induced an Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in PC3. The mechanisms by which curcumin promoted cell death in these cells were associated with cell cycle arrest, increased reactive oxygen species, autophagy and the Unfolded Protein Response. Furthermore, the upregulation of ER stress was measured using key indicators of ER stress: Glucose-Regulated Protein 78, Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha, Protein Disulfide isomerase and Calreticulin. Chronic ER stress induction was concomitant with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers (caspases 3,9,12) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The downregulated proteins include anti-apoptotic and anti-tumor markers, supporting their curcumin-induced pro-apoptotic role in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin may serve as a promising anticancer agent by inducing a chronic ER stress mediated cell death and activation of cell cycle arrest, UPR, autophagy and oxidative stress responses. PMID:28628644

  2. Targeting multiple pro-apoptotic signaling pathways with curcumin in prostate cancer cells.

    Mariela Rivera

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an extract from the turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa, is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Accumulative data indicate that curcumin may induce cancer cell death. However, the detailed mechanism underlying its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer effects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the signaling pathways triggered by curcumin, specifically, the exact molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis in highly metastatic human prostate cancer cells. The effect of curcumin was evaluated using for the first time in prostate cancer, a gel-free shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis coupled with Tandem Mass Tag isobaric labeling-based-signaling networks. Results were confirmed at the gene expression level by qRT-PCR and at the protein expression level by western blot and flow cytometry. Our findings revealed that curcumin induced an Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in PC3. The mechanisms by which curcumin promoted cell death in these cells were associated with cell cycle arrest, increased reactive oxygen species, autophagy and the Unfolded Protein Response. Furthermore, the upregulation of ER stress was measured using key indicators of ER stress: Glucose-Regulated Protein 78, Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha, Protein Disulfide isomerase and Calreticulin. Chronic ER stress induction was concomitant with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers (caspases 3,9,12 and Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase. The downregulated proteins include anti-apoptotic and anti-tumor markers, supporting their curcumin-induced pro-apoptotic role in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin may serve as a promising anticancer agent by inducing a chronic ER stress mediated cell death and activation of cell cycle arrest, UPR, autophagy and oxidative stress responses.

  3. proBDNF Negatively Regulates Neuronal Remodeling, Synaptic Transmission, and Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampus

    Jianmin Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent plasticity shapes postnatal development of neural circuits, but the mechanisms that refine dendritic arbors, remodel spines, and impair synaptic activity are poorly understood. Mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF modulates neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP via TrkB activation. BDNF is initially translated as proBDNF, which binds p75NTR. In vitro, recombinant proBDNF modulates neuronal structure and alters hippocampal long-term plasticity, but the actions of endogenously expressed proBDNF are unclear. Therefore, we generated a cleavage-resistant probdnf knockin mouse. Our results demonstrate that proBDNF negatively regulates hippocampal dendritic complexity and spine density through p75NTR. Hippocampal slices from probdnf mice exhibit depressed synaptic transmission, impaired LTP, and enhanced long-term depression (LTD in area CA1. These results suggest that proBDNF acts in vivo as a biologically active factor that regulates hippocampal structure, synaptic transmission, and plasticity, effects that are distinct from those of mature BDNF.

  4. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Klegeris, Andis; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes

  5. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Klegeris, Andis [Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Little, Jonathan P., E-mail: jonathan.little@ubc.ca [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  6. NCAM regulates cell motility

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  7. Regulation of Viral Replication, Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Responses by 17-AAG during Chikungunya Virus Infection in Macrophages

    Tapas K. Nayak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection has re-emerged as a major public health concern due to its recent worldwide epidemics and lack of control measures. Although CHIKV is known to infect macrophages, regulation of CHIKV replication, apoptosis and immune responses towards macrophages are not well understood. Accordingly, the Raw264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line, were infected with CHIKV and viral replication as well as new viral progeny release was assessed by flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively. Moreover, host immune modulation and apoptosis were studied through flow cytometry, Western blot and ELISA. Our current findings suggest that expression of CHIKV proteins were maximum at 8 hpi and the release of new viral progenies were remarkably increased around 12 hpi. The induction of Annexin V binding, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-8 in CHIKV infected macrophages suggests activation of apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF and IL-6 MHC-I/II and B7.2 (CD86 were also up-regulated during infection over time. Further, 17-AAG, a potential HSP90 inhibitor, was found to regulate CHIKV infection, apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine productions of host macrophages significantly. Hence, the present findings might bring new insight into the therapeutic implication in CHIKV disease biology.

  8. Regulation of Viral Replication, Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Responses by 17-AAG during Chikungunya Virus Infection in Macrophages.

    Nayak, Tapas K; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Laishram Pradeep K; Sahoo, Subhransu S; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2017-01-06

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has re-emerged as a major public health concern due to its recent worldwide epidemics and lack of control measures. Although CHIKV is known to infect macrophages, regulation of CHIKV replication, apoptosis and immune responses towards macrophages are not well understood. Accordingly, the Raw264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line, were infected with CHIKV and viral replication as well as new viral progeny release was assessed by flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively. Moreover, host immune modulation and apoptosis were studied through flow cytometry, Western blot and ELISA. Our current findings suggest that expression of CHIKV proteins were maximum at 8 hpi and the release of new viral progenies were remarkably increased around 12 hpi. The induction of Annexin V binding, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-8 in CHIKV infected macrophages suggests activation of apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF and IL-6) MHC-I/II and B7.2 (CD86) were also up-regulated during infection over time. Further, 17-AAG, a potential HSP90 inhibitor, was found to regulate CHIKV infection, apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine productions of host macrophages significantly. Hence, the present findings might bring new insight into the therapeutic implication in CHIKV disease biology.

  9. The effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on immunophenotype, differentiation capacity and immunomodulatory functions of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Pourgholaminejad, Arash; Aghdami, Nasser; Baharvand, Hossein; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as cells with potential clinical utilities, have demonstrated preferential incorporation into inflammation sites. Immunophenotype and immunomodulatory functions of MSCs could alter by inflamed-microenvironments due to the local pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu. A major cellular mediator with specific function in promoting inflammation and pathogenicity of autoimmunity are IL-17-producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells that polarize in inflamed sites in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and IL-23. Since MSCs are promising candidate for cell-based therapeutic strategies in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, Th17 cell polarizing factors may alter MSCs phenotype and function. In this study, human bone-marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSC) were cultured with or without IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 as pro-inflammatory cytokines. The surface markers and their differentiation capacity were measured in cytokine-untreated and cytokine-treated MSCs. MSCs-mediated immunomodulation was analyzed by their regulatory effects on mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and the level of IL-10, TGF-β, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α production as immunomodulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines showed no effect on MSCs morphology, immunophenotype and co-stimulatory molecules except up-regulation of CD45. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity increased in CD45+ MSCs. Moreover, cytokine-treated MSCs preserved the suppressive ability of allogeneic T cell proliferation and produced higher level of TGF-β and lower level of IL-4. We concluded pro-inflammatory cytokines up-regulate the efficacy of MSCs in cell-based therapy of degenerative, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Accumulation of pro-cancer cytokines in the plasma fraction of stored packed red cells.

    Benson, Douglas D; Beck, Adam W; Burdine, Marie S; Brekken, Rolf; Silliman, Christopher C; Barnett, Carlton C

    2012-03-01

    Perioperative blood transfusion has been linked to decreased survival in pancreatic cancer; however, the exact causal mechanism has not been elucidated. Allogeneic transfusions are known to expose patients to foreign cells and lipid mediators. We hypothesize that stored packed red cells (pRBCs) contain pro-cancer cytokines that augment tumor progression. We analyzed the plasma fraction of stored pRBCs for pro-cancer cytokines and evaluated the affect of both storage time and leukocyte reduction on these mediators. Chemiarray™ analysis for pro-cancer cytokines was performed on the acellular plasma fraction of stored leukocyte-reduced (LR) and non-leukocyte-reduced (NLR) pRBCs at day 1 (D.1-fresh) and day 42 (D.42-outdate) of storage. Elevated expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), angiogenin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was found. Specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed for each of these factors in LR and NLR blood at D.1, day 28, and D.42. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. A p value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant; N ≥ 4 per group. Migration assays were performed using inhibitors of EGF (gefitinib) and PDGF (imatinib) on murine pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (Pan02) exposed to D.1 and D.42 LR and NLR plasma. Proliferation assays were performed on Pan02 cells to test the inhibition of PDGF. MCP-1 levels increased with storage time in LR blood, 86.3 ± 6.3 pg/ml at D.1 vs. 121.2 ± 6.1 pg/ml at D.42 (p = 0.007), and NLR blood, 78.2 ± 7.3 pg/ml at D.1 vs. 647.8 ± 220.7 pg/ml at D.42 (p = 0.02). RANTES levels are lower in LR compared to NLR stored blood, 3.0 ± 1.9 vs. 15.8 ± 0.7 pg/ml at D.42 (p Pro-cancer cytokines that can augment tumor progression were identified in pRBCs. Some of these factors are present in fresh blood. The soluble factors identified herein may represent

  11. E2F1-Mediated Induction of NFYB Attenuates Apoptosis via Joint Regulation of a Pro-Survival Transcriptional Program.

    Xiaolei Jiang

    Full Text Available The E2F1 transcription factor regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis through the control of a considerable variety of target genes. Previous work has detailed the role of other transcription factors in mediating the specificity of E2F function. Here we identify the NF-YB transcription factor as a novel direct E2F1 target. Genome-wide expression analysis of the effects of NFYB knockdown on E2F1-mediated transcription identified a large group of genes that are co-regulated by E2F1 and NFYB. We also provide evidence that knockdown of NFYB enhances E2F1-induced apoptosis, suggesting a pro-survival function of the NFYB/E2F1 joint transcriptional program. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that deregulation of these NFY-dependent E2F1 target genes might play a role in sarcomagenesis as well as drug resistance.

  12. Patents and innovation in cancer therapeutics: lessons from CellPro.

    Bar-Shalom, Avital; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction between intellectual property and cancer treatment. CellPro developed a stem cell separation technology based on research at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center. A patent with broad claims to bone marrow stem cell antibodies had been awarded to Johns Hopkins University and licensed to Baxter Healthcare under the 1980 Bayh-Dole Act to promote commercial use of inventions from federally funded research. CellPro got FDA approval more than two years before Baxter but lost patent infringement litigation. NIH elected not to compel Hopkins to license its patents to CellPro. CellPro went out of business, selling its technology to its competitor. Decisions at both firms and university licensing offices, and policies at the Patent and Trademark Office, NIH, and the courts influenced the outcome.

  13. Co-chaperone BAG2 Determines the Pro-oncogenic Role of Cathepsin B in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    Kyung-Min Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is considered incurable with currently available treatments, highlighting the need for therapeutic targets and predictive biomarkers. Here, we report a unique role for Bcl-2-associated athanogene 2 (BAG2, which is significantly overexpressed in TNBC, in regulating the dual functions of cathepsin B as either a pro- or anti-oncogenic enzyme. Silencing BAG2 suppresses tumorigenesis and lung metastasis and induces apoptosis by increasing the intracellular mature form of cathepsin B, whereas BAG2 expression induces metastasis by blocking the auto-cleavage processing of pro-cathepsin B via interaction with the propeptide region. BAG2 regulates pro-cathepsin B/annexin II complex formation and facilitates the trafficking of pro-cathespin-B-containing TGN38-positive vesicles toward the cell periphery, leading to the secretion of pro-cathepsin B, which induces metastasis. Collectively, our results uncover BAG2 as a regulator of the oncogenic function of pro-cathepsin B and a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target that may reduce the burden of metastatic breast cancer. : The mechanisms controlling the pro- and anti-oncogenic roles of cathepsin B are unclear. Yang et al. find that BAG2 is a regulator of the dual functions of its client protein, CTSB, facilitating the progression of TNBC. Keywords: BAG2, cathepsin B, TNBC, tumorigenesis, metastasis, breast cancer, TGN38

  14. File list: NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 No description Blood Pro-B cells SRX1553109,SRX155...3108,SRX1553107,SRX1553110 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 No description Blood Pro-B cells SRX1553109,SRX155...3108,SRX1553107,SRX1553110 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 Input control Blood Pro-B cells SRX1143898,SRX6688...12,SRX759802,SRX759803,SRX1143899,SRX1143900,SRX1143913,SRX1143907 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  17. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipids induce hepatic NKT cells deficiency through activation-induced cell death.

    Tongfang Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD through alternation of liver innate immune response. AIMS: The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. METHODS: Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. RESULTS: High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. CONCLUSION: High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD.

  18. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipids induce hepatic NKT cells deficiency through activation-induced cell death.

    Tang, Tongfang; Sui, Yongheng; Lian, Min; Li, Zhiping; Hua, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through alternation of liver innate immune response. The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD.

  19. Regulation of beta cell replication

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  20. A pro-inflammatory role of deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis (CYLD) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Liu, Shuai; Lv, Jiaju; Han, Liping; Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Wang, Wenjuan; Li, Siying; Wang, Xing Li; Tang, Dongqi; Cui, Taixing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cyld deficiency suppresses pro-inflammatory phenotypic switch of VSMCs. ► Cyld deficiency inhibits MAPK rather than NF-kB activity in inflamed VSMCs. ► CYLD is up-regulated in the coronary artery with neointimal hyperplasia. -- Abstract: CYLD, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), is a critical regulator of diverse cellular processes, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to inflammatory responses, via regulating multiple key signaling cascades such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. CYLD has been shown to inhibit vascular lesion formation presumably through suppressing NF-κB activity in vascular cells. However, herein we report a novel role of CYLD in mediating pro-inflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via a mechanism independent of NF-κB activity. Adenoviral knockdown of Cyld inhibited basal and the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (Icam-1) and interleukin-6 (Il-6) in rat adult aortic SMCs (RASMCs). The CYLD deficiency led to increases in the basal NF-κB transcriptional activity in RASMCs; however, did not affect the TNFα-induced NF-κB activity. Intriguingly, the TNFα-induced IκB phosphorylation was enhanced in the CYLD deficient RASMCs. While knocking down of Cyld decreased slightly the basal expression levels of IκBα and IκBβ proteins, it did not alter the kinetics of TNFα-induced IκB protein degradation in RASMCs. These results indicate that CYLD suppresses the basal NF-κB activity and TNFα-induced IκB kinase activation without affecting TNFα-induced NF-κB activity in VSMCs. In addition, knocking down of Cyld suppressed TNFα-induced activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-activated kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in RASMCs. TNFα-induced RASMC migration and monocyte adhesion to

  1. A pro-inflammatory role of deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis (CYLD) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Liu, Shuai [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Lv, Jiaju [Department of Urology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Han, Liping; Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Wang, Wenjuan; Li, Siying [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tang, Dongqi, E-mail: tangdq@pathology.ufl.edu [Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610-0275 (United States); Cui, Taixing, E-mail: taixing.cui@uscmed.sc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyld deficiency suppresses pro-inflammatory phenotypic switch of VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyld deficiency inhibits MAPK rather than NF-kB activity in inflamed VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYLD is up-regulated in the coronary artery with neointimal hyperplasia. -- Abstract: CYLD, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), is a critical regulator of diverse cellular processes, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to inflammatory responses, via regulating multiple key signaling cascades such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. CYLD has been shown to inhibit vascular lesion formation presumably through suppressing NF-{kappa}B activity in vascular cells. However, herein we report a novel role of CYLD in mediating pro-inflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via a mechanism independent of NF-{kappa}B activity. Adenoviral knockdown of Cyld inhibited basal and the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha})-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (Icam-1) and interleukin-6 (Il-6) in rat adult aortic SMCs (RASMCs). The CYLD deficiency led to increases in the basal NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity in RASMCs; however, did not affect the TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Intriguingly, the TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B phosphorylation was enhanced in the CYLD deficient RASMCs. While knocking down of Cyld decreased slightly the basal expression levels of I{kappa}B{alpha} and I{kappa}B{beta} proteins, it did not alter the kinetics of TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B protein degradation in RASMCs. These results indicate that CYLD suppresses the basal NF-{kappa}B activity and TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B kinase activation without affecting TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity in VSMCs. In addition, knocking down of Cyld suppressed TNF{alpha}-induced activation of mitogen activated protein

  2. THE EXPRESSION OF Bcl-2 AND PRO-CASPASE 3 IN HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Andrej Cör

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is the sixth most common cancer and accounts for 6% of cancers worldwide. A better understanding of its biology could lead to improved treatment options. Generally, the goal of cancer treatment is to abolish cell proliferation and to induce necrotic or aptoptotic cell death. Apoptosis has been recognized as a key mechanism of tumour cell elimination. Different apoptotic signals converge to induce caspase cascade activation. Caspase 3 is the central executioner caspase and is necessary for effective apoptotic cell death. Bcl-2 protein family regulates apoptosis. The Bcl-2 protein itself is a product of a proto-oncogene and has an antiapoptotic action.Methods. In our study, the expression of Bcl-2 and pro-caspase 3 by immunohistochemistry in 28 HNSCC graded into well, moderately and poorly differentiated cancers were investigated.Results. Our results of Bcl-2 expression confirm and extend previous reports in which Bcl-2 over-expression has been recognised as an important parameter in HNSCC biological behaviour. Three of 28 tumours (11% showed significant Bcl-2 expression. Two of them were poorly and one was moderately differentiated. Pro-caspase 3 immunoreactivity was confined mainly to the cytoplasm. Absent or low pro-caspase 3 immunoreactivity was found only in 1 of 6 well differentiated and in 1of 10 moderately differentiated tumours in contrast to 5 of 12 poorly differentiated tumours. In six of 12 poorly differentiated tumours procasapse 3 immunoreactivity was strongly positive. In two cases hyperplastic epithelium was strongly positive in contrast to adjacent HNSCC in the same slide which was completely negative for pro-caspase 3.Conclusions. Our results indicate downregulation of pro-caspase 3 expression, especially in poorly differentiated HNSCC. Further studies are needed to test whether this is related to HNSCC behaviour and predict treatment outcome.

  3. Deletion of Notch1 converts pro-T cells to dendritic cells and promotes thymic B cells by cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic mechanisms.

    Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Terszowski, Grzegorz; Tietz, Annette; Blum, Carmen; Luche, Hervé; Gossler, Achim; Gale, Nicholas W; Radtke, Freddy; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2009-01-16

    Notch1 signaling is required for T cell development and has been implicated in fate decisions in the thymus. We showed that Notch1 deletion in progenitor T cells (pro-T cells) revealed their latent developmental potential toward becoming conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In addition, Notch1 deletion in pro-T cells resulted in large numbers of thymic B cells, previously explained by T-to-B cell fate conversion. Single-cell genotyping showed, however, that the majority of these thymic B cells arose from Notch1-sufficient cells by a cell-extrinsic pathway. Fate switching nevertheless exists for a subset of thymic B cells originating from Notch1-deleted pro-T cells. Chimeric mice lacking the Notch ligand delta-like 4 (Dll4) in thymus epithelium revealed an essential role for Dll4 in T cell development. Thus, Notch1-Dll4 signaling fortifies T cell commitment by suppressing non-T cell lineage potential in pro-T cells, and normal Notch1-driven T cell development repels excessive B cells in the thymus.

  4. RACK1 downregulates levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Fem1b in apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cells.

    Subauste, M Cecilia; Ventura-Holman, Tereza; Du, Liqin; Subauste, Jose S; Chan, Shing-Leng; Yu, Victor C; Maher, Joseph F

    2009-12-01

    Evasion of apoptosis plays an important role in colon cancer progression. Following loss of the Apc tumor suppressor gene in mice, the gene encoding Fem1b is upregulated early in neoplastic intestinal epithelium. Fem1b is a pro-apoptotic protein that interacts with Fas, TNFR1 and Apaf-1, and increased expression of Fem1b induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Fem1b is a homolog of FEM-1, a protein in Caenorhabditis elegans that is negatively regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. To study Fem1b regulation in colon cancer progression, we used apoptotis-sensitive SW480 cells, derived from a primary colon cancer, and their isogenic, apoptosis-resistant counterparts SW620 cells, derived from a subsequent metastatic lesion in the same patient. Treatment with proteasome inhibitor increased Fem1b protein levels in SW620 cells, but not in SW480 cells. In SW620 cells we found that endogenous Fem1b co-immunoprecipitates in complexes with RACK1, a protein known to mediate ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of other pro-apoptotic proteins and to be upregulated in colon cancer. Full-length Fem1b, or the N-terminal region of Fem1b, associated with RACK1 when co-expressed in HEK293T cells, and RACK1 stimulated ubiquitination of Fem1b. RACK1 overexpression in SW620 cells led to downregulation of Fem1b protein levels. Conversely, downregulation of RACK1 led to upregulation of Fem1b protein levels, associated with induction of apoptosis, and this apoptosis was inhibited by blocking Fem1b protein upregulation. In conclusion, RACK1 downregulates levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Fem1b in metastatic, apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cells, which may promote apoptosis-resistance during progression of colon cancer.

  5. Irigenin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis via enhancing pro-apoptotic molecules in gastric cancer cells.

    Xu, Ying; Gao, Cheng-Cheng; Pan, Zhen-Guo; Zhou, Chuan-Wen

    2018-02-12

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) holds promising value for cancer therapy due to its capacity to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Nevertheless, TRAIL therapy is greatly hampered by its resistance. Irigenin (Iri), isoflavonoids, can be isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis, and has been shown anti-cancer properties. In this study, we explored if Iri could enhance TRAIL-regulated apoptosis in TRAIL resistant gastric cancer cells. Iri significantly potentiated TRAIL-triggered cytotoxicity. Iri alone and TRAIL alone showed no effective role in apoptosis induction, whereas combined treatment with Iri and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in cancer cells, as evidenced by the up-regulation of cleaved Caspase-8/-9/-3 and PARP. Additionally, the sensitization to TRAIL was along with the enhancement of pro-apoptotic proteins, including FAS-associated protein with death domain (FADD), death receptor 5 (DR5) and Bax. And suppressing FADD, DR5 and Bax by si RNA significantly reduced the apoptosis and enhanced the cell viability induced by the co-application of Iri and TRAIL. Moreover, the sensitization to TRAIL was accompanied by the decrease of Cellular-FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), Bcl-2 and Survivin. Additionally, Iri could sensitize TRAIL to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pre-treatment of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), ROS scavenger, attenuated Iri plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis and improved cell viability. Finally, combination of Iri and TRAIL inhibited tumor growth in the xenograft model. Collectively, our present study gave new insights into the effects of Iri on potentiating TRAIL-sensitivity, and suggested that Iri could be a potential candidate for sensitizer of TRAIL-resistant cancer cell treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Reduced tissue osmolarity increases TRPV4 expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines in intervertebral disc cells

    BA Walter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behaviour and cellular metabolism of intervertebral discs (IVDs and articular cartilage are strongly influenced by their proteoglycan content and associated osmotic properties. This osmotic environment is a biophysical signal that changes with disease and may contribute to the elevated matrix breakdown and altered biologic response to loading observed in IVD degeneration and osteoarthritis. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in osmo-sensation by the transient receptor potential vallinoid-4 (TRPV4 ion channel occur with disease and contribute to the inflammatory environment found during degeneration. Immunohistochemistry on bovine IVDs from an inflammatory organ culture model were used to investigate if TRPV4 is expressed in the IVD and how expression changes with degeneration. Western blot, live-cell calcium imaging, and qRT-PCR were used to investigate whether osmolarity changes or tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα regulate TRPV4 expression, and how altered TRPV4 expression influences calcium signalling and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. TRPV4 expression correlated with TNFα expression, and was increased when cultured in reduced medium osmolarity and unaltered with TNFα-stimulation. Increased TRPV4 expression increased the calcium flux following TRPV4 activation and increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-6 gene expression in IVD cells. TRPV4 expression was qualitatively elevated in regions of aggrecan depletion in degenerated human IVDs. Collectively, results suggest that reduced tissue osmolarity, likely following proteoglycan degradation, can increase TRPV4 signalling and enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production, suggesting changes in TRPV4 mediated osmo-sensation may contribute to the progressive matrix breakdown in disease.

  7. Apoptotic effects of antilymphocyte globulins on human pro-inflammatory CD4+CD28- T-cells.

    Christina Duftner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory, cytotoxic CD4(+CD28(- T-cells with known defects in apoptosis have been investigated as markers of premature immuno-senescence in various immune-mediated diseases. In this study we evaluated the influence of polyclonal antilymphocyte globulins (ATG-Fresenius, ATG-F on CD4(+CD28(- T-cells in vivo and in vitro. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surface and intracellular three colour fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 consecutive transplant recipients and short-term cell lines were performed. In vivo, peripheral levels of CD3(+CD4(+CD28(- T-cells decreased from 3.7 ± 7.1% before to 0 ± 0% six hours after ATG-F application (P = 0.043 in 5 ATG-F treated but not in 11 control patients (2.9 ± 2.9% vs. 3.9 ± 3.0%. In vitro, ATG-F induced apoptosis even in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells, which was 4.3-times higher than in CD4(+CD28(+ T-cells. ATG-F evoked apoptosis was partially reversed by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk and prednisolon-21-hydrogensuccinate. ATG-F triggered CD25 expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and induced down-regulation of the type 1 chemokine receptors CXCR-3, CCR-5, CX3CR-1 and the central memory adhesion molecule CD62L predominately in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells. CONCLUSION: In summary, in vivo depletion of peripheral CD3(+CD4(+CD28(- T-cells by ATG-F in transplant recipients was paralleled in vitro by ATG-F induced apoptosis. CD25 expression and chemokine receptor down-regulation in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells only partly explain the underlying mechanism.

  8. A pro-inflammatory role for Th22 cells in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis.

    Zhuang, Yuan; Cheng, Ping; Liu, Xiao-fei; Peng, Liu-sheng; Li, Bo-sheng; Wang, Ting-ting; Chen, Na; Li, Wen-hua; Shi, Yun; Chen, Weisan; Pang, Ken C; Zeng, Ming; Mao, Xu-hu; Yang, Shi-ming; Guo, Hong; Guo, Gang; Liu, Tao; Zuo, Qian-fei; Yang, Hui-jie; Yang, Liu-yang; Mao, Fang-yuan; Lv, Yi-pin; Zou, Quan-ming

    2015-09-01

    Helper T (Th) cell responses are critical for the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Th22 cells represent a newly discovered Th cell subset, but their relevance to H. pylori-induced gastritis is unknown. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR and ELISA analyses were performed to examine cell, protein and transcript levels in gastric samples from patients and mice infected with H. pylori. Gastric tissues from interleukin (IL)-22-deficient and wild-type (control) mice were also examined. Tissue inflammation was determined for pro-inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory protein production. Gastric epithelial cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were isolated, stimulated and/or cultured for Th22 cell function assays. Th22 cells accumulated in gastric mucosa of both patients and mice infected with H. pylori. Th22 cell polarisation was promoted via the production of IL-23 by dendritic cells (DC) during H. pylori infection, and resulted in increased inflammation within the gastric mucosa. This inflammation was characterised by the CXCR2-dependent influx of MDSCs, whose migration was induced via the IL-22-dependent production of CXCL2 by gastric epithelial cells. Under the influence of IL-22, MDSCs, in turn, produced pro-inflammatory proteins, such as S100A8 and S100A9, and suppressed Th1 cell responses, thereby contributing to the development of H. pylori-associated gastritis. This study, therefore, identifies a novel regulatory network involving H. pylori, DCs, Th22 cells, gastric epithelial cells and MDSCs, which collectively exert a pro-inflammatory effect within the gastric microenvironment. Efforts to inhibit this Th22-dependent pathway may therefore prove a valuable strategy in the therapy of H. pylori-associated gastritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) is decreased with viral infection and regulates pro-labour mediators OA.

    Liong, Stella; Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2017-07-01

    Intrauterine infection caused by viral infection has been implicated to contribute to preterm birth. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) regulates inflammation in non-gestational tissues in response to viral infection. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of: (i) viral dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) on HAVCR2 expression; and (ii) HAVCR2 silencing by siRNA (siHAVCR2) in primary amnion and myometrial cells on poly(I:C)-induced inflammation. In human foetal membranes and myometrium, HAVCR2 mRNA and protein expression was decreased when exposed to poly(I:C). Treatment of primary amnion and myometrial cells with poly(I:C) significantly increased the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL1A, IL1B and IL6; the expression of chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2; the expression and secretion of adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1; and PTGS2 and PTGFR mRNA expression and the release of prostaglandin PGF 2α . This increase was significantly augmented in cells transfected with siHAVCR2. Furthermore, mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL4 and IL10 was significantly decreased. Collectively, our data suggest that HAVCR2 regulates cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins and cell adhesion molecules in the presence of viral infection. This suggests a potential for HAVCR2 activators as therapeutics for the management of preterm birth associated with viral infections. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Imbalances in Mobilization and Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Harshini Chakravarthy

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes, affecting 65% of patients after 10 years of the disease. Diabetic metabolic insult leads to chronic low-grade inflammation, retinal endothelial cell loss and inadequate vascular repair. This is partly due to bone marrow (BM pathology leading to increased activity of BM-derived pro-inflammatory monocytes and impaired function of BM-derived reparative circulating angiogenic cells (CACs. We propose that diabetes has a significant long-term effect on the nature and proportion of BM-derived cells that circulate in the blood, localize to the retina and home back to their BM niche. Using a streptozotocin mouse model of diabetic retinopathy with GFP BM-transplantation, we have demonstrated that BM-derived circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes are increased in diabetes while reparative CACs are trapped in the BM and spleen, with impaired release into circulation. Diabetes also alters activation of splenocytes and BM-derived dendritic cells in response to LPS stimulation. A majority of the BM-derived GFP cells that migrate to the retina express microglial markers, while others express endothelial, pericyte and Müller cell markers. Diabetes significantly increases infiltration of BM-derived microglia in an activated state, while reducing infiltration of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells in the retina. Further, control CACs injected into the vitreous are very efficient at migrating back to their BM niche, whereas diabetic CACs have lost this ability, indicating that the in vivo homing efficiency of diabetic CACs is dramatically decreased. Moreover, diabetes causes a significant reduction in expression of specific integrins regulating CAC migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that BM pathology in diabetes could play a role in both increased pro-inflammatory state and inadequate vascular repair contributing to diabetic retinopathy.

  11. VMP1 related autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells: VMP1 regulates cell death

    Qian, Qinyi [Department of Ultrasonograph, Changshu No. 2 People’s Hospital, Changshu (China); Zhou, Hao; Chen, Yan [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Shen, Chenglong [Department of General Surgery, Changshu No. 2 People’s Hospital, Changshu (China); He, Songbing; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Liang [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Wan, Daiwei, E-mail: 372710369@qq.com [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Gu, Wen, E-mail: 505339704@qq.com [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •This research confirmed VMP1 as a regulator of autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We proved the pro-survival role of VMP1-mediated autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We found the interaction between VMP1 and BECLIN1 also existing in colorectal cancer cell lines. -- Abstract: Vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1) is an autophagy-related protein and identified as a key regulator of autophagy in recent years. In pancreatic cell lines, VMP1-dependent autophagy has been linked to positive regulation of apoptosis. However, there are no published reports on the role of VMP1 in autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancers. Therefore, to address this gap of knowledge, we decided to interrogate regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by VMP1. We have studied the induction of autophagy by starvation and rapamycin treatment in colorectal cell lines using electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting. We found that starvation-induced autophagy correlated with an increase in VMP1 expression, that VMP1 interacted with BECLIN1, and that siRNA mediated down-regulation of VMP1-reduced autophagy. Next, we examined the relationship between VMP1-dependent autophagy and apoptosis and found that VMP1 down-regulation sensitizes cells to apoptosis and that agents that induce apoptosis down-regulate VMP1. In conclusion, similar to its reported role in other cell types, VMP1 is an important regulator of autophagy in colorectal cell lines. However, in contrast to its role in pancreatic cell lines, in colorectal cancer cells, VMP1-dependent autophagy appears to be pro-survival rather than pro-cell death.

  12. Intrinsic, pro-apoptotic effects of IGFBP-3 on breast cancer cells are reversible: Involvement of PKA, Rho and ceramide.

    Claire M Perks

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We established previously that IGFBP-3 could exert positive or negative effects on cell function depending upon the extracellular matrix composition and by interacting with integrin signalling. To elicit its pro-apoptotic effects IGFBP-3 bound to caveolin-1 and the beta 1 integrin receptor and increased their association culminating in MAPK activation. Disruption of these complexes or blocking the beta 1 integrin receptor reversed these intrinsic actions of IGFBP-3. In this study we have examined the signalling pathway between integrin receptor binding and MAPK activation that mediates the intrinsic, pro-apoptotic actions of IGFBP-3. We found on inhibiting protein kinase A(PKA, Rho associated kinase (ROCK and ceramide, the accentuating effects of IGFBP-3 on apoptotic triggers were reversed, such that IGFBP-3 then conferred cell survival. We established that IGFBP-3 activated Rho, the upstream regulator of ROCK and that beta1 integrin and PKA were upstream of Rho activation, whereas the involvement of ceramide was downstream. The beta 1 integrin, PKA, Rho and ceramide were all upstream of MAPK activation. These data highlight key components involved in the pro-apoptotic effects of IGFBP-3 and that inhibiting them leads to a reversal in the action of IGFBP-3.

  13. EGR-1 and DUSP-1 are important negative regulators of pro-allergic responses in airway epithelium

    Golebski, Korneliusz; van Egmond, Danielle; de Groot, Esther J.; Roschmann, Kristina I. L.; Fokkens, Wytske J.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary nasal epithelium of house dust mite allergic individuals is in a permanently activated inflammatory transcriptional state. Objective: To investigate whether a deregulated expression of EGR-1 and/or DUSP-1, two potential negative regulators of pro-inflammatory responses, could

  14. Glycine regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lean and monosodium glutamate-obese mice.

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Almanza-Perez, Julio; Blancas, Gerardo; Angeles, Selene; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Roman, Ruben; Cruz, Miguel

    2008-12-03

    Fat tissue plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Increased visceral fat has been associated with a higher production of cytokines that triggers a low-grade inflammatory response, which eventually may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether glycine, an amino acid that represses the expression in vitro of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Kupffer and 3T3-L1 cells, can affect in vivo cytokine production in lean and monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice (MSG/Ob mice). Our data demonstrate that glycine treatment in lean mice suppressed TNF-alpha transcriptional expression in fat tissue, and serum protein levels of IL-6 were suppressed, while adiponectin levels were increased. In MSG/Ob mice, glycine suppressed TNF-alpha and IL-6 gene expression in fat tissue and significantly reduced protein levels of IL-6, resistin and leptin. To determine the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in the modulation of this inflammatory response evoked by glycine, we examined its expression levels in fat tissue. Glycine clearly increased PPAR-gamma expression in lean mice but not in MSG/Ob mice. Finally, to identify alterations in glucose metabolism by glycine, we also examined insulin levels and other biochemical parameters during an oral glucose tolerance test. Glycine significantly reduced glucose tolerance and raised insulin levels in lean but not in obese mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that glycine suppresses the pro-inflammatory cytokines production and increases adiponectin secretion in vivo through the activation of PPAR-gamma. Glycine might prevent insulin resistance and associated inflammatory diseases.

  15. EGR-1 and DUSP-1 are important negative regulators of pro-allergic responses in airway epithelium.

    Golebski, Korneliusz; van Egmond, Danielle; de Groot, Esther J; Roschmann, Kristina I L; Fokkens, Wytske J; van Drunen, Cornelis M

    2015-05-01

    Primary nasal epithelium of house dust mite allergic individuals is in a permanently activated inflammatory transcriptional state. To investigate whether a deregulated expression of EGR-1 and/or DUSP-1, two potential negative regulators of pro-inflammatory responses, could contribute to the activation of the inflammatory state. We silenced the expression of EGR-1 or DUSP-1 in the airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292. The cell lines were stimulated in a 24-h time course with the house dust mite allergen or poly(I:C). RNA expression profiles of cytokines were established using q-PCR and protein levels were determined in supernatants with ELISA. The shRNA-mediated gene silencing reduced expression levels of EGR-1 by 92% (p<0.0001) and of DUSP-1 by 76% (p<0.0001). Both mutant cells lines showed an increased and prolonged response to the HDM allergen. The mRNA induction of IL-6 was 4.6 fold (p=0.02) and 2.4 fold higher (p=0.01) in the EGR-1 and DUSP-1 knock-down, respectively when compared to the induced levels in the control cell line. For IL-8, the induction levels were 4.6 fold (p=0.01) and 13.0 (p=0.001) fold higher. The outcome was largely similar, yet not identical at the secreted protein levels. Furthermore, steroids were able to suppress the poly(I:C) induced cytokine levels by 70-95%. Deregulation of EGR-1 and/or DUSP-1 in nasal epithelium could be responsible for the prolonged activated transcriptional state observed in vivo in allergic disease. This could have clinical consequences as cytokine levels after the steroid treatment in EGR-1 or DUSP-1 knock-down remained higher than in the control cell line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial peptides and pro-inflammatory cytokines are differentially regulated across epidermal layers following bacterial stimuli.

    Percoco, Giuseppe; Merle, Chloé; Jaouen, Thomas; Ramdani, Yasmina; Bénard, Magalie; Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Lati, Elian; Feuilloley, Marc; Lefeuvre, Luc; Driouich, Azeddine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure

    2013-12-01

    The skin is a natural barrier between the body and the environment and is colonised by a large number of microorganisms. Here, we report a complete analysis of the response of human skin explants to microbial stimuli. Using this ex vivo model, we analysed at both the gene and protein level the response of epidermal cells to Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens), which are present in the cutaneous microbiota. We showed that both bacterial species affect the structure of skin explants without penetrating the living epidermis. We showed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) that S. epidermidis and P. fluorescens increased the levels of transcripts that encode antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including human β defensin (hBD)2 and hBD3, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α and (IL)-1-β, as well as IL-6. In addition, we analysed the effects of bacterial stimuli on the expression profiles of genes related to innate immunity and the inflammatory response across the epidermal layers, using laser capture microdissection (LCM) coupled to qPCR. We showed that AMP transcripts were principally upregulated in suprabasal keratinocytes. Conversely, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was upregulated in the lower epidermis. These findings were confirmed by protein localisation using specific antibodies coupled to optical or electron microscopy. This work underscores the potential value of further studies that use LCM on human skin explants model to study the roles and effects of the epidermal microbiota on human skin physiology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Retracted: Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on mineralization potential of rat dental pulp stem cells

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Jansen, J.A.; Fan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The following article from the Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 'Effects of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines on Mineralization Potential of Rat Dental Pulp Stem Cells' by Yang X, Walboomers XF, Bian Z, Jansen JA, Fan M, published online on 11 July 2011 in Wiley Online Library

  18. Redox regulation of cell proliferation: Bioinformatics and redox proteomics approaches to identify redox-sensitive cell cycle regulators.

    Foyer, Christine H; Wilson, Michael H; Wright, Megan H

    2018-03-29

    Plant stem cells are the foundation of plant growth and development. The balance of quiescence and division is highly regulated, while ensuring that proliferating cells are protected from the adverse effects of environment fluctuations that may damage the genome. Redox regulation is important in both the activation of proliferation and arrest of the cell cycle upon perception of environmental stress. Within this context, reactive oxygen species serve as 'pro-life' signals with positive roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and survival. However, very little is known about the metabolic mechanisms and redox-sensitive proteins that influence cell cycle progression. We have identified cysteine residues on known cell cycle regulators in Arabidopsis that are potentially accessible, and could play a role in redox regulation, based on secondary structure and solvent accessibility likelihoods for each protein. We propose that redox regulation may function alongside other known posttranslational modifications to control the functions of core cell cycle regulators such as the retinoblastoma protein. Since our current understanding of how redox regulation is involved in cell cycle control is hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding both which residues are important and how modification of those residues alters protein function, we discuss how critical redox modifications can be mapped at the molecular level. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serotonin 2C receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate energy and glucose homeostasis.

    Berglund, Eric D; Liu, Chen; Sohn, Jong-Woo; Liu, Tiemin; Kim, Mi Hwa; Lee, Charlotte E; Vianna, Claudia R; Williams, Kevin W; Xu, Yong; Elmquist, Joel K

    2013-12-01

    Energy and glucose homeostasis are regulated by central serotonin 2C receptors. These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor-expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor agonists on energy and glucose homeostasis are unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking serotonin 2C receptors (Htr2c) specifically in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons had normal body weight but developed glucoregulatory defects including hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Moreover, these mice did not show anorectic responses to serotonergic agents that suppress appetite and developed hyperphagia and obesity when they were fed a high-fat/high-sugar diet. A requirement of serotonin 2C receptors in POMC neurons for the maintenance of normal energy and glucose homeostasis was further demonstrated when Htr2c loss was induced in POMC neurons in adult mice using a tamoxifen-inducible POMC-cre system. These data demonstrate that serotonin 2C receptor-expressing POMC neurons are required to control energy and glucose homeostasis and implicate POMC neurons as the target for the effect of serotonin 2C receptor agonists on weight-loss induction and improved glycemic control.

  20. Basic fibroblast growth factor is pro-adipogenic in rat skeletal muscle progenitor clone, 2G11 cells.

    Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Teramoto, Naomi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is a hallmark of marbling in cattle. IMAT is considered to originate from skeletal muscle progenitor cells with adipogenic potential. However, the mechanism involved in IMAT formation from these progenitor cells in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, among the growth factors tested, which were known to be expressed in skeletal muscle, we found only basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has a pro-adipogenic effect on skeletal muscle derived adipogenic progenitor clone, 2G11 cells. Pre-exposure of 2G11 cells to bFGF did not affect initial gene expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)β and C/EBPδ, while resulting in an enhancement of subsequent expressions of C/EBPα and proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) during adipogenesis, indicating that bFGF is acting on the transcriptional regulation of C/EBPα and PPARγ. In addition, the effect of bFGF is mediated via two types of FGF receptor (FGFR) isoforms: FGFR1 and FGFR2 IIIc, and both receptors are prerequisite for bFGF to express its pro-adipogenic effect. These results suggest that bFGF plays an important role as a key trigger of IMAT formation in vivo. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. PRO40 is a scaffold protein of the cell wall integrity pathway, linking the MAP kinase module to the upstream activator protein kinase C.

    Ines Teichert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are crucial signaling instruments in eukaryotes. Most ascomycetes possess three MAPK modules that are involved in key developmental processes like sexual propagation or pathogenesis. However, the regulation of these modules by adapters or scaffolds is largely unknown. Here, we studied the function of the cell wall integrity (CWI MAPK module in the model fungus Sordaria macrospora. Using a forward genetic approach, we found that sterile mutant pro30 has a mutated mik1 gene that encodes the MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK of the proposed CWI pathway. We generated single deletion mutants lacking MAPKKK MIK1, MAPK kinase (MAPKK MEK1, or MAPK MAK1 and found them all to be sterile, cell fusion-deficient and highly impaired in vegetative growth and cell wall stress response. By searching for MEK1 interaction partners via tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified previously characterized developmental protein PRO40 as a MEK1 interaction partner. Although fungal PRO40 homologs have been implicated in diverse developmental processes, their molecular function is currently unknown. Extensive affinity purification, mass spectrometry, and yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that PRO40 is able to bind MIK1, MEK1, and the upstream activator protein kinase C (PKC1. We further found that the PRO40 N-terminal disordered region and the central region encompassing a WW interaction domain are sufficient to govern interaction with MEK1. Most importantly, time- and stress-dependent phosphorylation studies showed that PRO40 is required for MAK1 activity. The sum of our results implies that PRO40 is a scaffold protein for the CWI pathway, linking the MAPK module to the upstream activator PKC1. Our data provide important insights into the mechanistic role of a protein that has been implicated in sexual and asexual development, cell fusion, symbiosis, and pathogenicity in different fungal systems.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in acute lung injury: Role of S1P lyase.

    Ebenezer, David L; Fu, Panfeng; Suryadevara, Vidyani; Zhao, Yutong; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Cellular level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the simplest bioactive sphingolipid, is tightly regulated by its synthesis catalyzed by sphingosine kinases (SphKs) 1 & 2 and degradation mediated by S1P phosphatases, lipid phosphate phosphatases, and S1P lyase. The pleotropic actions of S1P are attributed to its unique inside-out (extracellular) signaling via G-protein-coupled S1P1-5 receptors, and intracellular receptor independent signaling. Additionally, S1P generated in the nucleus by nuclear SphK2 modulates HDAC1/2 activity, regulates histone acetylation, and transcription of pro-inflammatory genes. Here, we present data on the role of S1P lyase mediated S1P signaling in regulating LPS-induced inflammation in lung endothelium. Blocking S1P lyase expression or activity attenuated LPS-induced histone acetylation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Degradation of S1P by S1P lyase generates Δ2-hexadecenal and ethanolamine phosphate and the long-chain fatty aldehyde produced in the cytoplasmic compartment of the endothelial cell seems to modulate histone acetylation pattern, which is different from the nuclear SphK2/S1P signaling and inhibition of HDAC1/2. These in vitro studies suggest that S1P derived long-chain fatty aldehyde may be an epigenetic regulator of pro-inflammatory genes in sepsis-induced lung inflammation. Trapping fatty aldehydes and other short chain aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal derived from S1P degradation and lipid peroxidation, respectively by cell permeable agents such as phloretin or other aldehyde trapping agents may be useful in treating sepsis-induced lung inflammation via modulation of histone acetylation. . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ProSAAS-derived peptides are regulated by cocaine and are required for sensitization to the locomotor effects of cocaine.

    Berezniuk, Iryna; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Zee, Michael L; Marcus, David J; Pintar, John; Morgan, Daniel J; Wetsel, William C; Fricker, Lloyd D

    2017-11-01

    To identify neuropeptides that are regulated by cocaine, we used a quantitative peptidomic technique to examine the relative levels of neuropeptides in several regions of mouse brain following daily intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg cocaine or saline for 7 days. A total of 102 distinct peptides were identified in one or more of the following brain regions: nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, frontal cortex, and ventral tegmental area. None of the peptides detected in the caudate putamen or frontal cortex were altered by cocaine administration. Three peptides in the nucleus accumbens and seven peptides in the ventral tegmental area were significantly decreased in cocaine-treated mice. Five of these ten peptides are derived from proSAAS, a secretory pathway protein and neuropeptide precursor. To investigate whether proSAAS peptides contribute to the physiological effects of psychostimulants, we examined acute responses to cocaine and amphetamine in the open field with wild-type (WT) and proSAAS knockout (KO) mice. Locomotion was stimulated more robustly in the WT compared to mutant mice for both psychostimulants. Behavioral sensitization to amphetamine was not maintained in proSAAS KO mice and these mutants failed to sensitize to cocaine. To determine whether the rewarding effects of cocaine were altered, mice were tested in conditioned place preference (CPP). Both WT and proSAAS KO mice showed dose-dependent CPP to cocaine that was not distinguished by genotype. Taken together, these results suggest that proSAAS-derived peptides contribute differentially to the behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, while the rewarding effects of cocaine appear intact in mice lacking proSAAS. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Regulation of cell wall biosynthesis.

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Plant cell walls differ in their amount and composition among various cell types and even in different microdomains of the wall of a given cell. Plants must have evolved regulatory mechanisms controlling biosynthesis, targeted secretion, and assembly of wall components to achieve the heterogeneity in cell walls. A number of factors, including hormones, the cytoskeleton, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, phosphoinositides, and sugar nucleotide supply, have been implicated in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis or deposition. In the past two years, there have been important discoveries in transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis. Several transcription factors in the NAC and MYB families have been shown to be the key switches for activation of secondary wall biosynthesis. These studies suggest a transcriptional network comprised of a hierarchy of transcription factors is involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis. Further investigation and integration of the regulatory players participating in the making of cell walls will certainly lead to our understanding of how wall amounts and composition are controlled in a given cell type. This may eventually allow custom design of plant cell walls on the basis of our needs.

  5. Regulators of Tfh cell differentiation

    Gajendra Motiram Jogdand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The follicular helper T (Tfh cells help is critical for activation of B cells, antibody class switching and germinal center formation. The Tfh cells are characterized by the expression of CXCR5, ICOS, PD-1, Bcl-6, and IL-21. They are involved in clearing infections and are adversely linked with autoimmune diseases and also have a role in viral replication as well as clearance. Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin A, migration and positioning in the germinal center by CXCR5, surface receptors (ICOS/ICOSL, SAP/SLAM as well as transcription factor (Bcl-6, c-Maf, STAT3 signaling and repressor miR155. On the other hand Tfh generation is negatively regulated at specific steps of Tfh generation by specific cytokine (IL-2, IL-7, surface receptor (PD-1, CTLA-4, transcription factors Blimp-1, STAT5, T-bet, KLF-2 signaling and repressor miR 146a. Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the time of expression and disease specificity. Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh during viral infection. The mechanistic details of effector T cells conversion into Tfh are yet to be clear. To manipulate Tfh cells for therapeutic implication and or for effective vaccination strategies, it is important to know positive and negative regulators of Tfh generation. Hence, in this review we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin Ligase and miRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation.

  6. Small molecule screening with laser cytometry can be used to identify pro-survival molecules in human embryonic stem cells.

    Sherman, Sean P; Pyle, April D

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an unlimited source of cells for use in regenerative medicine. The recent derivation of human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) provides a potential supply of pluripotent cells that avoid immune rejection and could provide patient-tailored therapy. In addition, the use of pluripotent cells for drug screening could enable routine toxicity testing and evaluation of underlying disease mechanisms. However, prior to establishment of patient specific cells for cell therapy it is important to understand the basic regulation of cell fate decisions in hESCs. One critical issue that hinders the use of these cells is the fact that hESCs survive poorly upon dissociation, which limits genetic manipulation because of poor cloning efficiency of individual hESCs, and hampers production of large-scale culture of hESCs. To address the problems associated with poor growth in culture and our lack of understanding of what regulates hESC signaling, we successfully developed a screening platform that allows for large scale screening for small molecules that regulate survival. In this work we developed the first large scale platform for hESC screening using laser scanning cytometry and were able to validate this platform by identifying the pro-survival molecule HA-1077. These small molecules provide targets for both improving our basic understanding of hESC survival as well as a tool to improve our ability to expand and genetically manipulate hESCs for use in regenerative applications.

  7. Small molecule screening with laser cytometry can be used to identify pro-survival molecules in human embryonic stem cells.

    Sean P Sherman

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs provide an unlimited source of cells for use in regenerative medicine. The recent derivation of human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs provides a potential supply of pluripotent cells that avoid immune rejection and could provide patient-tailored therapy. In addition, the use of pluripotent cells for drug screening could enable routine toxicity testing and evaluation of underlying disease mechanisms. However, prior to establishment of patient specific cells for cell therapy it is important to understand the basic regulation of cell fate decisions in hESCs. One critical issue that hinders the use of these cells is the fact that hESCs survive poorly upon dissociation, which limits genetic manipulation because of poor cloning efficiency of individual hESCs, and hampers production of large-scale culture of hESCs. To address the problems associated with poor growth in culture and our lack of understanding of what regulates hESC signaling, we successfully developed a screening platform that allows for large scale screening for small molecules that regulate survival. In this work we developed the first large scale platform for hESC screening using laser scanning cytometry and were able to validate this platform by identifying the pro-survival molecule HA-1077. These small molecules provide targets for both improving our basic understanding of hESC survival as well as a tool to improve our ability to expand and genetically manipulate hESCs for use in regenerative applications.

  8. Bovine ovarian cells have (pro)renin receptors and prorenin induces resumption of meiosis in vitro.

    Dau, Andressa Minussi Pereira; da Silva, Eduardo Pradebon; da Rosa, Paulo Roberto Antunes; Bastiani, Felipe Tusi; Gutierrez, Karina; Ilha, Gustavo Freitas; Comim, Fabio Vasconcellos; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of a receptor that binds prorenin and renin in human endothelial and mesangial cells highlights the possible effect of renin-independent prorenin in the resumption of meiosis in oocytes that was postulated in the 1980s.This study aimed to identify the (pro)renin receptor in the ovary and to assess the effect of prorenin on meiotic resumption. The (pro)renin receptor protein was detected in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes, theca cells, granulosa cells, and in the corpus luteum. Abundant (pro)renin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells, while prorenin mRNA was identified in the cumulus cells only. Prorenin at concentrations of 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8)M incubated with oocytes co-cultured with follicular hemisections for 15h caused the resumption of oocyte meiosis. Aliskiren, which inhibits free renin and receptor-bound renin/prorenin, at concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-5), and 10(-3)M blocked this effect (Pmeiosis resumption, cumulus-oocyte complexes and follicular hemisections were treated with prorenin and with angiotensin II or saralasin (angiotensin II antagonist). Prorenin induced the resumption of meiosis independently of angiotensin II. Furthermore, cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured with forskolin (200μM) and treated with prorenin and aliskiren did not exhibit a prorenin-induced resumption of meiosis (Pmeiosis in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  10. Synthesis and tritium labeling of the highly potent mast cell-degranulating substance P analog H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-NH-C sub 12 H sub 25

    Bienert, M.; Oehlke, J.; Niedrich, H. (Academy of Sciences of GDR, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. of Drug Research); Mittag, E. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Rossendorf (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-12-01

    Tritium labeling of the mast cell degranulating substance P analog H-Arg-Pro-Lys(3,4-{sup 3}H-Pro)-NH-C{sub 12}H{sub 25} by catalytic saturation of the dehydroproline (Dhp{sup 1}) double bond is described. Catalytic tritiation in water afforded the radioactive analog with a specific activity of 1.07 TBq/mmol. Tenfold enhancement of the catalyst-to-substrate ratio resulted in a reduced specific activity of 0.74 TBq/mmol. (author).

  11. Cyr61/CCN1 and CTGF/CCN2 mediate the pro-angiogenic activity of VHL mutant renal carcinoma cells

    Chintalapudi, Mastan R.; Markiewicz, Margaret; Kose, Nurgun; Dammai, Vincent; Champion, Kristen J.; Hoda, Rana S.; Trojanowska, Maria; Hsu, Tien

    2008-01-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein serves as a negative regulator of hypoxia inducible factor-alpha subunit (HIF-α). Since HIF regulates critical angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and lesions in VHL gene are present in a majority of the highly vascularized renal cell carcinoma (RCC), it is believed that deregulation of the VHL-HIF pathway is crucial for the pro-angiogenic activity of RCC. Although VEGF has been confirmed as a critical angiogenic factor up-regulated in VHL mutant cells, the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy specifically targeting VEGF signaling remains modest. In this study we developed a three-dimensional in vitro assay to evaluate the ability of RCC cells to promote cord formation by the primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). Compared to VHL wild-type cells, VHL mutant RCC cells demonstrated a significantly increased pro-angiogenic activity, which correlated with increased secretion of Cyr61/CCN1, CTGF/CCN2 and VEGF in conditioned culture medium. Both CCN proteins are required for HDMEC cord formation as shown by RNAi knock-down experiments. Importantly, the pro-angiogenic activities conferred by the CCN proteins and VEGF are additive, suggesting non-overlapping functions. Expression of the CCN proteins is at least partly dependent on the HIF-2α function, the dominant HIF-α isoform expressed in RCC. Finally, immunohistochemical staining of Cyr61/CCN1 and CTGF/CCN2 in renal cell carcinoma tissue samples showed that increased expression of these proteins correlates with loss of VHL protein expression. These findings strengthened the notion that the hypervascularized phenotype of RCC is afforded by multiple pro-angiogenic factors that function in parallel pathways. PMID:18212329

  12. Interleukin-3 greatly expands non-adherent endothelial forming cells with pro-angiogenic properties

    Lachlan M. Moldenhauer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs provide revascularisation for cardiovascular disease and the expansion of these cells opens up the possibility of their use as a cell therapy. Herein we show that interleukin-3 (IL3 strongly expands a population of human non-adherent endothelial forming cells (EXnaEFCs with low immunogenicity as well as pro-angiogenic capabilities in vivo, making their therapeutic utilisation a realistic option. Non-adherent CD133+ EFCs isolated from human umbilical cord blood and cultured under different conditions were maximally expanded by day 12 in the presence of IL3 at which time a 350-fold increase in cell number was obtained. Cell surface marker phenotyping confirmed expression of the hematopoietic progenitor cell markers CD133, CD117 and CD34, vascular cell markers VEGFR2 and CD31, dim expression of CD45 and absence of myeloid markers CD14 and CD11b. Functional experiments revealed that EXnaEFCs exhibited classical properties of endothelial cells (ECs, namely binding of Ulex europaeus lectin, up-take of acetylated-low density lipoprotein and contribution to EC tube formation in vitro. These EXnaEFCs demonstrated a pro-angiogenic phenotype within two independent in vivo rodent models. Firstly, a Matrigel plug assay showed increased vascularisation in mice. Secondly, a rat model of acute myocardial infarction demonstrated reduced heart damage as determined by lower levels of serum creatinine and a modest increase in heart functionality. Taken together, these studies show IL3 as a potent growth factor for human CD133+ cell expansion with clear pro-angiogenic properties (in vitro and in vivo and thus may provide clinical utility for humans in the future.

  13. Identifying activated T cells in reconstituted RAG deficient mice using retrovirally transduced Pax5 deficient pro-B cells.

    Nadesan Gajendran

    Full Text Available Various methods have been used to identify activated T cells such as binding of MHC tetramers and expression of cell surface markers in addition to cytokine-based assays. In contrast to these published methods, we here describe a strategy to identify T cells that respond to any antigen and track the fate of these activated T cells. We constructed a retroviral double-reporter construct with enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP and a far-red fluorescent protein from Heteractis crispa (HcRed. LTR-driven EGFP expression was used to enrich and identify transduced cells, while HcRed expression is driven by the CD40Ligand (CD40L promoter, which is inducible and enables the identification and cell fate tracing of T cells that have responded to infection/inflammation. Pax5 deficient pro-B cells that can give rise to different hematopoietic cells like T cells, were retrovirally transduced with this double-reporter cassette and were used to reconstitute the T cell pool in RAG1 deficient mice that lack T and B cells. By using flow cytometry and histology, we identified activated T cells that had developed from Pax5 deficient pro-B cells and responded to infection with the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Microscopic examination of organ sections allowed visual identification of HcRed-expressing cells. To further characterize the immune response to a given stimuli, this strategy can be easily adapted to identify other cells of the hematopoietic system that respond to infection/inflammation. This can be achieved by using an inducible reporter, choosing the appropriate promoter, and reconstituting mice lacking cells of interest by injecting gene-modified Pax5 deficient pro-B cells.

  14. Identification of a novel pro-inflammatory human skin-homing Vγ9Vδ2 T cell subset with a potential role in psoriasis

    LAGGNER, Ute; DI MEGLIO, Paola; PERERA, Gayathri K.; HUNDHAUSEN, Christian; LACY, Katie E.; ALI, Niwa; SMITH, Catherine H.; HAYDAY, Adrian C.; NICKOLOFF, Brian J.; NESTLE, Frank O.

    2011-01-01

    γδ T cells mediate rapid tissue responses in murine skin and participate in cutaneous immune regulation including protection against cancer. The role of human γδ cells in cutaneous homeostasis and pathology is poorly characterized. In this study we show in vivo evidence that human blood contains a distinct subset of pro-inflammatory cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) and C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 positive Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, which is rapidly recruited into perturbed human skin. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells produced an array of pro-inflammatory mediators including IL-17A and activated keratinocytes in a TNF-α and IFN-γ dependent manner. Examination of the common inflammatory skin disease psoriasis revealed a striking reduction of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in psoriasis patients compared to healthy controls and atopic dermatitis patients. Decreased numbers of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T cells normalized after successful treatment with psoriasis-targeted therapy. Together with the increased presence of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in psoriatic skin, this data indicates redistribution of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells from the blood to the skin compartment in psoriasis. In summary, we report a novel human pro-inflammatory γδ T cell involved in skin immune surveillance with immediate response characteristics and with potential clinical relevance in inflammatory skin disease. PMID:21813772

  15. Pro-angiogenic cell-based therapy for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular diseases.

    Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    Pro-angiogenic cell therapy has emerged as a promising option to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction or with critical limb ischemia. Exciting pre-clinical studies have prompted the initiation of numerous clinical trials based on administration of stem/progenitor cells with pro-angiogenic potential. Most of the clinical studies performed so far have used bone marrow-derived or peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells and showed, overall, a modest but significant benefit on tissue remodeling and function in patients with ischemic diseases. These mixed results pave the way for the development of strategies to overcome the limitation of autologous cell therapy and to propose more efficient approaches. Such strategies include pretreatment of cells with activators to augment cell recruitment and survival in the ischemic target area and/or the improvement of cell functions such as their paracrine ability to release proangiogenic factors and vasoactive molecules. In addition, efforts should be directed towards stimulation of both angiogenesis and vessel maturation, the development of a composite product consisting of stem/progenitor cells encapsulated in a biomaterial and the use of additional sources of regenerative cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of Cytokine-Induced Glycosylation Changes in Regulating Cell Interactions and Cell Signaling in Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer

    Justine H. Dewald

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is one of the most important modifications of proteins and lipids, and cell surface glycoconjugates are thought to play important roles in a variety of biological functions including cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, bacterial adhesion, cell immunogenicity and cell signaling. Alterations of glycosylation are observed in number of diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammation. In that context, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to modulate cell surface glycosylation by regulating the expression of glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of carbohydrate chains. These changes in cell surface glycosylation are also known to regulate cell signaling and could contribute to disease pathogenesis. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the glycosylation changes induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines, with a particular focus on cancer and cystic fibrosis, and their consequences on cell interactions and signaling.

  17. Expression profiling of genes regulated by TGF-beta: Differential regulation in normal and tumour cells

    Takahashi Takashi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-beta is one of the key cytokines implicated in various disease processes including cancer. TGF-beta inhibits growth and promotes apoptosis in normal epithelial cells and in contrast, acts as a pro-tumour cytokine by promoting tumour angiogenesis, immune-escape and metastasis. It is not clear if various actions of TGF-beta on normal and tumour cells are due to differential gene regulations. Hence we studied the regulation of gene expression by TGF-beta in normal and cancer cells. Results Using human 19 K cDNA microarrays, we show that 1757 genes are exclusively regulated by TGF-beta in A549 cells in contrast to 733 genes exclusively regulated in HPL1D cells. In addition, 267 genes are commonly regulated in both the cell-lines. Semi-quantitative and real-time qRT-PCR analysis of some genes agrees with the microarray data. In order to identify the signalling pathways that influence TGF-beta mediated gene regulation, we used specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase, ERK kinase, JNK kinase and integrin signalling pathways. The data suggest that regulation of majority of the selected genes is dependent on at least one of these pathways and this dependence is cell-type specific. Interestingly, an integrin pathway inhibitor, RGD peptide, significantly affected TGF-beta regulation of Thrombospondin 1 in A549 cells. Conclusion These data suggest major differences with respect to TGF-beta mediated gene regulation in normal and transformed cells and significant role of non-canonical TGF-beta pathways in the regulation of many genes by TGF-beta.

  18. Phenolic excipients of insulin formulations induce cell death, pro-inflammatory signaling and MCP-1 release

    Claudia Weber

    2015-01-01

    Insulin solutions displayed cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory potential caused by phenol or m-cresol. We speculate that during insulin pump therapy phenol and m-cresol might induce cell death and inflammatory reactions at the infusion site in vivo. Inflammation is perpetuated by release of MCP-1 by activated monocytic cells leading to enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells. To minimize acute skin complications caused by phenol/m-cresol accumulation, a frequent change of infusion sets and rotation of the infusion site is recommended.

  19. Early growth response gene-2 (Egr-2 regulates the development of B and T cells.

    Suling Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of how transcription factors are involved in lymphocyte development still remains a challenge. It has been shown that Egr-2 deficiency results in impaired NKT cell development and defective positive selection of T cells. Here we investigated the development of T, B and NKT cells in Egr-2 transgenic mice and the roles in the regulation of distinct stages of B and T cell development.The expression of Egr1, 2 and 3 were analysed at different stages of T and B cell development by RT-PCT and results showed that the expression was strictly regulated at different stages. Forced expression of Egr-2 in CD2(+ lymphocytes resulted in a severe reduction of CD4(+CD8(+ (DP cells in thymus and pro-B cells in bone marrow, which was associated with reduced expression of Notch1 in ISP thymocytes and Pax5 in pro-B cells, suggesting that retraction of Egr-2 at the ISP and pro-B cell stages is important for the activation of lineage differentiation programs. In contrast to reduction of DP and pro-B cells, Egr-2 enhanced the maturation of DP cells into single positive (SP T and NKT cells in thymus, and immature B cells into mature B cells in bone marrow.Our results demonstrate that Egr-2 expressed in restricted stages of lymphocyte development plays a dynamic, but similar role for the development of T, NKT and B cells.

  20. Tumour-Derived Interleukin-1 Beta Induces Pro-inflammatory Response in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Alajez, Nehad M; Al-toub, Mashael; Almusa, Abdulaziz

    ’ secreted factors as represented by a panel of human cancer cell lines (breast (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231); prostate (PC-3); lung (NCI-H522); colon (HT-29) and head & neck (FaDu)) on the biological characteristics of MSCs. Background Over the past several years, significant amount of research has emerged......, the goal of this study was to assess the cellular and molecular changes in MSCs in response to secreted factors present in conditioned media (CM) from a panel of human tumor cell lines covering a spectrum of human cancers (Breast, Prostate, Lung, colon, and head and neck). Research Morphological changes...... with bipolar processes. In association with phenotypic changes, genome-wide gene expression and bioinformatics analysis revealed an enhanced pro-inflammatory response of those MSCs. Pharmacological inhibitions of FAK and MAPKK severely impaired the pro-inflammatory response of MSCs to tumor CM (~80-99%, and 55...

  1. Endothelial cells provide a notch-dependent pro-tumoral niche for enhancing breast cancer survival, stemness and pro-metastatic properties.

    Pegah Ghiabi

    Full Text Available Treating metastasis has been challenging due to tumors complexity and heterogeneity. This complexity is partly related to the crosstalk between tumor and its microenvironment. Endothelial cells -the building blocks of tumor vasculature- have been shown to have additional roles in cancer progression than angiogenesis and supplying oxygen and nutrients. Here, we show an alternative role for endothelial cells in supporting breast cancer growth and spreading independent of their vascular functions. Using endothelial cells and breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB231 and MCF-7, we developed co-culture systems to study the influence of tumor endothelium on breast tumor development by both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Our results demonstrated that endothelial cells conferred survival advantage to tumor cells under complete starvation and enriched the CD44HighCD24Low/- stem cell population in tumor cells. Moreover, endothelial cells enhanced the pro-metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. The in vitro and in vivo results concordantly confirmed a role for endothelial Jagged1 to promote breast tumor through notch activation. Here, we propose a role for endothelial cells in enhancing breast cancer progression, stemness, and pro-metastatic traits through a perfusion-independent manner. Our findings may be beneficial in developing novel therapeutic approaches.

  2. Terbinafine stimulates the pro-inflammatory responses in human monocytic THP-1 cells through an ERK signaling pathway.

    Mizuno, Katsuhiko; Fukami, Tatsuki; Toyoda, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2010-10-23

    Oral antifungal terbinafine has been reported to cause liver injury with inflammatory responses in a small percentage of patients. However the underlying mechanism remains unknown. To examine the inflammatory reactions, we investigated whether terbinafine and other antifungal drugs increase the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines using human monocytic cells. Dose- and time-dependent changes in the mRNA expression levels and the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α from human monocytic THP-1 and HL-60 cells with antifungal drugs were measured. Effects of terbinafine on the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 were investigated. The release of IL-8 and TNFα from THP-1 and HL-60 cells was significantly increased by treatment with terbinafine but not by fluconazole, suggesting that terbinafine can stimulate monocytes and increase the pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Terbinafine also significantly increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase in THP-1 cells. Pretreatment with a MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)1/2 inhibitor U0126 significantly suppressed the increase of IL-8 and TNFα levels by terbinafine treatment in THP-1 cells, but p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. These results suggested that an ERK1/2 pathway plays an important role in the release of IL-8 and TNFα in THP-1 cells treated with terbinafine. The release of inflammatory mediators by terbinafine might be one of the mechanisms underlying immune-mediated liver injury. This in vitro method may be useful to predict adverse inflammatory reactions that lead to drug-induced liver injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of angiogenesis in human skeletal muscle with specific focus on pro- angiogenic and angiostatic factors

    Høier, Birgitte

    It is well established that acute exercise promotes an angiogenic response and that a period of exercise training results in capillary growth. Skeletal muscle angiogenesis is a complex process that requires a coordinated interplay of multiple factors and compounds to ensure proper vascular function....... The angiogenic process is initiated through changes in mechanical and/or metabolic factors during exercise and when exercise is repeated these stimuli may result in capillary growth if needed. The present PhD thesis is based on six studies in which the regulation of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle...... was studied in peripheral arterial disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important factor in exercise-induced angiogenesis and is located primarily in muscle cells but also in endothelial cells, pericytes, and in the extracellular matrix. VEGF protein secretion to the interstitium...

  4. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed...... by a discussion on how many of the generally involved mechanisms are identified in neural cells and (or) in astrocytes. There seems to be clear evidence suggesting that parallel K+ and Cl- channels mediate regulatory volume decrease in primary cultures of astrocytes, and a stretch-activated cation channel has...... been reported. The role of the different channels was discussed. A taurine leak pathway is clearly activated after cell swelling both in astrocytes and in neurones. The relations between the effect of glutamate and cell swelling were discussed. Discussion on the clearance of potassium from...

  5. Emerging paradigms and questions on pro-angiogenic bone marrow-derived myelomonocytic cells.

    Laurent, Julien; Touvrey, Cédric; Botta, Francesca; Kuonen, François; Ruegg, Curzio

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-related inflammation has emerged in recent years as a major event contributing to tumor angiogenesis, tumor progression and metastasis formation. Bone marrow-derived and inflammatory cells promote tumor angiogenesis by providing endothelial progenitor cells that differentiate into mature endothelial cells, and by secreting pro-angiogenic factors and remodeling the extracellular matrix to stimulate angiogenesis though paracrine mechanisms. Several bone marrow-derived myelonomocytic cells, including monocytes and macrophages, have been identified and characterized by several laboratories in recent years. While the central role of these cells in promoting tumor angiogenesis, tumor progression and metastasis is nowadays well established, many questions remain open and new ones are emerging. These include the relationship between their phenotype and function, the mechanisms of pro-angiogenic programming, their contribution to resistance to anti-angiogenic treatments and to metastasis and their potential clinical use as biomarkers of angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapies. Here, we will review phenotypical and functional aspects of bone marrow-derived myelonomocytic cells and discuss some of the current outstanding questions.

  6. RNA-seq methods for identifying differentially expressed gene in human pancreatic islet cells treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Li, Bo; Bi, Chang Long; Lang, Ning; Li, Yu Ze; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Ying Qi; Zhai, Ai Xia; Cheng, Zhi Feng

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease in which pancreatic beta cells are killed by the infiltrating immune cells as well as the cytokines released by these cells. Many studies indicate that inflammatory mediators have an essential role in this disease. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome in human islets of langerhans under control conditions or following exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokines based on the RNA sequencing dataset downloaded from SRA database. After filtered the low-quality ones, the RNA readers was aligned to human genome hg19 by TopHat and then assembled by Cufflinks. The expression value of each transcript was calculated and consequently differentially expressed genes were screened out. Finally, a total of 63 differentially expressed genes were identified including 60 up-regulated and three down-regulated genes. GBP5 and CXCL9 stood out as the top two most up-regulated genes in cytokines treated samples with the log2 fold change of 12.208 and 10.901, respectively. Meanwhile, PTF1A and REG3G were identified as the top two most down-regulated genes with the log2 fold change of -3.759 and -3.606, respectively. Of note, we also found 262 lncRNAs (long non-coding RNA), 177 of which were inferred as novel lncRNAs. Further in-depth follow-up analysis of the transcriptional regulation reported in this study may shed light on the specific function of these lncRNA.

  7. Gal-3 regulates the capacity of dendritic cells to promote NKT-cell-induced liver injury.

    Volarevic, Vladislav; Markovic, Bojana Simovic; Bojic, Sanja; Stojanovic, Maja; Nilsson, Ulf; Leffler, Hakon; Besra, Gurdyal S; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Paunovic, Verica; Trajkovic, Vladimir; Lukic, Miodrag L

    2015-02-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), an endogenous lectin, exhibits pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in various disease conditions. In order to explore the role of Gal-3 in NKT-cell-dependent pathology, we induced hepatitis in C57BL/6 WT and Gal-3-deficient mice by using specific ligand for NKT cells: α-galactosylceramide, glycolipid Ag presented by CD1d. The injection of α-galactosylceramide significantly enhanced expression of Gal-3 in liver NKT and dendritic cells (DCs). Genetic deletion or selective inhibition of Gal-3 (induced by Gal-3-inhibitor TD139) abrogated the susceptibility to NKT-cell-dependent hepatitis. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12) and their production by liver DCs and NKT cells were also downregulated. Genetic deletion or selective inhibition of Gal-3 alleviated influx of inflammatory CD11c(+) CD11b(+) DCs in the liver and favored tolerogenic phenotype and IL-10 production of liver NKT and DCs. Deletion of Gal-3 attenuated the capacity of DCs to support liver damage in the passive transfer experiments and to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Gal-3-deficient DCs failed to optimally stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in NKT cells, in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, Gal-3 regulates the capacity of DCs to support NKT-cell-mediated liver injury, playing an important pro-inflammatory role in acute liver injury. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cell-free culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells challenged with Salmonella typhi through TLR activation.

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Matencio, Esther; Bernal, Maria J; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) have immunomodulatory effects in human intestinal-like dendritic cells (DCs) and how they respond to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and also to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions. Human DCs were directly challenged with B. breve/CFS, S. typhi or a combination of these stimuli for 4 h. The expression pattern of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and cytokine secretion was analyzed. CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with S. typhi. In contrast, the B. breve CNCM I-4035 probiotic strain was a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines tested, i.e., TNF-α, IL-8 and RANTES, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. CFS restored TGF-β levels in the presence of Salmonella. Live B.breve and its supernatant enhanced innate immune responses by the activation of TLR signaling pathway. These treatments upregulated TLR9 gene transcription. In addition, CFS was a more potent inducer of TLR9 expression than the probiotic bacteria in the presence of S. typhi. Expression levels of CASP8 and IRAK4 were also increased by CFS, and both treatments induced TOLLIP gene expression. Our results indicate that the probiotic strain B. breve CNCM I-4035 affects the intestinal immune response, whereas its supernatant exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated by DCs. This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down-regulate pro

  9. Cell-free culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells challenged with Salmonella typhi through TLR activation.

    Miriam Bermudez-Brito

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS have immunomodulatory effects in human intestinal-like dendritic cells (DCs and how they respond to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and also to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions. Human DCs were directly challenged with B. breve/CFS, S. typhi or a combination of these stimuli for 4 h. The expression pattern of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathway and cytokine secretion was analyzed. CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with S. typhi. In contrast, the B. breve CNCM I-4035 probiotic strain was a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines tested, i.e., TNF-α, IL-8 and RANTES, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. CFS restored TGF-β levels in the presence of Salmonella. Live B.breve and its supernatant enhanced innate immune responses by the activation of TLR signaling pathway. These treatments upregulated TLR9 gene transcription. In addition, CFS was a more potent inducer of TLR9 expression than the probiotic bacteria in the presence of S. typhi. Expression levels of CASP8 and IRAK4 were also increased by CFS, and both treatments induced TOLLIP gene expression. Our results indicate that the probiotic strain B. breve CNCM I-4035 affects the intestinal immune response, whereas its supernatant exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated by DCs. This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down-regulate

  10. p16(INK4A) inhibits the pro-metastatic potentials of osteosarcoma cells through targeting the ERK pathway and TGF-β1.

    Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a downstream component of the evolutionarily conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway, which controls the expression of a plethora of genes implicated in various physiological processes. This pathway is often hyper-activated by mutations or abnormal extracellular signaling in different types of human cancer, including the most common primary malignant bone tumor osteosarcomas. p16(INK4A) is an important tumor suppressor gene frequently lost in osteosarcomas, and is associated with the progression of these malignancies. We have shown, here, that the ERK1/2 protein kinase is also activated by p16(INK4A) down-regulation in osteosarcoma cells and normal human as well as mouse cells. This inhibitory effect is associated with the suppression of the upstream kinase MEK1/2, and is mediated via the repression of miR-21-5p and the consequent up-regulation of the MEK/ERK antagonist SPRY2 in osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, we have shown that p16(INK4) inhibits the migration/invasion abilities of these cells through miR-21-5p-dependent inhibition of ERK1/2. In addition, we present clear evidence that p16(INK4) represses the paracrine pro-migratory effect of osteosarcoma cells on stromal fibroblasts through the inhibition of the TGF-β1 expression/secretion. This effect is also ERK1/2-dependent, indicating that in addition to their cell-autonomous actions, p16(INK4) and ERK1/2 have also non-cell-autonomous cancer-related functions. Together, these results indicate that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4) protein represses the carcinogenic process of osteosarcoma cells not only as a cell cycle regulator, but also as a negative regulator of pro-carcinogenic/-metastatic pathways. This indicates that targeting the ERK pathway is of utmost therapeutic value. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Uncoupled regulation of fibronectin and collagen synthesis in Rous sarcoma virus transformed avian tendon cells

    Parry, G.; Soo, W.J.; Bissell, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The regulation of fibronectin and procollagen synthesis has been investigated in normal and Rous sarcoma virus transformed primary avian tendon cells. These two proteins interact at the cell periphery and both are reportedly lost upon transformation. Whether their synthesis was coordinately regulated in Rous sarcoma virus-infected cells was thus examined. It was found that while the synthesis of both pro α 1 and pro α 2 peptides was reduced upon transformation, the synthesis of fibronectin was not altered. Nevertheless, long term radiolabeling demonstrated that fibronectin levels were reduced in transformed cells. It is concluded that the reduction in levels of these components at the surface is brought about by different mechanisms; collagen levels being regulated by procollagen synthesis and fibronectin levels by degradation and/or release into the culture medium. The possibility is discussed that fibronectin is lost from the cell periphery of primary avian tendon cells as a consequence of decreased levels of anchoring collagen molecules

  12. Extracellular adenosine generation in the regulation of pro-inflammatory responses and pathogen colonization.

    Alam, M Samiul; Costales, Matthew G; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Williams, Kristina

    2015-05-05

    Adenosine, an immunomodulatory biomolecule, is produced by the ecto-enzymes CD39 (nucleoside triphosphate dephosphorylase) and CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase) by dephosphorylation of extracellular ATP. CD73 is expressed by many cell types during injury, infection and during steady-state conditions. Besides host cells, many bacteria also have CD39-CD73-like machinery, which helps the pathogen subvert the host inflammatory response. The major function for adenosine is anti-inflammatory, and most recent research has focused on adenosine's control of inflammatory mechanisms underlying various autoimmune diseases (e.g., colitis, arthritis). Although adenosine generated through CD73 provides a feedback to control tissue damage mediated by a host immune response, it can also contribute to immunosuppression. Thus, inflammation can be a double-edged sword: it may harm the host but eventually helps by killing the invading pathogen. The role of adenosine in dampening inflammation has been an area of active research, but the relevance of the CD39/CD73-axis and adenosine receptor signaling in host defense against infection has received less attention. Here, we review our recent knowledge regarding CD73 expression during murine Salmonellosis and Helicobacter-induced gastric infection and its role in disease pathogenesis and bacterial persistence. We also explored a possible role for the CD73/adenosine pathway in regulating innate host defense function during infection.

  13. Dual effect of LPS on murine myeloid leukemia cells: Pro-proliferation and anti-proliferation

    Yu, Lingling [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Zhao, Yingmin [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Gu, Xin; Wang, Jijun; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Li, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xin [Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Gu, Jian [Department of Hematology, Yangzhou University School of Clinical Medicine, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Yu, Duonan, E-mail: duonan@yahoo.com [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Disease, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Institute of Comparative Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonosis, Yangzhou 225001 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Modification of the bone marrow microenvironment is considered as a promising strategy to control leukemic cell proliferation, diseases progression and relapse after treatment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of the cellular and molecular compartments in the leukemic microenvironment, it is extremely difficult to dissect the role of each individual molecule or cell type in vivo. Here we established an in vitro system to dissect the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stromal cells and endothelial cells in the growth of mouse myeloid tumor cells and B-lymphoma cells. We found that either LPS or bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer in culture is required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. Surprisingly, the growth of myeloid leukemic cells on stromal cells is strongly inhibited when coupled with LPS in culture. This opposing effect of LPS, a complete switch from pro-proliferation to antitumor growth is due, at least in part, to the rapidly increased production of interleukin 12, Fas ligand and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 from stromal cells stimulated by LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor cell proliferation, thus changing the disease course of myeloid leukemias through its direct effect or modulation of the tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • LPS alone in culture is required for the proliferation of murine myeloid tumor cells. • Bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer is also required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. • However, the growth of myeloid tumor cells is inhibited when LPS and stromal cells are both available in culture. • Thus LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor growth through its direct effect or modulation of tumor microenvironment.

  14. Dual effect of LPS on murine myeloid leukemia cells: Pro-proliferation and anti-proliferation

    Yu, Lingling; Zhao, Yingmin; Gu, Xin; Wang, Jijun; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Li, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xin; Gu, Jian; Yu, Duonan

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the bone marrow microenvironment is considered as a promising strategy to control leukemic cell proliferation, diseases progression and relapse after treatment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of the cellular and molecular compartments in the leukemic microenvironment, it is extremely difficult to dissect the role of each individual molecule or cell type in vivo. Here we established an in vitro system to dissect the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stromal cells and endothelial cells in the growth of mouse myeloid tumor cells and B-lymphoma cells. We found that either LPS or bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer in culture is required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. Surprisingly, the growth of myeloid leukemic cells on stromal cells is strongly inhibited when coupled with LPS in culture. This opposing effect of LPS, a complete switch from pro-proliferation to antitumor growth is due, at least in part, to the rapidly increased production of interleukin 12, Fas ligand and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 from stromal cells stimulated by LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor cell proliferation, thus changing the disease course of myeloid leukemias through its direct effect or modulation of the tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • LPS alone in culture is required for the proliferation of murine myeloid tumor cells. • Bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer is also required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. • However, the growth of myeloid tumor cells is inhibited when LPS and stromal cells are both available in culture. • Thus LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor growth through its direct effect or modulation of tumor microenvironment.

  15. Pretreating mesenchymal stem cells with electrical stimulation causes sustained long-lasting pro-osteogenic effects

    Maria Eischen-Loges

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical stimulation (ES has a long history of successful use in the clinical treatment of refractory, non-healing bone fractures and has recently been proposed as an adjunct to bone tissue-engineering treatments to optimize their therapeutic potential. This idea emerged from ES’s demonstrated positive effects on stem cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and adherence to scaffolds, all cell behaviors recognized to be advantageous in Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE. In previous in vitro experiments we demonstrated that direct current ES, administered daily, accelerates Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. In the present study, we sought to define the optimal ES regimen for maximizing this pro-osteogenic effect. Methods Rat bone marrow-derived MSC were exposed to 100 mV/mm, 1 hr/day for three, seven, and 14 days, then osteogenic differentiation was assessed at Day 14 of culture by measuring collagen production, calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic marker gene expression. Results We found that exposing MSC to ES for three days had minimal effect, while seven and 14 days resulted in increased osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by significant increases in collagen and calcium deposits, and expression of osteogenic marker genes Col1a1, Osteopontin, Osterix and Calmodulin. We also found that cells treated with ES for seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long (for at least seven days after discontinuing ES exposure. Discussion This study showed that while three days of ES is insufficient to solicit pro-osteogenic effects, seven and 14 days significantly increases osteogenic differentiation. Importantly, we found that cells treated with ES for only seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long after discontinuing ES exposure. This sustained positive osteogenic effect is likely due to the enhanced expression of RunX2 and Calmodulin we observed. This

  16. Redox regulation and pro-oxidant reactions in the physiology of circadian systems.

    Méndez, Isabel; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2016-05-01

    Rhythms of approximately 24 h are pervasive in most organisms and are known as circadian. There is a molecular circadian clock in each cell sustained by a feedback system of interconnected "clock" genes and transcription factors. In mammals, the timing system is formed by a central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, in coordination with a collection of peripheral oscillators. Recently, an extensive interconnection has been recognized between the molecular circadian clock and the set of biochemical pathways that underlie the bioenergetics of the cell. A principle regulator of metabolic networks is the flow of electrons between electron donors and acceptors. The concomitant reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions directly influence the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes. This review summarizes and discusses recent findings concerning the mutual and dynamic interactions between the molecular circadian clock, redox reactions, and redox signaling. The scope includes the regulatory role played by redox coenzymes (NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H, GSH/GSSG), reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide), antioxidants (melatonin), and physiological events that modulate the redox state (feeding condition, circadian rhythms) in determining the timing capacity of the molecular circadian clock. In addition, we discuss a purely metabolic circadian clock, which is based on the redox enzymes known as peroxiredoxins and is present in mammalian red blood cells and in other biological systems. Both the timing system and the metabolic network are key to a better understanding of widespread pathological conditions such as the metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Proteolysis of proBDNF is a key regulator in the formation of memory.

    Philip Barnes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand the molecular processes underlying long-term memory to provide therapeutic targets of aberrant memory that produce pathological behaviour in humans. Under conditions of recall, fully-consolidated memories can undergo reconsolidation or extinction. These retrieval-mediated memory processes may rely on distinct molecular processes. The cellular mechanisms initiating the signature molecular events are not known. Using infusions of protein synthesis inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotide targeting brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mRNA or tPA-STOP (an inhibitor of the proteolysis of BDNF protein into the hippocampus of the awake rat, we show that acquisition and extinction of contextual fear memory depended on the increased and decreased proteolysis of proBDNF (precursor BDNF in the hippocampus, respectively. Conditions of retrieval that are known to initiate the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory, a BDNF-independent memory process, were not correlated with altered proBDNF cleavage. Thus, the processing of BDNF was associated with the acquisition of new information and the updating of information about a salient stimulus. Furthermore, the differential requirement for the processing of proBDNF by tPA in distinct memory processes suggest that the molecular events actively engaged to support the storage and/or the successful retrieval of memory depends on the integration of ongoing experience with past learning.

  18. A stromal cell free culture system generates mouse pro-T cells that can reconstitute T-cell compartments in vivo.

    Gehre, Nadine; Nusser, Anja; von Muenchow, Lilly; Tussiwand, Roxane; Engdahl, Corinne; Capoferri, Giuseppina; Bosco, Nabil; Ceredig, Rhodri; Rolink, Antonius G

    2015-03-01

    T-cell lymphopenia following BM transplantation or diseases such as AIDS result in immunodeficiency. Novel approaches to ameliorate this situation are urgently required. Herein, we describe a novel stromal cell free culture system in which Lineage(-) Sca1(+)c-kit(+) BM hematopoietic progenitors very efficiently differentiate into pro-T cells. This culture system consists of plate-bound Delta-like 4 Notch ligand and the cytokines SCF and IL-7. The pro-T cells developing in these cultures express CD25, CD117, and partially CD44; express cytoplasmic CD3ε; and have their TCRβ locus partially D-J rearranged. They could be expanded for over 3 months and used to reconstitute the T-cell compartments of sublethally irradiated T-cell-deficient CD3ε(-/-) mice or lethally irradiated WT mice. Pro-T cells generated in this system could partially correct the T-cell lymphopenia of pre-Tα(-/-) mice. However, reconstituted CD3ε(-/-) mice suffered from a wasting disease that was prevented by co-injection of purified CD4(+) CD25(high) WT Treg cells. In a T-cell-sufficient or T-lymphopenic setting, the development of disease was not observed. Thus, this in vitro culture system represents a powerful tool to generate large numbers of pro-T cells for transplantation and possibly with clinical applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ion Channels Involved in Cell Volume Regulation

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation......This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume...

  20. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Honey Bee Venom and Chrysin on Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Elaheh Amini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anti-cancer effects of honey bee venom (BV and chrysin might open a new window for treatment of chemo-resistant cancers. This study was designed to evaluate cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of BV and chrysin on A2780cp cistplatin- resistant human ovarian cancer cells. Methods: As per the study objectives, A2780cp cells were categorized to 4 groups: 3 experiment groups (treated either with BV or chrysin or BV + chrysin and 1 control group (untreated cells.  Experiment group cells were cultured and treated by different concentrations of BV and chrysin for 24 hours. Then, experiment and control cells were studied with MTT assay, Annexin V-FITC, DAPI and Acridine Orange / Propidium Iodide statining, flow cytometry, caspase-3 and -9 assay, measurement of intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS and RT-PCR. Results: MTT assay showed that 8 μg/mL BV, 40 µg/ml chrysin and 6 + 15 μg/mL BV + chrysin co-treatment induced 50% cell death on A2780cp cells compared with controls (P < 0.001. Morphological observations by inverted and fluorescent microscopy revealed ROS generation and apoptotic cell death under exposure to BV or chrysin or BV + chrysin co-treatment. Caspase-3 and -9 assay demonstrated that BV and chrysin triggered apoptosis through intrinsic pathway and RT-PCR demonstrated down-regulation of Bcl-2. Conclusion: Honey bee venom and chrysin are effective for destroying chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells through activation of intrinsic apoptosis, which propose them as potential candidates to be used in development of improved chemotherapeutic agents in the future.

  1. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis inhibits autophagy, which acts as a pro-survival mechanism in human melanoma cells.

    Del Bello, Barbara; Toscano, Marzia; Moretti, Daniele; Maellaro, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between a non-lethal autophagic response and apoptotic cell death is still a matter of debate in cancer cell biology. In the present study performed on human melanoma cells, we investigate the role of basal or stimulated autophagy in cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, as well as the contribution of cisplatin-induced activation of caspases 3/7 and conventional calpains. The results show that, while down-regulating Beclin-1, Atg14 and LC3-II, cisplatin treatment inhibits the basal autophagic response, impairing a physiological pro-survival response. Consistently, exogenously stimulated autophagy, obtained with trehalose or calpains inhibitors (MDL-28170 and calpeptin), protects from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and such a protection is reverted by inhibiting autophagy with 3-methyladenine or ATG5 silencing. In addition, during trehalose-stimulated autophagy, the cisplatin-induced activation of calpains is abrogated, suggesting the existence of a feedback loop between the autophagic process and calpains. On the whole, our results demonstrate that in human melanoma cells autophagy may function as a beneficial stress response, hindered by cisplatin-induced death mechanisms. In a therapeutic perspective, these findings suggest that the efficacy of cisplatin-based polychemotherapies for melanoma could be potentiated by inhibitors of autophagy.

  2. ProSAAS-derived peptides are differentially processed and sorted in mouse brain and AtT-20 cells.

    Jonathan H Wardman

    Full Text Available ProSAAS is the precursor for some of the most abundant peptides found in mouse brain and other tissues, including peptides named SAAS, PEN, and LEN. Both SAAS and LEN are found in big and little forms due to differential processing. Initial processing of proSAAS is mediated by furin (and/or furin-like enzymes and carboxypeptidase D, while the smaller forms are generated by secretory granule prohormone convertases and carboxypeptidase E. In mouse hypothalamus, PEN and big LEN colocalize with neuropeptide Y. In the present study, little LEN and SAAS were detected in mouse hypothalamus but not in cell bodies of neuropeptide Y-expressing neurons. PEN and big LEN show substantial colocalization in hypothalamus, but big LEN and little LEN do not. An antiserum to SAAS that detects both big and little forms of this peptide did not show substantial colocalization with PEN or big LEN. To further study this, the AtT-20 cells mouse pituitary corticotrophic cell line was transfected with rat proSAAS and the distribution of peptides examined. As found in mouse hypothalamus, only some of the proSAAS-derived peptides colocalized with each other in AtT-20 cells. The two sites within proSAAS that are known to be efficiently cleaved by furin were altered by site-directed mutagenesis to convert the P4 Arg into Lys; this change converts the sequences from furin consensus sites into prohormone convertase consensus sites. Upon expression of the mutated form of proSAAS in AtT-20 cells, there was significantly more colocalization of proSAAS-derived peptides PEN and SAAS. Taken together, these results indicate that proSAAS is initially cleaved in the Golgi or trans-Golgi network by furin and/or furin-like enzymes and the resulting fragments are sorted into distinct vesicles and further processed by additional enzymes into the mature peptides.

  3. Human Langerhans Cells with Pro-inflammatory Features Relocate within Psoriasis Lesions

    Eidsmo, Liv; Martini, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease that presents with well-demarcated patches of inflammation. Recurrent disease in fixed areas of the skin indicates a localized disease memory that is preserved in resolved lesions. In line with such concept, the involvement of tissue-resident immune cells in psoriasis pathology is increasingly appreciated. Langerhans cells (LCs) are perfectly placed to steer resident T cells and local tissue responses in psoriasis. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge of LCs in human psoriasis, including findings that highlight pro-inflammatory features of LCs in psoriasis lesions. We also review the literature on conflicting data regarding LC localization and functionality in psoriasis. Our review highlights that further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that drive LCs functionality in inflammatory diseases. PMID:29520279

  4. Depletion of pro-oncogenic RUNX2 enhances gemcitabine (GEM) sensitivity of p53-mutated pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells through the induction of pro-apoptotic TAp63.

    Ozaki, Toshinori; Nakamura, Mizuyo; Ogata, Takehiro; Sang, Meijie; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Hiraoka, Kiriko; Sang, Meixiang; Shimozato, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    Recently, we have described that siRNA-mediated silencing of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) improves anti-cancer drug gemcitabine (GEM) sensitivity of p53-deficient human pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells through the augmentation of p53 family TAp63-dependent cell death pathway. In this manuscript, we have extended our study to p53-mutated human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. According to our present results, knockdown of mutant p53 alone had a marginal effect on GEM-mediated cell death of Panc-1 cells. We then sought to deplete RUNX2 using siRNA in Panc-1 cells and examined its effect on GEM sensitivity. Under our experimental conditions, RUNX2 knockdown caused a significant enhancement of GEM sensitivity of Panc-1 cells. Notably, GEM-mediated induction of TAp63 but not of TAp73 was further stimulated in RUNX2-depleted Panc-1 cells, indicating that, like AsPC-1 cells, TAp63 might play a pivotal role in the regulation of GEM sensitivity of Panc-1 cells. Consistent with this notion, forced expression of TAp63α in Panc-1 cells promoted cell cycle arrest and/or cell death, and massively increased luciferase activities driven by TAp63-target gene promoters such as p21WAF1 and NOXA. In addition, immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that RUNX2 forms a complex with TAp63 in Panc-1 cells. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that depletion of RUNX2 enhances the cytotoxic effect of GEM on p53-mutated Panc-1 cells through the stimulation of TAp63-dependent cell death pathway even in the presence of a large amount of pro-oncogenic mutant p53, and might provide an attractive strategy to treat pancreatic cancer patients with p53 mutations.

  5. Cross-regulation of cytokine signalling: pro-inflammatory cytokines restrict IL-6 signalling through receptor internalisation and degradation.

    Radtke, Simone; Wüller, Stefan; Yang, Xiang-ping; Lippok, Barbara E; Mütze, Barbara; Mais, Christine; de Leur, Hildegard Schmitz-Van; Bode, Johannes G; Gaestel, Matthias; Heinrich, Peter C; Behrmann, Iris; Schaper, Fred; Hermanns, Heike M

    2010-03-15

    The inflammatory response involves a complex interplay of different cytokines which act in an auto- or paracrine manner to induce the so-called acute phase response. Cytokines are known to crosstalk on multiple levels, for instance by regulating the mRNA stability of targeted cytokines through activation of the p38-MAPK pathway. In our study we discovered a new mechanism that answers the long-standing question how pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress restrict immediate signalling of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. We show that p38, activated by IL-1beta, TNFalpha or environmental stress, impairs IL-6-induced JAK/STAT signalling through phosphorylation of the common cytokine receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent internalisation and degradation. We identify MK2 as the kinase that phosphorylates serine 782 in the cytoplasmic part of gp130. Consequently, inhibition of p38 or MK2, deletion of MK2 or mutation of crucial amino acids within the MK2 target site or the di-leucine internalisation motif blocks receptor depletion and restores IL-6-dependent STAT activation as well as gene induction. Hence, a novel negative crosstalk mechanism for cytokine signalling is described, where cytokine receptor turnover is regulated in trans by pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress stimuli to coordinate the inflammatory response.

  6. Intrinsic pro-angiogenic status of cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    Verhaeghe, Catherine; Tabruyn, Sebastien P.; Oury, Cecile; Bours, Vincent; Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2007-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic disorder characterized by a severe lung inflammation and fibrosis leading to the patient's death. Enhanced angiogenesis in cystic fibrosis (CF) tissue has been suggested, probably caused by the process of inflammation, as similarly described in asthma and chronic bronchitis. The present study demonstrates an intrinsic pro-angiogenic status of cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells. Microarray experiments showed that CF airway epithelial cells expressed several angiogenic factors such as VEGF-A, VEGF-C, bFGF, and PLGF at higher levels than control cells. These data were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and, at the protein level, by ELISA. Conditioned media of these cystic fibrosis cells were able to induce proliferation, migration and sprouting of cultured primary endothelial cells. This report describes for the first time that cystic fibrosis epithelial cells have an intrinsic angiogenic activity. Since excess of angiogenesis is correlated with more severe pulmonary disease, our results could lead to the development of new therapeutic applications

  7. Pro-oxidative and pro-apoptotic action of defatted seeds of Oenothera paradoxa on human skin melanoma cells.

    Jaszewska, Edyta; Kośmider, Anita; Kiss, Anna K; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2009-09-23

    Three extracts of defatted seeds of Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok, aqueous extract, 60% ethanolic extract, and 30% isopropanolic extract, differing by their total content of phenolic compounds and by their contents of individual polyphenols, were investigated in this study. The extracts exerted cytotoxic action on HTB-140 human skin melanoma cells. After 24 h of incubation, IC(50) values of 169.7 +/- 5.9 micog/mL, 72.4 +/- 3.8 microg/mL, and 155.3 +/- 6.3 microg/mL were obtained for HTB-140 cells with the aqueous extract, 60% ethanolic extract, and 30% isopropanolic extract at the tested concentrations (5-200 microg/mL), respectively, while IC(50) for normal fibroblast cells NHDFs was not attained. Moreover, for HTB-140 cells, LD(50) (concentration at which 50% of cells were dead) of 89.2 +/- 4.3 microg/mL and 181.4 +/- 6.5 microg/mL were obtained with 60% ethanolic extract and 30% isopropanolic extract, respectively. In melanoma cells, all three extracts caused a concentration-dependent increase of ROS production, GSH, and ATP lowering, and appearance of phosphatidylserine on the external surface of cellular membranes where it was bound to annexin V-FITC; furthermore, apoptosis without activation of caspase-3 took place. The most effective was 60% ethanolic extract, which had the greatest total content of phenolic compounds and the greatest content of pentagalloyloglucose (PGG).

  8. Controlled Inhibition of the Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Pro-inflammatory Secretome via Microparticle Engineering

    Sudhir H. Ranganath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are promising therapeutic candidates given their potent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory secretome. However, controlling the MSC secretome post-transplantation is considered a major challenge that hinders their clinical efficacy. To address this, we used a microparticle-based engineering approach to non-genetically modulate pro-inflammatory pathways in human MSCs (hMSCs under simulated inflammatory conditions. Here we show that microparticles loaded with TPCA-1, a small-molecule NF-κB inhibitor, when delivered to hMSCs can attenuate secretion of pro-inflammatory factors for at least 6 days in vitro. Conditioned medium (CM derived from TPCA-1-loaded hMSCs also showed reduced ability to attract human monocytes and prevented differentiation of human cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, compared with CM from untreated or TPCA-1-preconditioned hMSCs. Thus, we provide a broadly applicable bioengineering solution to facilitate intracellular sustained release of agents that modulate signaling. We propose that this approach could be harnessed to improve control over MSC secretome post-transplantation, especially to prevent adverse remodeling post-myocardial infarction.

  9. Silencing p75NTR prevents proNGF-induced endothelial cell death and development of acellular capillaries in rat retina

    Ahmed Y Shanab

    Full Text Available Accumulation of the nerve growth factor precursor (proNGF and its receptor p75NTR have been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases in both brain and retina. However, whether proNGF contributes to microvascular degeneration remain unexplored. This study seeks to investigate the mechanism by which proNGF/p75NTR induce endothelial cell (EC death and development of acellular capillaries, a surrogate marker of retinal ischemia. Stable overexpression of the cleavage-resistant proNGF and molecular silencing of p75NTR were utilized in human retinal EC and rat retinas in vivo. Stable overexpression of proNGF decreased NGF levels and induced retinal vascular cell death evident by 1.9-fold increase in acellular capillaries and activation of JNK and cleaved-PARP that were mitigated by p75NTRshRNA. In vitro, overexpression of proNGF did not alter TNF-α level, reduced NGF, however induced EC apoptosis evident by activation of JNK and p38 MAPK, cleaved-PARP. Silencing p75NTR using siRNA restored expression of NGF and TrkA activation and prevented EC apoptosis. Treatment of EC with human-mutant proNGF induced apoptosis that coincided with marked protein interaction and nuclear translocation of p75NTR and the neurotrophin receptor interacting factor. These effects were abolished by a selective p75NTR antagonist. Therefore, targeting p75NTR represents a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases associated with aberrant expression of proNGF.

  10. Decreased Regulatory T Cells in Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Lesions: Imbalance between Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cells in Atherosclerosis

    Ilonka Rohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall in which presentation of autoantigens by dendritic cells (DCs leads to the activation of T cells. Anti-inflammatory cells like Tregs counterbalance inflammation in atherogenesis. In our study, human carotid plaque specimens were classified as stable (14 and unstable (15 according to established morphological criteria. Vessel specimens (n=12 without any signs of atherosclerosis were used as controls. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect different types of DCs (S100, fascin, CD83, CD209, CD304, and CD123, proinflammatory T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD161, and anti-inflammatory Tregs (FoxP3. The following results were observed: in unstable lesions, significantly higher numbers of proinflammatory cells like DCs, T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells were detected compared to stable plaques. Additionally, there was a significantly higher expression of HLA-DR and more T cell activation (CD25, CD69 in unstable lesions. On the contrary, unstable lesions contained significantly lower numbers of Tregs. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between myeloid DCs and Tregs was shown. These data suggest an increased inflammatory state in vulnerable plaques resulting from an imbalance of the frequency of local pro- and anti-inflammatory immune cells.

  11. The pro-survival function of p53 in HeLa cells

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Mi Young; Jang, Eun Yeong; Kim, Jin Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The rate of apoptosis and autophagy was variable with different p53 status after IR treatment of cells. The influence of p53 status on cell fate suggests a role of p53 in two fundamentally important cell biological pathways: autophagy and apoptosis. p53 coordinates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis to govern cell fate. This study was done to identify p53-mediated regulation of cell's fate. Autophagy induced by IR may prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis, implying an interlink modulation between autophagy and apoptosis. The rate of apoptosis and autophagy was determined with different p53 status after IR treatment of HeLa cells in this study. Our research on IR-induced cellular responses may provide new information about fate decision between the processes of apoptosis and autophagy.

  12. Thioredoxin ameliorates cutaneous inflammation by regulating the epithelial production and release of pro-Inflammatory cytokines

    Hai eTian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human thioredoxin-1 (TRX is a 12-kDa protein with redox-active dithiol in the active site -Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-. It has been demonstrated that systemic administration and transgenic overexpression of TRX ameliorate inflammation in various animal models, but its anti-inflammatory mechanism is not well characterized. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of topically applied recombinant human TRX (rhTRX in a murine irritant contact dermatitis (ICD induced by croton oil. Topically applied rhTRX was distributed only in the skin tissues under both non-inflammatory and inflammatory conditions, and significantly suppressed the inflammatory response by inhibiting the production of cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α, Il-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, and MCP-1. In an in vitro study, rhTRX also significantly inhibited the formation of cytokines and chemokines produced by keratinocytes after exposure to croton oil and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. These results indicate that TRX prevents skin inflammation via the inhibition of local formation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. As a promising new approach, local application of TRX may be useful for the treatment of various skin and mucosal inflammatory disorders.

  13. Mast cells exert pro-inflammatory effects of relevance to the pathophyisology of tendinopathy.

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Sharma, Aishwariya; Mousavizadeh, Rouhollah; Lu, Alex; Scott, Alex

    2013-01-01

    We have previously found an increased mast cell density in tendon biopsies from patients with patellar tendinopathy compared to controls. This study examined the influence of mast cells on basic tenocyte functions, including production of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), extracellular matrix remodeling and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene transcription, and collagen synthesis. Primary human tenocytes were stimulated with an established human mast cell line (HMC-1). Extracellular matrix remodeling was studied by culturing tenocytes in a three-dimensional collagen lattice. Survival/proliferation was assessed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium salt (MTS) assay. Levels of mRNA for COX-2, COL1A1, MMP1, and MMP7 were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Cox-2 protein level was assessed by Western blot analysis and type I procollagen was detected by immunofluorescent staining. PGE2 levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mast cells stimulated tenocytes to produce increased levels of COX-2 and the pro-inflammatory mediator PGE2, which in turn decreased COL1A1 mRNA expression. Additionally, mast cells reduced the type I procollagen protein levels produced by tenocytes. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was responsible for the induction of Cox-2 and PGE2 by tenocytes. Mast cells increased MMP1 and MMP7 transcription and increased the contraction of a three-dimensional collagen lattice by tenocytes, a phenomenon which was blocked by a pan-MMP inhibitor (Batimastat). Our data demonstrate that mast cell-derived PGE2 reduces collagen synthesis and enhances expression and activities of MMPs in human tenocytes.

  14. Lovastatin prevents cisplatin-induced activation of pro-apoptotic DNA damage response (DDR) of renal tubular epithelial cells

    Krüger, Katharina; Ziegler, Verena; Hartmann, Christina; Henninger, Christian [Institute of Toxicology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Thomale, Jürgen [Institute of Cell Biology, University Duisburg-Essen, 45122 Essen (Germany); Schupp, Nicole [Institute of Toxicology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Fritz, Gerhard, E-mail: fritz@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Toxicology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    The platinating agent cisplatin (CisPt) is commonly used in the therapy of various types of solid tumors. The anticancer efficacy of CisPt largely depends on the formation of bivalent DNA intrastrand crosslinks, which stimulate mechanisms of the DNA damage response (DDR), thereby triggering checkpoint activation, gene expression and cell death. The clinically most relevant adverse effect associated with CisPt treatment is nephrotoxicity that results from damage to renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we addressed the question whether the HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor lovastatin affects the DDR of renal cells by employing rat renal proximal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E) cells as in vitro model. The data show that lovastatin has extensive inhibitory effects on CisPt-stimulated DDR of NRK-52E cells as reflected on the levels of phosphorylated ATM, Chk1, Chk2, p53 and Kap1. Mitigation of CisPt-induced DDR by lovastatin was independent of the formation of DNA damage as demonstrated by (i) the analysis of Pt-(GpG) intrastrand crosslink formation by Southwestern blot analyses and (ii) the generation of DNA strand breaks as analyzed on the level of nuclear γH2AX foci and employing the alkaline comet assay. Lovastatin protected NRK-52E cells from the cytotoxicity of high CisPt doses as shown by measuring cell viability, cellular impedance and flow cytometry-based analyses of cell death. Importantly, the statin also reduced the level of kidney DNA damage and apoptosis triggered by CisPt treatment of mice. The data show that the lipid-lowering drug lovastatin extensively counteracts pro-apoptotic signal mechanisms of the DDR of tubular epithelial cells following CisPt injury. - Highlights: • Lovastatin blocks ATM/ATR-regulated DDR of tubular cells following CisPt treatment. • Lovastatin attenuates CisPt-induced activation of protein kinase ATM in vitro. • Statin-mediated DDR inhibition is independent of initial DNA damage formation. • Statin-mediated blockage of Cis

  15. Lovastatin prevents cisplatin-induced activation of pro-apoptotic DNA damage response (DDR) of renal tubular epithelial cells

    Krüger, Katharina; Ziegler, Verena; Hartmann, Christina; Henninger, Christian; Thomale, Jürgen; Schupp, Nicole; Fritz, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The platinating agent cisplatin (CisPt) is commonly used in the therapy of various types of solid tumors. The anticancer efficacy of CisPt largely depends on the formation of bivalent DNA intrastrand crosslinks, which stimulate mechanisms of the DNA damage response (DDR), thereby triggering checkpoint activation, gene expression and cell death. The clinically most relevant adverse effect associated with CisPt treatment is nephrotoxicity that results from damage to renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we addressed the question whether the HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor lovastatin affects the DDR of renal cells by employing rat renal proximal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E) cells as in vitro model. The data show that lovastatin has extensive inhibitory effects on CisPt-stimulated DDR of NRK-52E cells as reflected on the levels of phosphorylated ATM, Chk1, Chk2, p53 and Kap1. Mitigation of CisPt-induced DDR by lovastatin was independent of the formation of DNA damage as demonstrated by (i) the analysis of Pt-(GpG) intrastrand crosslink formation by Southwestern blot analyses and (ii) the generation of DNA strand breaks as analyzed on the level of nuclear γH2AX foci and employing the alkaline comet assay. Lovastatin protected NRK-52E cells from the cytotoxicity of high CisPt doses as shown by measuring cell viability, cellular impedance and flow cytometry-based analyses of cell death. Importantly, the statin also reduced the level of kidney DNA damage and apoptosis triggered by CisPt treatment of mice. The data show that the lipid-lowering drug lovastatin extensively counteracts pro-apoptotic signal mechanisms of the DDR of tubular epithelial cells following CisPt injury. - Highlights: • Lovastatin blocks ATM/ATR-regulated DDR of tubular cells following CisPt treatment. • Lovastatin attenuates CisPt-induced activation of protein kinase ATM in vitro. • Statin-mediated DDR inhibition is independent of initial DNA damage formation. • Statin-mediated blockage of Cis

  16. Regulation of intestinal homeostasis by innate immune cells.

    Kayama, Hisako; Nishimura, Junichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple innate immune cells have been shown to maintain gut homeostasis by preventing inadequate adaptive immune responses in the murine intestine. Additionally, several innate immune subsets, which promote Th1 and Th17 responses and are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, have recently been identified in the human intestinal mucosa. The demonstration of both murine and human intestinal innate immune subsets contributing to regulation of adaptive immunity emphasizes the conserved innate immune functions across species and might promote development of the intestinal innate immunity-based clinical therapy.

  17. Serotonin 2c receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate energy and glucose homeostasis

    Energy and glucose homeostasis are regulated by central serotonin 2C receptors. These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor-expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor a...

  18. P53-dependent antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of trichostatin A (TSA) in glioblastoma cells.

    Bajbouj, K; Mawrin, C; Hartig, R; Schulze-Luehrmann, J; Wilisch-Neumann, A; Roessner, A; Schneider-Stock, R

    2012-05-01

    Glioblastomas are known to be highly chemoresistant, but HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been shown to be of therapeutic relevance for this aggressive tumor type. We treated U87 glioblastoma cells with trichostatin A (TSA) to define potential epigenetic targets for HDACi-mediated antitumor effects. Using a cDNA array analysis covering 96 cell cycle genes, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1) was identified as the major player in TSA-induced cell cycle arrest. TSA slightly inhibited proliferation and viability of U87 cells, cumulating in a G1/S cell cycle arrest. This effect was accompanied by a significant up-regulation of p53 and its transcriptional target p21(WAF1) and by down-regulation of key G1/S regulators, such as cdk4, cdk6, and cyclin D1. Nevertheless, TSA did not induce apoptosis in U87 cells. As expected, TSA promoted the accumulation of total acetylated histones H3 and H4 and a decrease in endogenous HDAC activity. Characterizing the chromatin modulation around the p21(WAF1) promoter after TSA treatment using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found (1) a release of HDAC1, (2) an increase of acetylated H4 binding, and (3) enhanced recruitment of p53. p53-depleted U87 cells showed an abrogation of the G1/S arrest and re-entered the cell cycle. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that TSA induced the nuclear translocation of p21(WAF1) verifying a cell cycle arrest. On the other hand, a significant portion of p21(WAF1) was present in the cytoplasmic compartment causing apoptosis resistance. Furthermore, TSA-treated p53-mutant cell line U138 failed to show an induction in p21(WAF1), showed a deficient G2/M checkpoint, and underwent mitotic catastrophe. We suggest that HDAC inhibition in combination with other clinically used drugs may be considered an effective strategy to overcome chemoresistance in glioblastoma cells.

  19. Bioprinting cell-laden matrigel for radioprotection study of liver by pro-drug conversion in a dual-tissue microfluidic chip

    Snyder, J E; Hamid, Q; Wang, C; Chang, R; Sun, W; Emami, K; Wu, H

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a novel cell printing and microfluidic system to serve as a portable ground model for the study of drug conversion and radiation protection of living liver tissue analogs. The system is applied to study behavior in ground models of space stress, particularly radiation. A microfluidic environment is engineered by two cell types to prepare an improved higher fidelity in vitro micro-liver tissue analog. Cell-laden Matrigel printing and microfluidic chips were used to test radiation shielding to liver cells by the pro-drug amifostine. In this work, the sealed microfluidic chip regulates three variables of interest: radiation exposure, anti-radiation drug treatment and single- or dual-tissue culture environments. This application is intended to obtain a scientific understanding of the response of the multi-cellular biological system for long-term manned space exploration, disease models and biosensors.

  20. Bioprinting cell-laden matrigel for radioprotection study of liver by pro-drug conversion in a dual-tissue microfluidic chip

    Snyder, J E; Hamid, Q; Wang, C; Chang, R; Sun, W [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Emami, K; Wu, H, E-mail: sunwei@drexel.edu, E-mail: weisun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Radiation Biophysics Lab, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77586 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a novel cell printing and microfluidic system to serve as a portable ground model for the study of drug conversion and radiation protection of living liver tissue analogs. The system is applied to study behavior in ground models of space stress, particularly radiation. A microfluidic environment is engineered by two cell types to prepare an improved higher fidelity in vitro micro-liver tissue analog. Cell-laden Matrigel printing and microfluidic chips were used to test radiation shielding to liver cells by the pro-drug amifostine. In this work, the sealed microfluidic chip regulates three variables of interest: radiation exposure, anti-radiation drug treatment and single- or dual-tissue culture environments. This application is intended to obtain a scientific understanding of the response of the multi-cellular biological system for long-term manned space exploration, disease models and biosensors.

  1. Regulation of NKT Cell Localization in Homeostasis and Infection

    Slauenwhite, Drew; Johnston, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a specialized subset of T lymphocytes that regulate immune responses in the context of autoimmunity, cancer, and microbial infection. Lipid antigens derived from bacteria, parasites, and fungi can be presented by CD1d molecules and recognized by the canonical T cell receptors on NKT cells. Alternatively, NKT cells can be activated through recognition of self-lipids and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines generated during infection. Unlike conventional T cells, only a small subset of NKT cells traffic through the lymph nodes under homeostatic conditions, with the largest NKT cell populations localizing to the liver, lungs, spleen, and bone marrow. This is thought to be mediated by differences in chemokine receptor expression profiles. However, the impact of infection on the tissue localization and function of NKT remains largely unstudied. This review focuses on the mechanisms mediating the establishment of peripheral NKT cell populations during homeostasis and how tissue localization of NKT cells is affected during infection. PMID:26074921

  2. Regulation of NKT Cell Localization in Homeostasis and Infection.

    Slauenwhite, Drew; Johnston, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a specialized subset of T lymphocytes that regulate immune responses in the context of autoimmunity, cancer, and microbial infection. Lipid antigens derived from bacteria, parasites, and fungi can be presented by CD1d molecules and recognized by the canonical T cell receptors on NKT cells. Alternatively, NKT cells can be activated through recognition of self-lipids and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines generated during infection. Unlike conventional T cells, only a small subset of NKT cells traffic through the lymph nodes under homeostatic conditions, with the largest NKT cell populations localizing to the liver, lungs, spleen, and bone marrow. This is thought to be mediated by differences in chemokine receptor expression profiles. However, the impact of infection on the tissue localization and function of NKT remains largely unstudied. This review focuses on the mechanisms mediating the establishment of peripheral NKT cell populations during homeostasis and how tissue localization of NKT cells is affected during infection.

  3. Polyphenols of virgin coconut oil prevent pro-oxidant mediated cell death.

    Illam, Soorya Parathodi; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2017-07-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO), extracted from the fresh coconut kernel, is a food supplement enriched with medium chain saturated fatty acids and polyphenolic antioxidants. It is reported to have several health benefits including lipid lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The pharmacological benefits of VCO have been attributed to its polyphenol content (VCOP), the mechanistic basis of which is less explored. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) analysis of VCOP documented the presence of gallic acid, ferulic acid (FA), quercetin, methyl catechin, dihydrokaempferol and myricetin glycoside. Pre-treatment of VCOP at different concentrations (25-100 μg/mL) significantly reduced the H 2 O 2 and 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced cell death in HCT-15 cells. Giving further insight to its mechanistic basis, oxidative stress induced alterations in glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of GR (Glutathione-Reductase), GPx (Glutathione-Peroxidase), GST (Glutathione-S-Transferase) and catalase (CAT) were restored to near-normal by VCOP, concomitantly reducing lipid peroxidation. The efficacy of VCOP was similar to that of Trolox and FA added in culture. The study thus suggests that VCOP protects cells from pro-oxidant insults by modulating cellular antioxidant status.

  4. NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide levels and the risk of death in the cooperative study of sickle cell disease.

    Machado, Roberto F; Hildesheim, Mariana; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Remaley, Alan T; Kato, Gregory J; Gladwin, Mark T

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiological studies support a hypothesis that pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) that is associated with a high risk of death and evolves as a complication of haemolytic anaemia. This fundamental hypothesis has been recently challenged and remains controversial. In order to further test this hypothesis in a large and independent cohort of SCD patients we obtained plasma samples from the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) for analysis of a biomarker, N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), which is elevated in the setting of pulmonary arterial and venous hypertension. A NT-pro-BNP value previously identified to predict PH in adults with SCD was used to determine the association between the risk of mortality in 758 CSSCD participants (428 children and 330 adults). An abnormally high NT-proBNP level ≥160ng/l was present in 27·6% of adult SCD patients. High levels were associated with markers of haemolytic anaemia, such as low haemoglobin level (P<0·001), high lactate dehydrogenase (P<0·001), and high total bilirubin levels (P<0·007). A NT-proBNP level ≥160ng/l was an independent predictor of mortality (RR 6·24, 95% CI 2·9-13·3, P<0·0001). These findings provide further support for an association between haemolytic anaemia and cardiovascular complications in this patient population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Modification Machinery Deficiency Is Responsible for the Formation of Pro-Prion Protein (PrP) in BxPC-3 Protein and Increases Cancer Cell Motility*

    Yang, Liheng; Gao, Zhenxing; Hu, Lipeng; Wu, Guiru; Yang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhu, Ying; Wong, Boon-Seng; Xin, Wei; Sy, Man-Sun; Li, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The normal cellular prion protein (PrP) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface glycoprotein. However, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines, such as BxPC-3, PrP exists as a pro-PrP retaining its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) peptide signaling sequence. Here, we report the identification of another pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line, AsPC-1, which expresses a mature GPI-anchored PrP. Comparison of the 24 genes involved in the GPI anchor modification pathway between AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 revealed 15 of the 24 genes, including PGAP1 and PIG-F, were down-regulated in the latter cells. We also identified six missense mutations in DPM2, PIG-C, PIG-N, and PIG-P alongside eight silent mutations. When BxPC-3 cells were fused with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which lack endogenous PrP, pro-PrP was successfully converted into mature GPI-anchored PrP. Expression of the individual gene, such as PGAP1, PIG-F, or PIG-C, into BxPC-3 cells does not result in phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C sensitivity of PrP. However, when PIG-F but not PIG-P is expressed in PGAP1-expressing BxPC-3 cells, PrP on the surface of the cells becomes phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-sensitive. Thus, low expression of PIG-F and PGAP1 is the major factor contributing to the accumulation of pro-PrP. More importantly, BxPC-3 cells expressing GPI-anchored PrP migrate much slower than BxPC-3 cells bearing pro-PrP. In addition, GPI-anchored PrP-bearing AsPC-1 cells also migrate slower than pro-PrP bearing BxPC-3 cells, although both cells express filamin A. “Knocking out” PRNP in BxPC-3 cell drastically reduces its migration. Collectively, these results show that multiple gene irregularity in BxPC-3 cells is responsible for the formation of pro-PrP, and binding of pro-PrP to filamin A contributes to enhanced tumor cell motility. PMID:26683373

  6. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Modification Machinery Deficiency Is Responsible for the Formation of Pro-Prion Protein (PrP) in BxPC-3 Protein and Increases Cancer Cell Motility.

    Yang, Liheng; Gao, Zhenxing; Hu, Lipeng; Wu, Guiru; Yang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhu, Ying; Wong, Boon-Seng; Xin, Wei; Sy, Man-Sun; Li, Chaoyang

    2016-02-19

    The normal cellular prion protein (PrP) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface glycoprotein. However, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines, such as BxPC-3, PrP exists as a pro-PrP retaining its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) peptide signaling sequence. Here, we report the identification of another pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line, AsPC-1, which expresses a mature GPI-anchored PrP. Comparison of the 24 genes involved in the GPI anchor modification pathway between AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 revealed 15 of the 24 genes, including PGAP1 and PIG-F, were down-regulated in the latter cells. We also identified six missense mutations in DPM2, PIG-C, PIG-N, and PIG-P alongside eight silent mutations. When BxPC-3 cells were fused with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which lack endogenous PrP, pro-PrP was successfully converted into mature GPI-anchored PrP. Expression of the individual gene, such as PGAP1, PIG-F, or PIG-C, into BxPC-3 cells does not result in phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C sensitivity of PrP. However, when PIG-F but not PIG-P is expressed in PGAP1-expressing BxPC-3 cells, PrP on the surface of the cells becomes phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-sensitive. Thus, low expression of PIG-F and PGAP1 is the major factor contributing to the accumulation of pro-PrP. More importantly, BxPC-3 cells expressing GPI-anchored PrP migrate much slower than BxPC-3 cells bearing pro-PrP. In addition, GPI-anchored PrP-bearing AsPC-1 cells also migrate slower than pro-PrP bearing BxPC-3 cells, although both cells express filamin A. "Knocking out" PRNP in BxPC-3 cell drastically reduces its migration. Collectively, these results show that multiple gene irregularity in BxPC-3 cells is responsible for the formation of pro-PrP, and binding of pro-PrP to filamin A contributes to enhanced tumor cell motility. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Materials as stem cell regulators

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

  8. Pro-dopamine regulator, KB220Z, attenuates hoarding and shopping behavior in a female, diagnosed with SUD and ADHD.

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Blum, Kenneth; Steinberg, Bruce; Modestino, Edward J; Fried, Lyle; Baron, David; Siwicki, David; Braverman, Eric R; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2018-03-01

    Background Addictive-like behaviors (e.g., hoarding and shopping) may be the result of the cumulative effects of dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter genetic variants as well as elevated stress levels. We, therefore, propose that dopamine homeostasis may be the preferred goal in combating such challenging and unwanted behaviors, when simple dopaminergic activation through potent agonists may not provide any resolution. Case presentation C.J. is a 38-year-old, single, female, living with her mother. She has a history of substance use disorder as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type. She had been stable on buprenorphine/naloxone combination and amphetamine, dextroamphetamine mixed salts for many years when unexpectedly she lost her job for oversleeping and not calling into work. KB200z (a pro-dopamine compound) was added to her regimen for complaints of low drive and motivation. After taking this nutraceutical for 4 weeks, she noticed a marked improvement in her mental status and many behaviors. She noted that her shopping and hoarding addictions had appreciably decreased. Furthermore, her lifelong history of terrifying lucid dreams was eliminated. Finally, she felt more in control; her locus of control shifted from external to more internal. Discussion The hypothesis is that C.J.'s reported, behavioral, and psychological benefits resulted from the pro-dopamine-regulating effect of KB220Z across the brain reward system. Conclusions This effect, we surmise, could be the result of a new dopamine balance, across C.J.'s brain reward system. Dopamine homeostasis is an effect of KB220Z seen in both animal and human placebo-controlled fMRI experiments.

  9. AKT activation drives the nuclear localization of CSE1L and a pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation in ovarian cancer cells

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Biolatti, Marta [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Institute for Cancer Research at Candiolo, Candiolo, Torino (Italy); Delogu, Giuseppe [Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Capobianco, Giampiero [Department of Surgical, Microsurgical and Medical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Farace, Cristiano [Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Dessole, Salvatore; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco [Department of Surgical, Microsurgical and Medical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Madeddu, Roberto [Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Rome (Italy); Olivero, Martina [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Institute for Cancer Research at Candiolo, Candiolo, Torino (Italy); Di Renzo, Maria Flavia, E-mail: mariaflavia.direnzo@unito.it [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Institute for Cancer Research at Candiolo, Candiolo, Torino (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    The human homolog of the yeast cse1 gene (CSE1L) is over-expressed in ovarian cancer. CSE1L forms complex with Ran and importin-α and has roles in nucleocytoplasmic traffic and gene expression. CSE1L accumulated in the nucleus of ovarian cancer cell lines, while it was localized also in the cytoplasm of other cancer cell lines. Nuclear localization depended on AKT, which was constitutively active in ovarian cancer cells, as the CSE1L protein translocated to the cytoplasm when AKT was inactivated. Moreover, the expression of a constitutively active AKT forced the translocation of CSE1L from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in other cancer cells. Nuclear accrual of CSE1L was associated to the nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated Ran Binding protein 3 (RanBP3), which depended on AKT as well. Also in samples of human ovarian cancer, AKT activation was associated to nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and phosphorylation of RanBP3. Expression profiling of ovarian cancer cells after CSE1L silencing showed that CSE1L was required for the expression of genes promoting invasion and metastasis. In agreement, CSE1L silencing impaired motility and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Altogether these data show that in ovarian cancer cells activated AKT by affecting RanBP3 phosphorylation determines the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and likely the nuclear concentration of transcription factors conveying pro-oncogenic signals. - highlights: • CSE1L is a key player in nucleocytoplasmic traffic by forming complex with Ran. • AKT phosphorylates RanBP3 that regulates the nucleocytoplasmic gradient of Ran. • The activated oncogenic AKT drives the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L. • CSE1L in the nucleus up-regulates genes conveying pro-oncogenic signals. • CSE1L might contribute to tumor progression driven by the activated oncogenic AKT.

  10. AKT activation drives the nuclear localization of CSE1L and a pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation in ovarian cancer cells

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Biolatti, Marta; Delogu, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Giampiero; Farace, Cristiano; Dessole, Salvatore; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco; Madeddu, Roberto; Olivero, Martina; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2013-01-01

    The human homolog of the yeast cse1 gene (CSE1L) is over-expressed in ovarian cancer. CSE1L forms complex with Ran and importin-α and has roles in nucleocytoplasmic traffic and gene expression. CSE1L accumulated in the nucleus of ovarian cancer cell lines, while it was localized also in the cytoplasm of other cancer cell lines. Nuclear localization depended on AKT, which was constitutively active in ovarian cancer cells, as the CSE1L protein translocated to the cytoplasm when AKT was inactivated. Moreover, the expression of a constitutively active AKT forced the translocation of CSE1L from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in other cancer cells. Nuclear accrual of CSE1L was associated to the nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated Ran Binding protein 3 (RanBP3), which depended on AKT as well. Also in samples of human ovarian cancer, AKT activation was associated to nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and phosphorylation of RanBP3. Expression profiling of ovarian cancer cells after CSE1L silencing showed that CSE1L was required for the expression of genes promoting invasion and metastasis. In agreement, CSE1L silencing impaired motility and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Altogether these data show that in ovarian cancer cells activated AKT by affecting RanBP3 phosphorylation determines the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and likely the nuclear concentration of transcription factors conveying pro-oncogenic signals. - highlights: • CSE1L is a key player in nucleocytoplasmic traffic by forming complex with Ran. • AKT phosphorylates RanBP3 that regulates the nucleocytoplasmic gradient of Ran. • The activated oncogenic AKT drives the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L. • CSE1L in the nucleus up-regulates genes conveying pro-oncogenic signals. • CSE1L might contribute to tumor progression driven by the activated oncogenic AKT

  11. miR-488 determines coat pigmentation by down-regulating the pigment-producing gene pro-opiomelanocortin.

    Wang, H; Ma, S; Xue, L; Li, Y; Wang, J; He, X; Zhu, Z; Dong, C

    2016-10-31

    Coat color is a key economic trait in wool- and fur-producing animals. Coat color is controlled by complex mechanisms. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a gene involved in pigment formation. Previous studies suggested that miR-488 might target the POMC mRNA. This study aimed to determine whether miR-488 could affect coat color by regulating POMC and to explore the regulatory roles of miR-488 on coat color in mammals. A dual fluorescence report vector containing the 3'-UTR of POMC was built to determine whether miR-488 could post-transcriptionally regulate POMC expression. Then, a eukaryotic vector expressing miR-488 was built and transfected into mouse keratinocytes to confirm the regulatory mechanism in vitro. Compared with gray mice, the expression of POMC mRNA was 3.36-fold higher in black mice and 1.29-fold higher in brown mice. The results showed that miR-488 could control mice coat color by combining with the 3'-UTR seed sequence of POMC mRNA to achieve the degradation of POMC mRNA, therefore playing a role in POMC expression. This study revealed the roles of miR-488 in animal coat color and enriches our knowledge about the determination of coat color in mammals.

  12. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Promotes Pro-Glycolytic Metabolic Perturbations Required for Transformation.

    Christian Berrios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV is an etiological agent of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, a highly aggressive skin cancer. The MCPyV small tumor antigen (ST is required for maintenance of MCC and can transform normal cells. To gain insight into cellular perturbations induced by MCPyV ST, we performed transcriptome analysis of normal human fibroblasts with inducible expression of ST. MCPyV ST dynamically alters the cellular transcriptome with increased levels of glycolytic genes, including the monocarboxylate lactate transporter SLC16A1 (MCT1. Extracellular flux analysis revealed increased lactate export reflecting elevated aerobic glycolysis in ST expressing cells. Inhibition of MCT1 activity suppressed the growth of MCC cell lines and impaired MCPyV-dependent transformation of IMR90 cells. Both NF-κB and MYC have been shown to regulate MCT1 expression. While MYC was required for MCT1 induction, MCPyV-induced MCT1 levels decreased following knockdown of the NF-κB subunit RelA, supporting a synergistic activity between MCPyV and MYC in regulating MCT1 levels. Several MCC lines had high levels of MYCL and MYCN but not MYC. Increased levels of MYCL was more effective than MYC or MYCN in increasing extracellular acidification in MCC cells. Our results demonstrate the effects of MCPyV ST on the cellular transcriptome and reveal that transformation is dependent, at least in part, on elevated aerobic glycolysis.

  13. Impact of cycling cells and cell cycle regulation on Hydra regeneration.

    Buzgariu, Wanda; Wenger, Yvan; Tcaciuc, Nina; Catunda-Lemos, Ana-Paula; Galliot, Brigitte

    2018-01-15

    Hydra tissues are made from three distinct populations of stem cells that continuously cycle and pause in G2 instead of G1. To characterize the role of cell proliferation after mid-gastric bisection, we have (i) used flow cytometry and classical markers to monitor cell cycle modulations, (ii) quantified the transcriptomic regulations of 202 genes associated with cell proliferation during head and foot regeneration, and (iii) compared the impact of anti-proliferative treatments on regeneration efficiency. We confirm two previously reported events: an early mitotic wave in head-regenerating tips, when few cell cycle genes are up-regulated, and an early-late wave of proliferation on the second day, preceded by the up-regulation of 17 cell cycle genes. These regulations appear more intense after mid-gastric bisection than after decapitation, suggesting a position-dependent regulation of cell proliferation during head regeneration. Hydroxyurea, which blocks S-phase progression, delays head regeneration when applied before but not after bisection. This result is consistent with the fact that the Hydra central region is enriched in G2-paused adult stem cells, poised to divide upon injury, thus forming a necessary constitutive pro-blastema. However a prolonged exposure to hydroxyurea does not block regeneration as cells can differentiate apical structures without traversing S-phase, and also escape in few days the hydroxyurea-induced S-phase blockade. Thus Hydra head regeneration, which is a fast event, is highly plastic, relying on large stocks of adult stem cells paused in G2 at amputation time, which immediately divide to proliferate and/or differentiate apical structures even when S-phase is blocked. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sub-apoptotic dosages of pro-oxidant vitamin cocktails sensitize human melanoma cells to NK cell lysis.

    Tremante, Elisa; Santarelli, Lory; Lo Monaco, Elisa; Sampaoli, Camilla; Ingegnere, Tiziano; Guerrieri, Roberto; Tomasetti, Marco; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2015-10-13

    Alpha-tocopheryl succinate (αTOS), vitamin K3 (VK3) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) were previously shown to synergistically promote different death pathways in carcinoma cells, depending on their concentrations and combinations. Similar effects were observed herein in melanoma cells, although αTOS behaved as an antagonist. Interestingly, suboptimal cell death-inducing concentrations (1.5 μM αTOS/20 μM AA/0.2 μM VK3) effectively up-regulated activating Natural Killer (NK) cell ligands, including MICA (the stress-signaling ligand of the NKG2D receptor), and/or the ligands of at least one of the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46) in 5/6 melanoma cell lines. Only an isolated MICA down-regulation was seen. HLA class I, HLA class II, ULBP1, ULBP2, ULBP3, Nectin-2, and PVR displayed little, if any, change in expression. Ligand up-regulation resulted in improved lysis by polyclonal NK cells armed with the corresponding activating receptors. These results provide the first evidence for concerted induction of cell death by cell-autonomous and extrinsic (immune) mechanisms. Alarming the immune system much below the cell damage threshold may have evolved as a sensitive readout of neoplastic transformation and oxidative stress. Cocktails of vitamin analogues at slightly supra-physiological dosages may find application as mild complements of melanoma treatment, and in chemoprevention.

  15. TGF{beta} induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    Ebi, Masahide [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Hiromi, E-mail: hkataoka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Higashiyama, Shigeki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} TGF{beta} induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. {yields} TGF{beta} induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. {yields} TGF{beta} enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. {yields} Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGF{beta}. {yields} ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGF{beta}-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGF{beta} inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGF{beta} and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGF{beta}. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGF{beta} was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGF{beta} was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGF{beta}-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGF{beta} induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to

  16. TGFβ induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    Ebi, Masahide; Kataoka, Hiromi; Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → TGFβ induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. → TGFβ induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. → TGFβ enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. → Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGFβ. → ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGFβ-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGFβ inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGFβ and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGFβ. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGFβ was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGFβ was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGFβ-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGFβ induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to translocate to the nucleus. ADAM inhibitors blocked this nuclear translocation. TGF

  17. [Merkel cell carcinoma: cutaneous manifestation of a highly malignant pre-/pro-B cell neoplasia? : Novel concept about the cellular origin of Merkel cell carcinoma].

    Sauer, C M; Chteinberg, E; Rennspiess, D; Kurz, A K; Zur Hausen, A

    2017-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a relatively rare but highly malignant non-melanoma skin cancer of the elderly and immunosuppressed patients. The discovery of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in 2008 significantly impacted the understanding of the etiopathogenesis of MCC. MCPyV is clonally integrated into the MCC genome and approximately 80% of MCC are MCPyV-positive. Recent results of clinical trials using blockade of the PD-1 immune modulatory pathway are promising for the future treatment of MCC. Despite this major progress of the past few years, the cellular origin of MCC still remains obscure. Based on histomorphology, gene expression profiling, and molecular analyses, we have recently hypothesized that MCC originates from pre‑/pro-B cells. Here we review putative cells of MCC, including Merkel cells, (epi‑)dermal stem cells, and pro‑/pre-B cells. In the present work, the focus is on the concept of pre‑/pro-B cells as the cellular origin of MCC, which might also impact the understanding of other human small cell malignancies of unknown cellular origin, such as small cell carcinomas of the lung and other anatomical locations. In addition, this concept might pave the way for novel treatment options, especially for advanced MCC.

  18. ProP Is Required for the Survival of Desiccated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Cells on a Stainless Steel Surface

    Finn, Sarah; Händler, Kristian; Condell, Orla; Colgan, Aoife; Cooney, Shane; McClure, Peter; Amézquita, Aléjandro; Hinton, Jay C. D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers trust commercial food production to be safe, and it is important to strive to improve food safety at every level. Several outbreaks of food-borne disease have been caused by Salmonella strains associated with dried food. Currently we do not know the mechanisms used by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to survive in desiccated environments. The aim of this study was to discover the responses of S. Typhimurium ST4/74 at the transcriptional level to desiccation on a stainless steel surface and to subsequent rehydration. Bacterial cells were dried onto the same steel surfaces used during the production of dry foods, and RNA was recovered for transcriptomic analysis. Subsequently, dried cells were rehydrated and were again used for transcriptomic analysis. A total of 266 genes were differentially expressed under desiccation stress compared with a static broth culture. The osmoprotectant transporters proP, proU, and osmU (STM1491 to STM1494) were highly upregulated by drying. Deletion of any one of these transport systems resulted in a reduction in the long-term viability of S. Typhimurium on a stainless steel food contact surface. The proP gene was critical for survival; proP deletion mutants could not survive desiccation for long periods and were undetectable after 4 weeks. Following rehydration, 138 genes were differentially expressed, with upregulation observed for genes such as proP, proU, and the phosphate transport genes (pstACS). In time, this knowledge should prove valuable for understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in pathogen survival and should lead to improved methods for control to ensure the safety of intermediate- and low-moisture foods. PMID:23666329

  19. Regulatory T Cells and Pro-inflammatory Responses Predominate in Children with Tuberculosis

    Elizabeth Whittaker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFollowing infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, children are more susceptible to develop disease particularly extrapulmonary disease than adults. The exact mechanisms required for containment of M.tb are not known, but would be important to identify correlates of protection.ObjectiveTo comprehensively analyze key immune responses to mycobacteria between HIV-negative children with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB compared to children with pulmonary TB (PTB or healthy controls.MethodsWhole blood was stimulated in vitro with mycobacteria for 24 h or 6 days to induce effector and memory responses. CD4, CD8, γδ, regulatory T cells, and their related cytokines were measured. Samples of children with tuberculosis (TB disease were analyzed both at time of diagnosis and at the end of TB treatment to determine if any differences were due to TB disease or an underlying host phenotype.ResultsSeventy-six children with TB disease (48 with PTB and 28 with EPTB and 83 healthy controls were recruited to the study. The frequency of CD4+CD25+CD39+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and secreted IL10 were significantly higher in children with TB compared to healthy controls. IFNγ-, IL17-, and IL22-producing γδ T cells, IL22-producing CD4+ T cells and secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, IL1β, and TNFα were significantly lower in children with TB disease compared to healthy controls. IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells and Ki67+-proliferating CD4+ T cells, however, were present in equal numbers in both groups. Following treatment, these immune parameters recovered to “healthy” levels or greater in children with PTB, but not those with extrapulmonary TB.ConclusionIn children with TB disease, a predominantly immune regulatory state is present. These immune findings do not distinguish between children with PTB and EPTB at the time of diagnosis. Following treatment, these inflammatory responses recover in PTB, suggesting that the effect is disease

  20. Use of SLAM and PVRL4 and identification of pro-HB-EGF as cell entry receptors for wild type phocine distemper virus.

    Mary M Melia

    Full Text Available Signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM has been identified as an immune cell receptor for the morbilliviruses, measles (MV, canine distemper (CDV, rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV viruses, while CD46 is a receptor for vaccine strains of MV. More recently poliovirus like receptor 4 (PVRL4, also known as nectin 4, has been identified as a receptor for MV, CDV and PPRV on the basolateral surface of polarised epithelial cells. PVRL4 is also up-regulated by MV in human brain endothelial cells. Utilisation of PVRL4 as a receptor by phocine distemper virus (PDV remains to be demonstrated as well as confirmation of use of SLAM. We have observed that unlike wild type (wt MV or wtCDV, wtPDV strains replicate in African green monkey kidney Vero cells without prior adaptation, suggesting the use of a further receptor. We therefore examined candidate molecules, glycosaminoglycans (GAG and the tetraspan proteins, integrin β and the membrane bound form of heparin binding epithelial growth factor (proHB-EGF,for receptor usage by wtPDV in Vero cells. We show that wtPDV replicates in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells expressing SLAM and PVRL4. Similar wtPDV titres are produced in Vero and VeroSLAM cells but more limited fusion occurs in the latter. Infection of Vero cells was not inhibited by anti-CD46 antibody. Removal/disruption of GAG decreased fusion but not the titre of virus. Treatment with anti-integrin β antibody increased rather than decreased infection of Vero cells by wtPDV. However, infection was inhibited by antibody to HB-EGF and the virus replicated in CHO-proHB-EGF cells, indicating use of this molecule as a receptor. Common use of SLAM and PVRL4 by morbilliviruses increases the possibility of cross-species infection. Lack of a requirement for wtPDV adaptation to Vero cells raises the possibility of usage of proHB-EGF as a receptor in vivo but requires further investigation.

  1. Epithelial cell pro-inflammatory cytokine response differs across dental plaque bacterial species.

    Stathopoulou, Panagiota G; Benakanakere, Manjunatha R; Galicia, Johnah C; Kinane, Denis F

    2010-01-01

    The dental plaque is comprised of numerous bacterial species, which may or may not be pathogenic. Human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) respond to perturbation by various bacteria of the dental plaque by production of different levels of inflammatory cytokines, which is a putative reflection of their virulence. The aim of the current study was to determine responses in terms of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 secretion induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus gordonii in order to gauge their virulence potential. HGECs were challenged with the four bacterial species, live or heat killed, at various multiplicity of infections and the elicited IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 responses were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primary HGECs challenged with live P. gingivalis produced high levels of IL-1beta, while challenge with live A. actinomycetemcomitans gave high levels of IL-8. The opportunistic pathogen F. nucleatum induces the highest levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while the commensal S. gordonii is the least stimulatory. We conclude that various dental plaque biofilm bacteria induce different cytokine response profiles in primary HGECs that may reflect their individual virulence or commensal status.

  2. Immune regulation by mast cells

    Suurmond, Jolien

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this PhD thesis is to understand mast cell (and basophil) functions and their role in autoimmune disease by focusing on three main aims: 1. To characterize the interaction between innate and Fc receptor triggers on mast cell and basophil function 2. To analyze the interaction

  3. Pro-inflammatory effects and oxidative stress in lung macrophages and epithelial cells induced by ambient particulate matter.

    Michael, S; Montag, M; Dott, W

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the toxicological effects of different source-related ambient PM10 samples in regard to their chemical composition. In this context we investigated airborne PM from different sites in Aachen, Germany. For the toxicological investigation human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) and murine macrophages (RAW264.7) were exposed from 0 to 96 h to increasing PM concentrations (0-100 μg/ml) followed by analyses of cell viability, pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. The chemical analysis of these particles indicated the presence of 21 elements, water-soluble ions and PAHs. The toxicological investigations of the PM10 samples demonstrated a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability and an increase in pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell Cycle Regulation of Stem Cells by MicroRNAs.

    Mens, Michelle M J; Ghanbari, Mohsen

    2018-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. They are involved in the fine-tuning of fundamental biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis in many cell types. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. Several miRNAs have been suggested to target transcripts that directly or indirectly coordinate the cell cycle progression of stem cells. Moreover, previous studies have shown that altered expression levels of miRNAs can contribute to pathological conditions, such as cancer, due to the loss of cell cycle regulation. However, the precise mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated regulation of cell cycle in stem cells is still incompletely understood. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of miRNAs regulatory role in cell cycle progression of stem cells. We describe how specific miRNAs may control cell cycle associated molecules and checkpoints in embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells. We further outline how these miRNAs could be regulated to influence cell cycle progression in stem cells as a potential clinical application.

  5. Microvesicles released from fat-laden cells promote activation of hepatocellular NLRP3 inflammasome: A pro-inflammatory link between lipotoxicity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Stefania Cannito

    Full Text Available Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD is a major form of chronic liver disease in the general population in relation to its high prevalence among overweight/obese individuals and patients with diabetes type II or metabolic syndrome. NAFLD can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis and end-stage of liver disease but mechanisms involved are still incompletely characterized. Within the mechanisms proposed to mediate the progression of NAFLD, lipotoxicity is believed to play a major role. In the present study we provide data suggesting that microvesicles (MVs released by fat-laden cells undergoing lipotoxicity can activate NLRP3 inflammasome following internalization by either cells of hepatocellular origin or macrophages. Inflammasome activation involves NF-kB-mediated up-regulation of NLRP3, pro-caspase-1 and pro-Interleukin-1, then inflammasome complex formation and Caspase-1 activation leading finally to an increased release of IL-1β. Since the release of MVs from lipotoxic cells and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome have been reported to occur in vivo in either clinical or experimental NASH, these data suggest a novel rational link between lipotoxicity and increased inflammatory response.

  6. Do mechanical strain and TNF-α interact to amplify pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human annulus fibrosus cells?

    Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Torre, Olivia M; Gruen, Jadry; Walter, Benjamin A; Hecht, Andrew C; Iatridis, James C

    2016-05-03

    During intervertebral disc (IVD) injury and degeneration, annulus fibrosus (AF) cells experience large mechanical strains in a pro-inflammatory milieu. We hypothesized that TNF-α, an initiator of IVD inflammation, modifies AF cell mechanobiology via cytoskeletal changes, and interacts with mechanical strain to enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Human AF cells (N=5, Thompson grades 2-4) were stretched uniaxially on collagen-I coated chambers to 0%, 5% (physiological) or 15% (pathologic) strains at 0.5Hz for 24h under hypoxic conditions with or without TNF-α (10ng/mL). AF cells were treated with anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6. ELISA assessed IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 production and immunocytochemistry measured F-actin, vinculin and α-tubulin in AF cells. TNF-α significantly increased AF cell pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared to basal conditions (IL-1β:2.0±1.4-84.0±77.3, IL-6:10.6±9.9-280.9±214.1, IL-8:23.9±26.0-5125.1±4170.8pg/ml for basal and TNF-α treatment, respectively) as expected, but mechanical strain did not. Pathologic strain in combination with TNF-α increased IL-1β, and IL-8 but not IL-6 production of AF cells. TNF-α treatment altered F-actin and α-tubulin in AF cells, suggestive of altered cytoskeletal stiffness. Anti-TNF-α (infliximab) significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production while anti-IL-6 (atlizumab) did not. In conclusion, TNF-α altered AF cell mechanobiology with cytoskeletal remodeling that potentially sensitized AF cells to mechanical strain and increased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results suggest an interaction between TNF-α and mechanical strain and future mechanistic studies are required to validate these observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IGF-1 attenuates LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) granulosa cells.

    Onnureddy, K; Ravinder; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2015-03-01

    Interaction between immune and endocrine system is a diverse process influencing cellular function and homeostasis in animals. Negative energy balance (NEB) during postpartum period in dairy animals usually suppresses these systems resulting in reproductive tract infection and infertility. These negative effects could be due to competition among endocrine and immune signaling pathways for common signaling molecules. The present work studied the effect of IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) on LPS (1 μg/ml) mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes' expressions as well as proliferation of buffalo granulosa cells. The crosstalk between LPS and IGF-1 was also demonstrated through studying the activities of downstream signaling molecules (ERK1/2, Akt, NF-κB) by western blot and immunostaining. Gene expression analysis showed that IGF-1 significantly reduced the LPS induced expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. LPS alone inhibited the CYP19A1 expression. However, co-treatment with IGF-1 reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on CYP19A1 expression. LPS alone did not affect granulosa cell proliferation, but co-treatment with IGF-1, and IGF-1 alone enhanced the proliferation. Western blot results demonstrated that LPS caused the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB and increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt maximum at 15 min and 60 min, respectively. Nonetheless, co-treatment with IGF-1 delayed LPS induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (peak at 120 min), while promoting early Akt phosphorylation (peak at 5 min) with no effect on NF-κB translocation. Overall, IGF-1 delayed and reversed the effects of LPS, suggesting that high IGF-1 levels may combat infection during critical periods like NEB in postpartum dairy animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A potential pro-anagogic cell therapy with human placenta-derived mesenchymal cells

    Nishishita, Toshihide; Ouchi, Kunie; Zhang, Xiaohong; Inoue, Mariko; Inazawa, Takeshi; Yoshiura, Kenta; Kuwabara, Koichiro; Nakaoka, Takashi; Watanabe, Nobukazu; Igura, Koichi; Takahashi, Tsuneo A.; Yamashita, Naohide

    2004-01-01

    Recently several strategies to treat ischemic diseases have been proposed but the ideal way has to be determined. We explored whether human placenta-derived mesenchymal cells (hPDMCs) can be used for this purpose because placenta is very rich in vessels. First, production of human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF) from hPDMCs was examined. The amount of hVEGF secreted by hPDMCs was similar to the amount produced by HeLa cells. hVEGF was barely detected in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (hUVECs) or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. hVEGF secreted from hPDMCs stimulated the proliferation of hUVECs, indicating its biological activity. Transplantation of hPDMCs to the ischemic limbs of NOD/Shi-scid mice significantly improved the blood flow of the affected limbs. Blood vessel formation was more prominently observed in the limbs of treated mice as compared to the control mice. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that hPDMCs produced hVEGF for at least 7 days after transplantation. Thus, transplantation of hPDMCs could potentially be a promising treatment for human ischemic diseases

  9. Cell Size Regulation in Bacteria

    Amir, Ariel

    2014-05-01

    Various bacteria such as the canonical gram negative Escherichia coli or the well-studied gram positive Bacillus subtilis divide symmetrically after they approximately double their volume. Their size at division is not constant, but is typically distributed over a narrow range. Here, we propose an analytically tractable model for cell size control, and calculate the cell size and interdivision time distributions, as well as the correlations between these variables. We suggest ways of extracting the model parameters from experimental data, and show that existing data for E. coli supports partial size control, and a particular explanation: a cell attempts to add a constant volume from the time of initiation of DNA replication to the next initiation event. This hypothesis accounts for the experimentally observed correlations between mother and daughter cells as well as the exponential dependence of size on growth rate.

  10. Cell fate regulation in the shoot meristem.

    Laux, T; Mayer, K F

    1998-04-01

    The shoot meristem is a proliferative centre containing pluripotent stem cells that are the ultimate source of all cells and organs continuously added to the growing shoot. The progeny of the stem cells have two developmental options, either to renew the stem cell population or to leave the meristem and to differentiate, possibly according to signals from more mature tissue. The destiny of each cell depends on its position within the dynamic shoot meristem. Genetic data suggest a simple model in which graded positional information is provided by antagonistic gene functions and is interpreted by genes which regulate cell fate.

  11. Biophysical regulation of stem cell differentiation.

    Govey, Peter M; Loiselle, Alayna E; Donahue, Henry J

    2013-06-01

    Bone adaptation to its mechanical environment, from embryonic through adult life, is thought to be the product of increased osteoblastic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. In parallel with tissue-scale loading, these heterogeneous populations of multipotent stem cells are subject to a variety of biophysical cues within their native microenvironments. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-the most broadly studied source of osteoblastic progenitors-undergo osteoblastic differentiation in vitro in response to biophysical signals, including hydrostatic pressure, fluid flow and accompanying shear stress, substrate strain and stiffness, substrate topography, and electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, stem cells may be subject to indirect regulation by mechano-sensing osteocytes positioned to more readily detect these same loading-induced signals within the bone matrix. Such paracrine and juxtacrine regulation of differentiation by osteocytes occurs in vitro. Further studies are needed to confirm both direct and indirect mechanisms of biophysical regulation within the in vivo stem cell niche.

  12. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...... organisms. Importantly, cell volume impacts on a wide array of physiological processes, including transepithelial transport; cell migration, proliferation, and death; and changes in cell volume function as specific signals regulating these processes. A discussion of this issue concludes the review.......The ability to control cell volume is pivotal for cell function. Cell volume perturbation elicits a wide array of signaling events, leading to protective (e.g., cytoskeletal rearrangement) and adaptive (e.g., altered expression of osmolyte transporters and heat shock proteins) measures and, in most...

  13. Regulation of the cell cycle by irradiation

    Akashi, Makoto

    1995-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of cell proliferation is extremely complex; deregulation results in neoplastic transformation. In eukaryotes, proliferation of cells is finely regulated through the cell cycle. Studies have shown that the cell cycle is regulated by s series of enzymes known as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The activities of CDKs are controlled by their association with regulatory subunits, cyclins; the expression of cyclins and the activation of the different cyclin-CDK complexes are required for the cell to cycle. Thus, the cell cycle is regulated by activating and inhibiting phosphorylation of the CDK subunits and this program has internal check points at different stages of the cell cycle. When cells are exposed to external insults such as DNA damaging agents, negative regulation of the cell cycle occurs; arrest in either G1 or G2 stage is induced to prevent the cells from prematurely entering into the next stage before DNA is repaired. Recently, a potent inhibitor of CDKs, which inhibits the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma susceptibility (Rb) gene product by cyclin A-CDK2, cyclin E-CDK2, cyclin D1-CDK4, and cyclin D2-CDK4 complexes has been identified. This protein named WAF1, Sdi1, Cip1, or p21 (a protein of Mr 21,000) contains a p53-binding site in its promoter and studies have reported that the expression of WAF1 was directly regulated by p53; cells with loss of p53 activity due to mutational alteration were unable to induce WAF1. This chapter will be focused on the mechanisms of the cell cycle including inhibitors of CDKs, and the induction of WAF1 by irradiation through a pathway independent of p53 will be also described. (author)

  14. Activated factor X signaling via protease-activated receptor 2 suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production from LPS-stimulated myeloid cells.

    Gleeson, Eimear M

    2013-07-19

    -associated protein-sensitive, protease-activated receptor 2-dependent regulator of myeloid cell pro-inflammatory cytokine production.

  15. Regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin by GIP in adipocytes – A role for the transcription factor NFAT and phosphodiesterase 3B

    Omar, Bilal; Banke, Elin; Guirguis, Emilia; Aakesson, Lina; Manganiello, Vincent; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Groop, Leif; Gomez, Maria F.; Degerman, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► GIP stimulates lipogenesis and osteopontin expression in primary adipocytes. ► GIP-induced osteopontin expression is NFAT-dependent. ► Osteopontin expression is PDE3-dependent. ► Osteopontin expression is increased in PDE3B KO mice. -- Abstract: The incretin – glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) – and the pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin are known to have important roles in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. In this work we show that GIP stimulates lipogenesis and osteopontin expression in primary adipocytes. The GIP-induced increase in osteopontin expression was inhibited by the NFAT (the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells) inhibitor A-285222. Also, the NFAT kinase glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3 was upregulated by GIP. To test whether cAMP might be involved in GIP-mediated effects on osteopontin a number of strategies were used. Thus, the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 stimulated osteopontin expression, an effects which was mimicked by OPC3911, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3. Furthermore, treatment of phosphodiesterase 3B knock-out mice with CL316,243 resulted in a dramatic upregulation of osteopontin in adipose tissue which was not the case in wild-type mice. In summary, we delineate mechanisms by which GIP stimulates osteopontin in adipocytes. Given the established link between osteopontin and insulin resistance, our data suggest that GIP by stimulating osteopontin expression, also could promote insulin resistance in adipocytes.

  16. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  17. T cell activation inhibitors reduce CD8+ T cell and pro-inflammatory macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of obese mice.

    Vince N Montes

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue inflammation and specifically, pro-inflammatory macrophages are believed to contribute to insulin resistance (IR in obesity in humans and animal models. Recent studies have invoked T cells in the recruitment of pro-inflammatory macrophages and the development of IR. To test the role of the T cell response in adipose tissue of mice fed an obesogenic diet, we used two agents (CTLA-4 Ig and anti-CD40L antibody that block co-stimulation, which is essential for full T cell activation. C57BL/6 mice were fed an obesogenic diet for 16 weeks, and concomitantly either treated with CTLA-4 Ig, anti-CD40L antibody or an IgG control (300 µg/week. The treatments altered the immune cell composition of adipose tissue in obese mice. Treated mice demonstrated a marked reduction in pro-inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages and activated CD8+ T cells. Mice treated with anti-CD40L exhibited reduced weight gain, which was accompanied by a trend toward improved IR. CTLA-4 Ig treatment, however, was not associated with improved IR. These data suggest that the presence of pro-inflammatory T cells and macrophages can be altered with co-stimulatory inhibitors, but may not be a significant contributor to the whole body IR phenotype.

  18. Lsd1 regulates skeletal muscle regeneration and directs the fate of satellite cells.

    Tosic, Milica; Allen, Anita; Willmann, Dominica; Lepper, Christoph; Kim, Johnny; Duteil, Delphine; Schüle, Roland

    2018-01-25

    Satellite cells are muscle stem cells required for muscle regeneration upon damage. Of note, satellite cells are bipotent and have the capacity to differentiate not only into skeletal myocytes, but also into brown adipocytes. Epigenetic mechanisms regulating fate decision and differentiation of satellite cells during muscle regeneration are not yet fully understood. Here, we show that elevated levels of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Kdm1a, also known as Lsd1) have a beneficial effect on muscle regeneration and recovery after injury, since Lsd1 directly regulates key myogenic transcription factor genes. Importantly, selective Lsd1 ablation or inhibition in Pax7-positive satellite cells, not only delays muscle regeneration, but changes cell fate towards brown adipocytes. Lsd1 prevents brown adipocyte differentiation of satellite cells by repressing expression of the novel pro-adipogenic transcription factor Glis1. Together, downregulation of Glis1 and upregulation of the muscle-specific transcription program ensure physiological muscle regeneration.

  19. Lipids in the cell: organisation regulates function.

    Santos, Ana L; Preta, Giulio

    2018-06-01

    Lipids are fundamental building blocks of all cells and play important roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The lipid composition of different organelles can vary substantially from cell to cell, but increasing evidence demonstrates that lipids become organised specifically in each compartment, and this organisation is essential for regulating cell function. For example, lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, are platforms for concentrating protein receptors and can influence intra-cellular signalling. Lipid organisation is tightly regulated and can be observed across different model organisms, including bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that lipid organisation is evolutionarily conserved. In this review, we summarise the importance and function of specific lipid domains in main cellular organelles and discuss recent advances that investigate how these specific and highly regulated structures contribute to diverse biological processes.

  20. CD54-Mediated Interaction with Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Increases the Immunosuppressive Function of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Espagnolle, Nicolas; Balguerie, Ad?lie; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Senseb?, Luc; Varin, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) sense and modulate inflammation and represent potential clinical treatment for immune disorders. However, many details of the bidirectional interaction of MSCs and the innate immune compartment are still unsolved. Here we describe an unconventional but functional interaction between pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages (M1MΦ) and MSCs, with CD54 playing a central role. CD54 was upregulated and enriched specifically at the contact area be...

  1. Pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus cells increases production of matrix metalloproteinases and additional catabolic factors involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis

    Stone, Austin V.; Loeser, Richard F.; Vanderman, Kadie S.; Long, David L.; Clark, Stephanie C.; Ferguson, Cristin M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Meniscus injury increases the risk of osteoarthritis; however, the biologic mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus would increase production of matrix-degrading enzymes, cytokines and chemokines which cause joint tissue destruction and could contribute to osteoarthritis development. Design Meniscus and cartilage tissue from healthy tissue donors and total knee arthroplasties was cultured. Primary cell cultures were stimulated with pro-inflammatory factors [IL-1β, IL-6, or fibronectin fragments (FnF)] and cellular responses were analyzed by real-time PCR, protein arrays and immunoblots. To determine if NF-κB was required for MMP production, meniscus cultures were treated with inflammatory factors with and without the NF-κB inhibitor, hypoestoxide. Results Normal and osteoarthritic meniscus cells increased their MMP secretion in response to stimulation, but specific patterns emerged that were unique to each stimulus with the greatest number of MMPs expressed in response to FnF. Meniscus collagen and connective tissue growth factor gene expression was reduced. Expression of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6), chemokines (IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2, CSF1) and components of the NF-κB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family were significantly increased. Cytokine and chemokine protein production was also increased by stimulation. When primary cell cultures were treated with hypoestoxide in conjunction with pro-inflammatory stimulation, p65 activation was reduced as were MMP-1 and MMP-3 production. Conclusions Pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus cells increased matrix metalloproteinase production and catabolic gene expression. The meniscus could have an active biologic role in osteoarthritis development following joint injury through increased production of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix-degrading enzymes. PMID:24315792

  2. Regulation of cell cycle progression by cell-cell and cell-matrix forces

    Uroz, Marina; Wistorf, Sabrina; Serra-Picamal, Xavier; Conte, Vito; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Guimerà, Roger; Trepat, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the cell cycle is regulated by physical forces at the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interfaces 1-12 . However, the evolution of these forces during the cycle has never been measured in a tissue, and whether this evolution affects cell cycle progression

  3. Unconventional Pro-inflammatory CD4+ T Cell Response in B Cell-Deficient Mice Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Melisa Gorosito Serrán

    2017-11-01

    to regulate TNF-producing CD4+ T cells since their absence favor the increase of the number of TNF+ CD4+ in T. cruzi-infected mice.

  4. Two cases of breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells: Are the osteoclastic giant cells pro-tumoural differentiation of macrophages?

    Shishido-Hara Yukiko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells (OGCs is characterized by multinucleated OGCs, and usually displays inflammatory hypervascular stroma. OGCs may derive from tumor-associated macrophages, but their nature remains controversial. We report two cases, in which OGCs appear in common microenvironment despite different tumoural histology. A 44-year-old woman (Case 1 had OGCs accompanying invasive ductal carcinoma, and an 83-year-old woman (Case 2 with carcinosarcoma. Immunohistochemically, in both cases, tumoural and non-tumoural cells strongly expressed VEGF and MMP12, which promote macrophage migration and angiogenesis. The Chalkley count on CD-31-stained sections revealed elevated angiogenesis in both cases. The OGCs expressed bone-osteoclast markers (MMP9, TRAP, cathepsin K and a histiocyte marker (CD68, but not an MHC class II antigen, HLA-DR. The results indicate a pathogenesis: regardless of tumoural histology, OGCs derive from macrophages, likely in response to hypervascular microenvironments with secretion of common cytokines. The OGCs have acquired bone-osteoclast-like characteristics, but lost antigen presentation abilities as an anti-cancer defense. Appearance of OGCs may not be anti-tumoural immunological reactions, but rather pro-tumoural differentiation of macrophage responding to hypervascular microenvironments induced by breast cancer.

  5. Cysteine Cathepsins as Regulators of the Cytotoxicity of NK and T Cells

    Perišić Nanut, Milica; Sabotič, Jerica; Jewett, Anahid; Kos, Janko

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are lysosomal peptidases involved at different levels in the processes of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Some, such as cathepsins B, L, and H are expressed constitutively in most immune cells. In cells of innate immunity they play a role in cell adhesion and phagocytosis. Other cysteine cathepsins are expressed more specifically. Cathepsin X promotes dendritic cell maturation, adhesion of macrophages, and migration of T cells. Cathepsin S is implicated in major histocompatibility complex class II antigen presentation, whereas cathepsin C, expressed in cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, is involved in processing pro-granzymes into proteolytically active forms, which trigger cell death in their target cells. The activity of cysteine cathepsins is controlled by endogenous cystatins, cysteine protease inhibitors. Of these, cystatin F is the only cystatin that is localized in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles. After proteolytic removal of its N-terminal peptide, cystatin F becomes a potent inhibitor of cathepsin C with the potential to regulate pro-granzyme processing and cell cytotoxicity. This review is focused on the role of cysteine cathepsins and their inhibitors in the molecular mechanisms leading to the cytotoxic activity of T lymphocytes and NK cells in order to address new possibilities for regulation of their function in pathological processes. PMID:25520721

  6. Introduction of the human proα1(I) collagen gene into proα1(I)-deficient Mov-13 mouse cells leads to formation of functional mouse-human hybrid type I collagen

    Schnieke, A.; Dziadek, M.; Bateman, J.; Mascara, T.; Harbers, K.; Gelinas, R.; Jaenisch, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Mov-13 mouse strain carries a retroviral insertion in the proα1(I) collagen gene that prevents transcription of the gene. Cell lines derived from homozygous embryos do not express type I collagen although normal amounts of proα2 mRNA are synthesized. The authors have introduced genomic clones of either the human or mouse proα1(I) collagen gene into homozygous cell lines to assess whether the human or mouse proα1(I) chains can associate with the endogenous mouse proα2(I) chain to form stable type I collagen. The human gene under control of the simian virus 40 promoter was efficiently transcribed in the transfected cells. Protein analyses revealed that stable heterotrimers consisting of two human α1 chains and one mouse α2 chain were formed and that type I collagen was secreted by the transfected cells at normal rates. However, the electrophoretic migration of both α1(I) and α2(I) chains in the human-mouse hybrid molecules were retarded, compared to the α(I) chains in control mouse cells. Inhibition of the posttranslational hydroxylation of lysine and proline resulted in comigration of human and mouse α1 and α2 chains, suggesting that increased posttranslational modification caused the altered electrophoretic migration in the human-mouse hybrid molecules. Amino acid sequence differences between the mouse and human α chains may interfere with the normal rate of helix formation and increase the degree of posttranslational modifications similar to those observed in patients with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta. The Mov-13 mouse system should allow the authors to study the effect specific mutations introduced in transfected proα1(I) genes have on the synthesis, assembly, and function of collagen I

  7. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current IClswell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The IClswell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates IClswell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect IClswell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on

  8. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current ICl swell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The ICl swell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates ICl swell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect ICl swell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on ICl

  9. Regulation of stem cell factor expression in inflammation and asthma

    Carla A Da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell factor (SCF is a major mast cell growth factor, which could be involved in the local increase of mast cell number in the asthmatic airways. In vivo, SCF expression increases in asthmatic patients and this is reversed after treatment with glucocorticoids. In vitro in human lung fibroblasts in culture, IL-1beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, confirms this increased SCF mRNA and protein expression implying the MAP kinases p38 and ERK1/2 very early post-treatment, and glucocorticoids confirm this decrease. Surprisingly, glucocorticoids potentiate the IL-1beta-enhanced SCF expression at short term treatment, implying increased SCF mRNA stability and SCF gene transcription rate. This potentiation involves p38 and ERK1/2. Transfection experiments with the SCF promoter including intron1 also confirm this increase and decrease of SCF expression by IL-1beta and glucocorticoids, and the potentiation by glucocorticoids of the IL-1beta-induced SCF expression. Deletion of the GRE or kappaB sites abolishes this potentiation, and the effect of IL-1beta or glucocorticoids alone. DNA binding of GR and NF-kappaB are also demonstrated for these effects. In conclusion, this review concerns new mechanisms of regulation of SCF expression in inflammation that could lead to potential therapeutic strategy allowing to control mast cell number in the asthmatic airways.

  10. Dendritic cells regulate angiogenesis associated with liver fibrogenesis.

    Blois, Sandra M; Piccioni, Flavia; Freitag, Nancy; Tirado-González, Irene; Moschansky, Petra; Lloyd, Rodrigo; Hensel-Wiegel, Karin; Rose, Matthias; Garcia, Mariana G; Alaniz, Laura D; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    During liver fibrogenesis the immune response and angiogenesis process are fine-tuned resulting in activation of hepatic stellate cells that produce an excess of extracellular matrix proteins. Dendritic cells (DC) play a central role modulating the liver immunity and have recently been implicated to favour fibrosis regression; although their ability to influence the development of fibrogenesis is unknown. Therefore, we explored whether the depletion of DC during early stages of liver injury has an impact in the development of fibrogenesis. Using the CD11c.DTR transgenic mice, DC were depleted in two experimental models of fibrosis in vivo. The effect of anti-angiogenic therapy was tested during early stages of liver fibrogenesis. DC depletion accelerates the development of fibrosis and as a consequence, the angiogenesis process is boosted. We observed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic factors together with an enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) bioavailability, mainly evidenced by the decrease of anti-angiogenic VEGF receptor 1 (also known as sFlt-1) levels. Interestingly, fibrogenesis process enhanced the expression of Flt-1 on hepatic DC and administration of sFlt-1 was sufficient to abrogate the acceleration of fibrogenesis upon DC depletion. Thus, DC emerge as novel players during the development of liver fibrosis regulating the angiogenesis process and thereby influencing fibrogenesis.

  11. Tip cells: master regulators of tubulogenesis?

    Weavers, Helen; Skaer, Helen

    2014-07-01

    The normal development of an organ depends on the coordinated regulation of multiple cell activities. Focusing on tubulogenesis, we review the role of specialised cells or groups of cells that are selected from within tissue primordia and differentiate at the outgrowing tips or leading edge of developing tubules. Tip or leading cells develop distinctive patterns of gene expression that enable them to act both as sensors and transmitters of intercellular signalling. This enables them to explore the environment, respond to both tissue intrinsic signals and extrinsic cues from surrounding tissues and to regulate the behaviour of their neighbours, including the setting of cell fate, patterning cell division, inducing polarity and promoting cell movement and cell rearrangements by neighbour exchange. Tip cells are also able to transmit mechanical tension to promote tissue remodelling and, by interacting with the extracellular matrix, they can dictate migratory pathways and organ shape. Where separate tubular structures fuse to form networks, as in the airways of insects or the vascular system of vertebrates, specialised fusion tip cells act to interconnect disparate elements of the developing network. Finally, we consider their importance in the maturation of mature physiological function and in the development of disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Redox regulation of plant stem cell fate.

    Zeng, Jian; Dong, Zhicheng; Wu, Haijun; Tian, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-10-02

    Despite the importance of stem cells in plant and animal development, the common mechanisms of stem cell maintenance in both systems have remained elusive. Recently, the importance of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) signaling in priming stem cell differentiation has been extensively studied in animals. Here, we show that different forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have antagonistic roles in plant stem cell regulation, which were established by distinct spatiotemporal patterns of ROS-metabolizing enzymes. The superoxide anion (O2·-) is markedly enriched in stem cells to activate WUSCHEL and maintain stemness, whereas H 2 O 2 is more abundant in the differentiating peripheral zone to promote stem cell differentiation. Moreover, H 2 O 2 negatively regulates O2·- biosynthesis in stem cells, and increasing H 2 O 2 levels or scavenging O2·- leads to the termination of stem cells. Our results provide a mechanistic framework for ROS-mediated control of plant stem cell fate and demonstrate that the balance between O2·- and H 2 O 2 is key to stem cell maintenance and differentiation. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Developing a pro-regenerative biomaterial scaffold microenvironment requires T helper 2 cells.

    Sadtler, Kaitlyn; Estrellas, Kenneth; Allen, Brian W; Wolf, Matthew T; Fan, Hongni; Tam, Ada J; Patel, Chirag H; Luber, Brandon S; Wang, Hao; Wagner, Kathryn R; Powell, Jonathan D; Housseau, Franck; Pardoll, Drew M; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2016-04-15

    Immune-mediated tissue regeneration driven by a biomaterial scaffold is emerging as an innovative regenerative strategy to repair damaged tissues. We investigated how biomaterial scaffolds shape the immune microenvironment in traumatic muscle wounds to improve tissue regeneration. The scaffolds induced a pro-regenerative response, characterized by an mTOR/Rictor-dependent T helper 2 pathway that guides interleukin-4-dependent macrophage polarization, which is critical for functional muscle recovery. Manipulating the adaptive immune system using biomaterials engineering may support the development of therapies that promote both systemic and local pro-regenerative immune responses, ultimately stimulating tissue repair. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Matrix regulators in neural stem cell functions.

    Wade, Anna; McKinney, Andrew; Phillips, Joanna J

    2014-08-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) reside within a complex and dynamic extracellular microenvironment, or niche. This niche regulates fundamental aspects of their behavior during normal neural development and repair. Precise yet dynamic regulation of NSPC self-renewal, migration, and differentiation is critical and must persist over the life of an organism. In this review, we summarize some of the major components of the NSPC niche and provide examples of how cues from the extracellular matrix regulate NSPC behaviors. We use proteoglycans to illustrate the many diverse roles of the niche in providing temporal and spatial regulation of cellular behavior. The NSPC niche is comprised of multiple components that include; soluble ligands, such as growth factors, morphogens, chemokines, and neurotransmitters, the extracellular matrix, and cellular components. As illustrated by proteoglycans, a major component of the extracellular matrix, the NSPC, niche provides temporal and spatial regulation of NSPC behaviors. The factors that control NSPC behavior are vital to understand as we attempt to modulate normal neural development and repair. Furthermore, an improved understanding of how these factors regulate cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, crucial for malignancy, may reveal novel anti-tumor strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell volume regulation: physiology and pathophysiology

    Lambert, I H; Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2008-01-01

    are sensed are still far from clear, significant progress has been made with respect to the nature of the sensors, transducers and effectors that convert a change in cell volume into a physiological response. In the present review, we summarize recent major developments in the field, and emphasize......Cell volume perturbation initiates a wide array of intracellular signalling cascades, leading to protective and adaptive events and, in most cases, activation of volume-regulatory osmolyte transport, water loss, and hence restoration of cell volume and cellular function. Cell volume is challenged....../hypernatremia. On the other hand, it has recently become clear that an increase or reduction in cell volume can also serve as a specific signal in the regulation of physiological processes such as transepithelial transport, cell migration, proliferation and death. Although the mechanisms by which cell volume perturbations...

  16. Regulation of Murine Natural Killer Cell Commitment

    Nicholas D Huntington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells can derive from the same precursors as B and T cells, however to achieve lineage specificity, several transcription factors need to be activated or annulled. While a few important transcription factors have identified for NK genesis the mechanisms of how this is achieved is far from resolved. Adding to the complexity of this, NK cells are found and potentially develop in diverse locations in vivo and it remains to be addressed if a common NK cell precursor seeds diverse niches and how transcription factors may differentially regulate NK cell commitment in distinct microenvironments. Here we will summarise some recent findings in NK cell commitment and discuss how a NK cell transcriptional network might be organised, while addressing some misconceptions and anomalies along the way.

  17. Mast cell activators as novel immune regulators.

    Johnson-Weaver, Brandi; Choi, Hae Woong; Abraham, Soman N; Staats, Herman F

    2018-05-26

    Mast cells are an important cell type of the innate immune system that when activated, play a crucial role in generating protective innate host responses after bacterial and viral infection. Additionally, activated mast cells influence lymph node composition to regulate the induction of adaptive immune responses. The recognition that mast cells play a beneficial role in host responses to microbial infection and induction of adaptive immunity has provided the rationale to evaluate mast cell activators for use as antimicrobials or vaccine adjuvants. This review summarizes the role of mast cell activators in antimicrobial responses while also discussing the use of different classes of mast cell activators as potent vaccine adjuvants that enhance the induction of protective immune responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Photoreceptor Differentiation following Transplantation of Allogeneic Retinal Progenitor Cells to the Dystrophic Rhodopsin Pro347Leu Transgenic Pig

    Klassen, H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Warfvinge, K

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Transplantation of stem, progenitor, or precursor cells has resulted in photoreceptor replacement and evidence of functional efficacy in rodent models of retinal degeneration. Ongoing work has been directed toward the replication of these results in a large animal model, namely, the pig....... Methods. Retinal progenitor cells were derived from the neural retina of GFP-transgenic pigs and transplanted to the subretinal space of rhodopsin Pro347Leu-transgenic allorecipients, in the early stage of the degeneration and the absence of immune suppression. Results. Results confirm the survival...

  19. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development.

    Kelly, Melissa A; Hirschi, Karen K

    2009-05-01

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these studies. Using human embryonic stem cells as a model system, we were able to reproducibly and robustly generate differentiated endothelial cells via coculture on OP9 marrow stromal cells. We found that, in contrast to studies in the mouse, bFGF and VEGF had no specific effects on the initiation of human vasculogenesis. However, exogenous Ihh promoted endothelial cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased production of cells with cobblestone morphology that coexpress multiple endothelial-specific genes and proteins, form lumens, and exhibit DiI-AcLDL uptake. Inhibition of BMP signaling using Noggin or BMP4, specifically, using neutralizing antibodies suppressed endothelial cell formation; whereas, addition of rhBMP4 to cells treated with the hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine rescued endothelial cell development. Our studies revealed that Ihh promoted human endothelial cell differentiation from pluripotent hES cells via BMP signaling, providing novel insights applicable to modulating human endothelial cell formation and vascular regeneration for human clinical therapies.

  20. MiR-155 induction by F. novicida but not the virulent F. tularensis results in SHIP down-regulation and enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine response.

    Thomas J Cremer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularemia and is known for its ability to subvert host immune responses. Previous work from our laboratory identified the PI3K/Akt pathway and SHIP as critical modulators of host resistance to Francisella. Here, we show that SHIP expression is strongly down-regulated in monocytes and macrophages following infection with F. tularensis novicida (F.n.. To account for this negative regulation we explored the possibility that microRNAs (miRs that target SHIP may be induced during infection. There is one miR that is predicted to target SHIP, miR-155. We tested for induction and found that F.n. induced miR-155 both in primary monocytes/macrophages and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assays we confirmed that miR-155 led to down-regulation of SHIP, showing that it specifically targets the SHIP 3'UTR. Further experiments showed that miR-155 and BIC, the gene that encodes miR-155, were induced as early as four hours post-infection in primary human monocytes. This expression was dependent on TLR2/MyD88 and did not require inflammasome activation. Importantly, miR-155 positively regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine release in human monocytes infected with Francisella. In sharp contrast, we found that the highly virulent type A SCHU S4 strain of Francisella tularensis (F.t. led to a significantly lower miR-155 response than the less virulent F.n. Hence, F.n. induces miR-155 expression and leads to down-regulation of SHIP, resulting in enhanced pro-inflammatory responses. However, impaired miR-155 induction by SCHU S4 may help explain the lack of both SHIP down-regulation and pro-inflammatory response and may account for the virulence of Type A Francisella.

  1. Loss of a Single Mcl-1 Allele Inhibits MYC-Driven Lymphomagenesis by Sensitizing Pro-B Cells to Apoptosis

    Stephanie Grabow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MCL-1 is critical for progenitor cell survival during emergency hematopoiesis, but its role in sustaining cells undergoing transformation and in lymphomagenesis is only poorly understood. We investigated the importance of MCL-1 in the survival of B lymphoid progenitors undergoing MYC-driven transformation and its functional interactions with pro-apoptotic BIM and PUMA and the tumor suppressor p53 in lymphoma development. Loss of one Mcl-1 allele almost abrogated MYC-driven-lymphoma development owing to a reduction in lymphoma initiating pre-B cells. Although loss of the p53 target PUMA had minor impact, loss of one p53 allele substantially accelerated lymphoma development when MCL-1 was limiting, most likely because p53 loss also causes defects in non-apoptotic tumor suppressive processes. Remarkably, loss of BIM restored the survival of lymphoma initiating cells and rate of tumor development. Thus, MCL-1 has a major role in lymphoma initiating pro-B cells to oppose BIM, which is upregulated in response to oncogenic stress.

  2. Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Are Involved in Fluoride-Induced Cytotoxic Potential in HeLa Cells.

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Bian-Hua; Cao, Jian-Wen; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Wen-Peng; Tan, Pan-Pan

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokines and their involvement in the cytotoxic potential of fluoride (F) in HeLa cells. HeLa cells were cultured with varying F concentrations (1-50 mg/L) for 48 h, and treatment effects were analyzed. The viability of HeLa cells was determined with a colorimetric method. The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-a in culture supernatant were measured through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-a were subjected to transcript analysis and quantified through reverse transcription real-time PCR. Results showed that 10, 20 and 50 mg/L F significantly decreased the viability of HeLa cells incubated for 24 and 48 h. With their cytotoxic effect, the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-a decreased significantly in response to F, especially at 20 and 50 mg/L for 48 h. The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-a were downregulated at 50 mg/L F for 48 h. Therefore, F inhibited HeLa cell growth; as such, F could be used to alleviate the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression.

  3. Death Receptor-Induced Apoptosis Signalling Regulation by Ezrin Is Cell Type Dependent and Occurs in a DISC-Independent Manner in Colon Cancer Cells

    Iessi, Elisabetta; Zischler, Luciana; Etringer, Aurélie; Bergeret, Marion; Morlé, Aymeric; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Morizot, Alexandre; Shirley, Sarah; Lalaoui, Najoua; Elifio-Esposito, Selene L.; Fais, Stefano; Garrido, Carmen; Solary, Eric; Micheau, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Ezrin belongs to the ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin) protein family and has been demonstrated to regulate early steps of Fas receptor signalling in lymphoid cells, but its contribution to TRAIL-induced cell death regulation in adherent cancer cells remains unknown. In this study we report that regulation of FasL and TRAIL-induced cell death by ezrin is cell type dependant. Ezrin is a positive regulator of apoptosis in T-lymphoma cell line Jurkat, but a negative regulator in colon cancer cells. Using ezrin phosphorylation or actin-binding mutants, we provide evidence that negative regulation of death receptor-induced apoptosis by ezrin occurs in a cytoskeleton- and DISC-independent manner, in colon cancer cells. Remarkably, inhibition of apoptosis induced by these ligands was found to be tightly associated with regulation of ezrin phosphorylation on serine 66, the tumor suppressor gene WWOX and activation of PKA. Deficiency in WWOX expression in the liver cancer SK-HEP1 or the pancreatic Mia PaCa-2 cell lines as well as WWOX silencing or modulation of PKA activation by pharmacological regulators, in the colon cancer cell line SW480, abrogated regulation of TRAIL signalling by ezrin. Altogether our results show that death receptor pro-apoptotic signalling regulation by ezrin can occur downstream of the DISC in colon cancer cells. PMID:26010871

  4. Death Receptor-Induced Apoptosis Signalling Regulation by Ezrin Is Cell Type Dependent and Occurs in a DISC-Independent Manner in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Elisabetta Iessi

    Full Text Available Ezrin belongs to the ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin protein family and has been demonstrated to regulate early steps of Fas receptor signalling in lymphoid cells, but its contribution to TRAIL-induced cell death regulation in adherent cancer cells remains unknown. In this study we report that regulation of FasL and TRAIL-induced cell death by ezrin is cell type dependant. Ezrin is a positive regulator of apoptosis in T-lymphoma cell line Jurkat, but a negative regulator in colon cancer cells. Using ezrin phosphorylation or actin-binding mutants, we provide evidence that negative regulation of death receptor-induced apoptosis by ezrin occurs in a cytoskeleton- and DISC-independent manner, in colon cancer cells. Remarkably, inhibition of apoptosis induced by these ligands was found to be tightly associated with regulation of ezrin phosphorylation on serine 66, the tumor suppressor gene WWOX and activation of PKA. Deficiency in WWOX expression in the liver cancer SK-HEP1 or the pancreatic Mia PaCa-2 cell lines as well as WWOX silencing or modulation of PKA activation by pharmacological regulators, in the colon cancer cell line SW480, abrogated regulation of TRAIL signalling by ezrin. Altogether our results show that death receptor pro-apoptotic signalling regulation by ezrin can occur downstream of the DISC in colon cancer cells.

  5. Cell cycle regulation of hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells.

    Hao, Sha; Chen, Chen; Cheng, Tao

    2016-05-01

    The highly regulated process of blood production is achieved through the hierarchical organization of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subsets and their progenies, which differ in self-renewal and differentiation potential. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that cell cycle is tightly controlled by the complex interplay between extrinsic cues and intrinsic regulatory pathways involved in HSC self-renewal and differentiation. Deregulation of these cellular programs may transform HSCs or hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) into disease-initiating stem cells, and can result in hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemia. While previous studies have shown roles for some cell cycle regulators and related signaling pathways in HSCs and HPCs, a more complete picture regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying cell cycle regulation in HSCs or HPCs is lacking. Based on accumulated studies in this field, the present review introduces the basic components of the cell cycle machinery and discusses their major cellular networks that regulate the dormancy and cell cycle progression of HSCs. Knowledge on this topic would help researchers and clinicians to better understand the pathogenesis of relevant blood disorders and to develop new strategies for therapeutic manipulation of HSCs.

  6. The angiotensin-(1-7/Mas axis counteracts angiotensin II-dependent and –independent pro-inflammatory signaling in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    Laura A Villalobos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Targeting inflammation is nowadays considered as a challenging pharmacological strategy to prevent or delay the development of vascular diseases. Angiotensin-(1-7 is a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS that binds Mas receptors and has gained growing attention in the last years as a regulator of vascular homeostasis. Here, we explored the capacity of Ang-(1-7 to counteract human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC inflammation triggered by RAS-dependent and –independent stimuli, such as Ang II or interleukin (IL-1.Methods and Results: In cultured HASMC, the expression of iNOS and the release of nitric oxide were stimulated by both Ang II and IL-1, as determined by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence or the Griess method, respectively. iNOS induction was inhibited by Ang-(1-7 in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was equally blocked by two different Mas receptor antagonists, A779 and D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7, suggesting the participation of a unique Mas receptor subtype. Using pharmacological inhibitors, the induction of iNOS was proven to rely on the consecutive upstream activation of NADPH oxidase and NF-B. Indeed, Ang-(1-7 markedly inhibited the activation of the NADPH oxidase and subsequently of NF-B, as determined by lucigenin-derived chemiluminiscence and electromobility shift assay, respectively.Conclusion: Ang-(1-7 can act as a counter-regulator of the inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells triggered by Ang II, but also by other stimuli beyond the RAS. Activating or mimicking the Ang-(1-7/Mas axis may represent a pharmacological opportunity to attenuate the pro-inflammatory environment that promotes and sustains the development of vascular diseases.

  7. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  8. Inflammation determines the pro-adhesive properties of high extracellular d-glucose in human endothelial cells in vitro and rat microvessels in vivo.

    Verónica Azcutia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is acknowledged as an independent risk factor for developing diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. At present, most therapeutic approaches are targeted at a tight glycemic control in diabetic patients, although this fails to prevent macrovascular complications of the disease. Indeed, it remains highly controversial whether or not the mere elevation of extracellular D-glucose can directly promote vascular inflammation, which favors early pro-atherosclerotic events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present work, increasing extracellular D-glucose from 5.5 to 22 mmol/L was neither sufficient to induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 expression, analyzed by flow cytometry, nor to promote leukocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC in vitro, measured by flow chamber assays. Interestingly, the elevation of D-glucose levels potentiated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion induced by a pro-inflammatory stimulus, such as interleukin (IL-1beta (5 ng/mL. In HUVEC, high D-glucose augmented the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2 and nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB elicited by IL-1beta, measured by Western blot and electromobility shift assay (EMSA, respectively, but had no effect by itself. Both ERK 1/2 and NF-kappaB were necessary for VCAM-1 expression, but not for ICAM-1 expression. In vivo, leukocyte trafficking was evaluated in the rat mesenteric microcirculation by intravital microscopy. In accordance with the in vitro data, the acute intraperitoneal injection of D-glucose increased leukocyte rolling flux, adhesion and migration, but only when IL-1beta was co-administered. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the elevation of extracellular D-glucose levels is not sufficient to promote vascular inflammation, and they highlight the pivotal role of a pro-inflammatory environment in diabetes, as

  9. Redox regulation in cancer stem cells

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-dependent (redox regulation) signaling pathways and transcriptional activities are thought to be critical in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation during growth and organogenesis. Aberrant ROS burst and dysregulation of those ROS-dependent cellular processe...

  10. Pro-recombination role of Srs2 protein requires SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) but is independent of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) interaction

    Kolesar, Peter; Altmannova, Veronika; Pinela da Silva, Sonia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    of SIM in asrs2ΔPIMstrain leads to a decrease in recombination, indicating a pro-recombination role of SUMO. Thus SIM has an ambivalent function in Srs2 regulation; it not only mediates interaction with SUMO-PCNA to promote the anti-recombination function but it also plays a PCNA-independent pro......-recombination role, probably by stimulating the formation of recombination complexes. The fact that deletion of PIM suppresses the phenotypes of Srs2 lacking SIM suggests that proper balance between the anti-recombination PCNA-bound and pro-recombination pools of Srs2 is crucial. Notably, sumoylation of Srs2 itself...

  11. DNA damage, metabolism and aging in pro-inflammatory T cells: Rheumatoid arthritis as a model system.

    Li, Yinyin; Goronzy, Jörg J; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2018-05-01

    The aging process is the major driver of morbidity and mortality, steeply increasing the risk to succumb to cancer, cardiovascular disease, infection and neurodegeneration. Inflammation is a common denominator in age-related pathologies, identifying the immune system as a gatekeeper in aging overall. Among immune cells, T cells are long-lived and exposed to intense replication pressure, making them sensitive to aging-related abnormalities. In successful T cell aging, numbers of naïve cells, repertoire diversity and activation thresholds are preserved as long as possible; in maladaptive T cell aging, protective T cell functions decline and pro-inflammatory effector cells are enriched. Here, we review in the model system of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) how maladaptive T cell aging renders the host susceptible to chronic, tissue-damaging inflammation. In T cells from RA patients, known to be about 20years pre-aged, three interconnected functional domains are altered: DNA damage repair, metabolic activity generating energy and biosynthetic precursor molecules, and shaping of plasma membranes to promote T cell motility. In each of these domains, key molecules and pathways have now been identified, including the glycolytic enzymes PFKFB3 and G6PD; the DNA repair molecules ATM, DNA-PKcs and MRE11A; and the podosome marker protein TKS5. Some of these molecules may help in defining targetable pathways to slow the T cell aging process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pro-inflammatory effects and oxidative stress in lung macrophages and epithelial cells induced by ambient particulate matter

    Michael, S.; Montag, M.; Dott, W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the toxicological effects of different source-related ambient PM10 samples in regard to their chemical composition. In this context we investigated airborne PM from different sites in Aachen, Germany. For the toxicological investigation human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) and murine macrophages (RAW264.7) were exposed from 0 to 96 h to increasing PM concentrations (0–100 μg/ml) followed by analyses of cell viability, pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. The chemical analysis of these particles indicated the presence of 21 elements, water-soluble ions and PAHs. The toxicological investigations of the PM10 samples demonstrated a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability and an increase in pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. -- Highlights: ► The study compares the toxicological effects of different source-related particles with regard to their chemical composition. ► The chemical characterization of the coarse particles revealed clear differences in elemental, TC and PAH composition. ► Equal mass concentrations of urban traffic and rural PM caused different toxicological responses. ► The observations confirm the hypothesis that particle composition, as well as origin, influence the PM-induced toxicity. -- The toxicological responses of lung epithelial cells and macrophages differ significantly after an exposure to equal mass concentrations of urban traffic and rural PM

  13. Antioxidants inhibit SAA formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in a human cell model of alkaptonuria.

    Spreafico, Adriano; Millucci, Lia; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Amato, Loredana; Chellini, Federico; Frediani, Bruno; Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Bernardini, Giulia; Santucci, Annalisa

    2013-09-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultra-rare autosomal recessive disease that currently lacks an appropriate therapy. Recently we provided experimental evidence that AKU is a secondary serum amyloid A (SAA)-based amyloidosis. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of antioxidants to inhibit SAA amyloid and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in AKU. We adopted a human chondrocytic cell AKU model to evaluate the anti-amyloid capacity of a set of antioxidants that had previously been shown to counteract ochronosis in a serum AKU model. Amyloid presence was evaluated by Congo red staining. Homogentisic acid-induced SAA production and pro-inflammatory cytokine release (overexpressed in AKU patients) were evaluated by ELISA and multiplex systems, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by means of a fluorescence-based assay. Our AKU model allowed us to prove the efficacy of ascorbic acid combined with N-acetylcysteine, taurine, phytic acid and lipoic acid in significantly inhibiting SAA production, pro-inflammatory cytokine release and membrane lipid peroxidation. All the tested antioxidant compounds were able to reduce the production of amyloid and may be the basis for establishing new therapies for AKU amyloidosis.

  14. The regulation of apoptotic cell death

    Amarante-Mendes G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a fundamental biological phenomenon in which the death of a cell is genetically and biochemically regulated. Different molecules are involved in the regulation of the apoptotic process. Death receptors, coupled to distinct members of the caspases as well as other adapter molecules, are involved in the initiation of the stress signals (The Indictment. Members of the Bcl-2 family control at the mitochondrial level the decision between life and death (The Judgement. The effector caspases are responsible for all morphological and biochemical changes related to apoptosis including the "eat-me" signals perceived by phagocytes and neighboring cells (The Execution. Finally, apoptosis would have little biological significance without the recognition and removal of the dying cells (The Burial.

  15. Regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin by GIP in adipocytes - A role for the transcription factor NFAT and phosphodiesterase 3B

    Omar, Bilal [Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Biomedical Center, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Banke, Elin, E-mail: elin.banke@med.lu.se [Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Biomedical Center, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Guirguis, Emilia [Cardiovascular Pulmonary Branch, NHLBI, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Aakesson, Lina [Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Celiac Disease Unit, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Malmoe (Sweden); Manganiello, Vincent [Cardiovascular Pulmonary Branch, NHLBI, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lyssenko, Valeriya; Groop, Leif [Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Malmoe (Sweden); Gomez, Maria F. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Vascular ET Coupling, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Malmoe (Sweden); Degerman, Eva [Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Biomedical Center, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GIP stimulates lipogenesis and osteopontin expression in primary adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GIP-induced osteopontin expression is NFAT-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteopontin expression is PDE3-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteopontin expression is increased in PDE3B KO mice. -- Abstract: The incretin - glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) - and the pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin are known to have important roles in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. In this work we show that GIP stimulates lipogenesis and osteopontin expression in primary adipocytes. The GIP-induced increase in osteopontin expression was inhibited by the NFAT (the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells) inhibitor A-285222. Also, the NFAT kinase glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3 was upregulated by GIP. To test whether cAMP might be involved in GIP-mediated effects on osteopontin a number of strategies were used. Thus, the {beta}3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 stimulated osteopontin expression, an effects which was mimicked by OPC3911, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3. Furthermore, treatment of phosphodiesterase 3B knock-out mice with CL316,243 resulted in a dramatic upregulation of osteopontin in adipose tissue which was not the case in wild-type mice. In summary, we delineate mechanisms by which GIP stimulates osteopontin in adipocytes. Given the established link between osteopontin and insulin resistance, our data suggest that GIP by stimulating osteopontin expression, also could promote insulin resistance in adipocytes.

  16. p70S6 kinase signals cell survival as well as growth, inactivating the pro-apoptotic molecule BAD

    Harada, H; Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2001-01-01

    Cytokines often deliver simultaneous, yet distinct, cell growth and cell survival signals. The 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) is known to regulate cell growth by inducing protein synthesis components. We purified membrane-based p70S6K as a kinase responsible for site-specific phospho...

  17. Kefir-isolated bacteria and yeasts inhibit Shigella flexneri invasion and modulate pro-inflammatory response on intestinal epithelial cells.

    Bolla, P A; Abraham, A G; Pérez, P F; de Los Angeles Serradell, M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a kefir-isolated microbial mixture containing three bacterial and two yeast strains (MM) to protect intestinal epithelial cells against Shigella flexneri invasion, as well as to analyse the effect on pro-inflammatory response elicited by this pathogen. A significant decrease in S. flexneri strain 72 invasion was observed on both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells pre-incubated with MM. Pre-incubation with the individual strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae CIDCA 8112 or Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CIDCA 8221 also reduced the internalisation of S. flexneri into HT-29 cells although in a lesser extent than MM. Interestingly, Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114 exerted a protective effect on the invasion of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells by S. flexneri. Regarding the pro-inflammatory response on HT-29 cells, S. flexneri infection induced a significant activation of the expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) encoding genes (P<0.05), whereas incubation of cells with MM did not induce the expression of any of the mediators assessed. Interestingly, pre-incubation of HT-29 monolayer with MM produced an inhibition of S. flexneri-induced IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α mRNA expression. In order to gain insight on the effect of MM (or the individual strains) on this pro-inflammatory response, a series of experiments using a HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP reporter system were performed. Pre-incubation of HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP cells with MM significantly dampened Shigella-induced activation. Our results showed that the contribution of yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus CIDCA 8154 seems to be crucial in the observed effect. In conclusion, results presented in this study demonstrate that pre-treatment with a microbial mixture containing bacteria and yeasts isolated from kefir, resulted in inhibition of S. flexneri internalisation into human intestinal epithelial cells, along with the

  18. Dynamic ubiquitin signaling in cell cycle regulation.

    Gilberto, Samuel; Peter, Matthias

    2017-08-07

    The cell division cycle is driven by a collection of enzymes that coordinate DNA duplication and separation, ensuring that genomic information is faithfully and perpetually maintained. The activity of the effector proteins that perform and coordinate these biological processes oscillates by regulated expression and/or posttranslational modifications. Ubiquitylation is a cardinal cellular modification and is long known for driving cell cycle transitions. In this review, we emphasize emerging concepts of how ubiquitylation brings the necessary dynamicity and plasticity that underlie the processes of DNA replication and mitosis. New studies, often focusing on the regulation of chromosomal proteins like DNA polymerases or kinetochore kinases, are demonstrating that ubiquitylation is a versatile modification that can be used to fine-tune these cell cycle events, frequently through processes that do not involve proteasomal degradation. Understanding how the increasing variety of identified ubiquitin signals are transduced will allow us to develop a deeper mechanistic perception of how the multiple factors come together to faithfully propagate genomic information. Here, we discuss these and additional conceptual challenges that are currently under study toward understanding how ubiquitin governs cell cycle regulation. © 2017 Gilberto and Peter.

  19. Crosstalk between Bcl-2 family and Ras family small GTPases: potential cell fate regulation?

    Kang, Jia; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2013-01-01

    Cell fate regulation is a function of diverse cell signaling pathways that promote cell survival and or inhibit cell death execution. In this regard, the role of the Bcl-2 family in maintaining a tight balance between cell death and cell proliferation has been extensively studied. The conventional dogma links cell fate regulation by the Bcl-2 family to its effect on mitochondrial permeabilization and apoptosis amplification. However, recent evidence provide a novel mechanism for death regulation by the Bcl-2 family via modulating cellular redox metabolism. For example overexpression of Bcl-2 has been shown to contribute to a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu and down-regulation of cellular superoxide levels enhanced death sensitivity of Bcl-2 overexpressing cells. Interestingly, gene knockdown of the small GTPase Rac1 or pharmacological inhibition of its activity also reverted death phenotype in Bcl-2 expressing cells. This appears to be a function of an interaction between Bcl-2 and Rac1. Similar functional associations have been described between the Bcl-2 family and other members of the Ras superfamily. These interactions at the mitochondria provide novel opportunities for strategic therapeutic targeting of drug-resistant cancers.

  20. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia

    Stephen E Alway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell function that is impacted by the environment (niche of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia, and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration. While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function.

  1. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  2. Corticosteroid-Induced MKP-1 Represses Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion by Enhancing Activity of Tristetraprolin (TTP) in ASM Cells.

    Prabhala, Pavan; Bunge, Kristin; Ge, Qi; Ammit, Alaina J

    2016-10-01

    Exaggerated cytokine secretion drives pathogenesis of a number of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma. Anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapies, including corticosteroids, are front-line therapies and although they have proven clinical utility, the molecular mechanisms responsible for their actions are not fully understood. The corticosteroid-inducible gene, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase 1 (MKP-1, DUSP1) has emerged as a key molecule responsible for the repressive effects of steroids. MKP-1 is known to deactivate p38 MAPK phosphorylation and can control the expression and activity of the mRNA destabilizing protein-tristetraprolin (TTP). But whether corticosteroid-induced MKP-1 acts via p38 MAPK-mediated modulation of TTP function in a pivotal airway cell type, airway smooth muscle (ASM), was unknown. While pretreatment of ASM cells with the corticosteroid dexamethasone (preventative protocol) is known to reduce ASM synthetic function in vitro, the impact of adding dexamethasone after stimulation (therapeutic protocol) had not been explored. Whether dexamethasone modulates TTP in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner in this cell type was also unknown. We address this herein and utilize an in vitro model of asthmatic inflammation where ASM cells were stimulated with the pro-asthmatic cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the impact of adding dexamethasone 1 h after stimulation assessed. IL-6 mRNA expression and protein secretion was significantly repressed by dexamethasone acting in a temporally distinct manner to increase MKP-1, deactivate p38 MAPK, and modulate TTP phosphorylation status. In this way, dexamethasone-induced MKP-1 acts via p38 MAPK to switch on the mRNA destabilizing function of TTP to repress pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from ASM cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2153-2158, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Functional Consequences of Intracellular Proline Levels Manipulation Affecting PRODH/POX-Dependent Pro-Apoptotic Pathways in a Novel in Vitro Cell Culture Model.

    Zareba, Ilona; Surazynski, Arkadiusz; Chrusciel, Marcin; Miltyk, Wojciech; Doroszko, Milena; Rahman, Nafis; Palka, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The effect of impaired intracellular proline availability for proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX)-dependent apoptosis was studied. We generated a constitutively knocked-down PRODH/POX MCF-7 breast cancer cell line (MCF-7shPRODH/POX) as a model to analyze the functional consequences of impaired intracellular proline levels. We have used inhibitor of proline utilization in collagen biosynthesis, 2-metoxyestradiol (MOE), inhibitor of prolidase that generate proline, rapamycin (Rap) and glycyl-proline (GlyPro), substrate for prolidase. Collagen and DNA biosynthesis were evaluated by radiometric assays. Cell viability was determined using Nucleo-Counter NC-3000. The activity of prolidase was determined by colorimetric assay. Expression of proteins was assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescence bioimaging. Concentration of proline was analyzed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. PRODH/POX knockdown decreased DNA and collagen biosynthesis, whereas increased prolidase activity and intracellular proline level in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. All studied compounds decreased cell viability in MCF-7 and MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. DNA biosynthesis was similarly inhibited by Rap and MOE in both cell lines, but GlyPro inhibited the process only in MCF-7shPRODH/POX and MOE+GlyPro only in MCF-7 cells. All the compounds inhibited collagen biosynthesis, increased prolidase activity and cytoplasmic proline level in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells and contributed to the induction of pro-survival mode only in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. In contrast, all studied compounds upregulated expression of pro-apoptotic protein only in MCF-7 cells. PRODH/POX was confirmed as a driver of apoptosis and proved the eligibility of MCF-7shPRODH/POX cell line as a highly effective model to elucidate the different mechanisms underlying proline utilization or generation in PRODH/POX-dependent pro-apoptotic pathways. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. CD54-Mediated Interaction with Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Increases the Immunosuppressive Function of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Nicolas Espagnolle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs sense and modulate inflammation and represent potential clinical treatment for immune disorders. However, many details of the bidirectional interaction of MSCs and the innate immune compartment are still unsolved. Here we describe an unconventional but functional interaction between pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages (M1MΦ and MSCs, with CD54 playing a central role. CD54 was upregulated and enriched specifically at the contact area between M1MФ and MSCs. Moreover, the specific interaction induced calcium signaling and increased the immunosuppressive capacities of MSCs dependent on CD54 mediation. Our data demonstrate that MSCs can detect an inflammatory microenvironment via a direct and physical interaction with innate immune cells. This finding opens different perspectives for MSC-based cell therapy. : Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are promising for cell-based therapy in inflammatory disorders by switching off the immune response. Varin and colleagues demonstrate that MSCs and inflammatory macrophages communicate via an unconventional but functional interaction that strongly increases the immunosuppressive capacities of MSCs. This new communication between the innate immune system and MSCs opens new perspectives for MSC-based cell therapy. Keywords: macrophages, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells, functional interaction, CD54, immunosuppression, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, cell therapy

  5. Bar represses dPax2 and decapentaplegic to regulate cell fate and morphogenetic cell death in Drosophila eye.

    Jongkyun Kang

    Full Text Available The coordinated regulation of cell fate and cell survival is crucial for normal pattern formation in developing organisms. In Drosophila compound eye development, crystalline arrays of hexagonal ommatidia are established by precise assembly of diverse cell types, including the photoreceptor cells, cone cells and interommatidial (IOM pigment cells. The molecular basis for controlling the number of cone and IOM pigment cells during ommatidial pattern formation is not well understood. Here we present evidence that BarH1 and BarH2 homeobox genes are essential for eye patterning by inhibiting excess cone cell differentiation and promoting programmed death of IOM cells. Specifically, we show that loss of Bar from the undifferentiated retinal precursor cells leads to ectopic expression of Prospero and dPax2, two transcription factors essential for cone cell specification, resulting in excess cone cell differentiation. We also show that loss of Bar causes ectopic expression of the TGFβ homolog Decapentaplegic (Dpp posterior to the morphogenetic furrow in the larval eye imaginal disc. The ectopic Dpp expression is not responsible for the formation of excess cone cells in Bar loss-of-function mutant eyes. Instead, it causes reduction in IOM cell death in the pupal stage by antagonizing the function of pro-apoptotic gene reaper. Taken together, this study suggests a novel regulatory mechanism in the control of developmental cell death in which the repression of Dpp by Bar in larval eye disc is essential for IOM cell death in pupal retina.

  6. Endothelium trans differentiated from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal cells promote tissue regeneration: potential role of soluble pro-angiogenic factors.

    Aguilera, Valeria; Briceño, Luis; Contreras, Hector; Lamperti, Liliana; Sepúlveda, Esperanza; Díaz-Perez, Francisca; León, Marcelo; Veas, Carlos; Maura, Rafael; Toledo, Jorge Roberto; Fernández, Paulina; Covarrubias, Ambart; Zuñiga, Felipe Andrés; Radojkovic, Claudia; Escudero, Carlos; Aguayo, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have a high capacity for trans-differentiation toward many adult cell types, including endothelial cells. Feto-placental tissue, such as Wharton's jelly is a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells with low immunogenic capacity; make them an excellent source of progenitor cells with a potential use for tissue repair. We evaluated whether administration of endothelial cells derived from mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly (hWMSCs) can accelerate tissue repair in vivo. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from human Wharton's jelly by digestion with collagenase type I. Endothelial trans-differentiation was induced for 14 (hWMSC-End14d) and 30 (hWMSC-End30d) days. Cell phenotyping was performed using mesenchymal (CD90, CD73, CD105) and endothelial (Tie-2, KDR, eNOS, ICAM-1) markers. Endothelial trans-differentiation was demonstrated by the expression of endothelial markers and their ability to synthesize nitric oxide (NO). hWMSCs can be differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes and endothelial cells. Moreover, these cells show high expression of CD73, CD90 and CD105 but low expression of endothelial markers prior to differentiation. hWMSCs-End express high levels of endothelial markers at 14 and 30 days of culture, and also they can synthesize NO. Injection of hWMSC-End30d in a mouse model of skin injury significantly accelerated wound healing compared with animals injected with undifferentiated hWMSC or injected with vehicle alone. These effects were also observed in animals that received conditioned media from hWMSC-End30d cultures. These results demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly can be cultured in vitro and trans-differentiated into endothelial cells. Differentiated hWMSC-End may promote neovascularization and tissue repair in vivo through the secretion of soluble pro-angiogenic factors.

  7. Redox regulation of stress signals: possible roles of dendritic stellate TRX producer cells (DST cell types).

    Yodoi, Junji; Nakamura, Hajime; Masutani, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is a 12 kDa protein with redox-active dithiol (Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys) in the active site. TRX is induced by a variety of stresses including viral infection and inflammation. The promoter sequences of the TRX gene contain a series of stress-responsive elements including ORE, ARE, XRE, CRE and SP-1. TRX promotes DNA binding of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p53. TRX interacts with target proteins modulating the activity of those proteins. We have identified TRX binding protein-2 (TBP-2), which was identical to vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 (VDUP1). Potential action of TBP-2/VDUP1 as a redox-sensitive tumor suppressor will be discussed. There is accumulating evidence for the involvement of TRX in the protection against infectious and inflammatory disorders. We will discuss the role of TRX-dependent redox regulation of the host defense mechanism, in particular its relation to the emerging concept of constitutive and/or inducible TRX on special cell types with dendritic and stellate morphology in the immune, endocrine and nervous systems, which we provisionally designate as dendritic stellate TRX producer cells (DST cell types).

  8. Tight regulation of a timed nuclear import wave of EKLF by PKCθ and FOE during Pro-E to Baso-E transition.

    Shyu, Yu-Chiau; Lee, Tung-Liang; Chen, Xin; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Wen, Shau-Ching; Liaw, Yi-Wei; Lu, Chi-Huan; Hsu, Po-Yen; Lu, Mu-Jie; Hwang, JauLang; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Hwang, Ming-Jing; Chen, Jim-Ray; Shen, Che-Kun James

    2014-02-24

    Erythropoiesis is a highly regulated process during which BFU-E are differentiated into RBCs through CFU-E, Pro-E, PolyCh-E, OrthoCh-E, and reticulocyte stages. Uniquely, most erythroid-specific genes are activated during the Pro-E to Baso-E transition. We show that a wave of nuclear import of the erythroid-specific transcription factor EKLF occurs during the Pro-E to Baso-E transition. We further demonstrate that this wave results from a series of finely tuned events, including timed activation of PKCθ, phosphorylation of EKLF at S68 by P-PKCθ(S676), and sumoylation of EKLF at K74. The latter EKLF modifications modulate its interactions with a cytoplasmic ankyrin-repeat-protein FOE and importinβ1, respectively. The role of FOE in the control of EKLF nuclear import is further supported by analysis of the subcellular distribution patterns of EKLF in FOE-knockout mice. This study reveals the regulatory mechanisms of the nuclear import of EKLF, which may also be utilized in the nuclear import of other factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Moojenactivase, a novel pro-coagulant PIIId metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, activates coagulation factors II and X and induces tissue factor up-regulation in leukocytes.

    Sartim, Marco A; Costa, Tassia R; Laure, Helen J; Espíndola, Milena S; Frantz, Fabiani G; Sorgi, Carlos A; Cintra, Adélia C O; Arantes, Eliane C; Faccioli, Lucia H; Rosa, José C; Sampaio, Suely V

    2016-05-01

    Coagulopathies following snakebite are triggered by pro-coagulant venom toxins, in which metalloproteases play a major role in envenomation-induced coagulation disorders by acting on coagulation cascade, platelet function and fibrinolysis. Considering this relevance, here we describe the isolation and biochemical characterization of moojenactivase (MooA), a metalloprotease from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, and investigate its involvement in hemostasis in vitro. MooA is a glycoprotein of 85,746.22 Da, member of the PIIId group of snake venom metalloproteases, composed of three linked disulfide-bonded chains: an N-glycosylated heavy chain, and two light chains. The venom protease induced human plasma clotting in vitro by activating on both blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin) and X, which in turn generated α-thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. Additionally, MooA induced expression of tissue factor (TF) on the membrane surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which led these cells to adopt pro-coagulant characteristics. MooA was also shown to be involved with production of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1, suggesting an association between MooA pro-inflammatory stimulation of PBMC and TF up-regulation. We also observed aggregation of washed platelets when in presence of MooA; however, the protease had no effect on fibrinolysis. Our findings show that MooA is a novel hemostatically active metalloprotease, which may lead to the development of coagulopathies during B. moojeni envenomation. Moreover, the metalloprotease may contribute to the development of new diagnostic tools and pharmacological approaches applied to hemostatic disorders.

  10. Induced migration of endothelial cells into 3D scaffolds by chemoattractants secreted by pro-inflammatory macrophages in situ.

    Li, Xuguang; Dai, Yuankun; Shen, Tao; Gao, Changyou

    2017-06-01

    Cell migration in scaffolds plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration, which can better mimic cell behaviors in vivo . In this study, a novel model has been proposed on controlling 3D cell migration in porous collagen-chitosan scaffolds with various pore structures under the stimulation of inflammatory cells to mimic the angiogenesis process. Endothelial cells (ECs) cultured atop the scaffolds in the Transwell molds which were placed into a well of a 24-well culture plate were promoted to migrate into the scaffolds by chemoattractants such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secreted by the pro-inflammatory macrophages incubated in the well culture plate. The phenotype of macrophages was mediated by 50 ng/ml interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 150-300 ng/ml). The cell migration depth had a positive correlation with LPS concentration, and thereby the TNF-α concentration. The ECs migrated easier to a deeper zone of the scaffolds prepared at - 10ºC (187 μm in pore diameter) than that at - 20ºC (108 μm in pore diameter) as well. The method provides a useful strategy to study the 3D cell migration, and is helpful to reveal the vascularization process during wound healing in the long run.

  11. Homeobox A7 increases cell proliferation by up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in human granulosa cells

    Yanase Toshihiko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeobox (HOX genes encode transcription factors, which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. The deregulation of HOX genes is frequently associated with human reproductive system disorders. However, knowledge regarding the role of HOX genes in human granulosa cells is limited. Methods To determine the role of HOXA7 in the regulation and associated mechanisms of cell proliferation in human granulosa cells, HOXA7 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expressions were examined in primary granulosa cells (hGCs, an immortalized human granulosa cell line, SVOG, and a granulosa tumor cell line, KGN, by real-time PCR and Western blotting. To manipulate the expression of HOXA7, the HOXA7 specific siRNA was used to knockdown HOXA7 in KGN. Conversely, HOXA7 was overexpressed in SVOG by transfection with the pcDNA3.1-HOAX7 vector. Cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. Results Our results show that HOXA7 and EGFR were overexpressed in KGN cells compared to hGCs and SVOG cells. Knockdown of HOXA7 in KGN cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and EGFR expression. Overexpression of HOXA7 in SVOG cells significantly promoted cell growth and EGFR expression. Moreover, the EGF-induced KGN proliferation was abrogated, and the activation of downstream signaling was diminished when HOXA7 was knocked down. Overexpression of HOXA7 in SVOG cells had an opposite effect. Conclusions Our present study reveals a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating granulosa cell proliferation via the regulation of EGFR. This finding contributes to the knowledge of the pro-proliferation effect of HOXA7 in granulosa cell growth and differentiation.

  12. Cell cycle regulation in human embryonic stem cells: links to adaptation to cell culture.

    Barta, Tomas; Dolezalova, Dasa; Holubcova, Zuzana; Hampl, Ales

    2013-03-01

    Cell cycle represents not only a tightly orchestrated mechanism of cell replication and cell division but it also plays an important role in regulation of cell fate decision. Particularly in the context of pluripotent stem cells or multipotent progenitor cells, regulation of cell fate decision is of paramount importance. It has been shown that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) show unique cell cycle characteristics, such as short doubling time due to abbreviated G1 phase; these properties change with the onset of differentiation. This review summarizes the current understanding of cell cycle regulation in hESCs. We discuss cell cycle properties as well as regulatory machinery governing cell cycle progression of undifferentiated hESCs. Additionally, we provide evidence that long-term culture of hESCs is accompanied by changes in cell cycle properties as well as configuration of several cell cycle regulatory molecules.

  13. Renal intercalated cells and blood pressure regulation

    Susan M. Wall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl⁻ absorption and HCO₃⁻ secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO₃ administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO₃⁻ secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, the role of pendrin in blood pressure regulation is likely of more physiological or clinical significance. Pendrin regulates blood pressure not only by mediating aldosterone-sensitive Cl⁻ absorption, but also by modulating the aldosterone response for epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC-mediated Na⁺ absorption. Pendrin regulates ENaC through changes in open channel of probability, channel surface density, and channels subunit total protein abundance. Thus, aldosterone stimulates ENaC activity through both direct and indirect effects, the latter occurring through its stimulation of pendrin expression and function. Therefore, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contributory role of pendrin in distal nephron function and blood pressure.

  14. Cholesterol and phytosterols differentially regulate the expression of caveolin 1 and a downstream prostate cell growth-suppressor gene

    Ifere, Godwin O.; Equan, Anita; Gordon, Kereen; Nagappan, Peri; Igietseme, Joseph U.; Ananaba, Godwin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to show the distinction between the apoptotic and anti-proliferative signaling of phytosterols and cholesterol enrichment in prostate cancer cell lines, mediated by the differential transcription of caveolin-1, and N-myc downstream regulated gene1 (NDRG1), a pro-apoptotic androgen-regulated tumor suppressor. Methods PC-3 and DU145 cells were treated with sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols) for 72 h, followed by trypan blue dye exclusion measurement of necrosis and cell growth measured with a Coulter counter. Sterol induction of cell growth-suppressor gene expression was evaluated by mRNA transcription using RT-PCR, while cell cycle analysis was performed by FACS analysis. Altered expression of Ndrg1 protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Apoptosis was evaluated by real time RT-PCR amplification of P53, Bcl-2 gene and its related pro- and anti-apoptotic family members. Results Physiological doses (16 µM) of cholesterol and phytosterols were not cytotoxic in these cells. Cholesterol enrichment promoted cell growth (Pphytosterols significantly induced growth-suppression (Pphytosterols decreased mitotic subpopulations. We demonstrated for the first time that cholesterols concertedly attenuated the expression of caveolin-1(cav-1) and NDRG1 genes in both prostate cancer cell lines. Phytosterols had the opposite effect by inducing overexpression of cav-1, a known mediator of androgen-dependent signals that presumably control cell growth or apoptosis. Conclusions Cholesterol and phytosterol treatment differentially regulated the growth of prostate cancer cells and the expression of p53 and cav-1, a gene that regulates androgen-regulated signals. These sterols also differentially regulated cell cycle arrest, downstream pro-apoptotic androgen-regulated tumor-suppressor, NDRG1 suggesting that cav-1 may mediate pro-apoptotic NDRG1 signals. Elucidation of the mechanism for sterol modulation of growth and apoptosis signaling

  15. Activation of pro-urokinase and plasminogen on human sarcoma cells

    Stephens, R W; Pöllänen, J; Tapiovaara, H

    1989-01-01

    from the cells with tranexamic acid, an analogue of lysine. The bound plasmin was the result of plasminogen activation on the cell surface; plasmin activity was not taken up onto cells after deliberate addition of plasmin to the serum-containing medium. The cell surface plasmin formation was inhibited...

  16. Quantification of VGF- and pro-SAAS-derived peptides in endocrine tissues and the brain, and their regulation by diet and cold stress.

    Chakraborty, Tandra R; Tkalych, Oleg; Nanno, Daniela; Garcia, Angelo L; Devi, Lakshmi A; Salton, Stephen R J

    2006-05-17

    Two novel granin-like polypeptides, VGF and pro-SAAS, which are stored in and released from secretory vesicles and are expressed widely in nervous, endocrine, and neuroendocrine tissues, play roles in the regulation of body weight, feeding, and energy expenditure. Both VGF and pro-SAAS are cleaved into peptide fragments, several of which are biologically active. We utilized a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) to immunoreactive, pro-SAAS-derived PEN peptides, developed another against immunoreactive, VGF-derived AQEE30 peptides, and quantified these peptides in various mouse tissues and brain regions. Immunoreactive AQEE30 was most abundant in the pituitary, while brain levels were highest in hypothalamus, striatum, and frontal cortex. Immunoreactive PEN levels were highest in the pancreas and spinal cord, and in brain, PEN was most abundant in striatum, hippocampus, pons and medulla, and cortex. Since both peptides were expressed in hypothalamus, a region of the brain that controls feeding and energy expenditure, double label immunofluorescence studies were employed. These demonstrated that 42% of hypothalamic arcuate neurons coexpress VGF and SAAS peptides, and that the intracellular distributions of these peptides in arcuate neurons differed. By RIA, cold stress increased immunoreactive AQEE30 and PEN peptide levels in female but not male hypothalamus, while a high fat diet increased AQEE30 and PEN peptide levels in female but not male hippocampus. VGF and SAAS-derived peptides are therefore widely expressed in endocrine, neuroendocrine, and neural tissues, can be accurately quantified by RIA, and are differentially regulated in the brain by diet and cold stress.

  17. Identification of NDRG1-regulated genes associated with invasive potential in cervical and ovarian cancer cells

    Zhao, Gang; Chen, Jiawei; Deng, Yanqiu; Gao, Feng; Zhu, Jiwei; Feng, Zhenzhong; Lv, Xiuhong; Zhao, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → NDRG1 was knockdown in cervical and ovarian cancer cell lines by shRNA technology. → NDRG1 knockdown resulted in increased cell invasion activities. → Ninety-six common deregulated genes in both cell lines were identified by cDNA microarray. → Eleven common NDRG1-regulated genes might enhance cell invasive activity. → Regulation of invasion by NDRG1 is an indirect and complicated process. -- Abstract: N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is an important gene regulating tumor invasion. In this study, shRNA technology was used to suppress NDRG1 expression in CaSki (a cervical cancer cell line) and HO-8910PM (an ovarian cancer cell line). In vitro assays showed that NDRG1 knockdown enhanced tumor cell adhesion, migration and invasion activities without affecting cell proliferation. cDNA microarray analysis revealed 96 deregulated genes with more than 2-fold changes in both cell lines after NDRG1 knockdown. Ten common upregulated genes (LPXN, DDR2, COL6A1, IL6, IL8, FYN, PTP4A3, PAPPA, ETV5 and CYGB) and one common downregulated gene (CLCA2) were considered to enhance tumor cell invasive activity. BisoGenet network analysis indicated that NDRG1 regulated these invasion effector genes/proteins in an indirect manner. Moreover, NDRG1 knockdown also reduced pro-invasion genes expression such as MMP7, TMPRSS4 and CTSK. These results suggest that regulation of invasion and metastasis by NDRG1 is a highly complicated process.

  18. In vitro non-viral murine pro-neurotrophin 3 gene transfer into rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    Darabi, Shahram; Tiraihi, Taki; Delshad, AliReza; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Khalil, Wisam; Taheri, Taher

    2017-04-15

    Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) is an important factor for promoting prenatal neural development, as well as regeneration, axogenesis and plasticity in postnatal life. Therapy with NT-3 was reported to improve the condition of patients suffering from degenerative diseases and traumatic injuries, however, the disadvantage of NT-3 protein delivery is its short half-life, thus our alternative approach is the use of NT-3 gene therapy. In this study, the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were isolated from adult rats, cultured for 4 passages and transfected with either pEGFP-N1 or a constructed vector containing murine proNT-3 (pSecTag2/HygroB-murine proNT-3) using Lipofectamine 2000 followed by Hygromycin B (200mg/kg). The transfection efficiency of the transiently transfected BMSCs was evaluated using the green fluorescence protein containing vector (pEGFP-N1). A quantitative evaluation of the NT-3 expression of mRNA using real time qRT-PCR shows that there was double fold increase in NT-3 gene expression compared with non-transfected BMSCs, also, the culture supernatant yielded double fold increase in NT-3 using ELISA technique, the data were supported by immunoblotting technique. This suggests that the use of this transfection technique can be useful for gene therapy in different neurological disorders with neurodegenerative or traumatic origins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell shape regulates global histone acetylation in human mammaryepithelial cells

    Le Beyec, Johanne; Xu, Ren; Lee, Sun-Young; Nelson, Celeste M.; Rizki, Aylin; Alcaraz, Jordi; Bissell, Mina J.

    2007-02-28

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell morphology and gene expression in vivo; these relationships are maintained in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of mammary epithelial cells. In the presence of laminin-rich ECM (lrECM), mammary epithelial cells round up and undergo global histone deacetylation, a process critical for their functional differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether lrECM-dependent cell rounding and global histone deacetylation are indeed part of a common physical-biochemical pathway. Using 3D cultures as well as nonadhesive and micropatterned substrata, here we showed that the cell 'rounding' caused by lrECM was sufficient to induce deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the absence of biochemical cues. Microarray and confocal analysis demonstrated that this deacetylation in 3D culture is associated with a global increase in chromatin condensation and a reduction in gene expression. Whereas cells cultured on plastic substrata formed prominent stress fibers, cells grown in 3D lrECM or on micropatterns lacked these structures. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D phenocopied the lrECM-induced cell rounding and histone deacetylation. These results reveal a novel link between ECM-controlled cell shape and chromatin structure, and suggest that this link is mediated by changes in the actin cytoskeleton.

  20. Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effect of Novel Nitro-Substituted Hydroxynaphthanilides on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Tereza Kauerova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ring-substituted hydroxynaphthanilides are considered as cyclic analogues of salicylanilides, compounds possessing a wide range of pharmacological activities, including promising anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer effect of novel nitro-substituted hydroxynaphthanilides with a special focus on structure-activity relationships. The antiproliferative effect was assessed by Water Soluble Tetrazolium Salts-1 (WST-1 assay, and cytotoxicity was evaluated via dye exclusion test. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis and detection of apoptosis using Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. Protein expression was estimated by Western blotting. Our data indicate that the potential to cause the antiproliferative effect increases with the shift of the nitro substituent from the ortho- to the para-position. The most potent compounds, 3-hydroxy-N-(3-nitrophenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamide (2, and 2-hydroxy-N-(4-nitrophenyl-naphthalene-1-carboxamide (6 showed antiproliferative activity against THP-1 and MCF-7 cancer cells without affecting the proliferation of 3T3-L1 non-tumour cells. Compounds 2 and 6 induced the accumulation of THP-1 and MCF-7 cells in G1 phase associated with the downregulation of cyclin E1 protein levels, while the levels of cyclin B1 were not affected. Moreover, compound 2 was found to exert the pro-apoptotic effect on the THP-1 cells. These results suggest that hydroxynaphthanilides might represent a potential model structure for the development of novel anticancer agents.

  1. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates T cell effector function

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonnière, Lyne; Moore, Craig S

    2007-01-01

    To understand how the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals influences effector function in the immune system, we studied the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), an endogenous regulator of cellular apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed increased XIAP expression in blood of mice with exper......To understand how the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals influences effector function in the immune system, we studied the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), an endogenous regulator of cellular apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed increased XIAP expression in blood of mice...... dramatically reduced within the CNS. Flow cytometry showed an 88-93% reduction in T cells. The proportion of TUNEL(+) apoptotic CD4(+) T cells in the CNS was increased from Neurons...... and oligodendrocytes were not affected; neither did apoptosis increase in liver, where XIAP knockdown also occurred. ASO-XIAP increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis in vitro. Our results identify XIAP as a critical controller of apoptotic susceptibility of effector T cell function...

  2. Substrate Curvature Regulates Cell Migration -A Computational Study

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi

    Cell migration in host microenvironment is essential to cancer etiology, progression and metastasis. Cellular processes of adhesion, cytoskeletal polymerization, contraction, and matrix remodeling act in concert to regulate cell migration, while local extracellular matrix architecture modulate these processes. In this work we study how stromal microenvironment with native and cell-derived curvature at micron-meter scale regulate cell motility pattern. We developed a 3D model of single cell migration on a curved substrate. Mathematical analysis of cell morphological adaption to the cell-substrate interface shows that cell migration on convex surfaces deforms more than on concave surfaces. Both analytical and simulation results show that curved surfaces regulate the cell motile force for cell's protruding front through force balance with focal adhesion and cell contraction. We also found that cell migration on concave substrates is more persistent. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration. NIH 1U01CA143069.

  3. Regulated Mucin Secretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

    Kenneth Bruce Adler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Secretory epithelial cells of the proximal airways synthesize and secrete gel-forming polymeric mucins. The secreted mucins adsorb water to form mucus that is propelled by neighboring ciliated cells, providing a mobile barrier which removes inhaled particles and pathogens from the lungs. Several features of the intracellular trafficking of mucins make the airway secretory cell an interesting comparator for the cell biology of regulated exocytosis. Polymeric mucins are exceedingly large molecules (up to 3x10^6 D per monomer whose folding and initial polymerization in the ER requires the protein disulfide isomerase Agr2. In the Golgi, mucins further polymerize to form chains and possibly branched networks comprising more than 20 monomers. The large size of mucin polymers imposes constraints on their packaging into transport vesicles along the secretory pathway. Sugar side chains account for >70% of the mass of mucins, and their attachment to the protein core by O-glycosylation occurs in the Golgi. Mature polymeric mucins are stored in large secretory granules ~1 um in diameter. These are translocated to the apical membrane to be positioned for exocytosis by cooperative interactions among MARCKS, cysteine string protein (CSP, HSP70 and the cytoskeleton. Mucin granules undergo exocytic fusion with the plasma membrane at a low basal rate and a high stimulated rate. Both rates are mediated by a regulated exocytic mechanism as indicated by phenotypes in both basal and stimulated secretion in mice lacking Munc13-2, a sensor of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG. Basal secretion is induced by low levels of activation of P2Y2 purinergic and A3 adenosine receptors by extracellular ATP released in paracrine fashion and its metabolite adenosine. Stimulated secretion is induced by high levels of the same ligands, and possibly by inflammatory mediators as well. Activated receptors are coupled to phospholipase C by Gq, resulting in the

  4. Pro- and anti-apoptotic CD95 signaling in T cells

    Janssen Ottmar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The TNF receptor superfamily member CD95 (Fas, APO-1, TNFRSF6 is known as the prototypic death receptor in and outside the immune system. In fact, many mechanisms involved in apoptotic signaling cascades were solved by addressing consequences and pathways initiated by CD95 ligation in activated T cells or other "CD95-sensitive" cell populations. As an example, the binding of the inducible CD95 ligand (CD95L to CD95 on activated T lymphocytes results in apoptotic cell death. This activation-induced cell death was implicated in the control of immune cell homeostasis and immune response termination. Over the past years, however, it became evident that CD95 acts as a dual function receptor that also exerts anti-apoptotic effects depending on the cellular context. Early observations of a potential non-apoptotic role of CD95 in the growth control of resting T cells were recently reconsidered and revealed quite unexpected findings regarding the costimulatory capacity of CD95 for primary T cell activation. It turned out that CD95 engagement modulates TCR/CD3-driven signal initiation in a dose-dependent manner. High doses of immobilized CD95 agonists or cellular CD95L almost completely silence T cells by blocking early TCR-induced signaling events. In contrast, under otherwise unchanged conditions, lower amounts of the same agonists dramatically augment TCR/CD3-driven activation and proliferation. In the present overview, we summarize these recent findings with a focus on the costimulatory capacity of CD95 in primary T cells and discuss potential implications for the T cell compartment and the interplay between T cells and CD95L-expressing cells including antigen-presenting cells.

  5. Selective targeting of pro-inflammatory Th1 cells by microRNA-148a-specific antagomirs in vivo.

    Maschmeyer, Patrick; Petkau, Georg; Siracusa, Francesco; Zimmermann, Jakob; Zügel, Franziska; Kühl, Anja Andrea; Lehmann, Katrin; Schimmelpfennig, Sarah; Weber, Melanie; Haftmann, Claudia; Riedel, René; Bardua, Markus; Heinz, Gitta Anne; Tran, Cam Loan; Hoyer, Bimba Franziska; Hiepe, Falk; Herzog, Sebastian; Wittmann, Jürgen; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Melchers, Fritz Georg; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Radbruch, Andreas; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin

    2018-05-01

    In T lymphocytes, expression of miR-148a is induced by T-bet and Twist1, and is specific for pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. In these cells, miR-148a inhibits the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim and promotes their survival. Here we use sequence-specific cholesterol-modified oligonucleotides against miR-148a (antagomir-148a) for the selective elimination of pro-inflammatory Th1 cells in vivo. In the murine model of transfer colitis, antagomir-148a treatment reduced the number of pro-inflammatory Th1 cells in the colon of colitic mice by 50% and inhibited miR-148a expression by 71% in the remaining Th1 cells. Expression of Bim protein in colonic Th1 cells was increased. Antagomir-148a-mediated reduction of Th1 cells resulted in a significant amelioration of colitis. The effect of antagomir-148a was selective for chronic inflammation. Antigen-specific memory Th cells that were generated by an acute immune reaction to nitrophenylacetyl-coupled chicken gamma globulin (NP-CGG) were not affected by treatment with antagomir-148a, both during the effector and the memory phase. In addition, antibody titers to NP-CGG were not altered. Thus, antagomir-148a might qualify as an effective drug to selectively deplete pro-inflammatory Th1 cells of chronic inflammation without affecting the protective immunological memory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of hematopoietic stem cell aging

    Beerman, Isabel; Rossi, Derrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is invariably associated with alterations of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment, including loss of functional capacity, altered clonal composition, and changes in lineage contribution. Although accumulation of DNA damage occurs during HSC aging, it is unlikely such consistent aging phenotypes could be solely attributed to changes in DNA integrity. Another mechanism by which heritable traits could contribute to the changes in the functional potential of aged HSCs is through alterations in the epigenetic landscape of adult stem cells. Indeed, recent studies on hematopoietic stem cells have suggested that altered epigenetic profiles are associated with HSC aging and play a key role in modulating the functional potential of HSCs at different stages during ontogeny. Even small changes of the epigenetic landscape can lead to robustly altered expression patterns, either directly by loss of regulatory control or through indirect, additive effects, ultimately leading to transcriptional changes of the stem cells. Potential drivers of such changes in the epigenetic landscape of aged HSCs include proliferative history, DNA damage, and deregulation of key epigenetic enzymes and complexes. This review will focus largely on the two most characterized epigenetic marks – DNA methylation and histone modifications – but will also discuss the potential role of non-coding RNAs in regulating HSC function during aging

  7. Prostaglandin E2 regulates hematopoietic stem cell

    Wang Yingying; Zhou Daohong; Meng Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a bioactive lipid molecule produced by cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays an important role on hematopoiesis. While it can block differentiation of myeloid progenitors but enhance proliferation of erythroid progenitors. Recent research found that PGE2 have the effects on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function and these effects were independent from effects on progenitor cells. Exposure of HSC cells to PGE2 in vitro can increase homing efficiency of HSC to the murine bone marrow compartment and decrease HSC apoptosis, meanwhile increase long-term stem cell engraftment. In-vivo treatment with PGE2 expands short-term HSC and engraftment in murine bone marrow but not long-term HSC.In addition, PGE2 increases HSC survival after radiation injury and enhance hematopoietic recovery, resulting maintains hematopoietic homeostasis. PGE2 regulates HSC homeostasis by reactive oxygen species and Wnt pathway. Clinical beneficial of 16, 16-dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 treatment to enhance engraftment of umbilical cord blood suggest important improvements to therapeutic strategies. (authors)

  8. Epigenetic regulation of hematopoietic stem cell aging

    Beerman, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.beerman@childrens.harvard.edu [Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children' s Hospital, MA 02116 (United States); Rossi, Derrick J. [Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children' s Hospital, MA 02116 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Aging is invariably associated with alterations of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment, including loss of functional capacity, altered clonal composition, and changes in lineage contribution. Although accumulation of DNA damage occurs during HSC aging, it is unlikely such consistent aging phenotypes could be solely attributed to changes in DNA integrity. Another mechanism by which heritable traits could contribute to the changes in the functional potential of aged HSCs is through alterations in the epigenetic landscape of adult stem cells. Indeed, recent studies on hematopoietic stem cells have suggested that altered epigenetic profiles are associated with HSC aging and play a key role in modulating the functional potential of HSCs at different stages during ontogeny. Even small changes of the epigenetic landscape can lead to robustly altered expression patterns, either directly by loss of regulatory control or through indirect, additive effects, ultimately leading to transcriptional changes of the stem cells. Potential drivers of such changes in the epigenetic landscape of aged HSCs include proliferative history, DNA damage, and deregulation of key epigenetic enzymes and complexes. This review will focus largely on the two most characterized epigenetic marks – DNA methylation and histone modifications – but will also discuss the potential role of non-coding RNAs in regulating HSC function during aging.

  9. High hydrostatic pressure induces pro-osteoarthritic changes in cartilage precursor cells: A transcriptome analysis.

    Montagne, Kevin; Onuma, Yasuko; Ito, Yuzuru; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high water content of cartilage, hydrostatic pressure is likely one of the main physical stimuli sensed by chondrocytes. Whereas, in the physiological range (0 to around 10 MPa), hydrostatic pressure exerts mostly pro-chondrogenic effects in chondrocyte models, excessive pressures have been reported to induce detrimental effects on cartilage, such as increased apoptosis and inflammation, and decreased cartilage marker expression. Though some genes modulated by high pressure have been identified, the effects of high pressure on the global gene expression pattern have still not been investigated. In this study, using microarray technology and real-time PCR validation, we analyzed the transcriptome of ATDC5 chondrocyte progenitors submitted to a continuous pressure of 25 MPa for up to 24 h. Several hundreds of genes were found to be modulated by pressure, including some not previously known to be mechano-sensitive. High pressure markedly increased the expression of stress-related genes, apoptosis-related genes and decreased that of cartilage matrix genes. Furthermore, a large set of genes involved in the progression of osteoarthritis were also induced by high pressure, suggesting that hydrostatic pressure could partly mimic in vitro some of the genetic alterations occurring in osteoarthritis.

  10. Pro-neurogenic effects of andrographolide on RSC96 Schwann cells in vitro

    Xu, Fuben; Wu, Huayu; Zhang, Kun; Lv, Peizhen; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2016-01-01

    Nerve regeneration remains a challenge to the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Andrographolide (Andro) is the main active constituent of Andrographis paniculata, which has been applied in the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation, in ancient China. Andro has been reported to facilitate the reduction of edema and to exert analgesic effects in the treatment of various diseases. These findings suggest that Andro may be considered a promising anti-inflammatory agent that may suppress destruction and accelerate proliferation of Schwann cells following peripheral nerve injury. In the present study, the effects of Andro on RSC96 cells were investigated in vitro. The RSC96 cell line is a spontaneously immortalized rat Schwann cell line, which was originally derived from a long-term culture of rat primary Schwann cells. RSC96 cells were treated with a range of 0 to 50 µM Andro prior to the MTT assay. Cell proliferation, morphology, synthesis and nerve-specific gene expression were performed to detect the effect of Andro on RSC96 cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the recommended doses of Andro ranged between 0.78 and 12.5 µM, among which the most obvious response was observed when used at 3.125 µM (P<0.05). DNA content was improved in Andro groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). In addition, Andro was able to promote the gene expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and the specific Schwann cell marker S100β (P<0.05). The results of a viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry were also improved in Andro groups. These results indicated that Andro may accelerate proliferation of RSC96 cells in vitro, whilst maintaining the Schwann cell phenotype; therefore, the present study may provide valuable evidence for the further exploration of the effects of Andro on peripheral nerves. PMID:27599453

  11. Pro Puppet

    Krum, Spencer; Kero, Ben; Turnbull, James; McCune, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Pro Puppet, Second Edition, now updated for Puppet 3, is an in-depth guide to installing, using, and developing the popular configuration management tool Puppet. Puppet provides a way to automate everything from user management to server configuration. You'll learn how Puppet has changed in the latest version, how to use it on a variety of platforms, including Windows, how to work with Puppet modules, and how to use Hiera. Puppet is a must-have tool for system administrators, and Pro Puppet will teach you how to maximize its capabilities and customize it for your environment.

  12. Pro Puppet

    Turnbull, James

    2011-01-01

    Pro Puppet is an in-depth guide to installing, using, and developing the popular configuration management tool Puppet. The book is a comprehensive follow-up to the previous title Pulling Strings with Puppet. Puppet provides a way to automate everything from user management to server configuration. You'll learn how to create Puppet recipes, extend Puppet, and use Facter to gather configuration data from your servers. Puppet is a must-have tool for system administrators, and Pro Puppet will teach you how to maximize its capabilities and customize it for your environment. * Install and configure

  13. Pro Python

    Alchin, Marty

    2010-01-01

    You've learned the basics of Python, but how do you take your skills to the next stage? Even if you know enough to be productive, there are a number of features that can take you to the next level in Python. Pro Python explores concepts and features normally left to experimentation, allowing you to be even more productive and creative. In addition to pure code concerns, Pro Python will develop your programming techniques and approaches, which will help make you a better Python programmer. Not only will this book help your code, it will also help you understand and interact with the many establ

  14. Pro-apoptotic effect of a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae putative type I signal peptidase on PK(15) swine cells.

    Paes, Jéssica A; Virginio, Veridiana G; Cancela, Martín; Leal, Fernanda M A; Borges, Thiago J; Jaeger, Natália; Bonorino, Cristina; Schrank, Irene S; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-03-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an economically significant swine pathogen that causes porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). Important processes for swine infection by M. hyopneumoniae depend on cell surface proteins, many of which are secreted by secretion pathways not completely elucidated so far. A putative type I signal peptidase (SPase I), a possible component of a putative Sec-dependent pathway, was annotated as a product of the sipS gene in the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome. This M. hyopneumoniae putative SPase I (MhSPase I) displays only 14% and 23% of sequence identity/similarity to Escherichia coli bona fide SPase I, and, in complementation assays performed with a conditional E. coli SPase I mutant, only a partial restoration of growth was achieved with the heterologous expression of a recombinant MhSPase I (rMhSPase I). Considering the putative surface location of MhSPase I and its previously demonstrated capacity to induce a strong humoral response, we then assessed its potential to elicit a cellular and possible immunomodulatory response. In assays for immunogenicity assessment, rMhSPase I unexpectedly showed a cytotoxic effect on murine splenocytes. This cytotoxic effect was further confirmed using the swine epithelial PK(15) cell line in MTT and annexin V-flow cytometry assays, which showed that rMhSPase I induces apoptosis in a dose dependent-way. It was also demonstrated that this pro-apoptotic effect of rMhSPase I involves activation of a caspase-3 cascade. The potential relevance of the rMhSPase I pro-apoptotic effect for M. hyopneumoniae-host interactions in the context of PEP is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A multi-stage process including transient polyploidization and EMT precedes the emergence of chemoresistent ovarian carcinoma cells with a dedifferentiated and pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype.

    Rohnalter, Verena; Roth, Katrin; Finkernagel, Florian; Adhikary, Till; Obert, Julia; Dorzweiler, Kristina; Bensberg, Maike; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-11-24

    DNA-damaging drugs induce a plethora of molecular and cellular alterations in tumor cells, but their interrelationship is largely obscure. Here, we show that carboplatin treatment of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells triggers an ordered sequence of events, which precedes the emergence of mitotic chemoresistant cells. The initial phase of cell death after initiation of carboplatin treatment is followed around day 14 by the emergence of a mixed cell population consisting of cycling, cell cycle-arrested and senescent cells. At this stage, giant cells make up >80% of the cell population, p21 (CDKN1A) in strongly induced, and cell numbers remain nearly static. Subsequently, cell death decreases, p21 expression drops to a low level and cell divisions increase, including regular mitoses of giant cells and depolyploidization by multi-daughter divisions. These events are accompanied by the upregulation of stemness markers and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, peaking after approximately 14 days of treatment. At the same time the cells initiate epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which over the subsequent weeks continuously increases, concomitantly with the emergence of highly proliferative, migratory, dedifferentiated, pro-inflammatory and chemoresistant cells (SKOV3-R). These cells are anchorage-independent and grow in a 3D collagen matrix, while cells on day 14 do not survive under these conditions, indicating that SKOV3-R cells were generated thereafter by the multi-stage process described above. This process was essentially recapitulated with the ovarian carcinoma cell line IGROV-1. Our observations suggest that transitory cells characterized by polyploidy, features of stemness and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype contribute to the acquisition of chemoresistance.

  16. DEPTOR regulates vascular endothelial cell activation and proinflammatory and angiogenic responses.

    Bruneau, Sarah; Nakayama, Hironao; Woda, Craig B; Flynn, Evelyn A; Briscoe, David M

    2013-09-05

    The maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis and the prevention of chronic inflammatory disease are dependent on the active process of inflammation resolution. In endothelial cells (ECs), proinflammation results from the activation of intracellular signaling responses and/or the inhibition of endogenous regulatory/pro-resolution signaling networks that, to date, are poorly defined. In this study, we find that DEP domain containing mTOR interacting protein (DEPTOR) is expressed in different microvascular ECs in vitro and in vivo, and using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown approach, we find that it regulates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 activation in part through independent mechanisms. Moreover, using limited gene arrays, we observed that DEPTOR regulates EC activation including mRNA expression of the T-cell chemoattractant chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CX3CL1, CCL5, and CCL20 and the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (P < .05). DEPTOR siRNA-transfected ECs also bound increased numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P < .005) and CD3+ T cells (P < .005) in adhesion assays in vitro and had increased migration and angiogenic responses in spheroid sprouting (P < .01) and wound healing (P < .01) assays. Collectively, these findings define DEPTOR as a critical upstream regulator of EC activation responses and suggest that it plays an important role in endogenous mechanisms of anti-inflammation and pro-resolution.

  17. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    Samarzija, Ivana [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Beard, Peter, E-mail: peter.beard@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  18. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    Samarzija, Ivana; Beard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. ► Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. ► Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. ► Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  19. St. John's wort attenuates irinotecan-induced diarrhea via down-regulation of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis

    Hu Zeping; Yang Xiaoxia; Chan Suiyung; Xu Anlong; Duan Wei; Zhu Yizhun; Sheu, F.-S.; Boelsterli, Urs Alex; Chan, Eli; Zhang Qiang; Wang, J.-C.; Ee, Pui Lai Rachel; Koh, H.L.; Huang Min; Zhou Shufeng

    2006-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common dose-limiting toxicity associated with cancer chemotherapy, in particular for drugs such as irinotecan (CPT-11), 5-fluouracil, oxaliplatin, capecitabine and raltitrexed. St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum, SJW) has anti-inflammatory activity, and our preliminary study in the rat and a pilot study in cancer patients found that treatment of SJW alleviated irinotecan-induced diarrhea. In the present study, we investigated whether SJW modulated various pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6), interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and intestinal epithelium apoptosis in rats. The rats were treated with irinotecan at 60 mg/kg for 4 days in combination with oral SJW or SJW-free control vehicle at 400 mg/kg for 8 days. Diarrhea, tissue damage, body weight loss, various cytokines including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α and intestinal epithelial apoptosis were monitored over 11 days. Our studies demonstrated that combined SJW markedly reduced CPT-11-induced diarrhea and intestinal lesions. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α was significantly up-regulated in intestine. In the mean time, combined SJW significantly suppressed the intestinal epithelial apoptosis induced by CPT-11 over days 5-11. In particular, combination of SJW significantly inhibited the expression of TNF-α mRNA in the intestine over days 5-11. In conclusion, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and intestinal epithelium apoptosis partly explained the protective effect of SJW against the intestinal toxicities induced by irinotecan. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential for STW as an agent in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs to lower their dose-limiting toxicities

  20. Stem cells can form gap junctions with cardiac myocytes and exert pro-arrhythmic effects

    Nicoline Willemijn Smit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has been suggested to be a promising option for regeneration of injured myocardium, for example following a myocardial infarction. For clinical use cell-based therapies have to be safe and applicable and are aimed to renovate the architecture of the heart. Yet for functional and coordinated activity synchronized with the host myocardium stem cells have to be capable of forming electrical connections with resident cardiomyocytes. In this paper we discuss whether stem cells are capable of establishing functional electrotonic connections with cardiomyocytes and whether these may generate a risk for arrhythmias. Application of stem cells in the clinical setting with outcomes concerning arrhythmogenic safety and future perspectives will also briefly be touched upon.

  1. GM-CSF and IL-4 produced by NKT cells inversely regulate IL-1β production by macrophages.

    Ahn, Sehee; Jeong, Dongjin; Oh, Sae Jin; Ahn, Jiye; Lee, Seung Hyo; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are distinct T cell subset that link innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-1β, produced by various immune cells, plays a key role in the regulation of innate immunity in vivo. However, it is unclear whether NKT cells regulate IL-1β production by macrophages. To address this, we co-cultured NKT cells and peritoneal macrophages in the presence of TCR stimulation and inflammasome activators. Among cytokines secreted from NKT cells, GM-CSF enhanced IL-1β production by macrophages via regulating LPS-mediated pro-IL-1β expression and NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation, whereas IL-4 enhanced M2-differentiation of macrophages and decreased IL-1β production. Together, our findings suggest the NKT cells have double-sided effects on IL-1β-mediated innate immune responses by producing IL-4 and GM-CSF. These findings may be helpful for a comprehensive understanding of NKT cell-mediated regulatory mechanisms of the pro-inflammatory effects of IL-1β in inflammatory diseases in vivo. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathways in vitiligo skin: insight into the molecular pathways of cell survival

    Becatti, Matteo; Fiorillo, Claudia; Barygina, Victoria; Cecchi, Cristina; Lotti, Torello; Prignano, Francesca; Silvestro, Agrippino; Nassi, Paolo; Taddei, Niccolò

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired and progressive hypomelanotic disease that manifests as circumscribed depigmented patches on the skin. The aetiology of vitiligo remains unclear, but recent experimental data underline the interactions between melanocytes and other typical skin cells, particularly keratinocytes. Our previous results indicate that keratinocytes from perilesional skin show the features of damaged cells. Sirtuins (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, well-known modulators of lifespan in many species, have a role in gene repression, metabolic control, apoptosis and cell survival, DNA repair, development, inflammation, neuroprotection and healthy ageing. In the literature there is no evidence for SIRT1 signalling in vitiligo and its possible involvement in disease progression. Here, biopsies were taken from the perilesional skin of 16 patients suffering from non-segmental vitiligo and SIRT1 signalling was investigated in these cells. For the first time, a new SIRT1/Akt, also known as Protein Kinase B (PKB)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling has been revealed in vitiligo. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathway via Akt-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 and down-regulates pro-apoptotic molecules, leading to decreased oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes. We therefore propose SIRT1 activation as a novel way of protecting perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes from damage. PMID:24410795

  3. Activation of Pro-uPA is Critical for Initial Escape from the Primary Tumor and Hematogenous Dissemination of Human Carcinoma Cells

    Bekes, Erin; Deryugina, Elena; Kuprianova, Tatyana

    2011-01-01

    disseminating variant of the human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line, PC-hi/diss, as a prototype of aggressive carcinomas to investigate the mechanisms whereby pro-uPA activation and uPA-generated plasmin functionally contribute to specific stages of metastasis. The PC-hi/diss cells secrete and activate...... significant amounts of pro-uPA, leading to efficient generation of plasmin in solution and at the cell surface. In a mouse orthotopic xenograft model, treatment with the specific pro-uPA activation-blocking antibody mAb-112 significantly inhibited local invasion and distant metastasis of the PC-hi/diss cells....... To mechanistically examine the uPA/plasmin-mediated aspects of tumor cell dissemination, the anti pro-uPA mAb-112 and the potent serine protease inhibitor, aprotinin, were utilized in parallel in a number of in vivo assays modeling various rate-limiting steps in early metastatic spread. Our findings demonstrate...

  4. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized.

  5. Human hepatoma cells exposed to estuarine sediment contaminant extracts permitted the differentiation between cytotoxic and pro-mutagenic fractions

    Pinto, M.; Costa, P.M.; Louro, H.; Costa, M.H.; Lavinha, J.

    2014-01-01

    Complex toxicant mixtures present in estuarine sediments often render contaminant screening unfeasible and compromise determining causation. HepG2 cells were subjected to bioassays with sediment extracts obtained with a series of progressively polar solvents plus a crude extract. The sediments were collected from an impacted area of an estuary otherwise regarded as pristine, whose stressors result mostly from aquaculture effluents and hydrodynamic shifts that enhance particle deposition. Compared to a reference scenario, the most polar extracts yielded highest cytotoxicity while higher genotoxicity (including oxidative damage) was elicited by non-polar solvents. While the former caused effects similar to those expected from biocides, the latter triggered effects compatible with known pro-mutagens like PAHs, even though the overall levels of toxicants were considered of low risk. The results indicate that the approach may constitute an effective line-of-evidence to infer on the predominant set of hazardous contaminants present in complex environmental mixtures. -- Highlights: • Estuarine sediment contaminants were extracted with different organic solvents. • More polar solvents contained the most cytotoxic contaminant fraction. • Non-polar solvents extracted the main genotoxic component of the mixture. • DNA base oxidation was detected through FPG/Comet assay. • The contamination pattern could be inferred from cytoassays with HepG2 cells. -- Polar/non-polar sediment fractions elicited differential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human HepG2 cells

  6. Induction of Pro-Apoptotic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Multiple Myeloma Cells by NEO214, Perillyl Alcohol Conjugated to Rolipram.

    Chen, Thomas C; Chan, Nymph; Labib, Shirin; Yu, Jiali; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Hofman, Florence M; Schönthal, Axel H

    2018-01-17

    Despite the introduction of new therapies for multiple myeloma (MM), many patients are still dying from this disease and novel treatments are urgently needed. We have designed a novel hybrid molecule, called NEO214, that was generated by covalent conjugation of the natural monoterpene perillyl alcohol (POH), an inducer of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, to rolipram (Rp), an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4). Its potential anticancer effects were investigated in a panel of MM cell lines. We found that NEO214 effectively killed MM cells in vitro with a potency that was over an order of magnitude stronger than that of its individual components, either alone or in combination. The cytotoxic mechanism of NEO214 involved severe ER stress and prolonged induction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), a key pro-apoptotic component of the ER stress response. These effects were prevented by salubrinal, a pharmacologic inhibitor of ER stress, and by CHOP gene knockout. Conversely, combination of NEO214 with bortezomib, a drug in clinical use for patients with MM, resulted in synergistic enhancement of MM cell death. Combination with the adenylate cyclase stimulant forskolin did not enhance NEO214 impact, indicating that cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (AMP) pathways might play a lesser role. Our study introduces the novel agent NEO214 as a potent inducer of ER stress with significant anti-MM activity in vitro. It should be further investigated as a potential MM therapy aimed at exploiting this tumor's distinct sensitivity to ER stress.

  7. 3’UTR Shortening Potentiates MicroRNA-Based Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes in Proliferating Human Cells

    Hoffman, Yonit; Bublik, Debora Rosa; P. Ugalde, Alejandro; Elkon, Ran; Biniashvili, Tammy; Agami, Reuven; Oren, Moshe; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2016-01-01

    Most mammalian genes often feature alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites and hence diverse 3’UTR lengths. Proliferating cells were reported to favor APA sites that result in shorter 3’UTRs. One consequence of such shortening is escape of mRNAs from targeting by microRNAs (miRNAs) whose binding sites are eliminated. Such a mechanism might provide proliferation-related genes with an expression gain during normal or cancerous proliferation. Notably, miRNA sites tend to be more active when located near both ends of the 3’UTR compared to those located more centrally. Accordingly, miRNA sites located near the center of the full 3’UTR might become more active upon 3'UTR shortening. To address this conjecture we performed 3' sequencing to determine the 3' ends of all human UTRs in several cell lines. Remarkably, we found that conserved miRNA binding sites are preferentially enriched immediately upstream to APA sites, and this enrichment is more prominent in pro-differentiation/anti-proliferative genes. Binding sites of the miR17-92 cluster, upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells, are particularly enriched just upstream to APA sites, presumably conferring stronger inhibitory activity upon shortening. Thus 3’UTR shortening appears not only to enable escape from inhibition of growth promoting genes but also to potentiate repression of anti-proliferative genes. PMID:26908102

  8. 3'UTR Shortening Potentiates MicroRNA-Based Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes in Proliferating Human Cells.

    Yonit Hoffman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most mammalian genes often feature alternative polyadenylation (APA sites and hence diverse 3'UTR lengths. Proliferating cells were reported to favor APA sites that result in shorter 3'UTRs. One consequence of such shortening is escape of mRNAs from targeting by microRNAs (miRNAs whose binding sites are eliminated. Such a mechanism might provide proliferation-related genes with an expression gain during normal or cancerous proliferation. Notably, miRNA sites tend to be more active when located near both ends of the 3'UTR compared to those located more centrally. Accordingly, miRNA sites located near the center of the full 3'UTR might become more active upon 3'UTR shortening. To address this conjecture we performed 3' sequencing to determine the 3' ends of all human UTRs in several cell lines. Remarkably, we found that conserved miRNA binding sites are preferentially enriched immediately upstream to APA sites, and this enrichment is more prominent in pro-differentiation/anti-proliferative genes. Binding sites of the miR17-92 cluster, upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells, are particularly enriched just upstream to APA sites, presumably conferring stronger inhibitory activity upon shortening. Thus 3'UTR shortening appears not only to enable escape from inhibition of growth promoting genes but also to potentiate repression of anti-proliferative genes.

  9. Anti-mutagenic and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Apigenin on Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nDiet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100. Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01 Apoptosis was induced suitably after 48 hours by flow cytometry assay. In Ames test apigenin prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of apigenin was 98.17%.These results have revealed apigenin induced apoptosis in human lymphoma B cells in vitro.

  10. Anti-mutagenic and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Apigenin on Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100. Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P

  11. Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse

    Mata, Mariana M.; Napier, T. Celeste; Graves, Steven M.; Mahmood, Fareeha; Raeisi, Shohreh; Baum, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the comorbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n = 18) or be given saline (control; n = 16) for 14 days. One day after the last self-administration session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-γand TNF-α, and frequencies of CD4+, CD8+, CD200+ and CD11b/c+ lymphocytes in the spleen. Rats that self-administer methamphetamine had a lower frequency of CD4+ T cells, but more of these cells produced IFN-γ. Methamphetamine did not alter the frequency of TNF-α-producing CD4+ T cells. Methamphetamine using rats had a higher frequency of CD8+ T cells, but fewer of them produced TNF-α. CD11b/c and CD200 expression were unchanged. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in methamphetamine rats were unchanged. Methamphetamine lifetime dose inversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. Or data suggest that methamphetamine abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression by activating CD4 T cells, making them more susceptible to HIV infection, and contributing to their premature demise. Methamphetamine may also increase susceptibility to HIV infection, explaining why African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently use methamphetamine are at the highest risk of HIV infection. PMID:25678251

  12. Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse.

    Mata, Mariana M; Napier, T Celeste; Graves, Steven M; Mahmood, Fareeha; Raeisi, Shohreh; Baum, Linda L

    2015-04-05

    The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the co-morbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n=18) or be given saline (control; n=16) for 14 days. One day after the last operant session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-γ and TNF-α, and frequencies of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD200(+) and CD11b/c(+) lymphocytes in the spleen. Rats that self-administered methamphetamine had a lower frequency of CD4(+) T cells, but more of these cells produced IFN-γ. Methamphetamine did not alter the frequency of TNF-α-producing CD4(+) T cells. Methamphetamine using rats had a higher frequency of CD8(+) T cells, but fewer of them produced TNF-α. CD11b/c and CD200 expression were unchanged. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in methamphetamine rats were unchanged. Methamphetamine lifetime dose inversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. Our data suggest that methamphetamine abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression by activating CD4 T cells, making them more susceptible to HIV infection, and contributing to their premature demise. Methamphetamine may also increase susceptibility to HIV infection, explaining why men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently use methamphetamine are at the highest risk of HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The carboxyl terminal trimer of procollagen I induces pro-metastatic changes and vascularization in breast cancer cells xenografts

    Visigalli, Davide; Palmieri, Daniela; Strangio, Antonella; Astigiano, Simonetta; Barbieri, Ottavia; Casartelli, Gianluigi; Zicca, Antonio; Manduca, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The COOH terminal peptide of Pro-collagen type I (PICP, also called C3) is chemotactic for endothelial melanoma and breast cancer cells. PICP induces the expression of Metalloproteinases-2 and -9, of Vascular endothelial growth factor and of the chemokine CXCL-12 receptor CXCR4 in MDA MB231 breast carcinoma cells in vitro. We used a model of xenografts in BalbC/nude mice obtaining tumors by implanting in contro-lateral subcutaneous positions MDA MB231 cells added or not with purified PICP and studied the earlier phases of tumor development, up to 48 days from implant, by histology, immunostain and in situ hybridization. Addition of PICP promotes rapid vascularization of the tumors while does not affect mitotic and apoptotic indexes and overall tumor growth. PICP-treated, relative to control tumors, show up-modulation of Vascular endothelial factor, Metalloproteinase-9 and CXCR4, all tumor prognostic genes; they also show down-modulation of the endogenous Metalloproteinase inhibitor, reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs, and a different pattern of modulation of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2. These changes occur in absence of detectable expression of CXCL-12, up to 38 days, in control and treated tumors. PICP has an early promoting effect in the acquisition by the tumors of prometastatic phenotype. PICP may be play a relevant role in the productive interactions between stroma and tumor cells by predisposing the tumor cells to respond to the proliferation stimuli ensuing the activation of signaling by engagement of CXCR4 by cytokines and by fostering their extravasion, due to the induction of increased vascular development

  14. Redox Regulation of Endothelial Cell Fate

    Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are present throughout blood vessels and have variable roles in both physiological and pathological settings. EC fate is altered and regulated by several key factors in physiological or pathological conditions. Reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species derived from NAD(P)H oxidases, mitochondria, or nitric oxide-producing enzymes are not only cytotoxic but also compose a signaling network in the redox system. The formation, actions, key molecular interactions, and physiological and pathological relevance of redox signals in ECs remain unclear. We review the identities, sources, and biological actions of oxidants and reductants produced during EC function or dysfunction. Further, we discuss how ECs shape key redox sensors and examine the biological functions, transcriptional responses, and post-translational modifications evoked by the redox system in ECs. We summarize recent findings regarding the mechanisms by which redox signals regulate the fate of ECs and address the outcome of altered EC fate in health and disease. Future studies will examine if the redox biology of ECs can be targeted in pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24633153

  15. N-acetylcysteine increases the frequency of bone marrow pro-B/pre-B cells, but does not reverse cigarette smoking-induced loss of this subset.

    Victoria L Palmer

    Full Text Available We previously showed that mice exposed to cigarette smoke for three weeks exhibit loss of bone marrow B cells at the Pro-B-to-pre-B cell transition, but the reason for this is unclear. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione precursor, has been used as a chemopreventive agent to reduce adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on lung function. Here we determined whether smoke exposure impairs B cell development by inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, and whether NAC treatment prevents smoking-induced loss of developing B cells.Groups of normal mice were either exposed to filtered room air or cigarette smoke with or without concomitant NAC treatment for 5 days/week for three weeks. Bone marrow B cell developmental subsets were enumerated, and sorted pro-B (B220(+CD43(+ and pre-B (B220(+CD43(- cell fractions were analyzed for cell cycle status and the percentage of apoptotic cells. We find that, compared to sham controls, smoke-exposed mice have ∼60% fewer pro-B/pre-B cells, regardless of NAC treatment. Interestingly, NAC-treated mice show a 21-38% increase in total bone marrow cellularity and lymphocyte frequency and about a 2-fold increase in the pro-B/pre-B cell subset, compared to sham-treated controls. No significant smoking- or NAC-dependent differences were detected in frequency of apoptotic cells or the percentage cells in the G1, S, or G2 phases of the cycle.The failure of NAC treatment to prevent smoking-induced loss of bone marrow pre-B cells suggests that oxidative stress is not directly responsible for this loss. The unexpected expansion of the pro-B/pre-B cell subset in response to NAC treatment suggests oxidative stress normally contributes to cell loss at this developmental stage, and also reveals a potential side effect of therapeutic administration of NAC to prevent smoking-induced loss of lung function.

  16. HLA-B27-Homodimer-Specific Antibody Modulates the Expansion of Pro-Inflammatory T-Cells in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats.

    Osiris Marroquin Belaunzaran

    Full Text Available HLA-B27 is a common genetic risk factor for the development of Spondyloarthritides (SpA. HLA-B27 can misfold to form cell-surface heavy chain homodimers (B272 and induce pro-inflammatory responses that may lead to SpA pathogenesis. The presence of B272 can be detected on leukocytes of HLA-B27+ Ankylosing spondylitis (AS patients and HLA-B27 transgenic rats. We characterized a novel B272-specific monoclonal antibody to study its therapeutic use in HLA-B27 associated disorders.The monoclonal HD5 antibody was selected from a phage library to target cell-surface B272 homodimers and characterized for affinity, specificity and ligand binding. The immune modulating effect of HD5 was tested in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Onset and progression of disease profiles were monitored during therapy. Cell-surface B272 and expansion of pro-inflammatory cells from blood, spleen and draining lymph nodes were assessed by flow cytometry.HD5 bound B272 with high specificity and affinity (Kd = 0.32 nM. HD5 blocked cell-surface interaction of B272 with immune regulatory receptors KIR3DL2, LILRB2 and Pirb. In addition, HD5 modulated the production of TNF from CD4+ T-cells by limiting B272 interactions in vitro. In an HLA-B27 transgenic rat model repetitive dosing of HD5 reduced the expansion of pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cells, and decreased the levels of soluble TNF and number of cell-surface B272 molecules.HD5 predominantly inhibits early TNF production and expansion of pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cells in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Monoclonal antibodies targeting cell-surface B272 propose a new concept for the modulation of inflammatory responses in HLA-B27 related disorders.

  17. HLA-B27-Homodimer-Specific Antibody Modulates the Expansion of Pro-Inflammatory T-Cells in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats

    Marroquin Belaunzaran, Osiris; Kleber, Sascha; Schauer, Stefan; Hausmann, Martin; Nicholls, Flora; Van den Broek, Maries; Payeli, Sravan; Ciurea, Adrian; Milling, Simon; Stenner, Frank; Shaw, Jackie; Kollnberger, Simon; Bowness, Paul; Petrausch, Ulf; Renner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Objectives HLA-B27 is a common genetic risk factor for the development of Spondyloarthritides (SpA). HLA-B27 can misfold to form cell-surface heavy chain homodimers (B272) and induce pro-inflammatory responses that may lead to SpA pathogenesis. The presence of B272 can be detected on leukocytes of HLA-B27+ Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and HLA-B27 transgenic rats. We characterized a novel B272–specific monoclonal antibody to study its therapeutic use in HLA-B27 associated disorders. Methods The monoclonal HD5 antibody was selected from a phage library to target cell-surface B272 homodimers and characterized for affinity, specificity and ligand binding. The immune modulating effect of HD5 was tested in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Onset and progression of disease profiles were monitored during therapy. Cell-surface B272 and expansion of pro-inflammatory cells from blood, spleen and draining lymph nodes were assessed by flow cytometry. Results HD5 bound B272 with high specificity and affinity (Kd = 0.32 nM). HD5 blocked cell-surface interaction of B272 with immune regulatory receptors KIR3DL2, LILRB2 and Pirb. In addition, HD5 modulated the production of TNF from CD4+ T-cells by limiting B272 interactions in vitro. In an HLA-B27 transgenic rat model repetitive dosing of HD5 reduced the expansion of pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cells, and decreased the levels of soluble TNF and number of cell-surface B272 molecules. Conclusion HD5 predominantly inhibits early TNF production and expansion of pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cells in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Monoclonal antibodies targeting cell-surface B272 propose a new concept for the modulation of inflammatory responses in HLA-B27 related disorders. PMID:26125554

  18. The effect of solar irradiated Vibrio cholera on the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by the JAWS II dendritic cell line in vitro

    Ssemakalu, CC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 70, IL-15, MIP-1a, MIP-1ß, MIP-2, RANTES, TNF-a, IL-23 and IL-27. Results showed that solar irradiated cultures of V. cholerae induced dendritic cells to secrete significant (p<0.05) levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in comparison...

  19. Pro-inflammatory cytokines derived from West Nile virus (WNV-infected SK-N-SH cells mediate neuroinflammatory markers and neuronal death

    Nerurkar Vivek R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WNV-associated encephalitis (WNVE is characterized by increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators, glial cells activation and eventual loss of neurons. WNV infection of neurons is rapidly progressive and destructive whereas infection of non-neuronal brain cells is limited. However, the role of neurons and pathological consequences of pro-inflammatory cytokines released as a result of WNV infection is unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the role of key cytokines secreted by WNV-infected neurons in mediating neuroinflammatory markers and neuronal death. Methods A transformed human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH, was infected with WNV at multiplicity of infection (MOI-1 and -5, and WNV replication kinetics and expression profile of key pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by plaque assay, qRT-PCR, and ELISA. Cell death was measured in SK-N-SH cell line in the presence and absence of neutralizing antibodies against key pro-inflammatory cytokines using cell viability assay, TUNEL and flow cytometry. Further, naïve primary astrocytes were treated with UV-inactivated supernatant from mock- and WNV-infected SK-N-SH cell line and the activation of astrocytes was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA. Results WNV-infected SK-N-SH cells induced the expression of IL-1β, -6, -8, and TNF-α in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which coincided with increase in virus-induced cell death. Treatment of cells with anti-IL-1β or -TNF-α resulted in significant reduction of the neurotoxic effects of WNV. Furthermore treatment of naïve astrocytes with UV-inactivated supernatant from WNV-infected SK-N-SH cell line increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and key inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Our results for the first time suggest that neurons are one of the potential sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines in WNV-infected brain and these neuron-derived cytokines contribute to WNV

  20. Integrating physiological regulation with stem cell and tissue homeostasis

    Nakada, Daisuke; Levi, Boaz P.; Morrison, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stem cells are uniquely able to self-renew, to undergo multilineage differentiation, and to persist throughout life in a number of tissues. Stem cells are regulated by a combination of shared and tissue-specific mechanisms and are distinguished from restricted progenitors by differences in transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Emerging evidence suggests that other aspects of cellular physiology, including mitosis, signal transduction, and metabolic regulation also differ between stem cells and their progeny. These differences may allow stem cells to be regulated independently of differentiated cells in response to circadian rhythms, changes in metabolism, diet, exercise, mating, aging, infection, and disease. This allows stem cells to sustain homeostasis or to remodel relevant tissues in response to physiological change. Stem cells are therefore not only regulated by short-range signals that maintain homeostasis within their tissue of origin, but also by long-range signals that integrate stem cell function with systemic physiology. PMID:21609826

  1. Hydrogel elasticity and microarchitecture regulate dental-derived mesenchymal stem cell-host immune system cross-talk.

    Ansari, Sahar; Chen, Chider; Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi; Yu, Bo; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Wu, Benjamin M; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2017-09-15

    The host immune system (T-lymphocytes and their pro-inflammatory cytokines) has been shown to compromise bone regeneration ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We have recently shown that hydrogel, used as an encapsulating biomaterial affects the cross-talk among host immune cells and MSCs. However, the role of hydrogel elasticity and porosity in regulation of cross-talk between dental-derived MSCs and immune cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the modulus of elasticity and porosity of the scaffold influence T-lymphocyte-dental MSC interplay by regulating the penetration of inflammatory T cells and their cytokines. Moreover, we demonstrated that alginate hydrogels with different elasticity and microporous structure can regulate the viability and determine the fate of the encapsulated MSCs through modulation of NF-kB pathway. Our in vivo data show that alginate hydrogels with smaller pores and higher elasticity could prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced MSC apoptosis by down-regulating the Caspase-3- and 8- associated proapoptotic cascades, leading to higher amounts of ectopic bone regeneration. Additionally, dental-derived MSCs encapsulated in hydrogel with higher elasticity exhibited lower expression levels of NF-kB p65 and Cox-2 in vivo. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the mechanical characteristics and microarchitecture of the microenvironment encapsulating MSCs, in addition to presence of T-lymphocytes and their pro-inflammatory cytokines, affect the fate of encapsulated dental-derived MSCs. In this study, we demonstrate that alginate hydrogel regulates the viability and the fate of the encapsulated dental-derived MSCs through modulation of NF-kB pathway. Alginate hydrogels with smaller pores and higher elasticity prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced MSC apoptosis by down-regulating the Caspase-3- and 8- associated proapoptotic cascade, leading to higher amounts of ectopic bone regeneration. MSCs encapsulated in

  2. Regulation of Arabidopsis Early Anther Development by Putative Cell-Cell Signaling Molecules and Transcriptional Regulators

    Yu-Jin Sun; Carey LH Hord; Chang-Bin Chen; Hong Ma

    2007-01-01

    Anther development in flowering plants involves the formation of several cell types, including the tapetal and pollen mother cells. The use of genetic and molecular tools has led to the identification and characterization of genes that are critical for normal cell division and differentiation in Arabidopsis early anther development. We review here several recent studies on these genes, including the demonstration that the putative receptor protein kinases BAM1 and BAM2 together play essential roles in the control of early cell division and differentiation. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that BAM1/2 may form a positive-negative feedback regulatory loop with a previously identified key regulator, SPOROCYTELESS (also called NOZZLE),to control the balance between sporogenous and somatic cell types in the anther. Furthermore, we summarize the isolation and functional analysis of the DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM1 (DYT1) gene in promoting proper tapetal cell differentiation. Our finding that DYT1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the bHLH family, as well as relevant expression analyses, strongly supports a model that DYT1 serves as a critical link between upstream factors and downstream target genes that are critical for normal tapetum development and function. These studies, together with other recently published works, indicate that cell-cell communication and transcriptional control are key processes essential for cell fate specification in anther development.

  3. Biological Evaluation of Dipyrromethanes in Cancer Cell Lines: Antiproliferative and Pro-apoptotic Properties

    Jorda, Radek; Lopes, S. M.M.; Řezníčková, Eva; Kryštof, Vladimír; Pinho e Melo, T. M.V.D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 9 (2017), s. 701-711 ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : anticancer agents * apoptosis * cell cycle * cytotoxicity * dipyrromethanes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Oncology Impact factor: 3.225, year: 2016

  4. Pro- and non-coagulant forms of non-cell-bound tissue factor in vivo

    Sturk-Maquelin, K. N.; Nieuwland, R.; Romijn, F. P. H. T. M.; Eijsman, L.; Hack, C. E.; Sturk, A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Concentrations of non-cell-bound (NCB; soluble) tissue factor (TF) are elevated in blood collecting in the pericardial cavity of patients during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Previously, we reported microparticles supporting thrombin generation in such blood samples. In this study we

  5. A TLR4/MD2 fusion protein inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling in hepatic stellate cells

    Schnabl, Bernd; Brandl, Katharina; Fink, Marina; Gross, Philipp; Taura, Kojiro; Gaebele, Erwin; Hellerbrand, Claus; Falk, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis. In injured liver they are the main extracellular matrix protein producing cell type and further perpetuate hepatic injury by secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators. Since LPS-mediated signaling through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified as key fibrogenic signal in HSCs we aimed to test TLR4 as potential target of therapy via ligand-binding soluble receptors. Incubation of human HSCs with a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of TLR4 and MD2 which binds LPS inhibited LPS-induced NFκB and JNK activation. TLR4/MD2 abolished LPS-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, and RANTES in HSCs. In addition, TLR4/MD2 fused to human IgG-Fc neutralized LPS activity. Since TLR4 mutant mice are resistant to liver fibrosis, the TLR4/MD2 soluble receptor might represent a new therapeutic molecule for liver fibrogenesis in vivo

  6. Genetic and Imaging Approaches Reveal Pro-Inflammatory and Immunoregulatory Roles of Mast Cells in Contact Hypersensitivity

    Nicolas Gaudenzio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Contact hypersensitivity (CHS is a common T cell-mediated skin disease induced by epicutaneous sensitization to haptens. Mast cells (MCs are widely deployed in the skin and can be activated during CHS responses to secrete diverse products, including some with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Conflicting results have been obtained regarding pathogenic versus protective roles of MCs in CHS, and this has been attributed in part to the limitations of certain models for studying MC functions in vivo. This review discusses recent advances in the development and analysis of mouse models to investigate the roles of MCs and MC-associated products in vivo. Notably, fluorescent avidin-based two-photon imaging approaches enable in vivo selective labeling and simultaneous tracking of MC secretory granules (e.g., during MC degranulation and MC gene activation by real-time longitudinal intravital microscopy in living mice. The combination of such genetic and imaging tools has shed new light on the controversial role played by MCs in mouse models of CHS. On the one hand, they can amplify CHS responses of mild severity while, on the other hand, can limit the inflammation and tissue injury associated with more severe or chronic models, in part by representing an initial source of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

  7. Mixed Pro- and Anti-Oxidative Effects of Pomegranate Polyphenols in Cultured Cells

    Danesi, Francesca; Kroon, Paul A.; Saha, Shikha; de Biase, Dario; D’Antuono, Luigi Filippo; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of scientific papers concerning pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) and its health properties has increased greatly, and there is great potential for the use of bioactive-rich pomegranate extracts as ingredients in functional foods and nutraceuticals. To translate this potential into effective strategies it is essential to further elucidate the mechanisms of the reported bioactivity. In this study HepG2 cells were supplemented with a pomegranate fruit extract or with the corresponding amount of pure punicalagin, and then subjected to an exogenous oxidative stress. Overall, upon the oxidative stress the gene expression and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes appeared reduced in supplemented cells, which were more prone to the detrimental effects than unsupplemented ones. No differences were detected between cells supplemented with the pomegranate juice or the pure punicalagin. Although further studies are needed due to the gaps existing between in vitro and in vivo studies, our results suggest caution in the administration of high concentrations of nutraceutical molecules, particularly when they are administered in concentrated form. PMID:25350111

  8. Pro-apoptotic effect of Persea americana var. Hass (avocado) on Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Bonilla-Porras, Angelica R; Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Pereañez-Jimenez, Andres; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-11-05

    Abstract Context: Therapy for leukemia has a limited efficacy. There is a need to search for alternative anti-leukemia therapies. Persea americana Mill var. Hass (Lauraceae) is a tropical fruit (avocado) that might be used against cancer. Objective: To investigate whether P. americana induces death in Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Materials and methods: Four ethanol extracts (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg/mL) from avocado fruit (endocarp, whole seed, seed and leaves) were analyzed against Jurkat cells. Hydrogen peroxide generation by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate to the fluorescent compound 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometry analysis of annexin-V/7-amino-actinomycin, mitochondrial membrane potential and immunocytochemistry detection of transcription factor p53, caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated. Results: Endocarp, seed, whole seed, and leaf (0.1 mg/mL) extracts induced significant apoptosis in Jurkat cells (p avocado and its therapeutic action on leukemia.

  9. Authoritative regulation and the stem cell debate.

    Capps, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I argue that liberal democratic communities are justified in regulating the activities of their members because of the inevitable existence of conflicting conceptions of what is considered as morally right. This will often lead to tension and disputes, and in such circumstances, reliance on peaceful or orderly co-existence will not normally suffice. In such pluralistic societies, the boundary between permissible and impermissible activities will be unclear; and this becomes a particular concern in controversial issues which raise specific anxieties and uncertainty. One context that has repeatedly raised issues in this regard is that of biotechnology and, in particular, the recent stem cell debate, on which this paper concentrates. While such developments have the potential to make significant improvements to therapeutic progress, we should also be sceptical because predicting the impact of these developments remains uncertain and complex. For the sake of socio-political stability, it will therefore be necessary to enact and enforce rules which limit these competing claims in public policy but which may not be compatible with what individual moral commitments ideally permit. One way to achieve this is to establish procedural frameworks to resolve potential disputes in the public sphere about what is right, wrong, or permissible conduct. I argue that for one to commit to authoritative regulation, an idea of harm prevention through state intervention is necessary; and that this requires optimum mechanisms of procedure which allow the individual the opportunity to compromise and yet to continue to oppose or fight for changes as demanded by his or her moral position.

  10. Pro-apoptotic effects of the flavonoid luteolin in rat H4IIE cells

    Michels, G.; Waetjen, W.; Niering, P.; Steffan, B.; Thi, Q.-H. Tran; Chovolou, Y.; Kampkoetter, A.; Bast, A.; Proksch, P.; Kahl, R.

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols are ubiquitous substances in the diet. Their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects are of interest for human health, and polyphenols such as luteolin are used at high concentrations in food supplements. The aim of this project was to determine the intrinsic effects of luteolin in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Luteolin is relatively toxic, cell death was caused via induction of apoptosis as detected by DNA-ladder formation, by nuclear fragmentation and activation of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-2, -3/7, -9 and -8/10). Luteolin (250 μM, 24 h) increased the caspase-3/7 activity four-fold and the caspase-9 activity six-fold. In a time course experiment caspase-9 is activated after 6 h, while caspase-2 and -3/7 are activated after 12 h. After 24 h, caspase-8/10 also displays activation. We found a concentration-dependent increase in malondialdehyde release suggesting a prooxidative effect of luteolin. Furthermore, we analysed DNA strand break formation by luteolin and found a distinct increase of DNA strand breaks after incubation for 3 h with 100 μM luteolin, a concentration which induces oligonucleosomal DNA cleavage at 24 h. In conclusion, the sequence of events is compatible with the assumption that luteolin triggers the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, probably by inducing DNA damage

  11. XIAP impairs mitochondrial function during apoptosis by regulating the Bcl-2 family in renal cell carcinoma.

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Tian Shu; Zhao, Si Cong; Yang, Wen Zheng; Chen, Zong Ping; Yan, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Efficient apoptosis requires Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which releases pro-apoptotic proteins to the cytosol, activating apoptosis and inhibiting X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). XIAP is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family whose expression is elevated in many cancer types and participates in the release of pro-apoptotic proteins. To explore the association between XIAP and the Bcl-2 family, and the influence of XIAP on mitochondria, RNA interference of XIAP was performed in Caki-1 cells and the dynamic change in the levels of related proteins was compared with the original Caki-1 cells upon induction of apoptosis. Upon knockdown of XIAP, the release of cytochrome c (Cyt-c), second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) and apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) from mitochondria proceeded normally, whereas in Caki-1 cells, the release of these pro-apoptotic proteins was significantly prolonged, and incomplete. Downregulation of XIAP through small interfering RNA resulted in an increase of apoptosis and a marked decrease in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl levels at 3 h. Additionally, the regulation of the level of XIAP protein affected the specific ratios of Bcl-2/Bax and Bcl-xl/Bax, which play decisive roles in cell death. In the present study, it was revealed that XIAP can feed back to mitochondria, delaying Cyt-c and Apaf-1 release. Furthermore, XIAP can limit the release of its inhibitor Smac with the involvement of Bcl-2 family proteins.

  12. The truncated splice variant of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα-tr, autonomously regulates proliferative and pro-inflammatory genes

    Thomas, Maria; Bayha, Christine; Klein, Kathrin; Müller, Simon; Weiss, Thomas S.; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M.

    2015-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) controls lipid/energy homeostasis and inflammatory responses. The truncated splice variant PPARα-tr was suggested to exert a dominant negative function despite being unable to bind consensus PPARα DNA response elements. The distribution and variability factor of each PPARα variant were assessed in the well-characterized cohort of human liver samples (N = 150) on the mRNA and protein levels. Specific siRNA-mediated downregulation of each transcript as well as specific overexpression with subsequent qRT-PCR analysis of downstream genes was used for investigation of specific functional roles of PPARα-wt and PPARα-tr forms in primary human hepatocytes. Bioinformatic analyses of genome-wide liver expression profiling data suggested a possible role of PPARα-tr in downregulating proliferative and pro-inflammatory genes. Specific gene silencing of both forms in primary human hepatocytes showed that induction of metabolic PPARα-target genes by agonist WY14,643 was prevented by PPARα-wt knock-down but neither prevented nor augmented by PPARα-tr knock-down. WY14,643 treatment did not induce proliferative genes including MYC, CDK1, and PCNA, and knock-down of PPARα-wt had no effect, while PPARα-tr knock-down caused up to 3-fold induction of these genes. Similarly, induction of pro-inflammatory genes IL1B, PTGS2, and CCL2 by IL-6 was augmented by knock-down of PPARα-tr but not of PPARα-wt. In contrast to human proliferative genes, orthologous mouse genes were readily inducible by WY14,643 in PPARα-tr non-expressing AML12 mouse hepatocytes. Induction was augmented by overexpression of PPARα-wt and attenuated by overexpression of PPARα-tr. Pro-inflammatory genes including IL-1β, CCL2 and TNFα were induced by WY14,643 in mouse and human cells and both PPARα forms attenuated induction. As potential mechanism of PPARα-tr inhibitory action we suggest crosstalk with WNT/β-catenin pathway. Finally

  13. Lopinavir up-regulates expression of the antiviral protein ribonuclease L in human papillomavirus-positive cervical carcinoma cells.

    Batman, Gavin; Oliver, Anthony W; Zehbe, Ingeborg; Richard, Christina; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that the HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir has selective toxicity against human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cervical carcinoma cells via an unknown mechanism. SiHa cervical carcinoma cells were stably transfected with the proteasome sensor vector pZsProSensor-1 to confirm lopinavir inhibits the proteasome in these cells. The Panorama Xpress profiler 725 antibody array was then used to analyse specific changes in protein expression in lopinavir-treated versus control untreated SiHa cells followed by PCR and western blotting. Colorimetric growth assays of lopinavir-treated E6/E7 immortalised versus control human keratinocytes were performed. Targeted small interfering RNA gene silencing followed by growth assay comparison of lopinavir-treated/untreated SiHa cells was also used. Lopinavir induced an increase in the fluorescence of pZsProSensor-1 transfected SiHa cells, indicative of proteasomal inhibition. Ribonuclease L (RNASEL) protein was shown to be up-regulated in lopinavir-treated SiHa cells, which was confirmed by PCR and western blot. Targeted silencing of RNASEL reduced the sensitivity of SiHa cells to lopinavir. Selective toxicity against E6/E7 immortalised keratinocytes versus control cells was also seen with lopinavir and was associated with up-regulated RNASEL expression. These data are consistent with the toxicity of lopinavir against HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cells being related to its ability to block viral proteasome activation and induce an up-regulation of the antiviral protein RNASEL. This is supported by the drug's selective toxicity and up-regulation of RNASEL in E6/E7 immortalised keratinocytes combined with the increased resistance to lopinavir observed in SiHa cells following silencing of RNASEL gene expression.

  14. Minocycline enhances the mesenchymal stromal/stem cell pro-healing phenotype in triple antimicrobial-loaded hydrogels.

    Guerra, Alberto Daniel; Rose, Warren E; Hematti, Peiman; Kao, W John

    2017-03-15

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated pro-healing properties including an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile and the promotion of angiogenesis via expression of growth factors in pre-clinical models. MSCs encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGdA) and thiolated gelatin poly(ethylene glycol) (Gel-PEG-Cys) crosslinked hydrogels have led to controlled cellular presentation at wound sites with favorable wound healing outcomes. However, the therapeutic potential of MSC-loaded hydrogels may be limited by non-specific protein adsorption on the delivery matrix that could facilitate the initial adhesion of microorganisms and subsequent virulent biofilm formation. Antimicrobials loaded concurrently in the hydrogels with MSCs could reduce microbial bioburden and promote healing, but the antimicrobial effect on the MSC wound healing capacity and the antibacterial efficacy of the hydrogels is unknown. We demonstrate that minocycline specifically induces a favorable change in MSC migration capacity, proliferation, gene expression, extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment, and adhesion molecule and growth factor release with subsequent increased angiogenesis. We then demonstrate that hydrogels loaded with MSCs, minocycline, vancomycin, and linezolid can significantly decrease bacterial bioburden. Our study suggests that minocycline can serve as a dual mechanism for the regenerative capacity of MSCs and the reduction of bioburden in triple antimicrobial-loaded hydrogels. Wound healing is a complex biological process that can be hindered by bacterial infection, excessive inflammation, and inadequate microvasculature. In this study, we develop a new formulation of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and thiolated gelatin poly(ethylene glycol) crosslinked hydrogels loaded with minocycline, vancomycin, linezolid, and mesenchymal stromal/stem cells that induces a favorable wound healing phenotype in mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and prevents bacterial

  15. Dimethyl sulfoxide-caused changes in pro- and anti-angiogenic factor levels could contribute to an anti-angiogenic response in HeLa cells.

    Şimşek, Ece; Aydemir, Esra Arslan; İmir, Nilüfer; Koçak, Orhan; Kuruoğlu, Aykut; Fışkın, Kayahan

    2015-10-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used in biological research as a general solvent. While it has been previously demonstrated that DMSO possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects, there is no published work regarding the effects of DMSO on pro-angiogenic factor levels. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of DMSO on the levels of three pro-angiogenic factors released from HeLa cells in vitro. Cells were treated with two different and previously determined concentrations of DMSO. The cytotoxic effects of DMSO concentrations on HeLa cells were determined via MTT. Survival rates of DMSO-treated cells were determined by Invitrogen live/dead viability/cytotoxicity kit and trypan blue exclusion assay. Changes in the pro-angiogenic levels in media were evaluated by Cayman's Substance P Enzyme Immunoassay ELISA kit. Vascular endothelial growth factor ELISA kit and interferon gamma ELISA kit for substance P, VEGF and IFNγ respectively. Changes in substance P levels were corrected by standard western blotting. Changes in VEGF and IFNγ levels were corrected both by western blot and real time PCR. Treatment with 1.4 μM DMSO caused a time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation at 24, 48 and 72 h. 1.4 μM DMSO caused a significant reduction in VEGF levels at 72 h of incubation and sharp increases in IFNγ levels at both 48 and 72 h of incubation. According to real time PCR analyses, DMSO (1.4 μM) exhibited an inhibitory effect on VEGF but acted as an augmenter of IFNγ release on HeLa cells in vitro. This is the first report showing that the general solvent DMSO suppressed HeLa cell proliferation, decreased the levels of two pro-angiogenic factors (substance P and VEGF) and increased the release of an anti-angiogenic factor IFNγ in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bim and Mcl-1 exert key roles in regulating JAK2V617F cell survival

    Rubert, Joëlle; Qian, Zhiyan; Andraos, Rita; Guthy, Daniel A; Radimerski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The JAK2 V617F mutation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms and is found in the vast majority of patients suffering from polycythemia vera and in roughly every second patient suffering from essential thrombocythemia or from primary myelofibrosis. The V617F mutation is thought to provide hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitors with a survival and proliferation advantage. It has previously been shown that activated JAK2 promotes cell survival by upregulating the anti-apoptotic STAT5 target gene Bcl-xL. In this study, we have investigated the role of additional apoptotic players, the pro-apoptotic protein Bim as well as the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Pharmacological inhibition of JAK2/STAT5 signaling in JAK2 V617F mutant SET-2 and MB-02 cells was used to study effects on signaling, cell proliferation and apoptosis by Western blot analysis, WST-1 proliferation assays and flow cytometry. Cells were transfected with siRNA oligos to deplete candidate pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed to assess the impact of JAK2 inhibition on complexes of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Treatment of JAK2 V617F mutant cell lines with a JAK2 inhibitor was found to trigger Bim activation. Furthermore, Bim depletion by RNAi suppressed JAK2 inhibitor-induced cell death. Bim activation following JAK2 inhibition led to enhanced sequestration of Mcl-1, besides Bcl-xL. Importantly, Mcl-1 depletion by RNAi was sufficient to compromise JAK2 V617F mutant cell viability and sensitized the cells to JAK2 inhibition. We conclude that Bim and Mcl-1 have key opposing roles in regulating JAK2 V617F cell survival and propose that inactivation of aberrant JAK2 signaling leads to changes in Bim complexes that trigger cell death. Thus, further preclinical evaluation of combinations of JAK2 inhibitors with Bcl-2 family antagonists that also tackle Mcl-1, besides Bcl-xL, is warranted to assess the therapeutic potential

  17. Pro Hadoop

    Venner, J

    2009-01-01

    You've heard the hype about Hadoop: it runs petabyte--scale data mining tasks insanely fast, it runs gigantic tasks on clouds for absurdly cheap, it's been heavily committed to by tech giants like IBM, Yahoo!, and the Apache Project, and it's completely open source (thus free). But what exactly is it, and more importantly, how do you even get a Hadoop cluster up and running? From Apress, the name you've come to trust for hands--on technical knowledge, Pro Hadoop brings you up to speed on Hadoop. You learn the ins and outs of MapReduce; how to structure a cluster, design, and implement the Hado

  18. Nrf2 and regulation of the antioxidant system in the Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarctica: Adaptation to environmental changes of pro-oxidant pressure.

    Giuliani, Maria Elisa; Benedetti, Maura; Nigro, Marco; Regoli, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Despite the key importance of Nrf2-Keap1 in regulating antioxidant system in vertebrates, this system is still poorly investigated in marine species. The present study focused on the Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica which, during the final phases of embryo development in platelet ice, is challenged by a sudden enhancement of environmental oxidative conditions associated to ice melting. Partial coding sequences were identified for Nrf2, its repressor Keap1 and for typical Nrf2-target antioxidant genes, like catalase, glutathione peroxidase isoform 1 and Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase. Compared to temperate homologues, the protein sequences showed an elevated conservation of amino acids essential for catalytic functions, while a few specific substitutions in non-essential regions may represent a molecular adaptation to improve flexibility and accessibility to active site at cold temperatures. The role of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in modulating the activation of antioxidant defences was demonstrated at both transcriptional and functional levels with a clear temporal increase of antioxidant protection in embryos before the hatching. Such findings confirm the importance of Nrf2 and highlight regulation of antioxidants as an adaptive strategy in P. antarctica to protect the early life stages toward the environmental changes of pro-oxidant pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of Water in Plant Cells

    Kowles, Richard V.

    2010-01-01

    Cell water relationships are important topics to be included in cell biology courses. Differences exist in the control of water relationships in plant cells relative to control in animal cells. One important reason for these differences is that turgor pressure is a consideration in plant cells. Diffusion and osmosis are the underlying factors…

  20. Innate lymphoid cells in autoimmunity: emerging regulators in rheumatic diseases

    Shikhagaie, Medya M.; Germar, Kristine; Bal, Suzanne M.; Ros, Xavier Romero; Spits, Hergen

    2017-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important in the regulation of barrier homeostasis. These cells do not express T cell receptors but share many functional similarities with T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. ILCs are divided into three groups, namely group 1 ILCs, group 2 ILCs and

  1. Pro-inflammatory interleukin-18 increases Alzheimer’s disease-associated amyloid-β production in human neuron-like cells

    Sutinen Elina M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD involves increased accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles as well as neuronal loss in various regions of the neocortex. Neuroinflammation is also present, but its role in AD is not fully understood. We previously showed increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18 in different regions of AD brains, where it co-localized with Aβ-plaques, as well as the ability of IL-18 to increase expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β and cyclin dependent kinase 5, involved in hyperphosphorylation of tau-protein. Elevated IL-18 has been detected in several risk conditions for AD, including obesity, type-II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases as well as in stress. Methods We differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as neuron-like and exposed them to IL-18 for various times. We examined the protein levels of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP and its processing products, its cleaving enzymes, involved in amyloidogenic processing of APP, and markers of apoptosis. Results IL-18 increased protein levels of the β-site APP-cleaving enzyme BACE-1, the N-terminal fragment of presenilin-1 and slightly presenilin enhancer 2, both of which are members of the γ-secretase complex, as well as Fe65, which is a binding protein of the C-terminus of APP and one regulator for GSK-3β. IL-18 also increased APP expression and phosphorylation, which preceded increased BACE-1 levels. Further, IL-18 altered APP processing, increasing Aβ40 production in particular, which was inhibited by IL-18 binding protein. Increased levels of soluble APPβ were detected in culture medium after the IL-18 exposure. IL-18 also increased anti-apoptotic bcl-xL levels, which likely counteracted the minor increase of the pro-apoptotic caspase-3. Lactate dehydrogenase activity in culture medium was unaffected. Conclusions The IL-18 induction of BACE-1, APP processing, and Aβ is likely to be

  2. Mitochondrial regulation of cell death: a phylogenetically conserved control

    Lorenzo Galluzzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are fundamental for eukaryotic cells as they participate in critical catabolic and anabolic pathways. Moreover, mitochondria play a key role in the signal transduction cascades that precipitate many (but not all regulated variants of cellular demise. In this short review, we discuss the differential implication of mitochondria in the major forms of regulated cell death.

  3. Encapsulation of rat bone marrow stromal cells using a poly-ion complex gel of chitosan and succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly).

    Kusumastuti, Yuni; Shibasaki, Yoshiaki; Hirohara, Shiho; Kobayashi, Mime; Terada, Kayo; Ando, Tsuyoshi; Tanihara, Masao

    2017-03-01

    Encapsulation of stem cells into a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold is necessary to achieve tissue regeneration. Prefabricated 3D scaffolds, such as fibres or porous sponges, have limitations regarding homogeneous cell distribution. Hydrogels that can encapsulate cells such as animal-derived collagen gels need adjustment of the pH and/or temperature upon cell mixing. In this report, we fabricated a poly-ion complex (PIC) hydrogel of chitosan and succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) and assessed its effect on cell viability after encapsulation of rat bone marrow stromal cells. PIC hydrogels were obtained successfully with a concentration of each precursor as low as 3.0-3.8 mg/ml. The maximum gelation and swelling ratios were achieved with an equal molar ratio (1:1) of anionic and cationic groups. Using chitosan acetate as a cationic precursor produced a PIC hydrogel with both a significantly greater gelation ratio and a better swelling ratio than chitosan chloride. Ammonium succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) as an anionic precursor gave similar gelation and swelling ratios to those of sodium succinylated poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly). Cell encapsulation was also achieved successfully by mixing rat bone marrow stromal cells with the PIC hydrogel simultaneously during its formation. The PIC hydrogel was maintained in the culture medium for 7 days at 37°C and the encapsulated cells survived and proliferated in it. Although it is necessary to improve its functionality, this PIC hydrogel has the potential to act as a 3D scaffold for cell encapsulation and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Regulation of Autophagy by Glucose in Mammalian Cells

    Moruno, Félix; Pérez-Jiménez, Eva; Knecht, Erwin

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that contributes to maintain cell homeostasis. Although it is strongly regulated by many extracellular factors, induction of autophagy is mainly produced by starvation of nutrients. In mammalian cells, the regulation of autophagy by amino acids, and also by the hormone insulin, has been extensively investigated, but knowledge about the effects of other autophagy regulators, including another nutrient, glucose, is more limited. Here we will focu...

  5. Periodontitis aggravated pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in diabetic mice through interleukin-12 regulation on Klotho.

    Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Qiuli

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that periodontitis can contribute to adipose tissue inflammation and subsequent systemic insulin resistance in the obese rat model. However, the related inflammatory mechanism is not yet clear. The present study aims to investigate the effects of periodontitis on the function of pancreatic β-cells with pro-inflammatory cytokines-related immune mechanism in a mouse model. C57BL/6-db/db and inbred C57BL/6 mice were chosen here to establish a mouse model with periodontitis, which was induced by ligatures for 8 weeks. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was introduced to evaluate the function of pancreatic islets and β-cells. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Klotho were also measured, and the correlation between immunostimulation and Klotho level was deeply investigated in vitro. Pancreatic β-cell failure, with insulin resistance, was observed in db/db mice, while periodontitis could aggravate β-cell dysfunction-related features. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and Klotho showed a negatively synergistic change, whereas the expression of Klotho was also inhibited under IL-12 treatment in MIN6 β-cells or isolated islets. Furthermore, IL-12-induced immune stimulation and also decreased insulin secretion were proven to be reversed by Klotho overexpression. Periodontitis aggravated pancreatic β-cell failure in diabetic mice. Further in vitro studies showed IL-12 regulation on Klotho, while Klotho also acted as an inhibitor on IL-12, indicating the potential of Klotho for preserving pancreatic β-cell function in diabetes.

  6. ADAM-17 regulates endothelial cell morphology, proliferation, and in vitro angiogenesis

    Goeoz, Pal; Goeoz, Monika; Baldys, Aleksander; Hoffman, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Modulation of angiogenesis is a promising approach for treating a wide variety of human diseases including ischemic heart disease and cancer. In this study, we show that ADAM-17 is an important regulator of several key steps during angiogenesis. Knocking down ADAM-17 expression using lentivirus-delivered siRNA in HUVECs inhibited cell proliferation and the ability of cells to form close contact in two-dimensional cultures. Similarly, ADAM-17 depletion inhibited the ability of HUVECs to form capillary-like networks on top of three-dimensional Matrigel as well as in co-culture with fibroblasts within a three-dimensional scaffold. In mechanistic studies, both baseline and VEGF-induced MMP-2 activation and Matrigel invasion were inhibited by ADAM-17 depletion. Based on our findings we propose that ADAM-17 is part of a novel pro-angiogenic pathway leading to MMP-2 activation and vessel formation.

  7. Quercetin inhibits the invasion of murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells by decreasing pro-MMP-9 via the PKC pathway.

    Zhang, Xian-Ming; Huang, Shao-Peng; Xu, Qiang

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the invasion of melanoma B16-BL6 cells previously reported by us, the mechanisms of quercetin-mediated inhibition of invasion were further investigated in the present study. The ability of B16-BL6 cells to invade and migrate was evaluated in terms of the numbers of cells penetrating a reconstituted basement membrane in the Transwell coculture system. The relative levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2 were determined by gelatin zymography and quantified using LabWorks 4.0 software. The quercetin-mediated inhibition of invasion was partially blocked by phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDB), a PKC (protein kinase C) activator, and by doxorubicin, a PKC inhibitor. Only the proforms of MMP-9 (92 kDa) and MMP-2 (72 kDa) were detected by gelatin zymography. Quercetin dose-dependently decreased the gelatinolytic activity of pro-MMP-9. Doxorubicin also markedly reversed the quercetin-induced decrease. Quercetin showed a dose-dependent antagonism of increases in gelatinolytic activity of pro-MMP-9 induced by PDB and free fatty acid (another PKC activator). Together with the report that quercetin directly reduces PKC activity, the results reported here suggest that quercetin may inhibit the invasion of B16-BL6 cells by decreasing pro-MMP-9 via the PKC pathway.

  8. Regulation of T cell responses in atherosclerosis

    Puijvelde, Gijsbrecht Henricus Maria van

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important characteristics of atherosclerosis is the chronic inflammatory response in which T cells and NKT cells are very important. In this thesis several methods to modulate the activity of these T and NKT cells in atherosclerosis are described. The induction of regulatory T cells

  9. A Dual Role of P53 in Regulating Colistin-Induced Autophagy in PC-12 Cells

    Ziyin Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of p53 in regulating colistin-induced autophagy in PC-12 cells. Importantly, cells were treated with 125 μg/ml colistin for 12 and 24 h after transfection with p53 siRNA or recombinant plasmid. The hallmarks of autophagy and apoptosis were examined by real-time PCR and western blot, fluorescence/immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy. The results showed that silencing of p53 leads to down-regulation of Atg5 and beclin1 for 12 h while up-regulation at 24 h and up-regulation of p62 noted. The ratio of LC3-II/I and autophagic vacuoles were significantly increased at 24 h, but autophagy flux was blocked. The cleavage of caspase3 and PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase were enhanced, while PC-12-sip53 cells exposed to 3-MA showed down-regulation of apoptosis. By contrast, the expression of autophagy-related genes and protein reduced in p53 overexpressing cells following a time dependent manner. Meanwhile, there was an increase in the expression of activated caspase3 and PARP, condensed and fragmented nuclei were evident. Conclusively, the data supported that silencing of p53 promotes impaired autophagy, which acts as a pro-apoptotic induction factor in PC-12 cells treated with colistin for 24 h, and overexpression of p53 inhibits autophagy and accelerates apoptosis. Hence, it has been suggested that p53 could not act as a neuro-protective target in colistin-induced neurotoxicity.

  10. Differential Rac1 signalling by guanine nucleotide exchange factors implicates FLII in regulating Rac1-driven cell migration

    Marei, Hadir; Carpy, Alejandro; Woroniuk, Anna; Vennin, Claire; White, Gavin; Timpson, Paul; Macek, Boris; Malliri, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rac1 has been implicated in the formation and dissemination of tumours. Upon activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), Rac1 associates with a variety of proteins in the cell thereby regulating various functions, including cell migration. However, activation of Rac1 can lead to opposing migratory phenotypes raising the possibility of exacerbating tumour progression when targeting Rac1 in a clinical setting. This calls for the identification of factors that influence Rac1-driven cell motility. Here we show that Tiam1 and P-Rex1, two Rac GEFs, promote Rac1 anti- and pro-migratory signalling cascades, respectively, through regulating the Rac1 interactome. In particular, we demonstrate that P-Rex1 stimulates migration through enhancing the interaction between Rac1 and the actin-remodelling protein flightless-1 homologue, to modulate cell contraction in a RhoA-ROCK-independent manner. PMID:26887924

  11. Rac1 regulates the NLRP3 inflammasome which mediates IL-1beta production in Chlamydophila pneumoniae infected human mononuclear cells.

    Julia Eitel

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila pneumoniae causes acute respiratory tract infections and has been associated with development of asthma and atherosclerosis. The production of IL-1β, a key mediator of acute and chronic inflammation, is regulated on a transcriptional level and additionally on a posttranslational level by inflammasomes. In the present study we show that C. pneumoniae-infected human mononuclear cells produce IL-1β protein depending on an inflammasome consisting of NLRP3, the adapter protein ASC and caspase-1. We further found that the small GTPase Rac1 is activated in C. pneumoniae-infected cells. Importantly, studies with specific inhibitors as well as siRNA show that Rac1 regulates inflammasome activation in C. pneumoniae-infected cells. In conclusion, C. pneumoniae infection of mononuclear cells stimulates IL-1β production dependent on a NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated processing of proIL-1β which is controlled by Rac1.

  12. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathways induced by Drosophila programmed cell death regulators

    Claveria, Cristina; Torres, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Multicellular organisms eliminate unwanted or damaged cells by cell death, a process essential to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Cell death is a tightly regulated event, whose alteration by excess or defect is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as cancer, autoimmune syndromes, and neurodegenerative processes. Studies in model organisms, especially in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, have been crucial in identifying the key molecules implicated in the regulation and execution of programmed cell death. In contrast, the study of cell death in Drosophila melanogaster, often an excellent model organism, has identified regulators and mechanisms not obviously conserved in other metazoans. Recent molecular and cellular analyses suggest, however, that the mechanisms of action of the main programmed cell death regulators in Drosophila include a canonical mitochondrial pathway

  13. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes secrete higher levels of pro- & anti-inflammatory cytokines compared to those with type-1 diabetes mellitus following in vitro stimulation with β-cell autoantigens

    Darshan Badal

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: There are differences in the portfolio of cytokine secretion in diabetic subjects with varying rates of β-cell destruction as LADA subjects secrete higher levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on exposure to β-cell autoantigens, thus highlighting another distinguishing feature in the pathophysiology of the two forms of autoimmune diabetes.

  14. Apoptosis and pro-death autophagy induced by a spirostanol saponin isolated from Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) on HL-60 cells.

    Yi, Xiaomin; Xiang, Limin; Huang, Yuying; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study has revealed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the rhizomes of Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) (Convallariaceae) (a reputed folk medicine) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of purified saponins remains unclear. More studies are necessary to assess the apoptosis and autophagy activities of the saponins from R. chinensis and clarify their antiproliferative mechanisms. The present study certificated the potential antiproliferative activity and mechanism of 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)- β-D-xylopyranosyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (SPD), a spirostanol saponin from R. chinensis, against human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). The antiproliferative activity of SPD in vitro was evaluated by MTT assay compared with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II). The autophagic activity was assessed using MDC staining and western blot, cell apoptosis inspection was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 fluorescence dye combined with flow cytometry. The potential mechanisms for protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated by western blot. Treatment of HL-60 cells with SPD resulted in growth inhibition (IC 50 value of 2.0 ± 0.2 µM, after 48 h treatment) and induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Results from Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay and mitochondrial membrane potential detection showed that apoptosis was happened after SPD treatment. The regulation of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, PARP following SPD treatment contributed to the induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Meanwhile, SPD induced autophagy related with Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling and activated of AMPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, blocking autophagy with bafilomycin A1 reduced the cytotoxicity of SPD in HL-60 cells. The antiproliferative, apoptosis and pro

  15. Regulation of Stem Cell Differentiation by Histone Methyltransferases and Demethylases

    Pasini, D; Bracken, A P; Agger, K

    2008-01-01

    The generation of different cell types from stem cells containing identical genetic information and their organization into tissues and organs during development is a highly complex process that requires defined transcriptional programs. Maintenance of such programs is epigenetically regulated...... and the factors involved in these processes are often essential for development. The activities required for cell-fate decisions are frequently deregulated in human tumors, and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate these processes is therefore important for understanding both developmental...

  16. Retinoic acid signalling in thymocytes regulates T cell development

    Wendland, Kerstin; Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Kotarsky, Knut

    in the regulatory regions of targetgenes. RA has been reported to play a direct role in regulating multiple aspects of peripheralT cell responses1, but whether endogenous RA signalling occurs in developingthymocytes and the potential impact of such signals in regulating T cell developmentremains unclear. To address......RARα. This blocks RA signalling in developing thymocytes from the DN3/4 stageonwards and thus allows us to study the role of RA in T cell development...

  17. Extracellular Matrix as a Regulator of Epidermal Stem Cell Fate.

    Chermnykh, Elina; Kalabusheva, Ekaterina; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina

    2018-03-27

    Epidermal stem cells reside within the specific anatomic location, called niche, which is a microenvironment that interacts with stem cells to regulate their fate. Regulation of many important processes, including maintenance of stem cell quiescence, self-renewal, and homeostasis, as well as the regulation of division and differentiation, are common functions of the stem cell niche. As it was shown in multiple studies, extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes a lot to stem cell niches in various tissues, including that of skin. In epidermis, ECM is represented, primarily, by a highly specialized ECM structure, basement membrane (BM), which separates the epidermal and dermal compartments. Epidermal stem cells contact with BM, but when they lose the contact and migrate to the overlying layers, they undergo terminal differentiation. When considering all of these factors, ECM is of fundamental importance in regulating epidermal stem cells maintenance, proper mobilization, and differentiation. Here, we summarize the remarkable progress that has recently been made in the research of ECM role in regulating epidermal stem cell fate, paying special attention to the hair follicle stem cell niche. We show that the destruction of ECM components impairs epidermal stem cell morphogenesis and homeostasis. A deep understanding of ECM molecular structure as well as the development of in vitro system for stem cell maintaining by ECM proteins may bring us to developing new approaches for regenerative medicine.

  18. In Situ Hybridization Method Reveals (Pro)renin Receptor Expressing Cells in the Pituitary Gland of Rats: Correlation with Anterior Pituitary Hormones.

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Yatabe, Megumi; Fujiwara, Ken; Hirose, Takuo; Totsune, Kazuhito; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-02-28

    Expression of (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was studied in rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed that cells expressing (P)RR mRNA were widely distributed in the anterior lobe and intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Double-staining using in situ hybridization for (P)RR mRNA and immunohistochemistry for the pituitary hormones showed that (P)RR mRNA was expressed in most of the GH cells and ACTH cells in the anterior lobe. (P)RR mRNA was also expressed in a few prolactin cells and TSH cells, but not in LH cells. The present study has shown for the first time the distribution of (P)RR mRNA expressing cells in the rat pituitary gland. These findings suggest that (P)RR plays physiological roles in the pituitary gland, such as the modulation of the pituitary hormone secretion.

  19. In Situ Hybridization Method Reveals (Pro)renin Receptor Expressing Cells in the Pituitary Gland of Rats: Correlation with Anterior Pituitary Hormones

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Yatabe, Megumi; Fujiwara, Ken; Hirose, Takuo; Totsune, Kazuhito; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Expression of (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was studied in rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed that cells expressing (P)RR mRNA were widely distributed in the anterior lobe and intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Double-staining using in situ hybridization for (P)RR mRNA and immunohistochemistry for the pituitary hormones showed that (P)RR mRNA was expressed in most of the GH cells and ACTH cells in the anterior lobe. (P)RR mRNA was also expressed in a few prolactin cells and TSH cells, but not in LH cells. The present study has shown for the first time the distribution of (P)RR mRNA expressing cells in the rat pituitary gland. These findings suggest that (P)RR plays physiological roles in the pituitary gland, such as the modulation of the pituitary hormone secretion

  20. PKCη confers protection against apoptosis by inhibiting the pro-apoptotic JNK activity in MCF-7 cells

    Rotem-Dai, Noa; Oberkovitz, Galia; Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Livneh, Etta

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is frequently regulated by different protein kinases including protein kinase C family enzymes. Both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were demonstrated for several of the different PKC isoforms. Here we show that the novel PKC isoform, PKCη, confers protection against apoptosis induced by the DNA damaging agents, UVC irradiation and the anti-cancer drug - Camptothecin, of the breast epithelial adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The induced expression of PKCη in MCF-7 cells, under the control of the tetracycline-responsive promoter, resulted in increased cell survival and inhibition of cleavage of the apoptotic marker PARP-1. Activation of caspase-7 and 9 and the release of cytochrome c were also inhibited by the inducible expression of PKCη. Furthermore, JNK activity, required for apoptosis in MCF-7, as indicated by the inhibition of both caspase-7 cleavage and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in the presence of the JNK inhibitor SP600125, was also suppressed by PKCη expression. Hence, in contrast to most PKC isoforms enhancing JNK activation, our studies show that PKCη is an anti-apoptotic protein, acting as a negative regulator of JNK activity. Thus, PKCη could represent a target for intervention aimed to reduce resistance to anti-cancer treatments.

  1. Lignans From Forsythia x Intermedia Leaves and Flowers Attenuate the Pro-inflammatory Function of Leukocytes and Their Interaction With Endothelial Cells

    Barbara Michalak; Agnieszka Filipek; Piotr Chomicki; Małgorzata Pyza; Marta Woźniak; Barbara Żyżyńska-Granica; Jakub P. Piwowarski; Agnieszka Kicel; Monika A. Olszewska; Anna K. Kiss

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the study: Taking into account that overactivated leukocytes are an important factor in the development of many chronic diseases, we investigated the activity of phytochemically characterized (HPLC-DAD-MSn) extracts from forsythia leaves and flowers on the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of leukocytes (effects on IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and TGFβ release) and their adherence to endothelial cells. Using bio-guided fractionation, we isolated the active compounds and determined their biol...

  2. Streptomyces sporulation - Genes and regulators involved in bacterial cell differentiation

    Larsson, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Streptomycetes are Gram-positive bacteria with a complex developmental life cycle. They form spores on specialized cells called aerial hyphae, and this sporulation involves alterations in growth, morphogenesis and cell cycle processes like cell division and chromosome segregation. Understanding the developmental mechanisms that streptomycetes have evolved for regulating for example cell division is of general interest in bacterial cell biology. It can also be valuable in the design of new dru...

  3. A novel CD44-binding peptide from the pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 hemopexin domain impairs adhesion and migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    Ugarte-Berzal, Estefanía; Bailón, Elvira; Amigo-Jiménez, Irene; Albar, Juan Pablo; García-Marco, José A; García-Pardo, Angeles

    2014-05-30

    (pro)MMP-9 binds to CLL cells through the PEX9 domain and contributes to CLL progression. To biochemically characterize this interaction and identify potential therapeutic targets, we prepared GST-PEX9 forms containing structural blades B1B2 or B3B4. We recently described a sequence in blade B4 (P3 sequence) that bound α4β1 integrin and partially impaired cell adhesion and migration. We have now studied the possible contribution of the B1B2 region to cell interaction with PEX9. CLL cells bound to GST-B1B2 and CD44 was the primary receptor. GST-B1B2 inhibited CLL cell migration as effectively as GST-B3B4. Overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the B1B2 region identified the sequence FDAIAEIGNQLYLFKDGKYW, present in B1 and contained in peptide P6, as the most effective site. P6 inhibited cell adhesion to PEX9 in a dose-dependent manner and with an IC50 value of 90 μM. P6 also inhibited cell adhesion to hyaluronan but had no effect on adhesion to VCAM-1 (α4β1 integrin ligand), confirming its specific interaction with CD44. Spatial localization analyses mapped P6 to the central cavity of PEX9, in close proximity to the previously identified P3 sequence. Both P6 and P3 equally impaired cell adhesion to (pro)MMP-9. Moreover, P6 synergistically cooperated with P3, resulting in complete inhibition of CLL cell binding to PEX9, chemotaxis, and transendothelial migration. Thus, P6 is a novel sequence in PEX9 involved in cell-PEX9/(pro)MMP-9 binding by interacting with CD44. Targeting both sites, P6 and P3, should efficiently prevent (pro)MMP-9 binding to CLL cells and its pathological consequences. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. NFBD1/MDC1 participates in the regulation of G2/M transition in mammalian cells

    Bu, Youquan; Suenaga, Yusuke; Okoshi, Rintaro; Sang, Meixiang; Kubo, Natsumi; Song, Fangzhou; Nakagawara, Akira; Ozaki, Toshinori

    2010-01-01

    NFBD1/MDC1 is a large nuclear protein involved in the early cellular response to DNA damage. Upon DNA damage, NFBD1 has an ability to facilitate the efficient DNA repair. In the present study, we have found that, in addition to DNA damage response, NFBD1 plays a critical role in the regulation of G2/M transition. Expression study using synchronized HeLa cells demonstrated that, like the mitotic kinase Plk1, NFBD1 expression level is maximal in G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. siRNA-mediated knockdown of NFBD1 resulted in G2/M arrest as well as simultaneous apoptosis in association with a significant increase in the amounts of γH2AX and pro-apoptotic p73. Since a remarkable down-regulation of mitotic phospho-histone H3 was detectable in NFBD1-knocked down cells, it is likely that knocking down of NFBD1 inhibits G2/M transition. Taken together, our present findings suggest that NFBD1 has a pivotal role in the regulation of proper mitotic entry.

  5. THAP5 is a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor that is regulated in melanoma cells during DNA damage-induced cell death

    Balakrishnan, Meenakshi P.; Cilenti, Lucia; Ambivero, Camilla [Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Goto, Yamafumi [Department of Dermatology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Takata, Minoru [Department of Dermatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medical Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Turkson, James; Li, Xiaoman Shawn [Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Zervos, Antonis S., E-mail: azervos@mail.ucf.edu [Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. {yields} THAP5 is induced in melanoma cells upon exposure to UV or treatment with cisplatin. {yields} THAP5 induction correlates with the degree of apoptosis in melanoma cell population. {yields} THAP5 is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in melanoma cell death. -- Abstract: THAP5 was originally isolated as a specific interactor and substrate of the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. It is a human zinc finger protein characterized by a restricted pattern of expression and the lack of orthologs in mouse and rat. The biological function of THAP5 is unknown but our previous studies suggest it could regulate G2/M transition in kidney cells and could be involved in human cardiomyocyte cell death associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this report, we expanded our studies on the properties and function of THAP5 in human melanoma cells. THAP5 was expressed in primary human melanocytes as well as in all melanoma cell lines that were tested. THAP5 protein level was significantly induced by UV irradiation or cisplatin treatment, conditions known to cause DNA damage. The induction of THAP5 correlated with a significant increase in apoptotic cell death. In addition, we show that THAP5 is a nuclear protein that could recognize and bind a specific DNA motif. THAP5 could also repress the transcription of a reporter gene in a heterologous system. Our work suggests that THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. Furthermore, THAP5 has a pro-apoptotic function and it was induced in melanoma cells under conditions that promoted cell death.

  6. THAP5 is a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor that is regulated in melanoma cells during DNA damage-induced cell death

    Balakrishnan, Meenakshi P.; Cilenti, Lucia; Ambivero, Camilla; Goto, Yamafumi; Takata, Minoru; Turkson, James; Li, Xiaoman Shawn; Zervos, Antonis S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. → THAP5 is induced in melanoma cells upon exposure to UV or treatment with cisplatin. → THAP5 induction correlates with the degree of apoptosis in melanoma cell population. → THAP5 is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in melanoma cell death. -- Abstract: THAP5 was originally isolated as a specific interactor and substrate of the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. It is a human zinc finger protein characterized by a restricted pattern of expression and the lack of orthologs in mouse and rat. The biological function of THAP5 is unknown but our previous studies suggest it could regulate G2/M transition in kidney cells and could be involved in human cardiomyocyte cell death associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this report, we expanded our studies on the properties and function of THAP5 in human melanoma cells. THAP5 was expressed in primary human melanocytes as well as in all melanoma cell lines that were tested. THAP5 protein level was significantly induced by UV irradiation or cisplatin treatment, conditions known to cause DNA damage. The induction of THAP5 correlated with a significant increase in apoptotic cell death. In addition, we show that THAP5 is a nuclear protein that could recognize and bind a specific DNA motif. THAP5 could also repress the transcription of a reporter gene in a heterologous system. Our work suggests that THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. Furthermore, THAP5 has a pro-apoptotic function and it was induced in melanoma cells under conditions that promoted cell death.

  7. [Standardization and regulation of the rate of the superoxide-generating adrenaline autoxidation reaction used for evaluation of pro/antioxidant properties of various materials].

    Sirota, T V

    2016-11-01

    The superoxide-generating reaction of adrenaline autoxidation is widely used for determination of the activity of superoxide dismutase and pro/antioxidant properties of various materials. There are two variants of the spectrophotometric registration of the products of this reaction. The first is based on registration of adrenochrome, as adrenaline autooxidation product at 347 nm; the second employs nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and registration of diformazan, a product of NBT reduction at 560 nm. In the present work, recommendations for the standardization of the reaction rate in both variants have been proposed. The main approach consists in the use of the pharmaceutical form of 0.1% adrenaline hydrochloride solution. Although each of two adrenaline preparations available in the Russian market has some features in kinetic behavior of its autooxidation; they are applicable in the superoxide generating system based on adrenaline autooxidation. Performing measurements at 560 nm, the reaction rate can be regulated by lowering the concentration of added adrenaline, whereas during spectrophotometric registration at 347 nm, this cannot be done. These features of adrenaline autoxidation may be due to the fact that the intrinsic multistage process of the conversion of adrenaline to adrenochrome, which is recorded at 347 nm, is coupled with the transition of electrons from adrenaline and intermediate products of its oxidation to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbonate bicarbonate ions, which is detected in the presence of added NBT.

  8. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates expression of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 related transcription factor-1 (Nrf1) and inhibits pro-survival function of Nrf1

    Biswas, Madhurima; Kwong, Erick K.; Park, Eujean; Nagra, Parminder; Chan, Jefferson Y., E-mail: jchan@uci.edu

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor-1 (Nrf1) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is known to regulate antioxidant and cytoprotective gene expression. It was recently shown that Nrf1 is regulated by SCF–Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. However our knowledge of upstream signals that targets Nrf1 for degradation by the UPS is not known. We report here that Nrf1 expression is negatively regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in Fbw7-dependent manner. We show that GSK3 interacts with Nrf1 and phosphorylates the Cdc4 phosphodegron domain (CPD) in Nrf1. Mutation of serine residue in the CPD of Nrf1 to alanine (S350A), blocks Nrf1 from phosphorylation by GSK3, and stabilizes Nrf1. Knockdown of Nrf1 and expression of a constitutively active form of GSK3 results in increased apoptosis in neuronal cells in response to ER stress, while expression of the GSK3 phosphorylation resistant S350A–Nrf1 attenuates apoptotic cell death. Together these data suggest that GSK3 regulates Nrf1 expression and cell survival function in response to stress activation. Highlights: • The effect of GSK3 on Nrf1 expression was examined. • GSK3 destabilizes Nrf1 protein via Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. • GSK3 binds and phosphorylates Nrf1. • Protection from stress-induced apoptosis by Nrf1 is inhibited by GSK3.

  9. Cytokinetics and Regulation of Progenitor Cells

    Lajtha, L. G. [Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1967-07-15

    Full text: In spite of great differences in the life-span of fully differentiated haemic cells, the cellular kinetics of their production appears to be similar. Recent evidence indicates a common ultimate stem cell for most of the cells in the peripheral blood. The various pathways of differentiation, however, result in transient dividing and differentiating cell populations which differ from each other not only in their specific biochemical processes but also in the manner of control and kinetic pattern of their proliferation. The population best understood is the erythroid progenitor series of cells, primarily because it has the greatest number of experimentally measurable parameters at the present. This will be discussed in detail and comparisons will be made with the myeloid and lymphoid progenitor populations. The fine structure of the bone-marrow stem cell population will be examined in particular, with regard to the suitability or otherwise of the current stem cell models to explain the kinetic pattern of all the peripheral blood elements after perturbations of their steady-state values. Four different assay methods of bone-marrow stem cells have been examined with regard to the kinetic pattern following perturbation of the steady-state system, e.g. by irradiation. Basically, the stem cell assays fall into two categories: those depending on grafting haemopoietic cells into suitably treated recipients, and those in which recovery of the population is allowed in the animal in which the perturbation was produced, without handling the cells. Evidence is accumulating which indicates that in the grafting techniques, a selective loss of stem cells may occur, . especially stem cells in cell cycle, hence in early stages of recovery of the population unduly low numerical values might be noted. In view of this observation, the concept of the colony-forming cell may have to be revised and instead the colony-forming property of the stem cell introduced. (author)

  10. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  11. Cytokinetics and Regulation of Progenitor Cells

    Lajtha, L.G.

    1967-01-01

    Full text: In spite of great differences in the life-span of fully differentiated haemic cells, the cellular kinetics of their production appears to be similar. Recent evidence indicates a common ultimate stem cell for most of the cells in the peripheral blood. The various pathways of differentiation, however, result in transient dividing and differentiating cell populations which differ from each other not only in their specific biochemical processes but also in the manner of control and kinetic pattern of their proliferation. The population best understood is the erythroid progenitor series of cells, primarily because it has the greatest number of experimentally measurable parameters at the present. This will be discussed in detail and comparisons will be made with the myeloid and lymphoid progenitor populations. The fine structure of the bone-marrow stem cell population will be examined in particular, with regard to the suitability or otherwise of the current stem cell models to explain the kinetic pattern of all the peripheral blood elements after perturbations of their steady-state values. Four different assay methods of bone-marrow stem cells have been examined with regard to the kinetic pattern following perturbation of the steady-state system, e.g. by irradiation. Basically, the stem cell assays fall into two categories: those depending on grafting haemopoietic cells into suitably treated recipients, and those in which recovery of the population is allowed in the animal in which the perturbation was produced, without handling the cells. Evidence is accumulating which indicates that in the grafting techniques, a selective loss of stem cells may occur, . especially stem cells in cell cycle, hence in early stages of recovery of the population unduly low numerical values might be noted. In view of this observation, the concept of the colony-forming cell may have to be revised and instead the colony-forming property of the stem cell introduced. (author)

  12. Variability of doublecortin-associated dendrite maturation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis is independent of the regulation of precursor cell proliferation

    Jessberger Sebastian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis most regulation takes place during the phase of doublecortin (DCX expression, either as pro-proliferative effect on precursor cells or as survival-promoting effect on postmitotic cells. We here obtained quantitative data about the proliferative population and the dynamics of postmitotic dendrite development during the period of DCX expression. The question was, whether any indication could be obtained that the initiation of dendrite development is timely bound to the exit from the cell cycle. Alternatively, the temporal course of morphological maturation might be subject to additional regulatory events. Results We found that (1 20% of the DCX population were precursor cells in cell cycle, whereas more than 70% were postmitotic, (2 the time span until newborn cells had reached the most mature stage associated with DCX expression varied between 3 days and several weeks, (3 positive or negative regulation of precursor cell proliferation did not alter the pattern and dynamics of dendrite development. Dendrite maturation was largely independent of close contacts to astrocytes. Conclusion These data imply that dendrite maturation of immature neurons is initiated at varying times after cell cycle exit, is variable in duration, and is controlled independently of the regulation of precursor cell proliferation. We conclude that in addition to the major regulatory events in cell proliferation and selective survival, additional micro-regulatory events influence the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  13. Cytokine regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in rat hepatocytes: NF-kappaB-regulated inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) prevents apoptosis

    Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Ros, Jenny E.; Homan, Manon; Trautwein, Christian; Liston, Peter; Poelstra, Klaas; van Goor, Harry; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Moshage, Han

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In acute liver failure, hepatocytes are exposed to various cytokines that activate both cell survival and apoptotic pathways. NF-kappaB is a central transcription factor in these responses. Recent studies indicate that blocking NF-kappaB causes apoptosis, indicating the existence of

  14. T-cell regulation in lepromatous leprosy.

    Kidist Bobosha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T (Treg cells are known for their role in maintaining self-tolerance and balancing immune reactions in autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. However, regulatory mechanisms can also lead to prolonged survival of pathogens in chronic infections like leprosy and tuberculosis (TB. Despite high humoral responses against Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae, lepromatous leprosy (LL patients have the characteristic inability to generate T helper 1 (Th1 responses against the bacterium. In this study, we investigated the unresponsiveness to M. leprae in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of LL patients by analysis of IFN-γ responses to M. leprae before and after depletion of CD25+ cells, by cell subsets analysis of PBMC and by immunohistochemistry of patients' skin lesions. Depletion of CD25+ cells from total PBMC identified two groups of LL patients: 7/18 (38.8% gained in vitro responsiveness towards M. leprae after depletion of CD25+ cells, which was reversed to M. leprae-specific T-cell unresponsiveness by addition of autologous CD25+ cells. In contrast, 11/18 (61.1% remained anergic in the absence of CD25+ T-cells. For both groups mitogen-induced IFN-γ was, however, not affected by depletion of CD25+ cells. In M. leprae responding healthy controls, treated lepromatous leprosy (LL and borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BT patients, depletion of CD25+ cells only slightly increased the IFN-γ response. Furthermore, cell subset analysis showed significantly higher (p = 0.02 numbers of FoxP3+ CD8+CD25+ T-cells in LL compared to BT patients, whereas confocal microscopy of skin biopsies revealed increased numbers of CD68+CD163+ as well as FoxP3+ cells in lesions of LL compared to tuberculoid and borderline tuberculoid leprosy (TT/BT lesions. Thus, these data show that CD25+ Treg cells play a role in M. leprae-Th1 unresponsiveness in LL.

  15. The mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in T regulatory cells in children with type 1 diabetes.

    Maria Górska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is caused by the autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. T regulatory cells (Tregs represent an active mechanism of suppressing autoreactive T cells that escape central tolerance. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that T regulatory cells express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, elements of cytotoxicity and OX40/4-1BB molecules. The examined group consisted of 50 children with T1DM. Fifty two healthy individuals (control group were enrolled into the study. A flow cytometric analysis of T-cell subpopulations was performed using the following markers: anti-CD3, anti-CD4, anti-CD25, anti-CD127, anti-CD134 and anti-CD137. Concurrently with the flow cytometric assessment of Tregs we separated CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- cells for further mRNA analysis. mRNA levels for transcription factor FoxP3, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon gamma, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-10, transforming growth factor beta1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, activatory molecules (OX40, 4-1BB and elements of cytotoxicity (granzyme B, perforin 1 were determined by real-time PCR technique. We found no alterations in the frequency of CD4+CD25highCD127low cells between diabetic and control children. Treg cells expressed mRNA for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Lower OX40 and higher 4-1BB mRNA but not protein levels in Treg cells in diabetic patients compared to the healthy children were noted. Our observations confirm the presence of mRNA for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- cells in the peripheral blood of children with T1DM. Further studies with the goal of developing new strategies to potentiate Treg function in autoimmune diseases are warranted.

  16. Identification of cisplatin-regulated metabolic pathways in pluripotent stem cells.

    Louise von Stechow

    Full Text Available The chemotherapeutic compound, cisplatin causes various kinds of DNA lesions but also triggers other pertubations, such as ER and oxidative stress. We and others have shown that treatment of pluripotent stem cells with cisplatin causes a plethora of transcriptional and post-translational alterations that, to a major extent, point to DNA damage response (DDR signaling. The orchestrated DDR signaling network is important to arrest the cell cycle and repair the lesions or, in case of damage beyond repair, eliminate affected cells. Failure to properly balance the various aspects of the DDR in stem cells contributes to ageing and cancer. Here, we performed metabolic profiling by mass spectrometry of embryonic stem (ES cells treated for different time periods with cisplatin. We then integrated metabolomics with transcriptomics analyses and connected cisplatin-regulated metabolites with regulated metabolic enzymes to identify enriched metabolic pathways. These included nucleotide metabolism, urea cycle and arginine and proline metabolism. Silencing of identified proline metabolic and catabolic enzymes indicated that altered proline metabolism serves as an adaptive, rather than a toxic response. A group of enriched metabolic pathways clustered around the metabolite S-adenosylmethionine, which is a hub for methylation and transsulfuration reactions and polyamine metabolism. Enzymes and metabolites with pro- or anti-oxidant functions were also enriched but enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species were not measured in cisplatin-treated ES cells. Lastly, a number of the differentially regulated metabolic enzymes were identified as target genes of the transcription factor p53, pointing to p53-mediated alterations in metabolism in response to genotoxic stress. Altogether, our findings reveal interconnecting metabolic pathways that are responsive to cisplatin and may serve as signaling modules in the DDR in pluripotent stem cells.

  17. Hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity in oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells.

    Chaudhari, Pratik Rajeev; Charles, Silvania Emlit; D'Souza, Zinia Charlotte; Vaidya, Milind Murlidhar

    2017-11-15

    BPAG1e and Plectin are hemidesmosomal linker proteins which anchor intermediate filament proteins to the cell surface through β4 integrin. Recent reports indicate that these proteins play a role in various cellular processes apart from their known anchoring function. However, the available literature is inconsistent. Further, the previous study from our laboratory suggested that Keratin8/18 pair promotes cell motility and tumor progression by deregulating β4 integrin signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) derived cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that linker proteins may have a role in neoplastic progression of OSCC. Downregulation of hemidesmosomal linker proteins in OSCC derived cells resulted in reduced cell migration accompanied by alterations in actin organization. Further, decreased MMP9 activity led to reduced cell invasion in linker proteins knockdown cells. Moreover, loss of these proteins resulted in reduced tumorigenic potential. SWATH analysis demonstrated upregulation of N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in linker proteins downregulated cells as compared to vector control cells. Further, the defects in phenotype upon linker proteins ablation were rescued upon loss of NDRG1 in linker proteins knockdown background. These data together indicate that hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity possibly through NDRG1 in OSCC derived cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Notch1-Dll4 signaling and mechanical force regulate leader cell formation during collective cell migration

    Riahi, Reza; Sun, Jian; Wang, Shue; Long, Min; Zhang, Donna D.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-01-01

    At the onset of collective cell migration, a subset of cells within an initially homogenous population acquires a distinct “leader” phenotype with characteristic morphology and motility. However, the factors driving leader cell formation as well as the mechanisms regulating leader cell density during the migration process remain to be determined. Here, we use single cell gene expression analysis and computational modeling to show that leader cell identity is dynamically regulated by Dll4 sign...

  19. Aging impairs transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in human microvascular endothelial cells: implications for angiogenesis and cell survival.

    Ahluwalia, A; Jones, M K; Szabo, S; Tarnawski, A S

    2014-04-01

    In some tissues, aging impairs angiogenesis and reduces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), a fundamental regulator of angiogenesis. We previously examined angiogenesis in aging and young gastric mucosa in vivo and in vitro and showed that an imbalance between expressions of VEGF (pro-angiogenic factor) and endostatin (anti-angiogenic protein) results in an aging-related impairment of angiogenesis in rats. However, the human relevance of these findings, and whether these mechanisms apply to endothelial cells derived from other tissues, is not clear. Since P-STAT3 and P-CREB are transcription factors that, in association with HIF-1α, can activate VEGF gene expression in some cells (e.g., liver cancer cells, vascular smooth muscle cells), we examined the expression of these two proteins in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) derived from aging and neonatal individuals. We examined and quantified in vitro angiogenesis, expression of VEGF, P-STAT3, P-CREB and importin-α in HMVECs isolated from neonates (neonatal) and a 66 year old subject (aging). We also examined the effects of treatment with exogenous VEGF and endostatin on in vitro angiogenesis in these cells. Endothelial cells isolated from aging individuals had impaired angiogenesis (vs. neonatal endothelial cells) and reduced expression of VEGF mRNA and protein. Aged HMVECs also had reduced importin-α expression, and reduced expression and nuclear translocation of P-STAT3 and P-CREB. Reduced VEGF gene expression in aged HMVECs strongly correlated with the decreased levels of P-STAT3, P-CREB and importin-α in these cells. Our study clearly demonstrates that endothelial cells from aging individuals have impaired angiogenesis and reduced expression of VEGF likely due to impaired nuclear transport of P-STAT3 and P-CREB transcription factors in these cells.

  20. Regulation of Germinal Center Reactions by B and T Cells

    Yeonseok Chung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Break of B cell tolerance to self-antigens results in the development of autoantibodies and, thus, leads to autoimmunity. How B cell tolerance is maintained during active germinal center (GC reactions is yet to be fully understood. Recent advances revealed several subsets of T cells and B cells that can positively or negatively regulate GC B cell responses in vivo. IL-21-producing CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells comprise a distinct lineage of helper T cells—termed follicular helper T cells (TFH—that can provide help for the development of GC reactions where somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation take place. Although the function of TFH cells is beneficial in generating high affinity antibodies against infectious agents, aberrant activation of TFH cell or B cell to self-antigens results in autoimmunity. At least three subsets of immune cells have been proposed as regulatory cells that can limit such antibody-mediated autoimmunity, including follicular regulatory T cells (TFR, Qa-1 restricted CD8+ regulatory T cells (CD8+TREG, and regulatory B cells (BREG. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of GC B cell regulation with specific emphasis on the newly identified immune cell subsets involved in this process.

  1. Regulated portals of entry into the cell

    Conner, Sean D.; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2003-03-01

    The plasma membrane is the interface between cells and their harsh environment. Uptake of nutrients and all communication among cells and between cells and their environment occurs through this interface. `Endocytosis' encompasses several diverse mechanisms by which cells internalize macromolecules and particles into transport vesicles derived from the plasma membrane. It controls entry into the cell and has a crucial role in development, the immune response, neurotransmission, intercellular communication, signal transduction, and cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the complexity of molecular interactions governing endocytosis are revealed, it has become increasingly clear that it is tightly coordinated and coupled with overall cell physiology and thus, must be viewed in a broader context than simple vesicular trafficking.

  2. European regulation for therapeutic use of stem cells.

    Ferry, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The regulation for the use of stem cells has evolved during the past decade with the aim of ensuring a high standard of quality and safety for human derived products throughout Europe to comply with the provision of the Lisbon treaty. To this end, new regulations have been issued and the regulatory status of stem cells has been revised. Indeed, stem cells used for therapeutic purposes can now be classified as a cell preparation, or as advanced therapy medicinal products depending on the clinical indication and on the procedure of cell preparation. Furthermore, exemptions to the European regulation are applicable for stem cells prepared and used within the hospital. The aim of this review is to give the non-specialized reader a broad overview of this particular regulatory landscape.

  3. Processing of thyrotropin-releasing hormone prohormone (pro-TRH) generates a biologically active peptide, prepro-TRH-(160-169), which regulates TRH-induced thyrotropin secretion

    Bulant, M.; Vaudry, H.; Roussel, J.P.; Astier, H.; Nicolas, P.

    1990-01-01

    Rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prohormone contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence Gln-His-Pro-Gly linked together by connecting sequences whose biological activity is unknown. Both the predicted connecting peptide prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and TRH are predominant storage forms of TRH precursor-related peptides in the hypothalamus. To determine whether Ps4 is co-released with TRH, rat median eminence slices were perfused in vitro. Infusion of depolarizing concentrations of KCl induced stimulation of release of Ps4- and TRH-like immunoreactivity. The possible effect of Ps4 on thyrotropin release was investigated in vitro using quartered anterior pituitaries. Infusion of Ps4 alone had no effect on thyrotropin secretion but potentiated TRH-induced thyrotropin release in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of specific binding sites for 125 I-labeled Tyr-Ps4 in the distal lobe of the pituitary was demonstrated by binding analysis and autoradiographic localization. These findings indicate that these two peptides that arise from a single multifunctional precursor, the TRH prohormone, act in a coordinate manner on the same target cells to promote hormonal secretion. These data suggest that differential processing of the TRH prohormone may have the potential to modulate the biological activity of TRH

  4. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    Wu, King-Chuen; Tseng, Ching-Li; Wu, Chi-Chang; Wang, Yang-Kao; Kao, Feng-Chen; Tu, Yuan-Kun; C So, Edmund

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell–scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. (review)

  5. Pro-inflammatory effects of interleukin-17A on vascular smooth muscle cells involve NAD(P)H- oxidase derived reactive oxygen species.

    Pietrowski, Eweline; Bender, Bianca; Huppert, Jula; White, Robin; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kuhlmann, Christoph R W

    2011-01-01

    T cells are known for their contribution to the inflammatory element of atherosclerosis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the Th17 derived cytokine IL-17 is involved in the pro-inflammatory response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The aim of the present study was to examine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) might be involved in this context. The effect of IL-17A on ROS generation was examined using the fluorescent dye 2'7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (H(2)DCF) in primary murine VSMC. IL-17A induced an increase in H(2)DCF fluorescence in VSMC, and this effect was blocked by the NAD(P)H-oxidase inhibitor apocynin and siRNA targeting Nox2. The p38-MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and SB202190 dose-dependently reduced the IL-17A induced ROS production. The IL-17A induced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1 from VSMC, as detected by the Luminex technology, was completely abolished by NAD(P)H-oxidase inhibition. Taken together, our data indicate that IL-17A causes the NAD(P)H-oxidase dependent generation of ROS leading to a pro-inflammatory activation of VSMC. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Molecular regulation of human hematopoietic stem cells

    van Galen, P.L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Peter van Galen focuses on understanding the determinants that maintain the stem cell state. Using human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as a model, processes that govern self-renewal and tissue regeneration were investigated. Specifically, a role for microRNAs in balancing the human HSC

  7. Exon-skipping strategy by ratio modulation between cytoprotective versus pro-apoptotic clusterin forms increased sensitivity of LNCaP to cell death.

    Abdellatif Essabbani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In prostate cancer the secreted form of clusterin (sCLU has been described as an anti-apoptotic protein whose expression is increased after therapeutic intervention, whereas, the nuclear protein form nCLU was reported to have pro-apoptotic properties. METHODOLOGY: In order to provide new therapeutic approaches targeting CLU, we developed a strategy based on exon skipping by using a lentiviral construct to preferentially induce the nuclear spliced form of the protein. The molecular construct was transduced in LNCaP cells for testing the modulation of sensitivity of the transduced cells to pro-apoptotic stress. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We showed an increase of nCLU/sCLU expression ratio in the prostate cancer cell line "LNCaP" after lentiviral vector-U7 nCLU transduction. Moreover, we showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation in nCLU-U7 LNCaP cells after treatment with cisplatin and after exposure to ionizing radiation compared to control cells. Finally, we showed that nCLU-U7 LNCaP cells exposure to UV-C significantly reduced an increase of cell death compared to control. Finally, we showed that modulating nCLU expression had profound impact on Ku70/Bax interaction as well as Rad17 expression which could be a key mechanism in sensitizing cells to cell death. In conclusion, this is the first report showing that increasing of nCLU/sCLU expression ratio by using an "on demand alternative splicing" strategy successfully increased sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy of prostate cancer cells.

  8. E2F-1 induces melanoma cell apoptosis via PUMA up-regulation and Bax translocation

    Hao, Hongying; Dong, Yanbin; Bowling, Maria T; Gomez-Gutierrez, Jorge G; Zhou, H Sam; McMasters, Kelly M

    2007-01-01

    PUMA is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member that has been shown to be involved in apoptosis in many cell types. We sought to ascertain whether induction of PUMA plays a crucial role in E2F-1-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells. PUMA gene and protein expression levels were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot in SK-MEL-2 and HCT116 cell lines after Ad-E2F-1 infection. Activation of the PUMA promoter by E2F-1 overexpression was detected by dual luciferase reporter assay. E2F-1-induced Bax translocation was shown by immunocytochemistry. The induction of caspase-9 activity was measured by caspase-9 colorimetric assay kit. Up-regulation of the PUMA gene and protein by E2F-1 overexpression was detected by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis in the SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell line. In support of this finding, we found six putative E2F-1 binding sites within the PUMA promoter. Subsequent dual luciferase reporter assay showed that E2F-1 expression could increase the PUMA gene promoter activity 9.3 fold in SK-MEL-2 cells. The role of PUMA in E2F-1-induced apoptosis was further investigated in a PUMA knockout cell line. Cell viability assay showed that the HCT116 PUMA-/- cell line was more resistant to Ad-E2F-1-mediated cell death than the HCT116 PUMA+/+ cell line. Moreover, a 2.2-fold induction of the PUMA promoter was also noted in the HCT116 PUMA+/+ colon cancer cell line after Ad-E2F-1 infection. Overexpression of a truncated E2F-1 protein that lacks the transactivation domain failed to up-regulate PUMA promoter, suggesting that PUMA may be a transcriptional target of E2F-1. E2F-1-induced cancer cell apoptosis was accompanied by Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria and the induction of caspase-9 activity, suggesting that E2F-1-induced apoptosis is mediated by PUMA through the cytochrome C/Apaf-1-dependent pathway. Our studies strongly demonstrated that E2F-1 induces melanoma cell apoptosis via PUMA up-regulation and Bax translocation. The signaling

  9. Pro-inflammatory wnt5a and anti-inflammatory sFRP5 are differentially regulated by nutritional factors in obese human subjects.

    Dominik M Schulte

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. These inflammatory cells affect adipocytes not only by classical cytokines but also by the secreted glycopeptide wnt5a. Healthy adipocytes are able to release the wnt5a inhibitor sFRP5. This protective effect, however, was found to be diminished in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine (1 whether obese human subjects exhibit increased serum concentrations of wnt5a and (2 whether wnt5a and/or sFRP5 serum concentrations in obese subjects can be influenced by caloric restriction.23 obese human subjects (BMI 44.1 ± 1.1 kg/m(2 and 12 age- and sex-matched lean controls (BMI 22.3 ± 0.4 kg/m(2 were included in the study. Obese subjects were treated with a very low-calorie diet (approximately 800 kcal/d for 12 weeks. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and wnt5a and sFRP5 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA. sFRP5 expression in human adipose tissue biopsies was further determined on protein level by immunohistology.Pro-inflammatory wnt5a was not measurable in any serum sample of lean control subjects. In patients with obesity, however, wnt5a became significantly detectable consistent with low grade inflammation in such subjects. Caloric restriction resulted in a weight loss from 131.9 ± 4.0 to 112.3 ± 3.2 kg in the obese patients group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of HOMA-IR and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these metabolic improvements were associated with a significant increase in serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory factor and wnt5a-inhibitor sFRP5.Obesity is associated with elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory wnt5a in humans. Furthermore, caloric restriction beneficially affects serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory sFRP5 in such subjects. These findings suggest a

  10. Retinoic Acid Signaling in Thymic Epithelial Cells Regulates Thymopoiesis

    Wendland, Kerstin; Niss, Kristoffer; Kotarsky, Knut

    2018-01-01

    Despite the essential role of thymic epithelial cells (TEC) in T cell development, the signals regulating TEC differentiation and homeostasis remain incompletely understood. In this study, we show a key in vivo role for the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), in TEC homeostasis. In the abse......Despite the essential role of thymic epithelial cells (TEC) in T cell development, the signals regulating TEC differentiation and homeostasis remain incompletely understood. In this study, we show a key in vivo role for the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), in TEC homeostasis...

  11. BMP signaling regulates satellite cell-dependent postnatal muscle growth.

    Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Synthesis of Gallic Acid Analogs as Histamine and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Inhibitors for Treatment of Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation.

    Fei, Xiang; Je, In-Gyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seo, Seung-Yong

    2017-05-29

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), is a natural product found in various foods and herbs that are well known as powerful antioxidants. Our previous report demonstrated that it inhibits mast cell-derived inflammatory allergic reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In this report, various amide analogs of gallic acid have been synthesized by introducing different amines through carbodiimide-mediated amide coupling and Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenation. These compounds showed a modest to high inhibitory effect on histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Among them, the amide bearing ( S )-phenylglycine methyl ester 3d was found to be more active than natural gallic acid. Further optimization yielded several ( S )- and ( R )-phenylglycine analogs that inhibited histamine release in vitro. Our findings suggest that some gallamides could be used as a treatment for allergic inflammatory diseases.

  13. American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured β Cells

    John Zeqi Luo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and β cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting β cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism. To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent β cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β, (200 pg ml−1, a cytokine to induce β cell apoptosis and water extracts of American ginseng (25 μg per 5 μl administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of β cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.

  14. The mechanism of pleural inflammation by long carbon nanotubes: interaction of long fibres with macrophages stimulates them to amplify pro-inflammatory responses in mesothelial cells

    Murphy Fiona A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNT are high aspect ratio nanoparticles with diameters in the nanometre range but lengths extending up to hundreds of microns. The structural similarities between CNT and asbestos have raised concern that they may pose a similar inhalation hazard. Recently CNT have been shown to elicit a length-dependent, asbestos-like inflammatory response in the pleural cavity of mice, where long fibres caused inflammation but short fibres did not. However the cellular mechanisms governing this response have yet to be elucidated. This study examined the in vitro effects of a range of CNT for their ability to stimulate the release of the acute phase cytokines; IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6 and the chemokine, IL-8 from both Met5a mesothelial cells and THP-1 macrophages. Results showed that direct exposure to CNT resulted in significant cytokine release from the macrophages but not mesothelial cells. This pro-inflammatory response was length dependent but modest and was shown to be a result of frustrated phagocytosis. Furthermore the indirect actions of the CNT were examined by treating the mesothelial cells with conditioned media from CNT-treated macrophages. This resulted in a dramatic amplification of the cytokine release from the mesothelial cells, a response which could be attenuated by inhibition of phagocytosis during the initial macrophage CNT treatments. We therefore hypothesise that long fibres elicit an inflammatory response in the pleural cavity via frustrated phagocytosis in pleural macrophages. The activated macrophages then stimulate an amplified pro-inflammatory cytokine response from the adjacent pleural mesothelial cells. This mechanism for producing a pro-inflammatory environment in the pleural space exposed to long CNT has implications for the general understanding of fibre-related pleural disease and design of safe nanofibres.

  15. Roquin Paralogs Differentially Regulate Functional NKT Cell Subsets.

    Drees, Christoph; Vahl, J Christoph; Bortoluzzi, Sabrina; Heger, Klaus D; Fischer, Julius C; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Peschel, Christian; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2017-04-01

    NKT cells represent a small subset of glycolipid-recognizing T cells that are heavily implicated in human allergic, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. In the thymus, precursor cells recognize self-glycolipids by virtue of their semi-invariant TCR, which triggers NKT cell lineage commitment and maturation. During their development, NKT cells are polarized into the NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17 subsets, defined through their cytokine-secretion patterns and the expression of key transcription factors. However, we have largely ignored how the differentiation into the NKT cell subsets is regulated. In this article, we describe the mRNA-binding Roquin-1 and -2 proteins as central regulators of murine NKT cell fate decisions. In the thymus, T cell-specific ablation of the Roquin paralogs leads to a dramatic expansion of NKT17 cells, whereas peripheral mature NKT cells are essentially absent. Roquin-1/2-deficient NKT17 cells show exaggerated lineage-specific expression of nearly all NKT17-defining proteins tested. We show through mixed bone marrow chimera experiments that NKT17 polarization is mediated through cell-intrinsic mechanisms early during NKT cell development. In contrast, the loss of peripheral NKT cells is due to cell-extrinsic factors. Surprisingly, Roquin paralog-deficient NKT cells are, in striking contrast to conventional T cells, compromised in their ability to secrete cytokines. Altogether, we show that Roquin paralogs regulate the development and function of NKT cell subsets in the thymus and periphery. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Brain natriuretic peptide precursor (NT-pro-BNP) levels predict for clinical benefit to sunitinib treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Papazisis, Konstantinos T; Kortsaris, Alexandros H; Kontovinis, Lukas F; Papandreou, Christos N; Kouvatseas, George; Lafaras, Christos; Antonakis, Evangelos; Christopoulou, Maria; Andreadis, Charalambos; Mouratidou, Despoina

    2010-01-01

    Sunitinib is an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Although the majority of sunitinib-treated patients receive a clinical benefit, almost a third of the patients will not respond. Currently there is no available marker that can predict for response in these patients. We estimated the plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP (the N-terminal precursor of brain natriuretic peptide) in 36 patients that were treated with sunitinib for metastatic clear-cell renal carcinoma. From the 36 patients, 9 had progressive disease and 27 obtained a clinical benefit (objective response or disease stabilization). Increases in plasma NT-pro-BNP were strongly correlated to clinical outcome. Patients with disease progression increased plasma BNP at statistically significant higher levels than patients that obtained a clinical benefit, and this was evident from the first 15 days of treatment (a three-fold increase in patients with progressive disease compared to stable NT-pro-BNP levels in patients with clinical benefit, p < 0.0001). Median progression-free survival was 12.0 months in patients with less than 1.5 fold increases (n = 22) and 3.9 months in patients with more than 1.5 fold increases in plasma NT-pro-BNP (n = 13) (log-rank test, p = 0.001). This is the first time that a potential 'surrogate marker' has been reported with such a clear correlation to clinical benefit at an early time of treatment. Due to the relative small number of accessed patients, this observation needs to be further addressed on larger cohorts. More analyses, including multivariate analyses are needed before such an observation can be used in clinical practice

  17. Matrin 3 as a key regulator of endothelial cell survival

    Przygodzka, Patrycja; Boncela, Joanna; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S.

    2011-01-01

    Matrin 3 is an integral component of nuclear matrix architecture that has been implicated in interacting with other nuclear proteins and thus modulating the activity of proximal promoters. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of this protein to proliferation of endothelial cells. To selectively modulate matrin 3 expression, we used siRNA oligonucleotides and transfection of cells with a pEGFP-N1-Mtr3. Our data indicate that downregulation of matrin 3 is responsible for reduced proliferation and leads to necrosis of endothelial cells. This conclusion is supported by observations that reducing matrin 3 expression results in (a) producing signs of necrosis detected by PI staining, LDH release, and scatter parameters in flow cytometry, (b) affecting cell cycle progression. It does not cause (c) membrane asymmetry of cells as indicated by lack of Annexin V binding as well as (d) activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of PARP. We conclude that matrin 3 plays a significant role in controlling cell growth and proliferation, probably via formation of complexes with nuclear proteins that modulate pro- and antiapoptotic signaling pathways. Thus, degradation of matrin 3 may be a switching event that induces a shift from apoptotic to necrotic death of cells.

  18. Cathepsin H indirectly regulates morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) in various human cell lines

    Rojnik, Matija; Jevnikar, Zala; Mirkovic, Bojana; Janes, Damjan; Zidar, Nace; Kikelj, Danijel; Kos, Janko

    2011-01-01

    Background Cathepsin H is a cysteine protease considered to play a major role in tumor progression, however, its precise function in tumorigenesis is unclear. Cathepsin H was recently proposed to be involved in processing of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in mice. In order to clarify whether cathepsin H also regulates BMP-4 in humans, its impact on BMP-4 expression, processing and degradation was investigated in prostate cancer (PC-3), osteosarcoma (HOS) and pro-monocytic (U937) human cell lines. Materials and methods BMP-4 expression was founded to be regulated by cathepsin H using PCR array technology and confirmed by real time PCR. Immunoassays including Western blot and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the influence of cathepsin H on BMP-4 processing. Results In contrast to HOS, the expression of BMP-4 mRNA in U937 and PC3 cells was significantly decreased by cathepsin H. The different regulation of BMP-4 synthesis could be associated with the absence of the mature 28 kDa cathepsin H form in HOS cells, where only the intermediate 30 kDa form was observed. No co-localization of BMP-4 and cathepsin H was observed in human cell lines and the multistep processing of BMP-4 was not altered in the presence of specific cathepsin H inhibitor. Isolated cathepsin H does not cleave mature recombinant BMP-4, neither with its amino- nor its endopeptidase activity. Conclusions Our results exclude direct proteolytic processing of BMP-4 by cathepsin H, however, they provide support for its involvement in the regulation of BMP-4 expression. PMID:22933963

  19. EMMPRIN regulates cytoskeleton reorganization and cell adhesion in prostate cancer.

    Zhu, Haining; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Beibei; Collazo, Joanne; Gal, Jozsef; Shi, Ping; Liu, Li; Ström, Anna-Lena; Lu, Xiaoning; McCann, Richard O; Toborek, Michal; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Proteins on cell surface play important roles during cancer progression and metastasis via their ability to mediate cell-to-cell interactions and navigate the communication between cells and the microenvironment. In this study a targeted proteomic analysis was conducted to identify the differential expression of cell surface proteins in human benign (BPH-1) versus malignant (LNCaP and PC-3) prostate epithelial cells. We identified EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) as a key candidate and shRNA functional approaches were subsequently applied to determine the role of EMMPRIN in prostate cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion as well as cytoskeleton organization. EMMPRIN was found to be highly expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells compared to BPH-1 cells, consistent with a correlation between elevated EMMPRIN and metastasis found in other tumors. No significant changes in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, or apoptosis were detected in EMMPRIN knockdown cells compared to the scramble controls. Furthermore, EMMPRIN silencing markedly decreased the ability of PC-3 cells to form filopodia, a critical feature of invasive behavior, while it increased expression of cell-cell adhesion and gap junction proteins. Our results suggest that EMMPRIN regulates cell adhesion, invasion, and cytoskeleton reorganization in prostate cancer cells. This study identifies a new function for EMMPRIN as a contributor to prostate cancer cell-cell communication and cytoskeleton changes towards metastatic spread, and suggests its potential value as a marker of prostate cancer progression to metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Regulation of pulmonary inflammation by mesenchymal cells

    Alkhouri, Hatem; Poppinga, Wilfred Jelco; Tania, Navessa Padma; Ammit, Alaina; Schuliga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodelling are common elements of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In disease, pulmonary mesenchymal cells not only contribute to tissue

  1. Mast Cell Interactions and Crosstalk in Regulating Allergic Inflammation.

    Velez, Tania E; Bryce, Paul J; Hulse, Kathryn E

    2018-04-17

    This review summarizes recent findings on mast cell biology with a focus on IgE-independent roles of mast cells in regulating allergic responses. Recent studies have described novel mast cell-derived molecules, both secreted and membrane-bound, that facilitate cross-talk with a variety of immune effector cells to mediate type 2 inflammatory responses. Mast cells are complex and dynamic cells that are persistent in allergy and are capable of providing signals that lead to the initiation and persistence of allergic mechanisms.

  2. Sonoporation of adherent cells under regulated ultrasound cavitation conditions.

    Muleki Seya, Pauline; Fouqueray, Manuela; Ngo, Jacqueline; Poizat, Adrien; Inserra, Claude; Béra, Jean-Christophe

    2015-04-01

    A sonoporation device dedicated to the adherent cell monolayer has been implemented with a regulation process allowing the real-time monitoring and control of inertial cavitation activity. Use of the cavitation-regulated device revealed first that adherent cell sonoporation efficiency is related to inertial cavitation activity, without inducing additional cell mortality. Reproducibility is enhanced for the highest sonoporation rates (up to 17%); sonoporation efficiency can reach 26% when advantage is taken of the standing wave acoustic configuration by applying a frequency sweep with ultrasound frequency tuned to the modal acoustic modes of the cavity. This device allows sonoporation of adherent and suspended cells, and the use of regulation allows some environmental parameters such as the temperature of the medium to be overcome, resulting in the possibility of cell sonoporation even at ambient temperature. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In silico identification of NF-kappaB-regulated genes in pancreatic beta-cells

    Eizirik Decio L

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic beta-cells are the target of an autoimmune attack in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. This is mediated in part by cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-1β and interferon (IFN-γ. These cytokines modify the expression of hundreds of genes, leading to beta-cell dysfunction and death by apoptosis. Several of these cytokine-induced genes are potentially regulated by the IL-1β-activated transcription factor (TF nuclear factor (NF-κB, and previous studies by our group have shown that cytokine-induced NF-κB activation is pro-apoptotic in beta-cells. To identify NF-κB-regulated gene networks in beta-cells we presently used a discriminant analysis-based approach to predict NF-κB responding genes on the basis of putative regulatory elements. Results The performance of linear and quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA, QDA in identifying NF-κB-responding genes was examined on a dataset of 240 positive and negative examples of NF-κB regulation, using stratified cross-validation with an internal leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV loop for automated feature selection and noise reduction. LDA performed slightly better than QDA, achieving 61% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 87% positive predictive value, and allowing the identification of 231, 251 and 580 NF-κB putative target genes in insulin-producing INS-1E cells, primary rat beta-cells and human pancreatic islets, respectively. Predicted NF-κB targets had a significant enrichment in genes regulated by cytokines (IL-1β or IL-1β + IFN-γ and double stranded RNA (dsRNA, as compared to genes not regulated by these NF-κB-dependent stimuli. We increased the confidence of the predictions by selecting only evolutionary stable genes, i.e. genes with homologs predicted as NF-κB targets in rat, mouse, human and chimpanzee. Conclusion The present in silico analysis allowed us to identify novel regulatory targets of NF-κB using a supervised classification method based on

  4. Akt regulates drug-induced cell death through Bcl-w downregulation.

    Michela Garofalo

    Full Text Available Akt is a serine threonine kinase with a major role in transducing survival signals and regulating proteins involved in apoptosis. To find new interactors of Akt involved in cell survival, we performed a two-hybrid screening in yeast using human full-length Akt c-DNA as bait and a murine c-DNA library as prey. Among the 80 clones obtained, two were identified as Bcl-w. Bcl-w is a member of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the regulation of cellular survival, and that is up-regulated in different human tumors, such as gastric and colorectal carcinomas. Direct interaction of Bcl-w with Akt was confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequently, we addressed the function of this interaction: by interfering with the activity or amount of Akt, we have demonstrated that Akt modulates the amount of Bcl-w protein. We have found that inhibition of Akt activity may promote apoptosis through the downregulation of Bcl-w protein and the consequential reduction in interaction of Bcl-w with pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Our data provide evidence that Bcl-w is a new member of the Akt pathway and that Akt may induce anti-apoptotic signals at least in part through the regulation of the amount and activity of Bcl-w.

  5. Akt regulates drug-induced cell death through Bcl-w downregulation.

    Garofalo, Michela; Quintavalle, Cristina; Zanca, Ciro; De Rienzo, Assunta; Romano, Giulia; Acunzo, Mario; Puca, Loredana; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Croce, Carlo M; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2008-01-01

    Akt is a serine threonine kinase with a major role in transducing survival signals and regulating proteins involved in apoptosis. To find new interactors of Akt involved in cell survival, we performed a two-hybrid screening in yeast using human full-length Akt c-DNA as bait and a murine c-DNA library as prey. Among the 80 clones obtained, two were identified as Bcl-w. Bcl-w is a member of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the regulation of cellular survival, and that is up-regulated in different human tumors, such as gastric and colorectal carcinomas. Direct interaction of Bcl-w with Akt was confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequently, we addressed the function of this interaction: by interfering with the activity or amount of Akt, we have demonstrated that Akt modulates the amount of Bcl-w protein. We have found that inhibition of Akt activity may promote apoptosis through the downregulation of Bcl-w protein and the consequential reduction in interaction of Bcl-w with pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Our data provide evidence that Bcl-w is a new member of the Akt pathway and that Akt may induce anti-apoptotic signals at least in part through the regulation of the amount and activity of Bcl-w.

  6. Biophysical force regulation in 3D tumor cell invasion

    Wu, Mingming

    When embedded within 3D extracellular matrices (ECM), animal cells constantly probe and adapt to the ECM locally (at cell length scale) and exert forces and communicate with other cells globally (up to 10 times of cell length). It is now well accepted that mechanical crosstalk between animal cells and their microenvironment critically regulate cell function such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Disruption of the cell-ECM crosstalk is implicated in a number of pathologic processes including tumor progression and fibrosis. Central to the problem of cell-ECM crosstalk is the physical force that cells generate. By measuring single cell generated force within 3D collagen matrices, we revealed a mechanical crosstalk mechanism between the tumor cells and the ECM. Cells generate sufficient force to stiffen collagen fiber network, and stiffer matrix, in return promotes larger cell force generation. Our work highlights the importance of fibrous nonlinear elasticity in regulating tumor cell-ECM interaction, and results may have implications in the rapid tissue stiffening commonly found in tumor progression and fibrosis. This work is partially supported by NIH Grants R21RR025801 and R21GM103388.

  7. MHC class II molecules regulate growth in human T cells

    Nielsen, M; Odum, Niels; Bendtzen, K

    1994-01-01

    MHC-class-II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune disorders. Stimulation of class II molecules by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of protein tyrosine kinases in T cells, and class II signals...... lines tested. Only one of three CD4+, CD45RAhigh, ROhigh T cells responded to class II costimulation. There was no correlation between T cell responsiveness to class II and the cytokine production profile of the T cell in question. Thus, T cell lines producing interferon (IFN)-gamma but not IL-4 (TH1...... modulate several T cell responses. Here, we studied further the role of class II molecules in the regulation of T cell growth. Costimulation of class II molecules by immobilized HLA-DR mAb significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2-supported T cell growth of the majority of CD4+, CD45RAlow, ROhigh T cell...

  8. Quantitative regulation of B cell division destiny by signal strength.

    Turner, Marian L; Hawkins, Edwin D; Hodgkin, Philip D

    2008-07-01

    Differentiation to Ab secreting and isotype-switched effector cells is tightly linked to cell division and therefore the degree of proliferation strongly influences the nature of the immune response. The maximum number of divisions reached, termed the population division destiny, is stochastically distributed in the population and is an important parameter in the quantitative outcome of lymphocyte responses. In this study, we further assessed the variables that regulate B cell division destiny in vitro in response to T cell- and TLR-dependent stimuli. Both the concentration and duration of stimulation were able to regulate the average maximum number of divisions undergone for each stimulus. Notably, a maximum division destiny was reached during provision of repeated saturating stimulation, revealing that an intrinsic limit to proliferation exists even under these conditions. This limit was linked directly to division number rather than time of exposure to stimulation and operated independently of the survival regulation of the cells. These results demonstrate that a B cell population's division destiny is regulable by the stimulatory conditions up to an inherent maximum value. Division destiny is a crucial parameter in regulating the extent of B cell responses and thereby also the nature of the immune response mounted.

  9. Understanding cell cycle and cell death regulation provides novel weapons against human diseases.

    Wiman, K G; Zhivotovsky, B

    2017-05-01

    Cell division, cell differentiation and cell death are the three principal physiological processes that regulate tissue homoeostasis in multicellular organisms. The growth and survival of cells as well as the integrity of the genome are regulated by a complex network of pathways, in which cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair and programmed cell death have critical roles. Disruption of genomic integrity and impaired regulation of cell death may both lead to uncontrolled cell growth. Compromised cell death can also favour genomic instability. It is becoming increasingly clear that dysregulation of cell cycle and cell death processes plays an important role in the development of major disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, infection, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Research achievements in these fields have led to the development of novel approaches for treatment of various conditions associated with abnormalities in the regulation of cell cycle progression or cell death. A better understanding of how cellular life-and-death processes are regulated is essential for this development. To highlight these important advances, the Third Nobel Conference entitled 'The Cell Cycle and Cell Death in Disease' was organized at Karolinska Institutet in 2016. In this review we will summarize current understanding of cell cycle progression and cell death and discuss some of the recent advances in therapeutic applications in pathological conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders and inflammation. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. ARP2, a novel pro-apoptotic protein expressed in epithelial prostate cancer LNCaP cells and epithelial ovary CHO transformed cells.

    Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Navarro-Vidal, Enrique; Tapia-Vieyra, Juana Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic epithelial cells generate the most aggressive types of cancers such as those located in the lung, breast, colon, prostate and ovary. During advanced stages of prostate cancer, epithelial cells are associated to the appearance of androgen-independent tumors, an apoptotic-resistant phenotype that ultimately overgrows and promotes metastatic events. We have previously identified and electrophysiologically characterized a novel Ca(2+)-permeable channel activated during apoptosis in the androgen-independent prostate epithelial cancer cell line, LNCaP. In addition, we reported for the first time the cloning and characterization of this channel-like molecule named apoptosis regulated protein 2 (ARP2) associated to a lethal influx of Ca(2+) in Xenopus oocytes. In the present study, LNCaP cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cell line) transfected with arp2-cDNA are induced to undergo apoptosis showing an important impact on cell viability and activation of caspases 3 and 7 when compared to serum deprived grown cells and ionomycin treated cells. The subcellular localization of ARP2 in CHO cells undergoing apoptosis was studied using confocal microscopy. While apoptosis progresses, ARP2 initially localized in the peri-nuclear region of cells migrates with time towards the plasma membrane region. Based on the present results and those of our previous studies, the fact that ARP2 constitutes a novel cation channel is supported. Therefore, ARP2 becomes a valuable target to modulate the influx and concentration of calcium in the cytoplasm of epithelial cancer cells showing an apoptotic-resistant phenotype during the onset of an apoptotic event.

  11. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    Eveloff, J.L.; Warnock, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K + and Cl - conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca 2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchange systems

  12. Protein kinase C signaling and cell cycle regulation

    Adrian R Black

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A link between T cell proliferation and the protein kinase C (PKC family of serine/threonine kinases has been recognized for about thirty years. However, despite the wealth of information on PKC-mediated control of T cell activation, understanding of the effects of PKCs on the cell cycle machinery in this cell type remains limited. Studies in other systems have revealed important cell cycle-specific effects of PKC signaling that can either positively or negatively impact proliferation. The outcome of PKC activation is highly context-dependent, with the precise cell cycle target(s and overall effects determined by the specific isozyme involved, the timing of PKC activation, the cell type, and the signaling environment. Although PKCs can regulate all stages of the cell cycle, they appear to predominantly affect G0/G1 and G2. PKCs can modulate multiple cell cycle regulatory molecules, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks, cdk inhibitors and cdc25 phosphatases; however, evidence points to Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins as key mediators of PKC-regulated cell cycle-specific effects. Several PKC isozymes can target Cip/Kip proteins to control G0/G1→S and/or G2→M transit, while effects on D-type cyclins regulate entry into and progression through G1. Analysis of PKC signaling in T cells has largely focused on its roles in T cell activation; thus, observed cell cycle effects are mainly positive. A prominent role is emerging for PKCθ, with non-redundant functions of other isozymes also described. Additional evidence points to PKCδ as a negative regulator of the cell cycle in these cells. As in other cell types, context-dependent effects of individual isozymes have been noted in T cells, and Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins appear to be major PKC targets. Future studies are anticipated to take advantage of the similarities between these various systems to enhance understanding of PKC-mediated cell cycle regulation in

  13. ASIC PROTEINS REGULATE SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL MIGRATION

    Grifoni, Samira C.; Jernigan, Nikki L.; Hamilton, Gina; Drummond, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) protein expression and importance in cellular migration. We recently demonstrated Epithelial Na+ Channel (ENaC) proteins are required for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, however the role of the closely related ASIC proteins has not been addressed. We used RT-PCR and immunolabeling to determine expression of ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4 in A10 cells. We used small interference RNA to silence indi...

  14. Mitochondrial fission proteins regulate programmed cell death in yeast.

    Fannjiang, Yihru; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Lee, Sarah J; Qi, Bing; Pevsner, Jonathan; McCaffery, J Michael; Hill, R Blake; Basañez, Gorka; Hardwick, J Marie

    2004-11-15

    The possibility that single-cell organisms undergo programmed cell death has been questioned in part because they lack several key components of the mammalian cell death machinery. However, yeast encode a homolog of human Drp1, a mitochondrial fission protein that was shown previously to promote mammalian cell death and the excessive mitochondrial fragmentation characteristic of apoptotic mammalian cells. In support of a primordial origin of programmed cell death involving mitochondria, we found that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of human Drp1, Dnm1, promotes mitochondrial fragmentation/degradation and cell death following treatment with several death stimuli. Two Dnm1-interacting factors also regulate yeast cell death. The WD40 repeat protein Mdv1/Net2 promotes cell death, consistent with its role in mitochondrial fission. In contrast to its fission function in healthy cells, Fis1 unexpectedly inhibits Dnm1-mediated mitochondrial fission and cysteine protease-dependent cell death in yeast. Furthermore, the ability of yeast Fis1 to inhibit mitochondrial fission and cell death can be functionally replaced by human Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Together, these findings indicate that yeast and mammalian cells have a conserved programmed death pathway regulated by a common molecular component, Drp1/Dnm1, that is inhibited by a Bcl-2-like function.

  15. BMP signalling differentially regulates distinct haematopoietic stem cell types

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); P. Solaimani Kartalaei (Parham); C.S. Vink (Chris); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); K. Bollerot (Karine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Van Der Linden (Reinier); S.C. de Sousa Lopes (Susana Chuva); R. Monteiro (Rui); C.L. Mummery (Christine); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAdult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they

  16. Regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression by mast cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.

    Jie Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium and subsequent transendothelial migration play essential roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The leukocyte adhesion is mediated by localized activation of the endothelium through the action of inflammatory cytokines. The exact proinflammatory factors, however, that activate the endothelium and their cellular sources remain incompletely defined.Using bone marrow-derived mast cells from wild-type, Tnf(-/-, Ifng(-/-, Il6(-/- mice, we demonstrated that all three of these pro-inflammatory cytokines from mast cells induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, P-selectin, and E-selectin in murine heart endothelial cells (MHEC at both mRNA and protein levels. Compared with TNF-α and IL6, IFN-γ appeared weaker in the induction of the mRNA levels, but at protein levels, both IL6 and IFN-γ were weaker inducers than TNF-α. Under physiological shear flow conditions, mast cell-derived TNF-α and IL6 were more potent than IFN-γ in activating MHEC and in promoting neutrophil adhesion. Similar observations were made when neutrophils or macrophages were used. Neutrophils and macrophages produced the same sets of pro-inflammatory cytokines as did mast cells to induce MHEC adhesion molecule expression, with the exception that macrophage-derived IFN-γ showed negligible effect in inducing VCAM-1 expression in MHEC.Mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL6 that induce expression of adhesion molecules in endothelium and recruit of leukocytes, which is essential to the pathogenesis of vascular inflammatory diseases.

  17. Gamma Delta T-Cells Regulate Inflammatory Cell Infiltration of the Lung after Trauma-Hemorrhage

    2015-06-01

    suggesting a role for this T- cell subset in both innate and acquired immunity (7, 8). Studies have shown that +% T cells are required for both controlled...increased infiltration of both lymphoid and myeloid cells in WT mice after TH-induced ALI. In parallel to +% T cells , myeloid cells (i.e., monocytes...GAMMA DELTA T CELLS REGULATE INFLAMMATORY CELL INFILTRATION OF THE LUNG AFTER TRAUMA-HEMORRHAGE Meenakshi Rani,* Qiong Zhang,* Richard F. Oppeltz

  18. Lin28a regulates germ cell pool size and fertility

    Shinoda, Gen; de Soysa, T. Yvanka; Seligson, Marc T.; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Yuko; Huang, Pei Yi; Hagan, John P.; Gregory, Richard I.; Moss, Eric G.; Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of LIN28A is associated with human germ cell tumors and promotes primordial germ cell (PGC) development from embryonic stem cells in vitro and in chimeric mice. Knockdown of Lin28a inhibits PGC development in vitro, but how constitutional Lin28a deficiency affects the mammalian reproductive system in vivo remains unknown. Here, we generated Lin28a knockout (KO) mice and found that Lin28a deficiency compromises the size of the germ cell pool in both males and females by affecting PGC proliferation during embryogenesis. Interestingly however, in Lin28a KO males the germ cell pool partially recovers during postnatal expansion, while fertility remains impaired in both males and females mated to wild type mice. Embryonic overexpression of let-7, a microRNA negatively regulated by Lin28a, reduces the germ cell pool, corroborating the role of the Lin28a/let-7 axis in regulating the germ lineage. PMID:23378032

  19. TGF-β Signaling Regulates Pancreatic β-Cell Proliferation through Control of Cell Cycle Regulator p27 Expression

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Dai, Ping; Hatakeyama, Tomoya; Harada, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hideo; Yoshimura, Norio; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of pancreatic β-cells is an important mechanism underlying β-cell mass adaptation to metabolic demands. Increasing β-cell mass by regeneration may ameliorate or correct both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which both result from inadequate production of insulin by β-cells of the pancreatic islet. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling is essential for fetal development and growth of pancreatic islets. In this study, we exposed HIT-T15, a clonal pancreatic β-cell line, to TGF-β signaling. We found that inhibition of TGF-β signaling promotes proliferation of the cells significantly, while TGF-β signaling stimulation inhibits proliferation of the cells remarkably. We confirmed that this proliferative regulation by TGF-β signaling is due to the changed expression of the cell cycle regulator p27. Furthermore, we demonstrated that there is no observed effect on transcriptional activity of p27 by TGF-β signaling. Our data show that TGF-β signaling mediates the cell-cycle progression of pancreatic β-cells by regulating the nuclear localization of CDK inhibitor, p27. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling reduces the nuclear accumulation of p27, and as a result this inhibition promotes proliferation of β-cells

  20. Cellular growth in plants requires regulation of cell wall biochemistry.

    Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2017-02-01

    Cell and organ morphogenesis in plants are regulated by the chemical structure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, the cell wall. The two primary load bearing components in the plant cell wall, the pectin matrix and the cellulose/xyloglucan network, are constantly remodelled to generate the morphological changes required during plant development. This remodelling is regulated by a plethora of loosening and stiffening agents such as pectin methyl-esterases, calcium ions, expansins, and glucanases. The tight spatio-temporal regulation of the activities of these agents is a sine qua non condition for proper morphogenesis at cell and tissue levels. The pectin matrix and the cellulose-xyloglucan network operate in concert and their behaviour is mutually dependent on their chemical, structural and mechanical modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of catalase expression in healthy and cancerous cells.

    Glorieux, Christophe; Zamocky, Marcel; Sandoval, Juan Marcelo; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2015-10-01

    Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme that dismutates hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. The catalase gene has all the characteristics of a housekeeping gene (no TATA box, no initiator element sequence, high GC content in promoter) and a core promoter that is highly conserved among species. We demonstrate in this review that within this core promoter, the presence of DNA binding sites for transcription factors, such as NF-Y and Sp1, plays an essential role in the positive regulation of catalase expression. Additional transcription factors, such as FoxO3a, are also involved in this regulatory process. There is strong evidence that the protein Akt/PKB in the PI3K signaling pathway plays a major role in the expression of catalase by modulating the activity of FoxO3a. Over the past decade, other transcription factors (PPARγ, Oct-1, etc.), as well as genetic, epigenetic, and posttranscriptional processes, have emerged as crucial contributors to the regulation of catalase expression. Altered expression levels of catalase have been reported in cancer tissues compared to their normal counterparts. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms that regulate catalase expression could, therefore, be of crucial importance for the future development of pro-oxidant cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Preconditioning of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells with deferoxamine increases the production of pro-angiogenic, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory factors: Potential application in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

    Oses, Carolina; Olivares, Belén; Ezquer, Marcelo; Acosta, Cristian; Bosch, Paul; Donoso, Macarena; Léniz, Patricio; Ezquer, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is one of the most frequent and troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus. Evidence from diabetic animal models and diabetic patients suggests that reduced availability of neuroprotective and pro-angiogenic factors in the nerves in combination with a chronic pro-inflammatory microenvironment and high level of oxidative stress, contribute to the pathogenesis of DN. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of great interest as therapeutic agents for regenerative purposes, since they can secrete a broad range of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory factors. Therefore, the use of the MSC secretome may represent a promising approach for DN treatment. Recent data indicate that the paracrine potential of MSCs could be boosted by preconditioning these cells with an environmental or pharmacological stimulus, enhancing their therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we observed that the preconditioning of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) with 150μM or 400μM of the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFX) for 48 hours, increased the abundance of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in a concentration dependent manner, without affecting MSC morphology and survival. Activation of HIF-1α led to the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of pro-angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor alpha and angiopoietin 1. Furthermore this preconditioning increased the expression of potent neuroprotective factors, including nerve growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3, and cytokines with anti-inflammatory activity like IL4 and IL5. Additionally, we observed that these molecules, which could also be used as therapeutics, were also increased in the secretome of MSCs preconditioned with DFX compared to the secretome obtained from non-preconditioned cells. Moreover, DFX preconditioning significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity of the MSC secretome and they showed neuroprotective effects when

  3. ASIC proteins regulate smooth muscle cell migration.

    Grifoni, Samira C; Jernigan, Nikki L; Hamilton, Gina; Drummond, Heather A

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) protein expression and importance in cellular migration. We recently demonstrated that Epithelial Na(+)Channel (ENaC) proteins are required for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration; however, the role of the closely related ASIC proteins has not been addressed. We used RT-PCR and immunolabeling to determine expression of ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4 in A10 cells. We used small interference RNA to silence individual ASIC expression and determine the importance of ASIC proteins in wound healing and chemotaxis (PDGF-bb)-initiated migration. We found ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, but not ASIC4, expression in A10 cells. ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3 siRNA molecules significantly suppressed expression of their respective proteins compared to non-targeting siRNA (RISC) transfected controls by 63%, 44%, and 55%, respectively. Wound healing was inhibited by 10, 20, and 26% compared to RISC controls following suppression of ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, respectively. Chemotactic migration was inhibited by 30% and 45%, respectively, following suppression of ASIC1 and ASIC3. ASIC2 suppression produced a small, but significant, increase in chemotactic migration (4%). Our data indicate that ASIC expression is required for normal migration and may suggest a novel role for ASIC proteins in cellular migration.

  4. Dimethoxycurcumin-induced cell death in human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells: evidence for pro-oxidant activity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis.

    Kunwar, A; Jayakumar, S; Srivastava, A K; Priyadarsini, K I

    2012-04-01

    The factors responsible for the induction of cell death by dimethoxycurcumin (Dimc), a synthetic analog of curcumin, were assessed in human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells. Initial cytotoxic studies with both curcumin and Dimc using MTT assay indicated their comparable effects. Further, the mechanism of action was explored in terms of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and modulation in the expression of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Dimc (5-50 μM) caused generation of reactive oxygen species, reduction in glutathione level, and induction of DNA damage. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Dimc was evidenced by the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and decrease in cellular energy status (ATP/ADP) monitored by HPLC analysis. The observed decrease in ATP was also supported by the significant suppression of different (α, β, γ, and ε) subunits of ATP synthase. The cytotoxic effect of Dimc was further characterized in terms of induction of S-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and their relative contribution was found to vary with the treatment concentration of Dimc. The S-phase arrest and apoptosis could also be correlated with the changes in the expressions of cell cycle proteins like p53, p21, CDK4, and cyclin-D1 and apoptotic markers like Bax and Bcl-2. Overall, the results demonstrated that Dimc induced cell death in MCF7 cells through S-phase arrest and apoptosis.

  5. miR-143 Activation Regulates Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Cell Crosstalk in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Stevens, Hannah; Lu, Ruifang; Caudrillier, Axelle; McBride, Martin; McClure, John D; Grant, Jenny; Thomas, Matthew; Frid, Maria; Stenmark, Kurt; White, Kevin; Seto, Anita G.; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Bradshaw, Angela C; MacLean, Margaret R.; Baker, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The pathogenesis of PAH remains unclear. The four microRNAs representing the miR-143 and miR-145 stem loops are genomically clustered. Objective To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of the miR-143/145 cluster, and the role of miR-143 in PAH. Methods and Results We identified the promoter region that regulates miR-143/145 miRNA expression in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). We mapped PAH-related signalling pathways, including estrogens receptor (ER), liver X factor/retinoic X receptor (LXR/RXR), TGF-β (Smads), and hypoxia (HRE) that regulated levels of all pri-miR stem loop transcription and resulting miRNA expression. We observed that miR-143-3p is selectively upregulated compared to miR-143-5p during PASMC migration. Modulation of miR-143 in PASMCs significantly altered cell migration and apoptosis. In addition, we found high abundance of miR-143-3p in PASMCs-derived exosomes. Using assays with pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) we demonstrated a paracrine pro-migratory and pro-angiogenic effect of miR-143-3p enriched exosomes from PASMC. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridisation showed elevated expression of miR-143 in calf models of PAH as well as in samples from PAH patients. Moreover, in contrast to our previous findings that had not supported a therapeutic role in vivo, we now demonstrate a protective role for miR-143 in experimental PH in vivo in miR-143−/− and antimiR143-3p-treated mice exposed to chronic hypoxia in both preventative and reversal settings. Conclusions miR-143-3p modulated both cellular and exosome-mediated responses in pulmonary vascular cells, while inhibition of miR-143-3p blocked experimental PH. Taken together these findings confirm an important role for the miR-143/145 cluster in PAH pathobiology. PMID:26311719

  6. SOX15 regulates proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer cells.

    Rui, Xiaohui; Xu, Yun; Jiang, Xiping; Guo, Caixia; Jiang, Jingting

    2017-10-31

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of Sry-like high mobility group box 15 ( SOX15 ) on proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer (EC) cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to determine the expression of SOX15 in EC tissues and adjacent tissues. We used cell transfection method to construct the HEC-1-A and Ishikawa cell lines with stable overexpression and low expression SOX15 Reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot were performed to examine expression of SOX15 mRNA and SOX15 protein, respectively. By conducting a series of cell proliferation assay and migration assay, we analyzed the influence of SOX15 overexpression or low expression on EC cell proliferation and migration. The expression of SOX15 mRNA and protein in EC tissues was significantly lower than that in adjacent tissues. After lentivirus-transfecting SOX15 , the expression level of SOX15 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in cells of SOX15 group, and decreased in sh- SOX15 group. Overexpression of SOX15 could suppress cell proliferation, while down-regulation of SOX15 increased cell proliferation. Flow cytometry results indicated that overexpression of SOX15 induced the ratio of cell-cycle arrest in G 1 stage. In addition, Transwell migration assay results showed that SOX15 overexpression significantly inhibited cell migration, and also down-regulation of SOX15 promoted the migration. As a whole, SOX15 could regulate the proliferation and migration of EC cells and up- regulation of SOX15 could be valuable for EC treatment. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Correlation of Hypoxia and Pro-senescence Protein Expression in Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Lung Epithelial and Dermal Fibroblast Cell Culture

    Anggraini Barlian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown hypoxia-induced gene expression correlated with cellular senescence. HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, p53, and pRB were induced under hypoxia and correlated with cellular senescence. The localization and expression of HIF-1α, p53, and pRB in Chelonia mydas lung epithelial and dermal fibroblast cell cultures were analyzed under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (at 4 and 24 hours. Human dermal fibroblast was used for comparison purposes. Protein localization was analyzed with immunocytochemistry, while protein expression was analyzed with the Western blot and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL method. HIF-1α, p53, and pRB were localized in the nuclei of the C. mydas cell cultures treated with hypoxia. The C. mydas lung epithelial cell cultures had a higher increase of HIF-1α expression than the human dermal fibroblast cell culture. The hypoxic conditions did not affect p53 expression significantly in C. mydas lung epithelial and dermal fibroblast cell cultures. Meanwhile, pRB expression changed significantly under hypoxia in the C. mydas dermal fibroblast cells. Expression of p53 and pRB in the human cell cultures was higher than in the C. mydas cell cultures. This research suggests that C. mydas and human cell cultures have different pro-senescence protein expression responses under hypoxic conditions.

  8. Molecular biological mechanism II. Molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation

    Jung, T.

    2000-01-01

    The cell cycle in eukaryotes is regulated by central cell cycle controlling protein kinase complexes. These protein kinase complexes consist of a catalytic subunit from the cyclin-dependent protein kinase family (CDK), and a regulatory subunit from the cyclin family. Cyclins are characterised by their periodic cell cycle related synthesis and destruction. Each cell cycle phase is characterised by a specific set of CDKs and cyclins. The activity of CDK/cyclin complexes is mainly regulated on four levels. It is controlled by specific phosphorylation steps, the synthesis and destruction of cyclins, the binding of specific inhibitor proteins, and by active control of their intracellular localisation. At several critical points within the cell cycle, named checkpoints, the integrity of the cellular genome is monitored. If damage to the genome or an unfinished prior cell cycle phase is detected, the cell cycle progression is stopped. These cell cycle blocks are of great importance to secure survival of cells. Their primary importance is to prevent the manifestation and heritable passage of a mutated genome to daughter cells. Damage sensing, DNA repair, cell cycle control and apoptosis are closely linked cellular defence mechanisms to secure genome integrity. Disregulation in one of these defence mechanisms are potentially correlated with an increased cancer risk and therefore in at least some cases with an increased radiation sensitivity. (orig.) [de

  9. Nuclear myosin I regulates cell membrane tension

    Venit, Tomáš; Kalendová, Alžběta; Petr, Martin; Dzijak, Rastislav; Pastorek, Lukáš; Rohožková, Jana; Malohlava, M.; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, AUG 2 (2016), č. článku 30864. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : neuronal growth cone * rna-polymerase-ii * cancer cells * phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate * myo1c * actin * transcription * complex * motor * afm Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  10. Regulation of Floral Stem Cell Termination in Arabidopsis

    Toshiro eIto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, floral stem cells are maintained only at the initial stages of flower development, and they are terminated at a specific time to ensure proper development of the reproductive organs. Floral stem cell termination is a dynamic and multi-step process involving many transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors and signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms involved in floral stem cell maintenance and termination, highlighting the interplay between transcriptional regulation and epigenetic machinery in the control of specific floral developmental genes. In addition, we discuss additional factors involved in floral stem cell regulation, with the goal of untangling the complexity of the floral stem cell regulatory network.

  11. Regulation of Cell and Gene Therapy Medicinal Products in Taiwan.

    Lin, Yi-Chu; Wang, Po-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Lin, Chien-Liang; Tai, Hsuen-Yung; Lo, Chi-Fang; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Chiang, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the rapid and mature development of emerging biotechnology in the fields of cell culture, cell preservation, and recombinant DNA technology, more and more cell or gene medicinal therapy products have been approved for marketing, to treat serious diseases which have been challenging to treat with current medical practice or medicine. This chapter will briefly introduce the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) and elaborate regulation of cell and gene therapy medicinal products in Taiwan, including regulatory history evolution, current regulatory framework, application and review procedures, and relevant jurisdictional issues. Under the promise of quality, safety, and efficacy of medicinal products, it is expected the regulation and environment will be more flexible, streamlining the process of the marketing approval of new emerging cell or gene therapy medicinal products and providing diverse treatment options for physicians and patients.

  12. Down-regulation of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression after weaning is associated with hyperphagia-induced obesity in JCR rats overexpressing neuropeptide Y.

    Diané, Abdoulaye; Pierce, W David; Russell, James C; Heth, C Donald; Vine, Donna F; Richard, Denis; Proctor, Spencer D

    2014-03-14

    We hypothesised that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides are differentially expressed in obese-prone and lean-prone rats and trigger overeating-induced obesity. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we measured energy balance and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expressions in male JCR:LA-cp rats. We compared, in independent cohorts, free-feeding obese-prone (Obese-FF) and lean-prone (Lean-FF) rats at pre-weaning (10 d old), weaning (21-25 d old) and early adulthood (8-12 weeks). A group of Obese-pair-feeding (PF) rats pair-fed to the Lean-FF rats was included in the adult cohort. The body weights of 10-d-old Obese-FF and Lean-FF pups were not significantly different. However, when the pups were shifted from dams' milk to solid food (weaning), the obese-prone rats exhibited more energy intake over the days than the lean-prone rats and higher body and fat pad weights and fasting plasma glucose, leptin, insulin and lipid levels. These differences were consistent with higher energy consumption and lower energy expenditure. In the young adult cohort, the differences between the Obese-FF and Lean-FF rats became more pronounced, yielding significant age effects on most of the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, which were reduced in the Obese-PF rats. The obese-prone rats displayed higher NPY expression than the lean-prone rats at pre-weaning and weaning, and the expression levels did not differ by age. In contrast, POMC expression exhibited significant age-by-genotype differences. At pre-weaning, there was no genotype difference in POMC expression, but in the weanling cohort, obese-prone pups exhibited lower POMC expression than the lean-prone rats. This genotype difference became more pronounced at adulthood. Overall, the development of hyperphagia-induced obesity in obese-prone JCR rats is related to POMC expression down-regulation in the presence of established NPY overexpression.

  13. EZH2: a pivotal regulator in controlling cell differentiation.

    Chen, Ya-Huey; Hung, Mien-Chie; Li, Long-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in stem cell self-renewal, maintenance and lineage differentiation. The epigenetic profiles of stem cells are related to their transcriptional signature. Enhancer of Zeste homlog 2 (EZH2), a catalytic subunit of epigenetic regulator Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), has been shown to be a key regulator in controlling cellular differentiation. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that not only methylates histone H3 on Lys 27 (H3K27me3) but also interacts with and recruits DNA methyltransferases to methylate CpG at certain EZH2 target genes to establish firm repressive chromatin structures, contributing to tumor progression and the regulation of development and lineage commitment both in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells. In addition to its well-recognized epigenetic gene silencing function, EZH2 also directly methylates nonhistone targets such as the cardiac transcription factor, GATA4, resulting in attenuated GATA4 transcriptional activity and gene repression. This review addresses recent progress toward the understanding of the biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of EZH2 and its targets as well as their roles in stem cell maintenance and cell differentiation.

  14. Regulation of T cell differentiation and function by EZH2

    THEODOROS KARANTANOS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2, one of the polycomb group (PcG proteins, is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2 and induces the trimethylation of the histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3 promoting epigenetic gene silencing. EZH2 contains a SET domain promoting the methyltransferase activity while the three other protein components of PRC2, namely EED, SUZ12 and RpAp46/48 induce compaction of the chromatin permitting EZH2 enzymatic activity. Numerous studies highlight the role of this evolutionary conserved protein as a master regulator of differentiation in humans involved in the repression of the homeotic (Hox gene and the inactivation of X-chromosome. Through its effects in the epigenetic regulation of critical genes, EZH2 has been strongly linked to cell cycle progression, stem cell pluripotency and cancer biology. Most recently, EZH2 has been associated with hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thymopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Several studies have evaluated the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation and plasticity as well as its implications in the development of autoimmune diseases and graft versus host disease (GvHD. In this review we will briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation, effector function and homing in the tumor microenvironment and we will discuss possible therapeutic targeting of EZH2 in order to alter T cell immune functions.

  15. Cystatin F as a regulator of immune cell cytotoxicity.

    Kos, Janko; Nanut, Milica Perišić; Prunk, Mateja; Sabotič, Jerica; Dautović, Esmeralda; Jewett, Anahid

    2018-05-10

    Cysteine cathepsins are lysosomal peptidases involved in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Among the diverse processes, regulation of granule-dependent cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells during cancer progression has recently gained significant attention. The function of cysteine cathepsins is regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors-cystatins. Whereas other cystatins are generally cytosolic or extracellular proteins, cystatin F is present in endosomes and lysosomes and is thus able to regulate the activity of its target directly. It is delivered to endosomal/lysosomal vesicles as an inactive, disulphide-linked dimer. Proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal part leads to the monomer, the only form that is a potent inhibitor of cathepsins C, H and L, involved in the activation of granzymes and perforin. In NK cells and CTLs the levels of active cathepsin C and of granzyme B are dependent on the concentration of monomeric, active cystatin F. In tumour microenvironment, inactive dimeric cystatin F can be secreted from tumour cells or immune cells and further taken up by the cytotoxic cells. Subsequent monomerization and inhibition of cysteine cathepsins within the endosomal/lysosomal vesicles impairs granzyme and perforin activation, and provokes cell anergy. Further, the glycosylation pattern has been shown to be important in controlling secretion of cystatin F from target cells, as well as internalization by cytotoxic cells and trafficking to endosomal/lysosomal vesicles. Cystatin F is therefore an important mediator used by bystander cells to reduce NK and T-cell cytotoxicity.

  16. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    .003) and cytokines. Yet, these systemic adaptations had no effect on breast cancer cell viability in vitro. During 2 h of acute exercise, increases in serum lactate (6-fold, p ... no impact. Our data question the prevailing dogma that training-dependent baseline reductions in risk factors mediate the protective effect of exercise on breast cancer. Instead, we propose that the cancer protection is driven by accumulative effects of repeated acute exercise responses.......Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses...

  17. NKT Cell Networks in the Regulation of Tumor Immunity

    Robertson, Faith C.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Terabe, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells lie at the interface between the innate and adaptive immune systems and are important mediators of immune responses and tumor immunosurveillance. These NKT cells uniquely recognize lipid antigens, and their rapid yet specific reactions influence both innate and adaptive immunity. In tumor immunity, two NKT subsets (type I and type II) have contrasting roles in which they not only cross-regulate one another, but also impact innate immune cell populations, including natural killer, dendritic, and myeloid lineage cells, as well as adaptive populations, especially CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The extent to which NKT cells promote or suppress surrounding cells affects the host’s ability to prevent neoplasia and is consequently of great interest for therapeutic development. Data have shown the potential for therapeutic use of NKT cell agonists and synergy with immune response modifiers in both pre-clinical studies and preliminary clinical studies. However, there is room to improve treatment efficacy by further elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying NKT cell networks. Here, we discuss the progress made in understanding NKT cell networks, their consequent role in the regulation of tumor immunity, and the potential to exploit that knowledge in a clinical setting. PMID:25389427

  18. NKT cell networks in the regulation of tumor immunity.

    Robertson, Faith C; Berzofsky, Jay A; Terabe, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells lie at the interface between the innate and adaptive immune systems and are important mediators of immune responses and tumor immunosurveillance. These NKT cells uniquely recognize lipid antigens, and their rapid yet specific reactions influence both innate and adaptive immunity. In tumor immunity, two NKT subsets (type I and type II) have contrasting roles in which they not only cross-regulate one another, but also impact innate immune cell populations, including natural killer, dendritic, and myeloid lineage cells, as well as adaptive populations, especially CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. The extent to which NKT cells promote or suppress surrounding cells affects the host's ability to prevent neoplasia and is consequently of great interest for therapeutic development. Data have shown the potential for therapeutic use of NKT cell agonists and synergy with immune response modifiers in both pre-clinical studies and preliminary clinical studies. However, there is room to improve treatment efficacy by further elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying NKT cell networks. Here, we discuss the progress made in understanding NKT cell networks, their consequent role in the regulation of tumor immunity, and the potential to exploit that knowledge in a clinical setting.

  19. NKT cell networks in the regulation of tumor immunity

    Faith C Robertson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT cells lie at the interface between the innate and adaptive immune systems and are important mediators of immune responses and tumor immunosurveillance. These NKT cells uniquely recognize lipid antigens, and their rapid yet specific reactions influence both innate and adaptive immunity. In tumor immunity, two NKT subsets (type I and type II have contrasting roles in which they not only cross-regulate one another, but also impact innate immune cell populations, including natural killer, dendritic and myeloid lineage cells, as well as adaptive populations, especially CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The extent to which NKT cells promote or suppress surrounding cells affects the host’s ability to prevent neoplasia and is consequently of great interest for therapeutic development. Data have shown the potential for therapeutic use of NKT cell agonists and synergy with immune response modifiers in both pre-clinical studies and preliminary clinical studies. However, there is room to improve treatment efficacy by further elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying NKT cell networks. Here, we discuss the progress made in understanding NKT cell networks, their consequent role in the regulation of tumor immunity, and the potential to exploit that knowledge in a clinical setting.

  20. Neuronal release of proBDNF

    Yang, Jianmin; Siao, Chia-Jen; Nagappan, Guhan; Marinic, Tina; Jing, Deqiang; McGrath, Kelly; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Mark, Willie; Tessarollo, Lino; Lee, Francis S; Lu, Bai; Hempstead, Barbara L

    2009-01-01

    Pro–brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) and mature BDNF utilize distinct receptors to mediate divergent neuronal actions. Using new tools to quantitate endogenous BDNF isoforms, we found that mouse neurons secrete both proBDNF and mature BDNF. The highest levels of proBDNF and p75 were observed perinatally and declined, but were still detectable, in adulthood. Thus, BDNF actions are developmentally regulated by secretion of proBDNF or mature BDNF and by local expression of p75 and Trk...

  1. The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 (Nur77) regulates oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Lee, Syng-Ook; Jin, Un-Ho; Kang, Jeong Han; Kim, Sang Bae; Guthrie, Aaron S; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Lee, Ju-Seog; Safe, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    NR4A1 (Nur77, TR3) is an orphan nuclear receptor that is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and exhibits pro-oncogenic activity. RNA interference of NR4A1 expression in Panc-1 cells induced apoptosis and subsequent proteomic analysis revealed the induction of several markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress, including glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), and activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4). Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with the NR4A1 antagonist 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH) gave similar results. Moreover, both NR4A1 knockdown and DIM-C-pPhOH induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and induction of ROS and endoplasmic reticulum stress by these agents was attenuated after cotreatment with antioxidants. Manipulation of NR4A1 expression coupled with gene expression profiling identified a number of ROS metabolism transcripts regulated by NR4A1. Knockdown of one of these transcripts, thioredoxin domain containing 5 (TXNDC5), recapitulated the elevated ROS and endoplasmic reticulum stress; thus, demonstrating that NR4A1 regulates levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS in pancreatic cancer cells to facilitate cell proliferation and survival. Finally, inactivation of NR4A1 by knockdown or DIM-C-pPhOH decreased TXNDC5, resulting in activation of the ROS/endoplasmic reticulum stress and proapoptotic pathways. The NR4A1 receptor is pro-oncogenic, regulates the ROS/endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways, and inactivation of the receptor represents a novel pathway for inducing cell death in pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 12(4); 527-38. ©2014 AACR.

  2. THE PROGRAMED CELL DEATH REGULATORS OF ISOLATED MODEL SYSTEMS

    D. V. Vatlitsov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The technology evolution creates the prerequisites for the emergence of new informational concept and approaches to the formation of a fundamentally new principles of biological objects understanding. The aim was to study the activators of the programmed cell death in an isolated system model. Cell culture aging parameters were performed on flow cytometer. It had formed the theory that the changes in the concentrations of metal ions and increase their extracellular concentration had formed a negative gradient into the cells.regulation of cell death. It was shown that the metals ions concentrations.

  3. The KDM5 family is required for activation of pro-proliferative cell cycle genes during adipocyte differentiation

    Brier, Ann-Sofie B; Loft, Anne; Madsen, Jesper G S

    2017-01-01

    The KDM5 family of histone demethylases removes the H3K4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) mark frequently found at promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and is therefore generally considered to contribute to corepression. In this study, we show that knockdown (KD) of all expressed members...... of the KDM5 family in white and brown preadipocytes leads to deregulated gene expression and blocks differentiation to mature adipocytes. KDM5 KD leads to a considerable increase in H3K4me3 at promoter regions; however, these changes in H3K4me3 have a limited effect on gene expression per se. By contrast......, genome-wide analyses demonstrate that KDM5A is strongly enriched at KDM5-activated promoters, which generally have high levels of H3K4me3 and are associated with highly expressed genes. We show that KDM5-activated genes include a large set of cell cycle regulators and that the KDM5s are necessary...

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors strongly sensitise neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by a caspases-dependent increase of the pro- to anti-apoptotic proteins ratio

    Mühlethaler-Mottet, Annick; Flahaut, Marjorie; Bourloud, Katia Balmas; Auderset, Katya; Meier, Roland; Joseph, Jean-Marc; Gross, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the second most common solid childhood tumour, an aggressive disease for which new therapeutic strategies are strongly needed. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in most tumour cells, but not in normal tissues and therefore represents a valuable candidate in apoptosis-inducing therapies. Caspase-8 is silenced in a subset of highly malignant NB cells, which results in full TRAIL resistance. In addition, despite constitutive caspase-8 expression, or its possible restoration by different strategies, NB cells remain weakly sensitive to TRAIL indicating a need to develop strategies to sensitise NB cells to TRAIL. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are a new class of anti-cancer agent inducing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in tumour cells with very low toxicity toward normal cells. Although HDACIs were recently shown to increase death induced by TRAIL in weakly TRAIL-sensitive tumour cells, the precise involved sensitisation mechanisms have not been fully identified. NB cell lines were treated with various doses of HDACIs and TRAIL, then cytotoxicity was analysed by MTS/PMS proliferation assays, apoptosis was measured by the Propidium staining method, caspases activity by colorimetric protease assays, and (in)activation of apoptotic proteins by immunoblotting. Sub-toxic doses of HDACIs strongly sensitised caspase-8 positive NB cell lines to TRAIL induced apoptosis in a caspases dependent manner. Combined treatments increased the activation of caspases and Bid, and the inactivation of the anti-apoptotic proteins XIAP, Bcl-x, RIP, and survivin, thereby increasing the pro- to anti-apoptotic protein ratio. It also enhanced the activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, the kinetics of caspases activation and inactivation of anti-apoptotic proteins is accelerated by combined treatment with TRAIL and HDACIs compared to TRAIL alone. In contrast, cell surface expression of TRAIL

  5. Regulation of Autophagy by Glucose in Mammalian Cells

    Erwin Knecht

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that contributes to maintain cell homeostasis. Although it is strongly regulated by many extracellular factors, induction of autophagy is mainly produced by starvation of nutrients. In mammalian cells, the regulation of autophagy by amino acids, and also by the hormone insulin, has been extensively investigated, but knowledge about the effects of other autophagy regulators, including another nutrient, glucose, is more limited. Here we will focus on the signalling pathways by which environmental glucose directly, i.e., independently of insulin and glucagon, regulates autophagy in mammalian cells, but we will also briefly mention some data in yeast. Although glucose deprivation mainly induces autophagy via AMPK activation and the subsequent inhibition of mTORC1, we will also comment other signalling pathways, as well as evidences indicating that, under certain conditions, autophagy can be activated by glucose. A better understanding on how glucose regulates autophagy not only will expand our basic knowledge of this important cell process, but it will be also relevant to understand common human disorders, such as cancer and diabetes, in which glucose levels play an important role.

  6. NFIX Regulates Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation During Hippocampal Morphogenesis

    Heng, Yee Hsieh Evelyn; McLeay, Robert C.; Harvey, Tracey J.; Smith, Aaron G.; Barry, Guy; Cato, Kathleen; Plachez, Céline; Little, Erica; Mason, Sharon; Dixon, Chantelle; Gronostajski, Richard M.; Bailey, Timothy L.; Richards, Linda J.; Piper, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells have the ability to give rise to neurons and glia in the embryonic, postnatal and adult brain. During development, the program regulating whether these cells divide and self-renew or exit the cell cycle and differentiate is tightly controlled, and imbalances to the normal trajectory of this process can lead to severe functional consequences. However, our understanding of the molecular regulation of these fundamental events remains limited. Moreover, processes underpinning development of the postnatal neurogenic niches within the cortex remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Nuclear factor one X (NFIX) is expressed by neural progenitor cells within the embryonic hippocampus, and that progenitor cell differentiation is delayed within Nfix−/− mice. Moreover, we reveal that the morphology of the dentate gyrus in postnatal Nfix−/− mice is abnormal, with fewer subgranular zone neural progenitor cells being generated in the absence of this transcription factor. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the progenitor cell maintenance factor Sry-related HMG box 9 (SOX9) is upregulated in the hippocampus of Nfix−/− mice and demonstrate that NFIX can repress Sox9 promoter-driven transcription. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that NFIX plays a central role in hippocampal morphogenesis, regulating the formation of neuronal and glial populations within this structure. PMID:23042739

  7. Mast Cells Regulate Wound Healing in Diabetes.

    Tellechea, Ana; Leal, Ermelindo C; Kafanas, Antonios; Auster, Michael E; Kuchibhotla, Sarada; Ostrovsky, Yana; Tecilazich, Francesco; Baltzis, Dimitrios; Zheng, Yongjun; Carvalho, Eugénia; Zabolotny, Janice M; Weng, Zuyi; Petra, Anastasia; Patel, Arti; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Pradhan-Nabzdyk, Leena; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Veves, Aristidis

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a severe complication of diabetes that lacks effective treatment. Mast cells (MCs) contribute to wound healing, but their role in diabetes skin complications is poorly understood. Here we show that the number of degranulated MCs is increased in unwounded forearm and foot skin of patients with diabetes and in unwounded dorsal skin of diabetic mice (P diabetic mice. Pretreatment with the MC degranulation inhibitor disodium cromoglycate rescues diabetes-associated wound-healing impairment in mice and shifts macrophages to the regenerative M2 phenotype (P diabetic mice deficient in MCs have delayed wound healing compared with their wild-type (WT) controls, implying that some MC mediator is needed for proper healing. MCs are a major source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse skin, but the level of VEGF is reduced in diabetic mouse skin, and its release from human MCs is reduced in hyperglycemic conditions. Topical treatment with the MC trigger substance P does not affect wound healing in MC-deficient mice, but improves it in WT mice. In conclusion, the presence of nondegranulated MCs in unwounded skin is required for proper wound healing, and therapies inhibiting MC degranulation could improve wound healing in diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Regulation of T Cell Differentiation and Function by EZH2

    Karantanos, Theodoros; Christofides, Anthos; Bardhan, Kankana; Li, Lequn; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.

    2016-01-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), one of the polycomb-group proteins, is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and induces the trimethylation of the histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) promoting epigenetic gene silencing. EZH2 contains a SET domain promoting the methyltransferase activity, while the three other protein components of PRC2, namely EED, SUZ12, and RpAp46/48, induce compaction of the chromatin permitting EZH2 enzymatic activity. Numerous studies highlight the role of this evolutionary conserved protein as a master regulator of differentiation in humans involved in the repression of the homeotic gene and the inactivation of X-chromosome. Through its effects in the epigenetic regulation of critical genes, EZH2 has been strongly linked to cell cycle progression, stem cell pluripotency, and cancer biology, being currently at the cutting edge of research. Most recently, EZH2 has been associated with hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thymopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Several studies have evaluated the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation and plasticity as well as its implications in the development of autoimmune diseases and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of the differentiation and function of T cells focusing on possible applications in various immune-mediated conditions, including autoimmune disorders and GVHD. PMID:27199994

  9. Hedgehog Signaling Regulates the Survival of Gastric Cancer Cells by Regulating the Expression of Bcl-2

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Lee, Young-Suk; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Kim, Jae-Bong; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The underlying molecular mechanisms of its carcinogenesis are relatively poorly characterized. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, which is critical for development of various organs including the gastrointestinal tract, has been associated with gastric cancer. The present study was undertaken to reveal the underlying mechanism by which Hh signaling controls gastric cancer cell proliferation. Treatment of gastric cancer cells with cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor of Hh signaling pathway, reduced proliferation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Cyclopamine treatment induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria and cleavage of caspase 9. Moreover, Bcl-2 expression was significantly reduced by cyclopamine treatment. These results suggest that Hh signaling regulates the survival of gastric cancer cells by regulating the expression of Bcl-2. PMID:19742123

  10. Estrogen receptor alpha is cell cycle-regulated and regulates the cell cycle in a ligand-dependent fashion.

    JavanMoghadam, Sonia; Weihua, Zhang; Hunt, Kelly K; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2016-06-17

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) has been implicated in several cell cycle regulatory events and is an important predictive marker of disease outcome in breast cancer patients. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism through which ERα influences proliferation in breast cancer cells. Our results show that ERα protein is cell cycle-regulated in human breast cancer cells and that the presence of 17-β-estradiol (E2) in the culture medium shortened the cell cycle significantly (by 4.5 hours, P cycle duration were observed in the S and G2/M phases, whereas the G1 phase was indistinguishable under liganded and unliganded conditions. In addition, ERα knockdown in MCF-7 cells accelerated mitotic exit, whereas transfection of ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 cells with exogenous ERα significantly shortened the S and G2/M phases (by 9.1 hours, P cycle progression through the S and G2/M phases than fulvestrant does, presumably because of the destabilizing effect of fulvestrant on ERα protein. Together, these results show that ERα modulates breast cancer cell proliferation by regulating events during the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle in a ligand-dependent fashion. These results provide the rationale for an effective treatment strategy that includes a cell cycle inhibitor in combination with a drug that lowers estrogen levels, such as an aromatase inhibitor, and an antiestrogen that does not result in the degradation of ERα, such as tamoxifen.

  11. NSA2, a novel nucleolus protein regulates cell proliferation and cell cycle

    Zhang, Heyu; Ma, Xi; Shi, Taiping; Song, Quansheng; Zhao, Hongshan; Ma, Dalong

    2010-01-01

    NSA2 (Nop seven-associated 2) was previously identified in a high throughput screen of novel human genes associated with cell proliferation, and the NSA2 protein is evolutionarily conserved across different species. In this study, we revealed that NSA2 is broadly expressed in human tissues and cultured cell lines, and located in the nucleolus of the cell. Both of the putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of NSA2, also overlapped with nucleolar localization signals (NoLSs), are capable of directing nucleolar accumulation. Moreover, over-expression of the NSA2 protein promoted cell growth in different cell lines and regulated the G1/S transition in the cell cycle. SiRNA silencing of the NSA2 transcript attenuated the cell growth and dramatically blocked the cell cycle in G1/S transition. Our results demonstrated that NSA2 is a nucleolar protein involved in cell proliferation and cell cycle regulation.

  12. NK Cell Subtypes as Regulators of Autoimmune Liver Disease

    Guohui Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As major components of innate immunity, NK cells not only exert cell-mediated cytotoxicity to destroy tumors or infected cells, but also act to regulate the functions of other cells in the immune system by secreting cytokines and chemokines. Thus, NK cells provide surveillance in the early defense against viruses, intracellular bacteria, and cancer cells. However, the effecter function of NK cells must be exquisitely controlled to prevent inadvertent attack against normal “self” cells. In an organ such as the liver, where the distinction between immunotolerance and immune defense against routinely processed pathogens is critical, the plethora of NK cells has a unique role in the maintenance of homeostasis. Once self-tolerance is broken, autoimmune liver disease resulted. NK cells act as a “two-edged weapon” and even play opposite roles with both regulatory and inducer activities in the hepatic environment. That is, NK cells act not only to produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, but also to alter the proliferation and activation of associated lymphocytes. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms at work in autoimmune liver diseases remain to be identified. In this review, we focus on recent research with NK cells and their potential role in the development of autoimmune liver disease.

  13. Margination of Stiffened Red Blood Cells Regulated By Vessel Geometry.

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Li, Donghai; Li, Yongjian; Wan, Jiandi; Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng

    2017-11-10

    Margination of stiffened red blood cells has been implicated in many vascular diseases. Here, we report the margination of stiffened RBCs in vivo, and reveal the crucial role of the vessel geometry in the margination by calculations when the blood is seen as viscoelastic fluid. The vessel-geometry-regulated margination is then confirmed by in vitro experiments in microfluidic devices, and it establishes new insights to cell sorting technology and artificial blood vessel fabrication.

  14. Mouse mannose-binding lectin-A and ficolin-A inhibit lipopolysaccharide-mediated pro-inflammatory responses on mast cells

    Ma, Ying Jie; Kang, Hee Jung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown how soluble pattern-recognition receptors in blood, such as mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins, modulate mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. We investigate how mouse MBL-A or ficolin-A regulate mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs)-derived inflammatory response...... cytokine production by LPS-mediated TLR4 in mBMMCs appears to be down-regulated, indicating that mouse MBL and ficolin may have an inhibitory function toward mouse TLR4-mediated excessive inflammation on the mast cells.......It is unknown how soluble pattern-recognition receptors in blood, such as mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins, modulate mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. We investigate how mouse MBL-A or ficolin-A regulate mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs)-derived inflammatory response...

  15. The Nlrp3 Inflammasome Does Not Regulate Alloimmunization to Transfused Red Blood Cells in Mice

    David R. Gibb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC transfusions are essential for patients with hematological disorders and bone marrow failure syndromes. Despite ABO matching, RBC transfusions can lead to production of alloantibodies against “minor” blood group antigens. Non-ABO alloimmunization is a leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality in the U.S. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the immunological factors that promote alloimmunization. Prior studies indicate that inflammatory conditions place patients at higher risk for alloimmunization. Additionally, co-exposure to pro-inflammatory pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs promotes alloimmunization in animal models, suggesting that RBC alloimmunization depends on innate immune cell activation. However, the specific innate immune stimuli and sensors that induce a T cell-dependent alloantibody response to transfused RBCs have not been identified. The NLRP3 inflammasome senses chemically diverse PAMPs and damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, including extracellular ATP and iron-containing heme. We hypothesized that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by endogenous DAMPs from RBCs promotes the alloimmune response to a sterile RBC transfusion. Using genetically modified mice lacking either NLRP3 or multiple downstream inflammasome response elements, we ruled out a role for the NLRP3 inflammasome or any Caspase-1 or -11 dependent inflammasome in regulating RBC alloantibody production to a model antigen.

  16. Phosphorylation of Large T Antigen Regulates Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Replication

    Diaz, Jason; Wang, Xin; Tsang, Sabrina H.; Jiao, Jing; You, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LT’s ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may dynamically regulate viral replication. Although the natural host cell of MCPyV has not yet been established, this work provides a foundation for understanding how LT activity is regulated and provides tools for better exploring this regulation in both natural host cells and Merkel cells

  17. Phosphorylation of Large T Antigen Regulates Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Replication

    Diaz, Jason; Wang, Xin; Tsang, Sabrina H. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Jiao, Jing [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); You, Jianxin, E-mail: jianyou@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2014-07-08

    Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LT’s ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may dynamically regulate viral replication. Although the natural host cell of MCPyV has not yet been established, this work provides a foundation for understanding how LT activity is regulated and provides tools for better exploring this regulation in both natural host cells and Merkel cells.

  18. Stem cell aging: mechanisms, regulators and therapeutic opportunities

    Oh, Juhyun; Lee, Yang David; Wagers, Amy J

    2014-01-01

    Aging tissues experience a progressive decline in homeostatic and regenerative capacities, which has been attributed to degenerative changes in tissue-specific stem cells, stem cell niches and systemic cues that regulate stem cell activity. Understanding the molecular pathways involved in this age-dependent deterioration of stem cell function will be critical for developing new therapies for diseases of aging that target the specific causes of age-related functional decline. Here we explore key molecular pathways that are commonly perturbed as tissues and stem cells age and degenerate. We further consider experimental evidence both supporting and refuting the notion that modulation of these pathways per se can reverse aging phenotypes. Finally, we ask whether stem cell aging establishes an epigenetic ‘memory’ that is indelibly written or one that can be reset. PMID:25100532

  19. Regulation of basophil and mast cell development by transcription factors

    Haruka Sasaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Basophils and mast cells play important roles in host defense against parasitic infections and allergic responses. Several progenitor populations, either shared or specific, for basophils and/or mast cells have been identified, thus elucidating the developmental pathways of these cells. Multiple transcription factors essential for their development and the relationships between them have been also revealed. For example, IRF8 induces GATA2 expression to promote the generation of both basophils and mast cells. The STAT5-GATA2 axis induces C/EBPα and MITF expression, facilitating the differentiation into basophils and mast cells, respectively. In addition, C/EBPα and MITF mutually suppress each other's expression. This review provides an overview of recent advances in our understanding of how transcription factors regulate the development of basophils and mast cells.

  20. Variability in tuberculosis granuloma T cell responses exists, but a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is associated with sterilization.

    Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung granulomas are the pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis (TB. T cells are a major cellular component of TB lung granulomas and are known to play an important role in containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. We used cynomolgus macaques, a non-human primate model that recapitulates human TB with clinically active disease, latent infection or early infection, to understand functional characteristics and dynamics of T cells in individual granulomas. We sought to correlate T cell cytokine response and bacterial burden of each granuloma, as well as granuloma and systemic responses in individual animals. Our results support that each granuloma within an individual host is independent with respect to total cell numbers, proportion of T cells, pattern of cytokine response, and bacterial burden. The spectrum of these components overlaps greatly amongst animals with different clinical status, indicating that a diversity of granulomas exists within an individual host. On average only about 8% of T cells from granulomas respond with cytokine production after stimulation with Mtb specific antigens, and few "multi-functional" T cells were observed. However, granulomas were found to be "multi-functional" with respect to the combinations of functional T cells that were identified among lesions from individual animals. Although the responses generally overlapped, sterile granulomas had modestly higher frequencies of T cells making IL-17, TNF and any of T-1 (IFN-γ, IL-2, or TNF and/or T-17 (IL-17 cytokines than non-sterile granulomas. An inverse correlation was observed between bacterial burden with TNF and T-1/T-17 responses in individual granulomas, and a combinatorial analysis of pair-wise cytokine responses indicated that granulomas with T cells producing both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-10 and IL-17 were associated with clearance of Mtb. Preliminary evaluation suggests that systemic responses in the blood do not

  1. Drosophila Glypicans Regulate Follicle Stem Cell Maintenance and Niche Competition.

    Su, Tsu-Yi; Nakato, Eriko; Choi, Pui Yee; Nakato, Hiroshi

    2018-04-09

    Adult stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, called niches, which provide signals for stem cells to maintain their undifferentiated and self-renewing state. To maintain stem cell quality, several types of stem cells are known to be regularly replaced by progenitor cells through niche competition. However, the cellular and molecular bases for stem cell competition for niche occupancy are largely unknown. Here, we show that two Drosophila members of the glypican family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), Dally and Dally-like (Dlp), differentially regulate follicle stem cell (FSC) maintenance and FSC competitiveness for niche occupancy. Lineage analyses of glypican mutant FSC clones showed that dally is essential for normal FSC maintenance. In contrast, dlp is a hyper-competitive mutation: dlp mutant FSC progenitors often eventually occupy the entire epithelial sheet. RNAi knockdown experiments showed that Dally and Dlp play both partially redundant and distinct roles in regulating Jak/Stat, Wg and Hh signaling in FSCs. The Drosophila FSC system offers a powerful genetic model to study the mechanisms by which HSPGs exert specific functions in stem cell replacement and competition. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  2. Ascorbate regulates haematopoietic stem cell function and leukaemogenesis.

    Agathocleous, Michalis; Meacham, Corbin E; Burgess, Rebecca J; Piskounova, Elena; Zhao, Zhiyu; Crane, Genevieve M; Cowin, Brianna L; Bruner, Emily; Murphy, Malea M; Chen, Weina; Spangrude, Gerald J; Hu, Zeping; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Morrison, Sean J

    2017-09-28

    Stem-cell fate can be influenced by metabolite levels in culture, but it is not known whether physiological variations in metabolite levels in normal tissues regulate stem-cell function in vivo. Here we describe a metabolomics method for the analysis of rare cell populations isolated directly from tissues and use it to compare mouse haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to restricted haematopoietic progenitors. Each haematopoietic cell type had a distinct metabolic signature. Human and mouse HSCs had unusually high levels of ascorbate, which decreased with differentiation. Systemic ascorbate depletion in mice increased HSC frequency and function, in part by reducing the function of Tet2, a dioxygenase tumour suppressor. Ascorbate depletion cooperated with Flt3 internal tandem duplication (Flt3 ITD ) leukaemic mutations to accelerate leukaemogenesis, through cell-autonomous and possibly non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, in a manner that was reversed by dietary ascorbate. Ascorbate acted cell-autonomously to negatively regulate HSC function and myelopoiesis through Tet2-dependent and Tet2-independent mechanisms. Ascorbate therefore accumulates within HSCs to promote Tet activity in vivo, limiting HSC frequency and suppressing leukaemogenesis.

  3. A self-regulating hydrogen generator for micro fuel cells

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Pengwang, Eakkachai; Shannon, Mark A. [Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Masel, Richard I. [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 213 Roger Adams Lab, 600 S. Mathews, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The ever-increasing power demands and miniaturization of portable electronics, micro-sensors and actuators, and emerging technologies such as cognitive arthropods have created a significant interest in development of micro fuel cells. One of the major challenges in development of hydrogen micro fuel cells is the fabrication and integration of auxiliary systems for generating, regulating, and delivering hydrogen gas to the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). In this paper, we report the development of a hydrogen gas generator with a micro-scale control system that does not consume any power. The hydrogen generator consists of a hydride reactor and a water reservoir, with a regulating valve separating them. The regulating valve consists of a port from the water reservoir and a movable membrane with via holes that permit water to flow from the reservoir to the hydride reactor. Water flows towards the hydride reactor, but stops within the membrane via holes due to capillary forces. Water vapor then diffuses from the via holes into the hydride reactor resulting in generation of hydrogen gas. When the rate of hydrogen consumed by the MEA is lower than the generation rate, gas pressure builds up inside the hydride reactor, deflecting the membrane, closing the water regulator valve, until the pressure drops, whereby the valve reopens. We have integrated the self-regulating micro hydrogen generator to a MEA and successfully conducted fuel cell tests under varying load conditions. (author)

  4. Investigating microenvironmental regulation of human chordoma cell behaviour.

    Priya Patel

    Full Text Available The tumour microenvironment is complex and composed of many different constituents, including matricellular proteins such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2, and is characterized by gradients in oxygen levels. In various cancers, hypoxia and CCN2 promote stem and progenitor cell properties, and regulate the proliferation, migration and phenotype of cancer cells. Our study was aimed at investigating the effects of hypoxia and CCN2 on chordoma cells, using the human U-CH1 cell line. We demonstrate that under basal conditions, U-CH1 cells express multiple CCN family members including CCN1, CCN2, CCN3 and CCN5. Culture of U-CH1 cells in either hypoxia or in the presence of recombinant CCN2 peptide promoted progenitor cell-like characteristics specific to the notochordal tissue of origin. Specifically, hypoxia induced the most robust increase in progenitor-like characteristics in U-CH1 cells, including increased expression of the notochord-associated markers T, CD24, FOXA1, ACAN and CA12, increased cell growth and tumour-sphere formation, and a decrease in the percentage of vacuolated cells present in the heterogeneous population. Interestingly, the effects of recombinant CCN2 peptide on U-CH1 cells were more pronounced under normoxia than hypoxia, promoting increased expression of CCN1, CCN2, CCN3 and CCN5, the notochord-associated markers SOX5, SOX6, T, CD24, and FOXA1 as well as increased tumour-sphere formation. Overall, this study highlights the importance of multiple factors within the tumour microenvironment and how hypoxia and CCN2 may regulate human chordoma cell behaviour.

  5. Changes in some pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells following foot and mouth disease vaccination

    N. Delirezh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-17 is exclusively produced by CD4 helper T-cells upon activation. It most often acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which stimulates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF. In this study, we studied the in-vitro IL-17 response to specific antigens and a variety of mitogens and compared the IL-17 response to IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ responses. We used a foot and mouth disease (FMD vaccine as specific antigens and mitogens (phytohemagglutinin [PHA], pokeweed mitogen [PWM], and concanavalin A [Con A] to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of vaccinated calves. Cell culture supernatant was harvested and analyzed for cytokines, using commercially available bovine ELISA kits. The mitogens induced a significant increase in IL-17 production. IL-17 was produced at high levels in response to the T cell-stimulated mitogens, PHA, and Con A, and at low levels in response to PWM mitogens. In contrast, level of the produced IL-17 cytokines in response to the FMDV antigens was lower as compared to those produced by mitogens. The FMDV antigens and mitogens significantly increased IL-17 production. There was not a correlation between IL-17 production and type-1 cytokine, IFN-γ, and IL-2, while there was a correlation between type-2 cytokine, IL-4, and IL-5 at either cytokine level produced by PBMCs stimulated by FMDV antigens. Moreover, there was an interaction between IL-17 and IL-6, that is, as IL-6 cytokine level elevated or diminished, IL-17 cytokine level increased or decreased, as well.

  6. Electrostatic behavior of the charge-regulated bacterial cell surface.

    Hong, Yongsuk; Brown, Derick G

    2008-05-06

    The electrostatic behavior of the charge-regulated surfaces of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus brevis was studied using numerical modeling in conjunction with potentiometric titration and electrophoretic mobility data as a function of solution pH and electrolyte composition. Assuming a polyelectrolytic polymeric bacterial cell surface, these experimental and numerical analyses were used to determine the effective site numbers of cell surface acid-base functional groups and Ca(2+) sorption coefficients. Using effective site concentrations determined from 1:1 electrolyte (NaCl) experimental data, the charge-regulation model was able to replicate the effects of 2:1 electrolyte (CaCl(2)), both alone and as a mixture with NaCl, on the measured zeta potential using a single Ca(2+) surface binding constant for each of the bacterial species. This knowledge is vital for understanding how cells respond to changes in solution pH and electrolyte composition as well as how they interact with other surfaces. The latter is especially important due to the widespread use of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory in the interpretation of bacterial adhesion. As surface charge and surface potential both vary on a charge-regulated surface, accurate modeling of bacterial interactions with surfaces ultimately requires use of an electrostatic model that accounts for the charge-regulated nature of the cell surface.

  7. Zfp206 regulates ES cell gene expression and differentiation.

    Zhang, Wen; Walker, Emily; Tamplin, Owen J; Rossant, Janet; Stanford, William L; Hughes, Timothy R

    2006-01-01

    Understanding transcriptional regulation in early developmental stages is fundamental to understanding mammalian development and embryonic stem (ES) cell properties. Expression surveys suggest that the putative SCAN-Zinc finger transcription factor Zfp206 is expressed specifically in ES cells [Zhang,W., Morris,Q.D., Chang,R., Shai,O., Bakowski,M.A., Mitsakakis,N., Mohammad,N., Robinson,M.D., Zirngibl,R., Somogyi,E. et al., (2004) J. Biol., 3, 21; Brandenberger,R., Wei,H., Zhang,S., Lei,S., Murage,J., Fisk,G.J., Li,Y., Xu,C., Fang,R., Guegler,K. et al., (2004) Nat. Biotechnol., 22, 707-716]. Here, we confirm this observation, and we show that ZFP206 expression decreases rapidly upon differentiation of cultured mouse ES cells, and during development of mouse embryos. We find that there are at least six isoforms of the ZFP206 transcript, the longest being predominant. Overexpression and depletion experiments show that Zfp206 promotes formation of undifferentiated ES cell clones, and positively regulates abundance of a very small set of transcripts whose expression is also specific to ES cells and the two- to four-cell stages of preimplantation embryos. This set includes members of the Zscan4, Thoc4, Tcstv1 and eIF-1A gene families, none of which have been functionally characterized in vivo but whose members include apparent transcription factors, RNA-binding proteins and translation factors. Together, these data indicate that Zfp206 is a regulator of ES cell differentiation that controls a set of genes expressed very early in development, most of which themselves appear to be regulators.

  8. Ion channels involved in cell volume regulation: effects on migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death in non adherent EAT cells and adherent ELA cells.

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Regulation of plant vascular stem cells by endodermis-derived EPFL-family peptide hormones and phloem-expressed ERECTA-family receptor kinases.

    Uchida, Naoyuki; Tasaka, Masao

    2013-12-01

    Plant vasculatures are complex tissues consisting of (pro)cambium, phloem, and xylem. The (pro)cambium serves as vascular stem cells that produce all vascular cells. The Arabidopsis ERECTA (ER) receptor kinase is known to regulate the architecture of inflorescence stems. It was recently reported that the er mutation enhances a vascular phenotype induced by a mutation of TDR/PXY, which plays a significant role in procambial proliferation, suggesting that ER participates in vascular development. However, detailed molecular mechanisms of the ER-dependent vascular regulation are largely unknown. Here, this work found that ER and its paralogue, ER-LIKE1, were redundantly involved in procambial development of inflorescence stems. Interestingly, their activity in the phloem was sufficient for vascular regulation. Furthermore, two endodermis-derived peptide hormones, EPFL4 and EPFL6, were redundantly involved in such regulation. It has been previously reported that EPFL4 and EPFL6 act as ligands of phloem-expressed ER for stem elongation. Therefore, these findings indicate that cell-cell communication between the endodermis and the phloem plays an important role in procambial development as well as stem elongation. Interestingly, similar EPFL-ER modules control two distinct developmental events by slightly changing their components: the EPFL4/6-ER module for stem elongation and the EPFL4/6-ER/ERL1 module for vascular development.

  10. Nrf2 regulates cellular behaviors and Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Fan, Hong; Paiboonrungruan, Chorlada; Zhang, Xinyan; Prigge, Justin R; Schmidt, Edward E; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2017-11-04

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We have demonstrated that activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway has chemopreventive effects against oxidative stress-associated OSCC. However, Nrf2 have dual roles in cancer development; while it prevents carcinogenesis of normal cells, hyperactive Nrf2 also promotes the survival of cancer cells. This study is aimed to understand the function of Nrf2 in regulating cellular behaviors of OSCC cells, and the potential mechanisms through which Nrf2 facilitates OSCC. We established the Nrf2-overexpressing and Nrf2-knockdown OSCC cell lines, and examined the function of Nrf2 in regulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle and colony formation. Our data showed that Nrf2 overexpression promoted cancer phenotypes in OSCC cells, whereas Nrf2 silencing inhibited these phenotypes. In addition, Nrf2 positively regulated Notch signaling pathway in OSCC cells in vitro. Consistent with this observation, Nrf2 activation in Keap1 -/- mice resulted in not only hyperproliferation of squamous epithelial cells in mouse tongue as evidenced by increased expression of PCNA, but also activation of Notch signaling in these cells as evidenced by increased expression of NICD1 and Hes1. In conclusion, Nrf2 regulates cancer behaviors and Notch signaling in OSCC cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) Regulates Primordial Follicle Assembly by Promoting Apoptosis of Oocytes in Fetal and Neonatal Mouse Ovaries

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Ma, Tieliang; Zheng, Wei; Sun, Rui; Shen, Wei; Sha, Jiahao; Cooke, Howard J.; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer guanulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries. PMID:21253613

  12. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

    Bo Xu

    Full Text Available Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer granulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

  13. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    Heizmann, Beate; Sellars, MacLean; Macias-Garcia, Alejandra; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  14. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    Heizmann, Beate [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Sellars, MacLean [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Macias-Garcia, Alejandra [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Institute for Medical Engineering and Science at MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chan, Susan, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Kastner, Philippe, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2016-02-12

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  15. [Regulation of airway stem cell proliferation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis].

    Yang, S X; Wu, Q; Sun, X; Li, X; Li, K; Xu, L; Li, Y; Zhang, Q Y; Zhang, Y C; Chen, H Y

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of fibroblasts on regulating airway stem cell proliferation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Lung cell suspension was prepared from β-actin-GFP mice. Airway stem cells were obtained by fluorescence activated cell sorting and co-cultured with lung fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were treated with TGF-β inhibitor SB43142. The expression of growth factors FGF1/2 and the effect of FGF1/2 on stem cell proliferation were observed. The cloning efficiency of airway stem cells, when co-cultured with normal lung fibroblast cells for 8 days, was (3.5±1.1)%, while the cloning efficiency was reduced to (0.04±0.04)% when co-cultured with lung fibroblasts from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. The difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant(P=0.002 5). TGF-β receptor inhibitor SB431542 increased lung fibroblast growth factors FGF1/2 expression.FGF1 mRNA expression was increased to the experimental group 0.005 5 from 0.000 2 in the control group.FGF2 mRNA expression of the amount raised to the experimental group 0.000 15 from 0.000 8 in the control group.FGF1/2 promoted the growth of airway stem cells. After FGF1/2 was co-cultured with normal lung fibroblast cells for 8 days, the cloning efficiency of airway stem cells was (0.3±0.1)%. During the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, fibroblast secreted FGF1/2 regulate airway stem cell proliferation.

  16. Factor VII-activating protease : Unraveling the release and regulation of dead cell nuclear damps

    Marsman, G.

    2017-01-01

    Upon inflammation, uncleared dying cells are an important source of pro-inflammatory damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Major DAMPs are histones and double-stranded DNA, which together form chromatin. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is activated upon contact with dead cells, and its

  17. Retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles enhance vascular regulation of neural stem cell survival and differentiation after ischaemia

    Ferreira, R.; Fonseca, M. C.; Santos, T.; Sargento-Freitas, J.; Tjeng, R.; Paiva, F.; Castelo-Branco, M.; Ferreira, L. S.; Bernardino, L.

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. However, current therapies only reach a small percentage of patients and may cause serious side effects. We propose the therapeutic use of retinoic acid-loaded nanoparticles (RA-NP) to safely and efficiently repair the ischaemic brain by creating a favourable pro-angiogenic environment that enhances neurogenesis and neuronal restitution. Our data showed that RA-NP enhanced endothelial cell proliferation and tubule network formation and protected against ischaemia-induced death. To evaluate the effect of RA-NP on vascular regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) survival and differentiation, endothelial cell-conditioned media (EC-CM) were collected. EC-CM from healthy RA-NP-treated cells reduced NSC death and promoted proliferation while EC-CM from ischaemic RA-NP-treated cells decreased cell death, increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In parallel, human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC), which are part of the endogenous repair response to vascular injury, were collected from ischaemic stroke patients. hEPC treated with RA-NP had significantly higher proliferation, which further highlights the therapeutic potential of this formulation. To conclude, RA-NP protected endothelial cells from ischaemic death and stimulated the release of pro-survival, proliferation-stimulating factors and differentiation cues for NSC. RA-NP were shown to be up to 83-fold more efficient than free RA and to enhance hEPC proliferation. These data serve as a stepping stone to use RA-NP as vasculotrophic and neurogenic agents for vascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases with compromised vasculature.

  18. New insights into how trafficking regulates T cell receptor signaling

    Jieqiong Lou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is emerging evidence that exocytosis plays an important role in regulating T cell receptor (TCR signaling. The trafficking molecules involved in lytic granule (LG secretion in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL have been well studied due to the immune disorder known as familial hemophagocytic lymphohisiocytosis (FHLH. However, the knowledge of trafficking machineries regulating the exocytosis of receptors and signaling molecules remains quite limited. In this review, we summarize the reported trafficking molecules involved in the transport of the TCR and downstream signaling molecules to the cell surface. By combining this information with the known knowledge of LG exocytosis and general exocytic trafficking machinery, we attempt to draw a more complete picture of how the TCR signaling network and exocytic trafficking matrix are interconnected to facilitate T cell activation. This also highlights how membrane compartmentalization facilitates the spatiotemporal organization of cellular responses that are essential for immune functions.

  19. Studies on regulation of the cell cycle in fission yeast.

    Miroslava Požgajová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All living organisms including plants and animals are composed of millions of cells. These cells perform different functions for the organism although they possess the same chromosomes and carry the same genetic information. Thus, to be able to understand multicellular organism we need to understand the life cycle of individual cells from which the organism comprises. The cell cycle is the life cycle of a single cell in the plant or animal body. It involves series of events in which components of the cell doubles and afterwards equally segregate into daughter cells. Such process ensures growth of the organism, and specialized reductional cell division which leads to production of gamets, assures sexual reproduction. Cell cycle is divided in the G1, S, G2 and M phase. Two gap-phases (G1 and G2 separate S phase (or synthesis and M phase which stays either for mitosis or meiosis. Essential for normal life progression and reproduction is correct chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Defects in the division program lead to aneuploidy, which in turn leads to birth defects, miscarriages or cancer. Even thou, researchers invented much about the regulation of the cell cycle, there is still long way to understand the complexity of the regulatory machineries that ensure proper segregation of chromosomes. In this paper we would like to describe techniques and materials we use for our studies on chromosome segregation in the model organism Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

  20. Pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance controls pancreatic β-cell differentiation through the ERK1/2 pathway.

    Hoarau, E; Chandra, V; Rustin, P; Scharfmann, R; Duvillie, B

    2014-10-23

    During embryogenesis, the intrauterine milieu affects cell proliferation, differentiation, and function by modifying gene expression in susceptible cells, such as the pancreatic β-cells. In this limited energy environment, mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to a decline in β-cell function. In opposition to this toxicity, ROS are also required for insulin secretion. Here we investigated the role of ROS in β-cell development. Surprisingly, decreasing ROS production in vivo reduced β-cell differentiation. Moreover, in cultures of pancreatic explants, progenitors were highly sensitive to ROS stimulation and responded by generating β-cells. ROS enhanced β-cell differentiation through modulation of ERK1/2 signaling. Gene transfer and pharmacological manipulations, which diminish cellular ROS levels, also interfered with normal β-cell differentiation. This study highlights the role of the redox balance on β-cell development and provides information that will be useful for improving β-cell production from embryonic stem cells, a step in cell therapy for diabetes.

  1. Pro Tools HD

    Camou, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide for using Pro Tools HD 11 effectively.This book is ideal for anyone who already uses ProTools and wants to learn more, or is new to Pro Tools HD and wants to use it effectively in their own audio workstations.

  2. Divergent pro-inflammatory profile of human dendritic cells in response to commensal and pathogenic bacteria associated with the airway microbiota.

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Steen-Jensen, Daniel Bisgaard; Laursen, Janne Marie; Søndergaard, Jonas Nørskov; Musavian, Hanieh Sadat; Butt, Tariq Mahmood; Brix, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies using culture-independent methods have characterized the human airway microbiota and report microbial communities distinct from other body sites. Changes in these airway bacterial communities appear to be associated with inflammatory lung disease, yet the pro-inflammatory properties of individual bacterial species are unknown. In this study, we compared the immune stimulatory capacity on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) of selected airway commensal and pathogenic bacteria predominantly associated with lungs of asthma or COPD patients (pathogenic Haemophillus spp. and Moraxella spp.), healthy lungs (commensal Prevotella spp.) or both (commensal Veillonella spp. and Actinomyces spp.). All bacteria were found to induce activation of DCs as demonstrated by similar induction of CD83, CD40 and CD86 surface expression. However, asthma and COPD-associated pathogenic bacteria provoked a 3-5 fold higher production of IL-23, IL-12p70 and IL-10 cytokines compared to the commensal bacteria. Based on the differential cytokine production profiles, the studied airway bacteria could be segregated into three groups (Haemophilus spp. and Moraxella spp. vs. Prevotella spp. and Veillonella spp. vs. Actinomyces spp.) reflecting their pro-inflammatory effects on DCs. Co-culture experiments found that Prevotella spp. were able to reduce Haemophillus influenzae-induced IL-12p70 in DCs, whereas no effect was observed on IL-23 and IL-10 production. This study demonstrates intrinsic differences in DC stimulating properties of bacteria associated with the airway microbiota.

  3. Difference in Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses Induced in THP1 Cells by Particulate Matter Collected on Days with and without ASIAN Dust Storms

    Masanari Watanabe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The associations between particulate matter from Asian dust storms (ADS and health disorders differ among studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, ADS and non-ADS particles were tested for their potential to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with adverse respiratory effects. Particulate matter was collected in Japan during four periods in 2013 (2 × ADS periods; 2 × non-ADS. THP1 cells were exposed to this particulate matter, and the levels of various interleukins (ILs, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured. Levels of IL-2 increased significantly following exposure to all particulate matter samples (compared to levels in a solvent control. Increased levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were also observed following exposure to particles collected during three (one ADS and two non-ADS and two (one ADS and one non-ADS collection periods, respectively. Thus, the effects of particulate matter on cytokine responses differed according to collection period, and the effects of ADS particles differed for each ADS event. Additionally, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by ADS particles were not always higher than those induced by non-ADS particles.

  4. Cell volume regulation in epithelial physiology and cancer

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    expression of ion transporters and channels is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer, it is timely to consider this especially for epithelia. Epithelial cells are highly proliferative and epithelial cancers, carcinomas, account for about 90% of all cancers. In this review we will focus on ion...... such as cancer, transepithelial and cell volume regulatory ion transport are dys-regulated. Furthermore, epithelial architecture and coordinated ion transport function are lost, cell survival/death balance is altered, and new interactions with the stroma arise, all contributing to drug resistance. Since altered...... transporters and channels with key physiological functions in epithelia and known roles in the development of cancer in these tissues. Their roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and development of drug resistance in epithelial cancers will be discussed....

  5. A quantitative and dynamic model for plant stem cell regulation.

    Florian Geier

    Full Text Available Plants maintain pools of totipotent stem cells throughout their entire life. These stem cells are embedded within specialized tissues called meristems, which form the growing points of t