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Sample records for cells receive coordinated

  1. Coordination of glioblastoma cell motility by PKCι

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin R Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, in part because of its highly invasive nature. The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently mutated in glioblastoma and is known to contribute to the invasive phenotype. However the downstream events that promote invasion are not fully understood. PTEN loss leads to activation of the atypical protein kinase C, PKCι. We have previously shown that PKCι is required for glioblastoma cell invasion, primarily by enhancing cell motility. Here we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to more precisely define the role of PKCι in glioblastoma. Results Glioblastoma cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically were unable to coordinate the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod. Instead, some cells generated multiple small, short-lived protrusions while others generated a diffuse leading edge that formed around the entire circumference of the cell. Confocal microscopy showed that this behavior was associated with altered behavior of the cytoskeletal protein Lgl, which is known to be inactivated by PKCι phosphorylation. Lgl in control cells localized to the lamellipod leading edge and did not associate with its binding partner non-muscle myosin II, consistent with it being in an inactive state. In PKCι-depleted cells, Lgl was concentrated at multiple sites at the periphery of the cell and remained in association with non-muscle myosin II. Videomicroscopy also identified a novel role for PKCι in the cell cycle. Cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically entered mitosis normally, but showed marked delays in completing mitosis. Conclusions PKCι promotes glioblastoma motility by coordinating the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod and has a role in remodeling the cytoskeleton at the lamellipod leading edge, promoting the dissociation of Lgl from non-muscle myosin II. In addition PKCι is required

  2. 76 FR 10598 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; Recommendations Received...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; Recommendations... the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, requires the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology...

  3. Learning of Soccer Player Agents Using a Policy Gradient Method : Coordination Between Kicker and Receiver During Free Kicks

    OpenAIRE

    Harukazu Igarashi; Koji Nakamura; Seiji Ishihara

    2011-01-01

    As an example of multi-agent learning in soccer games of the RoboCup 2D Soccer Simulation League, we dealt with a learning problem between a kicker and a receiver when a direct free kick is awarded just outside the opponent's penalty area. We propose how to use a heuristic function to evaluate an advantageous target point for safely sending/receiving a pass and scoring. The heuristics include an interaction term between a kicker and a receiver to intensify their coordination. To calculate the...

  4. Oscillatory recruitment of signaling proteins to cell tips promotes coordinated behavior during cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleissner, André; Leeder, Abigail C; Roca, M Gabriela; Read, Nick D; Glass, N Louise

    2009-11-17

    Cell-cell communication is essential for coordinating physiological responses in multicellular organisms and is required for various developmental processes, including cell migration, differentiation, and fusion. To facilitate communication, functional differences are usually required between interacting cells, which can be established either genetically or developmentally. However, genetically identical cells in the same developmental state are also capable of communicating, but must avoid self-stimulation. We hypothesized that such cells must alternate their physiological state between signal sending and receiving to allow recognition and behavioral changes. To test this hypothesis, we studied cell communication in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, a simple and experimentally amenable model system. In N. crassa, germinating asexual spores (germlings) of identical genotype chemotropically sense others in close proximity, show attraction-mediated directed growth, and ultimately undergo cell fusion. Here, we report that two proteins required for cell fusion, a MAP kinase (MAK-2) and a protein of unknown molecular function (SO), exhibit rapid oscillatory recruitment to the plasma membranes of interacting germlings undergoing chemotropic interactions via directed growth. Using an inhibitable MAK-2 variant, we show that MAK-2 kinase activity is required both for chemotropic interactions and for oscillation of MAK-2 and SO to opposing cell tips. Thus, N. crassa germlings undergoing chemotropic interactions rapidly alternate between two different physiological states, associated with signal delivery and response. Such spatiotemporal coordination of signaling allows genetically identical and developmentally equivalent cells to avoid self-stimulation and to coordinate their behavior to achieve the beneficial physiological outcome of cell fusion. PMID:19884508

  5. Learning of Soccer Player Agents Using a Policy Gradient Method : Coordination Between Kicker and Receiver During Free Kicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harukazu Igarashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As an example of multi-agent learning in soccer games of the RoboCup 2D Soccer Simulation League, we dealt with a learning problem between a kicker and a receiver when a direct free kick is awarded just outside the opponent's penalty area. We propose how to use a heuristic function to evaluate an advantageous target point for safely sending/receiving a pass and scoring. The heuristics include an interaction term between a kicker and a receiver to intensify their coordination. To calculate the interaction term, we let a kicker/receiver agent have a receiver's/kicker's action decision model to predict a receiver's/kicker's action. Parameters in the heuristic function can be learned by a kind of reinforcement learning called the policy gradient method. Our experiments show that if the two agents do not have the same type of heuristics, the interaction term based on prediction of a teammate's decision model leads to learning a master-servant relation between a kicker and a receiver, where a receiver is a master and a kicker is a servant.

  6. Single Cell Analysis of a Bacterial Sender-Receiver System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Tiago; Meyer, Andrea; Mückl, Andrea; Kapsner, Korbinian; Gerland, Ulrich; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring gene expression dynamics on the single cell level provides important information on cellular heterogeneity and stochasticity, and potentially allows for more accurate quantitation of gene expression processes. We here study bacterial senders and receivers genetically engineered with components of the quorum sensing system derived from Aliivibrio fischeri on the single cell level using microfluidics-based bacterial chemostats and fluorescence video microscopy. We track large numbers of bacteria over extended periods of time, which allows us to determine bacterial lineages and filter out subpopulations within a heterogeneous population. We quantitatively determine the dynamic gene expression response of receiver bacteria to varying amounts of the quorum sensing inducer N-3-oxo-C6-homoserine lactone (AHL). From this we construct AHL response curves and characterize gene expression dynamics of whole bacterial populations by investigating the statistical distribution of gene expression activity over time. The bacteria are found to display heterogeneous induction behavior within the population. We therefore also characterize gene expression in a homogeneous bacterial subpopulation by focusing on single cell trajectories derived only from bacteria with similar induction behavior. The response at the single cell level is found to be more cooperative than that obtained for the heterogeneous total population. For the analysis of systems containing both AHL senders and receiver cells, we utilize the receiver cells as 'bacterial sensors' for AHL. Based on a simple gene expression model and the response curves obtained in receiver-only experiments, the effective AHL concentration established by the senders and their 'sending power' is determined. PMID:26808777

  7. Running with neighbors: coordinating cell migration and cell-cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Caitlin; Nelson, W James

    2015-10-01

    Coordinated movement of large groups of cells is required for many biological processes, such as gastrulation and wound healing. During collective cell migration, cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesions must be integrated so that cells maintain strong interactions with neighboring cells and the underlying substratum. Initiation and maintenance of cadherin adhesions at cell-cell junctions and integrin-based cell-ECM adhesions require integration of mechanical cues, dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and input from specific signaling cascades, including Rho family GTPases. Here, we summarize recent advances made in understanding the interplay between these pathways at cadherin-based and integrin-based adhesions during collective cell migration and highlight outstanding questions that remain in the field. PMID:26201843

  8. Dynamic Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination for Realistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus I.; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Barcos, Sonia; Gerardino, Guillermo Andrés Pocovi; Wang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) is a key ingredient to boost the performance of co-channel Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). eICIC encompasses two main techniques: Almost Blank Subframes (ABS), during which the macro cell remains silent to reduce the interference, and biased...... user association to offload more users to the picocells. However, its application to realistic irregular deployments opens a number of research questions. In this paper, we investigate the operation of eICIC in a realistic deployment based on three-dimensional data from a dense urban European capital...... area. Rather than the classical semi-static and network-wise configuration, the importance of having highly dynamic and distributed mechanisms that are able to adapt to local environment conditions is revealed. We propose two promising cell association algorithms: one aiming at pure load balancing and...

  9. Spatial coordination of cell orientation directed by nanoribbon sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Toshinori; Shi, Xuetao; Ostrovidov, Serge; Liang, Xiaobin; Nakajima, Ken; Chen, Yin; Wu, Hongkai; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Spatial coordination of cell orientation is of central importance in tissue/organ construction. In this study, we developed microfabricated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoribbon sheets with unique structures, using spin-coating and micropatterning techniques, in order to generate a hierarchically assembled cellular structure consisting of murine skeletal myoblasts (C2C12). The nanoribbon sheets were composed of aligned PLGA nanoribbons in the center, and strips on four sides which take a role as bridges to connect and immobilize the aligned nanoribbons. Such unique structures facilitated the alignment of C2C12 cells into bilayer cell sheets, and cellular alignment was directed by the aligned direction of nanoribbons. The nanoribbon sheets also facilitated the construction of multilayer cell sheets with anisotropic (orthogonal) and isotropic (parallel) orientations. The enhanced expression of myogenic genes of C2C12 cells on the bilayer cell sheets demonstrated that the nanoribbons induced C2C12 cell differentiation into mature myoblasts. The micropatterned nanoribbon sheets may be a useful tool for directing cellular organization with defined alignment for regenerative medicine and drug screening applications. PMID:25890709

  10. [Polar coordinates representation based leukocyte segmentation of microscopic cell images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guanghua; Cui, Dong; Hao, Lianwang

    2010-12-01

    We propose an algorithm for segmentation of the overlapped leukocyte in the microscopic cell image. The histogram of the saturation channel in the cell image is smoothed to obtain the meaningful global valley point by the fingerprint smoothing method, and then the nucleus can be segmented. A circular region, containing the entire regions of the leukocyte, is marked off according to the equivalent sectional radius of the nucleus. Then, the edge of the overlapped leukocyte is represented by polar coordinates. The overlapped region by the change of the polar angle of the edge pixels is determined, and the closed edge of the leukocyte integrating the gradient information of the overlapped region is reconstructed. Finally, the leukocyte is exactly extracted. The experimental results show that our method has good performance in terms of recall ratio, precision ratio and pixel error ratio. PMID:21374971

  11. Curcumin alters motor coordination but not total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of adolescent male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ginus Partadiredja; Sutarman; Taufik Nur Yahya; Christiana Tri Nuryana; Rina Susilowati

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The present study aimed at investigating the effects of curcumin on the motor coordination and the estimate of the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of adolescent Wistar rats exposed to ethanol.METHODS:The total of 21 male Wistar rats aged 37 d old were divided into three groups,namely ethanol,ethanol-curcumin,and control groups.The ethanol group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and water given per oral; the ethanol-curcumin group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and curcumin extract given per oral; the control group received saline injection and oral water.The treatment was carried out daily for one month,after which the motor coordination performance of the rats was examined using revolving drum apparatus at test days 1,8,and 15.The rats were finally sacrificed and the cerebellum of the rats was further processed for stereological analysis.The estimate of the total number of Purkinje cells was calculated using physical fractionator method.RESULTS:The ethanol-curcumin group performed better than both ethanol and control groups in the motor coordination ability at day 8 of testing (P< 0.01).No Purkinje cell loss was observed as a result of one month intraperitoneal injection of ethanol.CONCLUSION:Curcumin may exert beneficial effects on the motor coordination of adolescent rats exposed to ethanol via undetermined hormetic mechanisms.

  12. Managing inter-cell interference with advanced receivers and rank adaptation in 5G small cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Catania, Davide;

    2015-01-01

    The use of receivers with interference suppression capabilities is expected to be a significant performance booster in 5th Generation (5G) ultra-dense small cell networks. In this respect, they could represent an alternative to traditional frequency reuse techniques, facilitating the inter...

  13. Learning of Soccer Player Agents Using a Policy Gradient Method : Coordination Between Kicker and Receiver During Free Kicks

    OpenAIRE

    Harukazu Igarashi, Koji Nakamura & Seiji Ishihara

    2011-01-01

    As an example of multi-agent learning in soccer games of the RoboCup 2D Soccer SimulationLeague, we dealt with a learning problem between a kicker and a receiver when a direct free kickis awarded just outside the opponent’s penalty area. We propose how to use a heuristic functionto evaluate an advantageous target point for safely sending/receiving a pass and scoring. Theheuristics include an interaction term between a kicker and a receiver to intensify theircoordination. To calculate the inte...

  14. Learning of Soccer Player Agents Using a Policy Gradient Method : Coordination Between Kicker and Receiver During Free Kicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harukazu Igarashi, Koji Nakamura & Seiji Ishihara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As an example of multi-agent learning in soccer games of the RoboCup 2D Soccer SimulationLeague, we dealt with a learning problem between a kicker and a receiver when a direct free kickis awarded just outside the opponent’s penalty area. We propose how to use a heuristic functionto evaluate an advantageous target point for safely sending/receiving a pass and scoring. Theheuristics include an interaction term between a kicker and a receiver to intensify theircoordination. To calculate the interaction term, we let a kicker/receiver agent have areceiver’s/kicker’s action decision model to predict a receiver’s/kicker’s action. Parameters in theheuristic function can be learned by a kind of reinforcement learning called the policy gradientmethod. Our experiments show that if the two agents do not have the same type of heuristics, theinteraction term based on prediction of a teammate’s decision model leads to learning a masterservantrelation between a kicker and a receiver, where a receiver is a master and a kicker is aservant.

  15. Coordinate regulation of proteins associated with radiation resistance in cultured insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured TN-368 lepidopteran insect cells exhibit a pronounced resistance to the lethal effects of a variety of physical agents, including X rays and 254 nm UV light, as well as a large number of chemicals. The resistance to ionizing radiation has previously been associated with an inducible process which is not expressed in unirradiated cells or cells receiving less than some minimal amount of radiation necessary for activating the process. The studies in this paper were initiated in an attempt to identify and characterize the inducible proteins associated with the marked radiation resistance of the TN-368 cells. Cells were exposed to doses of 0, 25, 64 or 350 Gy of 137Cs γ rays and incubated either for 3 h in medium containing [35S]methionine or for 2 h without labeling. Labeled cells were separated into nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions and proteins were analyzed on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Unlabeled cells were used to isolate total RNA which was translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with 35S label. These translation products were also analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Gamma irradiation of the TN-368 cells resulted in the de novo synthesis of several proteins as well as the complete inhibition of others. The number of such proteins identified was 19. These proteins ranged in size from 18-73 kDa, with a pI distribution of 4.7 to 6.1. In addition to the unique proteins, a large number of other proteins were also either up- or down-regulated. These observations were made in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions as well as in the translation products of RNA produced after irradiation. These studies indicate that RNA and protein synthesis in lepidopteran cells are coordinately regulated in response to ionizing radiation and may participate in the pronounced radioresistance of the TN-368 cells. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Single-cell transcriptome analysis reveals coordinated ectopic gene expression patterns in medullary thymic epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, Philip; Reyes, Alejandro; Pinto, Sheena; Rattay, Kristin; Nguyen, Michelle; Küchler, Rita; Huber, Wolfgang; Kyewski, Bruno; Steinmetz, Lars M.

    2015-01-01

    Expression of tissue-restricted self-antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is essential for self-tolerance induction and prevents autoimmunity, with each TRA being expressed in only a few mTECs. How this process is regulated in single mTECs and coordinated at the population level, such that the varied single-cell patterns add up to faithfully represent TRAs, is poorly understood. Here we used single-cell RNA-sequencing and provide evidence for numerous recurring TRA co-expression patterns, each present in only a subset of mTECs. Co-expressed genes clustered in the genome and showed enhanced chromatin accessibility. Our findings characterize TRA expression in mTECs as a coordinated process, which might involve local re-modeling of chromatin and thus ensures a comprehensive representation of the immunological self. PMID:26237553

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Interference Suppression Receivers and Rank Adaptation in 5G Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa, Dereje; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Catania, Davide;

    2015-01-01

    Advanced receivers are a key component of the 5th Generation (5G) ultra-dense small cells concept given their capability of efficiently dealing with the ever-increasing problem of inter-cell interference. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of interference suppression receivers in real network...

  18. Macro Cell Muting Coordination for Non-Uniform Topologies in LTE-A HetNets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    Enhanced Inter Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) for co-channel deployments of pico cells throughout a macro cell layout is studied. In particular, we analyze a scenario where only some macro cells have picos deployed, while other macro cells have no small cells. The challenge for such highly...... irregular scenarios is how to operate eICIC, and especially how to coordinate macro-cell muting. Our analysis shows that for eICIC to provide gain in such scenarios, it is recommended to use fully time aligned traditional Almost Blank Subframes (ABS) in the macro-cells with picos, while first tier...

  19. Learning Based Frequency- and Time-Domain Inter-Cell Interference Coordination in HetNets

    OpenAIRE

    Simsek, Meryem; Bennis, Mehdi; Guvenc, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we focus on inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) techniques in heterogeneous network (Het-Net) deployments, whereby macro- and picocells autonomously optimize their downlink transmissions, with loose coordination. We model this strategic coexistence as a multi-agent system, aiming at joint interference management and cell association. Using tools from Reinforcement Learning (RL), agents (i.e., macro- and picocells) sense their environment, and self-adapt based on local...

  20. Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination in Co-Channel Multi-Layer LTE-Advanced Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus I.; Wang, Yuanye; Strzyz, Stanislav; Frederiksen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Different technical solutions and innovations are enabling the move from macro-only scenarios towards heterogeneous networks with a mixture of different base station types. In this article we focus on multi-layer LTE-Advanced networks, and especially address aspects related to interference...... management. The network controlled time-domain enhanced inter-cell interference coordination (eICIC) concept is outlined by explaining the benefits and characteristics of this solution. The benefits of using advanced terminal device receiver architectures with interference suppression capabilities are...

  1. Endothelial cell motility, coordination and pattern formation during vasculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirok, Andras

    2013-01-01

    How vascular networks assemble is a fundamental problem of developmental biology that also has medical importance. To explain the organizational principles behind vascular patterning, we must understand how can tissue level structures be controlled through cell behavior patterns like motility and adhesion that, in turn, are determined by biochemical signal transduction processes? We discuss the various ideas that have been proposed as mechanisms for vascular network assembly: cell motility guided by extracellular matrix alignment (contact guidance), chemotaxis guided by paracrine and autocrine morphogens, and multicellular sprouting guided by cell-cell contacts. All of these processes yield emergent patterns, thus endothelial cells can form an interconnected structure autonomously, without guidance from an external pre-pattern. PMID:23857825

  2. Endothelial cell motility, coordination and pattern formation during vasculogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Czirok, Andras

    2013-01-01

    How vascular networks assemble is a fundamental problem of developmental biology that also has medical importance. To explain the organizational principles behind vascular patterning, we must understand how can tissue level structures be controlled through cell behavior patterns like motility and adhesion that, in turn, are determined by biochemical signal transduction processes? We discuss the various ideas that have been proposed as mechanisms for vascular network assembly: cell motility gu...

  3. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    KAUST Repository

    Takaku, Yasuharu

    2014-01-07

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  4. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Yasuharu; Hwang, Jung Shan; Wolf, Alexander; Böttger, Angelika; Shimizu, Hiroshi; David, Charles N; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia. PMID:24394722

  5. Stimulation of hematopoietic stem cells by interferon inducer in nonhuman primates receiving fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interferon response and hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony forming units-CFU-S) were studied in rhesus monkeys subjected to fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI). An interferon inducer, a nuclease resistant complex of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid with poly-L-lysine and carboxmethylcellulose[-poly(ICLC)] was used. Poly(ICLC) at 3.75 mg/m2 was given I.V. to 7 monkeys, 5 of which, starting 24 hours later, received 50 rad of 4 MV X rays twice a week for 2.5 weeks (total of 250 rad). Another group of 4 monkeys received FTBI only. Although the initial interferon response was similar in both groups treated with poly(ICLC)-800 international units (IU), the animals receiving FTBI showed reduced interferon levels after 100 rad. These animals, however, did not develop the hyporesponsiveness to subsequent poly(ICLC) injections that was observed in non-irradiated monkeys. Stabile interferon response (30-100 IU) in the FTBI group paralleled the prolonged persistence of the drug in their serum. Bone marrow (BM) aspirates from animals receiving FTBI and poly(ICLC) contained more CFU-S per 106 nucleated cells than those treated with poly(ICLC) alone or FTBI alone. FTBI with and without poly(ICLC) led to thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Lower white blood cell (WBC) count was found in irradiated animals treated with poly(ICLC). Partial alopecia was observed in animals receiving poly(ICLC). Two animals--one in the poly(ICLC) and FTBI group and the other receiving FTBI alone, died with thrombocytopenia and leukopenia

  6. Stimulation of hematopoietic stem cells by interferon inducer in nonhuman primates receiving fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvovsky, E.A. (George Washington Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC); Levine, P.H.; Bengali, Z.; Leiseca, S.A.; Cicmanec, J.L.; Robinson, J.E.; Bautro, N.; Levy, H.B.; Scott, R.M.

    1982-10-01

    Interferon response and hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony forming units--CFU-S) were studied in rhesus monkeys subjected to fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI). An interferon inducer, a nuclease resistant complex of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid with poly-L-lysine and carboxmethylcellulose(-poly(ICLC)) was used. Poly(ICLC) at 3.75 mg/m/sup 2/ was given I.V. to 7 monkeys, 5 of which, starting 24 hours later, received 50 rad of 4 MV X rays twice a week at 2.5 weeks (total of 250 rad). Another group of 4 monkeys received FTBI only. Although the initial interferon response was similar in both groups treated wih poly(ICLC)--800 international units (IU), the animals that receiving FTBI showed reduced interferon levels after 100 rad. These animals, however, did not develop the hyporesponsiveness to subsequent poly(ICLC) injections that was observed in non-irradiated monkeys. Stabile interferon response (30-100 IU) in the FTBI group paralleled the prolonged persistence of the drug in their serum. Bone marrow (BM) aspirates from animals receiving FTBI and poly(ICLC) contained more CFU-S per 10/sup 6/ nucleated cells than those treated with poly(ICLC) along or FTBI with and without poly(ICLC) lead to thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Lower white blood cell (WBC) count was found in irradiated animals treated with poly(ICLC). Partial alopecia was observed in animals receiving poly(ICLC). Two animals--one in the poly(ICLC) and FTBI group and the other receiving FTBI along, died with thrombocytopenia and leukopenia.

  7. Enhanced distance-based location management of mobile communication systems using a cell coordinates approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, HW; Ng, CK

    2005-01-01

    In managing the locations of mobile users in mobile communication systems, the distance-based strategy has been proven to have better performance than other dynamic strategies, but is difficult to implement. In this paper, a simple approach is introduced to implement the distance-based strategy by using the cell coordinates in calculating the physical distance traveled. This approach has the advantages of being independent of the size, shape, and distribution of cells, as well as catering for...

  8. Low-Complexity Interference-Free Downlink Channel Assignment with Improved Performance in Coordinated Small Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a low-complexity interference-free channel assignment scheme with improved desired downlink performance in coordinated multi-antenna small-coverage access points (APs) that employ the open-access control strategy. The adopted system treats the case when each user can be granted an access to one of the available channels at a time. Moreover, each receive terminal can suppress a limited number of resolvable interfering sources via its highly-correlated receive array. On the other hand, the operation of the deployed APs can be coordinated to serve active users, and the availability of multiple physical channels and the use of uncorrelated transmit antennas at each AP are exploited to improve the performance of supported users. The analysis provides new approaches to use the transmit antenna array at each AP, the multiple physical channels, the receive antenna array at each user in order to identify interference-free channels per each user, and then to select a downlink channel that provides the best possible improved performance. The event of concurrent interference-free channel identification by different users is also treated to further improve the desired link associated with the scheduled user. The analysis considers the practical scenario of imperfect identification of interference-free channel by an active user and/or the imperfectness in scheduling concurrent users requests on the same channel. The developed formulations can be used to study any performance metric and they are applicable for any statistical and geometric channel models. © 2015 IEEE.

  9. Measurement by load cells of impact force which a human body receives by external force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ito

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: By development of a robotics technique, the assisted living instruments which have intelligent functions are being developed. As a result, there is a possibility that the accident to which the assisted living instrument under actuation contacts a human body may occur. The purpose of this research is for the impact force measurement system which with load cells to build, and to evaluate performance.Design/methodology/approach: The impact force measurement system was built by load cells and a data logger. Evaluation of the performance of the system was carried out to static loads and dynamic loads.Findings: By covering the sensor part of load cells with shock absorbing material, it turned out that it is possible to measure impact load simple. Moreover, as a result of comparing the characteristic of shock absorbing material, it became clear that the impact-absorbing characteristic of cell sponge and organism soft tissue is in agreement.Research limitations/implications: This research estimated the impact-absorbing characteristic of organism soft tissue for the skin, fat, muscles, etc. as a complex.Practical implications: This paper cleared that the load which a bone receives by dynamic external force can be easily measured by load cells.Originality/value: The objective of this research project was to develop the system by which impact force is measured and evaluated based on the damage which a human body receives. And we were able to complete the prototype.

  10. Enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination for Heterogeneous Networks in LTE-Advanced: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lindbom, Lars; Krishnamurthy, Sandeep; Yao, Chunhai; Miki, Nobuhiko; Chandrasekhar, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous networks (het-nets) - comprising of conventional macrocell base stations overlaid with femtocells, picocells and wireless relays - offer cellular operators burgeoning traffic demands through cell-splitting gains obtained by bringing users closer to their access points. However, the often random and unplanned location of these access points can cause severe near-far problems, typically solved by coordinating base-station transmissions to minimize interference. Towards this direction, the 3rd generation partnership project Long Term Evolution-Advanced (3GPP-LTE or Rel-10) standard introduces time-domain inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) for facilitating a seamless deployment of a het-net overlay. This article surveys the key features encompassing the physical layer, network layer and back-hauling aspects of time-domain ICIC in Rel-10.

  11. A Cooperative Reinforcement Learning Approach for Inter-Cell Interference Coordination in OFDMA Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dirani, Mariana; Altman, Zwi

    2010-01-01

    Interference Management International audience Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) is commonly identified as a key radio resource management mechanism to enhance system performance of 4G networks. This paper addresses the problem of ICIC in the downlink of cellular OFDMA (LTE and WiMAX) systems in the context of Self-Organizing Networks (SON). The problem is posed as a cooperative Multi-Agent control problem. Each base station is an agent that dynamically changes power masks on ...

  12. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Co-Ordinates Carbohydrate Metabolism and Cell Cycle in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Chen, Yuping; Carey, Lucas; Futcher, Bruce

    2016-05-19

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control cell division in eukaryotes by phosphorylating proteins involved in division. But successful proliferation requires co-ordination between division and cellular growth in mass. Previous proteomic studies suggested that metabolic proteins, as well as cell division proteins, could potentially be substrates of cyclin-dependent kinases. Here we focus on two metabolic enzymes of the yeast S. cerevisiae, neutral trehalase (Nth1) and glycogen phosphorylase (Gph1), and show that their activities are likely directly controlled by CDK activity, thus allowing co-ordinate regulation of carbohydrate metabolism with cell division processes. In this case, co-ordinate regulation may optimize the decision to undertake a final cell division as nutrients are being exhausted. Co-regulation of cell division processes and metabolic processes by CDK activity may be a general phenomenon important for co-ordinating the cell cycle with growth. PMID:27203179

  13. SepG coordinates sporulation-specific cell division and nucleoid organization in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly complex process that requires tight coordination between septum formation and chromosome replication and segregation. In bacteria that divide by binary fission a single septum is formed at mid-cell, a process that is coordinated by the conserved cell division scaffold protein FtsZ. In contrast, during sporulation-specific cell division in streptomycetes, up to a hundred rings of FtsZ (Z rings) are produced almost simultaneously, dividing the multinucleoid aerial hyphae into long chains of unigenomic spores. This involves the active recruitment of FtsZ by the SsgB protein, and at the same time requires sophisticated systems to regulate chromosome dynamics. Here, we show that SepG is required for the onset of sporulation and acts by ensuring that SsgB is localized to future septum sites. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging suggests direct interaction between SepG and SsgB. The beta-lactamase reporter system showed that SepG is a transmembrane protein with its central domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. Without SepG, SsgB fails to localize properly, consistent with a crucial role for SepG in the membrane localization of the SsgB-FtsZ complex. While SsgB remains associated with FtsZ, SepG re-localizes to the (pre)spore periphery. Expanded doughnut-shaped nucleoids are formed in sepG null mutants, suggesting that SepG is required for nucleoid compaction. Taken together, our work shows that SepG, encoded by one of the last genes in the conserved dcw cluster of cell division and cell-wall-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria whose function was still largely unresolved,coordinates septum synthesis and chromosome organization in Streptomyces. PMID:27053678

  14. Associations of ATM Polymorphisms With Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy

  15. Associations of ATM Polymorphisms With Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhongli [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhang, Wencheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhou, Yuling; Yu, Dianke; Chen, Xiabin; Chang, Jiang; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Xiao, Zefen, E-mail: xiaozefen@sina.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Tan, Wen, E-mail: tanwen@cicams.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); and others

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy.

  16. Relationship between red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase activity and myelotoxicity in dogs receiving azathioprine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Damon B; Mackin, Andrew; Easley, Roger; Boyle, Carolyn R; Hou, Weiying; Langston, Cory; Walsh, Amy M; Province, Michael A; McLeod, Howard L

    2004-01-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) produces inactive metabolites of azathioprine and, in humans, has a variable amount of activity. Humans with low TPMT activity commonly develop myelotoxicity when receiving azathioprine. Our study sought to characterize the distribution of TPMT activity in a population of dogs and to determine whether the pretreatment knowledge of red blood cell (RBC) TPMT activity could predict myelotoxicity in dogs receiving azathioprine. RBC TPMT activity was measured in 299 healthy dogs, and 9 dogs that represented a wide range of enzyme activity received azathioprine at a standard therapeutic dose for 30 days. TPMT activity in healthy dogs was log normally distributed and varied over an approximately 7-fold range. Geometric mean, minimum, and maximum RBC TPMT activities were 37.1, 16.3, and 115 nmol per gram of hemoglobin (gHb) per hour, respectively. TPMT deficiency was not identified. Two populations of TPMT activity in dogs were detected by statistical modeling (commingling analysis). Dogs with intermediate TPMT activity (14-38 nmol/gHb/h) receiving azathioprine had significantly lower neutrophil counts during week 4 than during weeks 0-3, whereas those with high activity (>39 nmol/gHb/h) did not have a significant change in neutrophil count. An analysis of TPMT activity in 6 dogs with a history of azathioprine-associated myelotoxicity in a clinical setting revealed either intermediate or high TPMT enzyme activity in all dogs, suggesting that TPMT activity, as measured in RBCs, is not the sole cause of severe azathioprine-associated myelosuppression in dogs. PMID:15188821

  17. Action plan for coordinated deployment of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed a program designed to provide hydrogen vehicles and accessible hydrogen stations for a pre-commercial hydrogen economy in California. The rollout will coordinate the placement of stations in areas that meet the needs of drivers in order to ensure the transition to a competitive marketplace. An action plan has been developed that focuses on the following 3 specific steps: (1) the validation of early passenger vehicle markets, (2) expanded transit bus use, and (2) the establishment of regulations and standards. Specific tasks related to the steps were discussed, as well as potential barriers to the development of a hydrogen infrastructure in California. Methods of ensuring coordinated actions with the fuel cell and hydrogen industries were also reviewed

  18. Differential and coordinated expression of defensins and cytokines by gingival epithelial cells and dendritic cells in response to oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Edward A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs both initiate and contribute to innate immune responses to bacteria. However, much less is known about the coordinated regulation of innate immune responses between GECs and immune cells, particularly DCs in the oral cavity. The present study was conducted to investigate whether their responses are coordinated and are bacteria-specific in the oral cavity. Results The β-defensin antimicrobial peptides hBD1, hBD2 and hBD3 were expressed by immature DCs as well as gingival epithelial cells (GECs. HBD1, hBD2 and hBD3 are upregulated in DCs while hBD2 and hBD3 are upregulated in GECs in response to bacterial stimulation. Responses of both cell types were bacteria-specific, as demonstrated by distinctive profiles of hBDs mRNA expression and secreted cytokines and chemokines in response to cell wall preparations of various bacteria of different pathogenicity: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The regulation of expression of hBD2, IL-8, CXCL2/GROβ and CCL-20/MIP3α by GECs was greatly enhanced by conditioned medium from bacterially activated DCs. This enhancement was primarily mediated via IL-1β, since induction was largely attenuated by IL-1 receptor antagonist. In addition, the defensins influence DCs by eliciting differential cytokine and chemokine secretion. HBD2 significantly induced IL-6, while hBD3 induced MCP-1 to approximately the same extent as LPS, suggesting a unique role in immune responses. Conclusions The results suggest that cytokines, chemokines and β-defensins are involved in interaction of these two cell types, and the responses are bacteria-specific. Differential and coordinated regulation between GECs and DCs may be important in regulation of innate immune homeostasis and response to pathogens in the oral cavity.

  19. Infected cell protein 0 functional domains and their coordination in herpes simplex virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haidong

    2016-02-12

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that establishes latent infection in ganglia neurons. Its unique life cycle requires a balanced "conquer and compromise" strategy to deal with the host anti-viral defenses. One of HSV-1 α (immediate early) gene products, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is a multifunctional protein that interacts with and modulates a wide range of cellular defensive pathways. These pathways may locate in different cell compartments, which then migrate or exchange factors upon stimulation, for the purpose of a concerted and effective defense. ICP0 is able to simultaneously attack multiple host pathways by either degrading key restrictive factors or modifying repressive complexes. This is a viral protein that contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase, translocates among different cell compartments and interacts with major defensive complexes. The multiple functional domains of ICP0 can work independently and at the same time coordinate with each other. Dissecting the functional domains of ICP0 and delineating the coordination of these domains will help us understand HSV-1 pathogenicity as well as host defense mechanisms. This article focuses on describing individual ICP0 domains, their biochemical properties and their implication in HSV-1 infection. By putting individual domain functions back into the picture of host anti-viral defense network, this review seeks to elaborate the complex interactions between HSV-1 and its host. PMID:26870669

  20. Decipher the dynamic coordination between enzymatic activity and structural modulation at focal adhesions in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoying; Seong, Jihye; Wang, Yi; Chang, Shiou-Chi; Eichorst, John Paul; Ouyang, Mingxing; Li, Julie Y.-S.; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-07-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic subcellular structures crucial for cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. It remains an enigma how enzymatic activities in these local complexes regulate their structural remodeling in live cells. Utilizing biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed a correlative FRET imaging microscopy (CFIM) approach to quantitatively analyze the subcellular coordination between the enzymatic Src activation and the structural FA disassembly. CFIM reveals that the Src kinase activity only within the microdomain of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane is coupled with FA dynamics. FA disassembly at cell periphery was linearly dependent on this raft-localized Src activity, although cells displayed heterogeneous levels of response to stimulation. Within lipid rafts, the time delay between Src activation and FA disassembly was 1.2 min in cells seeded on low fibronectin concentration ([FN]) and 4.3 min in cells on high [FN]. CFIM further showed that the level of Src-FA coupling, as well as the time delay, was regulated by cell-matrix interactions, as a tight enzyme-structure coupling occurred in FA populations mediated by integrin αvβ3, but not in those by integrin α5β1. Therefore, different FA subpopulations have distinctive regulation mechanisms between their local kinase activity and structural FA dynamics.

  1. Developmental Coordination of Gamete Differentiation with Programmed Cell Death in Sporulating Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Michael D; Meneghini, Marc D

    2015-09-01

    The gametogenesis program of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as sporulation, employs unusual internal meiotic divisions, after which all four meiotic products differentiate within the parental cell. We showed previously that sporulation is typically accompanied by the destruction of discarded immature meiotic products through their exposure to proteases released from the mother cell vacuole, which undergoes an apparent programmed rupture. Here we demonstrate that vacuolar rupture contributes to de facto programmed cell death (PCD) of the meiotic mother cell itself. Meiotic mother cell PCD is accompanied by an accumulation of depolarized mitochondria, organelle swelling, altered plasma membrane characteristics, and cytoplasmic clearance. To ensure that the gametes survive the destructive consequences of developing within a cell that is executing PCD, we hypothesized that PCD is restrained from occurring until spores have attained a threshold degree of differentiation. Consistent with this hypothesis, gene deletions that perturb all but the most terminal postmeiotic spore developmental stages are associated with altered PCD. In these mutants, meiotic mother cells exhibit a delay in vacuolar rupture and then appear to undergo an alternative form of PCD associated with catastrophic consequences for the underdeveloped spores. Our findings reveal yeast sporulation as a context of bona fide PCD that is developmentally coordinated with gamete differentiation. PMID:26092920

  2. The DREAM complex: master coordinator of cell cycle-dependent gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Subhashini; DeCaprio, James A

    2013-08-01

    The dimerization partner, RB-like, E2F and multi-vulval class B (DREAM) complex provides a previously unsuspected unifying role in the cell cycle by directly linking p130, p107, E2F, BMYB and forkhead box protein M1. DREAM mediates gene repression during the G0 phase and coordinates periodic gene expression with peaks during the G1/S and G2/M phases. Perturbations in DREAM complex regulation shift the balance from quiescence towards proliferation and contribute to the increased mitotic gene expression levels that are frequently observed in cancers with a poor prognosis. PMID:23842645

  3. The DREAM complex: Master coordinator of cell cycle dependent gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Subhashini; DeCaprio, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Preface The dimerization partner (DP), retinoblastoma (RB)-like, E2F and MuvB (DREAM) complex provides a previously unsuspected unifying role in the cell cycle by directly linking p130, p107, E2F, BMYB and FOXM1. DREAM mediates gene repression during G0 and coordinates periodic gene expression with peaks during G1/S and G2/M. Perturbations in DREAM regulation shift the balance from quiescence towards proliferation and contribute to increased mitotic gene expression levels frequently observed in cancers with poor prognosis. PMID:23842645

  4. The DREAM complex: Master coordinator of cell cycle dependent gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sadasivam, Subhashini; DeCaprio, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The dimerization partner (DP), retinoblastoma (RB)-like, E2F and MuvB (DREAM) complex provides a previously unsuspected unifying role in the cell cycle by directly linking p130, p107, E2F, BMYB and FOXM1. DREAM mediates gene repression during G0 and coordinates periodic gene expression with peaks during G1/S and G2/M. Perturbations in DREAM regulation shift the balance from quiescence towards proliferation and contribute to increased mitotic gene expression levels frequently observed in cance...

  5. Validation of an Inter-Cell Interference Coordination Solution in Real-World Deployment Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Berardinelli, Gilberto;

    2014-01-01

    , reflecting the many possible configurations that can be experienced in a practical scenario. In this paper we adopt an experimental procedure, using a software defined radio testbed, for acquiring almost 1000 different radio link conditions between the nodes of a relevant wireless indoor network scenario......The characteristics of the deployment scenario are fundamental elements in the performance evaluation of wireless networks inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) schemes. The statistical validation of such concepts is typically achieved by means of system-level simulation campaigns where...

  6. Functional cooperation between FACT and MCM is coordinated with cell cycle and differential complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chih-Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional cooperation between FACT and the MCM helicase complex constitutes an integral step during DNA replication initiation. However, mode of regulation that underlies the proper functional interaction of FACT and MCM is poorly understood. Methods & Results Here we present evidence indicating that such interaction is coordinated with cell cycle progression and differential complex formation. We first demonstrate the existence of two distinct FACT-MCM subassemblies, FACT-MCM2/4/6/7 and FACT-MCM2/3/4/5. Both complexes possess DNA unwinding activity and are subject to cell cycle-dependent enzymatic regulation. Interestingly, analysis of functional attributes further suggests that they act at distinct, and possibly sequential, steps during origin establishment and replication initiation. Moreover, we show that the phosphorylation profile of the FACT-associated MCM4 undergoes a cell cycle-dependent change, which is directly correlated with the catalytic activity of the FACT-MCM helicase complexes. Finally, at the quaternary structure level, physical interaction between FACT and MCM complexes is generally dependent on persistent cell cycle and further stabilized upon S phase entry. Cessation of mitotic cycle destabilizes the complex formation and likely leads to compromised coordination and activities. Conclusions Together, our results correlate FACT-MCM functionally and temporally with S phase and DNA replication. They further demonstrate that enzymatic activities intrinsically important for DNA replication are tightly controlled at various levels, thereby ensuring proper progression of, as well as exit from, the cell cycle and ultimately euploid gene balance.

  7. Nutritional status and CD4 cell counts in patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Celia Oliveira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Even with current highly active antiretroviral therapy, individuals with AIDS continue to exhibit important nutritional deficits and reduced levels of albumin and hemoglobin, which may be directly related to their cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 cell counts. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS and relate the findings to the albumin level, hemoglobin level and CD4 cell count. Methods Patients over 20 years of age with AIDS who were hospitalized in a university hospital and were receiving antiretroviral therapy were studied with regard to clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and sociodemographic characteristics. Body mass index, percentage of weight loss, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and arm muscle circumference were analyzed. Data on albumin, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 cell count were obtained from patient charts. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test for independent variables and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The level of significance was set to 0.05 (α = 5%. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. Results Of the 50 patients evaluated, 70% were male. The prevalence of malnutrition was higher when the definition was based on arm circumference and triceps skinfold measurement. The concentrations of all biochemical variables were significantly lower among patients with a body mass index of less than 18.5kg/m2. The CD4 cell count, albumin, hemoglobin and hematocrit anthropometric measures were directly related to each other. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of nutritional follow-up for underweight patients with AIDS, as nutritional status proved to be related to important biochemical alterations.

  8. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Murray

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes.

  9. Performance Analysis of enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination in LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) for Long Term Evolution (LTE)- Advanced with co-channel deployment of both macro and pico is analyzed. The use of pico-cell Range Extension (RE) and time domain eICIC (TDM muting) is combined. The performance is evaluated in...... the downlink by means of extensive system level simulations that follow the 3GPP guidelines. The overall network performance is analyzed for different number of pico-eNBs, transmit power levels, User Equipment (UE) distributions, and packet schedulers. Recommended settings of the RE offset and TDM...... muting ratio in different scenarios are identified. The presented performance results and findings can serve as input to guidelines for co-channel deployment of macro and pico-eNBs with eICIC....

  10. Circulating endothelial cells and other angiogenesis factors in pancreatic carcinoma patients receiving gemcitabine chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic carcinoma is a significant cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. As the level of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) is known to increase in response to various cancers, we investigated the predictive potential of CEC levels and the association of these levels with the expression of proangiogenic factors in pancreatic carcinoma patients. Pancreatic carcinoma patients receiving gemcitabine chemotherapy were prospectively assigned to this study. CEC levels were measured using the CellTracks system, and the plasma levels of several angiogenesis factors were measured using multiplex immunoassay. Associations between clinical outcomes and the levels of these factors were evaluated. Baseline CEC levels were markedly higher in pancreatic carcinoma patients (n = 37) than in healthy volunteers (n = 53). Moreover, these high CEC levels were associated with decreased overall survival (median, 297 days versus 143 days, P < 0.001) and progression-free survival (median, 150 days versus 64 days, P = 0.008), as well as with high vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-10 expression in the pancreatic carcinoma patients. Several chemokines and proangiogenic factors correlate with the release of CECs, and the number of CECs detected may be a useful prognostic marker in pancreatic carcinoma patients undergoing gemcitabine chemotherapy. UMIN000002323

  11. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 coordinates multiple processes in a model of intestinal epithelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Kerschner, Jenny L; Harris, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 transcription factors (HNF1α/β) are associated with diabetes. These factors are well studied in the liver, pancreas and kidney, where they direct tissue-specific gene regulation. However, they also have an important role in the biology of many other tissues, including the intestine. We investigated the transcriptional network governed by HNF1 in an intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco2). We used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by direct sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify HNF1 binding sites genome-wide. Direct targets of HNF1 were validated using conventional ChIP assays and confirmed by siRNA-mediated depletion of HNF1, followed by RT-qPCR. Gene ontology process enrichment analysis of the HNF1 targets identified multiple processes with a role in intestinal epithelial cell function, including properties of the cell membrane, cellular response to hormones, and regulation of biosynthetic processes. Approximately 50% of HNF1 binding sites were also occupied by other members of the intestinal transcriptional network, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A), caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), and forkhead box A2 (FOXA2). Depletion of HNF1 in Caco2 cells increases FOXA2 abundance and decreases levels of CDX2, illustrating the coordinated activities of the network. These data suggest that HNF1 plays an important role in regulating intestinal epithelial cell function, both directly and through interactions with other intestinal transcription factors. PMID:26855178

  12. Coordinate transformations for BEAM/EGSnrc Monte Carlo dose calculations of non-coplanar fields received from a DICOM-compliant treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method provides the most accurate to-date dose calculations in heterogeneous media and complex geometries, and this spawns increasing interest in incorporating MC calculations in the treatment planning quality assurance process. This process involves MC dose calculations for the treatment plans produced clinically. Commonly used in radiotherapy, MC codes are BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc, which transport particles in a coordinate system (c.s.) that has been established historically and does not correspond to the c.s. of treatment planning systems (TPSs). Relative rotations of these c.s. are not straightforward, especially for non-coplanar treatments. Transformation equations are therefore required to re-calculate a treatment plan using BEAM/DOSXYZnrc codes. This paper presents such transformations for beam angles defined in a DICOM-compliant treatment planning coordinate system. Verification of the derived transformations with two three-field plans simulated on a phantom using TPS as well as MC codes has been performed demonstrating exact geometrical agreement of the MC treatment fields' placement. (note)

  13. Quality of life in patients receiving curative radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if perceptions of quality of life (QOL) change in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving curative radiation therapy (XRT) alone or in combination with other treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-L) (Cella, 1994), a 37-item Likert-type questionnaire that measures QOL in lung cancer patients, was used to assess QOL in NSCLC patients receiving curative XRT. A descriptive, longitudinal design with repeated measures was utilized for this study, and subjects were selected using a consecutive sampling technique. Subjects completed the FACT-L prior to beginning XRT, during the fourth week of XRT, and one and four months after completion of XRT. Results: The sample included 23 patients with Stage IIIA (n=8, 35%) or IIIB (n=15, 65%) NSCLC. Treatment regimens included XRT alone (n=1, 4%), postoperative XRT (n=9, 39%), postoperative XRT with concurrent chemotherapy (n=1, 4%), induction chemotherapy followed by XRT with concurrent chemotherapy (n=4, 17%), and XRT with concurrent chemotherapy (n=8, 35%). Internal consistency reliability was adequate for the FACT-L (r=.85-.96) over the four measures. The research question, do perceptions of QOL change in NSCLC patients receiving XRT, was examined using a multivariate approach to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures. QOL was significantly less during XRT than prior to XRT (p=.006, power=.83) and was significantly greater one month after XRT than prior to XRT (p=.01, power=.77) or during XRT (p≤.0005, power=.99). There was no significant difference between QOL at one and four months after completion of XRT. No correlation was found between QOL and treatment regimen. Conclusions: These preliminary findings suggest that there is a significant decrease in QOL in NSCLC patients during treatment with XRT, but QOL is significantly greater following XRT than it was prior to or

  14. Co-delivery of cell-wall-forming enzymes in the same vesicle for coordinated fungal cell wall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Martin; Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Higuchi, Yujiro; Hacker, Christian; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Gurr, Sarah J; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-01-01

    Fungal cells are surrounded by an extracellular cell wall. This complex matrix of proteins and polysaccharides protects against adverse stresses and determines the shape of fungal cells. The polysaccharides of the fungal wall include 1,3-β-glucan and chitin, which are synthesized by membrane-bound synthases at the growing cell tip. A hallmark of filamentous fungi is the class V chitin synthase, which carries a myosin-motor domain. In the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis, the myosin-chitin synthase Mcs1 moves to the plasma membrane in secretory vesicles, being delivered by kinesin-1 and myosin-5. The myosin domain of Mcs1 enhances polar secretion by tethering vesicles at the site of exocytosis. It remains elusive, however, how other cell-wall-forming enzymes are delivered and how their activity is coordinated post secretion. Here, we show that the U. maydis class VII chitin synthase and 1,3-β-glucan synthase travel in Mcs1-containing vesicles, and that their apical secretion depends on Mcs1. Once in the plasma membrane, anchorage requires enzyme activity, which suggests co-synthesis of chitin and 1,3-β-glucan polysaccharides at sites of exocytosis. Thus, delivery of cell-wall-forming enzymes in Mcs1 vesicles ensures local foci of fungal cell wall formation. PMID:27563844

  15. Dynamics between cancer cell subpopulations reveals a model coordinating with both hierarchical and stochastic concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weikang; Quan, Yi; Fu, Qibin; Liu, Yu; Liang, Ying; Wu, Jingwen; Yang, Gen; Luo, Chunxiong; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Yugang

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are often heterogeneous in which tumor cells of different phenotypes have distinct properties. For scientific and clinical interests, it is of fundamental importance to understand their properties and the dynamic variations among different phenotypes, specifically under radio- and/or chemo-therapy. Currently there are two controversial models describing tumor heterogeneity, the cancer stem cell (CSC) model and the stochastic model. To clarify the controversy, we measured probabilities of different division types and transitions of cells via in situ immunofluorescence. Based on the experiment data, we constructed a model that combines the CSC with the stochastic concepts, showing the existence of both distinctive CSC subpopulations and the stochastic transitions from NSCCs to CSCs. The results showed that the dynamic variations between CSCs and non-stem cancer cells (NSCCs) can be simulated with the model. Further studies also showed that the model can be used to describe the dynamics of the two subpopulations after radiation treatment. More importantly, analysis demonstrated that the experimental detectable equilibrium CSC proportion can be achieved only when the stochastic transitions from NSCCs to CSCs occur, indicating that tumor heterogeneity may exist in a model coordinating with both the CSC and the stochastic concepts. The mathematic model based on experimental parameters may contribute to a better understanding of the tumor heterogeneity, and provide references on the dynamics of CSC subpopulation during radiotherapy. PMID:24416258

  16. ALIX and ESCRT-III Coordinately Control Cytokinetic Abscission during Germline Stem Cell Division In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenes, Åsmund H.; Malerød, Lene; Christensen, Anette Lie; Steen, Chloé B.; Mathieu, Juliette; Nezis, Ioannis P.; Liestøl, Knut; Huynh, Jean-René; Stenmark, Harald; Haglund, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Abscission is the final step of cytokinesis that involves the cleavage of the intercellular bridge connecting the two daughter cells. Recent studies have given novel insight into the spatiotemporal regulation and molecular mechanisms controlling abscission in cultured yeast and human cells. The mechanisms of abscission in living metazoan tissues are however not well understood. Here we show that ALIX and the ESCRT-III component Shrub are required for completion of abscission during Drosophila female germline stem cell (fGSC) division. Loss of ALIX or Shrub function in fGSCs leads to delayed abscission and the consequent formation of stem cysts in which chains of daughter cells remain interconnected to the fGSC via midbody rings and fusome. We demonstrate that ALIX and Shrub interact and that they co-localize at midbody rings and midbodies during cytokinetic abscission in fGSCs. Mechanistically, we show that the direct interaction between ALIX and Shrub is required to ensure cytokinesis completion with normal kinetics in fGSCs. We conclude that ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control abscission in Drosophila fGSCs and that their complex formation is required for accurate abscission timing in GSCs in vivo. PMID:25635693

  17. Dynamics between cancer cell subpopulations reveals a model coordinating with both hierarchical and stochastic concepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weikang Wang

    Full Text Available Tumors are often heterogeneous in which tumor cells of different phenotypes have distinct properties. For scientific and clinical interests, it is of fundamental importance to understand their properties and the dynamic variations among different phenotypes, specifically under radio- and/or chemo-therapy. Currently there are two controversial models describing tumor heterogeneity, the cancer stem cell (CSC model and the stochastic model. To clarify the controversy, we measured probabilities of different division types and transitions of cells via in situ immunofluorescence. Based on the experiment data, we constructed a model that combines the CSC with the stochastic concepts, showing the existence of both distinctive CSC subpopulations and the stochastic transitions from NSCCs to CSCs. The results showed that the dynamic variations between CSCs and non-stem cancer cells (NSCCs can be simulated with the model. Further studies also showed that the model can be used to describe the dynamics of the two subpopulations after radiation treatment. More importantly, analysis demonstrated that the experimental detectable equilibrium CSC proportion can be achieved only when the stochastic transitions from NSCCs to CSCs occur, indicating that tumor heterogeneity may exist in a model coordinating with both the CSC and the stochastic concepts. The mathematic model based on experimental parameters may contribute to a better understanding of the tumor heterogeneity, and provide references on the dynamics of CSC subpopulation during radiotherapy.

  18. Cell Identification based on Received Signal Strength Fingerprints: Concept and Application towards Energy Saving in Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Roth-Mandutz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of small cells aimed at off-loading data traffic from macrocells in heterogeneous networks has resulted in a drastic increase in energy consumption in cellular networks. Energy consumption can be optimized in a selforganized way by adapting the number of active cells in response to the current traffic demand. In this paper we concentrate on the complex problem of how to identify small cells to be reactivated in situations where multiple cells are concurrently inactive. Solely based on the received signal strength, we present cell-specific patterns for the generation of unique cell fingerprints. The cell fingerprints of the deactivated cells are matched with measurements from a high data rate demanding mobile device to identify the most appropriate candidate. Our scheme results in a matching success rate of up to 100% to identify the best cell depending on the number of cells to be activated.

  19. Communication dated 1 November 2006 received from the Permanent Mission of Cuba to the Agency regarding the statement by the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement on the Nuclear Test Conducted by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency has received a letter to the Director General dated 1 November 2006 from the Resident Representative of Cuba, H.E. Ms. Norma M. Goicochea Estenoz, in her capacity as the Chair of the Vienna Chapter of the Non-Aligned Movement, enclosing a copy of the 'Statement by the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement on the Nuclear Test Conducted by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea'. The letter and, as requested by the Resident Representative, its enclosure, are reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  20. Increased Chromogranin A Cell Density in the Large Intestine of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome after Receiving Dietary Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Mazzawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large intestine contains five types of endocrine cells that regulate its functions by sensing its luminal contents and releasing specific hormones. Chromogranin A (CgA is a common marker for the gastrointestinal endocrine cells, and it is abnormal in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS patients. Most IBS patients relate their symptoms to certain food elements. The present study investigated the effect of dietary guidance on the total endocrine cells of the large intestine as detected by CgA in 13 IBS patients. Thirteen control subjects were also included. Each patient received three sessions of dietary guidance. Colonoscopies were performed on controls and patients (at baseline and at 3–9 months after receiving guidance. Biopsy samples from the colon and rectum were immunostained for CgA and quantified by computerized image analysis. The densities of CgA cells in the total colon (mean ± SEM among the controls and the IBS patients before and after receiving dietary guidance were 83.3±10.1, 38.6±3.7, and 64.7±4.2 cells/mm2, respectively (P=0.0004, and were unchanged in the rectum. In conclusion, the increase in CgA cell density after receiving dietary guidance may reflect a change in the densities of the large intestinal endocrine cells causing an improvement in the IBS symptoms.

  1. A novel self-assembly with zinc porphyrin coordination polymer for enhanced photocurrent conversion in supramolecular solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: An innovative type of self-assembly based on acetohydrazide zinc porphyrin coordination polymer has been prepared in supramolecular solar cells. - Highlights: • A novel assembly with acetohydrazide porphyrin coordination polymer. • The assembly based on porphyrin is prepared as parallel sample. • Coordination polymer-based assembly shows enhanced photoelectronic behavior. • A series of different organic acid ligands as anchoring groups are prepared. - Abstract: In this work, a novel acetohydrazide zinc porphyrin-based coordination polymer (CP)-isonicotinic acid self-assembly by metal-ligand axial coordination to modify the nano-structured TiO2 electrode surface has been investigated in photoelectrochemical device. Compared to the assembly based on corresponding zinc porphyrin combined with isonicotinic acid by metal-ligand axial coordination, CP-isonicotinic acid assembly exhibits a significantly enhanced photoelectronic behavior. In addition, a series of different organic acid ligands were prepared to probe the impact of their structures on the photoelectronic performances of their corresponding assemblies-sensitized cells. This study affords a novel type of self-assembly to functionalize the nanostructured TiO2 electrode surface in supramolecular solar cells

  2. Q Fever Outbreak Among Travelers to Germany Who Received Live Cell Therapy--United States and Canada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Misha P; Newman, Alexandra P; Amato, Michael; Walawander, Mary; Kothe, Cynthia; Nerone, James D; Pomerantz, Cynthia; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Biggs, Holly M; Dahlgren, F Scott; Pieracci, Emily G; Whitfield, Yvonne; Sider, Doug; Ozaldin, Omar; Berger, Lisa; Buck, Peter A; Downing, Mark; Blog, Debra

    2015-10-01

    During September–November 2014, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) was notified of five New York state residents who had tested seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever. All five patients had symptoms compatible with Q fever (e.g., fever, fatigue, chills, and headache) and a history of travel to Germany to receive a medical treatment called "live cell therapy" (sometimes called "fresh cell therapy") in May 2014. Live cell therapy is the practice of injecting processed cells from organs or fetuses of nonhuman animals (e.g., sheep) into human recipients. It is advertised to treat a variety of health conditions. This practice is unavailable in the United States; however, persons can travel to foreign locations to receive injections. Local health departments interviewed the patients, and NYSDOH notified CDC and posted a report on CDC’s Epidemic Information Exchange to solicit additional cases. Clinical and exposure information for each patient was reported to the Robert Koch Institute in Germany, which forwarded the information to local health authorities. A Canada resident who also received live cell therapy in May 2014 was diagnosed with Q fever in July 2014. Clinicians should be aware of health risks, such as Q fever and other zoonotic diseases, among patients with a history of receiving treatment with live cell therapy products. PMID:26421460

  3. Massive MIMO and Small Cells: Improving Energy Efficiency by Optimal Soft-Cell Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Bjornson, Emil; Kountouris, Marios; Debbah, Merouane

    2013-01-01

    To improve the cellular energy efficiency, without sacrificing quality-of-service (QoS) at the users, the network topology must be densified to enable higher spatial reuse. We analyze a combination of two densification approaches, namely "massive" multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) base stations and small-cell access points. If the latter are operator-deployed, a spatial soft-cell approach can be taken where the multiple transmitters serve the users by joint non-coherent multiflow beamform...

  4. A randomized trial of amifostine as a cytoprotective agent in patients receiving chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, P. W. M.; Muers, M. F.; Peake, M D; Poulter, K M; Gurney, E M; Napp, V; Hepburn, P M; Brown, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether administration of Amifostine with chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer could decrease the toxicity. 84 patients with small cell lung cancer of favourable prognosis (limited disease, performance status 0–1; limited disease with performance status 2 but normal sodium and alkaline phosphatase, or extensive diseas with performance status 0–1, normal sodium and alkaline phosphatase) received treatment with Ifosfamide 3 g/m2intravenously, Car...

  5. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Be lice dairy sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riggio, V.; Pesce, L.L.; Morreale, S.; Portolano, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would optimal

  6. UMTV: a Single Chip TV Receiver for PDAs, PCs and Cell Phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumpt, van H.; Kasperkovitz, D.; Tang, van der J.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A zero-external-component TV receiver for portable platforms is realized in a mainstream 8GHz-f/sub t/ BiCMOS process. Die size is 5/spl times/5mm/sup 2/ and power dissipation is 50mA at 3V. The receiver includes a single tunable LNA (3mA) with less than 5dB NF from 40 to 900MHz. The programmable IF

  7. Changes in small intestinal chromogranin A-immunoreactive cell densities in patients with irritable bowel syndrome after receiving dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzawi, Tarek; El-Salhy, Magdy

    2016-05-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is a common marker for enteroendocrine cells in the gut, and CgA-immunoreactive cell densities are abnormal in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The majority of patients with IBS report that their symptoms develop after consuming certain foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary guidance on the total enteroendocrine cell densities in the small intestine, as detected by CgA. A total of 14 patients with IBS underwent a gastroscopy with duodenal biopsies and 11 of them also underwent a colonoscopy, with biopsy samples obtained from the ileum. Fourteen control subjects were also included. Each patient received 3 sessions of dietary guidance. Gastroscopies and colonoscopies were performed on both the controls and patients with IBS (at baseline and at 3-9 months after receiving guidance). Biopsy samples obtained from the duodenum and ileum were immunostained for CgA using the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method and were quantified using computerized image analysis. The density of CgA-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum (mean ± SEM values) in the control subjects was 235.9 ± 31.9 cells/mm2; in the patients with IBS, the density was 36.9 ± 9.8 and 103.7 ± 16.9 cells/mm2 before and after they received dietary guidance, respectively (P=0.007). The density of CgA-immunoreactive cells in the ileum in the control subjects was 47.4 ± 8.3 cells/mm2; in the patients with IBS, the density was 48.4 ± 8.1 and 17.9 ± 4.4 cells/mm2, before and after they received dietary guidance, respectively (P=0.0006). These data indicate that changes in CgA-immunoreactive cell densities in patients with IBS after receiving dietary guidance may reflect a change in the densities of the small intestinal enteroendocrine cells, which may contribute to an improvement in the IBS symptoms. PMID:26987104

  8. CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase coordinates cell growth and fat storage through phosphatidylinositol metabolism and the insulin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During development, animals usually undergo a rapid growth phase followed by a homeostatic stage when growth has ceased. The increase in cell size and number during the growth phase requires a large amount of lipids; while in the static state, excess lipids are usually stored in adipose tissues in preparation for nutrient-limited conditions. How cells coordinate growth and fat storage is not fully understood. Through a genetic screen we identified Drosophila melanogaster CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase (CDS/CdsA, which diverts phosphatidic acid from triacylglycerol synthesis to phosphatidylinositol (PI synthesis and coordinates cell growth and fat storage. Loss of CdsA function causes significant accumulation of neutral lipids in many tissues along with reduced cell/organ size. These phenotypes can be traced back to reduced PI levels and, subsequently, low insulin pathway activity. Overexpressing CdsA rescues the fat storage and cell growth phenotypes of insulin pathway mutants, suggesting that CdsA coordinates cell/tissue growth and lipid storage through the insulin pathway. We also revealed that a DAG-to-PE route mediated by the choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase Bbc may contribute to the growth of fat cells in CdsA RNAi.

  9. Chapter 10 the primary cilium coordinates signaling pathways in cell cycle control and migration during development and tissue repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren T; Pedersen, Stine F; Satir, Peter; Veland, Iben R; Schneider, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Cell cycle control and migration are critical processes during development and maintenance of tissue functions. Recently, primary cilia were shown to take part in coordination of the signaling pathways that control these cellular processes in human health and disease. In this review, we present an...

  10. Gene Therapy in Treating Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Lymphoma Receiving Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    HIV Infection; Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Plasmablastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  11. Multiciliated cell basal bodies align in stereotypical patterns coordinated by the apical cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Elisa; Taniguchi, Daisuke; Kanoh, Hatsuho; Tateishi, Kazuhiro; Ishihara, Shuji; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2016-08-29

    Multiciliated cells (MCCs) promote fluid flow through coordinated ciliary beating, which requires properly organized basal bodies (BBs). Airway MCCs have large numbers of BBs, which are uniformly oriented and, as we show here, align linearly. The mechanism for BB alignment is unexplored. To study this mechanism, we developed a long-term and high-resolution live-imaging system and used it to observe green fluorescent protein-centrin2-labeled BBs in cultured mouse tracheal MCCs. During MCC differentiation, the BB array adopted four stereotypical patterns, from a clustering "floret" pattern to the linear "alignment." This alignment process was correlated with BB orientations, revealed by double immunostaining for BBs and their asymmetrically associated basal feet (BF). The BB alignment was disrupted by disturbing apical microtubules with nocodazole and by a BF-depleting Odf2 mutation. We constructed a theoretical model, which indicated that the apical cytoskeleton, acting like a viscoelastic fluid, provides a self-organizing mechanism in tracheal MCCs to align BBs linearly for mucociliary transport. PMID:27573463

  12. Aprepitant, Granisetron, & Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea & Vomiting in Pts. Receiving Cyclophosphamide Before a Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Nausea and Vomiting; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  13. Coordination of cell decisions and promotion of phenotypic diversity in B. subtilis via pulsed behavior of the phosphorelay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The phosphorelay of Bacillus subtilis, a kinase cascade that activates master regulator Spo0A ∼ P in response to starvation signals, is the core of a large network controlling the cell's decision to differentiate into sporulation and other phenotypes. This article reviews recent advances in understanding the origins and purposes of the complex dynamical behavior of the phosphorelay, which pulses with peaks of activity coordinated with the cell cycle. The transient imbalance in the expression of two critical genes caused by their strategic placement at opposing ends of the chromosome proved to be the key for this pulsed behavior. Feedback control loops in the phosphorelay use these pulses to implement a timer mechanism, which creates several windows of opportunity for phenotypic transitions over multiple generations. This strategy allows the cell to coordinate multiple differentiation programs in a decision process that fosters phenotypic diversity and adapts to current conditions. PMID:26941227

  14. Parents' Experiences of Receiving the Initial Positive Newborn Screening (NBS) Result for Cystic Fibrosis and Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chudleigh, Jane; Buckingham, Sarah; Dignan, Jo; O'Driscoll, Sandra; Johnson, Kemi; Rees, David; Wyatt, Hilary; Metcalfe, Alison

    2016-01-01

    The clinical advantages of the newborn screening programme (NBS) in the UK are well described in the literature. However, there has been little exploration of the psychosocial impact on the family. This study followed the principles of grounded theory to explore parents' experiences of receiving the initial positive NBS result for their child with cystic fibrosis (CF) or sickle cell disease (SCD). Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 parents (12 mothers and 10 father...

  15. Treadmill exercise improves motor coordination through ameliorating Purkinje cell loss in amyloid beta23-35-induced Alzheimer's disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Min; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Hee

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. AD is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons causing cognitive dysfunction. The cerebellum is closely associated with integration of movement, including motor coordination, control, and equilibrium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of tread-mill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons in relation with reactive astrocyte in the cerebellum using Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. AD was induced by a bilateral intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ25-35. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks, starting 2 days after Aβ25-35 injection. In the present results, ICV injection of Aβ25-35 deteriorated motor coordination and balance. The number of calbindin-positive cells in the cerebellar vermis was decreased and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in the cerebellar vermis was increased in the Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor coordination and balance. Treadmill exercise increased the number of Purkinje neurons and suppressed GFAP expression in the cerebellar vermis. The present study demonstrated that treadmill exercises alleviated dysfunction of motor coordination and balance by reduction of Purkinje cell loss through suppressing reactive astrocytes in the cerebellum of AD rats. The present study provides the possibility that treadmill exercise might be an important therapeutic strategy for the symptom improvement of AD patients. PMID:25426461

  16. Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naidoo, Jarushka

    2013-09-01

    Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare disease. Management is based on small-cell lung carcinoma. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not routinely administered in EPSCC. This study investigates the role of PCI in EPSCC, by analyzing the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with brain metastases in a national cohort. Disease biology and epidemiology are also investigated.

  17. Coordinated control of Notch/Delta signalling and cell cycle progression drives lateral inhibition-mediated tissue patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Bonin, Hope; He, Li; Perrimon, Norbert; Charras, Guillaume; Baum, Buzz

    2016-01-01

    Coordinating cell differentiation with cell growth and division is crucial for the successful development, homeostasis and regeneration of multicellular tissues. Here, we use bristle patterning in the fly notum as a model system to explore the regulatory and functional coupling of cell cycle progression and cell fate decision-making. The pattern of bristles and intervening epithelial cells (ECs) becomes established through Notch-mediated lateral inhibition during G2 phase of the cell cycle, as neighbouring cells physically interact with each other via lateral contacts and/or basal protrusions. Since Notch signalling controls cell division timing downstream of Cdc25, ECs in lateral contact with a Delta-expressing cell experience higher levels of Notch signalling and divide first, followed by more distant neighbours, and lastly Delta-expressing cells. Conversely, mitotic entry and cell division makes ECs refractory to lateral inhibition signalling, fixing their fate. Using a combination of experiments and computational modelling, we show that this reciprocal relationship between Notch signalling and cell cycle progression acts like a developmental clock, providing a delimited window of time during which cells decide their fate, ensuring efficient and orderly bristle patterning. PMID:27226324

  18. Coordinated control of Notch/Delta signalling and cell cycle progression drives lateral inhibition-mediated tissue patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ginger L; Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Bonin, Hope; He, Li; Perrimon, Norbert; Charras, Guillaume; Baum, Buzz

    2016-07-01

    Coordinating cell differentiation with cell growth and division is crucial for the successful development, homeostasis and regeneration of multicellular tissues. Here, we use bristle patterning in the fly notum as a model system to explore the regulatory and functional coupling of cell cycle progression and cell fate decision-making. The pattern of bristles and intervening epithelial cells (ECs) becomes established through Notch-mediated lateral inhibition during G2 phase of the cell cycle, as neighbouring cells physically interact with each other via lateral contacts and/or basal protrusions. Since Notch signalling controls cell division timing downstream of Cdc25, ECs in lateral contact with a Delta-expressing cell experience higher levels of Notch signalling and divide first, followed by more distant neighbours, and lastly Delta-expressing cells. Conversely, mitotic entry and cell division makes ECs refractory to lateral inhibition signalling, fixing their fate. Using a combination of experiments and computational modelling, we show that this reciprocal relationship between Notch signalling and cell cycle progression acts like a developmental clock, providing a delimited window of time during which cells decide their fate, ensuring efficient and orderly bristle patterning. PMID:27226324

  19. Encapsulating Mobile Proton Carriers into Structural Defects in Coordination Polymer Crystals: High Anhydrous Proton Conduction and Fuel Cell Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Munehiro; Horike, Satoshi; Itakura, Tomoya; Shinozaki, Ryota; Ogiwara, Naoki; Umeyama, Daiki; Nagarkar, Sanjog; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Malon, Michal; Hayashi, Akari; Ohhara, Takashi; Kiyanagi, Ryoji; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2016-07-13

    We describe the encapsulation of mobile proton carriers into defect sites in nonporous coordination polymers (CPs). The proton carriers were encapsulated with high mobility and provided high proton conductivity at 150 °C under anhydrous conditions. The high proton conductivity and nonporous nature of the CP allowed its application as an electrolyte in a fuel cell. The defects and mobile proton carriers were investigated using solid-state NMR, XAFS, XRD, and ICP-AES/EA. On the basis of these analyses, we concluded that the defect sites provide space for mobile uncoordinated H3PO4, H2PO4(-), and H2O. These mobile carriers play a key role in expanding the proton-hopping path and promoting the mobility of protons in the coordination framework, leading to high proton conductivity and fuel cell power generation. PMID:27324658

  20. Assessment of γ-H2AX levels in circulating tumor cells from patients receiving chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PriyaBalsubramanian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are prognostic markers in a variety of solid tumor malignancies. The potential of CTCs to be used as a “liquid biopsy” to monitor a patient’s condition and predict drug response and resistance is currently under investigation. Using a negative depletion, enrichment methology, CTCs isolated from the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients with stage IV breast cancer undergoing DNA damaging therapy with platinum based therapy were enriched. The enriched cell suspensions, were stained with an optimized labeling protocol targeting: nuclei, cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19, the surface marker CD45, and the presence of the protein ɣ-H2AX. As a direct or indirect result of platinum therapy, double strand break of DNA initiates phosphorylation of the histone H2AX, at serine 139; this phosphorylated form is referred to as ɣ-H2AX. In addition to ɣ-H2AX staining in specific locations with the cell nuclei, consistent with previous reports and referred to as foci, more general staining in the cell cytoplamim was also observed in some cells suggesting the potential of cell apoptosis. Our study underscores the utility and the complexity of investigating CTCs as predictive markers of response to various therapies. Additional studies are ongoing to evaluate the diverse γ-H2AX staining patterns we report here which needs to be further correlated with patient outcomes

  1. Single-Stage Low-Power Quadrature RF Receiver Front-End: The LMV Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liscidini, Antonio; Mazzanti, Andrea; Tonietto, Riccardo; Vandi, Luca; Andreani, Pietro; Castello, Rinaldo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first quadrature RF receiver front-end where, in a single stage, low-noise amplifier (LNA), mixer and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) share the same bias current. The new structure exploits the intrinsic mixing functionality of a classical LC-tank oscillator providing a...... compact and low-power solution compatible with low-voltage technologies. A 0.13um CMOS prototype tailored to the GPS application is presented. The experimental results exhibit a noise figure of 4.8 dB, a gain of 36 dB, an IIP3 of -19 dBm with a total power consumption of only 5.4 mW from a voltage supply...

  2. CD34+ Stem Cell Selection for Patients Receiving Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Non-Malignant Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Bone Marrow Failure Syndrome; Severe Aplastic Anemia; Severe Congenital Neutropenia; Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Schwachman Diamond Syndrome; Primary Immunodeficiency Syndromes; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes; Histiocytic Syndrome; Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphocytosis; Lymphohistiocytosis; Macrophage Activation Syndrome; Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH); Hemoglobinopathies; Sickle Cell Disease; Sickle Cell-beta-thalassemia

  3. Surviving mossy cells enlarge and receive more excitatory synaptic input in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Thamattoor, Ajoy K; LeRoy, Christopher; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2015-05-01

    Numerous hypotheses of temporal lobe epileptogenesis have been proposed, and several involve hippocampal mossy cells. Building on previous hypotheses we sought to test the possibility that after epileptogenic injuries surviving mossy cells develop into super-connected seizure-generating hub cells. If so, they might require more cellular machinery and consequently have larger somata, elongate their dendrites to receive more synaptic input, and display higher frequencies of miniature excitatory synaptic currents (mEPSCs). To test these possibilities pilocarpine-treated mice were evaluated using GluR2-immunocytochemistry, whole-cell recording, and biocytin-labeling. Epileptic pilocarpine-treated mice displayed substantial loss of GluR2-positive hilar neurons. Somata of surviving neurons were 1.4-times larger than in controls. Biocytin-labeled mossy cells also were larger in epileptic mice, but dendritic length per cell was not significantly different. The average frequency of mEPSCs of mossy cells recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin and bicuculline was 3.2-times higher in epileptic pilocarpine-treated mice as compared to controls. Other parameters of mEPSCs were similar in both groups. Average input resistance of mossy cells in epileptic mice was reduced to 63% of controls, which is consistent with larger somata and would tend to make surviving mossy cells less excitable. Other intrinsic physiological characteristics examined were similar in both groups. Increased excitatory synaptic input is consistent with the hypothesis that surviving mossy cells develop into aberrantly super-connected seizure-generating hub cells, and soma hypertrophy is indirectly consistent with the possibility of axon sprouting. However, no obvious evidence of hyperexcitable intrinsic physiology was found. Furthermore, similar hypertrophy and hyper-connectivity has been reported for other neuron types in the dentate gyrus, suggesting mossy cells are not unique in this regard. Thus

  4. Circulating regulatory T cells of cancer patients receiving radiochemotherapy may be useful to individualize cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells (Treg) play a major role in anti-tumor immune response of cancer patients. We investigated the effect of radiochemotherapy on patients’ blood immune cells and their predictive value for tumor response. Materials and methods: DCs and Treg of colorectal cancer (CRC) or breast cancer (BC) patients were examined through multicolor flow cytometry before the beginning and after the first week of radiochemotherapy (RCT). DCs were stained for BDCA1 and BDCA2, Treg were stained for CD4, CD25, CD127 and FoxP3. IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α plasma levels of CRC patients were also determined. We examined the interrelationship between immune cell count alterations, applied dose values, cytokine plasma levels as well as histopathological parameters. Results: DCs were increased in BC and CRC patients compared to healthy control individuals (HC). CRC patients had higher levels of Treg (59.0%) compared to BC patients (31.3%) and HC (27.0%). Treg of CRC (58.7% vs. 41.3% p < 0.001) but not BC patients (31.3% vs. 38.8%, p = 0.164) decreased distinctly after the first week of radiation therapy. Applied dose values and decrease of Treg correlated positively (r = 0.216, p = 0.054). We also found a positive correlation of IL-10 plasma levels and Treg levels (r = 0.748, p = 0.021). CRC patients with favorable tumor stage (< ypT3a) have higher levels of Treg after 5 days of RCT (49.4% vs. 34.0%, p = 0.043). Conclusion: Higher Treg levels are associated with favorable tumor stage. We hypothesize that a dramatic decrease of Treg after in vivo irradiation may be a good indicator for necessary dose adjustments in radiation therapy of CRC patients.

  5. Wounding coordinately induces cell wall protein, cell cycle and pectin methyl esterase genes involved in tuber closing layer and wound periderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jonathan D; Lulai, Edward C; Thompson, Asunta L; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Bolton, Melvin D

    2012-04-15

    Little is known about the coordinate induction of genes that may be involved in agriculturally important wound-healing events. In this study, wound-healing events were determined together with wound-induced expression profiles of selected cell cycle, cell wall protein, and pectin methyl esterase genes using two diverse potato genotypes and two harvests (NDTX4271-5R and Russet Burbank tubers; 2008 and 2009 harvests). By 5 d after wounding, the closing layer and a nascent phellogen had formed. Phellogen cell divisions generated phellem layers until cessation of cell division at 28 d after wounding for both genotypes and harvests. Cell cycle genes encoding epidermal growth factor binding protein (StEBP), cyclin-dependent kinase B (StCDKB) and cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit (StCKS1At) were induced by 1 d after wounding; these expressions coordinated with related phellogen formation and the induction and cessation of phellem cell formation. Genes encoding the structural cell wall proteins extensin (StExt1) and extensin-like (StExtlk) were dramatically up-regulated by 1-5 d after wounding, suggesting involvement with closing layer and later phellem cell layer formation. Wounding up-regulated pectin methyl esterase genes (StPME and StPrePME); StPME expression increased during closing layer and phellem cell formation, whereas maximum expression of StPrePME occurred at 5-14 d after wounding, implicating involvement in later modifications for closing layer and phellem cell formation. The coordinate induction and expression profile of StTLRP, a gene encoding a cell wall strengthening "tyrosine-and lysine-rich protein," suggested a role in the formation of the closing layer followed by phellem cell generation and maturation. Collectively, the genes monitored were wound-inducible and their expression profiles markedly coordinated with closing layer formation and the index for phellogen layer meristematic activity during wound periderm development; results were more

  6. Elimination of Numerical Cherenkov Instability in flowing-plasma Particle-In-Cell simulations by using Galilean coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Lehe, Remi; Godfrey, Brendan B; Maier, Andreas R; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic flowing plasmas are of key interest to several fields of physics (including e.g. laser-wakefield acceleration, when viewed in a Lorentz-boosted frame), but remain sometimes infeasible due to the well-known numerical Cherenkov instability (NCI). In this article, we show that, for a plasma drifting at a uniform relativistic velocity, the NCI can be eliminated by simply integrating the PIC equations in Galilean coordinates that follow the plasma (also sometimes known as comoving coordinates) within a spectral analytical framework. The elimination of the NCI is verified empirically and confirmed by a theoretical analysis of the instability. Moreover, it is shown that this method is applicable both to Cartesian geometry and to cylindrical geometry with azimuthal Fourier decomposition.

  7. Treatment outcome of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the response, toxicity, patterns of failure and survival rate of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel. Twenty-three patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients who received radical chemoradiotherapy from October 1999 to September 2004 were included in this retrospective study. Patients received total 55.4 ∼ 64.8 (median 64.8) Gy (daily 1.8 Gy per fraction, 5 days per weeks) over 7 ∼ 8 weeks. 50 or 60 mg/m2 of paclitaxel was administered on day 1, 8, 15, 22, 29 and 36 of radiotherapy. Four weeks after the concurrent chemoradiotherapy, three cycles of consolidation chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 was administered every 3 weeks. Of the 23 patients, 3 patients refused to receive the treatment during the concurrent chemoradiotherapy. One patient died of bacterial pneumonia during the concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Grade 2 radiation esophagitis was observed in 4 patients (17%). Sixteen patients received consolidation chemotherapy. During the consolidation chemotherapy, 8 patients (50%) experienced grade 3 or 4 neutropenia and one of those patients died of neutropenic sepsis. Overall response rate for 20 evaluable patients was 90% including 4 complete responses (20%) and 14 partial responses (70%). Among 18 responders, 9 had local failure, 3 had local and distant failure and 2 had distant failure only. Median progression-free survival time was 9.5 months and 2-year progression-free survival rate was 19%. Eleven patients received second-line or third-line chemotherapy after the treatment failure. The median overall survival time was 21 months. 2-year and 5-year survival rate were 43% and 33%, respectively. Age, performance status, tumor size were significant prognostic factors for progression-free survival. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel revealed high response rate and low toxicity

  8. Treatment outcome of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Zy; Kim, Sung Whan; Shim, Byoung Yong [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-12-15

    To analyze the response, toxicity, patterns of failure and survival rate of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel. Twenty-three patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients who received radical chemoradiotherapy from October 1999 to September 2004 were included in this retrospective study. Patients received total 55.4 {approx} 64.8 (median 64.8) Gy (daily 1.8 Gy per fraction, 5 days per weeks) over 7 {approx} 8 weeks. 50 or 60 mg/m{sup 2} of paclitaxel was administered on day 1, 8, 15, 22, 29 and 36 of radiotherapy. Four weeks after the concurrent chemoradiotherapy, three cycles of consolidation chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel 135 mg/m{sup 2} and cisplatin 75 mg/m{sup 2} was administered every 3 weeks. Of the 23 patients, 3 patients refused to receive the treatment during the concurrent chemoradiotherapy. One patient died of bacterial pneumonia during the concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Grade 2 radiation esophagitis was observed in 4 patients (17%). Sixteen patients received consolidation chemotherapy. During the consolidation chemotherapy, 8 patients (50%) experienced grade 3 or 4 neutropenia and one of those patients died of neutropenic sepsis. Overall response rate for 20 evaluable patients was 90% including 4 complete responses (20%) and 14 partial responses (70%). Among 18 responders, 9 had local failure, 3 had local and distant failure and 2 had distant failure only. Median progression-free survival time was 9.5 months and 2-year progression-free survival rate was 19%. Eleven patients received second-line or third-line chemotherapy after the treatment failure. The median overall survival time was 21 months. 2-year and 5-year survival rate were 43% and 33%, respectively. Age, performance status, tumor size were significant prognostic factors for progression-free survival. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel revealed high

  9. Should all patients with serous and clear cell endometrial carcinoma receive adjuvant chemotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boren, Todd P; Miller, David S

    2010-11-01

    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCCC) represent two rare subtypes that have an increased risk of recurrence and worse overall survival compared with the more common endometrioid endometrial cancers. Meaningful data in the form of prospective randomized trials is lacking for both advanced and early-stage UPSC and UCCC. Data extrapolated from prospective trials in advanced endometrioid endometrial cancer and retrospective trials on early-stage UPSC suggest that adjuvant platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy may provide a survival benefit for these patients. Future trials specifically examining UPSC and UCCC are needed to elucidate the optimal treatment regimen for these patients. Given the current data, the option of chemotherapy should be considered in treatment-planning discussions for all patients with UPSC and UCCC. PMID:21118038

  10. The effects of black garlic (Allium sativum L.) ethanol extract on the estimated total number of Purkinje cells and motor coordination of male adolescent Wistar rats treated with monosodium glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminuddin, M; Partadiredja, G; Sari, D C R

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have indicated that monosodium glutamate (MSG) might cause negative effects on the nervous system, including in the cerebellum. Garlic (Allium sativum) has long been known as a flavouring agent and a traditional remedy for various illnesses. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of garlic on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells present in rats treated with MSG. A total of 25 male Wistar rats aged 4 to 5 weeks old were used in this study and were divided into five groups, namely a negative control (C-) group, which received 0.9 % NaCl solution, a positive control (C+) group, which received MSG, and three treated groups, which received 2 mg/g bw of MSG and 2.5 mg (T2.5), 5 mg (T5), or 10 mg (T10) of black garlic solution per oral administration (per 200 g bw), respectively. All treatments were carried out for 10 days. Upon the end of the treatment, the motor performance of all rats were tested using the rotarod apparatus. The rats were subsequently sacrificed, and the cerebella of the rats were processed for stereological analyses. It has been found that the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebella of all treated groups were significantly higher than that of the group treated with MSG only. No changes in motor coordination function were observed as a result of MSG treatment. PMID:24737450

  11. Relationship of T regulatory cells content, activity and serum autoantibodies level in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving rituximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Torgashina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To reveal changes of CD+CD25+FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells (T-reg number in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE receiving rituximab and to assess relationship T reg content with changes of disease activity and serum autoantibodies level during treatment. Material and methods. 12 pts with definite SLE were included. Pts were examined before treatment, after 1, 3 and 6 months. Besides routine laboratory tests anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, B lymphocytes and T reg cells number was evaluated with flow-cytometry. SLE activity was assessed with SLEDAI 2K scale. Rituximab 500 mg was administered every week iv during 4 weeks. 4 pts received combined treatment with cyclophosphan. Results. Mean age of pts was 30,5±9,8 years (Me 31 years, varied from 18 to 49 years, disease duration varied from 7 to 148 months. T reg number before treatment was not decreased and did not correlated with anti-DNA antibodies level. T reg markers (Foxp3+, CD25+, CD4+CD25+ changes and values of SLE activity on SLEDAI 2K after the end of treatment correlated with presence of clinical response to treatment with rituximab in 3 months. Binary logistic regression model including 4 above mentioned predictors in total allows predicting correctly clinical response to therapy in 83% of cases. Conclusion. Changes of CD25+, CD4+CD25+, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T-cells number immediately after the end of treatment with rituximab correlated with clinical effect of the treatment and determined subsequent response to anti-B cell therapy.

  12. Coordination Polymers Derived from Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Cell Imaging and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mithun; Dastidar, Parthasarathi

    2016-01-18

    A new series of Mn(II) coordination polymers, namely, [{Mn(L)(H2 O)2 }⋅2 Nap]∞ (CP1), [{Mn(L)(Ibu)2 (H2 O)2 }]∞ (CP2), [{Mn(L)(Flr)2 (H2 O)2 }]∞ (CP3), [{Mn(L)(Ind)2 (H2 O)2 }⋅H2 O]∞ (CP4), [{Mn2 (L)2 (μ-Flu)4 (H2 O)}⋅L]∞ (CP5), [{Mn2 (L)2 (μ-Tol)4 (H2 O)2 }]∞ (CP6) and [{Mn2 (L)2 (μ-Mef)4 (H2 O)2 }]∞ (CP7) (Nap=naproxen, Ibu=ibuprofen, Flr=flurbiprofen, Ind=indometacin, Flu=flufenamic acid, Tol=tolfenamic acid and Mef=mefenamic acid) derived from various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the organic linker 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (L) have been synthesized with the aim of being used for cell imaging and drug delivery. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) studies revealed that the NSAID molecules were part of the coordination polymeric network either through coordination to the metal center (in the majority of the cases) or through hydrogen bonding. Remarkably, all the Mn(II) coordination polymers were found to be soluble in DMSO, thereby making them particularly suitable for the desired biological applications. Two of the coordination polymers (namely, CP1 and CP3) reported herein, were found to be photoluminescent both in the solid as well as in the solution state. Subsequent experiments (namely, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), and PGE2 (prostaglandin E2 ) assays) established their biocompatibility and anti-inflammatory response. In vitro studies by using a macrophage cell line (i.e., RAW 264.7) revealed that both CP1 and CP3 were excellent cell imaging agents. Finally, biodegradability studies under simulated physiological conditions in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.6 showed that slow and sustained release of the corresponding NSAID was indeed possible from both CP1 and CP3. PMID:26660274

  13. Coordinate suppression of B cell lymphoma by PTEN and SHIP phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miletic, Ana V; Anzelon-Mills, Amy N; Mills, David M; Omori, Sidne A; Pedersen, Irene M; Shin, Dong-Mi; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Bolland, Silvia; Morse, Herbert C; Rickert, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    , follicular or centroblastic lymphoma. bPTEN/SHIP(-/-) B cells exhibit enhanced survival and express more MCL1 and less Bim. These cells also express low amounts of p27(kip1) and high amounts of cyclin D3 and thus appear poised to undergo proliferative expansion. Unlike normal B cells, bPTEN/SHIP(-/-) B cells...

  14. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  15. Radio receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankov, V. N.; Barulin, L. G.; Zhodzishskii, M. I.; Malyshev, I. V.; Petrusinskii, V. V.

    The book is concerned with the design of microelectronic radio receivers and their components based on semiconductor and hybrid integrated circuits. Topics discussed include the hierarchical structure of radio receivers, the synthesis of structural schemes, the design of the principal functional units, and the design of radio receiver systems with digital signal processing. The discussion also covers the integrated circuits of multifunctional amplifiers, analog multipliers, charge-transfer devices, frequency filters, piezoelectronic devices, and microwave amplifiers, filters, and mixers.

  16. Successful Reconstruction of Tooth Germ with Cell Lines Requires Coordinated Gene Expressions from the Initiation Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Tomooka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tooth morphogenesis is carried out by a series of reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme in embryonic germs. Previously clonal dental epithelial cell (epithelium of molar tooth germ (emtg lines were established from an embryonic germ. They were odontogenic when combined with a dental mesenchymal tissue, although the odontogenesis was quantitatively imperfect. To improve the microenvironment in the germs, freshly isolated dental epithelial cells were mixed with cells of lines, and germs were reconstructed in various combinations. The results demonstrated that successful tooth construction depends on the mixing ratio, the age of dental epithelial cells and the combination with cell lines. Analyses of gene expression in these germs suggest that some signal(s from dental epithelial cells makes emtg cells competent to communicate with mesenchymal cells and the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments are able to progress  odontogenesis from the initiation stage.

  17. The cell wall and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses are coordinately regulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Krysan, Damian J.

    2009-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that regulates the cellular response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in eukaryotes. Our group has demonstrated that cell wall stress activates UPR in yeast through signals transmitted by the cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. The UPR is required to maintain cell wall integrity; mutants lacking a functional UPR have defects in cell wall biosynthesis and are hypersensitive ...

  18. The cancer cell ‘energy grid’: TGF-β1 signaling coordinates metabolism for migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Deberardinis, Ralph; Boothman, David A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have an increased reliance on lipogenesis, which is required for uncontrolled cell division. We recently reported transcriptional and functional ‘reprogramming’ of the cellular energy grid, allowing cancer cells to divert metabolism from biosynthesis to bioenergetic pathways and thus supplying enhanced mobility during epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β1) (Fig. 1).

  19. Prognostic significance of total lesion glycolysis in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaizen, Yoshiaki [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Azuma, Koichi, E-mail: azuma@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kurata, Seiji [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Sadashima, Eiji; Hattori, Satoshi [Biostatistics Center, Kurume University, Kurume (Japan); Sasada, Tetsuro [Department of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Imamura, Yohei [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kaida, Hayato [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kawahara, Akihiko [Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kinoshita, Takashi [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Ishibashi, Masatoshi [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Hoshino, Tomoaki [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Background: [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging has been employed as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant tumors. Total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on FDG-PET is calculated by multiplying the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) by the tumor volume. Unlike the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), which represents the point of greatest metabolic activity within tumors, TLG has been suggested to reflect global metabolic activity in whole tumors. Methods: We retrospectively examined whether or not FDG-PET measurements, including SUVmean, SUVmax, and TLG, could predict progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy. Results: This study involved 81 consecutive patients with NSCLC who received chemotherapy. All of the patients underwent FDG-PET examination before treatment. SUVmean, SUVmax, and TLG on FDG-PET were significantly associated with gender, smoking status, and tumor histology. With adjustment for several other variables, Cox regression analysis showed that TLG was significantly prognostic for both PFS [hazard ratio = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–4.64; P = 0.015] and OS (hazard ratio = 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–6.96; P = 0.003), whereas SUVmean and SUVmax had no significant association with PFS (P = 0.693 and P = 0.322, respectively) or OS (P = 0.587 and P = 0.214, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that TLG may be more useful than SUVmean and SUVmax for predicting PFS and OS in NSCLC patients receiving chemotherapy. The TLG measurement on FDG-PET imaging could be routinely recommended to advanced NSCLC patients.

  20. Tuning of Nafion® by HKUST-1 as coordination network to enhance proton conductivity for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal-organic frameworks can be intentionally coordinated to achieve improved proton conductivity because they have highly ordered structures and modular nature that serve as a scaffold to anchor acidic groups and develop efficient proton transfer pathways for fuel cell application. Using the concept of a coordination network, the conductivity of Nafion® was tuned by the incorporation of HKUST-1. It has CuII–paddle wheel type nodes and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate struts, feature accessible sites that provides an improved protonic channel depending on the water content. In spite of the fact that HKUST-1 is neutral, coordinated water molecules are contributed adequately acidic by CuII to supply protons to enhance proton conductivity. Water molecules play a vital part in transfer of proton as conducting media and serve as triggers to change proton conductivity through reforming hydrogen bonding networks by water adsorption/desorption process. Increased ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity with lower water uptake of the H3PO4-doped material, and improved thermal stability (as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis) were achieved. The structure of HKUST-1 was confirmed via field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, while the porosity and adsorption desorption capacity were characterized by porosity analysis. Graphical abstract: The H3PO4-doped HKUST-1/Nafion® composite membrane is demonstrated to be a promising material based on its proton conductivity. HKUST-1 has an average particle diameter of around 15–20 µm. The proton conductivity, IEC values, and the thermal stability of the 2.5 wt% HKUST-1/Nafion® composite membrane suggest that HKUST-1 may be a promising candidate as a proton-conductive material in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane due to its reasonable proton passageway, favorable surface area, lower water uptake with the higher IEC, and proton conductivity of the H3PO4-doped material and facile synthesis

  1. Successful Reconstruction of Tooth Germ with Cell Lines Requires Coordinated Gene Expressions from the Initiation Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuhiro Tomooka; Akihiko Komine

    2012-01-01

    Tooth morphogenesis is carried out by a series of reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme in embryonic germs. Previously clonal dental epithelial cell (epithelium of molar tooth germ (emtg)) lines were established from an embryonic germ. They were odontogenic when combined with a dental mesenchymal tissue, although the odontogenesis was quantitatively imperfect. To improve the microenvironment in the germs, freshly isolated dental epithelial cells were mixed with cells o...

  2. CRL4Cdt2: Master coordinator of cell cycle progression and genome stability

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Tarek; Dutta, Anindya

    2011-01-01

    Polyubiquitin-mediated degradation of proteins plays an essential role in various physiological processes including cell cycle progression, transcription and DNA replication and repair. Increasing evidence supports a vital role for the E3 ubiquitin ligase cullin-4, in conjunction with the substrate recognition factor Cdt2 (CRL4Cdt2), for the degradation of multiple cell cycle-regulated proteins to prevent genomic instability. In addition, it is critical for normal cell cycle progression by en...

  3. GABA Coordinates with Insulin in Regulating Secretory Function in Pancreatic INS-1 β-Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Bansal; Shuanglian Wang; Shenghao Liu; Yun-Yan Xiang; Wei-Yang Lu; Qinghua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic islet β-cells produce large amounts of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is co-released with insulin. GABA inhibits glucagon secretion by hyperpolarizing α-cells via type-A GABA receptors (GABA(A)Rs). We and others recently reported that islet β-cells also express GABA(A)Rs and that activation of GABA(A)Rs increases insulin release. Here we investigate the effects of insulin on the GABA-GABA(A)R system in the pancreatic INS-1 cells using perforated-patch recording. The results show...

  4. A dominant, coordinated T regulatory cell-IgA response to the intestinal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    CONG, YINGZI; Feng, Ting; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Elson, Charles O.

    2009-01-01

    A T cell receptor transgenic mouse line reactive to a microbiota flagellin, CBir1, was used to define mechanisms of host microbiota homeostasis. Intestinal IgA, but not serum IgA, was found to block mucosal flagellin uptake and systemic T cell activation in mice. Depletion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs decreased IgA+ B cells, total IgA, and CBir1-specific IgA in gut within days. Repletion of T cell-deficient mice with either CD4+CD25+ or CD4+foxp3+ Tregs restored intestinal IgA to a much greater extent ...

  5. Bone marrow derived myeloid cells orchestrate antiangiogenic resistance in glioblastoma through coordinated molecular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achyut, B R; Shankar, Adarsh; Iskander, A S M; Ara, Roxan; Angara, Kartik; Zeng, Peng; Knight, Robert A; Scicli, Alfonso G; Arbab, Ali S

    2015-12-28

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a hypervascular and malignant form of brain tumors. Anti-angiogenic therapies (AAT) were used as an adjuvant against VEGF-VEGFR pathway to normalize blood vessels in clinical and preclinical studies, which resulted into marked hypoxia and recruited bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) to the tumor microenvironment (TME). In vivo animal models to track BMDCs and investigate molecular mechanisms in AAT resistance are rare. We exploited recently established chimeric mouse to develop orthotopic U251 tumor, which uses as low as 5 × 10(6) GFP+ BM cells in athymic nude mice and engrafted >70% GFP+ cells within 14 days. Our unpublished data and published studies have indicated the involvement of immunosuppressive myeloid cells in therapeutic resistance in glioma. Similarly, in the present study, vatalanib significantly increased CD68+ myeloid cells, and CD133+, CD34+ and Tie2+ endothelial cell signatures. Therefore, we tested inhibition of CSF1R+ myeloid cells using GW2580 that reduced tumor growth by decreasing myeloid (Gr1+ CD11b+ and F4/80+) and angiogenic (CD202b+ and VEGFR2+) cell signatures in TME. CSF1R blockade significantly decreased inflammatory, proangiogenic and immunosuppressive molecular signatures compared to vehicle, vatalanib or combination. TCK1 or CXCL7, a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils, was observed as most significantly decreased cytokine in CSF1R blockade. ERK MAPK pathway was involved in cytokine network regulation. In conclusion, present study confirmed the contribution of myeloid cells in GBM development and therapeutic resistance using chimeric mouse model. We identified novel molecular networks including CXCL7 chemokine as a promising target for future studies. Nonetheless, survival studies are required to assess the beneficial effect of CSF1R blockade. PMID:26404753

  6. Galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin: the coordinator of host cell killing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas R Boettner; Christopher Huston; William A Petri Jr

    2002-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric parasite that can kill host cells via a contact-dependent mechanism. This killing involves the amoebic surface protein referred to as the Gal/GalNAc lectin. The Gal/GalNAc lectin binds galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine allowing the adherence of amoebas to host cells. Involvement of the lectin in the pathogenesis of E. histolytica infection will be reviewed in this paper. The lectin has been shown to have very specific and substantial effects on adherence, cytotoxicity, and encystation. There is also possible involvement of the lectin in phagocytosis and caspase activation in host cells.

  7. Functionally distinct Gata3/Chd4 complexes coordinately establish T helper 2 (Th2) cell identity

    OpenAIRE

    Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Iwamura, Chiaki; Ohkubo, Shuichi; Endoh, Kanji; Kato, Miki; Endo, Yusuke; Onodera, Atsushi; Tumes, Damon John; Kanai, Akinori; Sugano, Sumio; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    GATA binding protein 3 (Gata3) is a GATA family transcription factor that controls differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells. However, it is unknown how Gata3 simultaneously activates Th2-specific genes while repressing those of other Th lineages. Here we show that chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (Chd4) forms a complex with Gata3 in Th2 cells that both activates Th2 cytokine transcription and represses the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ. We define a Gata3/Chd4/p300 tran...

  8. The effects of MicroRNA transfections on global patterns of gene expression in ovarian cancer cells are functionally coordinated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Shubin W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small RNAs that have been linked to a number of diseases including cancer. The potential application of miRNAs in the diagnostics and therapeutics of ovarian and other cancers is an area of intense interest. A current challenge is the inability to accurately predict the functional consequences of exogenous modulations in the levels of potentially therapeutic miRNAs. Methods In an initial effort to systematically address this issue, we conducted miRNA transfection experiments using two miRNAs (miR-7, miR-128. We monitored the consequent changes in global patterns of gene expression by microarray and quantitative (real-time polymerase chain reaction. Network analysis of the expression data was used to predict the consequence of each transfection on cellular function and these predictions were experimentally tested. Results While ~20% of the changes in expression patterns of hundreds to thousands of genes could be attributed to direct miRNA-mRNA interactions, the majority of the changes are indirect, involving the downstream consequences of miRNA-mediated changes in regulatory gene expression. The changes in gene expression induced by individual miRNAs are functionally coordinated but distinct between the two miRNAs. MiR-7 transfection into ovarian cancer cells induces changes in cell adhesion and other developmental networks previously associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT and other processes linked with metastasis. In contrast, miR-128 transfection induces changes in cell cycle control and other processes commonly linked with cellular replication. Conclusions The functionally coordinated patterns of gene expression displayed by different families of miRNAs have the potential to provide clinicians with a strategy to treat cancers from a systems rather than a single gene perspective.

  9. Ciliary neurotrophic factor coordinately activates transcription of neuropeptide genes in a neuroblastoma cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Symes, A.J.; Rao, M S; Lewis, S. E.; Landis, S C; Hyman, S E; Fink, J S

    1993-01-01

    Differentiation factors have been identified that influence the phenotype of sympathetic neurons by altering expression of classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms through which such factors act would be facilitated by the availability of a neuronal cell line that responds to these factors in a fashion similar to sympathetic neurons. We have identified a human neuroblastoma cell line, NBFL, that responds to the differentiation factor ciliary neu...

  10. Dynamics between Cancer Cell Subpopulations Reveals a Model Coordinating with Both Hierarchical and Stochastic Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Weikang; Quan, Yi; Fu, Qibin; Liu, Yu; Liang, Ying; Wu, Jingwen; Yang, Gen; Luo, Chunxiong; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Yugang

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are often heterogeneous in which tumor cells of different phenotypes have distinct properties. For scientific and clinical interests, it is of fundamental importance to understand their properties and the dynamic variations among different phenotypes, specifically under radio- and/or chemo-therapy. Currently there are two controversial models describing tumor heterogeneity, the cancer stem cell (CSC) model and the stochastic model. To clarify the controversy, we measured probabilities ...

  11. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface: versatile coordinators of cellular functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumova, S; Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2000-01-01

    , mediates interactions with a variety of extracellular ligands such as growth factors and adhesion molecules. Through these interactions, heparan sulfate proteoglycans participate in many events during cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. We are determining the multitude of...... proteoglycan functions, as their intricate roles in many pathways are revealed. They act as coreceptors for growth factors, participate in signalling during cell adhesion, modulate the activity of a broad range of molecules, and partake in many developmental and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis...

  12. Coordinated Molecular Cross-Talk between Staphylococcus aureus, Endothelial Cells and Platelets in Bloodstream Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina D. Garciarena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen often carried asymptomatically on the human body. Upon entry to the otherwise sterile environment of the cardiovascular system, S. aureus can lead to serious complications resulting in organ failure and death. The success of S. aureus as a pathogen in the bloodstream is due to its ability to express a wide array of cell wall proteins on its surface that recognise host receptors, extracellular matrix proteins and plasma proteins. Endothelial cells and platelets are important cells in the cardiovascular system and are a major target of bloodstream infection. Endothelial cells form the inner lining of a blood vessel and provide an antithrombotic barrier between the vessel wall and blood. Platelets on the other hand travel throughout the cardiovascular system and respond by aggregating around the site of injury and initiating clot formation. Activation of either of these cells leads to functional dysregulation in the cardiovascular system. In this review, we will illustrate how S. aureus establish intimate interactions with both endothelial cells and platelets leading to cardiovascular dysregulation.

  13. Dendritic Cell Migration and Antigen Presentation Are Coordinated by the Opposing Functions of the Tetraspanins CD82 and CD37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Eleanor L; Wee, Janet L; Demaria, Maria C; Blakeley, Jessica; Ho, Po Ki; Vega-Ramos, Javier; Villadangos, Jose A; van Spriel, Annemiek B; Hickey, Michael J; Hämmerling, Günther J; Wright, Mark D

    2016-02-01

    This study supports a new concept where the opposing functions of the tetraspanins CD37 and CD82 may coordinate changes in migration and Ag presentation during dendritic cell (DC) activation. We have previously published that CD37 is downregulated upon monocyte-derived DC activation, promotes migration of both skin and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), and restrains Ag presentation in splenic and BMDCs. In this article, we show that CD82, the closest phylogenetic relative to CD37, appears to have opposing functions. CD82 is upregulated upon activation of BMDCs and monocyte-derived DCs, restrains migration of skin and BMDCs, supports MHC class II maturation, and promotes stable interactions between T cells and splenic DCs or BMDCs. The underlying mechanism involves the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton via a differential activation of small GTPases. Both CD37(-/-) and CD82(-/-) BMDCs lack cellular projections, but where CD37(-/-) BMDCs spread poorly on fibronectin, CD82(-/-) BMDCs are large and spread to a greater extent than wild-type BMDCs. At the molecular level, CD82 is a negative regulator of RhoA, whereas CD37 promotes activation of Rac-1; both tetraspanins negatively regulate Cdc42. Thus, this study identifies a key aspect of DC biology: an unactivated BMDC is CD37(hi)CD82(lo), resulting in a highly motile cell with a limited ability to activate naive T cells. By contrast, a late activated BMDC is CD37(lo)CD82(hi), and thus has modified its migratory, cytoskeletal, and Ag presentation machinery to become a cell superbly adapted to activating naive T cells. PMID:26729805

  14. Myc and Miz-1 have coordinate genomic functions including targeting Hox genes in human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varlakhanova Natalia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A proposed role for Myc in maintaining mouse embryonic stem (ES cell pluripotency is transcriptional repression of key differentiation-promoting genes, but detail of the mechanism has remained an important open topic. Results To test the hypothesis that the zinc finger protein Miz-1 plays a central role, in the present work we conducted chromatin immunoprecipitation/microarray (ChIP-chip analysis of Myc and Miz-1 in human ES cells, finding homeobox (Hox genes as the most significant functional class of Miz-1 direct targets. Miz-1 differentiation-associated target genes specifically lack acetylated lysine 9 and trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (AcH3K9 and H3K4me3 9 histone marks, consistent with a repressed transcriptional state. Almost 30% of Miz-1 targets are also bound by Myc and these cobound genes are mostly factors that promote differentiation including Hox genes. Knockdown of Myc increased expression of differentiation genes directly bound by Myc and Miz-1, while a subset of the same genes is downregulated by Miz-1 loss-of-function. Myc and Miz-1 proteins interact with each other and associate with several corepressor factors in ES cells, suggesting a mechanism of repression of differentiation genes. Conclusions Taken together our data indicate that Miz-1 and Myc maintain human ES cell pluripotency by coordinately suppressing differentiation genes, particularly Hox genes. These data also support a new model of how Myc and Miz-1 function on chromatin.

  15. Phosphoinositide lipid phosphatase SHIP1 and PTEN coordinate to regulate cell migration and adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Subhanjan; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Sakai, Jiro; Bajrami, Besnik; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2012-01-01

    The second messenger phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)P3 (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) is formed by stimulation of various receptors, including G protein–coupled receptors and integrins. The lipid phosphatases PTEN and SHIP1 are critical in regulating the level of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 during chemotaxis. Observations that loss of PTEN had minor and loss of SHIP1 resulted in a severe chemotaxis defect in neutrophils led to the belief that SHIP1 rather than PTEN acts as a predominant phospholipid phosphatase in establishing a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 compass. In this study, we show that SHIP1 regulates PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 production in response to cell adhesion and plays a limited role when cells are in suspension. SHIP1−/− neutrophils lose their polarity upon cell adhesion and are extremely adherent, which impairs chemotaxis. However, chemo­taxis can be restored by reducing adhesion. Loss of SHIP1 elevates Akt activation following cell adhesion due to increased PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 production. From our observations, we conclude that SHIP1 prevents formation of top-down PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 polarity to facilitate proper cell attachment and detachment during chemotaxis. PMID:22323291

  16. Spatially coordinated changes in intracellular rheology and extracellular force exertion during mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical properties within the cell are regulated by the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, which is linked to the extracellular environment through focal adhesion proteins that transmit force. Chemical and mechanical stimuli alter the organization of cytoskeletal actin, which results in changes in cell shape, adhesion, and differentiation. By combining particle-tracking microrheology and traction force cytometry, we can monitor the mechanical properties of the actin meshwork and determine how changes in the intracellular network contribute to force generation. In this study, we investigated the effects of chemical (differentiation factors) and mechanical (substrate rigidity) stimuli important in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation on the intracellular mechanics and traction stress generation. We found the presence of adipogenic factors resulted in stiffening of the actin meshwork regardless of substrate rigidity. In contrast, these factors increased traction stresses on hard substrates, which was associated with increased expression of contractility genes. Furthermore, MSCs cultured on hard substrates expressed both adipogenic and osteogenic markers indicative of mixed differentiation. On hard substrates, heterogeneity in the local elastic modulus-traction stress correlation was also increased in response to adipogenic factors, indicating that these mechanical properties may be reflective of differences in the level of MSC differentiation. These results suggest intracellular rheology and traction stress generation are spatially regulated and contribute insight into how single cell mechanical forces contribute to MSC differentiation. (paper)

  17. Cdc42-dependent leading edge coordination is essential for interstitial dendritic cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammermann, Tim; Renkawitz, Jorg; Wu, Xunwei; Hirsch, Karin; Brakebusch, Cord; Sixt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Mature dendritic cells (DCs) moving from the skin to the lymph node are a prototypic example of rapidly migrating amoeboid leukocytes. Interstitial DC migration is directionally guided by chemokines, but independent of specific adhesive interactions with the tissue as well as pericellular...

  18. Ultra-High-Efficiency Multijunction Cell and Receiver Module, Phase 1B: High Performance PV Exploring and Accelerating Ultimate Pathways; Final Subcontract Report, 13 May 2005 - 10 December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R. R.

    2010-03-01

    Spectrolab's two High Performance Photovoltaics primary objectives: (1) develop ultra-high-efficiency concentrator multijunction cells and (2) develop a robust concentrator cell receiver package.

  19. Tuning of Nafion{sup ®} by HKUST-1 as coordination network to enhance proton conductivity for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Jin, E-mail: zammanbo814@knu.ac.kr [Kyungpook National University, Research Institute of Advanced Energy Technology (Korea, Republic of); Talukdar, Krishan, E-mail: krishantu@yahoo.com; Choi, Sang-June, E-mail: sjchoi@knu.ac.kr [Kyungpook National University, Department of Environmental Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Metal-organic frameworks can be intentionally coordinated to achieve improved proton conductivity because they have highly ordered structures and modular nature that serve as a scaffold to anchor acidic groups and develop efficient proton transfer pathways for fuel cell application. Using the concept of a coordination network, the conductivity of Nafion{sup ®} was tuned by the incorporation of HKUST-1. It has Cu{sup II}–paddle wheel type nodes and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate struts, feature accessible sites that provides an improved protonic channel depending on the water content. In spite of the fact that HKUST-1 is neutral, coordinated water molecules are contributed adequately acidic by Cu{sup II} to supply protons to enhance proton conductivity. Water molecules play a vital part in transfer of proton as conducting media and serve as triggers to change proton conductivity through reforming hydrogen bonding networks by water adsorption/desorption process. Increased ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity with lower water uptake of the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-doped material, and improved thermal stability (as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis) were achieved. The structure of HKUST-1 was confirmed via field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, while the porosity and adsorption desorption capacity were characterized by porosity analysis. Graphical abstract: The H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-doped HKUST-1/Nafion® composite membrane is demonstrated to be a promising material based on its proton conductivity. HKUST-1 has an average particle diameter of around 15–20 µm. The proton conductivity, IEC values, and the thermal stability of the 2.5 wt% HKUST-1/Nafion® composite membrane suggest that HKUST-1 may be a promising candidate as a proton-conductive material in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane due to its reasonable proton passageway, favorable surface area, lower water uptake with the higher IEC, and proton conductivity of the H

  20. Is there a benefit in receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy for elderly patients with inoperable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The benefit of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT in elderly patients with inoperable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is controversial. This study aimed to assess the efficiency and safety of CCRT in elderly thoracic esophageal cancer patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between January 2002 and December 2011, 128 patients aged 65 years or older treated with CCRT or radiotherapy (RT alone for inoperable thoracic esophageal SCC were analyzed retrospectively (RT alone, n = 55; CCRT, n = 73. RESULTS: No treatment-related deaths occurred and no patients experienced any acute grade 4 non-hematologic toxicities. Patients treated with CCRT developed more severe acute toxicities than patients who received RT alone. The 3-year overall survival (OS rate was 36.1% for CCRT compared with 28.5% following RT alone (p = 0.008. Multivariate analysis identified T stage and treatment modality as independent prognostic factors for survival. Further analysis revealed that survival was significantly better in the CCRT group than in the RT alone group for patients ≤ 72 years. Nevertheless, the CCRT group had a similar OS to the RT group for patients > 72 years. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that elderly patients with inoperable thoracic esophageal SCC could benefit from CCRT, without major toxicities. However, for patients older than 72 years, CCRT is not superior to RT alone in terms of survival benefit.

  1. Gender difference in treatment outcomes in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to identify any gender differences in the outcomes of concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A comparative retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes between female and male NSCLC patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Of a total of 204 patients, 44 (22%) were females and 160 (78%) were males. There was no difference in age, body weight loss, performance status or disease stage between the sexes, whereas never-smokers and adenocarcinoma were more common in female patients (55% vs. 3%, P80% of the patients, respectively, of both sexes. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was observed in 64% of the female patients and 63% of the male patients. Severe esophagitis was encountered in <10% of the patients, irrespective of the sex. The response rate was higher in the female than in the male patients (93% vs. 79%, P=0.028), but the median progression-free survival did not differ between the sexes. The median survival time in the female and male patients was 22.3 and 24.3 months, respectively (P=0.64). This study failed to show any gender differences in the survival or toxicity among patients treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. These results contrast with the better survival in female patients undergoing surgery for localized disease or chemotherapy for metastatic disease. (author)

  2. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Belice dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Valentina; Pesce, Lorenzo L; Morreale, Salvatore; Portolano, Baldassare

    2013-06-01

    Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would optimally discriminate between healthy and infected udders. Milk samples (n=1357) were collected from 684 sheep in four flocks. The prevalence of infection, as determined by positive bacterial culture was 0.36, 87.7% of which were minor and 12.3% major pathogens. Of the culture negative samples, 83.7% had an SCCCMT results were evaluated, the estimated area under the ROC curve was greater for glands infected with major compared to minor pathogens (0.88 vs. 0.73), whereas the area under the curve considering all pathogens was similar to the one for minor pathogens (0.75). The estimated optimal thresholds were 3.00 (CMT), 2.81 (SCS for the whole sample), 2.81 (SCS for minor pathogens), and 3.33 (SCS for major pathogens). These correctly classified, respectively, 69.0%, 73.5%, 72.6% and 91.0% of infected udders in the samples. The CMT appeared only to discriminate udders infected with major pathogens. In this population, SCS appeared to be the best indirect test of the bacteriological status of the udder. PMID:23317658

  3. Calbindin in cerebellar Purkinje cells is a critical determinant of the precision of motor coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Barski, J. J.; Hartmann, J.; Rose, C. R.; Hoebeek, F.; Morl, K.; Noll-Hussong, M; De Zeeuw, C.I.; Konnerth, A; Meyer, M.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) of Purkinje cell-parallel fiber synaptic transmission is a critical determinant of normal cerebellar function. Impairment of LTD through, for example, disruption of the metabotropic glutamate receptor-IP3-calcium signaling cascade in mutant mice results in severe deficits of both synaptic transmission and cerebellar motor control. Here, we demonstrate that selective genetic deletion of the calcium-binding protein calbindin D-28k (calbindin) from cerebellar Purkinje ...

  4. Inflammasomes Coordinate Pyroptosis and Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity to Clear Infection by a Ubiquitous Environmental Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltez, Vivien I; Tubbs, Alan L; Cook, Kevin D; Aachoui, Youssef; Falcone, E Liana; Holland, Steven M; Whitmire, Jason K; Miao, Edward A

    2015-11-17

    Defective neutrophils in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cause susceptibility to extracellular and intracellular infections. Microbes must first be ejected from intracellular niches to expose them to neutrophil attack, so we hypothesized that inflammasomes detect certain CGD pathogens upstream of neutrophil killing. Here, we identified one such ubiquitous environmental bacterium, Chromobacterium violaceum, whose extreme virulence was fully counteracted by the NLRC4 inflammasome. Caspase-1 protected via two parallel pathways that eliminated intracellular replication niches. Pyroptosis was the primary bacterial clearance mechanism in the spleen, but both pyroptosis and interleukin-18 (IL-18)-driven natural killer (NK) cell responses were required for liver defense. NK cells cleared hepatocyte replication niches via perforin-dependent cytotoxicity, whereas interferon-γ was not required. These insights suggested a therapeutic approach: exogenous IL-18 restored perforin-dependent cytotoxicity during infection by the inflammasome-evasive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, inflammasomes can trigger complementary programmed cell death mechanisms, directing sterilizing immunity against intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:26572063

  5. Oriented Cell Division in the C. elegans Embryo Is Coordinated by G-Protein Signaling Dependent on the Adhesion GPCR LAT-1

    OpenAIRE

    Antje Müller; Jana Winkler; Franziska Fiedler; Tania Sastradihardja; Claudia Binder; Ralf Schnabel; Jana Kungel; Sven Rothemund; Christian Hennig; Torsten Schöneberg; Simone Prömel

    2015-01-01

    Orientation of spindles and cell division planes during development of many species ensures that correct cell-cell contacts are established, which is vital for proper tissue formation. This is a tightly regulated process involving a complex interplay of various signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying several of these pathways are still incompletely understood. Here, we identify the signaling cascade of the C. elegans latrophilin homolog LAT-1, an essential player in the coordination of a...

  6. Coordinated expansion of both memory T cells and NK cells in response to CMV infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Charles; Lepetitcorps, Hélène; Roux, Antoine; Larsen, Martin; Fastenackels, Solène; Salle, Virginie; Vieillard, Vincent; Marchant, Arnaud; Stern, Marc; Boddaert, Jacques; Bajolle, Fanny; Appay, Victor; Sauce, Delphine

    2016-05-01

    NK cells are key players in the fight against persistent viruses. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with the presence of a population of CD16(+) CD56(dim) NKG2C(+) NK cells in both acutely and latently infected individuals. Here, we studied the nature of these terminally differentiated NK cells in different human populations infected with HCMV: healthy donors stratified by age, thymectomized individuals, pregnant women suffering from primary CMV infection, and lung transplant patients. Both CD16(+) CD56(dim) NK- and CD8 T-cell phenotypes as well as functional capacities were determined and stratified according to age and/or CMV event. Similarly to T-cell responsiveness, we observe an accumulation over time of NKG2C(+) NK cells, which preferentially expressed CD57. This accumulation is particularly prominent in elderly and amplified further by CMV infection. Latent HCMV infection (without replication) is sufficient for NKG2C(+) CD57(+) NK cells to persist in healthy individuals but is not necessarily required in old age. Collectively, the present work supports the emerging concept that CMV shapes both innate and adaptive immunity in humans. PMID:26910859

  7. Hedgehog signal activation coordinates proliferation and differentiation of fetal liver progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Yoshikazu [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Itoh, Tohru, E-mail: itohru@iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Miyajima, Atsushi [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2009-09-10

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays crucial roles in development and homeostasis of various organs. In the adult liver, it regulates proliferation and/or viability of several types of cells, particularly under injured conditions, and is also implicated in stem/progenitor cell maintenance. However, the role of this signaling pathway during the normal developmental process of the liver remains elusive. Although Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the ventral foregut endoderm from which the liver derives, the expression disappears at the onset of the liver bud formation, and its possible recurrence at the later stages has not been investigated. Here we analyzed the activation and functional relevance of Hh signaling during the mouse fetal liver development. At E11.5, Shh and an activation marker gene for Hh signaling, Gli1, were expressed in Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts, the fetal liver progenitor cells, and the expression was rapidly decreased thereafter as the development proceeded. In the culture of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts isolated from the E11.5 liver, activation of Hh signaling stimulated their proliferation and this effect was cancelled by a chemical Hh signaling inhibitor, cyclopamine. In contrast, hepatocyte differentiation of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts in vitro as manifested by the marker gene expression and acquisition of ammonia clearance activity was significantly inhibited by forced activation of Hh signaling. Taken together, these results demonstrate the temporally restricted manner of Hh signal activation and its role in promoting the hepatoblast proliferation, and further suggest that the pathway needs to be shut off for the subsequent hepatic differentiation of hepatoblasts to proceed normally.

  8. Dendritic Cells Coordinate Innate Immunity via MyD88 Signaling to Control Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Arnold-Schrauf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (LM, a facultative intracellular Gram-positive pathogen, can cause life-threatening infections in humans. In mice, the signaling cascade downstream of the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 is essential for proper innate immune activation against LM, as MyD88-deficient mice succumb early to infection. Here, we show that MyD88 signaling in dendritic cells (DCs is sufficient to mediate the protective innate response, including the production of proinflammatory cytokines, neutrophil infiltration, bacterial clearance, and full protection from lethal infection. We also demonstrate that MyD88 signaling by DCs controls the infection rates of CD8α+ cDCs and thus limits the spread of LM to the T cell areas. Furthermore, in mice expressing MyD88 in DCs, inflammatory monocytes, which are required for bacterial clearance, are activated independently of intrinsic MyD88 signaling. In conclusion, CD11c+ conventional DCs critically integrate pathogen-derived signals via MyD88 signaling during early infection with LM in vivo.

  9. Who actually receives cell phone use while driving citations and how much are these laws enforced among states? A descriptive, cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudisill, Toni M.; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While numerous cell phone use while driving laws have been passed among states, little information exists regarding who gets cited for these traffic infractions and how much these laws are enforced at the state-level within the USA. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting 14 states and the District of Columbia. Participants Those receiving cell phone use while driving citations within included states from 2007 to 2013. Primary outcome Demographic characteristics of cited...

  10. Practically Coordinating

    OpenAIRE

    Durfee, Edmund H.

    1999-01-01

    To coordinate, intelligent agents might need to know something about themselves, about each other, about how others view themselves and others, about how others think others view themselves and others, and so on. Taken to an extreme, the amount of knowledge an agent might possess to coordinate its interactions with others might outstrip the agent's limited reasoning capacity (its available time, memory, and so on). Much of the work in studying and building multiagent systems has thus been dev...

  11. Improved Interference-Free Channel Allocation in Coordinated Multiuser Multi-Antenna Open-Access Small Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha

    2016-02-16

    This paper investigates low-complexity joint interference avoidance and desired link improvement for single channel allocation in multiuser multi-antenna access points (APs) for open-access small cells. It is considered that an active user is equipped with an atenna array that can be used to suppress interference sources but not to provide spatial diversity. On the other hand, the operation of APs can be coordinated to meet design requirements, and each of which can unconditionally utilize assigned physical channels. Moreover, each AP is equipped with uncorrelated antennas that can be reused simultaneously to serve many active users. The analysis provides new approaches to exploit physical channels, transmit antennas, and APs to mitigate interference, while providing the best possible link gain to an active user through the most suitable interference-free channel. The event of concurrent service requests placed by active users on a specific interference-free channel is discussed for either interference avoidance through identifying unshared channels or desired link improvement via multiuser scheduling. The applicability of the approaches to balance downlink loads is explained, and practical scenarios due to imperfect identification of interference-free channels and/or scheduled user are thoroughly investigated. The developed results are applicable for any statistical and geometric models of the allocated channel to an active user as well as channel conditions of interference users. They can be used to study various performance measures. Numerical and simulation results are presented to explain some outcomes of this work.

  12. Co-ordinated gene expression in the liver and spleen during Schistosoma japonicum infection regulates cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Burke

    Full Text Available Determining the molecular events induced in the spleen during schistosome infection is an essential step in better understanding the immunopathogenesis of schistosomiasis and the mechanisms by which schistosomes modulate the host immune response. The present study defines the transcriptional and cellular events occurring in the murine spleen during the progression of Schistosoma japonicum infection. Additionally, we compared and contrasted these results with those we have previously reported for the liver. Microarray analysis combined with flow cytometry and histochemistry demonstrated that transcriptional changes occurring in the spleen were closely related to changes in cellular composition. Additionally, the presence of alternatively activated macrophages, as indicated by up-regulation of Chi3l3 and Chi3l4 and expansion of F4/80(+ macrophages, together with enhanced expression of the immunoregulatory genes ANXA1 and CAMP suggests the spleen may be an important site for the control of S. japonicum-induced immune responses. The most striking difference between the transcriptional profiles of the infected liver and spleen was the contrasting expression of chemokines and cell adhesion molecules. Lymphocyte chemokines, including the homeostatic chemokines CXCL13, CCL19 and CCL21, were significantly down-regulated in the spleen but up-regulated in the liver. Eosinophil (CCL11, CCL24, neutrophil (CXCL1 and monocyte (CXCL14, CCL12 chemokines and the cell adhesion molecules VCAM1, NCAM1, PECAM1 were up-regulated in the liver but unchanged in the spleen. Chemokines up-regulated in both organs were expressed at significantly higher levels in the liver. Co-ordinated expression of these genes probably contributes to the development of a chemotactic signalling gradient that promotes recruitment of effector cells to the liver, thereby facilitating the development of hepatic granulomas and fibrosis. Together these data provide, for the first time, a

  13. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. NK cell in pulmonary tuberculosis from basic and clinical point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, T

    1996-11-01

    Although natural killer (NK) cells, which lyse certain tumors in vitro, have been shown to provide early defense mechanism against cancer growth and viral infection, possible role in the host defense against pulmonary tuberculosis remains undefined. A series of my studies have recently provided several evidence supporting the involvement of NK cells in the immunopathology of pulmonary tuberculosis. NK cell activity in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly augmented compared with that in age-, sex- matched healthy controls, which suggests NK cells are activated in vivo in pulmonary tuberculosis. Lung NK cells from BCG-infected mice also are shown to be activated. Asialo GM 1 was demonstrated to be a novel surface marker of mice NK cells, which inhibited activation of NK cells by interferon. Chronic intractable tuberculosis was classified with a combination of NK cell activity and delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to 2, 4-dinitrochrolbenzene. Subgroup defined with high NK cell activity and normal delayed-type hypersensitivity was characterized with moderate radiographical lesions and stable clinical course, suggesting the immune-spectrum classification was associated with clinical manifestations. Malnutrition has been suggested to be a risk factor associated with the development and reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis. NK cell activity was significantly correlated with visceral proteins. IL-2 producing capability was significantly decreased in patients with serum albumin less than 3.5 g/dl. More recently, I established an in vitro system evaluating quantitative capability for intracellular killing by human monocytes, in which monocyte phagocytize Mycobacterium tuberculosis and subsequently inhibit intracellular replication of the organisms by adding some cytokines or cells. Purified NK cells by using discontinuous gradient centrifugation and magnetic separation technique were added to M. tuberculosis-infected monocytes monolayer

  14. Increased Chromogranin A Cell Density in the Large Intestine of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome after Receiving Dietary Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Mazzawi; Doris Gundersen; Trygve Hausken; Magdy El-Salhy

    2015-01-01

    The large intestine contains five types of endocrine cells that regulate its functions by sensing its luminal contents and releasing specific hormones. Chromogranin A (CgA) is a common marker for the gastrointestinal endocrine cells, and it is abnormal in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Most IBS patients relate their symptoms to certain food elements. The present study investigated the effect of dietary guidance on the total endocrine cells of the large intestine as detected by CgA i...

  15. Changes in small intestinal chromogranin A-immunoreactive cell densities in patients with irritable bowel syndrome after receiving dietary guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzawi, Tarek; El-Salhy, Magdy

    2016-01-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is a common marker for enteroendocrine cells in the gut, and CgA-immunoreactive cell densities are abnormal in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The majority of patients with IBS report that their symptoms develop after consuming certain foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary guidance on the total enteroendocrine cell densities in the small intestine, as detected by CgA. A total of 14 patients with IBS underwent a gastroscopy ...

  16. Characterization of a novel subset of CD8(+) T cells that expands in patients receiving interleukin-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollob, J A; Schnipper, C P; Orsini, E; Murphy, E; Daley, J F; Lazo, S B; Frank, D A; Neuberg, D; Ritz, J

    1998-08-01

    IL-12 has significant antitumor activity in mice that may be mediated by CD8(+) T cells. We show in this report that repeated subcutaneous injections of IL-12 in patients with cancer resulted in the selective expansion of a subset of peripheral blood CD8(+) T cells. This T cell subset expressed high levels of CD18 and upregulated IL-12 receptor expression after IL-12 treatment in vivo. In normal subjects, these CD3(+)CD8(+)CD18(bright) T cells expressed IL-12 and IL-2 receptors and adhesion/costimulatory molecules to a greater degree than other CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. They appeared morphologically as large granular lymphocytes, although they did not express NK cell markers such as CD56. In addition, CD8(+)CD18(bright) T cells were almost exclusively T cell receptor (TCR) alphabeta+, and exhibited a TCR Vbeta repertoire that was strikingly oligoclonal, whereas the Vbeta repertoire of CD18(dim) T cells was polyclonal. Although CD8+CD18(bright) T cells demonstrated little functional responsiveness to IL-12 or IL-2 alone in vitro, they responded to the combination of IL-12+IL-2 with strong IFN-gamma production and proliferation and enhanced non-MHC-restricted cytolytic activity. In contrast, CD18(dim) T cells were not activated by IL-12 or IL-2, alone or in combination. These findings demonstrate that CD8+CD18(bright) T cells are a unique population of peripheral blood lymphocytes with features of both memory and effector cells that are capable of TCR-independent activation through combined stimulation with IL-12+IL-2. As this activation results in IFN-gamma production and enhanced cytolytic activity, these T cells may play a role in innate as well as acquired immunity to tumors and infectious pathogens. Additional studies will be necessary to determine whether CD8+CD18(bright) T cells mediate the antitumor effect of IL-12 or IL-2 administered to cancer patients, and if so, whether maximal activation of these T cells with the combination of IL-12+IL-2 in vivo can

  17. Demonstration, by somatic cell genetics, of coordinate regulation of genes for two enzymes of purine synthesis assigned to human chromosome 21.

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, D.; Graw, S; Jones, C.

    1981-01-01

    A method for determining coordinate genetic regulation is proposed for mammalian cells. The method involves (i) isolation of a set of mutants defective in the relevant pathway; (ii) complementation analysis of these mutants to determine dominance and to categorize the mutants into various different complementation groups; (iii) determination of the biochemical blocks in the mutants; (iv) identification of individual mutants that fail to complement the members of at least two distinct compleme...

  18. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data. PMID:19834230

  19. The cell adhesion molecules Echinoid and Friend of Echinoid coordinate cell adhesion and cell signaling to regulate the fidelity of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye

    OpenAIRE

    Fetting, Jennifer L.; Spencer, Susan A; Wolff, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Directed cellular movements are a universal feature of morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. Differential adhesion between the stationary and motile cells promotes these cellular movements to effect spatial patterning of cells. A prominent feature of Drosophila eye development is the 90° rotational movement of the multicellular ommatidial precursors within a matrix of stationary cells. We demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecules Echinoid (Ed) and Friend of Echi...

  20. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  1. Dynamic coordination via organizational routines

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Andreas; April M. Franco; Heidhues, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We investigate dynamic coordination among members of a problem solving team who receive private signals about which of their actions are required for a (static) coordinated solution and who have repeated opportunities to explore different action combinations. In this environment ordinal equilibria, in which agents condition only on how their signals rank their actions and not on signal strength, lead to simple patterns of behavior that have a natural interpretation as routines. These routine ...

  2. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site (LESS) Retroperitoneal Radical Nephrectomy in a Patient with Renal Cell Carcinoma Receiving Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takeo; Sato, Fuminori; Takahashi, Mika; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    We present here the patient undergoing laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) retroperitoneal radical nephrectomy while receiving hemodialysis. An 81-year-old man under hemodialysis for 6 years was incidentally discovered to have two left renal masses with acquired cystic disease of the kidney (ACDK). A 4-cm flank incision for GelPort was made. Three trocars were inserted into the retroperitoneum through GelPort. After division of the renal vessels and ureter, the kidney was placed into the extraction bag and was retrieved through flank incision without any extra skin incision. There were no intraoperative and postoperative complications. This procedure offers an effective, minimally invasive therapeutic alternative to the standard laparoscopic technique in high-risk end-stage renal disease patients. PMID:21687538

  3. PHASE-I STUDY OF INTRAVENOUSLY APPLIED BISPECIFIC ANTIBODY IN RENAL-CELL CANCER-PATIENTS RECEIVING SUBCUTANEOUS INTERLEUKIN-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KROESEN, BJ; SLEIJFER, DT; JANSSEN, RAJ; VANDERGRAAF, WTA; THE, TH; DELEIJ, L; MULDER, NH

    1994-01-01

    In a phase I trial the toxicity and immunomodulatory effects of combined treatment with intravenous (i.v.) bispecific monoclonal antibody BIS-1 and subcutaneous (s.c.) interleukin 2 (IL-2) was studied in renal cell cancer patients. BIS-1 combines a specificity against CD3 on T lymphocytes with a spe

  4. Association of oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics, neutropenia and acute radiation oesophagitis in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics and dysphagia in patients having chemoradiation (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is well established. There is also some evidence that neutropenia is a factor contributing to the severity of oesophagitis. We retrospectively analysed acute radiation oesophagitis (ARO) rates and severity in patients with NSCLC who received concurrent chemotherapy and high dose radiation therapy (CRT). We investigated if there was an association between grade of ARO, neutropenia and radiation dose volume metrics. Patients with NSCLC having concurrent CRT who had RT dose and toxicity data available were eligible. Exclusion criteria included previous thoracic RT, treatment interruptions and non-standard dose regimens. RT dosimetrics included maximum and mean oesophageal dose, oesophagus dose volume and length data. Fifty four patients were eligible for analysis. 42 (78 %) patients received 60 Gy. Forty four (81 %) patients received carboplatin based chemotherapy. Forty eight (89 %) patients experienced ARO ≥ grade 1 (95 % CI: 78 % to 95 %). ARO grade was associated with mean dose (rs = 0.27, p = 0.049), V20 (rs = 0.31, p = 0.024) and whole oesophageal circumference receiving 20 Gy (rs = 0.32 p = 0.019). In patients who received these doses, V20 (n = 51, rs = 0.36, p = 0.011), V35 (n = 43, rs = 0.34, p = 0.027) and V60 (n = 25, rs = 0.59, P = 0.002) were associated with RO grade. Eleven of 25 (44 %) patients with ARO ≥ grade 2 also had ≥ grade 2 acute neutropenia compared with 5 of 29 (17 %) patients with RO grade 0 or 1 (p = 0.035). In addition to oesophageal dose-volume metrics, neutropenia may also be a risk factor for higher grades of ARO

  5. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or

  6. Coordinated unbundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, Jon Mikel

    2013-01-01

    not focused on the role this policy instrument can play in the promotion of (knowledge-intensive) entrepreneurship. This paper investigates this link in more detail and introduces the concept of coordinated unbundling as a strategy that can facilitate this purpose. We also present a framework on how......Public procurement for innovation is a matter of using public demand to trigger innovation. Empirical studies have demonstrated that demand-based policy instruments can be considered to be a powerful tool in stimulating innovative processes among existing firms; however, the existing literature has...

  7. The cell adhesion molecules Echinoid and Friend of Echinoid coordinate cell adhesion and cell signaling to regulate the fidelity of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetting, Jennifer L; Spencer, Susan A; Wolff, Tanya

    2009-10-01

    Directed cellular movements are a universal feature of morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. Differential adhesion between the stationary and motile cells promotes these cellular movements to effect spatial patterning of cells. A prominent feature of Drosophila eye development is the 90 degrees rotational movement of the multicellular ommatidial precursors within a matrix of stationary cells. We demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecules Echinoid (Ed) and Friend of Echinoid (Fred) act throughout ommatidial rotation to modulate the degree of ommatidial precursor movement. We propose that differential levels of Ed and Fred between stationary and rotating cells at the initiation of rotation create a permissive environment for cell movement, and that uniform levels in these two populations later contribute to stopping the movement. Based on genetic data, we propose that ed and fred impart a second, independent, ;brake-like' contribution to this process via Egfr signaling. Ed and Fred are localized in largely distinct and dynamic patterns throughout rotation. However, ed and fred are required in only a subset of cells - photoreceptors R1, R7 and R6 - for normal rotation, cells that have only recently been linked to a role in planar cell polarity (PCP). This work also provides the first demonstration of a requirement for cone cells in the ommatidial rotation aspect of PCP. ed and fred also genetically interact with the PCP genes, but affect only the degree-of-rotation aspect of the PCP phenotype. Significantly, we demonstrate that at least one PCP protein, Stbm, is required in R7 to control the degree of ommatidial rotation. PMID:19736327

  8. Survival prognostic factors for patients with synchronous brain oligometastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma receiving local therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Baohui

    2016-01-01

    Hao Bai,1,* Jianlin Xu,1,* Haitang Yang,2,* Bo Jin,1 Yuqing Lou,1 Dan Wu,3 Baohui Han1 1Department of Pulmonary, 2Department of Pathology, 3Central Laboratory, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Clinical evidence for patients with synchronous brain oligometastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma is limited. We aimed to summarize the clinical data of these...

  9. Survival prognostic factors for patients with synchronous brain oligometastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma receiving local therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bai H; Xu J; Yang H; Jin B; Lou Y; Wu D.; Han B.

    2016-01-01

    Hao Bai,1,* Jianlin Xu,1,* Haitang Yang,2,* Bo Jin,1 Yuqing Lou,1 Dan Wu,3 Baohui Han1 1Department of Pulmonary, 2Department of Pathology, 3Central Laboratory, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Clinical evidence for patients with synchronous brain oligometastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma is limited. We aimed to summarize the clinical data of these patient...

  10. Evaluation of Health Related Quality of Life in Patient with Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry CB; Rana DS; Batra V

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate impact of chemotherapy on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in patients of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) by analysis of two different treatments named Concurrent Chemo - Radiation (CTRT) and Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy (NACT). Study Design and Instrument: Prospective longitudinal study by evaluation HRQOL by general quality of life (QLQC30) and head & neck specific (QLQ-H&N35) questionnaires of the European Organization for Res...

  11. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  12. Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlock, Katherine; Johnson, Darren; Cornell, Cathy; Parnell, Shawn; Meshinchi, Soheil; Baker, K Scott; Englund, Janet A

    2015-05-01

    Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole. PMID:25327935

  13. Mucositis Prevention for Patients Receiving High Dose Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplantation : Preventive Strategies - There is Always More to do

    OpenAIRE

    Svanberg, Anncarin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate oral cryotherapy (OC) as prophy-laxis against oral mucositis (OM) in patients given high-dose chemotherapy for stem cell transplantation (SCT). A new mouth rinse device was tested for possible additive effect to OC. For study I-III, 78 patients were randomised to OC or standard oral care (SOC). Papers I and II showed that OC patients had significantly less severe mucositis, pain, opioid use, lower C-reactive protein and less parenteral nutrition treat...

  14. Co-ordinated synthesis of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes in biologically-stressed cells of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Carole L; Bell, John N.; Ryder, Thomas B.; Bailey, John A.; Schuch, Wolfgang; Bolwell, G. Paul; Robbins, Mark P.; Dixon, Richard A.; Lamb, Chris J.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the rates of synthesis of three enzymes of phenyl-propanoid biosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (dwarf French bean) have been investigated by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled enzyme subunits with mono-specific antisera. Elicitor causes marked, rapid but transient co-ordinated increases in the rate of synthesis of phenyl-alanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity at the onset of accu...

  15. Coordination protocol for inter-operator spectrum sharing in co-primary 5G small cell networks

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bikramjit; Hailu, Sofonias; Koufos, Konstantinos; Alexis A. Dowhuszko; Tirkkonen, Olav; Jäntti, Riku; Berry, Randall

    2015-01-01

    We consider spectrum sharing between a limited set of operators having similar rights for accessing spectrum. A coordination protocol acting on the level of the Radio Access Network (RAN) is designed. The protocol is non-cooperative, but assumes an agreement to a set of negotiation rules. The signaling overhead is low, and knowledge of competitor's channel state information is not assumed. No monetary transactions are involved; instead, spectrum sharing is based on a RAN-internal virtual curr...

  16. Globin X is a six-coordinate globin that reduces nitrite to nitric oxide in fish red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Paola; Xue, Jianmin; Tejero, Jesús; Wajih, Nadeem; Sun, Ming; Stolz, Donna B; Tsang, Michael; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Gladwin, Mark T

    2016-07-26

    The discovery of novel globins in diverse organisms has stimulated intense interest in their evolved function, beyond oxygen binding. Globin X (GbX) is a protein found in fish, amphibians, and reptiles that diverged from a common ancestor of mammalian hemoglobins and myoglobins. Like mammalian neuroglobin, GbX was first designated as a neuronal globin in fish and exhibits six-coordinate heme geometry, suggesting a role in intracellular electron transfer reactions rather than oxygen binding. Here, we report that GbX to our knowledge is the first six-coordinate globin and the first globin protein apart from hemoglobin, found in vertebrate RBCs. GbX is present in fish erythrocytes and exhibits a nitrite reduction rate up to 200-fold faster than human hemoglobin and up to 50-fold higher than neuroglobin or cytoglobin. Deoxygenated GbX reduces nitrite to form nitric oxide (NO) and potently inhibits platelet activation in vitro, to a greater extent than hemoglobin. Fish RBCs also reduce nitrite to NO and inhibit platelet activation to a greater extent than human RBCs, whereas GbX knockdown inhibits this nitrite-dependent NO signaling. The description of a novel, six-coordinate globin in RBCs with dominant electron transfer and nitrite reduction functionality provides new insights into the evolved signaling properties of ancestral heme-globins. PMID:27407144

  17. RSK is a principal effector of the RAS-ERK pathway for eliciting a coordinate promotile/invasive gene program and phenotype in epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doehn, Ulrik; Hauge, Camilla; Frank, Scott R;

    2009-01-01

    The RAS-stimulated RAF-MEK-ERK pathway confers epithelial cells with critical motile and invasive capacities during development, tissue regeneration, and carcinoma progression, often via promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Many mechanisms by which ERK exerts this control remain...... elusive. We demonstrate that the ERK-activated kinase RSK is necessary to induce mesenchymal motility and invasive capacities in nontransformed epithelial and carcinoma cells. RSK is sufficient to induce certain motile responses. Expression profiling analysis revealed that a primary role of RSK is to...... stimulate motility and invasion. These findings uncover a mechanism whereby the RAS-ERK pathway controls epithelial cell motility by identifying RSK as a key effector, from which emanate multiple highly coordinate transcription-dependent mechanisms for stimulation of motility and invasive properties....

  18. Parents' responses to receiving sickle cell or cystic fibrosis carrier results for their child following newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulph, Fiona; Cullinan, Tim; Qureshi, Nadeem; Kai, Joe

    2015-04-01

    Universal newborn screening for sickle cell disorders and cystic fibrosis aims to enable the early identification and treatment of affected babies. Screening can also identify infants who are healthy carriers, with carrier results being the commonest outcome for parents and professionals to discuss in practice. However it is unclear what the effect will be on parents on being informed of their baby's carrier result. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 67 family members (49 mothers, 16 fathers, 2 grandparents) of 51 infants identified by universal newborn screening as carriers of cystic fibrosis (n=27) and sickle cell (n=24), across all health regions in England. Data were analysed by thematic analysis with subsequent respondent validation. Untoward anxiety or distress among parents appeared influenced by how results were conveyed, rather than the carrier result per se. Parents who had more prior awareness of carrier status or the possibility of a carrier result assimilated the information more readily. Being left in an information vacuum while awaiting results, or before seeing a professional, led some parents to fear that their child had a serious health condition. Parental distress and anxiety appeared mostly transient, subsiding with understanding of carrier status and communication with a professional. Parents regarded carrier results as valuable information and sought to share this with their families and to inform their children in the future. However parents needed greater support after communication of results in considering and accessing cascade testing, and negotiating further communication within their families. PMID:25005733

  19. Parents' responses to receiving sickle cell or cystic fibrosis carrier results for their child following newborn screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulph, Fiona; Cullinan, Tim; Qureshi, Nadeem; Kai, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Universal newborn screening for sickle cell disorders and cystic fibrosis aims to enable the early identification and treatment of affected babies. Screening can also identify infants who are healthy carriers, with carrier results being the commonest outcome for parents and professionals to discuss in practice. However it is unclear what the effect will be on parents on being informed of their baby's carrier result. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 67 family members (49 mothers, 16 fathers, 2 grandparents) of 51 infants identified by universal newborn screening as carriers of cystic fibrosis (n=27) and sickle cell (n=24), across all health regions in England. Data were analysed by thematic analysis with subsequent respondent validation. Untoward anxiety or distress among parents appeared influenced by how results were conveyed, rather than the carrier result per se. Parents who had more prior awareness of carrier status or the possibility of a carrier result assimilated the information more readily. Being left in an information vacuum while awaiting results, or before seeing a professional, led some parents to fear that their child had a serious health condition. Parental distress and anxiety appeared mostly transient, subsiding with understanding of carrier status and communication with a professional. Parents regarded carrier results as valuable information and sought to share this with their families and to inform their children in the future. However parents needed greater support after communication of results in considering and accessing cascade testing, and negotiating further communication within their families. PMID:25005733

  20. Coordination Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Cuff, Paul; Cover, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We develop elements of a theory of cooperation and coordination in networks. Rather than considering a communication network as a means of distributing information, or of reconstructing random processes at remote nodes, we ask what dependence can be established among the nodes given the communication constraints. Specifically, in a network with communication rates between the nodes, we ask what is the set of all achievable joint distributions p(x1, ..., xm) of actions at the nodes on the network. Several networks are solved, including arbitrarily large cascade networks. Distributed cooperation can be the solution to many problems such as distributed games, distributed control, and establishing mutual information bounds on the influence of one part of a physical system on another.

  1. Longitudinal immune monitoring of patients receiving intratumoral injection of a MART-1 T-cell receptor-transduced cell line (C-Cure 709)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køllgaard, Tania; Duval, Lone; Schmidt, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS: Adoptive transfer of tumor-specific lymphocytes is a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer. We conducted intratumoral administration of an allogeneic irradiated continuous T-cell line (C-Cure 709) expressing an HLA-A2-restricted MART-1-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) into...... HLA-A2(+) melanoma patients. The C-Cure 709 cell line is cytotoxic against MART-1(+) HLA-A2(+) melanoma cell lines and secretes several immune stimulatory cytokines upon stimulation. METHODS: Anti-tumor immune responses against the commonly expressed tumor antigen (Ag) MART-1 were longitudinally...... analyzed in peripheral blood by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) before and after intratumoral injection of C-Cure 709. RESULTS: No treatment-induced increase in Ag-specific T-cell frequencies was observed in peripheral blood, and the phenotype of MART-1-specific T cells was very stable during...

  2. Fatigue in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma receiving sunitinib on an intermittent versus continuous dosing schedule in a randomized phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phase II trial in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) found no benefit in efficacy or safety between patients receiving oral sunitinib 50 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by 2-week off-treatment (Schedule 4/2) and those receiving 37.5 mg continuous daily sunitinib. We hypothesized that fatigue would have a more variable “on-off” effect with the 4/2 schedule. A total of 292 patients completed two fatigue-related items on Days 1 and 29 of each treatment cycle. Mean absolute slopes were compared across treatments. A planned analysis of item “I feel fatigued” demonstrated that the mean absolute slope was greater in Schedule 4/2 compared to continuous dosing (0.042 vs. 0.032, P = 0.003), and analysis based on the change from Day 1 to Day 29 (0.52 vs. 0.21, P = 0.002) and, separately, Day 29 to the next Day 1 (−0.38 vs. −0.05, P < 0.001) showed the changes to be significantly larger in Schedule 4/2 than continuous dosing. “I have a lack of energy” showed a similar pattern graphically, however, the planned analysis was not statistically significant based on the absolute slopes but was when Day 1 to Day 29 and Day 29 to Day 1 changes were analyzed separately. The 4/2 arm was associated with a greater degree of variability in fatigue reflecting a possible “on-off” effect whereby patients receiving the 4/2 schedule reported less fatigue at the beginning of each cycle compared to Day 29. The findings can inform care for individuals with advanced RCC receiving intermittent dosing of sunitinib

  3. Oriented Cell Division in the C. elegans Embryo Is Coordinated by G-Protein Signaling Dependent on the Adhesion GPCR LAT-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Müller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of spindles and cell division planes during development of many species ensures that correct cell-cell contacts are established, which is vital for proper tissue formation. This is a tightly regulated process involving a complex interplay of various signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying several of these pathways are still incompletely understood. Here, we identify the signaling cascade of the C. elegans latrophilin homolog LAT-1, an essential player in the coordination of anterior-posterior spindle orientation during the fourth round of embryonic cell division. We show that the receptor mediates a G protein-signaling pathway revealing that G-protein signaling in oriented cell division is not solely GPCR-independent. Genetic analyses showed that through the interaction with a Gs protein LAT-1 elevates intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP levels in the C. elegans embryo. Stimulation of this G-protein cascade in lat-1 null mutant nematodes is sufficient to orient spindles and cell division planes in the embryo in the correct direction. Finally, we demonstrate that LAT-1 is activated by an intramolecular agonist to trigger this cascade. Our data support a model in which a novel, GPCR-dependent G protein-signaling cascade mediated by LAT-1 controls alignment of cell division planes in an anterior-posterior direction via a metabotropic Gs-protein/adenylyl cyclase pathway by regulating intracellular cAMP levels.

  4. Oriented Cell Division in the C. elegans Embryo Is Coordinated by G-Protein Signaling Dependent on the Adhesion GPCR LAT-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Franziska; Sastradihardja, Tania; Binder, Claudia; Schnabel, Ralf; Kungel, Jana; Rothemund, Sven; Hennig, Christian; Schöneberg, Torsten; Prömel, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Orientation of spindles and cell division planes during development of many species ensures that correct cell-cell contacts are established, which is vital for proper tissue formation. This is a tightly regulated process involving a complex interplay of various signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying several of these pathways are still incompletely understood. Here, we identify the signaling cascade of the C. elegans latrophilin homolog LAT-1, an essential player in the coordination of anterior-posterior spindle orientation during the fourth round of embryonic cell division. We show that the receptor mediates a G protein-signaling pathway revealing that G-protein signaling in oriented cell division is not solely GPCR-independent. Genetic analyses showed that through the interaction with a Gs protein LAT-1 elevates intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in the C. elegans embryo. Stimulation of this G-protein cascade in lat-1 null mutant nematodes is sufficient to orient spindles and cell division planes in the embryo in the correct direction. Finally, we demonstrate that LAT-1 is activated by an intramolecular agonist to trigger this cascade. Our data support a model in which a novel, GPCR-dependent G protein-signaling cascade mediated by LAT-1 controls alignment of cell division planes in an anterior-posterior direction via a metabotropic Gs-protein/adenylyl cyclase pathway by regulating intracellular cAMP levels. PMID:26505631

  5. Recent advances in nanoparticle carriers for coordination complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mariana Rillo; da Silva, Patricia Bento; de Souza, Rodrigo Alves; dos Santos, Karen Cristina; Chorilli, Marlus

    2015-01-01

    Coordination compounds are substances in which a central metal atom is bonded to nonmetal atoms, or groups of atoms, called ligands. Examples include vitamin B12, hemoglobin, chlorophyll, dyes and pigments, as well as catalysts used in organic synthesis. Coordination compounds have received much attention in recent years. This interest was prompted by the discovery that several coordination compounds exhibit activity against bacteria, fungi and cancer. Some coordination compounds are not in clinical use, because of poor water solubility. Because they are unable to cross the lipid membranes of cells, bioavailability and efficacy are low. Some researchers have applied nanotechnology to coordination compounds, hoping to reduce the number of doses required and the severity of side effects, and also to improve biological activity. Nanotechnology can deliver active components in sufficient concentrations throughout treatment, guiding it to the desired location of action; conventional treatments do not meet these requirements. In this study we review some drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology, such as microemulsions (MEs), cyclodextrin (CD), polymeric nanoparticles (PN), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), magnetic and gold nanoparticles (MNPs / AuNPs) and liquid crystalline systems (LC), and coordination compounds. PMID:25579344

  6. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  7. Anorexia, serum zinc, and immunologic response in small cell lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, A M; Piper, B F

    1986-01-01

    Anorexia is a major clinical problem for patients with certain types of cancer. The specific mechanisms that result in this spontaneous decline in food intake remain unknown. In noncancer populations, zinc has been shown to play a role in maintaining normal appetite, taste acuity, and immunocompetence. One purpose of this prospective, longitudinal study of cachexia in ten males with small cell lung carcinoma was to determine if anorexia (caloric intake), perceived taste changes, zinc intake, and impaired cellular immunity were associated with serum zinc concentrations. The average daily caloric intake declined 490 kcal from time of diagnosis to seven months after diagnosis (mean caloric intake = 72% of RDA). Daily zinc intake ranged from 6.5 to 25.4 mg over the seven months. During this period, the mean serum zinc concentrations, although low (71 micrograms/dl), remained within the normal range. The average weight declined from 81.7 to 74.1 kg. There was no identifiable pattern of perceived taste changes; most of the perceived changes were recorded during the period coinciding with prophylactic cranial radiation. At the initial testing, four of nine subjects were anergic to a battery of skin test antigens (mumps, candida, tuberculin purified protein derivative). The only subject who remained responsive to two antigens throughout the study remained alive at 12 months. Caloric intake was inadequate to maintain weight. While zinc intake was low, low normal serum zinc concentrations were maintained; thus in this sample, serum zinc does not appear to be the anorexigenic factor. PMID:3022247

  8. Serum inflammatory miRNAs predict radiation esophagitis in patients receiving definitive radiochemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, highly conserved non-coding RNAs that regulate many biological processes. We sought to investigate whether three serum miRNAs related to immunity or inflammation were associated with esophagitis induced by chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and methods: We measured serum miR-155, miR-221 and miR-21, before and during week 1–2 of CRT for 101 NSCLC patients by real-time PCR. Associations between miRNA and severe radiation-induced esophageal toxicity (RIET) were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: We found that patients with stage IIIB–IV disease, higher mean esophagus dose or esophageal V50 had higher rates of severe RIET. Furthermore, high levels of miR-155 and miR-221 at week 1–2 of CRT were also risk factors for severe RIET (miR-155: OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.04–2.25, P = 0.03; miR-221: OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.17–3.64, P = 0.012). In addition, the fold change of miR-221 was also predictive of severe RIET (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02–1.37, P = 0.026). However, pretreatment miRNAs was not predictive of severe RIET. Conclusions: High serum miR-155 and miR-221 during the first 2 weeks of CRT were associated with the development of severe RIET, suggesting that these miRNAs may be useful as an early surrogate for this form of toxicity

  9. Evaluation of Various Nuclear Cytological Changes in Normal Buccal Mucosa and Peritumoural Area in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Sadia; Kashif, Muhammad; Nagi, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the role of serial cytological assay in calculating the nuclear response of contralateral normal buccal mucosa and peritumoural area of squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity in patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy. Materials and Methods. This prospective, nonrandomized study was comprised of 76 histologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma on cyclical chemoradiation treatment. Chemoradiosensitivity was evaluated using serial scrape smears taken before and after immediate exposure to CCRT, at 17th day of CCRT (mid of treatment), and at the end of treatment. The nuclear changes, such as multinucleation, micronucleation, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, nuclear budding, prominent nucleoli, and binucleation occurring in both irradiated cancer cells and contralateral normal buccal mucosa, had a statistically significant dose related increase with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion. We recommend regular use of serial cytological assay during CCRT as it may prove to be a valuable tool for assessment of chemoradiosensitivity and persistence of tumour/dysplastic cells after radiotherapy. PMID:27148467

  10. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  11. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  12. Impact of conditioning with TBI in adult patients with T-cell ALL who receive a myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahu, X; Labopin, M; Giebel, S;

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a therapeutic option for adult patients with T-cell ALL (T-ALL). Meanwhile, few allo-SCT data specific to adult T-ALL have been described thus far. Specifically, the optimal myeloablative conditioning regimen is unknown. In this...

  13. Pre-Transplant Donor-Specific T-Cell Alloreactivity Is Strongly Associated with Early Acute Cellular Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients Not Receiving T-Cell Depleting Induction Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Elena; Lucia, Marc; Cruzado, Josep M.; Luque, Sergio; Melilli, Edoardo; Manonelles, Anna; Lloberas, Nuria; Torras, Joan; Grinyó, Josep M.; Bestard, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    Preformed T-cell immune-sensitization should most likely impact allograft outcome during the initial period after kidney transplantation, since donor-specific memory T-cells may rapidly recognize alloantigens and activate the effector immune response, which leads to allograft rejection. However, the precise time-frame in which acute rejection is fundamentally triggered by preformed donor-specific memory T cells rather than by de novo activated naïve T cells is still to be established. Here, preformed donor-specific alloreactive T-cell responses were evaluated using the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay in a large consecutive cohort of kidney transplant patients (n = 90), to assess the main clinical variables associated with cellular sensitization and its predominant time-frame impact on allograft outcome, and was further validated in an independent new set of kidney transplant recipients (n = 67). We found that most highly T-cell sensitized patients were elderly patients with particularly poor HLA class-I matching, without any clinically recognizable sensitizing events. While one-year incidence of all types of biopsy-proven acute rejection did not differ between T-cell alloreactive and non-alloreactive patients, Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis indicated the first two months after transplantation as the highest risk time period for acute cellular rejection associated with baseline T-cell sensitization. This effect was particularly evident in young and highly alloreactive individuals that did not receive T-cell depletion immunosuppression. Multivariate analysis confirmed preformed T-cell sensitization as an independent predictor of early acute cellular rejection. In summary, monitoring anti-donor T-cell sensitization before transplantation may help to identify patients at increased risk of acute cellular rejection, particularly in the early phases after kidney transplantation, and thus guide decision-making regarding the use of induction therapy. PMID:25689405

  14. Coordination procedure for radio relay and communication satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerman, J.

    1973-01-01

    A global rain rate statistic model is used to link microwave propagation statistics to measurable rain statistics in order to develop international telecommunication site criteria for radio relay and communication satellite services that minimize interference between receivers and transmitters. This rain coordination procedure utilizes a rain storm cell size, a statistical description of the rainfall rate within the cell valid for most of the earth's surface, approximations between Raleigh scatter and constancy of precipitation with altitude, and an analytic relation between radar reflectivity and rain rate.

  15. Fluorescent detection of apoptotic cells using a family of zinc coordination complexes with selective affinity for membrane surfaces that are enriched with phosphatidylserine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Bradley D. (University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana); Lambert, Timothy N.; Lakshmi, C. (University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana); Hanshaw, Roger, G. (University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana)

    2005-03-01

    The appearance of phosphatidylserine on the membrane surface of apoptotic cells (Jurkat, CHO, HeLa) is monitored by using a family of bis(Zn{sup 2+}-2,2{prime}-dipicolylamine) coordination compounds with appended fluorescein or biotin groups as reporter elements. The phosphatidylserine affinity group is also conjugated directly to a CdSe/CdS quantum dot to produce a probe suitable for prolonged observation without photobleaching. Apoptosis can be detected under a wide variety of conditions, including variations in temperature, incubation time, and binding media. Binding of each probe appears to be restricted to the cell membrane exterior, because no staining of organelles or internal membranes is observed.

  16. CD28 and T cell antigen receptor signal transduction coordinately regulate interleukin 2 gene expression in response to superantigen stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Activation of an immune response requires intercellular contact between T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APC). Interaction of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) with antigen in the context of major histocompatibility molecules mediates signal transduction, but T cell activation appears to require the induction of a second costimulatory signal transduction pathway. Recent studies suggest that interaction of CD28 with B7 on APC might deliver such a costimulatory signal. To investigate...

  17. Non-coordinate expression of J-chain and Blimp-1 define nurse shark plasma cell populations during ontogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Caitlin D.; Ohta, Yuko; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    Blimp-1 is the master regulator of plasma cell development, controlling genes such as J-chain and secretory Ig heavy chain. However, some mammalian plasma cells do not express J-chain, and mammalian B1 cells secrete “natural” IgM antibodies without upregulating Blimp-1. While these results have been controversial in mammalian systems, here we describe subsets of normally occurring Blimp-1- antibody secreting cells in nurse sharks, found in lymphoid tissues at all ontogenic stages. Sharks natu...

  18. 78 FR 6806 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Committee Meeting will meet in Arlington, Va. The committee is... copying. The public may inspect comments received on the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web...

  19. Type I and Type II Interferon Coordinately Regulate Suppressive Dendritic Cell Fate and Function during Viral Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Cameron R.; Champhekar, Ameya; Tullius, Michael V.; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Zhen, Anjie; de la Fuente, Justin Rafael; Herskovitz, Jonathan; Elsaesser, Heidi; Snell, Laura M.; Wilson, Elizabeth B.; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Kitchen, Scott G.; Horwitz, Marcus A.; Bensinger, Steven J.; Smale, Stephen T.; Brooks, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent viral infections are simultaneously associated with chronic inflammation and highly potent immunosuppressive programs mediated by IL-10 and PDL1 that attenuate antiviral T cell responses. Inhibiting these suppressive signals enhances T cell function to control persistent infection; yet, the underlying signals and mechanisms that program immunosuppressive cell fates and functions are not well understood. Herein, we use lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection (LCMV) to demonstrate that the induction and functional programming of immunosuppressive dendritic cells (DCs) during viral persistence are separable mechanisms programmed by factors primarily considered pro-inflammatory. IFNγ first induces the de novo development of naive monocytes into DCs with immunosuppressive potential. Type I interferon (IFN-I) then directly targets these newly generated DCs to program their potent T cell immunosuppressive functions while simultaneously inhibiting conventional DCs with T cell stimulating capacity. These mechanisms of monocyte conversion are constant throughout persistent infection, establishing a system to continuously interpret and shape the immunologic environment. MyD88 signaling was required for the differentiation of suppressive DCs, whereas inhibition of stimulatory DCs was dependent on MAVS signaling, demonstrating a bifurcation in the pathogen recognition pathways that promote distinct elements of IFN-I mediated immunosuppression. Further, a similar suppressive DC origin and differentiation was also observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, HIV infection and cancer. Ultimately, targeting the underlying mechanisms that induce immunosuppression could simultaneously prevent multiple suppressive signals to further restore T cell function and control persistent infections. PMID:26808628

  20. UVB-Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Jurkat Cells: A Coordinated Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-Flow Cytometry Study

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzi, Deleana; Gaudenzi, Silvia; Di Giambattista, Lucia; Silvestri, Ida; Morrone, Stefania; Castellano, Agostina Congiu

    2010-01-01

    We studied the induction of apoptosis in Jurkat cells by UVB radiation (wavelength 290-320 nm) at a dose of 310 mJ/cm^2. We combined Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with flow cytometry to determine whether the combination of both techniques could provide new and improved information about cell modifications. To do this, we looked for correspondences and correlations between spectroscopy and flow cytometry data and found three highly probable spectroscopic markers of apoptosis. The behavior of the wave number shift of both the Amide I beta-sheet component and the area of the 1083 cm^-1 band reproduced, with a high correlation, the behavior of the early apoptotic cell population, while the behavior of the Amide I area showed a high correlation with the early plus late apoptotic cell population.

  1. Endogenous chloride channels of insect sf9 cells. Evidence for coordinated activity of small elementary channel units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Gabriel, S. E.; Stutts, M. J.;

    1996-01-01

    The endogenous Cl- conductance of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells was studied 20-35 h after plating out of either uninfected cells or cells infected by a baculovirus vector carrying the cloned beta-galactosidase gene (beta-Gal cells). With the cation Tris+ in the pipette and Na+ in the bath....../150) of approximately 3.5 pS and approximately 35 pS, respectively. All states reversed near the same membrane potential, and they exhibited similar halide ion selectivity, P1 > PCl approximately PBr. Accordingly, Cl- current amplitudes larger than current flow through the smallest channel unit resolved seem to result...... from simultaneous open/shut events of two or more channel units....

  2. Expression and compartmentalization of caveolin in adipose cells: coordinate regulation with and structural segregation from GLUT4

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Native rat adipocytes and the mouse adipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1, possess transport vesicles of apparently uniform composition and size which translocate the tissue-specific glucose transporter isoform, GLUT4, from an intracellular pool to the cell surface in an insulin- sensitive fashion. Caveolin, the presumed structural protein of caveolae, has also been proposed to function in vesicular transport. Thus, we studied the expression and subcellular distribution of caveolin in adipocytes. We fo...

  3. The Tomato MIXTA-Like Transcription Factor Coordinates Fruit Epidermis Conical Cell Development and Cuticular Lipid Biosynthesis and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashbrooke, Justin; Adato, Avital; Lotan, Orfa; Alkan, Noam; Tsimbalist, Tatiana; Rechav, Katya; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Widemann, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Pinot, Franck; Granell, Antonio; Costa, Fabrizio; Aharoni, Asaph

    2015-12-01

    The epidermis of aerial plant organs is the primary source of building blocks forming the outer surface cuticular layer. To examine the relationship between epidermal cell development and cuticle assembly in the context of fruit surface, we investigated the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MIXTA-like gene. MIXTA/MIXTA-like proteins, initially described in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) petals, are known regulators of epidermal cell differentiation. Fruit of transgenically silenced SlMIXTA-like tomato plants displayed defects in patterning of conical epidermal cells. They also showed altered postharvest water loss and resistance to pathogens. Transcriptome and cuticular lipids profiling coupled with comprehensive microscopy revealed significant modifications to cuticle assembly and suggested SlMIXTA-like to regulate cutin biosynthesis. Candidate genes likely acting downstream of SlMIXTA-like included cytochrome P450s (CYPs) of the CYP77A and CYP86A subfamilies, LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE2, GLYCEROL-3-PHOSPHATE SN-2-ACYLTRANSFERASE4, and the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE11 cuticular lipids transporter. As part of a larger regulatory network of epidermal cell patterning and L1-layer identity, we found that SlMIXTA-like acts downstream of SlSHINE3 and possibly cooperates with homeodomain Leu zipper IV transcription factors. Hence, SlMIXTA-like is a positive regulator of both cuticle and conical epidermal cell formation in tomato fruit, acting as a mediator of the tight association between fruit cutin polymer formation, cuticle assembly, and epidermal cell patterning. PMID:26443676

  4. Coordinate changes in histone modifications, mRNA levels, and metabolite profiles in clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells accompany functional adaptations to lipotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, Siri; Spégel, Peter; Danielsson, Anders P H; Nagorny, Cecilia L; Andersson, Lotta E; Nitert, Marloes Dekker; Ridderstråle, Martin; Mulder, Hindrik; Ling, Charlotte

    2013-04-26

    Lipotoxicity is a presumed pathogenetic process whereby elevated circulating and stored lipids in type 2 diabetes cause pancreatic β-cell failure. To resolve the underlying molecular mechanisms, we exposed clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells to palmitate for 48 h. We observed elevated basal insulin secretion but impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in palmitate-exposed cells. Glucose utilization was unchanged, palmitate oxidation was increased, and oxygen consumption was impaired. Halting exposure of the clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells to palmitate largely recovered all of the lipid-induced functional changes. Metabolite profiling revealed profound but reversible increases in cellular lipids. Glucose-induced increases in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were attenuated by exposure to palmitate. Analysis of gene expression by microarray showed increased expression of 982 genes and decreased expression of 1032 genes after exposure to palmitate. Increases were seen in pathways for steroid biosynthesis, cell cycle, fatty acid metabolism, DNA replication, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids; decreases occurred in the aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis pathway. The activity of histone-modifying enzymes and histone modifications of differentially expressed genes were reversibly altered upon exposure to palmitate. Thus, Insig1, Lss, Peci, Idi1, Hmgcs1, and Casr were subject to epigenetic regulation. Our analyses demonstrate that coordinate changes in histone modifications, mRNA levels, and metabolite profiles accompanied functional adaptations of clonal β-cells to lipotoxicity. It is highly likely that these changes are pathogenetic, accounting for loss of glucose responsiveness and perturbed insulin secretion. PMID:23476019

  5. Coordinate Changes in Histone Modifications, mRNA Levels, and Metabolite Profiles in Clonal INS-1 832/13 β-Cells Accompany Functional Adaptations to Lipotoxicity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, Siri; Spégel, Peter; Danielsson, Anders P.H.; Nagorny, Cecilia L.; Andersson, Lotta E.; Nitert, Marloes Dekker; Ridderstråle, Martin; Mulder, Hindrik; Ling, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Lipotoxicity is a presumed pathogenetic process whereby elevated circulating and stored lipids in type 2 diabetes cause pancreatic β-cell failure. To resolve the underlying molecular mechanisms, we exposed clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells to palmitate for 48 h. We observed elevated basal insulin secretion but impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in palmitate-exposed cells. Glucose utilization was unchanged, palmitate oxidation was increased, and oxygen consumption was impaired. Halting exposure of the clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells to palmitate largely recovered all of the lipid-induced functional changes. Metabolite profiling revealed profound but reversible increases in cellular lipids. Glucose-induced increases in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were attenuated by exposure to palmitate. Analysis of gene expression by microarray showed increased expression of 982 genes and decreased expression of 1032 genes after exposure to palmitate. Increases were seen in pathways for steroid biosynthesis, cell cycle, fatty acid metabolism, DNA replication, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids; decreases occurred in the aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis pathway. The activity of histone-modifying enzymes and histone modifications of differentially expressed genes were reversibly altered upon exposure to palmitate. Thus, Insig1, Lss, Peci, Idi1, Hmgcs1, and Casr were subject to epigenetic regulation. Our analyses demonstrate that coordinate changes in histone modifications, mRNA levels, and metabolite profiles accompanied functional adaptations of clonal β-cells to lipotoxicity. It is highly likely that these changes are pathogenetic, accounting for loss of glucose responsiveness and perturbed insulin secretion. PMID:23476019

  6. Network Coordinator Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himwich, Ed; Strand, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This report includes an assessment of the network performance in terms of lost observing time for the 2012 calendar year. Overall, the observing time loss was about 12.3%, which is in-line with previous years. A table of relative incidence of problems with various subsystems is presented. The most significant identified causes of loss were electronics rack problems (accounting for about 21.8% of losses), antenna reliability (18.1%), RFI (11.8%), and receiver problems (11.7%). About 14.2% of the losses occurred for unknown reasons. New antennas are under development in the USA, Germany, and Spain. There are plans for new telescopes in Norway and Sweden. Other activities of the Network Coordinator are summarized.

  7. MRP1 and glucosylceramide are coordinately over expressed and enriched in rafts during multidrug resistance acquisition in colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, K; Hinrichs, JWJ; Kroesen, BJ; Sietsma, H; Kok, JW

    2004-01-01

    Previously we have described a novel multidrug-resistant cell line, HT29(col), which displayed over expression of the multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MRP1) and an altered sphingolipid composition, including enhanced levels of glucosylceramide (GlcCer; Kok JW, Veldman RJ, Klappe K, Koning H, Filipean

  8. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Sixteen of 46 patients (35%) had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively). Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively). Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Higher exposure to pemetrexed is associated with grade ≥3 hyponatremia. The pharmacogenetic basis for higher exposure to pemetrexed in Indian patients needs further investigation

  9. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gota, Vikram; Kavathiya, Krunal; Doshi, Kartik; Gurjar, Murari; Damodaran, Solai E; Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Methods Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Results Sixteen of 46 patients (35%) had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively). Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively). Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Conclusion Higher exposure to pemetrexed is associated with grade ≥3 hyponatremia. The pharmacogenetic basis for higher exposure to pemetrexed in Indian patients needs further investigation. PMID:24940080

  10. Feasibility of the use of the Active Breathing Co ordinatorTM (ABC) in patients receiving radical radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: One method to overcome the problem of lung tumour movement in patients treated with radiotherapy is to restrict tumour motion with an active breathing control (ABC) device. This study evaluated the feasibility of using ABC in patients receiving radical radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Eighteen patients, median (range) age of 66 (44-82) years, consented to the study. A training session was conducted to establish the patient's breath hold level and breath hold time. Three planning scans were acquired using the ABC device. Reproducibility of breath hold was assessed by comparing lung volumes measured from the planning scans and the volume recorded by ABC. Patients were treated with a 3-field coplanar beam arrangement and treatment time (patient on and off the bed) and number of breath holds recorded. The tolerability of the device was assessed by weekly questionnaire. Quality assurance was performed on the two ABC devices used. Results: 17/18 patients completed 32 fractions of radiotherapy using ABC. All patients tolerated a maximum breath hold time >15 s. The mean (SD) patient training time was 13.8 (4.8) min and no patient found the ABC very uncomfortable. Six to thirteen breath holds of 10-14 s were required per session. The mean treatment time was 15.8 min (5.8 min). The breath hold volumes were reproducible during treatment and also between the two ABC devices. Conclusion: The use of ABC in patients receiving radical radiotherapy for NSCLC is feasible. It was not possible to predict a patient's ability to hold breath. A minimum tolerated breath hold time of 15 s is recommended prior to commencing treatment.

  11. Impact of oral meloxicam and long-distance transport on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in feedlot steers receiving modified live BVDV booster vaccination on arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, N K; Platt, R; Roth, J A; Stock, M L; Engelken, T; Vann, R C; Wulf, L W; Busby, W D; Wang, C; Kalkwarf, E M; Coetzee, J F

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of oral meloxicam (MEL) and long-distance transportation on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in preconditioned steers receiving a booster vaccination on arrival. We hypothesized that steers treated with MEL at 1mg/kg body weight, 6h before night-time transport, would be less immunocompromised on arrival (day 0) and after 7days, and that CMI following vaccination with a modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) recall antigen would be increased. Brahman crossbreed steers, 13-17 months of age (n=87), were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: MEL, transported (MTR) (n=22), MEL, non-transported (MNT) (n=22), lactose placebo, transported (CTR) (n=21), and lactose placebo, non-transported (CNT) (n=22). MTR and CTR steers were transported for approximately 16h non-stop on a truck from Mississippi to Iowa (approximately 1300km), whereas steers in the MNT and CNT groups remained in Mississippi as non-transported controls. Body weight was measured and jugular blood was collected at -1, 0, and 7days from all steers at the same time, regardless of location. Multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) was used to identify T-cell subsets and detect the expression of three activation markers (CD25 [interleukin (IL)-2 receptor], intracellular interferon-gamma [IFNγ], and IL-4) after in vitro stimulation with BVDV recall antigen. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured on day -1, 0, and 7 as a marker of transport-associated stress. Serum antibody titer to BVDV was assessed on day -1 and day 7 post-booster vaccination. Whole-blood samples were analyzed using MP-FCM on days 0 and 7. Results were log transformed and analyzed using repeated measures of analysis of variance. Compared with non-transported controls, transport led to an increase in BVDV-induced expression of CD25, IFNγ, and IL-4 in CD4(+), CD8(+), and γδ(+) T-cell subsets (P0.10). A treatment*transport interaction was noted for the increase in IL

  12. Ipl1/Aurora B kinase coordinates synaptonemal complex disassembly with cell cycle progression and crossover formation in budding yeast meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Philip; Copsey, Alice; Newnham, Louise; Kolar, E; Lichten, M; Hoffmann, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Several protein kinases collaborate to orchestrate and integrate cellular and chromosomal events at the G2/M transition in both mitotic and meiotic cells. During the G2/M transition in meiosis, this includes the completion of crossover recombination, spindle formation, and synaptonemal complex (SC) breakdown. We identified Ipl1/Aurora B kinase as the main regulator of SC disassembly. Mutants lacking Ipl1 or its kinase activity assemble SCs with normal timing, but fail to dissociate the centra...

  13. The Coordination of Centrosome Reproduction with Nuclear Events of the Cell Cycle in the Sea Urchin Zygote

    OpenAIRE

    Hinchcliffe, Edward H.; Cassels, Grizzel O.; Rieder, Conly L.; Sluder, Greenfield

    1998-01-01

    Centrosomes repeatedly reproduce in sea urchin zygotes arrested in S phase, whether cyclin-dependent kinase 1–cyclin B (Cdk1-B) activity remains at prefertilization levels or rises to mitotic values. In contrast, when zygotes are arrested in mitosis using cyclin B Δ-90, anaphase occurs at the normal time, yet centrosomes do not reproduce. Together, these results reveal the cell cycle stage specificity for centrosome reproduction and demonstrate that neither the level nor the cycling of Cdk1-B...

  14. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gota V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vikram Gota,1 Krunal Kavathiya,1 Kartik Doshi,1 Murari Gurjar,1 Solai E Damodaran,1 Vanita Noronha,2 Amit Joshi,2 Kumar Prabhash2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India Background: Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Methods: Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Results: Sixteen of 46 patients (35% had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively. Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively. Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Conclusion: Higher exposure to

  15. N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase inhibits p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and coordinates with p53 to determine sensitivity to alkylating agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanshan Song; Guichun Xing; Lin Yuan; Jian Wang; Shan Wang; Yuxin Yin; Chunyan Tian; Fuchu He; Lingqiang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Alkylating agents induce genome-wide base damage,which is repaired mainly by N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG).An elevated expression of MPG in certain types of tumor cells confers higher sensitivity to alkylation agents because MPG-induced apurinic/apyrimidic (AP) sites trigger more strand breaks.However,the determinant of drug sensitivity or insensitivity still remains unclear.Here,we report that the p53 status coordinates with MPG to play a pivotal role in such process.MPG expression is positive in breast,lung and colon cancers (38.7%,43.4% and 25.3%,respectively) but negative in all adjacent normal tissues.MPG directly binds to the tumor suppressor p53 and represses p53 activity in unstressed cells.The overexpression of MPG reduced,whereas depletion of MPG increased,the expression levels of pro-arrest gene downstream of p53 including p21,14-3-3σ and Gadd45 but not pro-apoptotic ones.The N-terminal region of MPG was specifically required for the interaction with the DNA binding domain of p53.Upon DNA alkylation stress,in p53 wild-type tumor cells,p53 dissociated from MPG and induced cell growth arrest.Then,AP sites were repaired efficiently,which led to insensitivity to alkylating agents.By contrast,in p53-mutated cells,the AP sites were repaired with low efficacy.To our knowledge,this is the first direct evidence to show that a DNA repair enzyme functions as a selective regulator of p53,and these findings provide new insights into the functional linkage between MPG and p53 in cancer therapy.

  16. Second Cancer Risk and Late Mortality in Adult Australians Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajdic, Claire M; Mayson, Eleni; Dodds, Anthony J; O'Brien, Tracey; Wilcox, Leonie; Nivison-Smith, Ian; Le Marsney, Renate; Daniels, Benjamin; Ashton, Lesley J

    2016-05-01

    We quantified the risk of second cancer and late mortality in a population-based Australian cohort of 3273 adult (≥15 years) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (1992 to 2007). Most recipients received nonradiation-based conditioning and a peripheral blood graft from a matched related donor. Using record linkage with death and cancer registries, 79 second cancers were identified a median of 3.5 years after transplantation. The competing-risk adjusted cumulative incidence of second cancers was 3.35% (95% CI, 2.59 to 4.24) at 10 years, and the cancer risk relative to the matched general population was 2.10 (95% CI, 1.65 to 2.56). We observed an excess risk of melanoma and lip, tongue, esophagus, and soft tissue cancers. Cancer risk relative to the general population was elevated for those transplanted for lymphoma, some leukemia subtypes, and severe aplastic anemia, recipients who developed chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and irrespective of radiation-based conditioning or stem cell source. In those alive 2 years after transplantation (n = 1463), the cumulative incidence of late mortality was 22.2% (95% CI, 19.7 to 24.9) at 10 years, and the risk of death relative to the matched general population was 13.8 (95% CI, 12.2 to 15.6). In multivariable modeling, risk of late death was reduced for females compared with males and those transplanted for chronic myeloid leukemia compared with acute myeloid leukemia; risk was increased for recipients with discordant sex donors, cGVHD, those undergoing second transplants, and disease relapse. Adults undergoing allogeneic transplantation have unique cancer and mortality risk profiles that continue to warrant prevention and surveillance activities targeted at high-risk subgroups. PMID:26860637

  17. Limitations of Radar Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Lusanna, Luca; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a radar coordinate system about the world line of an observer is discussed. Radar coordinates for a hyperbolic observer as well as a uniformly rotating observer are described in detail. The utility of the notion of radar distance and the admissibility of radar coordinates are investigated. Our results provide a critical assessment of the physical significance of radar coordinates.

  18. Coordinate up-regulation of TMEM97 and cholesterol biosynthesis genes in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells treated with progesterone: implications for pathogenesis of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian cancer (OvCa) most often derives from ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that increased exposure to progesterone (P4) protects women against developing OvCa. However, the underlying mechanisms of this protection are incompletely understood. To determine downstream gene targets of P4, we established short term in vitro cultures of non-neoplastic OSE cells from six subjects, exposed the cells to P4 (10-6 M) for five days and performed transcriptional profiling with oligonucleotide microarrays containing over 22,000 transcripts. We identified concordant but modest gene expression changes in cholesterol/lipid homeostasis genes in three of six samples (responders), whereas the other three samples (non-responders) showed no expressional response to P4. The most up-regulated gene was TMEM97 which encodes a transmembrane protein of unknown function (MAC30). Analyses of outlier transcripts, whose expression levels changed most significantly upon P4 exposure, uncovered coordinate up-regulation of 14 cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes, insulin-induced gene 1, low density lipoprotein receptor, ABCG1, endothelial lipase, stearoyl- CoA and fatty acid desaturases, long-chain fatty-acyl elongase, and down-regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and ABCC6. Highly correlated tissue-specific expression patterns of TMEM97 and the cholesterol biosynthesis genes were confirmed by analysis of the GNF Atlas 2 universal gene expression database. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed 2.4-fold suppression of the TMEM97 gene expression in short-term cultures of OvCa relative to the normal OSE cells. These findings suggest that a co-regulated transcript network of cholesterol/lipid homeostasis genes and TMEM97 are downstream targets of P4 in normal OSE cells and that TMEM97 plays a role in cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The P4-induced alterations in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in OSE cells might play a role in

  19. mTORC2 coordinates pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell metabolism, proliferation and survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Dmitry A.; Kudryashova, Tatiana V.; Ziai, Houman; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; DeLisser, Horace; Krymskaya, Vera P.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Kawut, Steven M.; Goncharova, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enhanced proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and metabolic shift to glycolysis of pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (PAVSMC) are key pathophysiological components of pulmonary vascular remodeling in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). The role of distinct mTOR complexes mTORC1 (mTOR-raptor) and mTORC2 (mTOR-rictor) in PAVSMC proliferation and survival in PAH and their therapeutic relevance is unknown. Methods and Results Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed that mTORC1 and mTORC2 pathways are markedly up-regulated in small remodeled PAs and isolated distal PAVSMC from IPAH subjects that have increased ATP levels, proliferation and survival that depend on glycolytic metabolism. siRNA- and pharmacological-based analysis showed that while both mTORC1 and mTORC2 contributing to proliferation, only mTORC2 is required for ATP generation and survival of IPAH PAVSMC. mTORC2 down-regulated energy sensor AMPK allowing activation of mTORC1-S6 and increased proliferation, and deficiency of pro-apoptotic protein Bim and IPAH PAVSMC survival. Nox4 protein levels were increased in IPAH PAVSMC that was necessary for mTORC2 activation, proliferation and survival. Nox4 levels and mTORC2 signaling were significantly up-regulated in small PAs from hypoxia-exposed rats at days 2-28 of hypoxia. Treatment with the mTOR kinase inhibitor PP242 at days 15-28 suppressed mTORC2, but not Nox4, induced SM-specific apoptosis in small PAs and reversed hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats. Conclusions These data provide a novel mechanistic link of Nox4-dependent activation of mTORC2 via energy sensor AMPK to increased proliferation and survival of PAVSMC in PAH suggesting a new potential pathway for the therapeutic interventions. PMID:24270265

  20. Coordinated cell type-specific epigenetic remodeling in prefrontal cortex begins before birth and continues into early adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennady P Shulha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of prefrontal and other higher-order association cortices is associated with widespread changes in the cortical transcriptome, particularly during the transitions from prenatal to postnatal development, and from early infancy to later stages of childhood and early adulthood. However, the timing and longitudinal trajectories of neuronal gene expression programs during these periods remain unclear in part because of confounding effects of concomitantly occurring shifts in neuron-to-glia ratios. Here, we used cell type-specific chromatin sorting techniques for genome-wide profiling of a histone mark associated with transcriptional regulation--H3 with trimethylated lysine 4 (H3K4me3--in neuronal chromatin from 31 subjects from the late gestational period to 80 years of age. H3K4me3 landscapes of prefrontal neurons were developmentally regulated at 1,157 loci, including 768 loci that were proximal to transcription start sites. Multiple algorithms consistently revealed that the overwhelming majority and perhaps all of developmentally regulated H3K4me3 peaks were on a unidirectional trajectory defined by either rapid gain or loss of histone methylation during the late prenatal period and the first year after birth, followed by similar changes but with progressively slower kinetics during early and later childhood and only minimal changes later in life. Developmentally downregulated H3K4me3 peaks in prefrontal neurons were enriched for Paired box (Pax and multiple Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT motifs, which are known to promote glial differentiation. In contrast, H3K4me3 peaks subject to a progressive increase in maturing prefrontal neurons were enriched for activating protein-1 (AP-1 recognition elements that are commonly associated with activity-dependent regulation of neuronal gene expression. We uncovered a developmental program governing the remodeling of neuronal histone methylation landscapes in the prefrontal

  1. Cell context-specific expression of primary cilia in the human testis and ciliary coordination of Hedgehog signalling in mouse Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Nygaard, Marie; Almstrup, Kristian; Lindbæk, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog signalling, including Smoothened, Patched-1, and GLI2, which are involved in regulating Leydig cell differentiation. Stimulation of Hedgehog signalling increases the localization of Smoothened to the cilium, which is followed by transactivation of the Hedgehog target genes, Gli1 and Ptch1. Our...... findings provide new information on the spatiotemporal formation of primary cilia in the testis and show that primary cilia in immature Leydig cells mediate Hedgehog signalling....

  2. David Nolfi Receives NAHRS Award for Professional Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Diana Sasso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available News AnnouncementDavid A. Nolfi, MLS, AHIP, Health Sciences Librarian & Library Assessment Coordinator at Duquesne University’s Gumberg Library, received the 2013 NAHRS Award for Professional Excellence at the One Health Conference in Boston, MA.

  3. Kartogenin, transforming growth factor-β1 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 coordinately enhance lubricin accumulation in bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Ma, Xueqin; Li, Tao; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-09-01

    Osteoarthritis, a common joint degeneration, can cause breakdown of articular cartilage with the presence of lubricin metabolic abnormalities. Lubricin is a multi-level chondroprotective mucinous glycoprotein in articular joints. Joint defect and infection is elevated and accompanied by accelerated cartilage lesions involving degradation and loss of lubricin. However, a novel, heterocyclic compound called kartogenin (KGN) was discovered to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation of bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). And the synergistic effect of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) could provoke lubricin accumulation. This paper attempted to explore the connection between accumulation of lubricin and the effect of TGF-β1, BMP-7 and/or KGN. Hence, we investigated the expression and secretion of lubricin in BMSCs treated with different combinations of TGF-β1, BMP-7, and/or KGN. Using an in vitro BMSCs system, we observed the content of lubricin from BMSCs treated with TGF-β1, BMP-7, and KGN was the highest at both the protein level and the gene level. The accumulation of lubricin was enhanced coordinately by the increase of synthesis and decrease of degradation possibly via c-Myc and adamts5 pathway. These results further suggested that supplementation of the defect parts with lubricin by using growth factors and small molecules showed a promising potential on preventing joint deterioration in patients with acquired or genetic deficiency of lubricin in the future of regenerative medicine. PMID:25857705

  4. Role of Per1 and the Mineralocorticoid Receptor in the Coordinate Regulation of αENaC in Renal Cortical Collecting Duct Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob eRichards

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal function and blood pressure exhibit a circadian pattern of variation, but the molecular mechanism underlying this circadian regulation is not fully understood. We have previously shown that the circadian clock protein Per1 positively regulates the basal and aldosterone-mediated expression of the alpha subunit of the renal epithelial sodium channel (αENaC. The mechanism of this regulation has not been determined however. To further elucidate the mechanism of Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR and Per1 action, site-directed mutagenesis, DNA pull-down assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation methods were used to investigate the coordinate regulation of αENaC by Per1 and MR. Mutation of two circadian response E-boxes in the human αENaC promoter abolished both basal and aldosterone-mediated promoter activity. DNA pull down assays demonstrated the interaction of both MR and Per1 with the E-boxes from the αENaC promoter. These observations were corroborated by chromatin immunopreciptation experiments showing increased occupancy of MR and Per1 on an E-box of the αENaC promoter in the presence of aldosterone. This is the first report of an aldosterone-mediated increase in Per1 on a target gene promoter. Taken together, these results demonstrate the novel finding that Per1 and MR mediate the aldosterone response of αENaC through DNA/protein interaction in renal collecting duct cells.

  5. Coordinate increase in major transcripts from the high pI alpha-amylase multigene family in barley aleurone cells stimulated with gibberellic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J C; Milliman, C

    1984-10-10

    The purpose of this study was to identify specifically genes and transcripts for the high pI isozyme of barley alpha-amylase. From hybridization of coding sequence probes to blots of genomic DNA digested with restriction enzymes that do not cut within our cloned high pI alpha-amylase cDNA, it is estimated that about 7 alpha-amylase genes or pseudogenes exist. No difference could be detected between barley aleurone cell and sprout DNAs. Experiments using probes from the 5' and 3' untranslated sequences of the high pI alpha-amylase cDNA clone identified three HindIII fragments that probably carry high pI sequences. Primer extension experiments used as a primer the terminal 5' coding sequence from our cDNA clone; this primer would not cross-hybridize to low pI alpha-amylase transcripts. Two major transcripts were identified. These shared a conserved 23-base sequence immediately 5' to the ATG start codon, although a C----G transversion and a 3-base deletion were present within this sequence. An unusual 8-base pair GC palindrome was present in the conserved region immediately preceding the ATG start codon. Distal to the conserved sequence there was no apparent homology. One transcript carrying a 97-base untranslated region was identical to our high pI cDNA clone E. The gene for the other was recovered from a lambda phage genomic library. The 5' coding sequence was very similar, but not identical to clone E, demonstrating that these transcripts arise from separate genes. The two transcripts increased coordinately in aleurone cells stimulated with gibberellic acid. These data indicate that there is a high pI alpha-amylase multigene family with at least two active members, both of which are regulated in some manner by the plant hormone gibberellic acid. PMID:6090459

  6. pVHL co-ordinately regulates CXCR4/CXCL12 and MMP2/MMP9 expression in human clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struckmann, K; Mertz, Kd; Steu, S; Storz, M; Staller, P; Krek, W; Schraml, P; Moch, H

    2008-01-01

    Loss of pVHL function, characteristic for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), causes increased expression of CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which triggers expression of metastasis-associated MMP2/MMP9 in different human cancers. The impact of pVHL on MMP2/MMP9 expression and their relationship to...... CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 in ccRCC is unclear. By using reverse transcription PCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, strong mRNA and protein expression of CXCR4, CXCL12, MMP2, MMP9 and MMP inhibitors TIMP1 and TIMP2 was found in VHL-null 786-O ccRCC cells. Loss of CXCR4/CXCL12 expression...... after restoration of VHL function in these cells was accompanied by a significant reduction of MMP2 and MMP9 expression, whereas neither TIMP1 nor TIMP2 expression was affected. Using real-time PCR analysis, higher MMP2 (p = 0.0134) and MMP9 (p = 0.067) mRNA expression levels were detected in primary cc...

  7. Optical communication receiver design

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    Copublished with IEE. This Tutorial Text provides an overview of design principles for receivers used in optical communication systems, intended for practicing engineers. The author reviews technologies used to construct optical links and illustrates the flow of system performance specifications into receiver requirements. Photodetector fundamentals, associated statistics, characteristics and performance issues are presented, together with a tutorial on noise analysis and the specific techniques needed to model optical receivers.

  8. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  9. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  10. A Coordination Theory

    OpenAIRE

    J. Foss, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    Important aspects of leadership behavior can be rendered intelligible through a focus on coordination games. The concept of common knowledge is shown to be particularly important to understanding leadership. Thus, leaders may establish common knowledge conditions and assist the coordination of strategies in this way, or make decisions in situations where coordination problems persist in spite of common knowledge.

  11. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012...... linguistic coordination and their effects at a fine-degree....

  12. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  13. Adventures in Coordinate Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. E.

    2003-08-01

    A variety of coordinate systems have been used to study the N-body problem for cases involving a dominant central mass. These include the traditional Keplerian orbital elements and the canonical Delaunay variables, which both incorporate conserved quantities of the two-body problem. Recently, Cartesian coordinate systems have returned to favour with the rise of mixed-variable symplectic integrators, since these coordinates prove to be more efficient than using orbital elements. Three sets of canonical Cartesian coordinates are well known, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Inertial coordinates (which include barycentric coordinates as a special case) are the simplest and easiest to implement. However, they suffer from the disadvantage that the motion of the central body must be calculated explicitly, leading to relatively large errors in general. Jacobi coordinates overcome this problem by replacing the coordinates and momenta of the central body with those of the system as a whole, so that momentum is conserved exactly. This leads to substantial improvements in accuracy, but has the disadvantage that every object is treated differently, and interactions between each pair of bodies are now expressed in a complicated manner involving the coordinates of many bodies. Canonical heliocentric coordinates (also known as democratic heliocentric coordinates) treat all bodies equally, and conserve the centre of mass motion, but at the cost of introducing momentum cross terms into the kinetic energy. This complicates the development of higher order symplectic integrators and symplectic correctors, as well as the development of methods used to resolve close encounters with the central body. Here I will re-examine the set of possible canonical Cartesian coordinate systems to determine if it is possible to (a) conserve the centre of mass motion, (b) treat all bodies equally, and (c) eliminate the momentum cross terms. I will demonstrate that this is indeed possible

  14. XPB and XPD helicases in TFIIH orchestrate DNA duplex opening and damage verification to coordinate repair with transcription and cell cycle via CAK kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Jill O; Tainer, John A

    2011-07-15

    coordinate repair with transcription and cell cycle through CAK signaling. PMID:21571596

  15. Ceramic Solar Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar receiver uses ceramic honeycomb matrix to absorb heat from Sun and transfer it to working fluid at temperatures of 1,095 degrees and 1,650 degrees C. Drives gas turbine engine or provides heat for industrial processes.

  16. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  17. Solar receiver with integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The current challenge for PV/Thermal (PV/T) systems is the reduction of radiation heat loss. Compared to solar thermal selective coating, the solar cells cannot be used as an efficient thermal absorber due to their large emissivity of the encapsulation material. Many commercial PV/T products therefore require a high concentration (more than 10x) to reach an acceptable thermal efficiency for their receivers. Such a concentration system inevitably has to track or semi-track, which induces additional cost and collects only the direct radiation from the sun. We propose a new PV/T design using a vacuum encapsulated thin film cell to solve this problem. The proposed design also collects the diffuse sun light efficiently by using an external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC). Since the transparent electrode (TCO) of thin film cell is inherently transparent in visible light and reflective beyond infrared, this design uses this layer instead of the conventional solar cell encapsulation as the outmost heat loss surface. By integrating such a vacuum design with a tube shaped absorber, we reduce the complexity of conducting the heat energy and electricity out of the device. A low concentration standalone non-tracking solar collector is proposed in this paper. We also analyzed the thermosyphon system configuration using heat transfer and ray tracing models. The economics of such a receiver are presented.

  18. Mapping brains without coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Kötter, Rolf; Wanke, Egon

    2005-01-01

    Brain mapping has evolved considerably over the last century. While most emphasis has been placed on coordinate-based spatial atlases, coordinate-independent parcellation-based mapping is an important technique for accessing the multitude of structural and functional data that have been reported from invasive experiments, and provides for flexible and efficient representations of information. Here, we provide an introduction to motivations, concepts, techniques and implications of coordinate-...

  19. Adaptive Coordinate Descent

    OpenAIRE

    Loshchilov, Ilya; Schoenauer, Marc; Sebag, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    Independence from the coordinate system is one source of efficiency and robustness for the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). The recently proposed Adaptive Encoding (AE) procedure generalizes CMA-ES adaptive mechanism, and can be used together with any optimization algorithm. Adaptive Encoding gradually builds a transformation of the coordinate system such that the new coordinates are as decorrelated as possible with respect to the objective function. But any optimizat...

  20. Temperature influences in receiver clock modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kan; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus; Schoenemann, Erik; Enderle, Werner

    2016-04-01

    In Precise Point Positioning (PPP), hardware delays at the receiver site (receiver, cables, antenna, …) are always difficult to be separated from the estimated receiver clock parameters. As a result, they are partially or fully contained in the estimated "apparent" clocks and will influence the deterministic and stochastic modelling of the receiver clock behaviour. In this contribution, using three years of data, the receiver clock corrections of a set of high-precision Hydrogen Masers (H-Masers) connected to stations of the ESA/ESOC network and the International GNSS Service (IGS) are firstly characterized concerning clock offsets, drifts, modified Allan deviations and stochastic parameters. In a second step, the apparent behaviour of the clocks is modelled with the help of a low-order polynomial and a known temperature coefficient (Weinbach, 2013). The correlations between the temperature and the hardware delays generated by different types of antennae are then analysed looking at daily, 3-day and weekly time intervals. The outcome of these analyses is crucial, if we intend to model the receiver clocks in the ground station network to improve the estimation of station-related parameters like coordinates, troposphere zenith delays and ambiguities. References: Weinbach, U. (2013) Feasibility and impact of receiver clock modeling in precise GPS data analysis. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.

  1. A phase I multicenter study of antroquinonol in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who have received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens, including one platinum-based chemotherapy regimen

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, YU-CHIN; Ho, Ching-Liang; KAO, WOEI-YAU; Chen, Yuh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Antroquinonol is isolated from Antrodia camphorata, a camphor tree mushroom, and is a valuable traditional Chinese herbal medicine that exhibits pharmacological activities against several diseases, including cancer. This first-in-human phase I study of antroquinonol included patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who had received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens. An open-label, dose escalation, pharmacokinetic (PK) study was conducted to determine the maximum tolera...

  2. Response of the sensorimotor cortex of cerebral palsy rats receiving transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor 165-transfected neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jielu Tan; Xiangrong Zheng; Shanshan Zhang; Yujia Yang; Xia Wang; Xiaohe Yu; Le Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells are characterized by the ability to differentiate and stably express exogenous ge-nes. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in protecting local blood vessels and neurons of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells may be neuroprotective in rats with cerebral palsy. In this study, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ifve groups: (1) sham operation (control), (2) cerebral palsy model alone or with (3) phosphate-buffered saline, (4) vascular en-dothelial growth factor 165 + neural stem cells, or (5) neural stem cells alone. hTe cerebral palsy model was established by ligating the letf common carotid artery followed by exposure to hypox-ia. Phosphate-buffered saline, vascular endothelial growth factor + neural stem cells, and neural stem cells alone were administered into the sensorimotor cortex using the stereotaxic instrument and microsyringe. Atfer transplantation, the radial-arm water maze test and holding test were performed. Immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor and histology using hematoxylin-eosin were performed on cerebral cortex. Results revealed that the number of vas-cular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in cerebral palsy rats transplanted with vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells was increased, the time for ifnding water and the ifnding repetitions were reduced, the holding time was prolonged, and the degree of cell degeneration or necrosis was reduced. hTese ifndings indicate that the transplantation of vascu-lar endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells alleviates brain damage and cognitive deifcits, and is neuroprotective in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemic-mediated cerebral palsy.

  3. The role of shared visual information for joint action coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Cordula; Schmitz, Laura; Safra, Lou; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has identified a number of coordination processes that enable people to perform joint actions. But what determines which coordination processes joint action partners rely on in a given situation? The present study tested whether varying the shared visual information available to co-actors can trigger a shift in coordination processes. Pairs of participants performed a movement task that required them to synchronously arrive at a target from separate starting locations. When participants in a pair received only auditory feedback about the time their partner reached the target they held their movement duration constant to facilitate coordination. When they received additional visual information about each other's movements they switched to a fundamentally different coordination process, exaggerating the curvature of their movements to communicate their arrival time. These findings indicate that the availability of shared perceptual information is a major factor in determining how individuals coordinate their actions to obtain joint outcomes. PMID:27183398

  4. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  5. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  6. Stochastic learning in co-ordination games : a simulation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zaninotto, Enrico; Rossi, Alessandro; Gaio, Loris

    1999-01-01

    In the presence of externalities, consumption behaviour depends on the solution of a co-ordination problem. In our paper we suggest a learning approach to the study of co-ordination in consumption contexts where agents adjust their choices on the basis of the reinforcement (payoff) they receive during the game. The results of simulations allowed us to distinguish the roles of different aspects of learning in enabling co-ordination within a population of agents. Our main results highlight: 1. ...

  7. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  8. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...

  9. 10 CFR 4.93 - Supervision and coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision and coordination. 4.93 Section 4.93 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... Instructions § 4.93 Supervision and coordination. The Commission may from time to time assign to officials...

  10. 41 CFR 101-6.215-3 - Supervision and coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supervision and coordination. 101-6.215-3 Section 101-6.215-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...-Nondiscrimination in Programs Receiving Federal Financial Assistance § 101-6.215-3 Supervision and coordination....

  11. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hajar-Alsadat Mansouri-Tehrani; Mohammad Rabbani-Khorasgani; Sayyed Mohsen Hosseini; Fariborz Mokarian; Hoda Mahdavi; Mahnaz Roayaei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and s...

  12. On Reaction Coordinate Optimality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivov, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    The following question is addressed: how to establish that a constructed reaction coordinate is optimal, i.e., that it provides an accurate description of dynamics. It is shown that the reaction coordinate is optimal if its cut free energy profile, determined using length-weighted transitions, is constant, i.e., it is position and sampling interval independent. The observation leads to a number of interesting results. In particular, the equilibrium flux between two boundary states can be computed exactly as diffusion on a free energy profile associated with the coordinate. The mean square displacement, for the trajectory projected onto the coordinate, grows linear with time. That for the same trajectory projected onto a suboptimal coordinate grows slower than linear with time. The results are illustrated on a number of model systems, Sierpinski gasket, FIP35 protein, and beta3s peptide. PMID:26589017

  13. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics of such...

  14. Olympus beacon receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Jens

    1988-01-01

    A medium-size Beacon Receiving System for reception and processing of the B1 (20 GHz) and B2 (30 GHz) beacons from Olympus has been developed. Integration of B1 and B2 receiving equipment into one system using one antenna and a common computer for control and data processing provides the advantages of a compact configuration and synchronization of the two receiver chains. Range for co-polar signal attenuation meaurement is about 30 dB for both beacons, increasing to 40 dB for B2 if the receivers are synchronized to B1. The accuracy is better than 0.5 dB. Cross-polarization discriminations of the order of 10 to 30 dB may be determined with an accuracy of 1 to 2 dB. A number of radiometers for complementary measurements of atmospheric attenuation of 13 to 30 GHz has also been constructed. A small multi-frequency system for operation around 22 GHz and 31 GHz is presently under development.

  15. Histone Deacetylases and NF-kB Signaling Coordinate Expression of CX3CL1 in Epithelial Cells in Response to Microbial Challenge by Suppressing miR-424 and miR-503

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Gong, Ai-Yu; Chen, Dongqing; Miller, Ryan E.; Eischeid, Alex N.; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The NF-kB pathway is key to epithelial immune defense and has been implicated in secretion of antimicrobial peptides, release of cytokines/chemokines to mobilize immune effector cells, and activation of adaptive immunity. The expression of many inflammatory genes following infection involves the remodeling of the chromatin structure. We reported here that histone deacetylases (HDACs) and NF-kB signaling coordinate expression of CX3CL1 in epithelial cells following Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Upregulation of CX3CL1 was detected in cultured human biliary epithelial cells following infection. Expression of miR-424 and miR-503 was downregulated, and was involved in the induction of CX3CL1 in infected cells. C. parvum infection suppressed transcription of the mir-424-503 gene in a NF-kB- and HDAC-dependent manner. Increased promoter recruitment of NF-kB p50 and HDACs, and decreased promoter H3 acetylation associated with the mir-424-503 gene were observed in infected cells. Upregulation of CX3CL1 in biliary epithelial cells and increased infiltration of CX3CR1+ cells were detected during C. parvum infection in vivo. Induction of CX3CL1 and downregulation of miR-424 and miR-503 were also detected in epithelial cells in response to LPS stimulation. The above results indicate that HDACs and NF-kB signaling coordinate epithelial expression of CX3CL1 to promote mucosal antimicrobial defense through suppression of the mir-424-503 gene. PMID:23724129

  16. Histone deacetylases and NF-kB signaling coordinate expression of CX3CL1 in epithelial cells in response to microbial challenge by suppressing miR-424 and miR-503.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhou

    Full Text Available The NF-kB pathway is key to epithelial immune defense and has been implicated in secretion of antimicrobial peptides, release of cytokines/chemokines to mobilize immune effector cells, and activation of adaptive immunity. The expression of many inflammatory genes following infection involves the remodeling of the chromatin structure. We reported here that histone deacetylases (HDACs and NF-kB signaling coordinate expression of CX3CL1 in epithelial cells following Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Upregulation of CX3CL1 was detected in cultured human biliary epithelial cells following infection. Expression of miR-424 and miR-503 was downregulated, and was involved in the induction of CX3CL1 in infected cells. C. parvum infection suppressed transcription of the mir-424-503 gene in a NF-kB- and HDAC-dependent manner. Increased promoter recruitment of NF-kB p50 and HDACs, and decreased promoter H3 acetylation associated with the mir-424-503 gene were observed in infected cells. Upregulation of CX3CL1 in biliary epithelial cells and increased infiltration of CX3CR1(+ cells were detected during C. parvum infection in vivo. Induction of CX3CL1 and downregulation of miR-424 and miR-503 were also detected in epithelial cells in response to LPS stimulation. The above results indicate that HDACs and NF-kB signaling coordinate epithelial expression of CX3CL1 to promote mucosal antimicrobial defense through suppression of the mir-424-503 gene.

  17. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose; Roos, Michael M. W.

    2012-01-01

    In a coordination game with Pareto-ranked equilibria, we study whether a sunspot can lead to either coordination on an inferior equilibrium (mis-coordination) or to out-of equilibrium behavior (dis-coordination). While much of the literature searches for mechanisms to attain coordination on the e......-dominant equilibrium, but in the sunspot treatment, dis-coordination is frequent. Sunspots lead to significant inefficiency, and we conclude that sunspots can indeed cause coordination failure....

  18. Evaluation of Circulating Tumor Cells and Related Events as Prognostic Factors and Surrogate Biomarkers in Advanced NSCLC Patients Receiving First-Line Systemic Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Vieito, Maria; Abalo, Alicia; Alonso Nocelo, Marta; Barón, Francisco; Anido, Urbano; Brozos, Elena; Vázquez, Francisca; Aguín, Santiago; Abal, Miguel; López López, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.lopez.lopez@sergas.es [Translational Medical Oncology, Health Research Institute of Santiago (IDIS), Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), Trav. Choupana s/n 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2014-01-21

    In the present study we investigated the prognostic value of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTC) and their utility for therapy monitoring in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 43 patients newly diagnosed with NSCLC were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples were obtained before the 1st, 2nd and 5th cycles of chemotherapy and analyzed using CellSearch technology. Both CTC and CTC-related objects (not morphological standard or broken epithelial cells) were counted. At baseline 18 (41.9%) patients were positive for intact CTC count and 10 (23.2%) of them had ≥5 CTC, while CK positive events were found in 79.1% of patients. The group of patients with CTC ≥5 at baseline presented worse PFS and OS than those with <5 CTC (p = 0.034 and p = 0.008, respectively). Additionally, high levels of total CK positive events were associated with poor prognosis in the group of patients with <5 CTC. Regarding therapy monitoring, patients presenting increased levels of CTC during the treatment demonstrated lower OS and PFS rates. All these data supported the value of CTC as a prognostic biomarker and as a surrogate indicator of chemotherapy effectiveness in advanced NSCLC patients, with the additional value of analyzing other “objects” such as apoptotic CTC or CK fragments to guide the clinical management of these patients.

  19. Evaluation of Circulating Tumor Cells and Related Events as Prognostic Factors and Surrogate Biomarkers in Advanced NSCLC Patients Receiving First-Line Systemic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Muinelo-Romay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the prognostic value of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTC and their utility for therapy monitoring in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. A total of 43 patients newly diagnosed with NSCLC were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples were obtained before the 1st, 2nd and 5th cycles of chemotherapy and analyzed using CellSearch technology. Both CTC and CTC-related objects (not morphological standard or broken epithelial cells were counted. At baseline 18 (41.9% patients were positive for intact CTC count and 10 (23.2% of them had ≥5 CTC, while CK positive events were found in 79.1% of patients. The group of patients with CTC ³5 at baseline presented worse PFS and OS than those with <5 CTC (p = 0.034 and p = 0.008, respectively. Additionally, high levels of total CK positive events were associated with poor prognosis in the group of patients with <5 CTC. Regarding therapy monitoring, patients presenting increased levels of CTC during the treatment demonstrated lower OS and PFS rates. All these data supported the value of CTC as a prognostic biomarker and as a surrogate indicator of chemotherapy effectiveness in advanced NSCLC patients, with the additional value of analyzing other “objects” such as apoptotic CTC or CK fragments to guide the clinical management of these patients.

  20. The changes of cardioelectrical activity of rat with myocardial infarction receiving sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase gene modified bone marrow stem cell transplantation by microelectrode array technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范平

    2012-01-01

    Objective Therapy effects and cardiac electrical activity comparison of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) gene modified BMSCs transplantation after acute myocardial infarction(AMI) in rats.Methods Rats with AMI were divided

  1. Receiving Pseudorandom PSK

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Thomas; Schindelhauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorandom PSK [1] enables parallel communication on the same carrier frequency and at the same time. We propose different signal processing methods to receive data modulated with pseudorandom PSK. This includes correlation with the carrier frequency which can be applied to signals in the kHz to MHz range and signal processing in the intermediate frequency where the correlation with the carrier frequency is performed analogous in the RF front end. We analyze the computation complexity for s...

  2. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Findings During Therapy Predict Outcome in Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With Chemotherapy Alone but Not in Those Who Receive Consolidation Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the value of mid-therapy positron emission tomography (PET) findings for predicting survival and disease progression in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, considering type of therapy (chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated 294 patients with histologically confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with respect to age, sex, disease stage, International Prognostic Index score, mid-therapy PET findings (positive or negative), and disease status after therapy and at last follow-up. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared according to mid-therapy PET findings. Results: Of the 294 patients, 163 (55%) were male, 144 (49%) were age >61 years, 110 (37%) had stage I or II disease, 219 (74%) had International Prognostic Index score ≤2, 216 (73%) received ≥6 cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, and 88 (30%) received consolidation radiation therapy. Five-year PFS and OS rates were associated with mid-therapy PET status: PFS was 78% for those with PET-negative (PET−) disease versus 63% for PET-positive (PET+) disease (P=.024), and OS was 82% for PET− versus 62% for PET+ (P<.002). These associations held true for patients who received chemotherapy only (PFS 71% for PET− vs 52% PET+ [P=.012], OS 78% for PET− and 51% for PET+ [P=.0055]) but not for those who received consolidation radiation therapy (PFS 84% PET− vs 81% PET+ [P=.88]; OS 90% PET− vs 81% PET+ [P=.39]). Conclusion: Mid-therapy PET can predict patient outcome, but the use of consolidation radiation therapy may negate the significance of mid-therapy findings

  3. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Findings During Therapy Predict Outcome in Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With Chemotherapy Alone but Not in Those Who Receive Consolidation Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hess, Kenneth [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Podoloff, Donald A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Medeiros, L. Jeffrey [Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mawlawi, Osama [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Oki, Yasuhiro; Hagemeister, Fredrick B.; Fayad, Luis E. [Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Reed, Valerie K.; Kedir, Aziza; Wogan, Christine F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rodriguez, Alma [Office of the Executive Vice President and Physician-in-Chief, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of mid-therapy positron emission tomography (PET) findings for predicting survival and disease progression in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, considering type of therapy (chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated 294 patients with histologically confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with respect to age, sex, disease stage, International Prognostic Index score, mid-therapy PET findings (positive or negative), and disease status after therapy and at last follow-up. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared according to mid-therapy PET findings. Results: Of the 294 patients, 163 (55%) were male, 144 (49%) were age >61 years, 110 (37%) had stage I or II disease, 219 (74%) had International Prognostic Index score ≤2, 216 (73%) received ≥6 cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, and 88 (30%) received consolidation radiation therapy. Five-year PFS and OS rates were associated with mid-therapy PET status: PFS was 78% for those with PET-negative (PET−) disease versus 63% for PET-positive (PET+) disease (P=.024), and OS was 82% for PET− versus 62% for PET+ (P<.002). These associations held true for patients who received chemotherapy only (PFS 71% for PET− vs 52% PET+ [P=.012], OS 78% for PET− and 51% for PET+ [P=.0055]) but not for those who received consolidation radiation therapy (PFS 84% PET− vs 81% PET+ [P=.88]; OS 90% PET− vs 81% PET+ [P=.39]). Conclusion: Mid-therapy PET can predict patient outcome, but the use of consolidation radiation therapy may negate the significance of mid-therapy findings.

  4. Treadmill exercise improves motor coordination through ameliorating Purkinje cell loss in amyloid beta23-35-induced Alzheimer’s disease rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Min; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. AD is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons causing cognitive dysfunction. The cerebellum is closely associated with integration of movement, including motor coordination, control, and equilibrium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of tread-mill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons in relation with reactive astrocyte in the cerebellum using Aβ25–35–induced AD rats. AD was induced by a...

  5. Supercritical Airfoil Coordinates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rectangular Supercritical Wing (Ricketts) - design and measured locations are provided in an Excel file RSW_airfoil_coordinates_ricketts.xls . One sheet is with Non...

  6. Movement and Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Movement and Coordination Page Content Article Body At this age, your child will seem to be continually on the go— ...

  7. Impact of cytomegalovirus reactivation on relapse and survival in patients with acute leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jae-Ho; Lee, Seok; Kim, Hee-Je; Jeon, Young-Woo; Lee, Sung-Eun; Cho, Byung-Sik; Lee, Dong-Gun; Eom, Ki-Seong; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Min, Chang-Ki; Cho, Seok-Goo; Min, Woo-Sung; Lee, Jong Wook

    2016-03-29

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-reactivation is associated with graft-vs-leukemia (GVL) effect by stimulating natural-killer or T-cells, which showed leukemia relapse prevention after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We enrolled patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n = 197) and acute lymphoid leukemia (n = 192) who underwent allogeneic-HSCT in first remission. We measured RQ-PCR weekly to detect CMV-reactivation and preemptively used ganciclovir (GCV) when the titer increased twice consecutively, but GCV was sometimes delayed in patients without significant graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) by reducing immunosuppressive agents. In the entire group, CMV-reactivation showed poor overall survival (OS). To evaluate subsequent effects of CMV-reactivation, we excluded early relapse and deaths within 100 days, during which most of the CMV-reactivation occurred. Untreated CMV-reactivated group (n = 173) showed superior OS (83.8% vs. 61.7% vs. 74.0%, p acute leukemia. PMID:26883100

  8. Quality of life, clinical effectiveness, and satisfaction in patients with beta thalassemia major and sickle cell anemia receiving deferasirox chelation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Senol, Sefika Pinar; Tiftik, Eyup Naci; Unal, Selma; Akdeniz, Aydan; Tasdelen, Bahar; Tunctan, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There is a need to remove excess iron with iron chelation therapy (ICT) to avoid the serious clinical sequelae associated with iron overload in patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) and sickle cell anemia (SCA). Due to the effects of the diseases and their treatments, ICT is still a major reason for unsatisfactory compliance. The aim of this single-center observational study was to evaluate the quality of life, clinical effectiveness, and satisfaction in pediatric and adult p...

  9. Changes in the expression of FGFR3 in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia receiving transplants of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, D.; Krejčí, P.; Mayer, J.; Fajkus, Jiří; Hampl, Aleš; Dvořák, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 3 (2001), s. 832-835. ISSN 0007-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA312/97/0393; GA MŠk ME 198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 * chronic myeloid leukaemia * stem cell transplantation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2001

  10. Prevention of radiation esophagitis by polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received chemoradiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Yanase, Komei; Funaguchi, Norihiko; Iihara, Hirotoshi; Yamada, Maya; Kaito, Daizo; Endo, Junki; Ito, Fumitaka; Ohno, Yasushi; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Itoh, Yoshinori; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) plays an important role in multimodality therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. However, esophagitis often develops as a complication of CCRT, causing treatment delays and reducing the patient’s quality of life. We examined the efficacy of polaprezinc (PZ), zinc L-carnosine used for the therapy of gastric ulcer, against the onset of esophagitis caused by CCRT for lung cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients who concurrently underwent chemotherap...

  11. Reduction in incidence of invasive fungal infection in patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation using combined diagnostic-driven approach and itraconazole oral solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzadok, Roie; Shapira, Michael Y; Moses, Allon E; Or, Reuven; Block, Colin; Strahilevitz, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We evaluated, in our allogeneic stem cell transplant patients, the effect on the incidence of invasive fungal infection during neutropenia of a strategy combining a diagnostic-driven approach with chemoprophylaxis during higher risk periods of graft vs. host disease and prolonged neutropenia, using itraconazole oral solution with parenteral voriconazole bridging. One hundred and thirty patients admitted for allogeneic stem cell transplantation within two predefined 20 month periods were included in the study. Data for all patients were collected prospectively. Implementation of the protocol resulted in the administration of more prophylactic antifungals to more patients. Following implementation, there was a non-significant decrease in the overall number of invasive fungal infections (IFI) [11 of 65 patients (17.2%) vs. 4 of 65 patients (6.2%, P = 0.051)], as well as in the occurrence of invasive mould infections [8 of 65 patients (12.5%) vs. 2 of 65 patients (3.1%, P = 0.054)]. Survival rates at three and 6 months were not significantly affected. A combined diagnostic-driven approach and antifungal prophylaxis with oral itraconazole and an intravenous voriconazole bridging protocol, was associated with a reduced, albeit non-statistically significant, number of IFI in our medical centre. PMID:26429354

  12. Coordination and Policy Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Angeletos, George-Marios; Hellwig, Christian; Pavan, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of a policy maker to control equilibrium outcomes in an environment where market participants play a coordination game with information heterogeneity. We consider defense policies against speculative currency attacks in a model where speculators observe the fundamentals with idiosyncratic noise. The policy maker is willing to take a costly policy action only for moderate fundamentals. Market participants can use this information to coordinate on di.erent respon...

  13. Attribute coordination in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Chenggang Xu

    2001-01-01

    We study coordination in organizations with a variety of organizational forms. Coordination in organization is modeled as the adjustment of attributes and capacities of tasks when facing external shocks. An M-form (U-form) organization groups complementary (substitutable) tasks together in one unit. In the presence of only attribute shocks, particularly when gains from specialization are small, communication is poor, or shocks are more likely, the expected payoff of the decentralized M-form i...

  14. Magnetic Coordinate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundal, K. M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the full IGRF into account and define magnetic latitude and longitude such that they are constant along field lines. These coordinate systems, which are useful at ionospheric altitudes, are non-orthogonal. We show how to handle vectors and vector calculus in such coordinates, and discuss how systematic errors may appear if this is not done correctly.

  15. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  16. Adaptive antennas and receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, Melvin M

    2005-01-01

    In our modern age of remote sensing, wireless communication, and the nearly endless list of other antenna-based applications, complex problems require increasingly sophisticated solutions. Conventional antenna systems are no longer suited to high-noise or low-signal applications such as intrusion detection. Detailing highly effective approaches to non-Gaussian weak signal detection, Adaptive Antennas and Receivers provides an authoritative introduction to state-of-the-art research on the modeling, testing, and application of these technologies.Edited by innovative researcher and eminent expert

  17. MIG (CXCL9) is a more sensitive measure than IFN-gamma of vaccine induced T-cell responses in volunteers receiving investigated malaria vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Berthoud, TK; Dunachie, SJ; Todryk, S; Hill, AV; Fletcher, HA

    2009-01-01

    For many years the IFN-gamma ex vivo ELISPOT has been a major assay for assessing human T-cell responses generated by malaria vaccines. The ELISPOT assay is a sensitive assay, but an imperfect correlate of protection against malaria. Monokine induced by gamma (MIG), or CXCL9, is a chemokine induced by IFN-gamma and has the potential to provide amplification of the IFN-gamma signal. MIG secretion could provide a measure of bio-active IFN-gamma and a functional IFN-gamma signalling pathway. We ...

  18. Breastfeeding and the anthropometric profile of children with sickle cell anemia receiving follow-up in a newborn screening reference service

    OpenAIRE

    Zeni Drubi Nogueira; Ney Boa-Sorte; Maria Efigênia de Queiroz Leite; Márcia Miyuki Kiya; Tatiana Amorim; Silvana Fahel da Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the breastfeeding history (BF) and the anthropometric status of children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 357 children with SCD aged between 2 and 6 years, regularly followed at a Newborn Screening Reference Service (NSRS) between November 2007 and January 2009. The outcome was anthropometric status and the exposures were: BF pattern, type of hemoglobinopathy and child's age and gender. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 3.7 (1.1) years, 52.9...

  19. Incidence and risk factors of post-engraftment invasive fungal disease in adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving oral azoles prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, P; Rodríguez-Veiga, R; Boluda, B; Martínez-Cuadrón, D; Cano, I; Lancharro, A; Sanz, J; Arilla, M J; López-Chuliá, F; Navarro, I; Lorenzo, I; Salavert, M; Pemán, J; Calvillo, P; Martínez, J; Carpio, N; Jarque, I; Sanz, G F; Sanz, M A

    2015-11-01

    Studies that analyze the epidemiology and risk factors for invasive fungal disease (IFD) after engraftment in alloSCT are few in number. This single-center retrospective study included 404 alloSCT adult recipients surviving >40 days who engrafted and were discharged without prior IFD. All patients who received ⩾20 mg/day of prednisone were assigned to primary oral prophylaxis (itraconazole or low-dose voriconazole). The primary end point was the cumulative incidence (CI) of probable/proven IFD using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria. The independent prognostic factors after multivariate analyses were used to construct a post-engraftment IFD risk score. The 1-year CI of IFD was 11%. The non-relapse mortality was 40% in those developing IFD and 16% in those who did not. The intent-to-treat analysis showed that 17% of patients abandoned the assigned prophylaxis. Age >40 years, ⩾1 previous SCT, pre-engraftment neutropenia >15 days, extensive chronic GVHD and CMV reactivation were independent risk factors. The post-engraftment IFD score stratified patients into low risk (0-1 factor, CI 0.7%), intermediate risk (2 factors, CI 9.9%) and high risk (3-5 factors, CI 24.7%) (P<0.0001). The antifungal prophylaxis strategy failed to prevent post-engraftment IFD in 11% of alloSCT. Our risk score could be useful to implement risk-adapted strategies using antifungal prophylaxis after engraftment. PMID:26281032

  20. Radiosensitization of hematopoietic precursor cells (CFU/sub c/) in glioblastoma patients receiving intermittent intravenous infusions of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential use of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) as a radiosensitizer given by an intermittent intravenous route is being studied in a Phase I/II trial at the Naitonal Cancer Institute. In order to assess the extent of radiosensitization, we have studied the radiation response of human bone marrow cells CFUc taken form 6 patients prior to and after a 14-day infusion of BUdR. Varying concentrations (1000-1500 mg) of BUdR were infused for 12 hours 12 hours every 24 hours for up to 14 consecutive days. Cells survival was determined by colony formation of CFUc in soft agar suspensions. X ray survival curves were generated over a dose range of 0-300 rad and the slopes of the survival curves (D0) before and after BUdR infusion were compared. Radiation enhancement ratios (ER)(D0 per-BUdR/D0 post-BUdR) ranged form 1.0-2.2 and appeared to be BUdR dose dependent. Above 650 mg/m2/12 hours is well tolerated and may result in radiosensitizaiton of CFUc in man

  1. The predictive value of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen in patients with cervical cancer who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery: a single-institute study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT could affect the levels of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag. This study evaluates the predictive value of pre- and posttreatment SCC-Ag levels in patients with cervical cancer who were treated with NACT followed by radical surgery.A total of 286 patients with Stage IB1-IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix who were treated with NACT followed by radical hysterectomy were analyzed retrospectively. The relationship between SCC-Ag levels, the clinicopathologic parameters, the response to NACT and the three-year survival rate was investigated.The levels of SCC-Ag were elevated (>3.5 ng/mL in 43.8% of patients before NACT, and 13.0% of patients after NACT. Pre- and posttreatment levels of SCC-Ag correlated with the response to NACT (P = 0.010, and P3.5 ng/mL (P3.5 ng/mL indicated a poor response to NACT and a higher risk of lymph node metastases. Elevated posttreatment levels of SCC-Ag were correlated with poor DFS and OS.

  2. Cryotherapy in the prevention of oral mucositis in patients receiving low-dose methotrexate following myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a prospective randomized study of the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo nurses group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, E; Arpinati, M; Bonifazi, F; Errico, A; Mega, A; Alberani, F; Sabbi, V; Costazza, G; Leanza, S; Borrelli, C; Berni, M; Feraut, C; Polato, E; Altieri, M C; Pirola, E; Loddo, M C; Banfi, M; Barzetti, L; Calza, S; Brignoli, C; Bandini, G; De Vivo, A; Bosi, A; Baccarani, M

    2007-03-01

    Severe oral mucositis is a major cause of morbidity following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Cryotherapy, that is, the application of ice chips on the mucosa of the oral cavity during the administration of antineoplastic agents, may reduce the incidence and severity of chemotherapy-related oral mucositis. In this multicenter randomized study, we addressed whether cryotherapy during MTX administration is effective in the prevention of severe oral mucositis in patients undergoing myeloablative AHSCT. One hundred and thirty patients undergoing myeloablative AHSCT and MTX-containing GVHD prophylaxis were enrolled and randomized to receive or not receive cryotherapy during MTX administration. The incidence of severe (grade 3-4) oral mucositis, the primary end point of the study, was comparable in patients receiving or not cryotherapy. Moreover, no difference was observed in the incidence of oral mucositis grade 2-4 and the duration of oral mucositis grade 3-4 or 2-4, or in the kinetics of mucositis over time. In univariate and multivariate analysis, severe oral mucositis correlated with TBI in the conditioning regimen and lack of folinic acid rescue following MTX administration. Thus, cryotherapy during MTX administration does not reduce severe oral mucositis in patients undergoing myeloablative allogeneic HSCT. Future studies will assess cryotherapy before allogeneic HSCT. PMID:17277790

  3. Hepatitis B virus reactivation and hepatitis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with resolved hepatitis B receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy:risk factors and survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Lin Chen; De-Hui Zou; Li-Yang Hu; Michael Lucas Wirian; Qing-Qing Cai; Jie Chen; Hui-Lan Rao; Ying Guo; Hui-Qiang Huang; Liang Zhang; Jian-Yong Shao; Tong-Yu Lin; Wen-Qi Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been reported in B-cel lymphoma patients with resolved hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-negative and hepatitis B core antibody [HBcAb]-positive). This study aimed to assess HBV reactivation and hepatitis occurrence in diffuse large B-cel lymphoma (DLBCL) patients with resolved hepatitis B receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy compared with HBsAg-negative/HBcAb-negative patients to identify risk factors for HBV reactivation and hepatitis occurrence and to analyze whether HBV reactivation and hepatitis affect the survival of DLBCL patients with resolved hepatitis B. Methods:We reviewed the clinical data of 278 patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab-containing therapy between January 2004 and May 2008 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, China. Predictive factors for HBV reactivation, hepatitis development, and survival were examined by univariate analysis using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test and by multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model. Results:Among the 278 patients, 165 were HBsAg-negative. Among these 165 patients, 6 (10.9%) of 55 HBcAb-positive (resolved HBV infection) patients experienced HBV reactivation compared with none (0%) of 110 HBcAb-negative patients (P=0.001). Patients with resolved hepatitis B had a higher hepatitis occurrence rate than HBsAg-negative/HBcAb-negative patients (21.8%vs. 8.2%, P=0.013). HBcAb positivity and elevated baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were independent risk factors for hepatitis. Among the 55 patients with resolved hepatitis B, patients with elevated baseline serum ALT or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were more likely to develop hepatitis than those with normal serum ALT or AST levels (P=0.037, P=0.005, respectively). An elevated baseline AST level was an independent risk factor for hepatitis in these patients. Six patients with HBV reactivation recovered after immediate antiviral therapy, and

  4. Single-institution long-term outcomes for patients receiving nonmyeloablative conditioning hematopoeitic cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and follicular lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bo K; Petersen, Søren; Kornblit, Brian; Andersen, Per Kragh; Braendstrup, Peter; Andersen, Niels S; Sengeløv, Henrik; Vindeløv, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Non-myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation (NMC-HCT) has improved the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). In a cohort of 85 patients (45 with CLL and 40 with FL), we observed 5-yr overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival...... (PFS) of 53% and 38% in the CLL group and 81% and 76% in the FL group. In the both the CLL group and the FL group, a strong trend toward better OS and PFS was observed among patients in complete remission (CR) at HCT. Within the FL group, sixteen patients had at one or more time points in their disease...... history had transformed FL. In contrast to the poor survival found in patients with transformed FL in previous studies, the 5-yr OS was almost identical in patients with transformed and non-transformed FL, 83% and 78%, respectively. In conclusion, our study supports that NMC-HCT is a safe and efficacious...

  5. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  6. Generator Coordinate Truncations

    CERN Document Server

    Hagino, K; Reinhard, P G

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of several schemes to calculate ground-state correlation energies using the generator coordinate technique. Our test-bed for the study is the $sd$ interacting boson model, equivalent to a 6-level Lipkin-type model. We find that the simplified projection of a triaxial generator coordinate state using the $S_3$ subgroup of the rotation group is not very accurate in the parameter space of the Hamiltonian of interest. On the other hand, a full rotational projection of an axial generator coordinate state gives remarkable accuracy. We also discuss the validity of the simplified treatment using the extended Gaussian overlap approximation (top-GOA), and show that it works reasonably well when the number of boson is four or larger.

  7. Prognostic value of pretransplant serum C-reactive protein in patients receiving reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Wataru; Fujii, Eriko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eri; Aoki, Jun; Tanaka, Masatsugu; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kanamori, Heiwa

    2016-04-01

    The impact of pre-transplant serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level on the outcome of reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (RIC allo-SCT) is unclear. This study retrospectively investigated 78 patients who underwent RIC allo-SCT between 2005 and 2013. The conditioning regimen consisted of fludarabine and melphalan with/without total body irradiation. The 3-year overall survival of high CRP (43.6 % of all patients) patients was significantly worse than that of normal CRP patients in whom CRP was ≤0.3 mg/dl (26.7 vs. 74.1 %, P level before transplantation and disease risk status were independent prognostic factors for overall survival by multivariate analysis. CRP was not a significant predictor of NRM by multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 3.2, 95 % confidence interval 0.8-13.1, P = 0.100). These results suggest that measuring the CRP level before transplantation can be useful to predicting the outcome of RIC allo-SCT. PMID:26791379

  8. Breastfeeding and the anthropometric profile of children with sickle cell anemia receiving follow-up in a newborn screening reference service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Drubi Nogueira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the breastfeeding history (BF and the anthropometric status of children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 357 children with SCD aged between 2 and 6 years, regularly followed at a Newborn Screening Reference Service (NSRS between November 2007 and January 2009. The outcome was anthropometric status and the exposures were: BF pattern, type of hemoglobinopathy and child's age and gender. RESULTS: The mean (SD age was 3.7 (1.1 years, 52.9% were boys and 53.5% had SCA (hemoglobin SS. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBR up to six months of age was 31.5%, the median EBR times (p25-p75 was 90.0 (24.0-180.0 days and the median weaning ages (p25-p75 was 360.0 (90.0-720.0 days respectively. Normal W/H children experienced EBR for a mean duration almost four times longer than malnourished children (p=0.01, and were weaned later (p<0.05. Height deficit was found in 5.0% of children, while all the children with severe short stature had had SCA (hemoglobin SS and were older than 4 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: EBF time and weaning age were greater than that found in the literature, which is a possible effect of the multidisciplinary follow-up. Duration of EBF and later weaning were associated with improved anthropometric indicators.

  9. Effect of ionizing radiations of lymphocyte membranes. Part of a coordinated programme on cell membrane probes as biological indicators in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effects of low doses of irradiation on membrane receptors of lymphoid cells indicated that doses as low as 10 rads induced detectable changes in the antigen receptors of cell surfaces. Lymphoid cells from mice or rabbit lymph nodes, or circulating lymphocytes from human volunteers were irradiated and studied for their ability to bind antisera against the IgG membrane receptors. The isolated lymphoid cells were x-irradiated, and tested versus non-irradiated controls. They were incubated at 370C for different times, and IgG-positive cells stained by the direct or indirect immunofluorescence technique. The percentage of IgG-positive cells was reduced by low-dose irradiation, and proved dose -and temperature-dependent. The disappearance phenomenon depends on the microtubular structure, metabolic energy, and levels of C-AMP. Only the reappearance phase is temperature-dependent and not affected by the drugs tested. The phenomenon is dose-rate dependent, showing greater sensitivity at lower dose/rates. Experiments using anti-Fc and anti-Fab portions of the surface molecule, appear to confirm a partial internatlization of the surface molecule as cause (at least in rabbit cells). Similar experiments with human cells did not show a differential effect. Human T-cells and FC receptors of Mast cells did, however, indicate that these surface molecules are also modified by irradiation

  10. Coordination and citizen participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, D J

    1980-03-01

    This study investigates the validity of the assumption that coordination and citizen participation are related inversely and, thus, are incompatible as features in the same social service reform strategy. Seventeen social service organizations situated in the same urban area were studied. Data were obtained by structured interview. The concepts of coordination and citizen participation were operationalized by means of scales. The findings support the validity of the assumption noted above. Although interpretations of the findings can be provided, they are post-factum. This implies a need for explanatory research which might be guided by theories of community power structure and of organizational behavior. PMID:10246483

  11. Introduction to Coordination Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, Geoffrey Alan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to Coordination Chemistry examines and explains how metals and molecules that bind as ligands interact, and the consequences of this assembly process. This book describes the chemical and physical properties and behavior of the complex assemblies that form, and applications that may arise as a result of these properties. Coordination complexes are an important but often hidden part of our world?even part of us?and what they do is probed in this book. This book distills the essence of this topic for undergraduate students and for research scientists.

  12. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  13. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  14. Recursive Advice for Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terepeta, Michal Tomasz; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    Aspect-oriented programming is a programming paradigm that is often praised for the ability to create modular software and separate cross-cutting concerns. Recently aspects have been also considered in the context of coordination languages, offering similar advantages. However, introducing aspect...... systems. Even though primarily used for analysis of recursive programs, we are able to adapt them to fit this new context....

  15. Coordination of mobile labor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 1 (2008), s. 25-46. ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * general equilibrium * global game s Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2008

  16. Facets of coordination chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwala, BV

    1993-01-01

    A concise account of coordination chemistry since its inception is given here together with some of the newer significant facets. This book covers a broad spectrum of various topics on Environment, Cyclic Voltammetry, Chromatography, Metal Complexes of biological interest, Alkoxides, NMR spectroscopy and others. These are useful to the scientific community engaged in the field of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry.

  17. Coordinating Work with Groupware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    One important goal of employing groupware is to make possible complex collaboration between geographically distributed groups. This requires a dual transformation of both technology and work practice. The challenge is to re­duce the complexity of the coordination work by successfully inte­grating...

  18. Continuity of care in addictions treatment: the role of advocacy and coordination in case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, K; Timney, C B; Bois, C; Wedgerfield, K

    1995-11-01

    Although advocacy and coordination are recognized as important aspects of the addictions treatment process, little research has been done in these areas. The present study examined advocacy and coordination at two programs where the mandate was assessment, referral, and case management. Both programs spent a similar proportion of client-related effort on advocacy and/or coordination (about 25% of contact time, accounting for about half of contacts made regarding clients). The majority of advocacy and coordination contacts were with other agencies about clients (the remainder with family and friends of clients). A framework for advocacy and coordination was developed that allowed contacts to be categorized into mutually exclusive advocacy or coordination activities. Advocacy was defined as any activity undertaken to obtain something for clients; coordination involved the giving or receiving of information regarding specific clients. Sources of variability in the provision of advocacy and coordination were found between the programs that could be attributed to differences between the systems within which the programs operated, as well as differences in program clientele. In terms of client characteristics, it was found that females were more likely than males to receive advocacy; those over 65 years were most likely to receive both advocacy and coordination; those who were referred by school or employer or by corrections were most likely to receive coordination; those with no prior treatment were most likely to receive advocacy; and self-referrals and those who had had prior treatment were most likely to receive neither advocacy nor coordination. Receiving advocacy or coordination was not found to reduce the need by clients for other case management services, such as supportive counseling. The findings are discussed in terms of the need for knowledge regarding highly variable aspects of treatment such as advocacy and coordination. New research approaches (as taken in

  19. Pre-Transplant Donor-Specific T-Cell Alloreactivity Is Strongly Associated with Early Acute Cellular Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients Not Receiving T-Cell Depleting Induction Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, Elena; Lucia, Marc; Cruzado, Josep M.; Luque, Sergio; Melilli, Edoardo; Manonelles, Anna; Lloberas, Nuria; Torras, Joan; Grinyó, Josep M.; Bestard, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    Preformed T-cell immune-sensitization should most likely impact allograft outcome during the initial period after kidney transplantation, since donor-specific memory T-cells may rapidly recognize alloantigens and activate the effector immune response, which leads to allograft rejection. However, the precise time-frame in which acute rejection is fundamentally triggered by preformed donor-specific memory T cells rather than by de novo activated naïve T cells is still to be established. Here, p...

  20. Breast Cancer Cells in Three-dimensional Culture Display an Enhanced Radioresponse after Coordinate Targeting of Integrin ?5?1 and Fibronectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jin-Min; Onodera, Yasuhito; Bissell, Mina J; Park, Catherine C

    2010-04-07

    Tactics to selectively enhance cancer radioresponse are of great interest. Cancer cells actively elaborate and remodel their extracellular matrix (ECM) to aid in survival and progression. Previous work has shown that {beta}1-integrin inhibitory antibodies can enhance the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic responses of human breast cancer cell lines to ionizing radiation, either when cells are cultured in three-dimensional laminin-rich ECM (3D lrECM) or grown as xenografts in mice. Here, we show that a specific {alpha} heterodimer of {beta}1-integrin preferentially mediates a prosurvival signal in human breast cancer cells that can be specifically targeted for therapy. 3D lrECM culture conditions were used to compare {alpha}-integrin heterodimer expression in malignant and nonmalignant cell lines. Under these conditions, we found that expression of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin was upregulated in malignant cells compared with nonmalignant breast cells. Similarly, we found that normal and oncofetal splice variants of fibronectin, the primary ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin, were also strikingly upregulated in malignant cell lines compared with nonmalignant acini. Cell treatment with a peptide that disrupts the interactions of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin with fibronectin promoted apoptosis in malignant cells and further heightened the apoptotic effects of radiation. In support of these results, an analysis of gene expression array data from breast cancer patients revealed an association of high levels of {alpha}5-integrin expression with decreased survival. Our findings offer preclinical validation of fibronectin and {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin as targets for breast cancer therapy.

  1. Radiation sensitizations at DNA-level by chemical and biological agents. Coordinated programme on improvement of radiotherapy of cancer using modifiers of radiosensitivity of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sensitization by chemical agents at DNA level is discussed. Procaine, Halothan and Metronidazole showed no significant effect on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mouse spleen cells, investigated by autoradiography and no effect on rejoining of DNA single strand breaks after gamma or UV irradiation. Oxyphenbutazon and prednisolone reduced the replicative DNA synthesis in vitro and in vivo but there was only little effect on DNA repair in the in vivo experiments. These two substances showed also a small reduction in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis (PAR synthesis). 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in combination with UV irradiation showed that 5-MOP was more toxic than mutagen, but induced much less DNA crosslinks than 8-MOP. Autoradiographic studies of radiation sensitization by biological agents showed significant inhibition of UDS in Yoshida tumor cells after acute mycoplasma infection in rats. Nucleoid sedimentation studies showed only in the case of Yoshida tumor cells after mycoplasma infection a dramatic effect in the sedimentation behaviour. Sensitization of cells by changing chromatin structure was also studied. Benzamide, 3-NH2-benzamide, 3-Methoxybenzamide, Spermine, Theophyllin and Caffeine were tested in different concentrations on replicative DNA synthesis, UDS after UV irradiation and PAR synthesis Chinese hamster ovary cells. 5-Methoxybenzamide was the strongest sensitizer and inhibitor of the PAR synthesis, and was used in further experiments. Results of KFA Juelich on sensitization of a mamma-adenocarcinoma EO 771 on C57 B1 mice are given. Replicative DNA synthesis, DNA repair and PAR synthesis were compared in spleen cells and adenocarcinoma cells after treatment with 5-Methoxybenzamide. An inhibitory effect on UDS could be shown only in adenocarcinoma cells but not in the mice spleen cells

  2. Wnt4 coordinates directional cell migration and extension of the Müllerian duct essential for ontogenesis of the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Renata; Skovorodkin, Ilya; Xu, Qi; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Shan, Jingdong; Vainio, Seppo J

    2016-03-15

    The Müllerian duct (MD) is the anlage of the oviduct, uterus and upper part of the vagina, the main parts of the female reproductive tract. Several wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) integration site family member (Wnt) genes, including Wnt4, Wnt5a and Wnt7a, are involved in the development of MD and its derivatives, with Wnt4 particularly critical, since the MD fails to develop in its absence. We use, here, Wnt4(EGFPCre)-based fate mapping to demonstrate that the MD tip cells and the subsequent MD cells are derived from Wnt4+ lineage cells. Moreover, Wnt4 is required for the initiation of MD-forming cell migration. Application of anti-Wnt4 function-blocking antibodies after the initiation of MD elongation indicated that Wnt4 is necessary for the elongation as well, and consistent with this, cell culture wound-healing assays with NIH3T3 cells overexpressing Wnt4 promoted cell migration by comparison with controls. In contrast to the Wnt4 null embryos, some Wnt4(monomeric cherry/monomeric cherry) (Wnt4(mCh/mCh)) hypomorphic mice survived to adulthood and formed MD in ∼45% of cases. Nevertheless, the MD of the Wnt4(mCh/mCh) females had altered cell polarization and basement membrane deposition relative to the controls. Examination of the reproductive tract of the Wnt4(mCh/mCh) females indicated a poorly coiled oviduct, absence of the endometrial glands and an undifferentiated myometrium, and these mice were prone to develop a hydro-uterus. In conclusion, the results suggest that the Wnt4 gene encodes signals that are important for various aspects of female reproductive tract development. PMID:26721931

  3. Chemically crosslinked nanogels of PEGylated poly ethyleneimine (l-histidine substituted) synthesized via metal ion coordinated self-assembly for delivery of methotrexate: Cytocompatibility, cellular delivery and antitumor activity in resistant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmaali, Samira Sadat; Tamaddon, Ali Mohammad; Mohammadi, Samaneh; Amoozgar, Zohreh; Dinarvand, Rasoul

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembled nanogels were engineered by forming Zn(2+)-coordinated micellar templates of PEGylated poly ethyleneimine (PEG-g-PEI), chemical crosslinking and subsequent removal of the metal ion. Creation of stable micellar templates is a crucial step for preparing the nanogels. To this aim, imidazole moieties were introduced to the polymer by Fmoc-l-histidine using carbodiimide chemistry. It was hypothesized the nanogels loaded with methotrexate (MTX), a chemotherapeutic agent, circumvent impaired carrier activity in HepG2 cells (MTX-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma). So, the nanogels were post-loaded with MTX and characterized by (1)H-NMR, FTIR, dynamic light scattering-zeta potential, atomic force microscopy, and drug release experiments. Cellular uptake and the antitumor activity of MTX-loaded nanogels were investigated by flow cytometry and MTT assay. Discrete, spherical and uniform nanogels, with sizes about 77-83nm and a relatively high drug loading (54±4% w/w), showed a low polydispersity and neutral surface charges. The MTX-loaded nanogels, unlike empty nanogels, lowered viability of HepG2 cells; the nanogels demonstrated cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis comparably higher than MTX as free drug that was shown to be through i) cellular uptake of the nanogels by clathrin-mediated transport and ii) endosomolytic activity of the nanogels in HepG2 cells. These findings indicate the potential antitumor application of this preparation, which has to be investigated in-vivo. PMID:26952497

  4. Increased mitochondrial fission promotes autophagy and hepatocellular carcinoma cell survival through the ROS-modulated coordinated regulation of the NFKB and TP53 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qichao; Zhan, Lei; Cao, Haiyan; Li, Jibin; Lyu, Yinghua; Guo, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Ji, Lele; Ren, Tingting; An, Jiaze; Liu, Bingrong; Nie, Yongzhan; Xing, Jinliang

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is dynamically remodeled by fusion and fission in cells, and dysregulation of this process is closely implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism by which mitochondrial dynamics influence cancer cell survival is considerably less clear, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we systematically investigated the alteration of mitochondrial dynamics and its functional role in the regulation of autophagy and HCC cell survival. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutic application were explored in depth. Mitochondrial fission was frequently upregulated in HCC tissues mainly due to an elevated expression ratio of DNM1L to MFN1, which significantly contributed to poor prognosis of HCC patients. Increased mitochondrial fission by forced expression of DNM1L or knockdown of MFN1 promoted the survival of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo mainly by facilitating autophagy and inhibiting mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. We further demonstrated that the survival-promoting role of increased mitochondrial fission was mediated via elevated ROS production and subsequent activation of AKT, which facilitated MDM2-mediated TP53 degradation, and NFKBIA- and IKK-mediated transcriptional activity of NFKB in HCC cells. Also, a crosstalk between TP53 and NFKB pathways was involved in the regulation of mitochondrial fission-mediated cell survival. Moreover, treatment with mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 significantly suppressed tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft nude mice model. Our findings demonstrate that increased mitochondrial fission plays a critical role in regulation of HCC cell survival, which provides a strong evidence for this process as drug target in HCC treatment. PMID:27124102

  5. Conformal Fermi Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liang; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC) are a useful frame for isolating the locally observable, physical effects of a long-wavelength spacetime perturbation. Their cosmological application, however, is hampered by the fact that they are only valid on scales much smaller than the horizon. We introduce a generalization that we call Conformal Fermi Coordinates (CFC). CFC preserve all the advantages of FNC, but in addition are valid outside the horizon. They allow us to calculate the coupling of long- and short-wavelength modes on all scales larger than the sound horizon of the cosmological fluid, starting from the epoch of inflation until today, by removing the complications of the second order Einstein equations to a large extent, and eliminating all gauge ambiguities. As an application, we present a calculation of the effect of long-wavelength tensor modes on small scale density fluctuations. We recover previous results, but clarify the physical content of the individual contributions in terms of locally measurable ef...

  6. Principles of Coordination Polymerisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuran, Witold

    2001-11-01

    The first all-inclusive text covering coordination polymerisation, including important classes of non-hydrocarbon monomers. Charting the achievements and progress in the field, in terms of both basic and industrial research, this book offers a unified and complete overview of coordination polymerisation. Provides detailed description of the historical development of the subject Presents a unified view of catalysis, mechanisms, structures and utility Encourages learning through a step-by-step progression from basic to in-depth text Features end-of-chapter exercises to reinforce understanding Offers a full bibliography and comprehensive literature review Requisite reading for research students studying introductory and advanced courses in; polymer science, catalysis and polymerisation catalysis, and valuable reference for researchers and technicians in industry.

  7. Communication and interference coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco-Serrano, Ricardo; Thobaben, Ragnar; Skoglund, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of controlling the interference created to an external observer by a communication processes. We model the interference in terms of its type (empirical distribution), and we analyze the consequences of placing constraints on the admissible type. Considering a single interfering link, we characterize the communication-interference capacity region. Then, we look at a scenario where the interference is jointly created by two users allowed to coordinate their actions prior to...

  8. Advertising and Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    We show that when relevant market information such as price is difficult to communicate, advertising plays a key role in bringing about optimal coordination of purchase behavior: an efficient firm uses advertising expenditures in place of price to inform sophisticated consumers that it offers a better deal. This provides a theoretical explanation for Benham's (1972) empirical association of the ability to advertise with lower prices and larger scale. We find that advertising improves welfare ...

  9. Toxicity of 125-I in cultured cells and tumour bearing mice. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation biology of Auger emitters and their therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the mechanism of induction of cell killing by Auger phenomena in DNA, the oxygen effect on cell killing and strand-breaks from decay of DNA bound 125I was studied in human kidney T cells and compared with effects of 3H incorporated in DNA. Oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) for 60Co γ-rays, 3H-TdR, 3H-IUdR and 125I-UdR changed 1.2 to 4.5 for SSBs, 1.4 to 3.9 for DSBs, and 1.0 to 2.8 for survival, respectively. The most conspicuous results were the OER for SSBs induced by 3H-TdR which amounts to only about 1.6. It can be considered to be an effect of the transmutation from 3H to 3He. In addition, for both strand breaks and cell survival after incorporation of 125I-UdR, OER-values of virtually 1 were found. This means that 125I-UdR incorporated in human kidney T-cells does not show any oxygen effect for survival. The high radiobiological effectiveness may be caused by the emission of the high number of low energy electrons causing a high density of ionization in the immediate neighbourhood of the decay

  10. Global coordination: weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Lane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to halt the depletion of global ecological capital, a number of different kinds of meetings between Governments of countries in the world has been scheduled. The need for global coordination of environmental policies has become ever more obvious, supported by more and more evidence of the running down of ecological capital. But there are no formal or binding arrangements in sight, as global environmental coordination suffers from high transaction costs (qualitative voting. The CO2 equivalent emissions, resulting in global warming, are driven by the unstoppable economic expansion in the global market economy, employing mainly fossil fuel generated energy, although at the same time lifting sharply the GDP per capita of several emerging countries. Only global environmental coordination on the successful model of the World Band and the IMF (quantitative voting can stem the rising emissions numbers and stop further environmental degradation. However, the system of weighted voting in the WB and the IMF must be reformed by reducing the excessive voting power disparities, for instance by reducing all member country votes by the cube root expression.

  11. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  12. The alpha3 laminin subunit, alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrin coordinately regulate wound healing in cultured epithelial cells and in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldfinger, L E; Hopkinson, S B; deHart, G W;

    1999-01-01

    function-inhibiting antibodies, we provide evidence that LN5 and its two integrin receptors (alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1) appear necessary for wound healing to occur in MCF-10A cell culture wounds. We propose a model for healing of wounded epithelial tissues based on these results....... epithelial cells. We have prepared a monoclonal antibody (12C4) whose epitope is located toward the carboxy terminus of the globular domain of the alpha3 laminin subunit. This epitope is lost from the alpha3 subunit as a consequence of proteolytic processing. Antibody 12C4 stains throughout the matrix of...... cover the wound site. A similar phenomenon is observed in human skin wounds, since we also detect expression of the unprocessed alpha3 laminin subunit at the leading tip of the sheet of epidermal cells that epithelializes skin wounds in vivo. In addition, using alpha3 laminin subunit and integrin...

  13. IL-17A promotes the migration and invasiveness of cervical cancer cells by coordinately activating MMPs expression via the p38/NF-κB signal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjuan Feng

    Full Text Available IL-17A plays an important role in many inflammatory diseases and cancers. We aimed to examine the effect of IL-17A on the invasion of cervical cancer cells and study its related mechanisms.Wound healing and matrigel transwell assays were used to examine the effect of IL-17A on cervical cancer cell migration and invasion by a panel of cervical cancer cell lines. The levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs were investigated using western blotting. The activity of p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signal pathway was detected too.Here, we showed that IL-17A could promote the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. Further molecular analysis showed that IL-17A could up-regulate the expressions and activities of MMP2 and MMP9, and down-regulate the expressions of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Furthermore, IL-17A also activates p38 signal pathway and increased p50 and p65 nuclear expression. In addition, treatment of cervical cancer cells with the pharmacological p38/NF-κB signal pathway inhibitors, SB203580 and PDTC, potently restored the roles of invasion and upregulation of MMPs induced by IL-17A.IL-17A could promote the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cell via up-regulating MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and down-regulating TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression via p38/NF-κB signal pathway. IL-17A may be a potential target to improve the prognosis for patients with cervical cancer.

  14. Advanced solar thermal receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudirka, A. A.; Leibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Development of advanced receiver technology for solar thermal receivers designed for electric power generation or for industrial applications, such as fuels and chemical production or industrial process heat, is described. The development of this technology is focused on receivers that operate from 1000 F to 3000 F and above. Development strategy is mapped in terms of application requirements, and the related system and technical requirements. Receiver performance requirements and current development efforts are covered for five classes of receiver applications: high temperature, advanced Brayton, Stirling, and Rankine cycle engines, and fuels and chemicals.

  15. Reflux solar receiver design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, R. B.

    Reflux heat-pipe and pool-boiler receivers are being developed to improve upon the performance and life of directly-illuminated tube receiver technology used in previous successful demonstrations of dish-Stirling systems. The design of a reflux receiver involves engineering tradeoffs. In this paper, on-sun performance measurements of the Sandia pool-boiler receiver are compared with results from the reflux receiver thermal analysis model, AEETES. Flux and performance implications of various design options are analyzed and discussed.

  16. RFI receiver. [deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, R.

    1980-01-01

    An S-band radio frequency interference (RFI) receiver to analyze and identify sources of RFI problems in the Deep Space Network DSN tracking stations is described. The RFI receiver is a constant gain, double conversion, open loop receiver with dual sine/cosine channel outputs, providing a total of 20 MHZ monitoring capability. This receiver is computer controlled using a MODCOMP II miniprocessor. The RFI receiver has been designed to operate at a 150 Kelvin system noise temperature accomplished by cascading two low noise field effect transistor (FET) amplifiers for the receiver front-end. The first stage low noise FET amplifier is mounted at the feed horn to minimize any cable losses to achieve a lower system noise temperature. The receiver is tunable over the frequency range of 2150 to 2450 MHz in both sine/cosine output channels with a resolution of 100 kHz.

  17. Mechanisms of radio-resistance and its modification by chemicals. Coordinated programme on improvement in radiotherapy of cancer using modifiers of radiosensitivity of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several membrane specific drugs have been tested for their radiosensitizing effects under hypoxia/anoxia using E.Coli cells. Among these chlorpromazine (CPZ) proved most effective. Investigations on its mechanism of action revealed partial involvement of radiolytic transients and its inhibitory effect on DNA repair and synthesis. A ''coctail'' consisting of CPZ and other drugs like procaine lignocaine, or telsacaine sensitized hypoxic bacteria beyond ''oxygen effect''. CPZ also showed preferential cytotoxicity to anoxic/hypoxic bacteria. Prolonged treatment of cells with CPZ under hypoxia at elevated temperatures (up to 390C) proved more lethal and the surviving cells showed extreme radiosensitivity (DMF=0.11). These results therefore wave situ extension of investigations to tumours. Two animal tumours viz a fibrosarcoma and sarcoma 180 were grown on Swiss mice. CPZ enhanced the radiation induced regression of these solid tumours. CPZ on its own showed chemotherapeutic effect and controlled the growth of these tumours. The chemotherapeutic effect was further enhanced at hyperthermic temperatures (41 and 420C). Pharmokinetic investigations on distribution and retention of CPZ in plasma, tumours and other organs have been completed using S-35 labelled CPZ. Clinical trials with human patients are being initiated. Attempts are also being made to target such drugs to tumour sites by encapsulating them in artificial liposomes and blood cells

  18. From emission to inertial coordinates: a numerical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puchades, Neus; Saez, Diego, E-mail: neus.puchades@uv.es, E-mail: diego.saez@uv.es [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-22

    We numerically implement the coordinate transformation between emission and inertial coordinates recently derived - in Minkowski space-time - by Coll et al.. In order to carry out this transformation, we must know both proper times from four satellites and the inertial coordinates of these satellites when they emitted. It allows us to determine the position and the time coordinate of the receiver. Since we need to know the satellite positions at any time, we have simulated satellite constellations similar to those of GPS and Galileo global positioning system. All the satellite positions are calculated, at any time, with respect to an inertial frame with the origin at the Earth center. The orientation criterion described by the same authors has been also implemented. The code has been appropiately tested and, then it has been applied to perform a preliminary study about the structure of the emission coordinate region and the grid region. The errors due to uncertainties in satellite positions have been also estimated.

  19. Communication, leadership and coordination failure

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Lu; Montero, Maria; Possajennikov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Using experimental methods, this paper investigates the limits of communication and leadership in aiding group coordination in a minimum effort game. Choosing the highest effort is the payoff dominant Nash equilibrium in this game, and communication and leadership are expected to help in coordinating on such an equilibrium. We consider an environment in which the benefits of coordination are low compared to the cost of mis-coordination. In this environment, players converge to the most ineffi...

  20. Communication, Leadership and Coordination Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Dong; Maria Montero; Alex Possajennikov

    2015-01-01

    Using experimental methods, this paper investigates the limits of communication and leadership in aiding group coordination in a minimum effort game. Choosing the highest effort is the payoff dominant Nash equilibrium in this game, and communication and leadership are expected to help in coordinating on such an equilibrium. We consider an environment in which the benefits of coordination are low compared to the cost of mis-coordination. In this environment, players converge to the most ineffi...

  1. Modeling Students' Units Coordinating Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, Steven James

    2014-01-01

    Primarily via constructivist teaching experiment methodology, units coordination (Steffe, 1992) has emerged as a useful construct for modeling students' psychological constructions pertaining to several mathematical domains, including counting sequences, whole number multiplicative conceptions, and fractions schemes. I describe how consideration of units coordination as a Piagetian (1970b) structure is useful for modeling units coordination across contexts. In this study, I extend teaching ...

  2. Responsive lanthanide coordination polymer for hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoxia; Chen, Yang

    2013-11-19

    Metal organic coordination polymers have received great attention because of their flexible compositions and architecture. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a responsive lanthanide coordination polymer (LCP) for hydrogen sulfide (H2S), utilizing self-assembling of biomolecule nucleotide with luminescent terbium ion (Tb(3+)) and sensitizing silver ion (Ag(+)) in aqueous solution. LCP is highly fluorescent due to the inclusion of Ag(+) ions, which sensitized the fluorescence of Tb(3+) ions. H2S can strongly quench the fluorescence of LCP through its high affinity for Ag(+) ions. Such configurated LCP material from initial building blocks showed high sensitivity and selectivity for H2S and was applied to the determination of H2S in human serum. LCP with Tb(3+) ions also has a long fluorescence lifetime, which allows for time-resolved fluorescence assays, possessing particular advantages to probing H2S in biological systems with autofluorescence. PMID:24191713

  3. Coordinated induction of GST and MRP2 by cAMP in Caco-2 cells: Role of protein kinase A signaling pathway and toxicological relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, Maite Rocío, E-mail: arana@ifise-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Tocchetti, Guillermo Nicolás, E-mail: gtocchetti@live.com.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Domizi, Pablo, E-mail: domizi@ibr-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Arias, Agostina, E-mail: agoarias@yahoo.com.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Rigalli, Juan Pablo, E-mail: jprigalli@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Ruiz, María Laura, E-mail: ruiz@ifise-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2015-09-01

    The cAMP pathway is a universal signaling pathway regulating many cellular processes including metabolic routes, growth and differentiation. However, its effects on xenobiotic biotransformation and transport systems are poorly characterized. The effect of cAMP on expression and activity of GST and MRP2 was evaluated in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium. Cells incubated with the cAMP permeable analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP: 1,10,100 μM) for 48 h exhibited a dose–response increase in GST class α and MRP2 protein expression. Incubation with forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, confirmed the association between intracellular cAMP and upregulation of MRP2. Consistent with increased expression of GSTα and MRP2, db-cAMP enhanced their activities, as well as cytoprotection against the common substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors totally abolished upregulation of MRP2 and GSTα induced by db-cAMP. In silico analysis together with experiments consisting of treatment with db-cAMP of Caco-2 cells transfected with a reporter construct containing CRE and AP-1 sites evidenced participation of these sites in MRP2 upregulation. Further studies involving the transcription factors CREB and AP-1 (c-JUN, c-FOS and ATF2) demonstrated increased levels of total c-JUN and phosphorylation of c-JUN and ATF2 by db-cAMP, which were suppressed by a PKA inhibitor. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP assay studies demonstrated that db-cAMP increased c-JUN/ATF2 interaction, with further recruitment to the region of the MRP2 promoter containing CRE and AP-1 sites. We conclude that cAMP induces GSTα and MRP2 expression and activity in Caco-2 cells via the PKA pathway, thus regulating detoxification of specific xenobiotics. - Highlights: • cAMP positively modulates the expression and activity of GST and MRP2 in Caco-2 cells. • Such induction resulted in increased cytoprotection against chemical injury. • PKA

  4. Coordinated induction of GST and MRP2 by cAMP in Caco-2 cells: Role of protein kinase A signaling pathway and toxicological relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cAMP pathway is a universal signaling pathway regulating many cellular processes including metabolic routes, growth and differentiation. However, its effects on xenobiotic biotransformation and transport systems are poorly characterized. The effect of cAMP on expression and activity of GST and MRP2 was evaluated in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium. Cells incubated with the cAMP permeable analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP: 1,10,100 μM) for 48 h exhibited a dose–response increase in GST class α and MRP2 protein expression. Incubation with forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, confirmed the association between intracellular cAMP and upregulation of MRP2. Consistent with increased expression of GSTα and MRP2, db-cAMP enhanced their activities, as well as cytoprotection against the common substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors totally abolished upregulation of MRP2 and GSTα induced by db-cAMP. In silico analysis together with experiments consisting of treatment with db-cAMP of Caco-2 cells transfected with a reporter construct containing CRE and AP-1 sites evidenced participation of these sites in MRP2 upregulation. Further studies involving the transcription factors CREB and AP-1 (c-JUN, c-FOS and ATF2) demonstrated increased levels of total c-JUN and phosphorylation of c-JUN and ATF2 by db-cAMP, which were suppressed by a PKA inhibitor. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP assay studies demonstrated that db-cAMP increased c-JUN/ATF2 interaction, with further recruitment to the region of the MRP2 promoter containing CRE and AP-1 sites. We conclude that cAMP induces GSTα and MRP2 expression and activity in Caco-2 cells via the PKA pathway, thus regulating detoxification of specific xenobiotics. - Highlights: • cAMP positively modulates the expression and activity of GST and MRP2 in Caco-2 cells. • Such induction resulted in increased cytoprotection against chemical injury. • PKA

  5. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  6. Immigration: perspectives from receiving countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M

    1990-01-01

    The author examines the issue of international migration from the standpoint of receiving countries. He attempts "to understand how and why migrant-receiving countries respond as they do, and to suggest some of the new issues in international migration that arise in a world in which the supply of would-be migrants and refugees is now greater than receiving countries are willing to accept." PMID:12283227

  7. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The EU is not a member of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), but relatively elaborate EU coordination takes place anyway. This paper addresses two research questions: 1) How is it possible to evaluate the coordination of the EU in its specific observable configuration in the ILO?, and 2......) To what outcome does this coordination lead and why? Based on an analysis of EU coordination before and during the International Labour Conference in 2005, and on a comparison with coordination processes of the IMEC group, it is found that the Commission and the Presidency act as twin-agents vis...

  8. OCT4 Coordinates with WNT Signaling to Pre-pattern Chromatin at the SOX17 Locus during Human ES Cell Differentiation into Definitive Endoderm

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Ying; Jason A. Mills; Deborah L. French; Paul Gadue

    2015-01-01

    Summary We demonstrate that the pluripotency gene OCT4 has a role in regulating differentiation via Wnt signaling. OCT4 expression levels in human embryonic stem cells increases transiently during the first 24 hr of in vitro differentiation, with OCT4 occupancy increasing at endoderm regulators such as SOX17 and FOXA2. This increased occupancy correlates with loss of the PRC2 complex and the inhibitory histone mark H3K27me3. Knockdown of OCT4 during differentiation inhibits mesendoderm format...

  9. miR-155-dependent regulation of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 2 (MST2) coordinates inflammation, oxidative stress and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Yu; He, Ming; Zhang, Xin-hua; Ma, Dong; Zhang, Ruo-nan; Wu, Xiao-li; Wen, Jin-kun

    2015-07-01

    In response to vascular injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell proliferation often occur simultaneously in vascular tissues. We previously observed that microRNA-155 (miR-155), which is implicated in proliferation and inflammation is involved in neointimal hyperplasia; however, the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates these processes remain largely unknown. In this study, we observed that vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and neointimal formation in wire-injured femoral arteries were reduced by the loss of miR-155 and increased by the gain of miR-155. The proliferative effect of miR-155 was also observed in cultured VSMCs. Notably, expression of the miR-155-target protein mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 2 (MST2) was increased in the injured arteries of miR-155-/- mice. miR-155 directly repressed MST2 and thus activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway by promoting an interaction between RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (Raf-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and stimulating inflammatory and oxidative stress responses; together, these effects lead to VSMC proliferation and vascular remodeling. Our data reveal that MST2 mediates miR-155-promoted inflammatory and oxidative stress responses by altering the interaction of MEK with Raf-1 and MST2 in response to vascular injury. Therefore, suppression of endogenous miR-155 might be a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular injury and remodeling. PMID:25892184

  10. Improving Dense Network Performance through Centralized Scheduling and Interference Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Victor Fernandez; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Steiner, Jens; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    performance. Interference management at the receiver is achieved through the use of a Network-Assisted Interference Cancellation and Suppression (NAICS) receiver. In order to further boost the 5th percentile user data rates, the transmission rank at the interferers is selectively reduced by a centralized rank...... rate gains of up to 80% without a detrimental effect on the median user rates, under the applied assumptions and simulation settings. The gains reach 110% when rank coordination is applied....

  11. Coordinate late expression of trefoil peptide genes (pS2/TFF1 and ITF/TFF3) in human breast, colon, and gastric tumor cells exposed to X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcer-Kubiczek, Elizabeth K.; Harrison, George H.; Xu, Jing-Fan; Gutierrez, Peter L.

    2002-01-01

    The trefoil factors (TFFs) are pleiotropic factors involved in organization and homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract, estrogen responsiveness, inflammatory disorders, and carcinogenesis. In an earlier study using cDNA array technologies to identify new genes expressed in irradiated cell survivors, we isolated a cDNA clone corresponding to the reported human TFF1 gene (E. K. Balcer-Kubiczek et al., Int. J. Radiat. Biol., 75: 529-541, 1999). To determine whether expression of other TFFs is altered by ionizing radiation, we quantified changes in expression of TFF3 as well as TFF1 in RNA samples obtained from irradiated and control human tumor breast, colon, and gastric tumor cells and examined expression kinetics up to 2 weeks after irradiation. X-ray-induced TFF1 and TFF3 expression profiles were compared with those induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or 17beta-estradiol (ES). The results revealed that TFF1 and TFF3 mRNA are coinduced by X-irradiation in a subset of the lines, but substantial heterogeneity in their responses was observed in cells derived from a single cell type. TFF1 and TFF3 transcriptional response to X-irradiation differed from that to H2O2 or ES in the timing of their induction as well as tissue-type dependence, i.e., their induction pattern after X-irradiation was late and sustained, whereas their induction by H2O2 or ES was early and transient. TFF1 mRNA, protein production in the cytoplasm, and secretion in the culture supernatant were coordinately regulated after X-irradiation. There was no requirement for TP53 in this induction. These results demonstrate the existence of a novel class of radiation-responsive genes that might be involved in bystander effects.

  12. Mice deficient for the close homologue of the neural adhesion cell L1 (CHL1) display alterations in emotional reactivity and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, M; Rougon, G; Schachner, M; Jamon, M

    2003-12-17

    Motor and cognitive phenotypes were assessed in mice deficient for the close homologue of the L1 adhesion molecule (CHL1). The CHL1-deficient mice displayed signs of decreased stress and a modification of exploratory behaviour. The mice also showed motor impairments on the Rotarod, but they were able to move as fast as controls in the alleys of a T-maze. The observed changes were assumed to be related to a deficit in attention. In addition, gender differences in CHL1 deficits were found and are discussed in view of a possible interaction with other cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) during development. The results are discussed in relation with motor and cognitive deficits in the human, caused by mutations of the distal part of the chromosome 3 which contains the CHL1 orthologue. PMID:14659567

  13. Coordinate turnover of nuclear and cytoplasmic histone messenger RNA following inhibition of DNA replication of HeLa S3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have examined the metabolism of human H4 histone mRNA in the nucleus and cytoplasm of HeLa S3 cells following inhibition of DNA synthesis to address the extent to which histone mRNA stability in these cellular compartments is coupled to DNA replication. The nuclear and cytoplasmic levels of histone mRNAs encoded by the pF0108A human H4 histone gene were determined by S1 nuclease analysis using a 32P-labeled probe that could distinguish pF0108A transcripts from those of other members of the H4 histone multigene family. Hydroxyurea treatment resulted within 15 min in a 75% reduction in the level of histone H4 mRNA in the nucleus, which corresponds to the 85% decrease observed for H4 histone mRNA in the cytoplasm. The kinetics of nuclear and cytoplasmic H4 mRNA turnover following hydroxyurea treatment were also similar. Northern blot analysis using a 32P-labeled mitochondrial cytochrome b probe indicated that the association of cytoplasmic RNA with the nuclear fraction was less than 0.5%. Treatment of cells with a protein synthesis inhibitor resulted in a 1.3-fold increase in nuclear H4 histone mRNA levels and a 1.5-fold increase of H4 mRNA in the cytoplasm after 45 min. Together, these results indicate that nuclear and cytoplasmic H4 histone mRNAs respond similarly to metabolic perturbations that influence message stability and that mechanisms operative in the turnover of histone mRNAs in the nucleus and cytoplasm may be similar

  14. IRF-3, IRF-5, and IRF-7 coordinately regulate the type I IFN response in myeloid dendritic cells downstream of MAVS signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Lazear

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the transcription factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 are considered master regulators of type I interferon (IFN induction and IFN stimulated gene (ISG expression, Irf3(-/-×Irf7(-/- double knockout (DKO myeloid dendritic cells (mDC produce relatively normal levels of IFN-β after viral infection. We generated Irf3(-/-×Irf5(-/-×Irf7(-/- triple knockout (TKO mice to test whether IRF-5 was the source of the residual induction of IFN-β and ISGs in mDCs. In pathogenesis studies with two unrelated positive-sense RNA viruses (West Nile virus (WNV and murine norovirus, TKO mice succumbed at rates greater than DKO mice and equal to or approaching those of mice lacking the type I IFN receptor (Ifnar(-/-. In ex vivo studies, after WNV infection or exposure to Toll-like receptor agonists, TKO mDCs failed to produce IFN-β or express ISGs. In contrast, this response was sustained in TKO macrophages following WNV infection. To define IRF-regulated gene signatures, we performed microarray analysis on WNV-infected mDC from wild type (WT, DKO, TKO, or Ifnar(-/- mice, as well as from mice lacking the RIG-I like receptor adaptor protein MAVS. Whereas the gene induction pattern in DKO mDC was similar to WT cells, remarkably, almost no ISG induction was detected in TKO or Mavs(-/- mDC. The relative equivalence of TKO and Mavs(-/- responses suggested that MAVS dominantly regulates ISG induction in mDC. Moreover, we showed that MAVS-dependent induction of ISGs can occur through an IRF-5-dependent yet IRF-3 and IRF-7-independent pathway. Our results establish IRF-3, -5, and -7 as the key transcription factors responsible for mediating the type I IFN and ISG response in mDC during WNV infection and suggest a novel signaling link between MAVS and IRF-5.

  15. A partitioned central solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Else of solar energy as substitute for conventional fuels at a competitive cost requires efficient conversion from solar radiation to usable forms of energy. In solar thermal or thermochemical applications, high efficiency usually re- quires high temperature and high concentration of incoming radiation. The main form of energy loss from high temperature solar central receivers is thermal emission ('re radiation'), at an effective temperature close to the maximum receiver temperature. This loss is reduced if the aperture is divided into segments, most of which are maintained at lower temperatures. A two-stage partitioned receiver demonstrating this concept is under construction at the Weizman Solar Tower. The high-temperature stage is the DIAPR (Directly Irradiated Annular Pressurized Receiver). The low-temperature stage is made of tubular cavity receivers of simpler design. Preliminary optical and thermal design of the partitioned receiver is presented. For the design exit temperature of 1500 K, the aperture size of the partitioned receiver is about 60% of the equivalent single-stage receiver, indicating a significant increase of conversion efficiency. The exit temperature of the low-temperature stage is around 1100 K, allowing simpler design and inexpensive construction. (authors)

  16. Cyclodextrin-Based Metal-Organic Nanotube as Fluorescent Probe for Selective Turn-On Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide in Living Cells Based on H2S-Involved Coordination Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xuelian; Wang, Jingxin; Gong, Chuanfang; Xu, Hai; Wang, Rongming; Ji, Shijie; Dong, Hanxiao; Meng, Qingguo; Zhang, Liangliang; Dai, Fangna; Sun, Daofeng

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been considered as the third biologically gaseous messenger (gasotransmitter) after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Fluorescent detection of H2S in living cells is very important to human health because it has been found that the abnormal levels of H2S in human body can cause Alzheimer’s disease, cancers and diabetes. Herein, we develop a cyclodextrin-based metal-organic nanotube, CD-MONT-2, possessing a {Pb14} metallamacrocycle for efficient detection of H2S. CD-MONT-2′ (the guest-free form of CD-MONT-2) exhibits turn-on detection of H2S with high selectivity and moderate sensitivity when the material was dissolved in DMSO solution. Significantly, CD-MONT-2′ can act as a fluorescent turn-on probe for highly selective detection of H2S in living cells. The sensing mechanism in the present work is based on the coordination of H2S as the auxochromic group to the central Pb(II) ion to enhance the fluorescence intensity, which is studied for the first time. PMID:26911657

  17. Cyclodextrin-Based Metal-Organic Nanotube as Fluorescent Probe for Selective Turn-On Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide in Living Cells Based on H2S-Involved Coordination Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xuelian; Wang, Jingxin; Gong, Chuanfang; Xu, Hai; Wang, Rongming; Ji, Shijie; Dong, Hanxiao; Meng, Qingguo; Zhang, Liangliang; Dai, Fangna; Sun, Daofeng

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been considered as the third biologically gaseous messenger (gasotransmitter) after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Fluorescent detection of H2S in living cells is very important to human health because it has been found that the abnormal levels of H2S in human body can cause Alzheimer’s disease, cancers and diabetes. Herein, we develop a cyclodextrin-based metal-organic nanotube, CD-MONT-2, possessing a {Pb14} metallamacrocycle for efficient detection of H2S. CD-MONT-2‧ (the guest-free form of CD-MONT-2) exhibits turn-on detection of H2S with high selectivity and moderate sensitivity when the material was dissolved in DMSO solution. Significantly, CD-MONT-2‧ can act as a fluorescent turn-on probe for highly selective detection of H2S in living cells. The sensing mechanism in the present work is based on the coordination of H2S as the auxochromic group to the central Pb(II) ion to enhance the fluorescence intensity, which is studied for the first time.

  18. Coordination using Implicit Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Cuff, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We explore a basic noise-free signaling scenario where coordination and communication are naturally merged. A random signal X_1,...,X_n is processed to produce a control signal or action sequence A_1,...,A_n, which is observed and further processed (without access to X_1,...,X_n) to produce a third sequence B_1,...,B_n. The object of interest is the set of empirical joint distributions p(x,a,b) that can be achieved in this setting. We show that H(A) >= I(X;A,B) is the necessary and sufficient condition for achieving p(x,a,b) when no causality constraints are enforced on the encoders. We also give results for various causality constraints. This setting sheds light on the embedding of digital information in analog signals, a concept that is exploited in digital watermarking, steganography, cooperative communication, and strategic play in team games such as bridge.

  19. Quality of life measures using the lung cancer symptom scale (LCSS) in patients receiving retreatment with external beam radiotherapy (XRT) for primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To assess quality of life factors in patients receiving both initial and re-treatment with XRT for NSCLC.Materials and Methods: Over 600 patients with NSCLC were treated with primary XRT at the Medical College of Virginia (MCV) between 1990 and 1995. Twenty-six patients who initially received a median dose of 60 Gy (range = 50 to 66) were given re-treatment to a median dose of 30 Gy (range = 12 to 33) for worsening symptoms and/or radiographic progression. Sixteen patients received their initial therapy by split course, while 10 had continuous course XRT. The median interval between initial and re-treatment was 11 months (range = 1 to 51). All re-treatments were delivered twice per day at 1.5 Gy per fraction. The median total dose to this group was 90 Gy (range = 72 to 96). The observer portion of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) was employed to score the effects of treatment on symptoms including loss of appetite, fatigue, cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and pain. The patients were noted to have experienced improvement, worsening, or no change following therapy. Survival analysis was completed using the Kaplan-Meier method, while the sign rank method compared survival with other factors. Results: Median follow-up was 22 months (range = 3 to 73). Fifteen patients have died of their disease, and 11 remain alive with disease. Patient characteristics at the time of first treatment included median age of 64 years (range = 39 to 77), median PS of 1 (92% with either 0 or 1), > 5% weight loss in 15%, and male to female ratio of 3.3 to 1. Stage breakdown was: I = 12%, II = 12%, IIIA = 38%, IIIB 19%, and IV = 19%. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most represented histology, found in 58%. The median number of LCSS symptoms at initial presentation was 1 (69% with 1 or 2). Sixty-one percent of the patients experienced relief in at least one of their pre-treatment symptoms. By the time of re-treatment, 100% of the patients had at least one complaint, and the

  20. Emission coordinates for the navigation in space

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, A

    2009-01-01

    A general approach to the problem of positioning by means of pulsars or other pulsating sources located at infinity is described. The counting of the pulses for a set of different sources whose positions in the sky and periods are assumed to be known, is used to provide null emission, or light, coordinates for the receiver. The measurement of the proper time intervals between successive arrivals of the signals from the various sources is used to give the final localization of the receiver, within an accuracy controlled by the precision of the onboard clock. The deviation from the flat case is discussed, separately considering the different possible causes: local gravitational potential, finiteness of the distance of the source, proper motion of the source, period decay, proper acceleration due to non-gravitational forces. Calculations turn out to be simple and the result is highly positive. The method can also be applied to a constellation of satellites orbiting the Earth.

  1. Coordinating Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup

  2. Coordinating distributed work: Exploring situated coordination with gaming-simulation

    OpenAIRE

    van Laere, J.

    2003-01-01

    Organizational work has become more and more distributed nowadays. Information and communication technologies (ICT) provide opportunities to improve coordination of distributed work, but in practice many organizations struggle with integrating new organizational structures, new work practices and ICT. In this dissertation we present a design approach for improving the coordination of distributed work. First we develop an integrated view on coordination, based on observations of current coordi...

  3. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  4. Management of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the bulbomembranous male urethra with co-ordinated chemo-radiotherapy and genital preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberfield, R.A.; Zinman, L.N.; Leibenhaut, M.; Girshovich, L.; Silverman, M.L. [Lahey Hitchcock Medical Center, Burlington, MA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The objective was to determine the success of chemo-radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bulbar male urethra, an uncommon but aggressive cancer usually treated by radical deforming surgery. Two men, aged 42 and 49 years, with locally advanced SCC of the proximal deep urethra were treated with a modified Nigro chemo-radiation protocol. The initial treatment was by supra-pubic cystotomy urinary diversion followed by 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks to the penis, perineum and regional lymphatics. Chemotherapy consisted of a single intravenous dose of mitomycin C (10 mg/m{sup 2}) and an intravenous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (1 g/m{sup 2}/day) for 96 h starting on the first day of radiation therapy and repeated 28 days later. Follow-up evaluation with urethral biopsies, retrograde urethrography, computed tomography of the pelvis and cysto-urethroscopy under anaesthesia showed no residual tumour in either patient but the development of a proximal urethral stricture at 1.5 and 4 years respectively. This report presents the first evidence of a successful reduction of tumour stage with the local eradication of invasive SCC and penile preservation with no recurrence of the tumour or the need to excise the urethra. (Author).

  5. OCT4 Coordinates with WNT Signaling to Pre-pattern Chromatin at the SOX17 Locus during Human ES Cell Differentiation into Definitive Endoderm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ying

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that the pluripotency gene OCT4 has a role in regulating differentiation via Wnt signaling. OCT4 expression levels in human embryonic stem cells increases transiently during the first 24 hr of in vitro differentiation, with OCT4 occupancy increasing at endoderm regulators such as SOX17 and FOXA2. This increased occupancy correlates with loss of the PRC2 complex and the inhibitory histone mark H3K27me3. Knockdown of OCT4 during differentiation inhibits mesendoderm formation and removal of the H3K27me3 mark from the SOX17 promoter, suggesting that OCT4 acts to induce removal of the PRC2 complex. Furthermore, OCT4 and β-catenin can be co-immunoprecipitated upon differentiation, and Wnt stimulation is required for the enhanced OCT4 occupancy and loss of the PRC2 complex from the SOX17 promoter. In conclusion, our study reveals that OCT4, a master regulator of pluripotency, may also collaborate with Wnt signaling to drive endoderm induction by pre-patterning epigenetic markers on endodermal promoters.

  6. OCT4 Coordinates with WNT Signaling to Pre-pattern Chromatin at the SOX17 Locus during Human ES Cell Differentiation into Definitive Endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Lei; Mills, Jason A; French, Deborah L; Gadue, Paul

    2015-10-13

    We demonstrate that the pluripotency gene OCT4 has a role in regulating differentiation via Wnt signaling. OCT4 expression levels in human embryonic stem cells increases transiently during the first 24 hr of in vitro differentiation, with OCT4 occupancy increasing at endoderm regulators such as SOX17 and FOXA2. This increased occupancy correlates with loss of the PRC2 complex and the inhibitory histone mark H3K27me3. Knockdown of OCT4 during differentiation inhibits mesendoderm formation and removal of the H3K27me3 mark from the SOX17 promoter, suggesting that OCT4 acts to induce removal of the PRC2 complex. Furthermore, OCT4 and β-catenin can be co-immunoprecipitated upon differentiation, and Wnt stimulation is required for the enhanced OCT4 occupancy and loss of the PRC2 complex from the SOX17 promoter. In conclusion, our study reveals that OCT4, a master regulator of pluripotency, may also collaborate with Wnt signaling to drive endoderm induction by pre-patterning epigenetic markers on endodermal promoters. PMID:26411902

  7. Management of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the bulbomembranous male urethra with co-ordinated chemo-radiotherapy and genital preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine the success of chemo-radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bulbar male urethra, an uncommon but aggressive cancer usually treated by radical deforming surgery. Two men, aged 42 and 49 years, with locally advanced SCC of the proximal deep urethra were treated with a modified Nigro chemo-radiation protocol. The initial treatment was by supra-pubic cystotomy urinary diversion followed by 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks to the penis, perineum and regional lymphatics. Chemotherapy consisted of a single intravenous dose of mitomycin C (10 mg/m2) and an intravenous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (1 g/m2/day) for 96 h starting on the first day of radiation therapy and repeated 28 days later. Follow-up evaluation with urethral biopsies, retrograde urethrography, computed tomography of the pelvis and cysto-urethroscopy under anaesthesia showed no residual tumour in either patient but the development of a proximal urethral stricture at 1.5 and 4 years respectively. This report presents the first evidence of a successful reduction of tumour stage with the local eradication of invasive SCC and penile preservation with no recurrence of the tumour or the need to excise the urethra. (Author)

  8. Interfacial Charge Transfer in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using SCN-Free Terpyridine-Coordinated Ru Complex Dye and Co Complex Redox Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Takahiro; Masaki, Naruhiko; Nishikawa, Masahiro; Tamura, Rei; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Mutsumi; Mori, Shogo

    2016-07-01

    The efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using Ru complex dyes and Co complex redox couples has been increased with a strategy to prevent charge recombination via the addition of bulky or lengthy peripheral units to the dyes. However, despite the efforts, most of the DSSCs are still suffering from nonunity quantum efficiency and fast recombination. We examine the effect of SCN ligand, which has been used for many Ru complex dyes and could attract positively charged Co complexes. We find that replacing the ligands with 2,6-bis(2'-(4'-trifluoromethyl)pyrazolyl)pyridine increases the quantum efficiency and electron lifetime. With the combination of the replacement of SCN ligands and the addition of bulky moiety, ∼80% external quantum efficiency is achieved. These suggest that not only the addition of a blocking effect but also the reduction of electrostatic and dispersion forces between dyes and Co complexes are essential to control the charge separation and recombination processes. PMID:27328462

  9. Clinical and laboratory assessment of a combination of drugs with radiation. Coordinated programme on improvement in radiotherapy of cancer using modifiers of radiosensitivity of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications were clinically studied of misonidazole (MISO) as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer with pharmacokinetic studies. Work with desmethylmisonidazole was focused on its penetration into the CNS because its low lipophilicity would predict poorer access than MISO. Laboratory work was focused on the interaction of hyperthermia with drugs. Cytotoxicity of MISO induced by hyperthermia was studied. Heat response following hypoxic pretreatment with MISO of EMT6 spheroids showed marked enhancement of subsequent heat killing dependent on the duration of the hypoxic pretreatment. The effect was studied in vitro of preheat temperature at modest temperatures (39 to 430C) on thermal tolerance and subsequent hyperthermic (43 to 440C) interaction with bleomycin, adriamycin and BCNU. Interaction between several cytotoxic drugs and two potentially critical normal tissues, skin and bone marrow was studied in the mouse. No increase in the heat reaction in the skin of the mouse foot was observed following single injections of adriamycin, bleomycin or 5 daily doses of bleomycin together with a single heat treatment. Single doses of BCNU and CTX increased the heat reaction. The radioprotector WR2721 failed to protect against either the heat or heat drug reactions from CTX and BCNU

  10. Coordinators for health science libraries in the Midwest Health Science Library Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtum, E A; McKloskey, J; Mahan, R

    1977-04-01

    In the summer of 1973 one resource library in each of the six states of the Midwest Health Science Library Network received funding from the National Library of Medicine to hire a coordinator for health science libraries. The development of the role of coordinator is examined and evaluated. The coordinators have proved valuable in the areas of consortium formation, basic unit development, communication facilitation, and program initiation. The function of the coordinators in the extensive planning effort now being undertaken by the network and the future need for the coordinator positions are discussed. PMID:843649

  11. The coordinating role of budgetary participation : rationalistic and institutional perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Modell, Sven; Lee, Alina

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of budgetary participation in resolving interdepartmental coordination problems, which has received little empirical attention in the budgetary literature. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used for exploring this issue. Two dimensions of budgetary participation (participation in budget-setting and more frequent participation initiated by subordinate managers) and their interactions with various types of task interdependence and institutional press...

  12. Coordinating International Response to Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    count on them to bring to the field what they pledged to bring. Today's responses are too large in scope for any one entity to 'go it alone' and so on. It is just not possible to be successful if you stand alone in a disaster; we must share in the burden of response. Sometimes that means overcoming natural inclinations: governments must reach to the business community for help, non-governmental organizations must give up some of their autonomy to be successful on the ground, and governments must set aside differences in the face of overwhelming human need. Use of Incident Command: In all disasters there must be someone in charge and others must follow that command. Implementing a modified humanitarian incident command model is possible and would allow for the coordination and execution necessary to overcome obstacles in the field and disaster area of operation. Communication and IT Coordination: It is impossible to be successful in responding to a disaster if international radio frequencies and cell and line communications are not agreed to beforehand. Electronic data transfer and IT communication are equally important and must be agreed to before responders hit the ground. Modeling: understanding the maximum credible event scenario: Planning, characterizing the event in your country, determine the consequences based on the numbers of people potentially affected, loss of critical functionality, duration of this loss, replacement, economic impact, environmental impact and psychological (loss of confidence) impact. Exercises/Table Tops: And finally, of the utmost importance to success, cities, states, nations, NGOs, private businesses and so on. All who wish to help, must participate in exercises of their capabilities, of their plans to respond. Field exercises are best, but sitting around a table discussing roles and responsibilities is a first step which must be taken and taken today.(author)

  13. Cytotoxicity of Cyclometalated Platinum Complexes Based on Tridentate NCN and CNN-coordinating ligands: Remarkable Coordination Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzu, Dileep A. k.; Lu, Qun; Chen, Yan-Hua; Huo, Shouquan

    2014-01-01

    A series of cyclometalated platinum complexes with diverse coordination patterns and geometries were screened for their anticancer activity. It was discovered that the NʌCʌN-coordinated platinum complex based on 1,3-di(pyridyl)benzene displayed much higher cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cells NCI-H522, HCC827, and NCI-H1299, and human prostate cancer cell RV1 than cisplatin. In a sharp contrast, the CʌNʌN-coordinated platinum complex based on 6-phenyl-2,2′-bipyridine was ineffective o...

  14. An active site aromatic triad in Escherichia coli DNA Pol IV coordinates cell survival and mutagenesis in different DNA damaging agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Benson

    Full Text Available DinB (DNA Pol IV is a translesion (TLS DNA polymerase, which inserts a nucleotide opposite an otherwise replication-stalling N(2-dG lesion in vitro, and confers resistance to nitrofurazone (NFZ, a compound that forms these lesions in vivo. DinB is also known to be part of the cellular response to alkylation DNA damage. Yet it is not known if DinB active site residues, in addition to aminoacids involved in DNA synthesis, are critical in alkylation lesion bypass. It is also unclear which active site aminoacids, if any, might modulate DinB's bypass fidelity of distinct lesions. Here we report that along with the classical catalytic residues, an active site "aromatic triad", namely residues F12, F13, and Y79, is critical for cell survival in the presence of the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS. Strains expressing dinB alleles with single point mutations in the aromatic triad survive poorly in MMS. Remarkably, these strains show fewer MMS- than NFZ-induced mutants, suggesting that the aromatic triad, in addition to its role in TLS, modulates DinB's accuracy in bypassing distinct lesions. The high bypass fidelity of prevalent alkylation lesions is evident even when the DinB active site performs error-prone NFZ-induced lesion bypass. The analyses carried out with the active site aromatic triad suggest that the DinB active site residues are poised to proficiently bypass distinctive DNA lesions, yet they are also malleable so that the accuracy of the bypass is lesion-dependent.

  15. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator; by phone...

  16. 异体神经干细胞脑移植后免疫排斥反应的研究%Immunological rejection in brain of cloning goats received neural stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭钢; 陈建泉; 朱剑虹

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨中枢神经系统异体神经干细胞移植后免疫排斥反应的问题. 方法 选取同一批次的成年克隆山羊8只,采用随机数字表法分成2组:神经干细胞移植组和对照组.采用开颅手术的方式分别将异体神经干细胞及相同剂量的生理盐水移植到山羊脑皮层下,抽血测定移植后2组动物不同时间点(移植前1周、移植当时、移植后1周、3周及3个月)血中IL-2及IL-10的水平,以了解移植后动物全身免疫排斥反应的情况;并通过免疫组化的方法 检测移植局部病理切片CD3+细胞浸润的情况,了解移植局部免疫排斥反应的情况. 结果神经干细胞移植组在移植后1周、3周及3个月时血中IL-2水平较对照组明显升高,IL-10水平较对照组明显下降,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).移植局部在急性期(细胞移植后1周)和慢性期(细胞移植后3个月)两个时间点均有大量CD3+细胞浸润,与对照组相比差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 中枢神经系统异体神经干细胞移植后可发生急、慢性全身和局部免疫排斥反应.%Objective To investigate the immunological rejection in the brain of cloning goats received neural stem cell transplantation. Methods Eight cloning goats of CL series were chosen at random and divided into 2 groups. Neural stem cells and saline at the same dosages were transplanted into the fixed site by surgical intervention in the brain cortex of each group, respectively. The levels of IL-2 and IL-10 in the blood of each group were detected at different times (1 w before, and 0, 1 and 3 w,and 3 months after the cell transplantation) to reflect the systemic immune rejection of the goats after the transplatation. The CD3+ cells in the cell transplantation areas in each group were also detected by the method of immunohistochemistry to reflect the local immune rejection after the transplatation. Results The level of IL-2 was obviously higher and the level of

  17. Coordinate transformations in quaternion spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Zihua

    2008-01-01

    The quaternion spaces can be used to describe the property of electromagnetic field and gravitational field. In the quaternion space, some coordinate transformations can be deduced from the feature of quaternions, including Lorentz transformation and Galilean transformation etc., when the coordinate system is transformed into others. And some coordinate transformations with variable speed of light can be obtained in the electromagnetic field and gravitational field.

  18. Enterprise Coordination on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Petrie

    2011-01-01

    Enterprises are now connected internally and externally to other Enterprises via the Internet in ways that are increasingly difficult to manage, especially as these interconnections become more dynamic. Current methods of coordinating the effects of change as they propagate through these networks of connections are not likely to scale. What is needed is a new paradigm for how the Internet supports such coordination. Indeed, the Internet should and could provide fundamental coordination functi...

  19. Child Labor and Coordination Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Dessy; Stephane Pallage

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we show how coordination failures may explain the prevalence of child labor in developing countries. We do so within a simple game-theoretic setup. Child labor arises in our environment because of the lack of a coordination mechanism between parental decisions to invest in the human capital of their children and firm's decisions to invest in skill-intensive technology. Governmental policies that help coordinate expectations lead to the disappearance of child labor.

  20. Adaptive group coordination and role differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael E; Goldstone, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Many real world situations (potluck dinners, academic departments, sports teams, corporate divisions, committees, seminar classes, etc.) involve actors adjusting their contributions in order to achieve a mutually satisfactory group goal, a win-win result. However, the majority of human group research has involved situations where groups perform poorly because task constraints promote either individual maximization behavior or diffusion of responsibility, and even successful tasks generally involve the propagation of one correct solution through a group. Here we introduce a group task that requires complementary actions among participants in order to reach a shared goal. Without communication, group members submit numbers in an attempt to collectively sum to a randomly selected target number. After receiving group feedback, members adjust their submitted numbers until the target number is reached. For all groups, performance improves with task experience, and group reactivity decreases over rounds. Our empirical results provide evidence for adaptive coordination in human groups, and as the coordination costs increase with group size, large groups adapt through spontaneous role differentiation and self-consistency among members. We suggest several agent-based models with different rules for agent reactions, and we show that the empirical results are best fit by a flexible, adaptive agent strategy in which agents decrease their reactions when the group feedback changes. The task offers a simple experimental platform for studying the general problem of group coordination while maximizing group returns, and we distinguish the task from several games in behavioral game theory. PMID:21811595

  1. Adaptive group coordination and role differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Roberts

    Full Text Available Many real world situations (potluck dinners, academic departments, sports teams, corporate divisions, committees, seminar classes, etc. involve actors adjusting their contributions in order to achieve a mutually satisfactory group goal, a win-win result. However, the majority of human group research has involved situations where groups perform poorly because task constraints promote either individual maximization behavior or diffusion of responsibility, and even successful tasks generally involve the propagation of one correct solution through a group. Here we introduce a group task that requires complementary actions among participants in order to reach a shared goal. Without communication, group members submit numbers in an attempt to collectively sum to a randomly selected target number. After receiving group feedback, members adjust their submitted numbers until the target number is reached. For all groups, performance improves with task experience, and group reactivity decreases over rounds. Our empirical results provide evidence for adaptive coordination in human groups, and as the coordination costs increase with group size, large groups adapt through spontaneous role differentiation and self-consistency among members. We suggest several agent-based models with different rules for agent reactions, and we show that the empirical results are best fit by a flexible, adaptive agent strategy in which agents decrease their reactions when the group feedback changes. The task offers a simple experimental platform for studying the general problem of group coordination while maximizing group returns, and we distinguish the task from several games in behavioral game theory.

  2. Solar dynamic heat receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    A full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements specified for electrical power modules on the U.S. Space Station, Freedom. The heat receiver supplies thermal energy to power a heat engine in a closed Brayton cycle using a mixture of helium-xenon gas as the working fluid. The electrical power output of the engine, 25 kW, requires a 100 kW thermal input throughout a 90 minute orbit, including when the spacecraft is eclipsed for up to 36 minutes from the sun. The heat receiver employs an integral thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat available through the phase change of a high-temperature salt mixture. A near eutectic mixture of lithium fluoride and calcium difluoride is used as the phase change material. The salt is contained within a felt metal matrix which enhances heat transfer and controls the salt void distribution during solidification. Fabrication of the receiver is complete and it was delivered to NASA for verification testing in a simulated low-Earth-orbit environment. This document reviews the receiver design and describes its fabrication history. The major elements required to operate the receiver during testing are also described.

  3. On Coordinating Collaborative Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessamad Imine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designing algorithms for achieving convergence with the OT approach is a critical and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a formal compositional method for specifying complex collaborative objects. The most important feature of our method is that designing an OT algorithm for the composed collaborative object can be done by reusing the OT algorithms of component collaborative objects. By using our method, we can start from correct small collaborative objects which are relatively easy to handle and incrementally combine them to build more complex collaborative objects.

  4. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Abdollahy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building. Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of the Stool Microbiome in Patients Receiving Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Loss of Diversity Is Associated with Use of Systemic Antibiotics and More Pronounced in Gastrointestinal Graft-versus-Host Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Ernst; Butzhammer, Peter; Schmid, Karin; Hundsrucker, Christian; Koestler, Josef; Peter, Katrin; Zhu, Wentao; Sporrer, Daniela; Hehlgans, Thomas; Kreutz, Marina; Holler, Barbara; Wolff, Daniel; Edinger, Matthias; Andreesen, Reinhard; Levine, John E.; Ferrara, James L.; Gessner, Andre; Spang, Rainer; Oefner, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing of the hypervariable V3 region of the 16s rRNA gene isolated from serial stool specimens collected from 31 patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) was performed to elucidate variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiome in the course of allogeneic SCT. Metagenomic analysis was complemented by strain-specific enterococcal PCR and indirect assessment of bacterial load by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of urinary indoxyl sulfate. At the time of admission, patients showed a predominance of commensal bacteria. After transplantation, a relative shift toward enterococci was observed, which was more pronounced under antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment of neutropenic infections. The shift was particularly prominent in patients that developed subsequently or suffered from active gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The mean proportion of enterococci in post-transplant stool specimens was 21% in patients who did not develop GI GVHD as compared with 46% in those that subsequently developed GI GVHD and 74% at the time of active GVHD. Enterococcal PCR confirmed predominance of Enterococcus faecium or both E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in these specimens. As a consequence of the loss of bacterial diversity, mean urinary indoxyl sulfate levels dropped from 42.5 ± 11 µmol/L to 11.8 ± 2.8 µmol/L in all post-transplant samples and to 3.5 ± 3 µmol/L in samples from patients with active GVHD. Our study reveals major microbiome shifts in the course of allogeneic SCT that occur in the period of antibiotic treatment but are more prominent in association with GI GVHD. Our data indicate early microbiome shifts and a loss of diversity of the intestinal microbiome that may affect intestinal inflammation in the setting of allogeneic SCT. PMID:24492144

  6. 75 FR 55947 - Coordinated Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Proposed Rulemaking on Coordinated Communications, 75 FR 6590 (Feb. 10, 2010). The SNPRM invited comments..., 68 FR at 427. The first content standard was satisfied if the communication was an electioneering... Proposed Rulemaking on Coordinated ] Communications, 70 FR 73946 (Dec. 14, 2005) (``2005 NPRM'')....

  7. Coordinated Transportation: Problems and Promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Examines the legal, administrative, and logistical barriers that have prevented the wide acceptance of coordinating community and school transportation services and why these barriers may be breaking down. Two examples of successful implementation of coordinated transportation are examined: employing a single system to serve all transportation…

  8. Coordinate-Free Rotation Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leubner, C.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests the use of a coordinate-free rotation operator for the teaching of rotations in Euclidean three space because of its twofold didactic advantage. Illustrates the potentialities of the coordinate-free rotation operator approach by a number of examples. (Author/GA)

  9. Coordination of Conditional Poisson Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafström Anton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sample coordination seeks to maximize or to minimize the overlap of two or more samples. The former is known as positive coordination, and the latter as negative coordination. Positive coordination is mainly used for estimation purposes and to reduce data collection costs. Negative coordination is mainly performed to diminish the response burden of the sampled units. Poisson sampling design with permanent random numbers provides an optimum coordination degree of two or more samples. The size of a Poisson sample is, however, random. Conditional Poisson (CP sampling is a modification of the classical Poisson sampling that produces a fixed-size πps sample. We introduce two methods to coordinate Conditional Poisson samples over time or simultaneously. The first one uses permanent random numbers and the list-sequential implementation of CP sampling. The second method uses a CP sample in the first selection and provides an approximate one in the second selection because the prescribed inclusion probabilities are not respected exactly. The methods are evaluated using the size of the expected sample overlap, and are compared with their competitors using Monte Carlo simulation. The new methods provide a good coordination degree of two samples, close to the performance of Poisson sampling with permanent random numbers.

  10. Archimedes' principle in general coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is applied in Schwarzschild coordinates and in rotating coordinates. Using Schwarzschild coordinates for the case of a spherical mass suspended within a perfect fluid leads to the familiar expression of Archimedes' principle. Using rotating coordinates produces an expression for a centrifugal buoyancy force that agrees with accepted theory. It is then argued that Archimedes' principle ought to be applicable to non-gravitational phenomena, as well. Conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is then applied to electromagnetic phenomena. It is shown that a charged body submerged in a charged medium experiences a buoyancy force in accordance with an electromagnetic analogue of Archimedes' principle.

  11. UWB communication receiver feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.

    2007-12-04

    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

  12. Software Defined DCF77 Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zaplata; M. Kasal

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the solution of time stamp software defined receiver integration into low cost com-mercial devices. The receiver is based on a general pur-pose processor and its analog to digital converter. The amplified signal from a narrow-band antenna is connected to the converter and no complicated filtration has to be used. All signal processing is digitally provided by the processor. During signal reception, the processor stays available for its main tasks and signal processing con-sum...

  13. Software Defined DCF77 Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaplata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the solution of time stamp software defined receiver integration into low cost com-mercial devices. The receiver is based on a general pur-pose processor and its analog to digital converter. The amplified signal from a narrow-band antenna is connected to the converter and no complicated filtration has to be used. All signal processing is digitally provided by the processor. During signal reception, the processor stays available for its main tasks and signal processing con-sumes only a small part of its computational power.

  14. Electron spin resonance studies on the detectability of radiation damage and radiosensitization of neoplastic cells. Coordinated programme on improvement of radiotherapy of cancer using modifiers of radiosensitivity of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of direct and indirect ESR methods applicable for the examination of radiation damage to melanoma cells leads to the conclusion that only the indirect ones appear to be useful for its detection. The new results of animal experiments and clinical trials carried out according to the rules of radio-chelation therapy are briefly discussed. Selective incorporation of 35S-labelled compounds by pigmented hamster melanoma cells was found to be followed by a depression of their proliferative activity in vitro and in situ, which may suggest the possible therapeutic value of endo-irradiation. The ESR measurements performed with the use of newly elaborated indirect methods revealed that pigmented and non-pigmented cells consume oxygen at significantly different rates, which means that oxygen utilization may contribute to the overall level of radioresistance of melanoma cells. This assumption has been confirmed by comparing the radiosensitivity of melanotic and amelanotic cells to fast neutrons. Pigment-containing hamster melanoma cells which are twice as resistant to low LET radiation as their non-pigmented counterparts, proved to be equally susceptible to neutrons. The chance of improving the efficiency of radiotherapy of malignant melanomas does not appear unlikely in the light of new experimental data and clinical trials

  15. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  16. Actors with Multi-Headed Message Receive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee; Van Weert, Peter

    The actor model provides high-level concurrency abstractions to coordinate simultaneous computations by message passing. Languages implementing the actor model such as Erlang commonly only support single-headed pattern matching over received messages. We propose and design an extension of Erlang...... style actors with receive clauses containing multi-headed message patterns. Patterns may be non-linear and constrained by guards. We provide a number of examples to show the usefulness of the extension. We also explore the design space for multi-headed message matching semantics, for example first......-match and rule priority-match semantics. The various semantics are inspired by the multi-set constraint matching semantics found in Constraint Handling Rules. This provides us with a formal model to study actors with multi-headed message receive patterns. The system can be implemented efficiently and we...

  17. Coordinating distributed work: Exploring situated coordination with gaming-simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laere, J.

    2003-01-01

    Organizational work has become more and more distributed nowadays. Information and communication technologies (ICT) provide opportunities to improve coordination of distributed work, but in practice many organizations struggle with integrating new organizational structures, new work practices and IC

  18. Coordinating Complementary Waveforms for Sidelobe Suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Wenbing; Howard, Stephen; Moran, William; Calderbank, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We present a general method for constructing radar transmit pulse trains and receive filters for which the radar point-spread function in delay and Doppler, given by the cross-ambiguity function of the transmit pulse train and the pulse train used in the receive filter, is essentially free of range sidelobes inside a Doppler interval around the zero-Doppler axis. The transmit pulse train is constructed by coordinating the transmission of a pair of Golay complementary waveforms across time according to zeros and ones in a binary sequence P. The pulse train used to filter the received signal is constructed in a similar way, in terms of sequencing the Golay waveforms, but each waveform in the pulse train is weighted by an element from another sequence Q. We show that a spectrum jointly determined by P and Q sequences controls the size of the range sidelobes of the cross-ambiguity function and by properly choosing P and Q we can clear out the range sidelobes inside a Doppler interval around the zero- Doppler axis...

  19. A computer program for converting rectangular coordinates to latitude-longitude coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1989-01-01

    A computer program was developed for converting the coordinates of any rectangular grid on a map to coordinates on a grid that is parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. Using this program in conjunction with groundwater flow models, the user can extract data and results from models with varying grid orientations and place these data into grid structure that is oriented parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. All cells in the rectangular grid must have equal dimensions, and all cells in the latitude-longitude grid measure one minute by one minute. This program is applicable if the map used shows lines of equal latitude as arcs and lines of equal longitude as straight lines and assumes that the Earth 's surface can be approximated as a sphere. The program user enters the row number , column number, and latitude and longitude of the midpoint of the cell for three test cells on the rectangular grid. The latitude and longitude of boundaries of the rectangular grid also are entered. By solving sets of simultaneous linear equations, the program calculates coefficients that are used for making the conversion. As an option in the program, the user may build a groundwater model file based on a grid that is parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. The program reads a data file based on the rectangular coordinates and automatically forms the new data file. (USGS)

  20. RFID receiver apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne

    2006-12-26

    An RFID backscatter interrogator for transmitting data to an RFID tag, generating a carrier for the tag, and receiving data from the tag modulated onto the carrier, the interrogator including a single grounded-coplanar wave-guide circuit board and at least one surface mount integrated circuit supported by the circuit board.

  1. Converting accounts receivable into cash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, M D; Roest, P R

    1995-09-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of healthcare providers have converted their accounts receivable into cash through a process called securitization. This practice has gained popularity because it provides a means to raise capital necessary to healthcare organizations. Although securitization transactions can be complex, they may provide increased financial flexibility to providers as they prepare for continuing change in the healthcare industry. PMID:10145096

  2. Contribution to MPC coordination of distributed and power generation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval Moreno, John Anderson

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is mainly about coordination of distributed systems, with a special attention to multi-energy electric power generation ones. For purposes of optimality, as well as constraint enforcement, Model Predictive Control (MPC) is chosen as the underlying tool, while wind turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic panels, and hydroelectric plants are mostly considered as power sources to be controlled and coordinated. In the first place, an application of MPC to a micro-grid system is proposed, i...

  3. Coordinating Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Peterson; Shanna Shulman; Henry Ireys

    2007-01-01

    This brief, the fourth in a series on critical issues involved in caring for children with special health care needs, notes that nearly three-quarters of parents who need professional care coordination services for their child say they do not get enough help—if they get any at all. Moreover, one-third of those who do get help are not fully satisfied with the quality of services they receive. Although many health plans coordinate care for their adult members with chronic conditions and disab...

  4. Cerebellar control of gait and interlimb coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinueza Veloz, María Fernanda; Zhou, Kuikui; Bosman, Laurens W J; Potters, Jan-Willem; Negrello, Mario; Seepers, Robert M; Strydis, Christos; Koekkoek, Sebastiaan K E; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2015-11-01

    Synaptic and intrinsic processing in Purkinje cells, interneurons and granule cells of the cerebellar cortex have been shown to underlie various relatively simple, single-joint, reflex types of motor learning, including eyeblink conditioning and adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. However, to what extent these processes contribute to more complex, multi-joint motor behaviors, such as locomotion performance and adaptation during obstacle crossing, is not well understood. Here, we investigated these functions using the Erasmus Ladder in cell-specific mouse mutant lines that suffer from impaired Purkinje cell output (Pcd), Purkinje cell potentiation (L7-Pp2b), molecular layer interneuron output (L7-Δγ2), and granule cell output (α6-Cacna1a). We found that locomotion performance was severely impaired with small steps and long step times in Pcd and L7-Pp2b mice, whereas it was mildly altered in L7-Δγ2 and not significantly affected in α6-Cacna1a mice. Locomotion adaptation triggered by pairing obstacle appearances with preceding tones at fixed time intervals was impaired in all four mouse lines, in that they all showed inaccurate and inconsistent adaptive walking patterns. Furthermore, all mutants exhibited altered front-hind and left-right interlimb coordination during both performance and adaptation, and inconsistent walking stepping patterns while crossing obstacles. Instead, motivation and avoidance behavior were not compromised in any of the mutants during the Erasmus Ladder task. Our findings indicate that cell type-specific abnormalities in cerebellar microcircuitry can translate into pronounced impairments in locomotion performance and adaptation as well as interlimb coordination, highlighting the general role of the cerebellar cortex in spatiotemporal control of complex multi-joint movements. PMID:25139623

  5. GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING ChunLin; SHI HuLi; HU Chao

    2009-01-01

    The positioning of the GPS or Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) software receiver was developed on a software receiver platform.The structure of the GPSlCAPS dual-mode software receiver was put forward after analyzing the differences in the satellite identification,ranging code,spread spectrum,coordinate system,time system,carrier band,and navigation data between GPS and CAPS.Based on Matlab software on a personal computer,baseband signal processing and positioning procedures were completed using real GPS and CAPS radio frequency signals received by two antennas.Three kinds of experiments including GPS positioning,CAPS positioning,and GPS/CAPS positioning were carried out.Stability and precision of the results were analyzed and compared.The experimental results show that the precision of CAPS is similar to that of GPS,while the positioning precision of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver is 1-2 m higher than that of CAPS or GPS.The smallest average variance of the positioning can be obtained by using the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver.

  6. GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The positioning of the GPS or Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) software receiver was developed on a software receiver platform. The structure of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver was put forward after analyzing the differences in the satellite identification, ranging code, spread spectrum, coordinate system, time system, carrier band, and navigation data between GPS and CAPS. Based on Matlab software on a personal computer, baseband signal processing and positioning procedures were completed using real GPS and CAPS radio frequency signals received by two antennas. Three kinds of experiments including GPS positioning, CAPS positioning, and GPS/CAPS positioning were carried out. Stability and precision of the results were analyzed and compared. The experimental results show that the precision of CAPS is similar to that of GPS, while the positioning precision of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver is 1-2 m higher than that of CAPS or GPS. The smallest average variance of the positioning can be obtained by using the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver.

  7. Usefulness of Interim FDG-PET After Induction Chemotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Sequential Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Induction chemotherapy (ICT) has been used to select patients for organ preservation and determine subsequent treatments in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LASCCHN). Still, the clinical outcomes of LASCCHN patients who showed response to ICT are heterogeneous. We evaluated the efficacy of interim 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after ICT in this specific subgroup of LASCCHN patients who achieved partial response (PR) after ICT to predict clinical outcomes after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with LASCCHN who showed PR to ICT by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors before definitive CCRT were chosen in this retrospective analysis. FDG-PET was performed before and 2-4 weeks after ICT to assess the extent of disease at baseline and the metabolic response to ICT, respectively. We examined the correlation of the metabolic response by the percentage decrease of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on the primary tumor or lymph node after ICT or a specific threshold of SUVmax on interim FDG-PET with clinical outcomes including complete response (CR) rate to CCRT, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: A SUVmax of 4.8 on interim FDG-PET could predict clinical CR after CCRT (100% vs. 20%, p = 0.001), PFS (median, not reached vs. 8.5 mo, p < 0.001), and OS (median, not reached vs. 12.0 months, p = 0.001) with a median follow-up of 20.3 months in surviving patients. A 65% decrease in SUVmax after ICT from baseline also could predict clinical CR after CCRT (100% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.003), PFS (median, not reached vs. 8.9 months, p < 0.001) and OS (median, not reached vs. 24.4 months, p = 0.001) of the patients. Conclusion: These data suggest that interim FDG-PET after ICT might be a useful determinant to predict clinical outcomes in patients with LASCCHN receiving sequential ICT followed by CCRT.

  8. The coordinate transforming in geography information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coordinate transforming of geography information system includes two kinds of transforming, map projection and coordinate-transforming. This paper proposed a arithmetic of coordinate-transforming, it implement the transforming between the longitude-latitude coordinate and the screen coordinate and apply it in the GIS. The preferable effect was made. (authors)

  9. Patrick Janot receives the CNRS silver medal

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Patrick Janot during the award ceremony. (Photo Schwemling, Paris) On 25 November, Patrick Janot of the CERN Physics Department received the CNRS silver medal for IN2P3 (Institut national de physique nucléaire et de physique des particules). This prize, one of the most prestigious awarded by the French research centre, is given to scientists for the 'originality, quality and importance of their work, as recognised both nationally and internationally'. Patrick Janot joined the ALEPH collaboration, one of the four experiments at LEP, then under construction, in 1987. First a CERN Fellow, he went on to work for the CNRS at LAL in 1989. Together with his team, he developed innovative algorithms for the reconstruction of events. This work and others earned him the bronze CNRS medal in 1993, which is awarded to scientists for their first achievements. In 1997, he became a permanent physicist at CERN, where he continued to work for ALEPH. He was appointed LEP scientific co-ordinator for the last two years of the ac...

  10. CERN safety expert receives international award

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On 18 December 2004, the President of the Swiss Electro-technical Committee, Martin Reichle (left), presented the award to Helmut Schönbacher. Helmut Schönbacher, of the Safety Commission at CERN, has received, the "1906 Award" of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for his standardisation work on the influence of ionizing radiation on insulating materials. From 1986 until 2004, Schönbacher was leader of a working group on radiation composed of internationally recognised experts. It edited standards of the IEC 60544 series on the determination of the effects of ionizing radiation on electrical insulating materials. The working group also edited three IEC Technical Reports on the determination of long-term radiation ageing in polymers. This standardisation work and long-term experience from CERN on the radiation ageing of materials also contributed to research coordination programmes of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). From 1968 until 1988, Schönbacher was a member of the Rad...

  11. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    and surgical performance. This has prompted the attention of both practitioners and politicians some of who perceive relational coordination as a means to attain better performance. The relational coordination instrument has been validated as a measure of teamwork from the following perspectives......: internal consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument...... the change using the relational coordination instrument. Managers were interviewed before the projects and a chronicle workshop (structured group interview) were performed after the project. This design allows us to compare the qualitative descriptions of change in the wards, with the measured change...

  12. Coordination Games on Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Pestelacci

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a model in which agents of a population interacting according to a network of contacts play games of coordination with each other and can also dynamically break and redirect links to neighbors if they are unsatisfied. As a result, there is co-evolution of strategies in the population and of the graph that represents the network of contacts. We apply the model to the class of pure and general coordination games. For pure coordination games, the networks co-evolve towards the polarization of different strategies. In the case of general coordination games our results show that the possibility of refusing neighbors and choosing different partners increases the success rate of the Pareto-dominant equilibrium.

  13. Who matters in coordination problems?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sákovics, J.; Steiner, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 7 (2012), s. 3439-3461. ISSN 0002-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : coordination problems * heterogeneous agents Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2012

  14. Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

  15. Kaluza's theory in generalized coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    García-Perciante, A L; García-Colin, L S; Garcia-Perciante, Ana Laura; Sandoval-Villalbazo, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    Maxwell's equations can be obtained in generalized coordinates by considering the electromagnetic field as an external agent. The work here presented shows how to obtain the electrodynamics for a charged particle in generalized coordinates eliminating the concept of external force. Based on Kaluza's formalism, the one here presented extends the 5x5 metric into a 6x6 space-time giving enough room to include magnetic monopoles in a very natural way.

  16. Coordinated Design In Urban Environments

    OpenAIRE

    KAMALI, Fereshteh Pashaei; RAZMGIR, Akramalsadat; KHOBRO, Babaksimintan; BARADARAN, Alireza Ghandriz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In a society in which accepting sociability, consensus and collective product are emphasized, new buildings try to coordinate themselves with the existing patterns. Edmund Bacon (1979) has searched the formation of urban landscape coordinated with manner of relation in which architects have worked in one place but in different times and by stating,the second person’s theory, emphasized that the second designer determines that whether the first architectural work is valuable or recog...

  17. Currency Areas and Monetary Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Liu; Shouyong Shi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we integrate the recent development in monetary theory with international finance, in order to examine the coordination between two currency areas in setting long-run inflation. The model determines the value of each currency and the size of each currency area without requiring buyers to use a particular currency to buy a country's goods. We show that the two countries inflate above the Friedman rule in a non-cooperative game. Coordination between the two areas reduces inflation...

  18. Coordination Demands of International Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jon I Martinez; J Carlos Jarillo

    1991-01-01

    A study of fifty subsidiaries of Multinational Corporations shows a connection between their strategy and their use of different mechanisms of coordination. The main finding is that subsidiaries pursuing strategies with a high degree of integration with their corporate parent make a much more extensive use of both “formal” and “subtle” coordination mechanisms than other firms in the sample. These results are borne out in both static and dynamic tests. They confirm previous literature on coord...

  19. Consumption externalities, coordination and advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Pastine, Tuvana; Pastine, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this Paper is to demonstrate that advertising can have an important function in markets with consumption externalities, apart from its persuasive and informative roles. We show that advertising may function as a device to coordinate consumer expectations of the purchasing decisions of other consumers in markets with consumption externalities. The implications of advertising as a coordinating device are examined in the pricing and advertising decisions of firms interacting strategic...

  20. Comsumption Externalities, Coordination, and Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Pastine; Tuvana Pastine

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate that advertising can have an important function in markets with consumption externalities apart from its persuasive and informative roles. We show that advertising may function as a device to coordinate consumer expectations of the purchasing decisions of other consumers in markets with consumption externalities. The implications of advertising as a coordinating device are examined in the pricing and advertising decisions of firms interacting strategi...

  1. Co-ordination and specialisation

    OpenAIRE

    Egidi, Massimo; Ricottilli, Massimo

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of division of labour as an evolutionary process in which co-ordinated agents attempt problem-solving as a search in problem space. Co-ordination stress and learning trigger adaptation but as complexity rises radical solutions are sought prompting radical organisational as well as technological change. The analytical issues involved are further explored by resorting to the so-called NKC model of evolution and co-evolution.

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI; Seyyed Hossein FAKHRAEE; Sina MIRAFKHAMI; Mojtaba YOUSEFI; Mona VARZANDEH FAR

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD), that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association  (APA). DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantl...

  3. Alteration of cellular and subcellular electrophysiological parameters in mammalian cells by high- and low-LET irradiation at low dose-levels. Part of a coordinated programme on cell membrane probes as biological indicators in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transmembrane resting potential (MRP) was chosen as a highly sensitive indicator for cellular reactions. The MRP was studied for its suitability as biological indicator of the level of accidental radiation exposure. The development of methodology and installation of a low-cost test chamber, and dose-response studies of MRP-changes of human cells after irradiation with low- and high-LET radiation were considered. Cultured human embryonic lung fibroblasts and human lung biopsy samples were used, with a Co-60 source for low-LET irradiation at dose rates of 2 rad and 20 rad/min, respectively. For high-LET irradiation an Am-241 source was used. The onset of radiation induced effects on cell membranes was prompt but of short duration. In general, full recovery followed within hours of irradiation, at least under the particular experimental conditions. MRP changes in irradiated cells proved a highly sensitive parameter for assessing radiation effects on cell membranes. It appears premature to draw conclusions on the suitability of the method as a biological indicator of radiation damage from accidental exposure, in view of the short duration and prompt reversibility of the effects, and an incomplete understanding of the radiation-induced reactions involved at different LET's and at different doses and dose-rates

  4. Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time/pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.

  5. The GBT 4mm Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayer, David T.; White, S.; Watts, G.; Stennes, M.; Maddalena, R. J.; Simon, R.; Pospieszalski, M.; Bryerton, E.

    2013-01-01

    The new 4mm receiver (67--93 GHz) for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built to take advantage of the improved surface accuracy of the dish. The low frequency end of the 3mm atmospheric window is not available with ALMA (National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  6. Customer experiences receiving investment services

    OpenAIRE

    Szepe, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Today the customers are able to compare the products of the different services available easily and between service companies, the experience the customer receives has become more and more important. Banking services have experienced the same evolution than the other surrounding service companies, and the importance of more complicated advisory services is sought after, when simpler transactions are taken care by the customers themselves. Investment services are one of the highest profiti...

  7. SPREE: Spoofing Resistant GPS Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganathan, Aanjhan; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Capkun, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is used ubiquitously in a wide variety of applications ranging from navigation and tracking to modern smart grids and communication networks. However, it has been demonstrated that modern GPS receivers are vulnerable to signal spoofing attacks. For example, today it is possible to change the course of a ship or force a drone to land in an hostile area by simply spoofing GPS signals. Several countermeasures have been proposed in the past to detect GPS spoofing a...

  8. Diversity of MMSE MIMO Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mehana, Ahmed Hesham

    2011-01-01

    In most MIMO systems, the family of waterfall error curves, calculated at different spectral efficiencies, are asymptotically parallel at high SNR. In other words, most MIMO systems exhibit a single diversity value for all {\\em fixed} rates. The MIMO MMSE receiver does not follow this pattern and exhibits a varying diversity in its family of error curves. This effect cannot be captured by DMT analysis, due to the fact that all fixed rates correspond to the same multiplexing gain, thus they cannot be differentiated within DMT analysis. This work analyzes this interesting behavior of the MMSE MIMO receiver and produces the MMSE MIMO diversity at each rate. The diversity of the quasi-static flat-fading MIMO channel consisting of any arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas is fully characterized, showing that full spatial diversity is possible for all antenna configurations if and only if the rate is within a certain bound which is a function of the number of antennas. For other rate brackets, the avail...

  9. 78 FR 44519 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Office of the Secretary Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Re-establishment of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee and call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture re-established the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee...

  10. 78 FR 34035 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee will meet via teleconference every month on... conference call will be posted to the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site,...

  11. Non-invasive procedures to measure tumour cell turnover in solid tumours treated with radiation and radiosensitizers. Coordinated programme on improvement in radiotherapy of cancer using modifiers of radiosensitivity of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body irradiation of mice causes the dose-dependent appearance of a humoral factor in blood serum which inhibits incorporation of 125-iodo-deoxyuridine (125-IUdR) into tissue culture cells. This factor appears even at doses below 0.01 Gy gamma irradiation and thus is probably not related to cell death. Data are presented relating this humoral factor to thymidine. In an attempt to optimize the chemotherapeutic treatment of mouse tumor sarcoma-180, liposomes containing cis-dichlorodiammine-platinum II (PDD), having transition temperatures a few degrees higher than the rectal temperature of mice, were used in combination with local hyperthermia. The uptake of radioactive PDD by tumors heated for 1 hour at 420 was almost four-fold greater when the drug was associated in liposomes than if administered as free drug. The effect of various combinations of hyperthermia, drug-containing liposomes and free PDD on tumor growth was also studied. Treatment with liposome associated PDD plus local heating resulted in a dose-modifying factor of 7 when compared with free drug and no hyperthermia. The mode of action of the antitumor agent PDD was also studied in vivo either alone or in combination with ionizing radiation on a solid experimental murine tumor. The effects were assayed in vivo by volumetric measurements, in addition 125-IUdR was used for tracing DNA precursor incorporation. Activity loss from euoxic and average tumor cells was evaluated with a double tracer technique. PDD is a potent adjunct to therapy with different LET radiation causing distinct effect in euoxic and hypoxic cells

  12. S1415CD, Prophylactic Colony Stimulating Factor Management in Patients With Breast, Colorectal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy and With Risk of Developing Febrile Neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Febrile Neutropenia; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer; Stage 0 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer

  13. Learning to Coordinate Efficiently: A Model-based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Brafman, R I; 10.1613/jair.1154

    2011-01-01

    In common-interest stochastic games all players receive an identical payoff. Players participating in such games must learn to coordinate with each other in order to receive the highest-possible value. A number of reinforcement learning algorithms have been proposed for this problem, and some have been shown to converge to good solutions in the limit. In this paper we show that using very simple model-based algorithms, much better (i.e., polynomial) convergence rates can be attained. Moreover, our model-based algorithms are guaranteed to converge to the optimal value, unlike many of the existing algorithms.

  14. Cytotoxicity of cyclometalated platinum complexes based on tridentate NCN and CNN-coordinating ligands: remarkable coordination dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzu, Dileep A K; Lu, Qun; Chen, Yan-Hua; Huo, Shouquan

    2014-05-01

    A series of cyclometalated platinum complexes with diverse coordination patterns and geometries were screened for their anticancer activity. It was discovered that the N^C^N-coordinated platinum complex based on 1,3-di(pyridyl)benzene displayed much higher cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cells NCI-H522, HCC827, and NCI-H1299, and human prostate cancer cell RV1 than cisplatin. In a sharp contrast, the C^N^N-coordinated platinum complex based on 6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine was ineffective on these cancer cells. This remarkable difference in cytotoxicity displayed by N^C^N- and C^N^N-coordinated platinum complexes was related to the trans effect of the carbon donor in the cyclometalated platinum complexes, which played a crucial role in facilitating the dissociation of the chloride ligand to create an active binding site. The DNA binding was studied for the N^C^N-coordinated platinum complex using electrophoresis and emission titration. The cellular uptake observed by fluorescent microscope showed that the complex is largely concentrated in the cytoplasm. The possible pathways for the cell apoptosis were studied by western blot analysis and the activation of PARP via caspase 7 was observed. PMID:24531534

  15. Enhancement of the radiation-lethal effect of hypoxic cancer cells by some nitroheterocyclic compounds. Part of a coordinated programme on the improvement of radiotherapy of cancer using modifiers of radiosensitivity of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities to enhance the lethal effect of ionizing radiation on hypoxic cells by electron-affinic compounds have stimulated the investigations for finding new chemicals with radiobiological and pharmacological features as adequate as possible. On the other hand, the experimental studies and clinical trials had shown that the aerobic toxicity seems to be the major limiting factor in the use of large doses of radiosensitizers required to achieve significant therapeutic efficiency. The investigations in the present paper were attempted to join these two main directions of research and comprised the syntheses of new nitroheterocyclic compounds with potential radiosensitization properties and the knowledge of biochemical alterations involved in the producing of aerobic toxicity of radiosensitizers aiming to find practical solutions to enhance the efficiency of radiotherapy. Several newly synthesized compounds were tested for their radiosensitizing effect. The experiments carried out on hypoxic cells V 79 showed that only 1-(hydroxyethyl-2'-phosphate)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, dipotassium salt displayed an enhancement ratio of 1.17 (at 8 mM), but lower than in case of parent compound, metronidazole (enhancement ratio = 1.53). It was shown that hypoxic cell radiosensitizers interfere with the cellular energy metabolism. These interferences were found dependent on the electron affinity of drugs. In addition, those radiosensitizers producing a decrease in oxygen consumption caused a supplementary oxygenation of both normal and tumour tissues. It is concluded that the improvement of therapeutic efficiency of radiosensitizers by reducing their aerobic toxicity might be achieved by diminishing their effects on the energy metabolism or by the stimulation of this metabolism and restoration of tissue redox equilibrium

  16. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    . Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...... transmission and functionally isolated pressure receiver ears in the mammals. Since some of the binaural interaction already takes place at the eardrum in animals with strongly coupled ears, producing enhanced interaural time and level differences, the subsequent neural processing may be simpler. In robotic...

  17. Andrea Ghez Receives Crafoord Prize

    OpenAIRE

    Sher, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Scienceshas selected Andrea Ghez, a professor of physics and astronomy at UCLA, to receive the 2012 Crafoord Prize in Astronomy. She is being honored by the Academy for “observations of stars orbiting the Galactic center, indicating the presence of a supermassive black hole.” The Crafoord Prize, which includes an accompanying award of 4 million Swedish krona, is considered one of the world’s largest scientific prizes. Ghez is the first woman to win the award since...

  18. Stennis group receives NESC award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering & Safety Center recently presented its Group Achievement Award to a Stennis team in recognition of technical excellence in evaluating the operational anomalies and reliability improvements associated with the space shuttle engine cut-off system. Stennis employees receiving the award were: (standing, l to r) Freddie Douglas (NASA), George Drouant (Jacobs Technology Inc.), Fred Abell (Jacobs), Robert Drackett (Jacobs) and Mike Smiles (NASA); (seated, l to r): Binh Nguyen (Jacobs), Stennis Director Gene Goldman and Joseph Lacker (NASA). Phillip Hebert of NASA is not pictured.

  19. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  20. Communication received from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  1. Statistical characteristics of L1 carrier phase observations from four low-cost GPS receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederholm, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    fixed solution and zero baseline coordinate components computed on an epoch-by-epoch basis are used for accessing the statistical properties of the observations. Graphical statistical methods are used for characterizing the statistical properties. For each type of receiver, the residuals have a sample...... mean value close to zero and the sample variance is time invariant. The residuals from one type of receiver deviate from being normally distributed, whereas the residuals from the remaining receivers are close to being normally distributed. Two of the receivers deliver uncorrelated carrier phase...... observations. Some of the carrier phase observations from the other two receivers are serially correlated. The correlation is receiver specific and is related to the individual channels of the receivers....

  2. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  3. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. A.; Holland, D.; Bland, J.; Johnson, C. E.; Thomas, M. F.

    2003-02-01

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb2O3]x - [ZnCl2]1-x where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb)2(OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn)2(OSb)2].

  4. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb2O3]x - [ZnCl2]1-x where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Moessbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb)2(OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn)2(OSb)2

  5. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J A [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Holland, D [Physics Department, Warwick University, Coventry (United Kingdom); Bland, J [Physics Department, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Johnson, C E [Physics Department, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Thomas, M F [Physics Department, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-19

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}]{sub x} - [ZnCl{sub 2}]{sub 1-x} where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Moessbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb){sub 2}(OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn){sub 2}(OSb){sub 2}].

  6. COCO: Conversion of Celestial Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The COCO program converts star coordinates from one system to another. Both the improved IAU system, post-1976, and the old pre-1976 system are supported. COCO can perform accurate transformations between multiple coordinate systems. COCO's user-interface is spartan but efficient and the program offers control over report resolution. All input is free-format, and defaults are provided where this is meaningful. COCO uses SLALIB (ascl:1403.025) and is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

  7. Neuromuscular synaptogenesis: coordinating partners with multiple functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabid, Houssam; Perez-Gonzalez, Anna P; Robitaille, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The formation of highly efficient and reliable synapses at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) relies on dynamic molecular interactions. Studies of the development and maturation of the NMJ have focused on events that are dependent on synaptic activity and that require the coordinated actions of nerve- and muscle-derived molecules with different targets and effects. More recently, perisynaptic Schwann cells--the glial cells at NMJs--have become an important focus of research. These glia concomitantly contribute to pre- and postsynaptic maturation while undergoing maturation themselves. Thus, an intricate 'danse à trois’'regulates the maturation of the NMJ to form a highly efficient communication unit, in which fine glial processes lie in close proximity to a highly concentrated population of postsynaptic receptors and perfectly aligned presynaptic release sites. PMID:25493308

  8. Coordination pattern adaptability: energy cost of degenerate behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Komar, John; Crettenand, Florent; Millet, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated behavioral adaptability, which could be defined as a blend between stability and flexibility of the limbs movement and their inter-limb coordination, when individuals received informational constraints. Seven expert breaststroke swimmers performed three 200-m in breaststroke at constant submaximal intensity. Each trial was performed randomly in a different coordination pattern: 'freely-chosen', 'maximal glide' and 'minimal glide'. Two underwater and four aerial cameras enabled 3D movement analysis in order to assess elbow and knee angles, elbow-knee pair coordination, intra-cyclic velocity variations of the center of mass, stroke rate and stroke length and inter-limb coordination. The energy cost of locomotion was calculated from gas exchanges and blood lactate concentration. The results showed significantly higher glide, intra-cyclic velocity variations and energy cost under 'maximal glide' compared to 'freely-chosen' instructional conditions, as well as higher reorganization of limb movement and inter-limb coordination (padaptations can functionally satisfy the task-goal. PMID:25255016

  9. CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.

  10. Modelling coordination in biological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, D.G.; Oliveira Costa, D.F. de; Arbab, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present an application of the Reo coordination paradigm to provide a compositional formal model for describing and reasoning about the behaviour of biological systems, such as regulatory gene networks. Reo governs the interaction and flow of data between components by allowing the construction of

  11. Coordinate Geometric Approach to Spherometer

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The spherometer used for measuring radius of curvature of spherical surfaces is explicitly based on a geometric relation unique to circles and spheres. We present an alternate approach using coordinate geometry, which reproduces the well-known result for the spherometer and also leads to a scheme to study aspherical surfaces. We shall also briefly describe some of the modified spherometers.

  12. Coordinating talk and practical action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Streeck, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how talk and practical action are coordinated during one type of activity involving professional communication: the service-assessment sequence in hair salons. During this activity, a practical inspection of the haircut must be coupled with sequentially produced verbal acts...

  13. Information Sharing for Care Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Ofra; Grosz, Barbara J.; Stern, Roni; Sanders, Lee M.

    2013-01-01

    Teamwork and care coordination are of increasing importance to health care delivery and patient safety and health. This paper describes our initial work on developing agents that are able to make intelligent information sharing decisions to support a diverse, evolving team of care providers in constructing and maintaining a shared plan that operates in uncertain environments and over a long time horizon.

  14. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Confn(ℙ3) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A7,2M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Confn(ℙ3). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A7,2M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  15. [Coordination in oncology, pivot nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    The function of the pivot nurse was created when the Cancer Plans were first introduced to improve patient management and has constantly developed since then. It is an essential role for the coordination of care and the different players involved along the patient's care pathway. PMID:27338685

  16. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  17. Remote bistatic receiver synchronization using DLL techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguasca, A.; Broquetas, A.; Fdez de Muniain, J.; Ambros, A.

    An experimental staggered pulse repetition frequency synchronizer, based on a delay-lock loop (DLL) was tested using a transmitter signal simulator that simulates the staggering sequence windowed by the antenna beam. The measured system performance ensures synchronization with a 30-ms direct illumination, with an accumulated delay error in the order of the resolution cell positioning error in range. An artificial time expansion of the received pulses is performed in order to reduce the acquisition time synchronization. A bistatic radar synchronization method based on DLL was is analyzed by linearization of the different parts and signals involved. The parameters that degrade system performance are obtained. And some solutions are represented in order to minimize their effects.

  18. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is an important Brazilian economic activity participating of income generation. European breeds cattle aren’t adapted to parasites found in the tropics, like the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Parasites can acquire resistance to allopathic products, but not to homeopathic products. We evaluate the efficacy of an antiparasiticide biotherapic against the R. microplus tick. The biotherapic was prepared according to the homeopathic pharmacopoeia recommendations from vegetable (Abrotanum and animal products (Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma cajenennense, Haematobia irritans, Musca domestica, Dermatobia hominis, all diluted and vigorous shaken (dynamized in water or alcohol at a ratio of 1:99, in the 12th Centesimal Hahnemann (CH12, with limestone as the carrier. This homeophatic product found in veterinary pharmacies of Ituiutaba’s region, Minas Gerais State, is registered at Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA. Natural tick infestation was accessed in thirty Girolando (Gir x Holstein cows with 7 to 13 year-old, by monthly counting of tick female bigger than 6 mm, from October/2009 to July/2011. Cows were divided in three groups of 10 similar animals. The treated group (T1 received roughage, concentrate and biotherapic. The placebo group (T2 received roughage, concentrate and limestone and the control group (T3 received only roughage and concentrate. T1 and T2 groups were managed together and remained in the same paddock. T3 group was separed from T1 and T2 by a wire fence. From October 2009 to September 2010 blood cell counts and serum biochemical tests were performed monthly only in T1 and T2, but visual clinical observations were made in all animals. Any group was treated with acaricide when the count’s average reached 50 or more ticks. It was necessary 7 baths with acaricide in T1 and T2, while in T3 group (control group it was necessary 19 acaricide baths to control the cattle tick. We verified

  19. Motor coordination problems in children and adolescents with ADHD rated by parents and teachers: effects of age and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Fliers, E.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Vermeulen, S. H.; Altink, M.; Buschgens, C.J.M.; Faraone, S. V.; Sergeant, J.A.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary. Objective. ADHD is frequently accompanied by motor coordination problems. However, the co-occurrence of poor motor performance has received less attention in research than other coexisting problems in ADHD. The underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of motor coordination problems in a large sample of children with ADHD, and the relationship between motor coordination problems and inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive sympto...

  20. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  1. Effects ofMatricaria chamomilla extract on motor coordination impairment induced by scopolamine in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samira Asgharzade; Zahra Rabiei; Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of chamomile on balance and motor learning in rats receiving scopolamine and intact rats. Methods: Fourty-two rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 7). Control group received distilled water. Rats in Group 2 were given 1 mg/kg scopolamine. Groups 3 and 4 received chamomile extract 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and scopolamine simultaneously for 20 days. Intact groups (Groups 5 and 6) only received chamomile extract 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Motor coordination of rats was assessed with rotarod apparatus. Results:According to the obtained results, compared with the control group, scopolamine significantly decreased time spent on rotarod performance (P Conclusions: The results of this study indicated the high antioxidant property and protective effect of chamomile extract on motor coordination in the groups that received scopolamine.

  2. Managing Coordinator, Educational or Entrepreneurial Coordinator: Course Coordinator Profile Analysis at Private HEIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Augusta de Araújo Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher Education dynamics is impacted by political, economic and financial interference. In parallel, the Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC is strict in its reviews to ensure Brazilian higher education is appreciated and promoted. The purpose of this study is to identify the profile of Course Coordinators and factors that might improve, at the surveyed HEIs, this professional´s relationship with students, teaching staff and Directors. Literature was searched and reviewed so as to collect subject matter pertaining issues. A quantitative research approach was employed and objectives were of exploratory descriptive nature since this technique ensures extended comprehension of the investigated phenomenon, whilst data was gathered via personal interviews. The object of investigation comprised all Course Coordinators of the Estácio/Natal Group in Brazil´s four units. The survey´s tool comprises: 13 closed questions to identify the Coordinator´s profile; 17 questions with a 5 point Likert score scale to identify the entrepreneurial profile; 42 also resorting to a 5 point Likert score scale to measure the dimensions of the Coordinator´s activities and 4 open, optional questions to measure difficulties and possibilities that impact the development of an entrepreneurial course management approach. The study employed both a statistical method (data analysis and descriptive statistics. Findings lead to the conclusion that information and knowledge gathered support researched HEIs in their overcoming of challenges, amongst which encouraging strategic course management and innovation, focused on implementing a new vision of the Course Coordinator, as professionals that master how to balance management and pedagogical skills, whilst innovating by resorting to entrepreneurial competencies.

  3. A coordination theory for intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei-Yue; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    A formal model for the coordination level of intelligent machines is established. The framework of the coordination level investigated consists of one dispatcher and a number of coordinators. The model called coordination structure has been used to describe analytically the information structure and information flow for the coordination activities in the coordination level. Specifically, the coordination structure offers a formalism to (1) describe the task translation of the dispatcher and coordinators; (2) represent the individual process within the dispatcher and coordinators; (3) specify the cooperation and connection among the dispatcher and coordinators; (4) perform the process analysis and evaluation; and (5) provide a control and communication mechanism for the real-time monitor or simulation of the coordination process. A simple procedure for the task scheduling in the coordination structure is presented. The task translation is achieved by a stochastic learning algorithm. The learning process is measured with entropy and its convergence is guaranteed. Finally, a case study of the coordination structure with three coordinators and one dispatcher for a simple intelligent manipulator system illustrates the proposed model and the simulation of the task processes performed on the model verifies the soundness of the theory.

  4. Supply Chain Reorganization and Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-bin

    2001-01-01

    Three generic forms of governance--hierarchy, hybrid and market are proposed in the newinstitutional economics, giving an abstract description of alternative coordination and control mechanisms forgeneral use. While this theory is known as far away from being operational and specified, a few researchersin the management and organization area are trying to extend Galbraith and/or Mintzberg's organizationaldesign theories into the application of logistical coordination for obtaining a smooth flow of products along thesupply chain within and without the focal organization. In this paper, we present an explorative case study onthe design of various organizational architectures of logistics activities and their relevant coordinationmechanisms, especially internal and external contracts as one new kind of hybrid mechanisms forcoordinating effective supply chains.

  5. Structuring a sound securitization of healthcare receivables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradling, Mark

    2003-02-01

    Securitization of receivables allows healthcare providers to obtain an additional funding source by selling their accounts receivables to investors. A double-lock-box structure allows providers to securitize Medicare and Medicaid receivables without violating federal laws. A 2001 revision to the Uniform Commercial Code facilitates providers' securitization of private healthcare insurance receivables by underscoring rights of a purchaser of those receivables. HIPAA privacy standards appear to permit the use and disclosure of protected health information in crafting a securitization program. The securitization should be structured to shield the value of the receivables to be transferred from the potential backruptcies of the originator and the purchaser. PMID:12602313

  6. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, James

    2005-01-01

    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  7. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 3. Appendices. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    A design study for a central receiver/fossil fuel hybrid power system using molten salts for heat transfer and heat storage is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (A) parametric salt piping data; (B) sample heat exchanger calculations; (C) salt chemistry and salt/materials compatibility evaluation; (D) heliostat field coordinates; (E) data lists; (F) STEAEC program input data; (G) hybrid receiver design drawings; (H) hybrid receiver absorber tube thermal math model; (I) piping stress analysis; (J) 100-MWe 18-hour storage solar central receiver hybrid power system capital cost worksheets; and (K) 500-MWe 18-hour solar central receiver hybrid power system cost breakdown. (WHK)

  8. Modelling coordination in biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, David; Oliveira Costa, de, David; Arbab, Farhad

    2004-01-01

    We present an application of the Reo coordination paradigm to provide a compositional formal model for describing and reasoning about the behaviour of biological systems, such as regulatory gene networks. Reo governs the interaction and flow of data between components by allowing the construction of connector circuits which have a precise formal semantics. When applied to systems biology, the result is a graphical model, which is comprehensible, mathematically precise, and flexible

  9. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1991-07-01

    Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

  10. A Classroom Investment Coordination Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Hazlett

    2007-01-01

    In this classroom experiment students represent firms that make investment decisions. They play a repeated game with each firm privately choosing its level of investment. Participating in the experiment helps students understand theories that posit coordination failure as the cause of economic fluctuations. Students see that when firms expect a recession, their resulting low levels of investment actually cause a recession. Likewise, when firms expect an expansion, their resulting high levels ...

  11. Coordination of traffic lights evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ordeig Vila, Enric

    2012-01-01

    This case study consists in the evaluation of the Kaunas city traffic speed taking into consideration that traffic lights were coordinated. Kaunas suffers from high traffic intensity and, as a consequence, traffic jams often, and happens mainly because the city can only be crossed by the center. Lithuania, as the rest of Europe experienced a big growth, from 1995 to 2005 coinciding with the crisis, that is to say that number of cars increased to highest levels as well as the ...

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD, that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association  (APA. DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantly interfere with their academic achievements and /or performing everyday activities. As they develop, other age-related tasks are also below average. Because these impairment & conditions are often associated with emotional distress, they can seriously interfere with the person's everyday life and social relationships. Reviews indicate that most of the training rocedures have only a limited effect on the development of general coordination, and that they have no effect at all on academic progress.This includes approaches based on assumed underlying deficiencies such as sensory integration deficits and kinesthetic functioning deficits, as well as the more traditional perceptual - motor training. One new approach is Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP, based on problem - solving strategies and guided discovery of the child and task specific strategies. The aim of this article was to inform, promote and disseminate more information about some difficulties in applying the diagnostic criteria for DCD. Also, a brief review of the researches on the intervention methods is presented.Keywords: Developmental coordination disorder, Motor skills disorder, Childhood disorder, Intervention methods

  13. Relative observability in coordination control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš; van Schuppen, J. H.

    Piscataway: IEEE, 2015 - (Lennartson, B.), s. 75-80 ISBN 978-1-4673-8182-6. [IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 2015. Gothenburg (SE), 24.08.2015-28.08.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13012; GA ČR GA15-02532S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : supervisory control * coordination control * relative observability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=7294044

  14. Multirobot Coordination for Space Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Yliniemi, Logan; Oregon State University; Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan; Oregon State University

    2014-01-01

    Teams of artificially intelligent planetary rovers have tremendous potential for space exploration, allowing for reduced cost, increased flexibility and increased reliability. However, having these multiple autonomous devices acting simultaneously leads to a problem of coordination: to achieve the best results, the they should work together. This is not a simple task. Due to the large distances and harsh environments, a rover must be able to perform a wide variety of tasks with a wide variety...

  15. Measuring Motor Coordination in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Deacon, Robert M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Mice are increasingly being used in behavioral neuroscience, largely replacing rats as the behaviorist's animal of choice. Before aspects of behavior such as emotionality or cognition can be assessed, however, it is vital to determine whether the motor capabilities of e.g. a mutant or lesioned mouse allow such an assessment. Performance on a maze task requiring strength and coordination, such as the Morris water maze, might well be impaired in a mouse by motor, rather than cognitive, impairme...

  16. Equatorially coordinated lanthanide single ion magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Li; Wang, Chao; Xue, Shufang; Lin, Shuang-Yan; Tang, Jinkui

    2014-03-26

    The magnetic relaxation dynamics of low-coordinate Dy(III) and Er(III) complexes, namely three-coordinate ones with an equatorially coordinated triangle geometry and five-coordinate ones with a trigonal bipyramidal geometry, have been exploited for the first time. The three-coordinate Er-based complex is the first equatorially coordinated mononuclear Er-based single-molecule magnet (SMM) corroborating that simple models can effectively direct the design of target SMMs incorporating 4f-elements. PMID:24625001

  17. Porphyrin coordination polymer nanospheres and nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongchun; Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.

    2012-12-04

    A porphyrin coordination polymer nanostructure comprising a network of pyridyl porphyrin molecules and coordinating metal ions coordinatively bound through the pyridyl groups. In some embodiments, the porphyrins are metalloporphyrins. A variety of nanostructures are formed by the network polymer, including nanospheres, polygonal nanostructures, nanorods, and nanofibers, depending on a variety of factors including coordination metal ion, porphyrin type, metal of the metalloporphyrin, and degree of agitation during nanostructure formation. Reduction of coordinating metal ions may be used to form metal nanoparticles on the coordination polymer nanostructure.

  18. Fermi coordinates and Penrose limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Matthias; Frank, Denis; Weiss, Sebastian [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel Rue Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2006-06-07

    We propose a formulation of the Penrose plane wave limit in terms of null Fermi coordinates. This provides a physically intuitive (Fermi coordinates are direct measures of geodesic distance in spacetime) and manifestly covariant description of the expansion around the plane wave metric in terms of components of the curvature tensor of the original metric, and generalizes the covariant description of the lowest order Penrose limit metric itself, obtained in Blau et al (2004 Class. Quantum Grav. 21 L43-9). We describe in some detail the construction of null Fermi coordinates and the corresponding expansion of the metric, and then study various aspects of the higher order corrections to the Penrose limit. In particular, we observe that in general the first-order corrected metric is such that it admits a light-cone gauge description in string theory. We also establish a formal analogue of the Weyl tensor peeling theorem for the Penrose limit expansion in any dimension, and we give a simple derivation of the leading (quadratic) corrections to the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}.

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD, that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association (APA. DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantly interfere with their academic achievements and /or performing everyday activities. As they develop, other age-related tasks are also below average. Because these impairment & conditions are often associated with emotional distress, they can seriously interfere with the person's everyday life and social relationships. Reviews indicate that most of the training rocedures have only a limited effect on the development of general coordination, and that they have no effect at all on academic progress.This includes approaches based on assumed underlying deficiencies such as sensory integration deficits and kinesthetic functioning deficits, as well as the more traditional perceptual - motor training. One new approach is Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP, based on problem - solving strategies and guided discovery of the child and task specific strategies. The aim of this article was to inform, promote and disseminate more information about some difficulties in applying the diagnostic criteria for DCD. Also, a brief review of the researches on the intervention methods is presented.

  20. Community-based care coordination: practical applications for childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, Sally; Rosenthal, Michael; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Damitz, Maureen; Lara, Marielena; Mansfield, Carol; Matiz, Adriana; Nourani, Vesall; Peretz, Patricia; Persky, Victoria W; Valencia, Gilberto Ramos; Uyeda, Kimberly; Viswanathan, Meera

    2011-11-01

    Care coordination programs have been used to address chronic illnesses, including childhood asthma, but primarily via practice-based models. An alternative approach employs community-based care coordinators who bridge gaps between families, health care providers, and support services. Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. (MCAN) sites developed community-based care coordination approaches for childhood asthma. Using a community-based care coordination logic model, programs at each site are described along with program operational statistics. Four sites used three to four community health workers (CHWs) to provide care coordination, whereas one site used five school-based asthma nurses. This school-based site had the highest caseload (82.5 per year), but program duration was 3 months with 4 calls or visits. Other sites averaged fewer cases (35 to 61 per CHW per year), but families received more (7 to 17) calls or visits over a year. Retention was 43% to 93% at 6 months and 24% to 75% at 12 months. Pre-post cross-site data document changes in asthma management behaviors and outcomes. After program participation, 93% to 100% of caregivers had confidence in controlling their child's asthma, 85% to 92% had taken steps to reduce triggers, 69% to 100% had obtained an asthma action plan, and 46% to 100% of those with moderate to severe asthma reported appropriate use of controller medication. Emergency department visits for asthma decreased by 36% to 63%, and asthma-related hospitalizations declined by 26% to 78%. More than three fourths had fewer school absences. In conclusion, MCAN community-based care coordination programs improved management behaviors and decreased morbidity across all sites. PMID:22068360

  1. Coordination of gene expression between organellar and nuclear genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Jesse D.; Chory, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Following the acquisition of chloroplasts and mitochondria by eukaryotic cells during endosymbiotic evolution, most of the genes in these organelles were either lost or transferred to the nucleus. Encoding organelle-destined proteins in the nucleus allows for host control of the organelle. In return, organelles send signals to the nucleus to coordinate nuclear and organellar activities. In photosynthetic eukaryotes, additional interactions exist between mitochondria and chloroplasts. Here we review recent advances in elucidating the intracellular signalling pathways that coordinate gene expression between organelles and the nucleus, with a focus on photosynthetic plants. PMID:18368053

  2. Wireless coordinated multicell systems architectures and precoding designs

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Duy H N

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the current research on coordinated multipoint transmission/reception (CoMP) in wireless multi-cell systems. This book analyzes the structure of the CoMP precoders and the message exchange mechanism in the CoMP system in order to reveal the advantage of CoMP. Topics include interference management in wireless cellular networks, joint signal processing, interference coordination, uplink and downlink precoding and system models. After an exploration of the motivations and concepts of CoMP, the authors present the architectures of a CoMP system. Practical implementati

  3. Improved outcome of patients older than 30 years receiving HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe acquired aplastic anemia using fludarabine-based conditioning: a comparison with conventional conditioning regimen

    OpenAIRE

    Maury, Sébastien; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Anderlini, Paolo; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Marsh, Judith; Socié, Gérard; Oneto, Rosi; Passweg, Jakob R

    2009-01-01

    Upfront or second line allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a good disease-free survival option for patients suffering from severe idiopathic aplastic anemia. This report shows improved outcome of reduced-intensity versus conventional conditioning in HLA-identical sibling HSCT for older aplastic anemia patients.

  4. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  5. AUDIT PROCEDURES – RECEIVABLE AND SALES

    OpenAIRE

    Ștefan Zuca

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the audit of accounts receivable and sales is to determine if they are fairly presented in the context of the financial statements as a whole. The sales account is closely tied to accounts receivable; therefore, evidence supporting accounts receivable tends to support sales. For example, having determined that an account receivable is valid, the auditor has thereby supported the validity of the sale. Analytical procedures can often be used to test the sales account. A...

  6. Improving the Quality of Low-Cost GPS Receiver Data for Monitoring Using Spatial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Schwieger, Volker

    2016-06-01

    The investigations on low-cost single frequency GPS receivers at the Institute of Engineering Geodesy (IIGS) show that u-blox LEA-6T GPS receivers combined with Trimble Bullet III GPS antennas containing self-constructed L1-optimized choke rings can already obtain an accuracy in the range of millimeters which meets the requirements of geodetic precise monitoring applications (see [27]). However, the quality (accuracy and reliability) of low-cost GPS receiver data, particularly in shadowing environment, should still be improved, since the multipath effects are the major error for the short baselines. For this purpose, several adjoined stations with low-cost GPS receivers and antennas were set up next to the metal wall on the roof of the IIGS building and measured statically for several days. The time series of three-dimensional coordinates of the GPS receivers were analyzed. Spatial correlations between the adjoined stations, possibly caused by multipath effect, will be taken into account. The coordinates of one station can be corrected using the spatial correlations of the adjoined stations, so that the quality of the GPS measurements is improved. The developed algorithms are based on the coordinates and the results will be delivered in near-real-time (in about 30 minutes), so that they are suitable for structural health monitoring applications.

  7. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  8. The Imperative for Improved Global Economic Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Stiglitz, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    While global coordination is absolutely essential, success in achieving it may prove difficult because economic globalization has outpaced political globalization. If we are to succeed, we will have to manage coordination better than we have in the past.

  9. 78 FR 57128 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... assistance delivery systems, forest inventory and analysis, markets, climate change adaptation, forest... Program Coordinator, Cooperative Forestry Staff, 202-205-1376 or Ted Beauvais, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Designated Federal Officer, Cooperative Forestry Staff, 202-205-1190. Individuals...

  10. Coordinated research activities: Annual report and statistics for 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in the website at: http://cra.iaea.org/. The Coordinated Research Activities reported in this document are conducted in support of the following Agency programmes: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Technologies; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications; Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation and Transport Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Nuclear Security. Results of research are available to all Member States and are disseminated through, national, international and Agency scientific and technical publications. The Coordinated Research Activities are complementary to its Technical Cooperation Projects, with the knowledge gained via coordinated research used to enhance the quality of Technical Cooperation Projects. Some research results are directly relevant to Technical Cooperation Projects and lead to successful implementation of these projects, while some Technical Projects lead to participation in Coordinated Research Activities. In addition, CRPs and TC Projects may also be carried out simultaneously. In terms of benefits to Member States through their participating research institutions, number of awards and degree of funding, coordinated research activities constitute a significant component of the Agency's overall programme. 765 contracts and 142 agreements were awarded from the 1170 proposals (992 contract proposals and 178 agreement proposals) received by the Agency during 2005. Annex I lists, by country, the number of proposals received and awards made. In 2005, $7 223 923 from the regular budget, ($166 566 thereof from 2004 unobligated funds), and $169 590 of extra-budgetary contributions totaling $7 393 513 were awarded to institutes under contractual arrangements and to fund Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs). The average award per contract was $6 440, about 6% more than the 2004 average award level

  11. Parenting Coordinators' Practices Recommendations: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Barbara Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to understand the experiences of seven parenting coordinators in using parenting coordination practices that they have found to be effective and would recommend to other parenting coordinators to achieve the following goals: educating parents, increasing the quality of parenting and co-parenting, managing conflict, and involving children and other family members in the process of parenting coordination. Data were collected with semi-str...

  12. Kerr metric, static observers and Fermi coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coordinate transformation which maps the Kerr metric written in standard Boyer-Lindquist coordinates to its corresponding form adapted to the natural local coordinates of an observer at rest at a fixed position in the equatorial plane, i.e., Fermi coordinates for the neighbourhood of a static observer world line, is derived and discussed in a way which extends to any uniformly circularly orbiting observer there

  13. Coordination in humanitarian logistics through clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Jahre, Marianne; Jensen, Leif-Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – In the field of humanitarianism, cluster thinking has been suggested as a solution to the lack of coordinated disaster response. Clusters for diverse functions, including sheltering, logistics and water and sanitation, can be viewed as an effort to achieve functional coordination. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a greater understanding of the potential of cluster concepts using supply chain coordination and inter‐cluster coordination. The focus is on the conceptual lev...

  14. Coordination: Theoretical, Methodological, and Experimental Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal coordination broadly captures the ways in which interacting individuals become more similar over time in their behavior, cognition, and affect over time. The research area around interpersonal coordination is poised to yield unique insights into questions of human communication, interaction, and social behavior. As a field, interpersonal coordination still has immense room to grow---providing an exciting challenge to interdisciplinary researchers. Interpersonal coordination has ...

  15. Fokker - Planck equation in curvilinear coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Tanski, Igor A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to rewrite the Fokker - Planck equation according to transformation of space coordinates. This is nontrivial problem, because transformation of space coordinates induces transformation of velocities. We can use covariant, contravariant or physical velocity components as independent variables in curvilinear coordinate system. These 3 possibilities are considered in this paper and 3 kinds of Fokker - Planck equation in curvilinear coordinates are formulated.

  16. On the impact of receiver imperfections on the MMSE-IRC receiver performance in 5G networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda;

    2014-01-01

    The usage of Minimum Mean Square Error - Interference Rejection Combining (MMSE-IRC) receivers is expected to be a significant performance booster in the ultra-dense deployment of small cells envisioned by an upcoming 5th generation (5G) Radio Access Technology (RAT). However, hardware limitations...

  17. 49 CFR 214.325 - Train coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train coordination. 214.325 Section 214.325..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.325 Train coordination. Working limits established by a roadway worker through the use of train coordination shall comply with...

  18. 45 CFR 1310.23 - Coordinated transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordinated transportation. 1310.23 Section 1310... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.23 Coordinated transportation. (a) Each agency providing transportation services must make reasonable efforts to coordinate...

  19. Managing interteam coordination within and between organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Thomas Arend

    2015-01-01

    To accomplish complex tasks and effectively respond to environmental contingencies, teams must coordinate task-related issues with other teams (i.e., interteam coordination). Regrettably, interteam coordination is often complicated by misunderstandings that can arise from differences in teams’ langu

  20. Is fiscal policy coordination in EMU desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.W.J. Beetsma; X. Debrun; F.J.G.M. Klaassen

    2001-01-01

    'It is widely argued that Europe's unified monetary policy calls for international coordination of fiscal policy. This paper surveys the issues involved with the coordination of fiscal policies as a demand management tool. We discuss ex-ante and ex-post coordination. The former operates through bind

  1. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  2. Coordinated control of HVAC systems

    OpenAIRE

    Federspiel, Clifford C; Lanning, Sasha D; Li, Hulin; David M. Auslander

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of new control logic for starting and stopping energy-intensive equipment in buildings such as staged air-conditioning units. The concept is to use pulse-width modulation (PWM) instead of level-crossing logic. A finite state machine is used to handle the case where a single unit has multiple stages of operation. An optimized coordinator determines the phase of the PWM signals of each unit so that peak demand for power is minimized over each PWM period. Con...

  3. Application coordination in pervasive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majuntke, Verena Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive applications are designed to support users in their daily life. For this purpose, applications interact with their environment, i.e. their context. They are able to adapt themselves to context changes or to explicitly change the context via actuators. If multiple applications are executed in the same context, interferences are likely to occur. To manage interferences, a coordination framework is presented in this thesis. Interferences are detected using a context model and information about applications' interaction with the context. The resolution of interference is achieved through

  4. Astronomical Receiver Modelling Using Scattering Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    King, O G; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Taylor, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Proper modelling of astronomical receivers is vital: it describes the systematic errors in the raw data, guides the receiver design process, and assists data calibration. In this paper we describe a method of analytically modelling the full signal and noise behaviour of arbitrarily complex radio receivers. We use electrical scattering matrices to describe the signal behaviour of individual components in the receiver, and noise correlation matrices to describe their noise behaviour. These are combined to produce the full receiver model. We apply this approach to a specified receiver architecture: a hybrid of a continous comparison radiometer and correlation polarimeter designed for the C-Band All-Sky Survey. We produce analytic descriptions of the receiver Mueller matrix and noise temperature, and discuss how imperfections in crucial components affect the raw data. Many of the conclusions drawn are generally applicable to correlation polarimeters and continuous comparison radiometers.

  5. Coordination of plant mitochondrial biogenesis: keeping pace with cellular requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina eWelchen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant mitochondria are complex organelles that carry out numerous metabolic processes related with the generation of energy for cellular functions and the synthesis and degradation of several compounds. Mitochondria are semiautonomous and dynamic organelles changing in shape, number and composition depending on tissue or developmental stage. The biogenesis of functional mitochondria requires the coordination of genes present both in the nucleus and the organelle. In addition, due to their central role, all processes held inside mitochondria must be finely coordinated with those in other organelles according to cellular demands. Coordination is achieved by transcriptional control of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins by specific transcription factors that recognize conserved elements in their promoter regions. In turn, the expression of most of these transcription factors is linked to developmental and environmental cues, according to the availability of nutrients, light-dark cycles and warning signals generated in response to stress conditions. Among the signals impacting in the expression of nuclear genes, retrograde signals that originate inside mitochondria help to adjust mitochondrial biogenesis to organelle demands. Adding more complexity, several nuclear encoded proteins are dual localized to mitochondria and either chloroplasts or the nucleus. Dual targeting might establish a crosstalk between the nucleus and cell organelles to ensure a fine coordination of cellular activities. In this article, we discuss how the different levels of coordination of mitochondrial biogenesis interconnect to optimize the function of the organelle according to both internal and external demands.

  6. Societal savings in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer receiving bevacizumab-based versus non-bevacizumab-based treatments in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Johanna Lister,1 Sanja Stanisic,1 Klaus Kaier,2 Christian Hagist,2 Dmitry Gultyaev,1 Stefan Walzer31Analytica LA-SER International Inc, Lörrach, Germany; 2Research Centre for Generational Contracts, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Pharmaceuticals Division, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the savings accrued using bevacizumab-based treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer from the societal perspective, taking only public costs into account, in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Methods: Societal costs were estimated by collecting and analyzing labor costs, carer costs, sickness benefits, disability benefits, and home care benefits. Cost inputs were derived from publicly available databases or from the published literature. Expert opinion was only used if no other source was available. Efficacy data from two randomized clinical trials were used. The time horizon in the health economic model was lifetime. Efficacy and costs were discounted by 3.5%. All main model parameters were tested in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Results: Mean incremental savings to society per patient ranged from €2277 in Italy to €4461 in Germany. The results were most sensitive to the change in proportion of patients working full-time and the proportion of patients who were able to return to work.Conclusion: This analysis shows that bevacizumab-based treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with more savings to society compared to standard chemotherapy in terms of increased productivity and decreased social benefits paid to patients who are able to work in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, bevacizumab, chemotherapy, economic model, France, Germany, Italy, Spain

  7. Intelligent navigation and multivehicle coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Flann, Nicholas S.

    1999-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University's Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles. This paper discusses the development of a strategy that uses a sophisticated, highly intelligent sensor platform to allow centralized coordination between smaller and inexpensive robots. The three components of the multi-agent cooperative scheme are small-scale robots, large-scale robots, and the central control station running a mission and path- planning software. The smaller robots are used for activities where the probability of loss increases, such as Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) or mine detonation. The research is aimed at building simple, inexpensive multi-agent vehicles and an intelligent navigation and multi-vehicle coordination system suitable for UXO, environmental remediation or mine detection. These simplified robots are capable of conducting hunting missions using low-cost positioning sensors and intelligent algorithms. Additionally, a larger sensor-rich intelligent system capable of transporting smaller units to outlying remote sites has been developed. The larger system interfaces to the central control station and provides navigation assistance to multiple low-cost vehicles. Finally, mission and path-planning software serves as the operator control unit, allowing central data collection, map creation and tracking, and an interface to the larger system as well as each smaller unit. The power of this scheme is the ability to scale to the appropriate level for the complexity of the mission.

  8. Coordinating nodule morphogenesis with rhizobial infection in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Giles E D; Downie, J Allan

    2008-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on legumes requires an integration of infection by rhizobia at the root epidermis and the initiation of cell division in the cortex, several cell layers away from the sites of infection. Several recent developments have added to our understanding of the signaling events in the epidermis associated with the perception of rhizobial nodulation factors and the role of plant hormones in the activation of cell division leading to nodule morphogenesis. This review focuses on the tissue-specific nature of the developmental processes associated with nodulation and the mechanisms by which these processes are coordinated during the formation of a nodule. PMID:18444906

  9. Coordinated research projects (CRP). Coordinated research project (CRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, the contribution of Japanese scientists in coordinated research projects on thermonuclear fusion. Representative subjects taken in seven projects are the precise computation of theoretical data on electron-molecule collisions in the peripheral plasma, the computation of spectroscopic data of multi-charged tungsten ions, the spectroscopic measurement of multi-charged tungsten ions using an ion trap device, the development of collisional-radiative model for plasmas including hydrogen and helium, the computational and theoretical studies on the behavior of tungsten and beryllium in the plasma-wall interaction, the study on the property of dusts generated in fusion devices. These subjects are those of most important issues in ITER. (author)

  10. Organ-specific effects of brassinosteroids on stomatal production coordinate with the action of Too Many Mouths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Yang, Kezhen; Le, Jie

    2015-03-01

    In Arabidopsis, stomatal development initiates after protodermal cells acquire stomatal lineage cell fate. Stomata or their precursors communicate with their neighbor epidermal cells to ensure the "one cell spacing" rule. The signals from EPF/EPFL peptide ligands received by Too Many Mouths (TMM) and ERECTA-family receptors are supposed to be transduced by YODA MAPK cascade. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH) is another key regulator of stomatal cell fate determination and asymmetric entry divisions, and SPCH activity is regulated by YODA MAPK cascade. Brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, one of the most well characterized signal transduction pathways in plants, contributes to the control of stomatal production. But opposite organ-specific effects of BR on stomatal production were reported. Here we confirm that stomatal production in hypocotyls is controlled by BR levels. YODA and CYCD4 are not essential for BR stomata-promoting function. Furthermore, we found that BR could confer tmm hypocotyls clustered stomatal phenotype, indicating that the BR organ-specific effects on stomatal production might coordinate with the TMM organ-specific actions. PMID:25234048

  11. Collaborative Supply Chain Planning and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew

    strategies between the toy manufacturer and three European retailers. These three case studies provide evidences that the toy manufacturer and the retailers followed some particular patterns of planning coordination processes; they also practised some patterns of coordination behaviour during the...... coordination processes, particularly the behaviour of risk-taking/avoidance, conflict resolutions, and self-interest. All these lead to conclusion of five propositions or principles of supply chain coordination, and the theory of coordination process and behaviour. Combining the propositions of responsiveness......This thesis contains main results from an industrial PhD research in the areas of supply chain strategy, planning, and coordination. It applies the concepts of responsiveness and coordination to reduce mismatch of supply and demand, especially for a volatile and seasonal supply chain. It involves a...

  12. Consumer returns policies with endogenous deadline and supply chain coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Yongjian; Govindan, Kannan;

    2015-01-01

    on consumers' behavior and the pricing and inventory policies of the retailer are systematically investigated. Moreover, based on the analysis of consumer return behavior on a traditional buy-back contract, we present a new differentiated buy-back contract, contingent on return deadline, to coordinate a supply......This paper considers returns policies under which consumers' valuation depends on the refund amount they receive and the length of time theymustwait after the item is returned. Consumers face an uncertain valuation before purchase, and the realization of that purchase's value occurs only after...

  13. Increased coordination in public transport – which mechanisms are available?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Longva, Frode

    2011-01-01

    After several years of New Public Management reforms within public transport, coordination seems to receive increased attention. With examples of actual as well as suggested changes taken from Denmark, Sweden and the UK the aim of the article is to analyse and classify the mechanisms utilized and...... mechanism has its strengths and failures. The article also debates to what extent the mechanisms conflict with three core characteristics of New Public Management: Unbundling of the public sector into corporatized units; more contract-based competitive provision; and greater emphasis on output controls....

  14. Cryptographic Defence against Misbehaving TCP Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Aldar C-F

    2008-01-01

    The congestion control algorithm in TCP relies on {\\em correct} feedback from the receiver to determine the rate at which packets should be sent into the network. Hence, correct receiver feedback (in the form of acknowledgements in TCP) is essential to the goal of sharing the scarce bandwidth resources fairly and avoiding congestion collapse in the Internet. However, the assumption that a TCP receiver can always be trusted (to generate feedback correctly) no longer holds as there are plenty of incentives for a receiver to deviate from the protocol. In fact, it has been shown that a misbehaving receiver (whose aim is to bring about congestion collapse) can easily generate acknowledgements to conceal loss and drive a number of honest, innocent senders arbitrary fast to create a significant number of non-responsive packet flows leading to denial of service to other Internet users. We give two efficient, provably secure mechanisms to force a receiver to generate feedback correctly; any incorrect acknowledgement w...

  15. Enforcing accounts receivable through public auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Kinkor, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis focuses on the legal ways of enforcing accounts receivable in public auctions within the Czech law. An important part of the thesis is dedicated to a description of accounts receivable formation process and the ways of debt securing. The crucial part refers to the legal framework identification and comparison of the receivables enforcement under obcansky soudni rad and zakon o verejenych drazbach. The entire process of the public auction from the auction proposal to the...

  16. MANAGEMENT OF ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE IN A COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Kontuš, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    Accounts receivable management directly impacts the profitability of a company. Firstly, the purpose of the empirical part of the study is to analyze accounts receivable and to demonstrate a correlation between the accounts receivable level and profitability expressed in terms of Retun on Assets (ROA) of sample companies. Secondly, the aim of theoretical research is to explore cost and benefits of changes in credit policy, determine the independent variables which have an impact on net savi...

  17. Interference Channels with Correlated Receiver Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nan; Gunduz, Deniz; Goldsmith, Andrea J.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The problem of joint source-channel coding in transmitting independent sources over interference channels with correlated receiver side information is studied. When each receiver has side information correlated with its own desired source, it is shown that source-channel code separation is optimal. When each receiver has side information correlated with the interfering source, sufficient conditions for reliable transmission are provided based on a joint source-channel coding scheme using the ...

  18. High-stability detectors for radioastronomical receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Ute; Schmidt, Axel

    The increased bandwidths of radioastronomical receivers has increased the detector stability requirements. A detector with a short-term stability of 0.01 percent, required in a receiver with a 9 mm wavelength receiver, could not be achieved using previously available detectors and dc amplifiers. This paper describes a switched detector which meets these requirements, and presents resulting rms values as a function of integration time.

  19. Integrated Submm Wave Receiver: Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelets, Valery P.; Birk, Manfred; Boersma, Dick; Dercksen, Johannes; Dmitriev, Pavel; Ermakov, Andrey B.; Filippenko, Lyudmila V.; Golstein, Hans; Hoogeveen, Ruud W. M.; de Jong, Leo; Khudchenko, Andrey V.; Kinev, Nickolay V.; Kiselev, Oleg S.; Kudryashov, Pavel V.; Van Kuik, Bart; de Lange, Arno; de Lange, Gert; L. Lapitsky, Irina; I. Pripolzin, Sergey; van Rantwijk, Joris; Selig, Avri M.; Sobolev, Alexander S.; Torgashin, Mikhail Yu; Vaks, Vladimir L.; de Vries, Ed; Wagner, Georg; Yagoubov, Pavel A.

    A superconducting integrated receiver (SIR) comprises in a single chip a planar antenna combined with a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer, a superconducting Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as a Local Oscillator (LO) and a second SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for the FFO phase locking. In this report, an overview of the SIR and FFO developments and optimizations is presented. Improving on the fully Nb-based SIR we have developed and studied Nb-AlN-NbN circuits, which exhibit an extended operation frequency range. Continuous tuning of the phase locked frequency has been experimentally demonstrated at any frequency in the range 350-750 GHz. The FFO free-running linewidth has been measured between 1 and 5 MHz, which allows to phase lock up to 97% of the emitted FFO power. The output power of the FFO is sufficient to pump the matched SIS mixer. Therefore, it is concluded that the Nb-AlN-NbN FFOs are mature enough for practical applications.These achievements enabled the development of a 480-650 GHz integrated receiver for the atmospheric-research instrument TErahertz and submillimeter LImb Sounder (TELIS). This balloon-borne instrument is a three-channel superconducting heterodyne spectrometer for the detection of spectral emission lines of stratospheric trace gases that have their rotational transitions at THz frequencies. One of the channels is based on the SIR technology. We demonstrate for the first time the capabilities of the SIR technology for heterodyne spectroscopy in general, and atmospheric limb sounding in particular. We also show that the application of SIR technology is not limited to laboratory environments, but that it is well suited for remote operation under harsh environmental conditions. Light weight and low power consumption combined with broadband operation and nearly quantum limited sensitivity make the SIR a perfect candidate for future airborne and space-borne missions. The noise temperature of the SIR was measured to be as low as

  20. Special design topics in digital wideband receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, James B Y

    2009-01-01

    Offering engineers a thorough examination of special, more advanced aspects of digital wideband receiver design, this practical book builds on fundamental resources on the topic, helping you gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject. This in-depth volume presents a detailed look at a complete receiver design, including the encoder. Moreover, it discusses the detection of exotic signals and provides authoritative guidance on designing receivers used in electronic warfare. From frequency modulation and biphase shifting keys, to parameter encoders in electronic warfare receivers and

  1. Receivers for the Microwave Radiometer on Juno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, F.; Russell, D.; Dawson, D.; Hatch, W.; Brown, S.; Oswald, J.; Janssen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Six receivers for the MicroWave Radiometer (MWR) are currently under development at JPL. These receivers cover a frequency range of 0.6 to 22 GHz in approximately octave steps, with 4 % bandwidth. For calibration and diagnosis three noise diodes and a Dicke switch are integrated into each receiver. Each receiver is connected to its own antenna which is mounted with its bore sights perpendicular to the spin axis of the spacecraft. As the spacecraft spins at 2 RPM, the antenna field of view scans Jupiter's atmosphere from limb to nadir to limb, measuring microwave emission down to 1000-bar.

  2. Hybrid Microoptical WDM Receiver for PON Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitezslav Jerabek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design, simulation and construction results of the wavelength division multiplex (WDM optical hybrid receiver module for the passive optical network (PON. The optical WDM receiver was constructed using system of three micromodules in the new circle topology. The optical micromodule contains multimode fiber pigtail 50/125 µm, VHGT filter with collimation lens and two microwave optoelectronics receiver micromodules (OE receiver micromodules. OE receiver micromodules were designed by use small signal equivalent electrical circuit model and noise model, from which the mathematically solved the transmittance function, which was used for calculation and simulation of the optimal frequency characteristics and signal to noise ratio. For determine the limit frequency of OE receiver micromodule, the transcendent equation with transmittance function was numerically solved. OE receiver micromodule was composed of decollimation lenses and microwave optoelectronics receivers with bandwidth 2,5 GHz and alternatively in SMD technology with bandwidth 1,25 GHz, using the thin layer hybrid technology. WDM receiver use radiation 1490 nm for internet and 1550 nm for digital TV signals download information.

  3. Compressive Sensing for Spread Spectrum Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of ubiquitous computing there are two design parameters of wireless communication devices that become very important: power efficiency and production cost. Compressive sensing enables the receiver in such devices to sample below the Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, which may lead to a...... Compressive Spread Spectrum (CSS), allows for a simple, effective receiver design. Furthermore, we numerically evaluate the proposed receiver in terms of bit error rate under different signal to noise ratio conditions and compare it with other receiver structures. These numerical experiments show that though...

  4. Nursing process approach improves receivables management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, K; Stockamp, D

    1992-09-01

    The "nursing process" is a systematic decision-making approach to problem solving based on open-system theory. This theory assumes that there is an on-going interchange between all system components. Components cannot be viewed in isolation, because decisions regarding one component will affect other components. Receivables management is similar to the nursing process, in that it involves constant diagnosis, assessment, and intervention in the work in process during all phases of the receivables cycle. In experiments that applied the nursing process concept to the management of accounts receivable in several hospitals, gross days in accounts receivable were reduced and cash flow was increased. PMID:10145682

  5. Update on System Coordination Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new System Coordination Centre at the Power Pool of Alberta was designed to meet the unique requirements of Alberta's electric industry under the new regulatory regime. Development of the Centre, key provisions of the energy management system (EMS) are highlighted. The centre will provide an energy management system for the Pool's system controller function and interface with the Power Pool Administrator's market functions and the operations of the Transmission Administrator. System controllers are expected to be operating from the new location by the end of 1998. Unique EMS features of the centre include: (1) real-time management of energy market and network operations using diverse SCADA/EMS, (2) inter-control centre protocol used to accommodate the unique participant information requirements, and (3) special custom applications. The Centre is expected to be fully functioning by July 1999. 1 fig

  6. ProC: Process Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck software Team

    2016-01-01

    ProC (short for Process Coordinator) is a versatile workflow engine that allows the user to build, run and manage workflows with just a few clicks. It automatically documents every processing step, making every modification to data reproducible. ProC provides a graphical user interface for constructing complex data processing workflows out of a given set of computer programs. The user can, for example, specify that only data products which are affected by a change in the input data are updated selectively, avoiding unnecessary computations. The ProC suite is flexible and satisfies basic needs of data processing centers that have to be able to restructure their data processing along with the development of a project.

  7. Tree Formation Using Coordinate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Choudhary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are introducing a new method of tree formation, we propose a coordinate based method by which we can store and access tree structures. As we know in NLP, parsing is the most important module. The output of this module is generally parsed trees. Currently, TAG (Tree Adjoining Grammar is widely used grammar due to its linguistic and formal nature. It is simply tree generating system. The unit structure used in TAG is structured trees. So we used our new method to store trees where we worked on English to Hindi language. We worked on different sentences from English to Hindi, our method is the easiest way to manipulate tree. We have implemented within small corpus and for finite number of structures and further can be extended in future.

  8. Coordination Frictions and Job Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    This paper develops and extends a dynamic, discrete time, job to worker matching model in which jobs are heterogeneous in equilibrium. The key assumptions of this economic environment are (i) matching is directed and (ii) coordination frictions lead to heterogeneous local labor markets. We de- rive...... a number of new theoretical results, which are essential for the empirical application of this type of model to matched employer-employee microdata. First, we o¤er a robust equilibrium concept in which there is a continu- ous dispersion of job productivities and wages. Second, we show that our model...... results preserve the essential tractability of the baseline model with aggregate shocks. Therefore, we o¤er a parsimonious, general equilibrium framework in which to study the process by which the contin- uous dispersion of wages and productivities varies over the business cycle for a large population of...

  9. Wave propagation in complex coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, S. A. R.; King, C. G.; Philbin, T. G.

    2016-04-01

    We give an interpretation for the use of complex spatial coordinates in electromagnetism, in terms of a family of closely related inhomogeneous media. Using this understanding we find that the phenomenon of reflection can be related to branch cuts in the wave that originate from poles of ε (z) at complex positions. Demanding that these branch cuts disappear, we derive a new large family of inhomogeneous media that are reflectionless for a single angle of incidence. Extending this property to all angles of incidence leads us to a generalized form of the Pöschl Teller potentials that in general include regions of loss and gain. We conclude by analyzing our findings within the phase integral (WKB) method, and find another very large family of isotropic planar media that from one side have a transmission of unity and reflection of zero, for all angles of incidence.

  10. Update on System Coordination Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangl, W. [Power Pool of Alberta, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    The new System Coordination Centre at the Power Pool of Alberta was designed to meet the unique requirements of Alberta`s electric industry under the new regulatory regime. Development of the Centre, key provisions of the energy management system (EMS) are highlighted. The centre will provide an energy management system for the Pool`s system controller function and interface with the Power Pool Administrator`s market functions and the operations of the Transmission Administrator. System controllers are expected to be operating from the new location by the end of 1998. Unique EMS features of the centre include: (1) real-time management of energy market and network operations using diverse SCADA/EMS, (2) inter-control centre protocol used to accommodate the unique participant information requirements, and (3) special custom applications. The Centre is expected to be fully functioning by July 1999. 1 fig.

  11. Coordination control of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how control of distributed systems can be advanced by an integration of control, communication, and computation. The global control objectives are met by judicious combinations of local and nonlocal observations taking advantage of various forms of communication exchanges between distributed controllers. Control architectures are considered according to  increasing degrees of cooperation of local controllers:  fully distributed or decentralized control,  control with communication between controllers,  coordination control, and multilevel control.  The book covers also topics bridging computer science, communication, and control, like communication for control of networks, average consensus for distributed systems, and modeling and verification of discrete and of hybrid systems. Examples and case studies are introduced in the first part of the text and developed throughout the book. They include: control of underwater vehicles, automated-guided vehicles on a container terminal, contro...

  12. Quality of life related to oral mucositis of patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and receiving specialised oral care with low-level laser therapy: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezinelli, L M; Eduardo, F P; Neves, V D; Correa, L; Lopes, R M G; Michel-Crosato, E; Hamerschlak, N; Biazevic, M G H

    2016-07-01

    Oral mucositis is a painful condition that occurs in 80% of patients who undergo haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our objective was to determine the impact of mucositis on quality of life (QoL) of patients subjected to HSCT treated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Patients were evaluated: (1) on the first day of treatment; (2) 5 days after autologous or 8 days after allogeneic transplantation; (3) once bone marrow had integrated; and (4) 30 days after discharge. Clinical evaluation was performed using the World Health Organization criteria; oral health QoL was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14); and mucositis symptoms with the Patient-Reported Oral Mucositis Symptom (PROMS) scale. The higher the score, the lower the patient's QoL. The OHIP-14 responses showed that at D + 5/D + 8, all domains had the highest scores, while at times 1 and 4, the scores were lower. In the PROMS scale, all domains scored worst at time 2, and the differences between the scores at the four times were statistically significant. The study has shown that QoL improves over time in patients undergoing LLLT therapy for mucositis prevention. PMID:26087364

  13. Coordinated research activities: Annual report and statistics for 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , including current information on CRPs and programme areas supported, information on policies and procedures and the administration of the activities is contained in the Agency's Coordinated Research Activities website at: http://www-crp.iaea.org. The Coordinated Research Activities reported in this document are conducted in support of the following Agency programmes: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Technologies; Capacity Building and Nuclear Knowledge Maintenance for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications; Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation and Transport Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Nuclear Security. Results of research are available to all Member States and are disseminated through, national, international and Agency scientific and technical publications. The Coordinated Research Activities are complementary to its Technical Cooperation Projects, with the knowledge gained via coordinated research used to enhance the quality of Technical Cooperation Projects. In terms of benefits to Member States through their participating research institutions, number of awards and degree of funding, coordinated research activities constitute a significant component of the Agency's overall programme. 942 contracts and agreements were awarded from the 1244 contract and agreement proposals received by the Agency during 2004. In 2004, $6 765 324 were awarded from the regular budget to institutes under contractual arrangements and to fund Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs). Additionally, $230 859 of extra-budgetary contributions were used to fund additional contracts and RCMs. Thus, total awards amounted to $6 996 183. The average award per contract was $6 065

  14. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  15. Central nervous system prophylaxis with intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in a subset of high-risk patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma receiving first line systemic therapy in a prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barca, E; Canales, M; Salar, A; Ferreiro-Martínez, J J; Ferrer-Bordes, S; García-Marco, J A; Sánchez-Blanco, J J; García-Frade, J; Peñalver, J; Bello-López, J L; Sancho, J M; Caballero, D

    2016-05-01

    The dissemination in the central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommon but fatal complication occurring in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Standard prophylaxis has been demonstrated to reduce CNS relapse and improve survival rates. Intrathecal (IT) liposomal cytarabine allows maintaining elevated drug levels in the cerebrospinal fluid for an extended period of time. Data on the efficacy and safety of liposomal cytarabine as CNS prophylaxis in patients with DLBCL are still insufficient. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the prophylaxis with IT liposomal cytarabine in prevention of CNS relapse in high-risk patients with DLBCL who were included in a trial of first line systemic therapy with 6 cycles of dose-dense R-CHOP every 14 days. Twenty-four (18.6 %) out of 129 patients were identified to have risk factors for CNS involvement, defined as follows: >30 % bone marrow infiltration, testes infiltration, retroperitoneal mass ≥10 cm, Waldeyer ring, or bulky cervical nodes involvement. Liposomal cytarabine (50 mg) was administered by lumbar puncture the first day of the 1st, 2nd, and 6th cycle of R-CHOP14 scheme. Among 70 IT infusions, grade 3-4 adverse events reported were headache (one patient) and nausea/vomiting (one patient). With a median follow-up of 40.1 months, no CNS involvement by DLBCL was observed in any patient. In conclusion, IT liposomal cytarabine is safe, feasible, and effective for CNS prophylaxis, causing few associated risks and little discomfort to patients with DLBCL. PMID:27025508

  16. Coordination of strength exertion during the chair-rise movement in very old people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Muche, Rainer; Stuber, Michael; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Hauer, Klaus; Becker, Clemens

    2007-01-01

    Background. Changes in performance of standing up from a chair have been related to measures of strength or power. However, the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer requires that the individual exerts forces with appropriate magnitude and timing. These coordinative aspects have received less attention. This

  17. 17 CFR 256.143 - Accounts receivable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.143 Accounts receivable. This account shall... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounts receivable. 256.143 Section 256.143 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  18. Cashier/Accounts Receivable Clerk Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portsmouth City School Board, VA.

    The student materials present exercises designed to simulate the job performed by a cashier/accounts receivable clerk. The content of the course covers job instructions, writing receipts, proving cash, customer accounts, preparing statements, and schedule of accounts receivable. Also included in the document are a pretest and post test for the…

  19. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television...

  20. Heat-Energy Analysis for Solar Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Heat-energy analysis program (HEAP) solves general heat-transfer problems, with some specific features that are "custom made" for analyzing solar receivers. Can be utilized not only to predict receiver performance under varying solar flux, ambient temperature and local heat-transfer rates but also to detect locations of hotspots and metallurgical difficulties and to predict performance sensitivity of neighboring component parameters.