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Sample records for cells ips cells

  1. Generation of iPS Cells from Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Various types of somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Somatic stem cells may generate iPS cells more efficiently than do differentiated cells. We show that granulosa cells exhibit characteristic of somatic stem cells and can be reprogrammed to iPS cells more efficiently or with few factors. Here, we describe generation of mouse and pig iPS cells from granulosa cells with high efficiency.

  2. [iPS cells in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, which enables us to produce pluripotent stem cells by introducing a few genetic factors, commands considerable attention in the field of dentistry. These iPS cells may be of particular importance for developing innovative technologies to regenerate missing jaw bones and lost teeth, and there are expectations that several types of tissue stem cells and mucosal cells in the oral area can be used as an ideal iPS cell source. We previously reported that the gingiva, which is often resected during general dental treatments and treated as biomedical waste, is a promising source of iPS cells. In this review, the current trends in iPS cell research in dentistry are outlined, and future aspects of potential applications of the iPS cell technologies to dental treatments will be discussed.

  3. iPS cells and personalized medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    iPS cells and personalized medicine Personalized medicine uses patient's genotype and/or level of gene expression for selection of medication, therapy or preventative measures. One of the best approaches for developing patient specific therapy is to use patient specific cells as in vitro drug testing model. Furthermore, patent specific cells in vitro enriched and modified can be used for autologous cell transplantation for treating numerous degenerative conditions.

  4. Safeguarding nonhuman primate iPS cells with suicide genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bonan; Watts, Korashon L; Gori, Jennifer L; Wohlfahrt, Martin E; Enssle, Joerg; Adair, Jennifer E; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2011-09-01

    The development of technology to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells constitutes one of the most exciting scientific breakthroughs because of the enormous potential for regenerative medicine. However, the safety of iPS cell-related products is a major concern for clinical translation. Insertional mutagenesis, possible oncogenic transformation of iPS cells or their derivatives, or the contamination of differentiated iPS cells with undifferentiated cells, resulting in the formation of teratomas, have remained considerable obstacles. Here, we demonstrate the utility of suicide genes to safeguard iPS cells and their derivatives. We found suicide genes can control the cell fate of iPS cells in vitro and in vivo without interfering with their pluripotency and self-renewal capacity. This study will be useful to evaluate the safety of iPS cell technology in a clinically highly relevant, large animal model and further benefit the clinical use of human iPS cells.

  5. [Retinal Cell Therapy Using iPS Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Progress in basic research, starting with the work on neural stem cells in the middle 1990's to embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells at present, will lead the cell therapy (regenerative medicine) of various organs, including the central nervous system to a big medical field in the future. The author's group transplanted iPS cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell sheets to the eye of a patient with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2014 as a clinical research. Replacement of the RPE with the patient's own iPS cell-derived young healthy cell sheet will be one new radical treatment of AMD that is caused by cellular senescence of RPE cells. Since it was the first clinical study using iPS cell-derived cells, the primary endpoint was safety judged by the outcome one year after surgery. The safety of the cell sheet has been confirmed by repeated tumorigenisity tests using immunodeficient mice, as well as purity of the cells, karyotype and genetic analysis. It is, however, also necessary to prove the safety by clinical studies. Following this start, a good strategy considering cost and benefit is needed to make regenerative medicine a standard treatment in the future. Scientifically, the best choice is the autologous RPE cell sheet, but autologous cell are expensive and sheet transplantation involves a risky part of surgical procedure. We should consider human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched allogeneic transplantation using the HLA 6 loci homozyous iPS cell stock that Prof. Yamanaka of Kyoto University is working on. As the required forms of donor cells will be different depending on types and stages of the target diseases, regenerative medicine will be accomplished in a totally different manner from the present small molecule drugs. Proof of concept (POC) of photoreceptor transplantation in mouse is close to being accomplished using iPS cell-derived photoreceptor cells. The shortest possible course for treatment

  6. Cell Reprogramming, IPS Limitations, and Overcoming Strategies in Dental Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaskon Ibarretxe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The procurement of induced pluripotent stem cells, or IPS cells, from adult differentiated animal cells has the potential to revolutionize future medicine, where reprogrammed IPS cells may be used to repair disease-affected tissues on demand. The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy. Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells. In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

  7. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yohei; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Tohyama, Shugo; Saito, Yuki; Kunitomi, Akira; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Onizuka, Takeshi; Kageyama, Toshimi; Yae, Kojiro; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Kaneda, Ruri; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  8. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Ohno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1 the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2 the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  9. [Application for Lifestyle disease by iPS cells technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Currently it is less advanced to understand the pathology of lifestyle disease by using iPS cells because there is partly less direct connection between life style disease and iPS cells. So much more scientists focus on regenerative medicine such as beta cells therapy using iPS cells technologies. It will be indeed a powerful tool to generate beta cells from iPS cells as even in type2 diabetes patients, hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells in pancreas is one of causes. Another reason is complexity of the pathology of life style disease. There are a lot of reasons to cause lifestyle disease. Lifestyle diseases include cancer, chronic liver disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, stroke, and obesity. Since obesity is one of major causes of lifestyle diseases, we want to focus on adipogenesis from iPS cells in this review. We analysed and established the differentiation protocol into adipocytes from mouse ES cells and human iPS cells. The other point in this review is the starting pluripotent cells for differentiation. Quality of pluripotent stem cells are one of most critical factors to succeed in getting well-differentiated cells. Recently, we have developed new naive human pluripotent stem cells (PSC),"Reset cells". Naive PSC have more similar to human epibast cells than conventional human PSC. They will be more ideal cells for differentiation because of their hypomethylated status and earlier stage of development.

  10. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  11. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo

    2016-02-18

    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation.

  12. Generation of Partially Reprogrammed Cells and Fully Reprogrammed iPS Cells by Plasmid Transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Hong, Yean Ju; Do, Jeong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be directly generated from somatic cells by overexpression of defined transcription factors. iPS cells can perpetually self-renew and differentiate into all cell types of an organism. iPS cells were first generated through infection with retroviruses that contain reprogramming factors. However, development of an exogene-free iPS cell generation method is crucial for future therapeutic applications, because integrated exogenes result in the formation of tumors in chimeras and regain pluripotency after differentiation in vitro. Here, we describe a method to generate iPS cells by transfection of plasmid vectors and to convert partially reprogrammed cells into fully reprogrammed iPS cells by switching from mouse ESC culture conditions to KOSR-based media with bFGF. We also describe basic methods used to characterize fully reprogrammed iPS cells.

  13. iPS Cells 10 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    In 2006, Takahashi and Yamanaka reported the breakthrough discovery of induction of pluripotent stem cells from fibroblasts by a combination of defined factors. Ten years later, Cell editor João Monteiro brings together Shinya Yamanaka and Hans Schöler, one the original reviewers of the landmark study, to revisit the history behind the paper and its long-lasting legacy.

  14. Generation and application of human iPS cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Ghun; RAO LingJun; CHENG LinZhao; XIAO Lei

    2009-01-01

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of unlimited proliferation and maintenance of pluripo-tency in vitro; these properties may lead to potential applications in regenerative medicine.However,immune rejection hampers the allogenic application of human ES cells.Over-expression of several specific transcription factors has been used to reprogram human adult cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells,which are similar to hESCs in many aspects.The iPS technique makes it possible to produce patient-specific pluripotent stem cells for transplantation therapy without immune rejection.However,some challenges remain,including viral vector integration into the genome,the existence of exogenous oncogenic factors,and low induction efficiency.Here,we review recent advances in human iPS methodology,as well as remaining challenges and its potential applications.

  15. [Differentiation of functional cells from iPS cells by efficient gene transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Kenji; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-11-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which are generated from somatic cells by transducing four genes, are expected to have broad application to regenerative medicine. Although establishment of an efficient gene transfer system for iPS cells is considered to be essential for differentiating them into functional cells, the detailed transduction characteristics of iPS cells have not been examined. By using an adenovirus (Ad) vector containing the cytomegalovirus enhancer/beta-actin (CA) promoters, we have developed an efficient transduction system for mouse mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Also, we applied our transduction system to mouse iPS cells and investigated whether efficient differentiation could be achieved by Ad vector-mediated transduction of a functional gene. As in the case of ES cells, the Ad vector could efficiently transduce transgenes into mouse iPS cells. We found that the CA promoter had potent transduction ability in iPS cells. Moreover, exogenous expression of a PPARγ gene or a Runx2 gene into mouse iPS cells by an optimized Ad vector enhanced adipocyte or osteoblast differentiation, respectively. These results suggest that Ad vector-mediated transient transduction is sufficient to promote cellular differentiation and that our transduction methods would be useful for therapeutic applications based on iPS cells.

  16. [The genetic safety of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Shi, Qing-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Since Takahashi and Yamanaka first generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse fibroblasts successfully in 2006, iPS cells have rapidly become a new hotspot in the field of stem cells research because of their broad potential application prospects. Meanwhile, more and more attentions are paid to the genetic safety of iPS cells. This article summarizes recent findings on genetic safety of iPS cells and reviews the possible causes leading to genetic instability of iPS cells. Hopefully, this review is helpful to improve the induction of iPS cells and obtain genetically safe iPS cells.

  17. Clinical grade iPS cells: need for versatile small molecules and optimal cell sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Ling; Pandian, Ganesh N; Ding, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Wen; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-11-21

    Adult mammals possess limited ability to regenerate their lost tissues or organs. The epoch-making strategy of inducing pluripotency in somatic cells incorporates multiple applications in regenerative medicine. However, concerns about the clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells still exist because of the occurrence of aberrancies, even in genome integration-free methods. As cellular reprogramming is multi-gene-oriented, versatile, bioactive small molecules could concomitantly modulate the transcriptional machinery and aid the generation of clinical grade iPS cells. The availability of optimal cell sources has additional influence on the clinical translation of iPS cells. Herein we provide a critical overview of methods and cell sources available for iPS cell production. We think the review will be a useful resource for researchers who aim to develop small molecules for speeding up the journey of iPS cells from the laboratory to the clinic.

  18. The elite and stochastic model for iPS cell generation: multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells are readily reprogrammable into iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Dezawa, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have attracted a great deal of attention, although the mechanism by which they are generated is still not fully understood. Currently, two theories, the stochastic and elite models, have been proposed. Some reports provide theoretical support for the stochastic model. Other reports, however, support the elite model. For example, some human fibroblasts, such as Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are reported to be pluripotent and a primary source of iPS cells. Thus, the mechanism of iPS cell generation continues to be debated. In this review, we discuss the properties of the original cell source, such as the components of the original populations and the potential of each population to become iPS cells, and further discuss the implications of the two theories for iPS cell research.

  19. Generation of iPS Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Episomal Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ruijun Jeanna; Neises, Amanda; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral blood is the easy-to-access, minimally invasive, and the most abundant cell source to use for cell reprogramming. The episomal vector is among the best approaches for generating integration-free induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells due to its simplicity and affordability. Here we describe the detailed protocol for the efficient generation of integration-free iPS cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With this optimized protocol, one can readily generate hundreds of iPS cell colonies from 1 ml of peripheral blood.

  20. iPS cells: a source of cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshinori; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2011-02-01

    For the treatment of heart failure, a new strategy to improve cardiac function and inhibit cardiac remodeling needs to be established. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent cells that can differentiate into cell types from all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic effect of ES/iPS cell-derived progeny was reported in animal model. Mouse and human somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the transduction of four transcription factors, Oct 3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. However, the low induction efficiency hinders the clinical application of iPS technology, and efforts have been made to improve the reprogramming efficiency. There are variations in the characteristics in ES/iPS cell lines, and the further understanding is necessary for the applications of ES/iPS cell technology. Some improvements were also made in the methods to induce cardiomyocytes from ES/iPS cells efficiently. This review article is focused on generation of iPS cells, cardiomyocyte differentiation from ES/iPS cells, and transplantation of derived cardiomyocytes.This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".

  1. Connexin expression and gap-junctional intercellular communication in ES cells and iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyamada, Masahito; Takebe, Kumiko; Endo, Aya; Hara, Sachiko; Oyamada, Yumiko

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, i.e., embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, can indefinitely proliferate without commitment and differentiate into all cell lineages. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation blastocyst, whereas iPS cells are generated from somatic cells by overexpression of a few transcription factors. Many studies have demonstrated that mouse and human iPS cells are highly similar but not identical to their respective ES cell counterparts. The potential to generate basically any differentiated cell types from these cells offers the possibility to establish new models of mammalian development and to create new sources of cells for regenerative medicine. ES cells and iPS cells also provide useful models to study connexin expression and gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) during cell differentiation and reprogramming. In 1996, we reported connexin expression and GJIC in mouse ES cells. Because a substantial number of papers on these subjects have been published since our report, this Mini Review summarizes currently available data on connexin expression and GJIC in ES cells and iPS cells during undifferentiated state, differentiation, and reprogramming.

  2. Connexin expression and gap-junctional intercellular communication in ES cells and iPS cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito eOyamada

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells, i.e., embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, can indefinitely proliferate without commitment and differentiate into all cell lineages. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation blastocyst, whereas iPS cells are generated from somatic cells by overexpression of a few transcription factors. Many studies have demonstrated that mouse and human iPS cells are highly similar but not identical to their respective ES cell counterparts. The potential to generate basically any differentiated cell types from these cells offers the possibility to establish new models of mammalian development and to create new sources of cells for regenerative medicine. ES cells and iPS cells also provide useful models to study connexin expression and gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC during cell differentiation and reprogramming. In 1996, we reported connexin expression and GJIC in mouse ES cells. Because a substantial number of papers on these subjects have been published since our report, this Mini Review summarizes currently available data on connexin expression and GJIC in ES cells and iPS cells during undifferentiated state, differentiation, and reprogramming.

  3. KSR-Based Medium Improves the Generation of High-Quality Mouse iPS Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring wi...

  4. The first reported generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) and iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, C; Davis, R P; Gkatzis, K; Ward-van Oostwaard, D; Mummery, C L

    2010-01-01

    One of the recent breakthroughs in stem cell research has been the reprogramming of human somatic cells to an embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like state (induced pluripotent stem cells, iPS cells). Similar to ESCs, iPS cells can differentiate into derivatives of the three germ layers, for example cardiomyocytes, pancreatic cells or neurons. This technique offers a new approach to investigating disease pathogenesis and to the development of novel therapies. It may now be possible to generate iPS cells from somatic cells of patients who suffer from vascular genetic diseases, such as hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). The iPS cells will have a similar genotype to that of the patient and can be differentiated in vitro into the cell type(s) that are affected in the patient. Thus they will serve as excellent models for a better understanding of mechanisms underlying the disease. This, together with the ability to test new drugs, could potentially lead to novel therapeutic concepts in the near future. Here we report the first derivation of three human iPS cell lines from two healthy individuals and one HHT patient in the Netherlands. The iPS cells resembled ESCs in morphology and expressed typical ESC markers. In vitro, iPS cells could be differentiated into cells of the three germ layers, including beating cardiomyocytes and vascular cells. With this technique it will be possible to establish human cardiovascular disease models from patient biopsies provided by the principal hospitals in the Netherlands. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:51-4.).

  5. Establishment of human cell type-specific iPS cells with enhanced chondrogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Rosa M; Scanlon, Vanessa; Sanjay, Archana; Xu, Ren-He; Drissi, Hicham

    2014-12-01

    The propensity of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to differentiate into specific lineages may be influenced by a number of factors, including the selection of the somatic cell type used for reprogramming. Herein we report the generation of new iPS cells, which we derived from human articular chondrocytes and from cord blood mononucleocytes via lentiviral-mediated delivery of Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and cMyc. Molecular, cytochemical, and cytogenic analyses confirmed the acquisition of hallmark features of pluripotency, as well as the retention of normal karyotypes following reprogramming of both the human articular chondrocytes (AC) and the cord blood (CB) cells. In vitro and in vivo functional analyses formally established the pluripotent differentiation capacity of all cell lines. Chondrogenic differentiation assays comparing iPS cells derived from AC, CB, and a well established dermal fibroblast cell line (HDFa-Yk26) identified enhanced proteoglycan-rich matrix formation and cartilage-associated gene expression from AC-derived iPS cells. These findings suggest that the tissue of origin may impact the fate potential of iPS cells for differentiating into specialized cell types, such as chondrocytes. Thus, we generated new cellular tools for the identification of inherent features driving high chondrogenic potential of reprogrammed cells.

  6. Neural stem cells differentiated from iPS cells spontaneously regain pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Sol; Hong, Yean Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Seo, Han Geuk; Do, Jeong Tae

    2014-10-01

    Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells by transduction of exogenous reprogramming factors. After induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are established, exogenous genes are silenced. In the pluripotent state, retroviral genes integrated in the host genome are kept inactive through epigenetic transcriptional regulation. In this study, we tried to determine whether exogenous genes remain silenced or are reactivated upon loss of pluripotency or on differentiation using an in vitro system. We induced differentiation of iPS cells into neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro; the NSCs appeared morphologically indistinguishable from brain-derived NSCs and stained positive for the NSC markers Nestin and Sox2. These iPS cell-derived NSCs (iPS-NSCs) were also capable of differentiating into all three neural subtypes. Interestingly, iPS-NSCs spontaneously formed aggregates on long-term culture and showed reactivation of the Oct4-GFP marker, which was followed by the formation of embryonic stem cell-like colonies. The spontaneously reverted green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive (iPS-NSC-GFP(+) ) cells expressed high levels of pluripotency markers (Oct4 and Nanog) and formed germline chimeras, indicating that iPS-NSC-GFP(+) cells had the same pluripotency as the original iPS cells. The reactivation of silenced exogenous genes was tightly correlated with the downregulation of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) during differentiation of iPS cells. This phenomenon was not observed in doxycycline-inducible iPS cells, where the reactivation of exogenous genes could be induced only by doxycycline treatment. These results indicate that pluripotency can be regained through reactivation of exogenous genes, which is associated with dynamic change of Dnmt levels during differentiation of iPS cells.

  7. Preparation of pancreatic β-cells from human iPS cells with small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells obtained from patients are expected to be a useful source for cell transplantation therapy, because many patients (including those with type 1 diabetes and severe type 2 diabetes) are on waiting lists for transplantation for a long time due to the shortage of donors. At present, many concerns related to clinical application of human iPS cells have been raised, but rapid development of methods for the establishment, culture, and standardization of iPS cells will lead autologous cell therapy to be realistic sooner or later. However, establishment of a method for preparing some of desired cell types is still challenging. Regarding pancreatic β-cells, there have been many reports about differentiation of these cells from human embryonic stem (ES)/iPS cells, but a protocol for clinical application has still not been established. Since there is clear proof that cell transplantation therapy is effective for diabetes based on the results of clinical islet transplantation, pancreatic β-cells prepared from human iPS cells are considered likely to be effective for reducing the burden on patients. In this article, the current status of procedures for preparing pancreatic β-cells from human ES/iPS cells, including effective use of small molecules, is summarized, and some of the problems that still need to be overcome are discussed.

  8. Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell Culture Methods and Induction of Differentiation into Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Li, Fei; Kohler, Erin E; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B; Wary, Kishore K

    2016-01-01

    The study of stem cell behavior and differentiation in a developmental context is complex, time-consuming, and expensive, and for this reason, cell culture remains a method of choice for developmental and regenerative biology and mechanistic studies. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells have the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs), and the route for differentiation appears to mimic the developmental process that occurs during the formation of an embryo. Traditional EC induction methods from embryonic stem (ES) cells rely mostly on the formation of embryoid body (EB), which employs feeder or feeder-free conditions in the presence or absence of supporting cells. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells can be cultured in feeder layer or feeder-free conditions. Here, we describe the iPS cell culture methods and induction differentiation of these cells into ECs. We use anti-mouse Flk1 and anti-mouse VE-cadherin to isolate and characterize mouse ECs, because these antibodies are commercially available and their use has been described in the literature, including by our group. The ECs produced by this method have been used by our laboratory, and we have demonstrated their in vivo potential. We also discuss how iPS cells differ in their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in culture.

  9. Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell Culture Methods and Induction of Differentiation into Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Li, Fei; Kohler, Erin E.; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.; Wary, Kishore K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The studies of stem cell behavior and differentiation in a developmental context is complex, time-consuming and expensive, and for this reason, cell culture remains a method of choice for developmental and regenerative biology and mechanistic studies. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells have the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs), and the route for differentiation appears to mimic the developmental process that occurs during the formation of an embryo. Traditional EC induction methods from embryonic stem (ES) cells rely mostly on the formation the embryoid body (EB), which employs feeder or feeder-free conditions in the presence or absence of supporting cells. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells can be cultured in feeder-layer or feeder-free conditions. Here, we describe the iPS cell culture methods and induction differentiation of these cells into ECs. We use anti-mouse Flk1 and anti-mouse VE-cadherin to isolate and characterize mouse ECs, because these antibodies are commercially available and their use has been described in the literature, including by our group. The ECs produced by this method have been used by our laboratory, and we have demonstrated their in vivo potential. We also discuss how iPS cells differ in their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in culture. PMID:25687301

  10. Generation and In Vitro Expansion of Hepatic Progenitor Cells from Human iPS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells have the unique properties of self-renewal and multipotency (producing progeny belonging to two or more lineages). Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated from somatic cells by simultaneous expression of pluripotent factors (Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc). They share the same properties as embryonic stem (ES) cells and can differentiate into several tissue cells, i.e., neurons, hematopoietic cells, and liver cells. Therefore, iPS cells are suitable candidate cells for regenerative medicine and analyses of disease mechanisms.The liver is the major organ that regulates a multitude of metabolic functions. Hepatocytes are the major cell type populating the liver parenchyma and express several metabolic enzymes that are necessary for liver functions. Although hepatocytes are essential for maintaining homeostasis, it is difficult to alter artificial and transplanted cells because of their multifunctionality, donor shortage, and immunorejection risk. During liver development, hepatic progenitor cells in the fetal liver differentiate into both mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. As hepatic progenitor cells have bipotency and high proliferation ability, they could present a potential source for generating transplantable cells or as a liver study model. Here we describe the induction and purification of hepatic progenitor cells derived from human iPS cells. These cells can proliferate for a long term under suitable culture conditions.

  11. Comparative study of myocytes from normal and mdx mice iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Cao, Jiqing; Liu, Qiang; Qin, Jie; Kong, Jie; Wang, Yanyun; Li, Yaqin; Geng, Jia; Li, Qiuling; Yang, Liqing; Xiang, Andy Peng; Zhang, Cheng

    2012-02-01

    Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) have been derived from various techniques and show great potential for therapy of human diseases. Furthermore, the iPS technique can be used to provide cell models to explore pathological mechanisms of many human diseases in vitro, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is a severe recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy without effective treatment. In this study, we try to determine whether there are different characteristics of myocytes from mdx iPS cells and C57BL/10 iPS cells. Our results showed that both of mdx and C57BL/10 cells could be induced into iPS cells in vitro, whereas colony-forming ability of mdx iPS cells was much weaker than that of C57BL/10 iPS cells. Meanwhile, mdx iPS cells could be induced to differentiate into myocytes, whereas their differentiation efficiency was much lower than that of C57BL/10 iPS cells. And, the number of apoptotic cells in differentiated myocytes from mdx iPS cells was significantly higher than that from C57BL/10 iPS cells. More importantly, treatment of a pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD) produced a significant decrease in apoptotic cells. This study might add some insight to the biology study of dystrophin gene.

  12. [Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell - issues for clinical application - ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by introducing small sets of transcription factors. iPS cells demonstrate pluripotency and the ability to self-renew. In addition, iPS cells can be generated from donor individuals with particular characteristics. Based on these features, iPS cells are expected to be applicable in drug discovery, the study of disease mechanisms and cell therapy. From a technical point of view, "diversity" is the key word. At present, iPS cells can be derived using various techniques, resulting in diversity in the quality of iPS cells generated. Therefore, optimization of the derivation technology is one of the most important issues. Another "diversity" is in the propensities amongst iPS cell lines derived using similar techniques. Thus, strategies for selecting good quality lines remain to be established. Considering such technical hurdles, establishment of an iPS cell bank consisting of high quality and versatile iPS lines is a promising idea because of the merits of cost and quality control. Now, we are exploring relevant parameters for the quality control of banked cells. The challenges facing clinical application of iPS cells are new but not unprecedented. To realize clinical applications of iPS cells, we need to make these challenges clear and overcome them through partnership not only with industry, governments and universities, but also patients and society at large.

  13. Human iPS Cell-Derived Germ Cells: Current Status and Clinical Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2014-10-13

    Recently, fertile spermatozoa and oocytes were generated from mouse induced pluripotent (iPS) cells using a combined in vitro and in vivo induction system. With regard to germ cell induction from human iPS cells, progress has been made particularly in the male germline, demonstrating in vitro generation of haploid, round spermatids. Although iPS-derived germ cells are expected to be developed to yield a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART) that can address unmet reproductive needs, genetic and/or epigenetic instabilities abound in iPS cell generation and germ cell induction. In addition, there is still room to improve the induction protocol in the female germline. However, rapid advances in stem cell research are likely to make such obstacles surmountable, potentially translating induced germ cells into the clinical setting in the immediate future. This review examines the current status of the induction of germ cells from human iPS cells and discusses the clinical potential, as well as future directions.

  14. Human iPS Cell-Derived Germ Cells: Current Status and Clinical Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ishii

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, fertile spermatozoa and oocytes were generated from mouse induced pluripotent (iPS cells using a combined in vitro and in vivo induction system. With regard to germ cell induction from human iPS cells, progress has been made particularly in the male germline, demonstrating in vitro generation of haploid, round spermatids. Although iPS-derived germ cells are expected to be developed to yield a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART that can address unmet reproductive needs, genetic and/or epigenetic instabilities abound in iPS cell generation and germ cell induction. In addition, there is still room to improve the induction protocol in the female germline. However, rapid advances in stem cell research are likely to make such obstacles surmountable, potentially translating induced germ cells into the clinical setting in the immediate future. This review examines the current status of the induction of germ cells from human iPS cells and discusses the clinical potential, as well as future directions.

  15. Genomic imprinting is variably lost during reprogramming of mouse iPS cells

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is mainly an epigenetic reprogramming process. It is still quite controversial how genomic imprinting is reprogrammed in iPS cells. Thus, we derived multiple iPS clones from genetically identical mouse somatic cells. We found that parentally inherited imprint was variably lost among these iPS clones. Concurrent with the loss of DNA methylation imprint at the corresponding Snrpn and Peg3 imprinted regions, parental origin-specific expression o...

  16. Genomic imprinting is variably lost during reprogramming of mouse iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Sachiko; Ray, Chelsea; Wang, Xin; Shamis, Yulia; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Li, Xiajun

    2013-09-01

    Derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is mainly an epigenetic reprogramming process. It is still quite controversial how genomic imprinting is reprogrammed in iPS cells. Thus, we derived multiple iPS clones from genetically identical mouse somatic cells. We found that parentally inherited imprint was variably lost among these iPS clones. Concurrent with the loss of DNA methylation imprint at the corresponding Snrpn and Peg3 imprinted regions, parental origin-specific expression of the Snrpn and Zim1 imprinted genes was also lost in these iPS clones. This loss of parental genomic imprinting in iPS cells was likely caused by the reprogramming process during iPS cell derivation because extended culture of iPS cells did not lead to significant increase in the loss of genomic imprinting. Intriguingly, one to several paternal chromosomes appeared to have acquired de novo methylation at the Snrpn and Zac1 imprinted regions in a high percentage of iPS clones. These results might have some implications for future therapeutic applications of iPS cells. Since DNA methylation imprint can be completely erased in some iPS clones at multiple imprinted regions, iPS cell reprogramming may also be employed to dissect the underlying mechanisms of erasure, reacquisition and maintenance of genomic imprinting in mammals.

  17. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human fetal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Pascale V

    2016-02-01

    Pluripotency defines the ability of stem cells to differentiate into all the lineages of the three germ layers and self-renew indefinitely. Somatic cells can regain the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells following ectopic expression of a set of transcription factors or, in certain circumstances, via modulation of culture conditions and supplementation with small molecule, that is, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we discuss the use of fetal tissues for reprogramming, focusing in particular on stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid, and the development of chemical reprogramming. We next address the advantages and disadvantages of deriving pluripotent cells from fetal tissues and the potential clinical applications.

  18. Induction of iPS cells and of cancer stem cells: the stem cell or reprogramming hypothesis of cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosko, James E

    2014-01-01

    This article as designed to examine whether the "stoichiometric" or "elite models" of the origin of the "induced pluripotent stem" (iPS) cells fits some experiment facts from the developmental biology of adult stem cells and from the field of cancer research. In brief, since the evidence presented to support the stoichiometric model failed to recognize the factual existence of adult organ specific stem cells, the model has not been rigorously tested. In addition, the demonstration of a subset of cells (MUSE cells) in normal primary in vitro cultures of human fibroblasts (the usual source of iPS cells) seems to be the origin of the iPS cells. Moreover, from the field of carcinogenesis, the "stem cell" versus "de-differentiation" or "reprogramming" hypotheses were examined. Again, using the role of glycolysis, known to be associated with the Warburg effect in cancer cells, a list of experiments showing that (a) normal stem cells, which have few mitochondria, metabolize via glycolysis; (b) the stem cells are targets for "initiation" or "immortalization" or the blockage of differentiation and apoptosis of the stem cells by "immortalizing viruses"; (c) Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), when expressed, is associated with glycolysis and therefore, must be expressed in normal adult stem cells, as well as in cancer cells; and (d) p53, depleted or rendered dysfunctional by SV40 Large T antigen, is associated with the reduction of mitochondrial function and mass and is associated with the Warburg effect. Together, these observations from the iPS and "cancer stem cell" fields support the idea that both iPS cells and cancer stem cell are derived from adult organ-specific stem cells that do not restore or switch their metabolism of glucose from oxidative metabolism to glycolysis but, rather, in both cases, the adult stem cell, which metabolizes by glycolysis, is prevented from differentiation or from metabolizing by oxidative phosphorylation.

  19. KSR-based medium improves the generation of high-quality mouse iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Ye, Xiaoying; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Jiao; Zhang, Jingzhuo; Liu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring with germline transmission competency. Both alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity assay and expression of Nanog have been used to evaluate the efficiency of iPS cell induction and formation of ES/iPS cell colonies; however, appropriate expression of Nanog frequently indicates the quality of ES/iPS cells. Interestingly, whereas foetal bovine serum (FBS)-based media increase iPS cell colony formation, as revealed by AP activity, KSR-based media increase the frequency of iPS cell colony formation with Nanog expression. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK/ERK by a specific inhibitor, PD0325901, in KSR- but not in FBS-based media significantly increases Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. In contrast, addition of bFGF in KSR-based media decreases proportion of Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. Remarkably, PD can rescue Nanog-GFP+ deficiency caused by bFGF. These data suggest that MAPK/ERK pathway influences high quality mouse iPS cells and that KSR- and PD-based media could enrich homogeneous authentic pluripotent stem cells.

  20. 10th anniversary of iPS cells: the challenges that lie ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated by Yamanaka and Takahashi for the first time from a mouse fibroblast culture by introducing four factors. In the 10 years since then, this breakthrough discovery has been making waves in the fields of biology and medical science. For example, various technologies for generating iPS cells have been developed, and we have cultivated a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in reprogramming. In addition, many researchers have explored the applications of iPS cells, such as drug discovery, the study of disease mechanisms and regenerative medicine, and the development of advanced technologies for the differentiation and qualification of the cells. Furthermore, the concept of iPS cell generation has inspired a number of studies that do not use iPS cells. We herein review and discuss the past, present and future of iPS cells and their related issues.

  1. [Current status and perspective on regenerative medicine for spinal cord injury using iPS cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Stimulated by the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded for Shinya Yamanaka and Sir John Gurdon, there is an increasing interest in the iPS cells and reprogramming technologies in medical science. While iPS cells are expected to open new era providing enormous opportunities in the biomedical sciences in terms of cell therapies for regenerative medicine, safety-related concerns for iPS cell-based cell therapy should be resolved prior to the clinical application of iPS cells. In this symposium, the pre-clinical investigations of cell therapy for SCI using neural stem/progenitor cells derived from iPS cells, and their safety issues in vivo are outlined.

  2. Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cells in Dentistry: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    iPS cells are derived from somatic cells via transduction and expression of selective transcription factors. Both viral-integrating (like retroviral) and non-integrating (like, mRNA or protein-based) techniques are available for the production of iPS cells. In the field of dentistry, iPS cells have been derived from stem cells of apical papilla, dental pulp stem cells, and stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts, and buccal mucosa fibroblasts. iPS cells have the potential to differentiate into all derivatives of the 3 primary germ layers i.e. ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. They are autogeneically accessible, and can produce patient-specific or disease-specific cell lines without the issue of ethical controversy. They have been successfully tested to produce mesenchymal stem cells-like cells, neural crest-like cells, ameloblasts-like cells, odontoblasts-like cells, and osteoprogenitor cells. These cells can aid in regeneration of periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, cementum, dentin-pulp complex, as well as possible Biotooth formation. However certain key issues like, epigenetic memory of iPS cells, viral-transduction, tumorgenesis and teratoma formation need to be overcome, before they can be successfully used in clinical practice. The article discusses the sources, pros and cons, and current applications of iPS cells in dentistry with an emphasis on encountered challenges and their solutions. PMID:27572712

  3. Mesodermal and hematopoietic differentiation from ES and iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue-Yokoo, Tomoko; Tani, Kenzaburo; Sugiyama, Daisuke

    2013-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into any type of tissue when grown in a suitable culture environment and are considered valuable tools for regenerative medicine. In the field of hematology, generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mature hematopoietic cells (HCs) from ES and iPS cells through mesodermal cells, the ancestors of HCs, can facilitate transplantation and transfusion therapy. Several studies report generation of functional HCs from both mouse and human ES and iPS cells. This approach will likely be applied to individual patient-derived iPS cells for regenerative medicine approaches and drug screening in the future. Here, we summarize current studies of HC-generation from ES and iPS cells.

  4. Reprogramming in vivo produces teratomas and iPS cells with totipotency features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, María; Mosteiro, Lluc; Pantoja, Cristina; Cañamero, Marta; Rayon, Teresa; Ors, Inmaculada; Graña, Osvaldo; Megías, Diego; Domínguez, Orlando; Martínez, Dolores; Manzanares, Miguel; Ortega, Sagrario; Serrano, Manuel

    2013-10-17

    Reprogramming of adult cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) has opened new therapeutic opportunities; however, little is known about the possibility of in vivo reprogramming within tissues. Here we show that transitory induction of the four factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc in mice results in teratomas emerging from multiple organs, implying that full reprogramming can occur in vivo. Analyses of the stomach, intestine, pancreas and kidney reveal groups of dedifferentiated cells that express the pluripotency marker NANOG, indicative of in situ reprogramming. By bone marrow transplantation, we demonstrate that haematopoietic cells can also be reprogrammed in vivo. Notably, reprogrammable mice present circulating iPS cells in the blood and, at the transcriptome level, these in vivo generated iPS cells are closer to embryonic stem cells (ES cells) than standard in vitro generated iPS cells. Moreover, in vivo iPS cells efficiently contribute to the trophectoderm lineage, suggesting that they achieve a more plastic or primitive state than ES cells. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of in vivo iPS cells generates embryo-like structures that express embryonic and extraembryonic markers. We conclude that reprogramming in vivo is feasible and confers totipotency features absent in standard iPS or ES cells. These discoveries could be relevant for future applications of reprogramming in regenerative medicine.

  5. Highly efficient differentiation of human ES cells and iPS cells into mature pancreatic insulin-producing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Zhang; Wei Jiang; Meng Liu; Xin Sui; Xiaolei Yin; Song Chen; Yan Shi; Hongkui Deng

    2009-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells represent a potentially unlimited source of functional pancreatic endocrine lineage cells. Here we report a highly efficient approach to induce human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to differentiate into mature insulin-producing cells in a chemical-defined culture system. The differentiated human ES cells obtained by this approach comprised nearly 25% insulin-positive cells as assayed by flow cytometry analysis, which released insulin/C-peptide in response to glucose stimuli in a manner comparable to that of adult human islets. Most of these insulin-producing cells co-expressed mature β cell-specific markers such as NKX6-1 and PDX1, indicating a similar gene expression pattern to adult islet β cells in vivo. In this study, we also demonstrated that EGF facilitates the expansion of PDX1-positive pancreatic progenitors. Moreover, our protocol also succeeded in efficiently inducing human iPS cells to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. Therefore, this work not only provides a new model to study the mechanism of human pancreatic specialization and maturation in vitro, but also enhances the possibility of utilizing patient-specific iPS cells for the treatment of diabetes.

  6. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue; Jin, Meng; Chen, Ying-Xiao; Wang, Jun; Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway.

  7. Hepatic Differentiation from Murine and Human iPS Cells Using Nanofiber Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazoe, Taiji; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kume, Shoen

    2016-01-01

    The induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells of murine and human are capable to differentiate into any cell type of the body through recapitulating normal development, similarly as the embryonic stem (ES) cells. Lines of evidence support that both ES cells and iPS cells are induced to differentiate in vitro by sequential treatment of humoral cues such as growth factors and chemicals, combined with the use of certain microenvironments including extracellular matrices and scaffolds.Here, we describe the procedure to potentiate hepatic lineage cells differentiation from murine and human iPS cells, using growth factor cocktails and nanofiber scaffolds. Nanofiber scaffolds have a three-dimensional surface mimicking the fine structures of the basement membrane in vivo, allow the iPS cells to differentiate into the definitive endoderm and mature hepatocyte-like cells more efficiently than the two-dimensional conventional culture plates.

  8. The Characteristics of Murine iPS Cells and siRNA Transfection Under Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, K; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    iPS cells are attractive for the regenerative medicine. The creation of pluripotent cells from somatic cells has great potential for basic and clinical research and application. Retroviral transduction of four or three transfection factors has been shown to initiate a reprogramming process. Here, we describe the effect of transcription factors regarding the growth and differentiation of mouse iPS cells in normoxia or hypoxia. Furthermore, we introduce the function of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in mouse iPS cells in hypoxia using RT-PCR and western blotting together with HIFs knockdown techniques.

  9. Effects of hypoxia on pluripotency in murine iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kouji; Yoshizawa, Yuu; Yamada, Shizuka; Igawa, Kazunari; Hayashi, Yoshihiko; Ishizaki, Hidetaka

    2013-10-01

    Retroviral transduction of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) or three factors, excluding c-Myc, has been shown to initiate a reprogramming process that results in the transformation of murine fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and there has been a rapid increase in the number of iPS cell-based preclinical trials. In this study, the effects of these transcription factors were evaluated regarding the growth and differentiation of murine iPS cells under hypoxia. Based on the results of RT-PCR and alizarin red S staining, there were no statistical differences in the growth and differentiation of iPS cells or the induction of iPS cells to osteoblasts under hypoxia between the transcription factor groups. Furthermore, the function of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) in murine iPS cells under hypoxia was investigated in relation to the morphology and expression of transcription factors using RT-PCR and Western blotting. The HIF-2α knockdown group exhibited a decrease in the colony size of the iPS cells. The HIF-2α or -3α knockdown group demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the transcription factor expression compared to that observed in the control group. These results demonstrate that HIF-2α among HIFs is the most influential candidate for the maintenance of the pluripotency of murine iPS cells.

  10. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells repair and regenerate infarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Dinender K; Long, Xilin; Glass, Carley; Singla, Reetu D; Yan, Binbin

    2011-10-03

    Cardiac myocyte differentiation reported thus far is from iPS cells generated from mouse and human fibroblasts. However, there is no article on the generation of iPS cells from cardiac ventricular specific cell types such as H9c2 cells. Therefore, whether transduced H9c2 cells, originally isolated from embryonic cardiac ventricular tissue, will be able to generate iPS cells and have the potential to repair and regenerate infarcted myocardium remains completely elusive. We transduced H9c2 cells with four stemness factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, and successfully reprogrammed them into iPS cells. These iPS cells were able to differentiate into beating cardiac myocytes and positively stained for cardiac specific sarcomeric α-actin and myosin heavy chain proteins. Following transplantation in the infarcted myocardium, there were newly differentiated cardiac myocytes and formation of gap junction proteins at 2 weeks post-myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting newly formed cardiac myocytes were integrated into the native myocardium. Furthermore, transplanted iPS cells significantly (p cell groups. Moreover, our iPS cell derived cardiac myocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo was comparable to embryonic stem cells in the present study. In conclusion we report for the first time that we have H9c2 cell-derived iPS cells which contain the potential to differentiate into cardiac myocytes in the cell culture system and repair and regenerate infarcted myocardium with improved cardiac function in vivo.

  11. [Retinal regeneration with iPS cells ‒ Clinical trials for retinal degenerative disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Sunao

    2015-01-01

    Potential for re-programming cells has become widely accepted as a tool for obtaining transplantation materials. There has been great interest in cell-based therapies, including retinal transplants, because there is a reduced risk of immune rejection. Stem cells have the capacity for self-renewal plus the capacity to generate several differentiated cells. They are derived from many sources including human adult-derived induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and have found early application in the context of ocular disease. In results, our established iPS-retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are high-quality RPE cells. iPS cells-derived RPE cells clearly showed polygonal morphology (mostly hexagonal) and contained melanin. Moreover, RPE cells derived from iPS cells had many characteristics of mature RPE cells in vivo, but no characteristics of pluripotent stem cells. Recently, we transplanted RPE cell sheets to treat a patient with wet age-related macular degeneration (September, 2014). In addition, we are now conducting experiments to determine whether allogeneic T cells can recognize iPS-RPE cells from HLA-A, B, DRB1 locus homozygote donors. iPS bank might be useful as allografts in retinal disorders, if the recipient T cells cannot respond to allogeneic RPE cells because of match to some of main HLA antigens.

  12. TAP-deficient human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, M; Tomita, Y; Yuno, A; Matsumura, K; Ikeda, T; Takamatsu, K; Haga, E; Koba, C; Nishimura, Y; Senju, S

    2013-05-01

    We previously reported a method to generate dendritic cell (DC)-like antigen-presenting cells (APC) from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the method is relatively complicated and laborious. In the current study, we attempted to establish a method through which we could obtain a large number of functional APC with a simple procedure. We transduced iPS cell-derived CD11b(+) myeloid cells with genes associated with proliferative or anti-senescence effects, enabling the cells to propagate for more than 4 months in a macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent manner while retaining their capacity to differentiate into functional APC. We named these iPS cell-derived proliferating myeloid cells 'iPS-ML', and the iPS-ML-derived APC 'ML-DC'. In addition, we generated TAP2-deficient iPS cell clones by zinc finger nuclease-aided targeted gene disruption. TAP2-deficient iPS cells and iPS-ML avoided recognition by pre-activated allo-reactive CD8(+) T cells. TAP2-deficient ML-DC expressing exogenously introduced HLA-A2 genes stimulated HLA-A2-restricted MART-1-specific CD8(+) T cells obtained from HLA-A2-positive allogeneic donors, resulting in generation of MART-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lines. TAP-deficient iPS-ML introduced with various HLA class I genes may serve as an unlimited source of APC for vaccination therapy. If administered into allogeneic patients, ML-DC with appropriate genetic modifications may survive long enough to stimulate antigen-specific CTL and, after that, be completely eliminated. Based on the present study, we propose an APC-producing system that is simple, safe and applicable to all patients irrespective of their HLA types.

  13. Enhancement of arsenic trioxide-mediated changes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (IPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Barbara; Stevens, Jacqueline; Wells, Phatia; Sims, Jennifer; Rogers, Christian; Leggett, Sophia S; Ekunwe, Stephen; Ndebele, Kenneth

    2014-07-22

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (IPS) are an artificially derived type of pluripotent stem cell, showing many of the same characteristics as natural pluripotent stem cells. IPS are a hopeful therapeutic model; however there is a critical need to determine their response to environmental toxins. Effects of arsenic on cells have been studied extensively; however, its effect on IPS is yet to be elucidated. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and genotoxicity in many cells. Based on ATOs action in other cells, we hypothesize that it will induce alterations in morphology, inhibit cell viability and induce a genotoxic effect on IPS. Cells were treated for 24 hours with ATO (0-9 µg/mL). Cell morphology, viability and DNA damage were documented. Results indicated sufficient changes in morphology of cell colonies mainly in cell ability to maintain grouping and ability to remain adherent. Cell viability decreased in a dose dependent manner. There were significant increases in tail length and moment as well as destruction of intact DNA as concentration increased. Exposure to ATO resulted in a reproducible dose dependent sequence of events marked by changes in morphology, decrease of cell viability, and induction of genotoxicity in IPS.

  14. [Research and Application of iPS Cells in Blood System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Xia; Ye, Jie-Yu; Lian, Qi-Zhou; Yang, Mo

    2015-04-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) were first constructed by Takahshi and et al in 2006. They converted the mouse fibroblasts into ES-like cells via viral transduction with four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). Since, the significant progress has been made and many researchers have succeeded in inducing iPS cells from other human somatic cells by some novel approaches, such as combining transcriptional factors and small chemicals. IPS cells have significant prospect in clinical application. IPS cells derived from patient somatic cells can be used as a model in studying the pathogenesis of genetic hematological disease and applied in therapeutic screenings. Recent studies suggested that iPS cells can differentiate into red blood cells and platelets in vitro, which may make up a big blood bank for transfusion in future. In this review, current understanding of both recombinant technology of iPS cells and the research progress in hematology are summarized.

  15. Reference Maps of human ES and iPS cell variation enable high-throughput characterization of pluripotent cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Christoph; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Verstappen, Griet; Gu, Hongcang; Boulting, Gabriella; Smith, Zachary D; Ziller, Michael; Croft, Gist F; Amoroso, Mackenzie W; Oakley, Derek H; Gnirke, Andreas; Eggan, Kevin; Meissner, Alexander

    2011-02-04

    The developmental potential of human pluripotent stem cells suggests that they can produce disease-relevant cell types for biomedical research. However, substantial variation has been reported among pluripotent cell lines, which could affect their utility and clinical safety. Such cell-line-specific differences must be better understood before one can confidently use embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in translational research. Toward this goal we have established genome-wide reference maps of DNA methylation and gene expression for 20 previously derived human ES lines and 12 human iPS cell lines, and we have measured the in vitro differentiation propensity of these cell lines. This resource enabled us to assess the epigenetic and transcriptional similarity of ES and iPS cells and to predict the differentiation efficiency of individual cell lines. The combination of assays yields a scorecard for quick and comprehensive characterization of pluripotent cell lines.

  16. The generation of iPS cells using non-viral magnetic nanoparticle based transfection.

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    Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Joo; Jeon, Kilsoo; Lim, HyeJin; Choi, Hye yeon; Lee, Eung-Ryoung; Park, Seung Hwa; Park, Jae-Yong; Hong, Sunghoi; Kim, Soonhag; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2011-10-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from various somatic cells; however, a major restriction of the technology is the use of potentially harmful genome-integrating viral DNAs. Here, without a viral vector, we generated iPS cells from fibroblasts using a non-viral magnetic nanoparticle-based transfection method that employs biodegradable cationic polymer PEI-coated super paramagnetic nanoparticles (NP). Our findings support the possible use of transient expression of iPS genes in somatic cells by magnet-based nanofection for efficient generation of iPS cells. Results of dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis and TEM analyses demonstrated efficient conjugation of NP with iPS genes. After transfection, nanofection-mediated iPS cells showed ES cell-like characteristics, including expression of endogenous pluripotency genes, differentiation of three germ layer lineages, and formation of teratomas. Our results demonstrate that magnet-based nanofection may provide a safe method for use in generation of virus-free and exogenous DNA-free iPS cells, which will be crucial for future clinical applications in the field of regenerative medicine.

  17. Integration-free iPS cells engineered using human artificial chromosome vectors.

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    Masaharu Hiratsuka

    Full Text Available Human artificial chromosomes (HACs have unique characteristics as gene-delivery vectors, including episomal transmission and transfer of multiple, large transgenes. Here, we demonstrate the advantages of HAC vectors for reprogramming mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs into induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. Two HAC vectors (iHAC1 and iHAC2 were constructed. Both carried four reprogramming factors, and iHAC2 also encoded a p53-knockdown cassette. iHAC1 partially reprogrammed MEFs, and iHAC2 efficiently reprogrammed MEFs. Global gene expression patterns showed that the iHACs, unlike other vectors, generated relatively uniform iPS cells. Under non-selecting conditions, we established iHAC-free iPS cells by isolating cells that spontaneously lost iHAC2. Analyses of pluripotent markers, teratomas and chimeras confirmed that these iHAC-free iPS cells were pluripotent. Moreover, iHAC-free iPS cells with a re-introduced HAC encoding Herpes Simplex virus thymidine kinase were eliminated by ganciclovir treatment, indicating that the HAC safeguard system functioned in iPS cells. Thus, the HAC vector could generate uniform, integration-free iPS cells with a built-in safeguard system.

  18. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 1 (IP6K1) Regulates Inositol Synthesis in Mammalian Cells.

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    Yu, Wenxi; Ye, Cunqi; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2016-05-13

    myo-Inositol, the precursor of all inositol compounds, has pivotal roles in cell metabolism and signaling pathways. Although physiological studies indicate a strong correlation between abnormal intracellular inositol levels and neurological disorders, very little is known about the regulation of inositol synthesis in mammalian cells. In this study, we report that IP6K1, an inositol hexakisphosphate kinase that catalyzes the synthesis of inositol pyrophosphate, regulates inositol synthesis in mammalian cells. Ip6k1 ablation led to profound changes in DNA methylation and expression of Isyna1 (designated mIno1), which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase. Interestingly, IP6K1 preferentially bound to the phospholipid phosphatidic acid, and this binding was required for IP6K1 nuclear localization and the regulation of mIno1 transcription. This is the first demonstration of IP6K1 as a novel negative regulator of inositol synthesis in mammalian cells.

  19. Thymic derived iPs cells can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes.

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    Li, Jian; Cao, Yin-yin; Ma, Xiao-jing; Liu, Fang; Li, Shuo-lin; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Yan; Wang, Hui-jun; Yuan, Yuan; Ma, Duan; Huang, Guo-ying

    2015-06-01

    Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is one of the common congenital heart malformations. Several factors lead to the development of VSD, including familial causes, exposure to certain drugs, infectious agents, and maternal metabolic disturbances. We considered that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from VSD patients can be used to study the origin and pathogenesis of the VSD. Here, we show generation and cardiomyocyte differentiation potential of iPS cells from thymic epithelial cells of a patient with VSD (TECs-VSD) by overexpressing the four factors: OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28 with lentiviral vectors. The self-renewal and pluripotency of the VSD-iPS cells was verified in iPS cells by in vitro expression of pluripotency markers and formation of teratoma in vivo. iPS cell lines from VSD patients differentiated into functional cardiomyocytes can serve as a model system for studying the pathophysiology and identifying etiology of VSD.

  20. Generation of male germ cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells): an in vitro and in vivo study.

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    Zhu, Yong; Hu, Hong-Liang; Li, Peng; Yang, Shi; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Hui; Tian, Ru-Hui; Ning, Ye; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Guo, Xi-Zhi; Shi, Zhan-Ping; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies have reported that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mice and humans can differentiate into primordial germ cells. However, whether iPS cells are capable of producing male germ cells is not known. The objective of this study was to investigate the differentiation potential of mouse iPS cells into spermatogonial stem cells and late-stage male germ cells. We used an approach that combines in vitro differentiation and in vivo transplantation. Embryoid bodies (EBs) were obtained from iPS cells using leukaemia inhibitor factor (LIF)-free medium. Quantitative PCR revealed a decrease in Oct4 expression and an increase in Stra8 and Vasa mRNA in the EBs derived from iPS cells. iPS cell-derived EBs were induced by retinoic acid to differentiate into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), as evidenced by their expression of VASA, as well as CDH1 and GFRα1, which are markers of SSCs. Furthermore, these germ cells derived from iPS cells were transplanted into recipient testes of mice that had been pre-treated with busulfan. Notably, iPS cell-derived SSCs were able to differentiate into male germ cells ranging from spermatogonia to round spermatids, as shown by VASA and SCP3 expression. This study demonstrates that iPS cells have the potential to differentiate into late-stage male germ cells. The derivation of male germ cells from iPS cells has potential applications in the treatment of male infertility and provides a model for uncovering the molecular mechanisms underlying male germ cell development.

  1. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells offer a powerful new tool for the life sciences

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    Yukio Nakamura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell biology started with the analysis of somatic stem cells that function to maintain the adult body. We now know that the body is maintained by regeneration of a wide range of cell types, such as skin cells, blood cells and gastrointestinal mucous cells, from somatic stem cells. This regenerative activity is essential for survival. Regenerative medicine was initiated to identify therapies that support and/or accelerate this natural regenerative ability. For example, bone marrow transplantation is a therapy for reconstituting hematopoiesis from the hematopoietic stem cells present in the donor bone marrow. The successful development of a protocol for obtaining human embryonic stem (ES cells prompted medical scientists to utilize human ES cells for regenerative medicine. However, use of these cells raises ethical issues as they are derived from human embryos. An alternative approach using ES-like pluripotent stem cells has the considerable advantage that it does not necessitate use of human embryos. Pluripotent stem cells can be induced from terminally differentiated somatic cells by the introduction of only four defined factors. The products of this method are termed “induced pluripotent stem (iPS" cells. iPS cells have considerable promise as a substitute for ES cells not only for regenerative medicine but also in many other fields. For example, liver and heart cells derived from iPS cells can be used in pharmaceutical research. In addition, iPS cell technology opens new avenues of disease research, for example, by construction of so-called “disease-specific iPS cells” from a patient's somatic cells.

  2. Differentiation of mouse iPS cells into ameloblast-like cells in cultures using medium conditioned by epithelial cell rests of Malassez and gelatin-coated dishes.

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    Yoshida, Koki; Sato, Jun; Takai, Rie; Uehara, Osamu; Kurashige, Yoshihito; Nishimura, Michiko; Chiba, Itsuo; Saitoh, Masato; Abiko, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from adult cells and are potentially of great value in regenerative medicine. Recently, it was shown that iPS cells can differentiate into ameloblast-like cells in cultures using feeder cells. In the present study, we sought to induce differentiation of ameloblast-like cells from iPS cells under feeder-free conditions using medium conditioned by cultured epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) cells and gelatin-coated dishes. Two culture conditions were compared: co-cultures of iPS cells and ERM cells; and, culture of iPS cells in ERM cell-conditioned medium. Differentiation of ameloblast-like cells in the cultures was assessed using real-time RT-PCR assays of expression of the marker genes keratin 14, amelogenin, and ameloblastin and by immunocytochemical staining for amelogenin. We found greater evidence of ameloblast-like cell differentiation in the cultures using the conditioned medium. In the latter, the level of amelogenin expression increased daily and was significantly higher than controls on the 7th, 10th, and 14th days. Expression of ameloblastin also increased daily and was significantly higher than controls on the 14th day. The present study demonstrates that mouse iPS cells can be induced to differentiate into ameloblast-like cells in feeder-free cell cultures using ERM cell-conditioned medium and gelatin-coated dishes.

  3. Inhibition of the integrin signal constitutes a mouse iPS cell niche.

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    Higuchi, Sayaka; Yoshina, Sawako; Mitani, Shohei

    2016-09-01

    Stem cells are regulated by their surrounding microenvironments, called niche, such as cell-cell interaction and extracellular matrix. Classically, feeder cells as a niche have been used in the culture of iPS cells from both the mouse and the human. However, the regulation mechanism of stem cells by feeder cells as a niche still have been partially unclear. In this study, we used three murine iPS cell lines, iPS-MEF-Ng-20D-17, iPS-MEF-Ng-178B-5 and iPS-MEF-Fb/Ng-440A-3, which were generated by different reprogramming methods. In general, these cell lines commonly need the feeder cells as a niche to culture. Recently, the effect of substrate stiffness is known in stem cell study. First, we focused on the mechanical properties of feeder cells, and then we speculated that feeder-less culture might be made possible by using molecules in place of the mechanical properties of the niche. Finally, we found that the combination of disintegrin (echistatin) and 2i (GSK3 inhibitor and MEK inhibitor) is a sufficient condition for three murine iPS culture. This novel method of mimicking the murine iPS cell niche may be useful to understand signaling pathways to maintain the pluripotency of stem cells.

  4. Efficient genomic correction methods in human iPS cells using CRISPR-Cas9 system.

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    Li, Hongmei Lisa; Gee, Peter; Ishida, Kentaro; Hotta, Akitsu

    2016-05-15

    Precise gene correction using the CRISPR-Cas9 system in human iPS cells holds great promise for various applications, such as the study of gene functions, disease modeling, and gene therapy. In this review article, we summarize methods for effective editing of genomic sequences of iPS cells based on our experiences correcting dystrophin gene mutations with the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Designing specific sgRNAs as well as having efficient transfection methods and proper detection assays to assess genomic cleavage activities are critical for successful genome editing in iPS cells. In addition, because iPS cells are fragile by nature when dissociated into single cells, a step-by-step confirmation during the cell recovery process is recommended to obtain an adequate number of genome-edited iPS cell clones. We hope that the techniques described here will be useful for researchers from diverse backgrounds who would like to perform genome editing in iPS cells.

  5. Smurf1 regulation of DAB2IP controls cell proliferation and migration

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    Wan, Lixin; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Sun, Liankun; North, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration are regulated by the deletion of ovarian carcinoma 2/disabled homolog 2 (DOC-2/DAB2) interacting protein (DAB2IP), a tumor suppressor that serves as a scaffold protein for H-Ras and TRAF2. Importantly, the oncogenic histone methyl-transferase EZH2 epigenetically down-regulates DAB2IP in a variety of tumors. Recently, we demonstrated that DAB2IP is negatively regulated by Akt-dependent phosphorylation and SCFFbw7-mediated degradation. Here, we further identify the oncoprotein Smurf1, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, as a novel negative regulator of DAB2IP. Smurf1-mediated cellular proliferation and migration are largely dependent on the presence of DAB2IP, suggesting that DAB2IP is a key effector molecule of Smurf1 oncogenic function. Additionally, we identify that similar to DAB2IP, Smurf1 is also a target of phosphorylation by both Akt1 and Akt2 kinases, which enhances Smurf1 abundance, leading to a reduction in DAB2IP. Given the role of DAB2IP in tumorigenesis and metastasis, our data identify Smurf1 as an upstream oncogenic factor that negatively regulates DAB2IP to govern aberrant cell growth and migration. PMID:27036023

  6. Phenotypic correction of murine hemophilia A using an iPS cell-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Alipio, Zaida; Fink, Louis M; Adcock, Dorothy M; Yang, Jianchang; Ward, David C; Ma, Yupo

    2009-01-20

    Hemophilia A is caused by mutations within the Factor VIII (FVIII) gene that lead to depleted protein production and inefficient blood clotting. Several attempts at gene therapy have failed for various reasons-including immune rejection. The recent generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells by the ectopic expression of 3 transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4, provides a means of circumventing the immune rejection barrier. To date, iPS cells appear to be indistinguishable from ES cells and thus provide tremendous therapeutic potential. Here we prepared murine iPS cells from tail-tip fibroblasts and differentiated them to both endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells by using the embryoid body differentiation method. These iPS cells express major ES cell markers such as Oct4, Nanog, SSEA-1, alkaline phosphatase, and SALL4. Endothelial/endothelial progenitor cells derived from iPS cells expressed cell-specific markers such as CD31, CD34, and Flk1 and secreted FVIII protein. These iPS-derived cells were injected directly into the liver of irradiated hemophilia A mice. At various times after transplantation (7-90 days) hemophilia A mice and their control mice counterparts were challenged by a tail-clip bleeding assay. Nontransplanted hemophilia A mice died within a few hours, whereas transplanted mice survived for more than 3 months. Plasma FVIII levels increased in transplanted hemophilia A mice during this period to 8% to 12% of wild type and corrected the hemophilia A phenotype. Our studies provide additional evidence that iPS cell therapy may be able to treat human monogenetic disorders in the future.

  7. Generation of male germ cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells): an in vitro and in vivo study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhu; Xi-Zhi Guo; Zhan-Ping Shi; Zheng Li; Zuping He; Hong-Liang Hu; Peng Li; Shi Yang; Wei Zhang; Hui Ding; Ru-Hui Tian; Ye Ning; Ling-Ling Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mice and humans can differentiate into primordial germ cells.However,whether iPS cells am capable of producing male germ cells is not known.The objective of this study was to investigate the differentiation potential of mouse iPS cells into spermatogonial stem cells and late.stage male germ cells.We used an approach that combines in vitro differentiation and in vivotransplantation.Embryoid bodies (EBs) were obtained from iPS cells using leukaemia inhibitor factor (LIF)-free medium.Quantitative PCR revealed a decrease in Oct4 expression and an increase in Stra8and Vasa mRNA in the EBs derived from iPS cells.iPS cell-derived EBs were induced by retinoic acid to differentiate into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs),as evidenced by their expression of VASA,as well as CDH 1 and GFRα 1,which are markers of SSCs.Furthermore,these germ cells derived from iPS cells were transplanted into recipient testes of mice that had been pre-treated with busulfan.Notably,iPS cell-derived SSCs were able to differentiate into male germ cells ranging from spermatogonia to round spermatids,as shown by VASA and SCP3 expression.This study demonstrates that iPS cells have the potential to differentiate into late-stage male germ cells.The derivation of male germ cells from iPS cells has potential applications in the treatment of male infertility and provides a model for uncovering the molecular mechanisms underlying male germ cell development.

  8. The Potential of iPS Cells in Synucleinopathy Research

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    Leonhard Linta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available α-synuclein is a protein involved in the pathogenesis of several so-called synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease. A variety of models have been so far assessed. Human induced pluripotent stem cells provide a patient- and disease-specific model for in vitro studies, pharmacotoxicological screens, and hope for future cell-based therapies. Initial experimental procedures include the harvest of patients’ material for the reprogramming process, the investigation of the patients genetic background in the cultured cells, and the evaluation of disease-relevant factors/proteins under various cell culture conditions.

  9. iPS cells-alternative pluripotent cells to embryo stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI XueTao

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since the first murine and human embryonic stem cell lines were established by Drs.Evans and Kaufman [1] and Thomson et al.[2], respectively, great progress has been make in the field of stem cell research and regenerative medicine that gave promising futures for therapeutic interventions.However, ethical problems and complications from immune rejection have hindered the full development of ES cells into clinical practice for disease treatment.

  10. Modeling Alzheimer's disease with human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

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    Mungenast, Alison E; Siegert, Sandra; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have revolutionized the utility of human in vitro models of neurological disease. The iPS-derived and differentiated cells allow researchers to study the impact of a distinct cell type in health and disease as well as performing therapeutic drug screens on a human genetic background. In particular, clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been failing. Two of the potential reasons are first, the species gap involved in proceeding from initial discoveries in rodent models to human studies, and second, an unsatisfying patient stratification, meaning subgrouping patients based on the disease severity due to the lack of phenotypic and genetic markers. iPS cells overcome this obstacles and will improve our understanding of disease subtypes in AD. They allow researchers conducting in depth characterization of neural cells from both familial and sporadic AD patients as well as preclinical screens on human cells. In this review, we briefly outline the status quo of iPS cell research in neurological diseases along with the general advantages and pitfalls of these models. We summarize how genome-editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9 will allow researchers to reduce the problem of genomic variability inherent to human studies, followed by recent iPS cell studies relevant to AD. We then focus on current techniques for the differentiation of iPS cells into neural cell types that are relevant to AD research. Finally, we discuss how the generation of three-dimensional cell culture systems will be important for understanding AD phenotypes in a complex cellular milieu, and how both two- and three-dimensional iPS cell models can provide platforms for drug discovery and translational studies into the treatment of AD.

  11. Inhibition by salmeterol and cilomilast of fluticasone-enhanced IP-10 release in airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P J; Aksoy, Mark O; Yang, Yi; Li, Xiu Xia; Ji, Rong; Kelsen, Steven G

    2008-02-01

    The CXC chemokines, IP-10/CXCL10 and IL-8/CXCL8, play a role in obstructive lung disease by attracting Th1/Tc1 lymphocytes and neutrophils, respectively. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long acting beta 2-agonists (LABA) are widely used. However, their effect(s) on the release of IP-10 and IL-8 by airway epithelial cells are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of fluticasone, salmeterol, and agents which raise intracellular cAMP (cilomilast and db-cAMP) on the expression of IP-10 and IL-8 protein and mRNA. Studies were performed in cultured human airway epithelial cells during cytokine-stimulated IP-10 and IL-8 release. Cytokine treatment (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IFN-gamma) increased IP-10 and IL-8 protein and mRNA levels. Fluticasone (0.1 nM to 1 microM) increased IP-10 but reduced IL-8 protein release without changing IP-10 mRNA levels assessed by real time RT-PCR. The combination of salmeterol (1 micro M) and cilomilast (1-10 mu M) reduced IP-10 but had no effect on IL-8 protein. Salmeterol alone (1 micro M) and db-cAMP alone (1 mM) antagonised the effects of fluticasone on IP-10 but not IL-8 protein. In human airway epithelial cells, inhibition by salmeterol of fluticasone-enhanced IP-10 release may be an important therapeutic effect of the LABA/ICS combination not present when the two drugs are used separately.

  12. The directed differentiation of human iPS cells into kidney podocytes.

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    Song, Bi; Smink, Alexandra M; Jones, Christina V; Callaghan, Judy M; Firth, Stephen D; Bernard, Claude A; Laslett, Andrew L; Kerr, Peter G; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2012-01-01

    The loss of glomerular podocytes is a key event in the progression of chronic kidney disease resulting in proteinuria and declining function. Podocytes are slow cycling cells that are considered terminally differentiated. Here we provide the first report of the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to generate kidney cells with podocyte features. The iPS-derived podocytes share a morphological phenotype analogous with cultured human podocytes. Following 10 days of directed differentiation, iPS podocytes had an up-regulated expression of mRNA and protein localization for podocyte markers including synaptopodin, nephrin and Wilm's tumour protein (WT1), combined with a down-regulation of the stem cell marker OCT3/4. In contrast to human podocytes that become quiescent in culture, iPS-derived cells maintain a proliferative capacity suggestive of a more immature phenotype. The transduction of iPS podocytes with fluorescent labeled-talin that were immunostained with podocin showed a cytoplasmic contractile response to angiotensin II (AII). A permeability assay provided functional evidence of albumin uptake in the cytoplasm of iPS podocytes comparable to human podocytes. Moreover, labeled iPS-derived podocytes were found to integrate into reaggregated metanephric kidney explants where they incorporated into developing glomeruli and co-expressed WT1. This study establishes the differentiation of iPS cells to kidney podocytes that will be useful for screening new treatments, understanding podocyte pathogenesis, and offering possibilities for regenerative medicine.

  13. MicroRNA expression profiles of human iPS cells, retinal pigment epithelium derived from iPS, and fetal retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Whitney A; Muñiz, Alberto; Plamper, Mark L; Kaini, Ramesh R; Wang, Heuy-Ching

    2014-06-24

    The objective of this report is to describe the protocols for comparing the microRNA (miRNA) profiles of human induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from human iPS cells (iPS-RPE), and fetal RPE. The protocols include collection of RNA for analysis by microarray, and the analysis of microarray data to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed among three cell types. The methods for culture of iPS cells and fetal RPE are explained. The protocol used for differentiation of RPE from human iPS is also described. The RNA extraction technique we describe was selected to allow maximal recovery of very small RNA for use in a miRNA microarray. Finally, cellular pathway and network analysis of microarray data is explained. These techniques will facilitate the comparison of the miRNA profiles of three different cell types.

  14. Expression of neuropeptide receptor mRNA during osteoblastic differentiation of mouse iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Satomi; Goto, Tetsuya; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyono, Takashi; Joujima, Takaaki; Egusa, Hiroshi; Yatani, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Maki, Kenshi

    2014-12-01

    Various studies have shown a relationship between nerves and bones. Recent evidence suggests that both sensory and sympathetic nerves affect bone metabolism; however, little is known about how neuropeptides are involved in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into osteoblastic (OB) cells. To evaluate the putative effects of neuropeptides during the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into calcified tissue-forming OB cells, we investigated the expression patterns of neuropeptide receptors at each differentiation stage. Mouse iPS cells were seeded onto feeder cells and then transferred to low-attachment culture dishes to form embryoid bodies (EBs). EBs were cultured for 4 weeks in osteoblastic differentiation medium. The expression of α1-adrenergic receptor (AR), α2-AR, β2-AR, neuropeptide Y1 receptor (NPY1-R), neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2-R), calcitonin gene-related protein receptor (CGRP-R), and neurokinin 1-R (NK1-R) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Among these neuropeptide receptors, CGRP-R and β2-AR were expressed at all stages of cell differentiation, including the iPS cell stage, with peak expression occurring at the early osteoblastic differentiation stage. Another sensory nervous system receptor, NK1-R, was expressed mainly in the late osteoblastic differentiation stage. Furthermore, CGRP-R mRNA showed an additional small peak corresponding to EBs cultured for 3 days, suggesting that EBs may be affected by serum CGRP. These data suggest that the sensory nervous system receptor CGRP-R and the sympathetic nervous system receptor β2-AR may be involved in the differentiation of iPS cells into the osteoblastic lineage. It follows from these findings that CGRP and β2-AR may regulate cell differentiation in the iPS and EB stages, and that each neuropeptide has an optimal period of influence during the differentiation process.

  15. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency decreases reprogramming efficiency and leads to genomic instability in iPS cells

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    Kinoshita, Taisuke [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Nagamatsu, Go, E-mail: gonag@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kosaka, Takeo [Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Takubo, Keiyo [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hotta, Akitsu [Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Department of Reprogramming Science, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ellis, James [Ontario Human iPS Cell Facility, Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, SickKids, Toronto, Canada MG1L7 (Canada); Suda, Toshio, E-mail: sudato@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} iPS cells were induced with a fluorescence monitoring system. {yields} ATM-deficient tail-tip fibroblasts exhibited quite a low reprogramming efficiency. {yields} iPS cells obtained from ATM-deficient cells had pluripotent cell characteristics. {yields} ATM-deficient iPS cells had abnormal chromosomes, which were accumulated in culture. -- Abstract: During cell division, one of the major features of somatic cell reprogramming by defined factors, cells are potentially exposed to DNA damage. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 raised reprogramming efficiency but resulted in an increased number of abnormal chromosomes in established iPS cells. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is critical in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, may also play an important role during reprogramming. To clarify the function of ATM in somatic cell reprogramming, we investigated reprogramming in ATM-deficient (ATM-KO) tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs). Although reprogramming efficiency was greatly reduced in ATM-KO TTFs, ATM-KO iPS cells were successfully generated and showed the same proliferation activity as WT iPS cells. ATM-KO iPS cells had a gene expression profile similar to ES cells and WT iPS cells, and had the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers. On the other hand, ATM-KO iPS cells accumulated abnormal genome structures upon continuous passages. Even with the abnormal karyotype, ATM-KO iPS cells retained pluripotent cell characteristics for at least 20 passages. These data indicate that ATM does participate in the reprogramming process, although its role is not essential.

  16. Cell-type specificity of ChIP-predicted transcription factor binding sites

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    Håndstad Tony

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Context-dependent transcription factor (TF binding is one reason for differences in gene expression patterns between different cellular states. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq identifies genome-wide TF binding sites for one particular context—the cells used in the experiment. But can such ChIP-seq data predict TF binding in other cellular contexts and is it possible to distinguish context-dependent from ubiquitous TF binding? Results We compared ChIP-seq data on TF binding for multiple TFs in two different cell types and found that on average only a third of ChIP-seq peak regions are common to both cell types. Expectedly, common peaks occur more frequently in certain genomic contexts, such as CpG-rich promoters, whereas chromatin differences characterize cell-type specific TF binding. We also find, however, that genotype differences between the cell types can explain differences in binding. Moreover, ChIP-seq signal intensity and peak clustering are the strongest predictors of common peaks. Compared with strong peaks located in regions containing peaks for multiple transcription factors, weak and isolated peaks are less common between the cell types and are less associated with data that indicate regulatory activity. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that experimental noise is prevalent among weak peaks, whereas strong and clustered peaks represent high-confidence binding events that often occur in other cellular contexts. Nevertheless, 30-40% of the strongest and most clustered peaks show context-dependent regulation. We show that by combining signal intensity with additional data—ranging from context independent information such as binding site conservation and position weight matrix scores to context dependent chromatin structure—we can predict whether a ChIP-seq peak is likely to be present in other cellular contexts.

  17. CHCHD2 is down-regulated in neuronal cells differentiated from iPS cells derived from patients with lissencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Keiko; Okumura, Akihisa; Hayashi, Masaharu; Kondo, Takayuki; Inoue, Haruhisa; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2015-10-01

    The human cerebral cortex is peculiar for a six-layered cellular-sheet structure with convolution, which is a consequence of neuronal migration. Dysfunctions of the pathways contributing to this mechanism typically lead to lissencephaly manifesting smooth brain surfaces. To investigate the unknown mechanism underlying neuronal migration disorders, we generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from two patients with lissencephaly. Whole gene expression study for iPS cells derived from a patient with a LIS1 deletion showed reduced expression of the coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 2 gene (CHCHD2), which was also confirmed in iPS cells derived from a patient with a TUBA1A mutation. CHCHD2 expression was detected in neuronal cells differentiated from normal iPS cells in a time-dependent manner, as well as in the brain of a fetus at 26-28 week gestational age, suggesting development-dependent expression. Migrating neuronal cells showed CHCHD2 expression, suggesting its functional relevance to neuronal migration.

  18. High IP-10 levels decrease T cell function in HIV-1-infected individuals on ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, L. A.; Arango, T. A.; Thompson, E.; Naji, M.; Tebas, P.; Boyer, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1-infected subjects, despite control of viral replication with ART, have an altered immune cytokine/chemokine milieu. Changes in systemic cytokines and chemokines can alter immune responses. IP-10, in particular, has been associated with pathogenesis in a number of conditions, and we found that IP-10 is increased in serum in subjects who are HIV-1 infected and on stable ART compared with HIV-1-uninfected individuals. In a series of in vitro studies, we found that PBMCs exposed to IP-10 showed a significant decrease in the number of cells capable of secreting IFN-γ, as well as other cytokines, when stimulated with recall antigens. Furthermore, treatment with IP-10 led to decreased antigen-specific calcium signaling and MAPK38 phosphorylation. Importantly, the cytokines, as well as proliferative responses, could be enhanced with an IP-10 Nab. Our findings suggest that IP-10-modulating drugs may potentially enhance T cell responses to vaccination and HIV-1 in HIV+ subjects on ART. PMID:25157027

  19. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency decreases reprogramming efficiency and leads to genomic instability in iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Taisuke; Nagamatsu, Go; Kosaka, Takeo; Takubo, Keiyo; Hotta, Akitsu; Ellis, James; Suda, Toshio

    2011-04-08

    During cell division, one of the major features of somatic cell reprogramming by defined factors, cells are potentially exposed to DNA damage. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 raised reprogramming efficiency but resulted in an increased number of abnormal chromosomes in established iPS cells. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is critical in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, may also play an important role during reprogramming. To clarify the function of ATM in somatic cell reprogramming, we investigated reprogramming in ATM-deficient (ATM-KO) tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs). Although reprogramming efficiency was greatly reduced in ATM-KO TTFs, ATM-KO iPS cells were successfully generated and showed the same proliferation activity as WT iPS cells. ATM-KO iPS cells had a gene expression profile similar to ES cells and WT iPS cells, and had the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers. On the other hand, ATM-KO iPS cells accumulated abnormal genome structures upon continuous passages. Even with the abnormal karyotype, ATM-KO iPS cells retained pluripotent cell characteristics for at least 20 passages. These data indicate that ATM does participate in the reprogramming process, although its role is not essential.

  20. Synthesis of an inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) affinity probe to study the interactome from a colon cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Meng-Xin; Catimel, Bruno; Gregory, Mark; Condron, Melanie; Kapp, Eugene; Holmes, Andrew B; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-14

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 or IP6) is an important signalling molecule in vesicular trafficking, neurotransmission, immune responses, regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases, activation of ion channels, antioxidant functions and anticancer activities. An IP6 probe was synthesised from myo-inositol via a derivatised analogue, which was immobilised through a terminal amino group onto Dynabeads. Systematic analysis of the IP6 interactome has been performed using the IP6 affinity probe using cytosolic extracts from the LIM1215 colonic carcinoma cell line. LC/MS/MS analysis identified 77 proteins or protein complexes that bind to IP6 specifically, including AP-2 complex proteins and β-arrestins as well as a number of novel potential IP6 interacting proteins. Bioinformatic enrichment analysis of the IP6 interactome reinforced the concept that IP6 regulates a number of biological processes including cell cycle and division, signal transduction, intracellular protein transport, vesicle-mediated transport and RNA splicing.

  1. Post-natal cardiomyocytes can generate iPS cells with an enhanced capacity toward cardiomyogenic re-differentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, R; Di Pasquale, E; Portararo, P; Papait, R; Cattaneo, P; Latronico, M V G; Altomare, C; Sala, L; Zaza, A; Hirsch, E; Naldini, L; Condorelli, G; Bearzi, C

    2012-07-01

    Adult mammalian cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by forcing the expression of a few embryonic transcription factors. The resulting induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. It is well known that post-natal cardiomyocytes (CMs) lack the capacity to proliferate. Here, we report that neonatal CMs can be reprogrammed to generate iPS cells that express embryonic-specific markers and feature gene-expression profiles similar to those of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell and cardiac fibroblast (CF)-derived iPS cell populations. CM-derived iPS cells are able to generate chimeric mice and, moreover, re-differentiate toward CMs more efficiently then either CF-derived iPS cells or mES cells. The increased differentiation capacity is possibly related to CM-derived iPS cells retaining an epigenetic memory of the phenotype of their founder cell. CM-derived iPS cells may thus lead to new information on differentiation processes underlying cardiac differentiation and proliferation.

  2. Human iPS cell-derived insulin producing cells form vascularized organoids under the kidney capsules of diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu P Raikwar

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is caused by autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Transplantation of cadaveric pancreatic organs or pancreatic islets can restore normal physiology. However, there is a chronic shortage of cadaveric organs, limiting the treatment of the majority of patients on the pancreas transplantation waiting list. Here, we hypothesized that human iPS cells can be directly differentiated into insulin producing cells (IPCs capable of secreting insulin. Using a series of pancreatic growth factors, we successfully generated iPS cells derived IPCs. Furthermore, to investigate the capability of these cells to secrete insulin in vivo, the differentiated cells were transplanted under the kidney capsules of diabetic immunodeficient mice. Serum glucose levels gradually declined to either normal or near normal levels over 150 days, suggesting that the IPCs were secreting insulin. In addition, using MRI, a 3D organoid appeared as a white patch on the transplanted kidneys but not on the control kidneys. These organoids showed neo-vascularization and stained positive for insulin and glucagon. All together, these data show that a pancreatic organ can be created in vivo providing evidence that iPS cells might be a novel option for the treatment of T1D.

  3. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) technology: promises and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIGUELA Esteban; GAN Yi; QIN DaJiang; PEI DuanQing

    2009-01-01

    In 2006,an article published in Cell by Shinya Yamanaka took by surprise the stem cell research community.By performing systematic retroviral transduction of factors enriched in embryonic stem (ES) cells,the authors demonstrated the reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts into an ES cell-like state.These cells,baptized iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells,were immediately recognized as a ground-breaking discovery.Subsequently,the same authors and other groups reported a similar achievement with human fibroblasts.Two years later,the number of top quality papers on iPS is astonishing,and interest in the scientific community has risen to a fever pitch.But although iPS has the potential to revolutionize Regenerative Medicine,important questions still remain unanswered.Work from multiple laboratories worldwide including ours is focused on deciphering the molecular mechanisms of iPS,and trying to improve the technique to make it suitable for the clinic.In this review article we briefly discuss the past,present and future of iPS,with emphasis on urgent issues to be solved.

  4. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Te, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shanghai Geriatric Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200031 (China); Cheng, Weiwei [International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Huang, Yongyi [Laboratoire PROTEE, Batiment R, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, 83957 LA GARDE Cedex (France); Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Guo, Lihe, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs feeder

  5. Reprogramming to iPS cells and their subsequent hematopoietic differentiation is more efficient from MEFs than from preB cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Andreas; Seiler, Katharina; Tornack, Julia; Tsuneto, Motokazu; Melchers, Fritz

    2012-03-30

    Efficiencies of the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from either mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) or from mouse fetal liver (FL) derived preB cells and their hematogenic potencies were compared. In 10 days approximately 2% of the MEFs transduced with Sox-2, Oct-4 and Klf-4 developed to iPS cells, while only 0.01% of transduced FL-preB cells yielded iPS cells, and only after around 3 weeks. Subsequently, the generated iPS cells were induced to differentiate into hematopoietic cells in vitro. On day 5 of differentiation MEF-iPS yielded numbers and percentages of Flk-1(+) mesodermal-like cells comparable to those developed from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Compared to ES cells further differentiation to hematopoietic and lymphopoietic cells was reduced, possibly because of persistent expression of the reprogramming factors. By contrast, FL-iPS cells developed lower numbers and percentages of Flk-1(+) cells, and no significant further development to hematopoietic or lymphopoietic cells could be induced. These results indicate that the efficiencies of iPS generation and subsequent hematopoietic development depends on the type of differentiated cell from which iPS cells are generated.

  6. Low-molecular-weight inhibitors of cell differentiation enable efficient growth of mouse iPS cells under feeder-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donai, Kenichiro; Inagaki, Akane; So, Kyoung-Ha; Kuroda, Kengo; Sone, Hideko; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2015-03-01

    Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are usually maintained on feeder cells derived from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In recent years, the cell culture of iPS cells under serum- and feeder-free conditions is gaining attention in overcoming the biosafety issues for clinical applications. In this study, we report on the use of multiple small-molecular inhibitors (i.e., CHIR99021, PD0325901, and Thiazovivin) to efficiently cultivate mouse iPS cells without feeder cells in a chemically-defined and serum-free condition. In this condition, we showed that mouse iPS cells are expressing the Nanog, Oct3/4, and SSEA-1 pluripotent markers, indicating that the culture condition is optimized to maintain the pluripotent status of iPS cells. Without these small-molecular inhibitors, mouse iPS cells required the adaptation period to start the stable cell proliferation. The application of these inhibitors enabled us the shortcut culture method for the cellular adaptation. This study will be useful to efficiently establish mouse iPS cell lines without MEF-derived feeder cells.

  7. The current status of iPS cells in cardiac research and their potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana M; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Reis, Rui L

    2014-04-01

    The recent availability of human cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells opens new opportunities to build in vitro models of cardiac disease, screening for new drugs, and patient-specific cardiac therapy. Notably, the use of iPS cells enables studies in the wide pool of genotypes and phenotypes. We describe progress in reprogramming of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells towards the cardiac lineage/differentiation. The focus is on challenges of cardiac disease modeling using iPS cells and their potential to produce safe, effective and affordable therapies/applications with the emphasis of cardiac tissue engineering. We also discuss implications of human iPS cells to biological research and some of the future needs.

  8. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowski, Katharina; Warthemann, Rita; Lentes, Jana; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Dressel, Ralf; Langenstroth, Daniel; Gromoll, Jörg; Sasaki, Erika; Behr, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80) and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement therapies in

  9. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Debowski

    Full Text Available Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80 and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement

  10. Mouse ES and iPS cells can form similar definitive endoderm despite differences in imprinted genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Constantina; Longmire, Tyler A; Shen, Steven S; Bourdon, Alice; Sommer, Cesar A; Gadue, Paul; Spira, Avrum; Gouon-Evans, Valerie; Murphy, George J; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Kotton, Darrell N

    2011-06-01

    The directed differentiation of iPS and ES cells into definitive endoderm (DE) would allow the derivation of otherwise inaccessible progenitors for endodermal tissues. However, a global comparison of the relative equivalency of DE derived from iPS and ES populations has not been performed. Recent reports of molecular differences between iPS and ES cells have raised uncertainty as to whether iPS cells could generate autologous endodermal lineages in vitro. Here, we show that both mouse iPS and parental ES cells exhibited highly similar in vitro capacity to undergo directed differentiation into DE progenitors. With few exceptions, both cell types displayed similar surges in gene expression of specific master transcriptional regulators and global transcriptomes that define the developmental milestones of DE differentiation. Microarray analysis showed considerable overlap between the genetic programs of DE derived from ES/iPS cells in vitro and authentic DE from mouse embryos in vivo. Intriguingly, iPS cells exhibited aberrant silencing of imprinted genes known to participate in endoderm differentiation, yet retained a robust ability to differentiate into DE. Our results show that, despite some molecular differences, iPS cells can be efficiently differentiated into DE precursors, reinforcing their potential for development of cell-based therapies for diseased endoderm-derived tissues.

  11. Maxadilan prevents apoptosis in iPS cells and shows no effects on the pluripotent state or karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyi; Yu, Rongjie; Yang, Jiayin; Liu, Xiaofei; Tan, Meihua; Li, Hongyang; Chen, Jiansu

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a structurally endogenous peptide with many biological roles. Maxadilan, a 61-amino acid vasodilatory peptide, specifically activates the PACAP type I receptor (PAC1). Although PAC1 has been identified in embryonic stem cells, little is known about its presence or effects in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PAC1 in human iPS cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. To study the physiological effects mediated by PAC1, we evaluated the role of maxadilan in preventing apoptotic cell death induced by ultraviolet C (UVC). After exposure to UVC, the iPS cells showed a marked reduction in cell viability and a parallel increase of apoptotic cells, as demonstrated by WST-8 analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The addition of 30 nM of maxadilan dramatically increased iPS cell viability and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. The anti-apoptotic effects of maxadilan were correlated to the downregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Concomitantly, immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis and in vitro differentiation results showed that maxadilan did not affect the pluripotent state of iPS cells. Moreover, karyotype analysis showed that maxadilan did not affect the karyotype of iPS cells. In summary, these results demonstrate that PAC1 is present in iPS cells and that maxadilan effectively protects iPS cells against UVC-induced apoptotic cell death while not affecting the pluripotent state or karyotype.

  12. Maxadilan prevents apoptosis in iPS cells and shows no effects on the pluripotent state or karyotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyi Zhao

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a structurally endogenous peptide with many biological roles. Maxadilan, a 61-amino acid vasodilatory peptide, specifically activates the PACAP type I receptor (PAC1. Although PAC1 has been identified in embryonic stem cells, little is known about its presence or effects in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PAC1 in human iPS cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot analysis. To study the physiological effects mediated by PAC1, we evaluated the role of maxadilan in preventing apoptotic cell death induced by ultraviolet C (UVC. After exposure to UVC, the iPS cells showed a marked reduction in cell viability and a parallel increase of apoptotic cells, as demonstrated by WST-8 analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide (PI analysis and the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. The addition of 30 nM of maxadilan dramatically increased iPS cell viability and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. The anti-apoptotic effects of maxadilan were correlated to the downregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Concomitantly, immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR analysis and in vitro differentiation results showed that maxadilan did not affect the pluripotent state of iPS cells. Moreover, karyotype analysis showed that maxadilan did not affect the karyotype of iPS cells. In summary, these results demonstrate that PAC1 is present in iPS cells and that maxadilan effectively protects iPS cells against UVC-induced apoptotic cell death while not affecting the pluripotent state or karyotype.

  13. Differentiation of rat iPS cells and ES cells into granulosa cell-like cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Zhang; Hui Li; Zhao Wu; XiaoJun Tan; Fengying Liu; Xianghong Huang; Xiaoling Fang

    2013-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is an ovarian defect characterized by the premature depletion of ovarian follicles before 40 years of age,representing one major cause of female infertility.Stem cells provide the possibility of a potential treatment for POF.In this study,rat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were co-cultured with granulosa cells (GCs) to differentiate to GC-like cells.The level of estradiol (E2) analyzed by radioimmunoassay showed that the E2 concentration of the culture supernatant of co-cultured rat iPSCs and ESCs increased in a time-dependent manner,compared with the GCs group that has an opposite trend.The expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) was confirmed by immunostaining.These results indicated that rat iPSCs and ESCs were effectively induced to GC-like cells through indirect cell-to-cell contact.Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the expression level of marker genes in POF,including BMP15,FMR1,FSHR,INHA,AMH,NOBOX,FOXO3,EIF2B,FIGLA,and GDF9.The BMP15,FSHR,INHA,AMH,NOBOX,and GDF9 genes were significantly up-regulated in iPSCs and ESCs cocultured with GCs in comparison with ceils that were not co-cultured.Thus,here we demonstrated an available method to differentiate rat iPSCs and ESCs into GC-like cells in vitro for the possible cell therapy of POF.

  14. Production of Retinal Cells from Confluent Human iPS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Sacha; Goureau, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells could be used as an unlimited source of retinal cells for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. Although much progress has been made in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards different retinal lineages, the production of retinal cells from hiPS cells for therapeutic approaches require the development of easy and standardized protocols. In this chapter, we describe a simple and effective protocol for retinal differentiation of hiPS cells bypassing embryoid body formation and the use of exogenous molecules and substrates. In 2 weeks, confluent hiPS cells cultured in pro-neural medium can generate both retinal pigmented epithelial cells and self-forming neural retina-like structures containing retinal progenitor cells. These progenitors can be differentiated into all retinal cell types, including retinal ganglion cells and precursors of photoreceptors, which could find important applications in regenerative medicine. This differentiation system and the resulting hiPS-derived retinal cells will also offer opportunity to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying human retinal development, and the establishment of in vitro models of human retinal degenerative diseases.

  15. Immunotherapy against Metastatic Melanoma with Human iPS Cell-Derived Myeloid Cell Lines Producing Type I Interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Azusa; Fukushima, Satoshi; Nakahara, Satoshi; Kubo, Yosuke; Tokuzumi, Aki; Yamashita, Junji; Aoi, Jun; Haruta, Miwa; Senju, Satoru; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, immunotherapy for advanced melanoma has been gaining increased attention. The efficacy of anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibodies, anti-programmed cell death 1 antibodies, and the BRAF(V600E) kinase inhibitor has been proven in metastatic melanoma. At the same time, adoptive cell transfer has significant effects against metastatic melanoma; however, it is difficult to apply on a broad scale because of the problems related to cell preparation. To overcome these problems, we developed immune cell therapy using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The benefit of our method is that a large number of cells can be readily obtained. We focused on macrophages for immune cell therapy because macrophage infiltration is frequently observed in solid cancers. In this study, the efficacy of human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines (iPS-ML) genetically modified to express type I IFNs against human melanoma cells was examined. The morphology, phagocytic ability, and surface markers of iPS-ML were similar to those of macrophages. The iPS-ML that express type I IFNs (iPS-ML-IFN) showed significant effects in inhibiting the growth of disseminated human melanoma cells in SCID mice. The infiltration of iPS-ML into the tumor nests was confirmed immunohistologically. The iPS-ML-IFNs increased the expression of CD169, a marker of M1 macrophages that can activate antitumor immunity. The iPS-ML-IFNs could infiltrate into tumor tissue and exert anticancer effects in the local tumor tissue. In conclusion, this method will provide a new therapeutic modality for metastatic melanoma.

  16. Novel sequential ChIP and simplified basic ChIP protocols for promoter co-occupancy and target gene identification in human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayaperumal Anuratha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation, particularly in embryonic stem cells, has received increasing attention and involves the systematic identification of target genes and the analysis of promoter co-occupancy. High-throughput approaches based on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP have been widely used for this purpose. However, these approaches remain time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, involve multiple steps, and require complex statistical analysis. Advances in this field will greatly benefit from the development and use of simple, fast, sensitive and straightforward ChIP assay and analysis methodologies. Results We initially developed a simplified, basic ChIP protocol that combines simplicity, speed and sensitivity. ChIP analysis by real-time PCR was compared to analysis by densitometry with the ImageJ software. This protocol allowed the rapid identification of known target genes for SOX2, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX17, KLF4, RUNX2, OLIG2, SMAD2/3, BMI-1, and c-MYC in a human embryonic stem cell line. We then developed a novel Sequential ChIP protocol to investigate in vivo promoter co-occupancy, which is basically characterized by the absence of antibody-antigen disruption during the assay. It combines centrifugation of agarose beads and magnetic separation. Using this Sequential ChIP protocol we found that c-MYC associates with the SOX2/NANOG/OCT3/4 complex and identified a novel RUNX2/BMI-1/SMAD2/3 complex in BG01V cells. These two TF complexes associate with two distinct sets of target genes. The RUNX2/BMI-1/SMAD2/3 complex is associated predominantly with genes not expressed in undifferentiated BG01V cells, consistent with the reported role of those TFs as transcriptional repressors. Conclusion These simplified basic ChIP and novel Sequential ChIP protocols were successfully tested with a variety of antibodies with human embryonic stem cells, generated a number of novel

  17. Generation of iPS cell lines from schizophrenia patients using a non-integrative method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Sochacki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin biopsies were collected from three male patients (age 45, 44 and 44 with clinically diagnosed schizophrenia. The patients were diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria by a trained psychiatrist. Dermal fibroblast cell lines were established and expanded for subsequent reprogramming procedures. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells were derived using the integration-free CytoTune®-iPS 2.0 Sendai Reprogramming Kit, containing Sendai virus particles of the four Yamanaka factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc.

  18. n-Butylidenephthalide (BP) maintains stem cell pluripotency by activating Jak2/Stat3 pathway and increases the efficiency of iPS cells generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Ping; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chien, Ying-Jiun; Chang, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsu, Chien-Yu; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from somatic cells by introducing Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. The original process was inefficient; maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) and iPS cell cultures required an expensive reagent-leukemia induced factor (LIF). Our goal is to find a pure compound that not only maintains ES and iPS cell pluripotency, but also increases iPS cell generation efficiency. From 15 candidate compounds we determined that 10 µg/ml n-Butylidenephthalide (BP), an Angelica sinensis extract, triggers the up-regulation of Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression levels in MEF cells. We used ES and iPS cells treated with different concentrations of BP to test its usefulness for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Results indicate higher expression levels of several stem cell markers in BP-treated ES and iPS cells compared to controls that did not contain LIF, including alkaline phosphatase, SSEA1, and Nanog. Embryoid body formation and differentiation results confirm that BP containing medium culture was capable of maintaining ES cell pluripotency after six time passage. Microarray analysis data identified PPAR, ECM, and Jak-Stat signaling as the top three deregulated pathways. We subsequently determined that phosphorylated Jak2 and phosphorylated Stat3 protein levels increased following BP treatment and suppressed with the Jak2 inhibitor, AG490. The gene expression levels of cytokines associated with the Jak2-Stat3 pathway were also up-regulated. Last, we used pou5f1-GFP MEF cells to test iPS generation efficiency following BP treatment. Our data demonstrate the ability of BP to maintain stem cell pluripotency via the Jak2-Stat3 pathway by inducing cytokine expression levels, at the same time improving iPS generation efficiency.

  19. Interrogation of allelic chromatin states in human cells by high-density ChIP-genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Nicholas; Adoue, Véronique; Ge, Bing; Chen, Shu-Huang; Kwan, Tony; Pastinen, Tomi

    2014-09-01

    Allele-specific (AS) assessment of chromatin has the potential to elucidate specific cis-regulatory mechanisms, which are predicted to underlie the majority of the known genetic associations to complex disease. However, development of chromatin landscapes at allelic resolution has been challenging since sites of variable signal strength require substantial read depths not commonly applied in sequencing based approaches. In this study, we addressed this by performing parallel analyses of input DNA and chromatin immunoprecipitates (ChIP) on high-density Illumina genotyping arrays. Allele-specificity for the histone modifications H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K27ac, H3K27me3, and H3K36me3 was assessed using ChIP samples generated from 14 lymphoblast and 6 fibroblast cell lines. AS-ChIP SNPs were combined into domains and validated using high-confidence ChIP-seq sites. We observed characteristic patterns of allelic-imbalance for each histone-modification around allele-specifically expressed transcripts. Notably, we found H3K4me1 to be significantly anti-correlated with allelic expression (AE) at transcription start sites, indicating H3K4me1 allelic imbalance as a marker of AE. We also found that allelic chromatin domains exhibit population and cell-type specificity as well as heritability within trios. Finally, we observed that a subset of allelic chromatin domains is regulated by DNase I-sensitive quantitative trait loci and that these domains are significantly enriched for genome-wide association studies hits, with autoimmune disease associated SNPs specifically enriched in lymphoblasts. This study provides the first genome-wide maps of allelic-imbalance for five histone marks. Our results provide new insights into the role of chromatin in cis-regulation and highlight the need for high-depth sequencing in ChIP-seq studies along with the need to improve allele-specificity of ChIP-enrichment.

  20. Generation and validation of PAX7 reporter lines from human iPS cells using CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianbo; Hunt, Samuel D; Xue, Haipeng; Liu, Ying; Darabi, Radbod

    2016-03-01

    Directed differentiation of iPS cells toward various tissue progenitors has been the focus of recent research. Therefore, generation of tissue-specific reporter iPS cell lines provides better understanding of developmental stages in iPS cells. This technical report describes an efficient strategy for generation and validation of knock-in reporter lines in human iPS cells using the Cas9-nickase system. Here, we have generated a knock-in human iPS cell line for the early myogenic lineage specification gene of PAX7. By introduction of site-specific double-stranded breaks (DSB) in the genomic locus of PAX7 using CRISPR/Cas9 nickase pairs, a 2A-GFP reporter with selection markers has been incorporated before the stop codon of the PAX7 gene at the last exon. After positive and negative selection, single cell-derived human iPS clones have been isolated and sequenced for in-frame positioning of the reporter construct. Finally, by using a nuclease-dead Cas9 activator (dCas9-VP160) system, the promoter region of PAX7 has been targeted for transient gene induction to validate the GFP reporter activity. This was confirmed by flow cytometry analysis and immunostaining for PAX7 and GFP. This technical report provides a practical guideline for generation and validation of knock-in reporters using CRISPR/Cas9 system.

  1. Human iPS cell-derived astrocyte transplants preserve respiratory function after spinal cord injury.

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    Li, Ke; Javed, Elham; Scura, Daniel; Hala, Tamara J; Seetharam, Suneil; Falnikar, Aditi; Richard, Jean-Philippe; Chorath, Ashley; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Wright, Megan C; Lepore, Angelo C

    2015-09-01

    Transplantation-based replacement of lost and/or dysfunctional astrocytes is a promising therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) that has not been extensively explored, despite the integral roles played by astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a clinically-relevant source of pluripotent cells that both avoid ethical issues of embryonic stem cells and allow for homogeneous derivation of mature cell types in large quantities, potentially in an autologous fashion. Despite their promise, the iPS cell field is in its infancy with respect to evaluating in vivo graft integration and therapeutic efficacy in SCI models. Astrocytes express the major glutamate transporter, GLT1, which is responsible for the vast majority of glutamate uptake in spinal cord. Following SCI, compromised GLT1 expression/function can increase susceptibility to excitotoxicity. We therefore evaluated intraspinal transplantation of human iPS cell-derived astrocytes (hIPSAs) following cervical contusion SCI as a novel strategy for reconstituting GLT1 expression and for protecting diaphragmatic respiratory neural circuitry. Transplant-derived cells showed robust long-term survival post-injection and efficiently differentiated into astrocytes in injured spinal cord of both immunesuppressed mice and rats. However, the majority of transplant-derived astrocytes did not express high levels of GLT1, particularly at early times post-injection. To enhance their ability to modulate extracellular glutamate levels, we engineered hIPSAs with lentivirus to constitutively express GLT1. Overexpression significantly increased GLT1 protein and functional GLT1-mediated glutamate uptake levels in hIPSAs both in vitro and in vivo post-transplantation. Compared to human fibroblast control and unmodified hIPSA transplantation, GLT1-overexpressing hIPSAs reduced (1) lesion size within the injured cervical spinal cord, (2) morphological denervation by respiratory phrenic motor

  2. [Analysis of Musculoskeletal Systems and Their Diseases. Use of iPS cells in regenerative therapy and drug discovery for cartilage diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumaki, Noriyuki

    2015-08-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by transiently expressing defined factors in somatic cells such as dermal fibroblasts and blood cells and culturing them in specific medium. iPS cells are expected to provide new tools for research and development of therapies for various diseases because of two important properties : 1) they can be differentiated into any type of somatic cell (pluripotency) and 2) they can be expanded infinitely (self renew). Research for the transplantation of iPS cell-derived cartilage/chondrocytes and drug discovery by iPS cell-based disease modeling are ongoing.

  3. Pro-apoptotic effect of rice bran inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on HT-29 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Nurul Husna; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Saad, Norazalina; Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-02

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), or phytic acid is a natural dietary ingredient and has been described as a "natural cancer fighter", being an essential component of nutritional diets. The marked anti-cancer effect of IP6 has resulted in our quest for an understanding of its mechanism of action. In particular, our data provided strong evidence for the induction of apoptotic cell death, which may be attributable to the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in favor of apoptosis. In addition, the up-regulation of caspase-3 and -8 expression and activation of both caspases may also contribute to the apoptotic cell death of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells when exposed to IP6. Collectively, this present study has shown that rice bran IP6 induces apoptosis, by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic markers; Bax and Bcl-xl and via the activation of caspase molecules (caspase-3 and -8).

  4. A commentary on iPS cells: potential applications in autologous transplantation, study of illnesses and drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Gaetano; Morales, Fátima; Marino, Ignazio R; Giordano, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Undoubtedly, the focus of the field of stem cell research is predominantly aimed at the artificial reprogramming of human somatic cells for the production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. This relatively new technology may circumvent the ethical issues of using human embryonic stem (hES) cells for the potential applications in cell replacement therapy. Besides such ethical issues, iPS cell technology offers the advantage of obtaining patient-derived tissues and/or cells, which may be utilized for autologous transplantation and tissue regeneration, investigation of a variety of human illnesses and for the screening of new drugs. The field of stem cell research has placed a major emphasis in understanding the genetic and epigenetic codes for pluripotency, in order to control and optimize autologous transplantation techniques and avoid teratoma formation.

  5. Myogenic Precursors from iPS Cells for Skeletal Muscle Cell Replacement Therapy

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    Isart Roca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of adult myogenic stem cells as a cell therapy for skeletal muscle regeneration has been attempted for decades, with only moderate success. Myogenic progenitors (MP made from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are promising candidates for stem cell therapy to regenerate skeletal muscle since they allow allogenic transplantation, can be produced in large quantities, and, as compared to adult myoblasts, present more embryonic-like features and more proliferative capacity in vitro, which indicates a potential for more self-renewal and regenerative capacity in vivo. Different approaches have been described to make myogenic progenitors either by gene overexpression or by directed differentiation through culture conditions, and several myopathies have already been modeled using iPSC-MP. However, even though results in animal models have shown improvement from previous work with isolated adult myoblasts, major challenges regarding host response have to be addressed and clinically relevant transplantation protocols are lacking. Despite these challenges we are closer than we think to bringing iPSC-MP towards clinical use for treating human muscle disease and sporting injuries.

  6. Effect of IP3R3 and NPY on age-related declines in olfactory stem cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cuihong; Hegg, Colleen C

    2015-02-01

    Losing the sense of smell because of aging compromises health and quality of life. In the mouse olfactory epithelium, aging reduces the capacity for tissue homeostasis and regeneration. The microvillous cell subtype that expresses both inositol trisphosphate receptor type 3 (IP3R3) and the neuroproliferative factor neuropeptide Y (NPY) is critical for regulation of homeostasis, yet its role in aging is undefined. We hypothesized that an age-related decline in IP3R3 expression and NPY signaling underlie age-related homeostatic changes and olfactory dysfunction. We found a decrease in IP3R3(+) and NPY(+) microvillous cell numbers and NPY protein and a reduced sensitivity to NPY-mediated proliferation over 24 months. However, in IP3R3-deficient mice, there was no further age-related reduction in cell numbers, proliferation, or olfactory function compared with wild type. The proliferative response was impaired in aged IP3R3-deficient mice when injury was caused by satratoxin G, which induces IP3R3-mediated NPY release, but not by bulbectomy, which does not evoke NPY release. These data identify IP3R3 and NPY signaling as targets for improving recovery following olfactotoxicant exposure.

  7. Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons from Patient-Derived IPS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0415 TITLE: Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPC’s and Neurons from Patient-Derived IPS... neurons to study cellular phenotypes that directly test whether brain overgrowth and/or synaptogenesis mechanisms are found in ASD NPCs and neurons ... Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPC’s and Neurons from Patient-Derived IPS Cells Table of Contents Page Introduction

  8. Generation of glucose-responsive functional islets with a three-dimensional structure from mouse fetal pancreatic cells and iPS cells in vitro.

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    Hiroki Saito

    Full Text Available Islets of Langerhans are a pancreatic endocrine compartment consisting of insulin-producing β cells together with several other hormone-producing cells. While some insulin-producing cells or immature pancreatic cells have been generated in vitro from ES and iPS cells, islets with proper functions and a three-dimensional (3D structure have never been successfully produced. To test whether islets can be formed in vitro, we first examined the potential of mouse fetal pancreatic cells. We found that E16.5 pancreatic cells, just before forming islets, were able to develop cell aggregates consisting of β cells surrounded by glucagon-producing α cells, a structure similar to murine adult islets. Moreover, the transplantation of these cells improved blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic mice. These results indicate that functional islets are formed in vitro from fetal pancreatic cells at a specific developmental stage. By adopting these culture conditions to the differentiation of mouse iPS cells, we developed a two-step system to generate islets, i.e. immature pancreatic cells were first produced from iPS cells, and then transferred to culture conditions that allowed the formation of islets from fetal pancreatic cells. The islets exhibited distinct 3D structural features similar to adult pancreatic islets and secreted insulin in response to glucose concentrations. Transplantation of the islets improved blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic mice. In conclusion, the two-step culture system allows the generation of functional islets with a 3D structure from iPS cells.

  9. Deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) reduces cell migration and invasion, conferring protection from aerodigestive tract carcinoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Rathan S; Kumar, Dharmika; Buwa, Natasha; Ganguli, Shubhra; Thampatty, Sitalakshmi R; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Bhandari, Rashna

    2016-08-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), a family of enzymes found in all eukaryotes, are responsible for the synthesis of 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) from inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). Three isoforms of IP6Ks are found in mammals, and gene deletions of each isoform lead to diverse, non-overlapping phenotypes in mice. Previous studies show a facilitatory role for IP6K2 in cell migration and invasion, properties that are essential for the early stages of tumorigenesis. However, IP6K2 also has an essential role in cancer cell apoptosis, and mice lacking this protein are more susceptible to the development of aerodigestive tract carcinoma upon treatment with the oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Not much is known about the functions of the equally abundant and ubiquitously expressed IP6K1 isoform in cell migration, invasion and cancer progression. We conducted a gene expression analysis on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking IP6K1, revealing a role for this protein in cell receptor-extracellular matrix interactions that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Consequently, cells lacking IP6K1 manifest defects in adhesion-dependent signaling, evident by lower FAK and Paxillin activation, leading to reduced cell spreading and migration. Expression of active, but not inactive IP6K1 reverses migration defects in IP6K1 knockout MEFs, suggesting that 5-IP7 synthesis by IP6K1 promotes cell locomotion. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration support the ability of cancer cells to achieve their complete oncogenic potential. Cancer cells with lower IP6K1 levels display reduced migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. When fed an oral carcinogen, mice lacking IP6K1 show reduced progression from epithelial dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. Thus, our data reveal that like IP6K2, IP6K1 is also involved in early cytoskeleton remodeling events during cancer progression. However, unlike IP6K2, IP6K1 is essential for 4NQO

  10. Morphological features of iPS cells generated from Fabry disease skin fibroblasts using Sendai virus vector (SeVdp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Shiho; Higuchi, Takashi; Otaka, Manami; Shimada, Yohta; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya; Okano, Hirotaka J; Nakanishi, Mahito; Eto, Yoshikatsu

    2013-08-01

    We generated iPS cells from human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) of Fabry disease using a Sendai virus (SeVdp) vector; this method has been established by Nakanishi et al. for pathogenic evaluation. We received SeVdp vector from Nakanishi and loaded it simultaneously with four reprogramming factors (Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc) to HDFs of Fabry disease; subsequently, we observed the presence of human iPS-like cells. The Sendai virus nucleocapsid protein was not detected in the fibroblasts by RT-PCR analysis. Additionally, we confirmed an undifferentiated state, alkaline phosphatase staining, and the presence of SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81. Moreover, ultrastructural features of these iPS cells included massive membranous cytoplasmic bodies typical of HDFs of Fabry disease. Thus, we successfully generated human iPS cells from HDFs of Fabry disease that retained the genetic conditions of Fabry disease; also, these abnormal iPS cells could not be easily differentiated into mature cell types such as neuronal cells, cardiomyocytes, etc. because of a massive accumulation of membranous cytoplasmic bodies in lysosomes, possibly the persistent damages of intracellular architecture.

  11. CAST-ChIP Maps Cell-Type-Specific Chromatin States in the Drosophila Central Nervous System

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    Tamás Schauer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin organization and gene activity are responsive to developmental and environmental cues. Although many genes are transcribed throughout development and across cell types, much of gene regulation is highly cell-type specific. To readily track chromatin features at the resolution of cell types within complex tissues, we developed and validated chromatin affinity purification from specific cell types by chromatin immunoprecipitation (CAST-ChIP, a broadly applicable biochemical procedure. RNA polymerase II (Pol II CAST-ChIP identifies ∼1,500 neuronal and glia-specific genes in differentiated cells within the adult Drosophila brain. In contrast, the histone H2A.Z is distributed similarly across cell types and throughout development, marking cell-type-invariant Pol II-bound regions. Our study identifies H2A.Z as an active chromatin signature that is refractory to changes across cell fates. Thus, CAST-ChIP powerfully identifies cell-type-specific as well as cell-type-invariant chromatin states, enabling the systematic dissection of chromatin structure and gene regulation within complex tissues such as the brain.

  12. Global epigenetic changes during somatic cell reprogramming to iPS cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Mattout; Alva Biran; Eran Meshorer

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) exhibit unique chromatin features,including a permissive transcriptional program and an open,decondensed chromatin state.Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs),which are very similar to ESCs,hold great promise for therapy and basic research.However,the mechanisms by which reprogramming occurs and the chromatin organization that underlies the reprogramming process are largely unknown.Here we characterize and compare the epigenetic landscapes of partially and fully reprogrammed iPSCs to mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and ESCs,which serves as a standard for pluripotency.Using immunofluorescence and biochemical fractionations,we analyzed the levels and distribution of a battery of histone modifications (H3ac,H4ac,H4KSac,H3Kgac,H3K27ac,H3K4me3,H3K36me2,H3K9me3,H3K27me3,and yH2AX),as well as HP1α and lamin A.We find that fully reprogrammed iPSCs are epigenetically identical to ESCs,and that partially reprogrammed iPSCs are closer to MEFs.Intriguingly,combining both time-course reprogramming experiments and data from the partially reprogrammed iPSCs,we find that heterochromatin reorganization precedes Nanog expression and active histone marking.Together,these data delineate the global epigenetic state of iPSCs in conjunction with their pluripotent state,and demonstrate that heterochromatin precedes euchromatin in reorganization during reprogramming.

  13. Deriving retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by different sizes of embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, Alberto; Ramesh, Kaini R; Greene, Whitney A; Choi, Jae-Hyek; Wang, Heuy-Ching

    2015-02-04

    Pluripotent stem cells possess the ability to proliferate indefinitely and to differentiate into almost any cell type. Additionally, the development of techniques to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has generated interest and excitement towards the possibility of customized personal regenerative medicine. However, the efficiency of stem cell differentiation towards a desired lineage remains low. The purpose of this study is to describe a protocol to derive retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from iPS cells (iPS-RPE) by applying a tissue engineering approach to generate homogenous populations of embryoid bodies (EBs), a common intermediate during in vitro differentiation. The protocol applies the formation of specific size of EBs using microwell plate technology. The methods for identifying protein and gene markers of RPE by immunocytochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are also explained. Finally, the efficiency of differentiation in different sizes of EBs monitored by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of RPE markers is described. These techniques will facilitate the differentiation of iPS cells into RPE for future applications.

  14. MOBE-ChIP: a large-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation assay for cell type-specific studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, On Sun; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2015-10-01

    Cell type-specific transcriptional regulators play critical roles in the generation and maintenance of multicellularity. As they are often expressed at low levels, in vivo DNA-binding studies of these regulators by standard chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays are technically challenging. We describe here an optimized ChIP protocol termed Maximized Objects for Better Enrichment (MOBE)-ChIP, which enhances the sensitivity of ChIP assays for detecting cell type-specific signals. The protocol, which is based on the disproportional increase of target signals over background at higher scales, uses substantially greater volume of starting materials than conventional ChIPs to achieve high signal enrichment. This technique can capture weak binding events that are ambiguous in standard ChIP assays, and is useful both in gene-specific and whole-genome analysis. This protocol has been optimized for Arabidopsis, but should be applicable to other model systems with minor modifications. The full procedure can be completed within 3 days.

  15. Scalable Electrophysiological Investigation of iPS Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Obtained by a Lentiviral Purification Strategy

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    Stephanie Friedrichs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be generated from patients and differentiated into functional cardiomyocytes for characterization of the disease and for drug screening. In order to obtain pure cardiomyocytes for automated electrophysiological investigation, we here report a novel non-clonal purification strategy by using lentiviral gene transfer of a puromycin resistance gene under the control of a cardiac-specific promoter. We have applied this method to our previous reported wild-type and long QT syndrome 3 (LQTS 3-specific mouse iPS cells and obtained a pure cardiomyocyte population. These cells were investigated by action potential analysis with manual and automatic planar patch clamp technologies, as well as by recording extracellular field potentials using a microelectrode array system. Action potentials and field potentials showed the characteristic prolongation at low heart rates in LQTS 3-specific, but not in wild-type iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Hence, LQTS 3-specific cardiomyocytes can be purified from iPS cells with a lentiviral strategy, maintain the hallmarks of the LQTS 3 disease and can be used for automated electrophysiological characterization and drug screening.

  16. Development of feeder-free culture systems for generation of ckit+sca1+ progenitors from mouse iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Fernandez, Irina; Roy, Krishnendu

    2011-09-01

    Patient-specific therapeutic cells derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may bypass the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells and avoid potential immunological reactions associated with allogenic transplantation. It is critical, for the ultimate clinical applicability of iPS cell-derived therapies, to establish feeder-free cultures that ensure efficient differentiation of iPS cells into therapeutic progenitors. It is also necessary to understand if iPS cell-derived progenitors differ from those derived from ES cells. In this study, we compared the efficiency of three different feeder-free cultures for differentiating mouse iPS cells into ckit+sca1+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and compared how differentiation and functionality varies between ES and iPS cells. Our results indicated that both iPS and ES cells can be efficiently differentiated into HPCs in suspension cultures supplemented with secretion factors from mouse bone marrow stromal cells (OP9-DL1 conditioned medium). The functionality of these cells was demonstrated by differentiation into CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs). Both ES and iPS-derived DCs expressed activation molecules (CD86, CD80) in response to LPS stimulation and stimulated T cell proliferation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Extensive quantitative RT-PCR studies were used to study the differences in gene expression profiles of ckit+sca1+ cells generated from the various culture systems as well as differences between ES-derived and iPS-derived cells. We conclude that a feeder-free system using stromal conditioned medium can efficiently generate HPCs as well as functional DCs from iPS cells and the generated cells have similar gene expression profile as those from ES cells.

  17. An IP3R3- and NPY-expressing microvillous cell mediates tissue homeostasis and regeneration in the mouse olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cuihong; Hayoz, Sebastien; Hutch, Chelsea R; Iqbal, Tania R; Pooley, Apryl E; Hegg, Colleen C

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-dependent release of neurotrophic factors plays an important role in the maintenance of neurons, yet the release mechanisms are understudied. The inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor is a calcium release channel that has a physiological role in cell growth, development, sensory perception, neuronal signaling and secretion. In the olfactory system, the IP3 receptor subtype 3 (IP3R3) is expressed exclusively in a microvillous cell subtype that is the predominant cell expressing neurotrophic factor neuropeptide Y (NPY). We hypothesized that IP3R3-expressing microvillous cells secrete sufficient NPY needed for both the continual maintenance of the neuronal population and for neuroregeneration following injury. We addressed this question by assessing the release of NPY and the regenerative capabilities of wild type, IP3R3(+/-), and IP3R3(-/-) mice. Injury, simulated using extracellular ATP, induced IP3 receptor-mediated NPY release in wild-type mice. ATP-evoked NPY release was impaired in IP3R3(-/-) mice, suggesting that IP3R3 contributes to NPY release following injury. Under normal physiological conditions, both IP3R3(-/-) mice and explants from these mice had fewer progenitor cells that proliferate and differentiate into immature neurons. Although the number of mature neurons and the in vivo rate of proliferation were not altered, the proliferative response to the olfactotoxicant satratoxin G and olfactory bulb ablation injury was compromised in the olfactory epithelium of IP3R3(-/-) mice. The reductions in both NPY release and number of progenitor cells in IP3R3(-/-) mice point to a role of the IP3R3 in tissue homeostasis and neuroregeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that IP3R3 expressing microvillous cells are actively responsive to injury and promote recovery.

  18. An IP3R3- and NPY-expressing microvillous cell mediates tissue homeostasis and regeneration in the mouse olfactory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihong Jia

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent release of neurotrophic factors plays an important role in the maintenance of neurons, yet the release mechanisms are understudied. The inositol triphosphate (IP3 receptor is a calcium release channel that has a physiological role in cell growth, development, sensory perception, neuronal signaling and secretion. In the olfactory system, the IP3 receptor subtype 3 (IP3R3 is expressed exclusively in a microvillous cell subtype that is the predominant cell expressing neurotrophic factor neuropeptide Y (NPY. We hypothesized that IP3R3-expressing microvillous cells secrete sufficient NPY needed for both the continual maintenance of the neuronal population and for neuroregeneration following injury. We addressed this question by assessing the release of NPY and the regenerative capabilities of wild type, IP3R3(+/-, and IP3R3(-/- mice. Injury, simulated using extracellular ATP, induced IP3 receptor-mediated NPY release in wild-type mice. ATP-evoked NPY release was impaired in IP3R3(-/- mice, suggesting that IP3R3 contributes to NPY release following injury. Under normal physiological conditions, both IP3R3(-/- mice and explants from these mice had fewer progenitor cells that proliferate and differentiate into immature neurons. Although the number of mature neurons and the in vivo rate of proliferation were not altered, the proliferative response to the olfactotoxicant satratoxin G and olfactory bulb ablation injury was compromised in the olfactory epithelium of IP3R3(-/- mice. The reductions in both NPY release and number of progenitor cells in IP3R3(-/- mice point to a role of the IP3R3 in tissue homeostasis and neuroregeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that IP3R3 expressing microvillous cells are actively responsive to injury and promote recovery.

  19. TATVHL peptide-grafted alginate/poly(γ-glutamic acid) scaffolds with inverted colloidal crystal topology for neuronal differentiation of iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Chung, Chiu-Yen

    2012-12-01

    The neuronal differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in scaffolding biomaterials is an emerging issue in nervous regeneration and repair. This study presents the production of neuron-lineage cells from iPS cells in inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) scaffolds comprising alginate, poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA), and TATVHL peptide. The ability of iPS cells to differentiate toward neurons in the constructs was demonstrated by flow-cytometeric sorting and immunochemical staining. The results revealed that hexagonally arrayed microspheres molded alginate/γ-PGA hydrogel into ICC topology with adequate interconnected pores. An increase in the quantity of surface TATVHL peptide enhanced the atomic ratio of nitrogen and the adhesion efficiency of iPS cells in constructs. However, the effect of TATVHL peptide on the viability of iPS cells was insignificant. The adhesion and viability of iPS cells in ICC constructs was higher than those in freeform ones. TATVHL peptide raised the percentage of β III tubulin-identified cells differentiating from iPS cells, indicating that TATVHL peptide stimulated the neuronal development in alginate/γ-PGA ICC constructs. TATVHL peptide-grafted alginate/γ-PGA ICC scaffolds can be promising for establishing nerve tissue from iPS cells.

  20. Zscan4 promotes genomic stability during reprogramming and dramatically improves the quality of iPS cells as demonstrated by tetraploid complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Lv, Wenjian; Ye, Xiaoying; Wang, Lingbo; Zhang, Man; Yang, Hui; Okuka, Maja; Zhou, Chikai; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Lin; Li, Jinsong

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated using Yamanaka factors have great potential for use in autologous cell therapy. However, genomic abnormalities exist in human iPS cells, and most mouse iPS cells are not fully pluripotent, as evaluated by the tetraploid complementation assay (TCA); this is most likely associated with the DNA damage response (DDR) occurred in early reprogramming induced by Yamanaka factors. In contrast, nuclear transfer can faithfully reprogram somatic cells into embryonic stem (ES) cells that satisfy the TCA. We thus hypothesized that factors involved in oocyte-induced reprogramming may stabilize the somatic genome during reprogramming, and improve the quality of the resultant iPS cells. To test this hypothesis, we screened for factors that could decrease DDR signals during iPS cell induction. We determined that Zscan4, in combination with the Yamanaka factors, not only remarkably reduced the DDR but also markedly promoted the efficiency of iPS cell generation. The inclusion of Zscan4 stabilized the genomic DNA, resulting in p53 downregulation. Furthermore, Zscan4 also enhanced telomere lengthening as early as 3 days post-infection through a telomere recombination-based mechanism. As a result, iPS cells generated with addition of Zscan4 exhibited longer telomeres than classical iPS cells. Strikingly, more than 50% of iPS cell lines (11/19) produced via this "Zscan4 protocol" gave rise to live-borne all-iPS cell mice as determined by TCA, compared to 1/12 for lines produced using the classical Yamanaka factors. Our findings provide the first demonstration that maintaining genomic stability during reprogramming promotes the generation of high quality iPS cells.

  1. Amplification of pico-scale DNA mediated by bacterial carrier DNA for small-cell-number transcription factor ChIP-seq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus S; Bagger, Frederik O; Hasemann, Marie S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chromatin-Immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) is used to map transcription factor occupancy and generate epigenetic profiles genome-wide. The requirement of nano-scale ChIP DNA for generation of sequencing libraries has impeded ChIP-seq on in vivo tissues of low...... transcription factor (CEBPA) and histone mark (H3K4me3) ChIP. We further demonstrate that genomic profiles are highly resilient to changes in carrier DNA to ChIP DNA ratios. CONCLUSIONS: This represents a significant advance compared to existing technologies, which involve either complex steps of pre...... cell numbers. RESULTS: We describe a robust, simple and scalable methodology for ChIP-seq of low-abundant cell populations, verified down to 10,000 cells. By employing non-mammalian genome mapping bacterial carrier DNA during amplification, we reliably amplify down to 50 pg of ChIP DNA from...

  2. ChIp-seq of bovine cells (MDBK) to study butyrate-induced histone modification with 10 datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next-generation sequencing was combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technology to analyze histone modification (acetylation) induced by butyrate and to map the epigenomic landscape of normal histone H3, H4 in rumen cells of the cow. Ten variants of histone H3 and H4 modification were m...

  3. Extracellular Matrix-Dependent Generation of Integration- and Xeno-Free iPS Cells Using a Modified mRNA Transfection Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-In; Lee, Seo-Young; Hwang, Dong-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) hold great promise in the field of regenerative medicine, especially immune-compatible cell therapy. The most important safety-related issues that must be resolved before the clinical use of iPS cells include the generation of "footprint-free" and "xeno-free" iPS cells. In this study, we sought to examine whether an extracellular matrix- (ECM-) based xeno-free culture system that we recently established could be used together with a microRNA-enhanced mRNA reprogramming method for the generation of clinically safe iPS cells. The notable features of this method are the use of a xeno-free/feeder-free culture system for the generation and expansion of iPS cells rather than the conventional labor-intensive culture systems using human feeder cells or human feeder-conditioned medium and the enhancement of mRNA-mediated reprogramming via the delivery of microRNAs. Strikingly, we observed the early appearance of iPS cell colonies (~11 days), substantial reprogramming efficiency (~0.2-0.3%), and a high percentage of ESC-like colonies among the total colonies (~87.5%), indicating enhanced kinetics and reprogramming efficiency. Therefore, the combined method established in this study provides a valuable platform for the generation and expansion of clinically safe (i.e., integration- and xeno-free) iPS cells, facilitating immune-matched cell therapy in the near future.

  4. Zscan4 promotes genomic stability during reprogramming and dramatically improves the quality of iPS cells as demonstrated by tetraploid complementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jiang; Wenjian Lv; Xiaoying Ye; Lingbo Wang; Man Zhang; Hui Yang; Maja Okuka

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated using Yamanaka factors have great potential for use in autologous cell therapy.However,genomic abnormalities exist in human iPS cells,and most mouse iPS cells are not fully pluripotent,as evaluated by the tetraploid complementation assay (TCA); this is most likely associated with the DNA damage response (DDR) occurred in early reprogramming induced by Yamanaka factors.In contrast,nuclear transfer can faithfully reprogram somatic cells into embryonic stem (ES) cells that satisfy the TCA.We thus hypothesized that factors involved in oocyte-induced reprogramming may stabilize the somatic genome during reprogramming,and improve the quality of the resultant iPS cells.To test this hypothesis,we screened for factors that could decrease DDR signals during iPS cell induction.We determined that Zscan4,in combination with the Yamanaka factors,not only remarkably reduced the DDR but also markedly promoted the efficiency of iPS cell generation.The inclusion of Zscan4 stabilized the genomic DNA,resulting in p53 downregulation.Furthermore,Zscan4 also enhanced telomere lengthening as early as 3 days post-infection through a telomere recombination-based mechanism.As a result,iPS cells generated with addition of Zscan4 exhibited longer telomeres than classical iPS cells.Strikingly,more than 50%of iPS cell lines (11/19) produced via this "Zscan4 protocol" gave rise to live-borne all-iPS cell mice as determined by TCA,compared to 1/12 for lines produced using the classical Yamanaka factors.Our findings provide the first demonstration that maintaining genomic stability during reprogramming promotes the generation of high quality iPS cells.

  5. Robust Generation of Cardiomyocytes from Human iPS Cells Requires Precise Modulation of BMP and WNT Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadari, Asifiqbal; Mekala, SubbaRao; Wagner, Nicole; Malan, Daniela; Köth, Jessica; Doll, Katharina; Stappert, Laura; Eckert, Daniela; Peitz, Michael; Matthes, Jan; Sasse, Philipp; Herzig, Stefan; Brüstle, Oliver; Ergün, Süleyman; Edenhofer, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Various strategies have been published enabling cardiomyocyte differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However the complex nature of signaling pathways involved as well as line-to-line variability compromises the application of a particular protocol to robustly obtain cardiomyocytes from multiple iPS lines. Hence it is necessary to identify optimized protocols with alternative combinations of specific growth factors and small molecules to enhance the robustness of cardiac differentiation. Here we focus on systematic modulation of BMP and WNT signaling to enhance cardiac differentiation. Moreover, we improve the efficacy of cardiac differentiation by enrichment via lactate. Using our protocol we show efficient derivation of cardiomyocytes from multiple human iPS lines. In particular we demonstrate cardiomyocyte differentiation within 15 days with an efficiency of up to 95 % as judged by flow cytometry staining against cardiac troponin T. Cardiomyocytes derived were functionally validated by alpha-actinin staining, transmission electron microscopy as well as electrophysiological analysis. We expect our protocol to provide a robust basis for scale-up production of functional iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes that can be used for cell replacement therapy and disease modeling.

  6. Pro-Apoptotic Effect of Rice Bran Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6 on HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Husna Shafie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6, or phytic acid is a natural dietary ingredient and has been described as a “natural cancer fighter”, being an essential component of nutritional diets. The marked anti-cancer effect of IP6 has resulted in our quest for an understanding of its mechanism of action. In particular, our data provided strong evidence for the induction of apoptotic cell death, which may be attributable to the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in favor of apoptosis. In addition, the up-regulation of caspase-3 and -8 expression and activation of both caspases may also contribute to the apoptotic cell death of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells when exposed to IP6. Collectively, this present study has shown that rice bran IP6 induces apoptosis, by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic markers; Bax and Bcl-xl and via the activation of caspase molecules (caspase-3 and -8.

  7. Neuronal differentiation of human iPS cells induced by baicalin via regulation of bHLH gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiro; Soga, Kohei; Nakayama, Hironobu; Ishida, Torao; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Sato, Eisuke F

    2015-09-25

    Efficient differentiation is important for regenerative medicine based on pluripotent stem cells, including treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and trauma. Baicalin promotes neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells of rats and mice. To evaluate the suitability of baicalin for neuronal differentiation of human iPS cells, we investigated whether it promotes neuronal differentiation in human iPS cells and monitored basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene expression during neuronal differentiation. Baicalin promoted neuronal differentiation and inhibited glial differentiation, suggesting that baicalin can influence the neuronal fate decision in human iPS cells. Notch signaling, which is upstream of bHLH proteins, was not involved in baicalin-induced neuronal differentiation. Baicalin treatment did not down-regulate Hes1 gene expression, but it reduced Hes1 protein levels and up-regulated Ascl1 gene expression. Thus, baicalin promoted neuronal differentiation via modulation of bHLH transcriptional factors. Therefore, baicalin has potential to be used as a small-molecule drug for regenerative treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Proto-oncogene PBF/PTTG1IP regulates thyroid cell growth and represses radioiodide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Martin L; Lewy, Greg D; Fong, Jim C W; Sharma, Neil; Seed, Robert I; Smith, Vicki E; Gentilin, Erica; Warfield, Adrian; Eggo, Margaret C; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Leadbeater, Wendy E; Watkinson, John C; Franklyn, Jayne A; Boelaert, Kristien; McCabe, Christopher J

    2011-10-01

    Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG)-binding factor (PBF or PTTG1IP) is a little characterized proto-oncogene that has been implicated in the etiology of breast and thyroid tumors. In this study, we created a murine transgenic model to target PBF expression to the thyroid gland (PBF-Tg mice) and found that these mice exhibited normal thyroid function, but a striking enlargement of the thyroid gland associated with hyperplastic and macrofollicular lesions. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), a gene essential to the radioiodine ablation of thyroid hyperplasia, neoplasia, and metastasis, was also potently inhibited in PBF-Tg mice. Critically, iodide uptake was repressed in primary thyroid cultures from PBF-Tg mice, which could be rescued by PBF depletion. PBF-Tg thyroids exhibited upregulation of Akt and the TSH receptor (TSHR), each known regulators of thyrocyte proliferation, along with upregulation of the downstream proliferative marker cyclin D1. We extended and confirmed findings from the mouse model by examining PBF expression in human multinodular goiters (MNG), a hyperproliferative thyroid disorder, where PBF and TSHR was strongly upregulated relative to normal thyroid tissue. Furthermore, we showed that depleting PBF in human primary thyrocytes was sufficient to increase radioiodine uptake. Together, our findings indicate that overexpression of PBF causes thyroid cell proliferation, macrofollicular lesions, and hyperplasia, as well as repression of the critical therapeutic route for radioiodide uptake.

  9. Altered Ca(2+) signaling in cancer cells: proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors targeting IP3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Haidar; Bultynck, Geert

    2013-04-01

    Proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors critically control cell-fate decisions like cell survival, adaptation and death. These processes are regulated by Ca(2+) signals arising from the endoplasmic reticulum, which at distinct sites is in close proximity to the mitochondria. These organelles are linked by different mechanisms, including Ca(2+)-transport mechanisms involving the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). The amount of Ca(2+) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria determines the susceptibility of cells to apoptotic stimuli. Suppressing the transfer of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria increases the apoptotic resistance of cells and may decrease the cellular responsiveness to apoptotic signaling in response to cellular damage or alterations. This can result in the survival, growth and proliferation of cells with oncogenic features. Clearly, proper maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) homeostasis and dynamics including its links with the mitochondrial network is essential to detect and eliminate altered cells with oncogenic features through the apoptotic pathway. Proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors exploit the central role of Ca(2+) signaling by targeting the IP3R. There are an increasing number of reports showing that activation of proto-oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressors directly affects IP3R function and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) homeostasis, thereby decreasing mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors identified as IP3R-regulatory proteins and how they affect endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) homeostasis and dynamics.

  10. Establishment of LIF-dependent human iPS cells closely related to basic FGF-dependent authentic iPS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hirai

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can be divided into a leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF-dependent naïve type and a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF-dependent primed type. Although the former are more undifferentiated than the latter, they require signal transduction inhibitors and sustained expression of the transgenes used for iPSC production. We used a transcriptionally enhanced version of OCT4 to establish LIF-dependent human iPSCs without the use of inhibitors and sustained transgene expression. These cells belong to the primed type of pluripotent stem cell, similar to bFGF-dependent iPSCs. Thus, the particular cytokine required for iPSC production does not necessarily define stem cell phenotypes as previously thought. It is likely that the bFGF and LIF signaling pathways converge on unidentified OCT4 target genes. These findings suggest that our LIF-dependent human iPSCs could provide a novel model to investigate the role of cytokine signaling in cellular reprogramming.

  11. Generation of Ips cells using defined factors linked via the self-cleaving 2A sequences in a single open reading frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijian Shao; Wei Feng; Yan Sun; Hao Bai; Jun Liu; Caroline Currie; Jaejung Kim; Rafael Gama; Zack Wang; Zhijian Qian; Lucy Liaw; Wen-Shu Wu

    2009-01-01

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells has been achieved successfully by simultane-ous viral transduction of defined reprogramming transcription factors (TFs). However, the process requires multiple viral vectors for gene delivery. As a result, generated iPS cells harbor numerous viral integration sites in their ge-nomes. This can increase the probability of gene mutagenesis and genomic instability, and present significant barriers to both research and clinical application studies of iPS cells. In this paper, we present a simple lentivirus reprogram-ming system in which defined factors are fused in-frame into a single open reading frame (ORF) via self-cleaving 2A sequences. A GFP marker is placed downstream of the transgene to enable tracking of transgene expression. We demonstrate that this polycistronic expression system efficiently generates iPS cells. The generated iPS cells have nor-mal karyotypes and are similar to mouse embryonic stem cells in morphology and gene expression. Moreover, they can differentiate into cell types of the three embryonic germ layers in both in vitro and in vivo assays. Remarkably, most of these iPS cells only harbor a single copy of viral vector. This system provides a valuable tool for generation of iPS cells, and our data suggest that the balance of expression of transduced reprogramming TFs in each cell is essen-tial for the reprogramming process. More importantly, when delivered by non-integrating gene-delivery systems, this re-engineered single ORF will facilitate efficient generation of human iPS cells free of genetic modifications.

  12. Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPC’s and Neurons from Patient-Derived IPS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    interaction, and limited and repetitive interests and behavior. Recent studies have led to two major hypotheses for autism pathogenesis : early brain...interests and behavior. Recent studies have led to two major hypotheses for autism pathogenesis . First, early brain overgrowth appears to be a critical...Models of Autism Using NPC’s and Neurons from Patient- Derived IPS Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Fred H. Gage, Ph.D

  13. Differentiation of mouse iPS cells is dependent on embryoid body size in microwell chip culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Kohji

    2016-10-01

    A microwell chip possessing microwells of several hundred micrometers is a promising platform for generating embryoid bodies (EBs) of stem cells. Here, we investigated the effects of initial EB size on the growth and differentiation of mouse iPS cells in microwell chip culture. We fabricated a chip that contained 195 microwells in a triangular arrangement at a diameter of 600 μm. To evaluate the effect of EB size, four similar conditions were designed with different seeding cell densities of 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 cells/EB. The cells in each microwell gradually aggregated and then spontaneously formed a single EB within 1 d of culture, and EB size increased with further cell proliferation. EB growth was regulated by the initial EB size, and the growth ability of smaller EBs was higher than that of larger EBs. Furthermore, stem cell differentiation also depended on the initial EB size, and the EBs at more than 500 cells/EB promoted hepatic and cardiac differentiations, but the EBs at 100 cells/EB preferred vascular differentiation. These results indicated that the initial EB size was one of the important factors controlling the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells in the microwell chip culture.

  14. A Phase I Study of iPS Cell Generation From Patients With COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Thoracic Diseases; Respiratory Tract Diseases; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Lung Diseases, Obstructive; COPD; Pulmonary Emphysema; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Carcinoma, Small Cell

  15. The mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase and the lipogenic switch: new core components of metabolic reprogramming in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cufi, Sílvia; Vellon, Luciano; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Menendez, Octavio J; Joven, Jorge; Lupu, Ruth; Menendez, Javier A

    2013-01-15

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells share some basic properties, such as self-renewal and pluripotency, with cancer cells, and they also appear to share several metabolic alterations that are commonly observed in human tumors. The cancer cells' glycolytic phenotype, first reported by Otto Warburg, is necessary for the optimal routing of somatic cells to pluripotency. However, how iPS cells establish a Warburg-like metabolic phenotype and whether the metabolic pathways that support the bioenergetics of iPS cells are produced by the same mechanisms that are selected during the tumorigenic process remain largely unexplored. We recently investigated whether the reprogramming-competent metabotype of iPS cells involves changes in the activation/expression status of the H(+)-ATPase, which is a core component of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that is repressed at both the activity and protein levels in human carcinomas, and of the lipogenic switch, which refers to a marked overexpression and hyperactivity of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) lipogenic enzymes that has been observed in nearly all examined cancer types. A comparison of a starting population of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and their iPS cell progeny revealed that somatic cell reprogramming involves a significant increase in the expression of ATPase inhibitor factor 1 (IF1), accompanied by extremely low expression levels of the catalytic β-F1-ATPase subunit. The pharmacological inhibition of ACACA and FASN activities markedly decreases reprogramming efficiency, and ACACA and FASN expression are notably upregulated in iPS cells. Importantly, iPS cells exhibited a significant intracellular accumulation of neutral lipid bodies; however, these bodies may be a reflection of intense lysosomal/autophagocytic activity rather than bona fide lipid droplet formation in iPS cells, as they were largely unresponsive to pharmacological modulation of PPARgamma and FASN activities. The

  16. Uncertain translation, uncertain benefit and uncertain risk: ethical challenges facing first-in-human trials of induced pluripotent stem (ips) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ronald K F; Kerridge, Ian H

    2013-02-01

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 was heralded as a major breakthrough in stem cell research. Since then, progress in iPS cell technology has paved the way towards clinical application, particularly cell replacement therapy, which has refueled debate on the ethics of stem cell research. However, much of the discourse has focused on questions of moral status and potentiality, overlooking the ethical issues which are introduced by the clinical testing of iPS cell replacement therapy. First-in-human trials, in particular, raise a number of ethical concerns including informed consent, subject recruitment and harm minimisation as well as the inherent uncertainty and risks which are involved in testing medical procedures on humans for the first time. These issues, while a feature of any human research, become more complex in the case of iPS cell therapy, given the seriousness of the potential risks, the unreliability of available animal models, the vulnerability of the target patient group, and the high stakes of such an intensely public area of science. Our paper will present a detailed case study of iPS cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease to highlight these broader ethical and epistemological concerns. If we accept that iPS cell technology is fraught with challenges which go far beyond merely refuting the potentiality of the stem cell line, we conclude that iPS cell research should not replace, but proceed alongside embryonic and adult somatic stem cell research to promote cross-fertilisation of knowledge and better clinical outcomes.

  17. Generation and Characterization of a MYF5 Reporter Human iPS Cell Line Using CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Homologous Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianbo; Hunt, Samuel D; Xue, Haipeng; Liu, Ying; Darabi, Radbod

    2016-01-05

    Human iPS cells hold great promise for disease modeling and treatment of degenerative disorders including muscular dystrophies. Although a few research groups have used them for skeletal muscle differentiation, most were based on gene over-expression or long-term mesenchymal differentiation and retrospective identification of myogenic cells. Therefore, this study was aimed to generate a knock-in reporter human iPS cell line for MYF5, as an early myogenic specification gene, to allow prospective identification and purification of myogenic progenitors from human iPS cells. By using a CRISPR/Cas9 double nickase strategy, a 2A-GFP reporter was inserted before the stop codon of the MYF5 gene using homologous recombination. This approach allowed for highly efficient in-frame targeting of MYF5 in human iPS cells. Furthermore, in order to prove the reporter function, endogenous MYF5 expression was induced using a novel dead Cas9-VP160 transcriptional activator. Induced clones demonstrated appropriate MYF5-GFP co-expression. Finally, to confirm the differentiation potential, reporter human iPS clones were differentiated through embryoid body method and MYF5-GFP(+) myogenic cells were sorted and characterized. These data provides valuable guidelines for generation of knock-in reporter human iPS cell lines for myogenic genes which can be used for disease modeling, drug screening, gene correction and future in vivo applications.

  18. Induction of autophagy by valproic acid enhanced lymphoma cell chemosensitivity through HDAC-independent and IP3-mediated PRKAA activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Meng-Meng; Wang, Li; Zhan, Qin; Xue, Wen; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Xia; Xu, Peng-Peng; Shen, Yang; Liu, Han; Janin, Anne; Cheng, Shu; Zhao, Wei-Li

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is closely related to tumor cell sensitivity to anticancer drugs. The HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) interacted synergistically with chemotherapeutic agents to trigger lymphoma cell autophagy, which resulted from activation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and inhibition of downstream MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase]) signaling. In an HDAC-independent manner, VPA potentiated the effect of doxorubicin on lymphoma cell autophagy via reduction of cellular inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3), blockade of calcium into mitochondria and modulation of PRKAA1/2-MTOR cascade. In murine xenograft models established with subcutaneous injection of lymphoma cells, dual treatment of VPA and doxorubicin initiated IP3-mediated calcium depletion and PRKAA1/2 activation, induced in situ autophagy and efficiently retarded tumor growth. Aberrant genes involving mitochondrial calcium transfer were frequently observed in primary tumors of lymphoma patients. Collectively, these findings suggested an HDAC-independent chemosensitizing activity of VPA and provided an insight into the clinical application of targeting autophagy in the treatment of lymphoma.

  19. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic comparison of human ES and iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanstiel, Douglas H; Brumbaugh, Justin; Wenger, Craig D; Tian, Shulan; Probasco, Mitchell D; Bailey, Derek J; Swaney, Danielle L; Tervo, Mark A; Bolin, Jennifer M; Ruotti, Victor; Stewart, Ron; Thomson, James A; Coon, Joshua J

    2011-01-01

    Combining high-mass-accuracy mass spectrometry, isobaric tagging and software for multiplexed, large-scale protein quantification, we report deep proteomic coverage of four human embryonic stem cell and four induced pluripotent stem cell lines in biological triplicate. This 24-sample comparison resulted in a very large set of identified proteins and phosphorylation sites in pluripotent cells. The statistical analysis afforded by our approach revealed subtle but reproducible differences in protein expression and protein phosphorylation between embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent cells. Merging these results with RNA-seq analysis data, we found functionally related differences across each tier of regulation. We also introduce the Stem Cell-Omics Repository (SCOR), a resource to collate and display quantitative information across multiple planes of measurement, including mRNA, protein and post-translational modifications.

  20. Genetic engineering of human ES and iPS cells using TALE nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Hockemeyer, Dirk; Wang, Haoyi; Kiani, Samira; Lai, Christine S.; Gao, Qing; Cassady, John P.; Cost, Gregory J.; Zhang, Lei; Santiago, Yolanda; Miller, Jeffrey C; Zeitler, Bryan; Cherone, Jennifer M.; Meng, Xiangdong; Hinkley, Sarah J; Rebar, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here we engineered transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) for five distinct genomic loci. At all loci tested we obtained human embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clones carrying transgenic cassettes solely at the TALEN-specified location. Our data suggest that T...

  1. An ES-Like pluripotent state in FGF-dependent murine iPS cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. di Stefano (Bruno); C. Buecker (Christa); F. Ungaro (Federica); A. Prigione (Alessandro); H.H. Chen; M. Welling (Maaike); M. Eijpe (Maureen); G. Mostoslavsky (Gustavo); P. Tesar (Paul); J. Adjaye (James); N. Geijsen (Niels); V. Broccoli (Vania)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractRecent data demonstrates that stem cells can exist in two morphologically, molecularly and functionally distinct pluripotent states; a naïve LIF-dependent pluripotent state which is represented by murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and an FGFdependent primed pluripotent state represente

  2. Simple suspension culture system of human iPS cells maintaining their pluripotency for cardiac cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a simple three-dimensional (3D) suspension culture method for the expansion and cardiac differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is reported. The culture methods were easily adapted from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D culture without any additional manipulations. When hiPSCs were directly applied to 3D culture from 2D in a single-cell suspension, only a few aggregated cells were observed. However, after 3 days, culture of the small hiPSC aggregates in a spinner flask at the optimal agitation rate created aggregates which were capable of cell passages from the single-cell suspension. Cell numbers increased to approximately 10-fold after 12 days of culture. The undifferentiated state of expanded hiPSCs was confirmed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, and the hiPSCs differentiated into three germ layers. When the hiPSCs were subsequently cultured in a flask using cardiac differentiation medium, expression of cardiac cell-specific genes and beating cardiomyocytes were observed. Furthermore, the culture of hiPSCs on Matrigel-coated dishes with serum-free medium containing activin A, BMP4 and FGF-2 enabled it to generate robust spontaneous beating cardiomyocytes and these cells expressed several cardiac cell-related genes, including HCN4, MLC-2a and MLC-2v. This suggests that the expanded hiPSCs might maintain the potential to differentiate into several types of cardiomyocytes, including pacemakers. Moreover, when cardiac cell sheets were fabricated using differentiated cardiomyocytes, they beat spontaneously and synchronously, indicating electrically communicative tissue. This simple culture system might enable the generation of sufficient amounts of beating cardiomyocytes for use in cardiac regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  3. Isolation of single-base genome-edited human iPS cells without antibiotic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Chan, Amanda H; Judge, Luke M; Yoo, Jennie; Huang, Miller; Nguyen, Trieu D; Lizarraga, Paweena P; So, Po-Lin; Conklin, Bruce R

    2014-03-01

    Precise editing of human genomes in pluripotent stem cells by homology-driven repair of targeted nuclease-induced cleavage has been hindered by the difficulty of isolating rare clones. We developed an efficient method to capture rare mutational events, enabling isolation of mutant lines with single-base substitutions without antibiotic selection. This method facilitates efficient induction or reversion of mutations associated with human disease in isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cells.

  4. Analysis of paired end Pol II ChIP-seq and short capped RNA-seq in MCF-7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Scheidegger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While a role of promoter-proximal RNA Polymerase II (Pol II pausing in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression is implied, the mechanisms and dynamics of this process are poorly understood. We performed genome-wide analysis of short capped RNAs (scRNAs and Pol II chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to better understand Pol II pausing (Samarakkody, A., Abbas, A., Scheidegger, A., Warns, J., Nnoli, O., Jokinen, B., Zarns, K., Kubat, B., Dhasarathy, A. and Nechaev, S. (2015 RNA polymerase II pausing can be retained or acquired during activation of genes involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Nucleic Acids Res 43, 3938–3949. The data are available at the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE67041. For both ChIP and scRNA samples, we used paired end sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq instrument. For ChIP-seq, the use of paired end sequencing allowed us to avoid ambiguities in center-read definition. For scRNA seq, this allowed us to identify both the 5′-end and the 3′-end in the same run that represent, respectively, the transcription start sites and the locations of Pol II pausing. The sharpening of Pol II ChIP-seq metagene profiles when aligned against 5′-ends of scRNAs indicates that these RNAs can be used to define the start sites for the majority of mRNA transcription events.

  5. Detection of a rare BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase fusion protein in H929 multiple myeloma cells using immunoprecipitation (IP)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Susanne B; Yuan, Min; Pihan, German A; Asara, John M

    2012-10-02

    Hypothesis directed proteomics offers higher throughput over global analyses. We show that immunoprecipitation (IP)-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in H929 multiple myeloma (MM) cancer cells led to the discovery of a rare and unexpected BCR-ABL fusion, informing a therapeutic intervention using imatinib (Gleevec). BCR-ABL is the driving mutation in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and is uncommon to other cancers. Three different IP-MS experiments central to cell signaling pathways were sufficient to discover a BCR-ABL fusion in H929 cells: phosphotyrosine (pY) peptide IP, p85 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) IP, and the GRB2 adaptor IP. The pY peptides inform tyrosine kinase activity, p85 IP informs the activating adaptors and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) involved in AKT activation and GRB2 IP identifies RTKs and adaptors leading to ERK activation. Integration of the bait-prey data from the three separate experiments identified the BCR-ABL protein complex, which was confirmed by biochemistry, cytogenetic methods, and DNA sequencing revealed the e14a2 fusion transcript. The tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and the GAB2 adaptor protein, important for MAPK signaling, were common to all three IP-MS experiments. The comparative treatment of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs revealed only imatinib, the standard of care in CML, was inhibitory to BCR-ABL leading to down-regulation of pERK and pS6K and inhibiting cell proliferation. These data suggest a model for directed proteomics from patient tumor samples for selecting the appropriate TKI drug(s) based on IP and LC-MS/MS. The data also suggest that MM patients, in addition to CML patients, may benefit from BCR-ABL diagnostic screening.

  6. Poly IC triggers a cathepsin D- and IPS-1-dependent pathway to enhance cytokine production and mediate dendritic cell necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian; Kawai, Taro; Tsuchida, Tetsuo; Kozaki, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Hiroki; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Kumar, Himanshu; Akira, Shizuo

    2013-04-18

    RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) sense virus-derived RNA or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC) to exert antiviral immune responses. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying the adjuvant effects of poly IC. Poly IC was taken up by dendritic cells (DCs), and it induced lysosomal destabilization, which, in turn, activated an RLR-dependent signaling pathway. Upon poly IC stimulation, cathepsin D was released into the cytoplasm from the lysosome to interact with IPS-1, an adaptor molecule for RLRs. This interaction facilitated cathepsin D cleavage of caspase 8 and the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, resulting in enhanced cytokine production. Further recruitment of the kinase RIP-1 to this complex initiated the necroptosis of a small number of DCs. HMGB1 released by dying cells enhanced IFN-β production in concert with poly IC. Collectively, these findings suggest that cathepsin D-triggered, IPS-1-dependent necroptosis is a mechanism that propagates the adjuvant efficacy of poly IC.

  7. Mapping mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptional regulatory networks using KD-CAGE and ChIP-seq data in the TC-YIK cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eLizio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mammals are composed of hundreds of different cell types with specialized functions. Each of these cellular phenotypes are controlled by different combinations of transcription factors. Using a human non islet cell insulinoma cell line (TC-YIK which expresses insulin and the majority of known pancreatic beta cell specific genes as an example, we describe a general approach to identify key cell-type-specific transcription factors (TFs and their direct and indirect targets. By ranking all human TFs by their level of enriched expression in TC-YIK relative to a broad collection of samples (FANTOM5, we confirmed known key regulators of pancreatic function and development. Systematic siRNA mediated perturbation of these TFs followed by qRT-PCR revealed their interconnections with NEUROD1 at the top of the regulation hierarchy and its depletion drastically reducing insulin levels. For 15 of the TF knock-downs (KD, we then used Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE to identify thousands of their targets genome-wide (KD-CAGE. The data confirm NEUROD1 as a key positive regulator in the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN, and ISL1 and PROX1 as antagonists. As a complimentary approach we used ChIP-seq on four of these factors to identify NEUROD1, LMX1A, PAX6 and RFX6 binding sites in the human genome. Examining the overlap between genes perturbed in the KD-CAGE experiments and genes with a ChIP-seq peak within 1kb of their promoter, we identified direct transcriptional targets of these TFs. Integration of KD-CAGE and ChIP-seq data shows that both NEUROD1 and LMX1A work as the main transcriptional activators. In the core TRN (i.e. TF-TF only, NEUROD1 directly transcriptionally activates the pancreatic TFs HSF4, INSM1, MLXIPL, MYT1, NKX6-3, ONECUT2, PAX4, PROX1, RFX6, ST18, DACH1 and SHOX2, while LMX1A directly transcriptionally activates DACH1, SHOX2, PAX6 and PDX1. Analysis of these complementary datasets suggests the need for caution in interpreting

  8. Mapping Mammalian Cell-type-specific Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Using KD-CAGE and ChIP-seq Data in the TC-YIK Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizio, Marina; Ishizu, Yuri; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Hasegawa, Akira; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Severin, Jessica; Kawaji, Hideya; Nakamura, Yukio; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R

    2015-01-01

    Mammals are composed of hundreds of different cell types with specialized functions. Each of these cellular phenotypes are controlled by different combinations of transcription factors. Using a human non islet cell insulinoma cell line (TC-YIK) which expresses insulin and the majority of known pancreatic beta cell specific genes as an example, we describe a general approach to identify key cell-type-specific transcription factors (TFs) and their direct and indirect targets. By ranking all human TFs by their level of enriched expression in TC-YIK relative to a broad collection of samples (FANTOM5), we confirmed known key regulators of pancreatic function and development. Systematic siRNA mediated perturbation of these TFs followed by qRT-PCR revealed their interconnections with NEUROD1 at the top of the regulation hierarchy and its depletion drastically reducing insulin levels. For 15 of the TF knock-downs (KD), we then used Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) to identify thousands of their targets genome-wide (KD-CAGE). The data confirm NEUROD1 as a key positive regulator in the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN), and ISL1, and PROX1 as antagonists. As a complimentary approach we used ChIP-seq on four of these factors to identify NEUROD1, LMX1A, PAX6, and RFX6 binding sites in the human genome. Examining the overlap between genes perturbed in the KD-CAGE experiments and genes with a ChIP-seq peak within 50 kb of their promoter, we identified direct transcriptional targets of these TFs. Integration of KD-CAGE and ChIP-seq data shows that both NEUROD1 and LMX1A work as the main transcriptional activators. In the core TRN (i.e., TF-TF only), NEUROD1 directly transcriptionally activates the pancreatic TFs HSF4, INSM1, MLXIPL, MYT1, NKX6-3, ONECUT2, PAX4, PROX1, RFX6, ST18, DACH1, and SHOX2, while LMX1A directly transcriptionally activates DACH1, SHOX2, PAX6, and PDX1. Analysis of these complementary datasets suggests the need for caution in interpreting ChIP

  9. Detection of thalidomide embryotoxicity by in vitro embryotoxicity testing based on human iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Nobuo; Kunisato, Atsushi; Nagao, Kenji; Kusaka, Hideaki; Takaba, Katsumi; Ohgami, Kinya

    2014-01-01

    The mouse embryonic stem cell test (mEST) is used to assess the embryotoxicity of drug candidates by evaluating the effects on the cardiac differentiation of stem cells. However, thalidomide embryotoxicity has not yet been reported using the mEST. To detect the effects of thalidomide, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) instead of mouse embryonic stem cells, and assessed three endpoints: the inhibition of cardiac differentiation, the cytotoxicity to hiPSCs, and the cytotoxicity to human dermal fibroblasts, according to the mEST. From these data (IC50 values), the embryotoxicity was classified into one of three different classes based on the mEST and our criteria. Valproate was used as a positive control and ascorbic acid was used as a negative control, and their effects were assessed. Similar to valproate, thalidomide was classified as a Class 2 agent, with weak embryotoxicity, by the mEST criteria, and was classified as Category 3 embryotoxic based on our criteria. Ascorbic acid was classified as a Class 1 / Category 1, non-embryotoxic agent, based on both criteria. Thalidomide embryotoxicity was detected in the embryonic stem cell test based on hiPSCs. This test system is thus considered to have a much greater predictive ability than the mEST.

  10. Profiling of microRNA in human and mouse ES and iPS cells reveals overlapping but distinct microRNA expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Siti Razila Abdul; Ueno, Kazuko; Takayama, Naoya; Nariai, Naoki; Nagasaki, Masao; Saito, Rika; Koso, Hideto; Lai, Chen-Yi; Murakami, Miyako; Tsuji, Koichiro; Michiue, Tatsuo; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Otsu, Makoto; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Using quantitative PCR-based miRNA arrays, we comprehensively analyzed the expression profiles of miRNAs in human and mouse embryonic stem (ES), induced pluripotent stem (iPS), and somatic cells. Immature pluripotent cells were purified using SSEA-1 or SSEA-4 and were used for miRNA profiling. Hierarchical clustering and consensus clustering by nonnegative matrix factorization showed two major clusters, human ES/iPS cells and other cell groups, as previously reported. Principal components analysis (PCA) to identify miRNAs that segregate in these two groups identified miR-187, 299-3p, 499-5p, 628-5p, and 888 as new miRNAs that specifically characterize human ES/iPS cells. Detailed direct comparisons of miRNA expression levels in human ES and iPS cells showed that several miRNAs included in the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster were more strongly expressed in iPS cells than in ES cells. Similar analysis was conducted with mouse ES/iPS cells and somatic cells, and several miRNAs that had not been reported to be expressed in mouse ES/iPS cells were suggested to be ES/iPS cell-specific miRNAs by PCA. Comparison of the average expression levels of miRNAs in ES/iPS cells in humans and mice showed quite similar expression patterns of human/mouse miRNAs. However, several mouse- or human-specific miRNAs are ranked as high expressers. Time course tracing of miRNA levels during embryoid body formation revealed drastic and different patterns of changes in their levels. In summary, our miRNA expression profiling encompassing human and mouse ES and iPS cells gave various perspectives in understanding the miRNA core regulatory networks regulating pluripotent cells characteristics.

  11. Mechanism insight into the effect of I/P buffer layer on the performance of NIP-type hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lisha; Liu, Bofei; Zhao, Jing; Suo, Song; Hou, Guofu; Zhang, Dekun; Sun, Jian; Wei, Changchun; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2015-05-01

    A simulation and experimental study on the effect of the buffer layer at the I/P interface on the performance of NIP-type hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) single-junction solar cells is presented. Device-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) material as a buffer layer at the I/P interface obviously improves the performance of NIP-type μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells. In addition to the well-known mechanism that an a-Si:H I/P buffer layer can reduce the recombination current density at I/P interfaces, the optically and electrically calibrated simulations and supporting experimental results in this study illustrate that the performance improvement also originates from the mitigation of the electric screening effect due to the reduced defect density at the I/P interfaces, which reinforces the bulk electric field. Integrating an optimized hydrogen profiling strategy and adding a-Si:H I/P buffer layer yielded an initial efficiency of 9.20% for μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells with an active area of 0.27 cm2. This study may provide new ideas of further improving the performance of NIP-type μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells by mitigating the electric screening effect.

  12. iPS Cells for Modelling and Treatment of Retinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred K. Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, we have relied on immortalised retinal cell lines, histology of enucleated human eyes, animal models, clinical observation, genetic studies and human clinical trials to learn more about the pathogenesis of retinal diseases and explore treatment options. The recent availability of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC for deriving retinal lineages has added a powerful alternative tool for discovering new disease-causing mutations, studying genotype-phenotype relationships, performing therapeutics-toxicity screening and developing personalised cell therapy. This review article provides a clinical perspective on the current and potential benefits of iPSC for managing the most common blinding diseases of the eye: inherited retinal diseases and age-related macular degeneration.

  13. Inhibition of stearoyl-coA desaturase selectively eliminates tumorigenic Nanog-positive cells: improving the safety of iPS cell transplantation to myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Pan, Yaohua; Qin, Gangjian; Chen, Lijuan; Chatterjee, Tapan K; Weintraub, Neal L; Tang, Yaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) can differentiate into cardiomyocytes (CM) and represent a promising form of cellular therapy for heart regeneration. However, residual undifferentiated iPS derivates (iPSD), which are not fully eliminated by cell differentiation or purification protocols, may form tumors after transplantation, thus compromising therapeutic application. Inhibition of stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD) has recently been reported to eliminate undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells, which share many features with iPSD. Here, we tested the effects of PluriSin#1, a small-molecule inhibitor of SCD, on iPS-derived CM. We found that plurisin#1 treatment significantly decreased the mRNA and protein level of Nanog, a marker for both cell pluripotency and tumor progression; importantly, we provide evidence that PluriSin#1 treatment at 20 µM for 1 day significantly induces the apoptosis of Nanog-positive iPSD. In addition, PluriSin#1 treatment at 20 µM for 4 days diminished Nanog-positive stem cells in cultured iPSD while not increasing apoptosis of iPS-derived CM. To investigate whether PluriSin#1 treatment prevents tumorigenicity of iPSD after cell transplantation, we intramyocardially injected PluriSin#1- or DMSO-treated iPSD in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). DMSO-treated iPSD readily formed Nanog-expressing tumors 2 weeks after injection, which was prevented by treatment with PluriSin#1. Moreover, treatment with PluriSin#1 did not change the expression of cTnI, α-MHC, or MLC-2v, markers of cardiac differentiation (P>0.05, n = 4). Importantly, pluriSin#1-treated iPS-derived CM exhibited the ability to engraft and survive in the infarcted myocardium. We conclude that inhibition of SCD holds the potential to enhance the safety of therapeutic application of iPS cells for heart regeneration.

  14. Gate leakage current reduction in IP3 SRAM cells at 45 nm CMOS technology for multimedia applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.K.Singh; Neeraj Kr.Shukla; Manisha Pattanaik

    2012-01-01

    We have presented an analysis of the gate leakage current of the IP3 static random access memory (SRAM) cell structure when the cell is in idle mode (performs no data read/write operations) and active mode (performs data read/write operations),along with the requirements for the overall standby leakage power,active write and read powers.A comparison has been drawn with existing SRAM cell structures,the conventional 6T,PP,P4 and P3 cells.At the supply voltage,VDD =0.8 V,a reduction of 98%,99%,92% and 94% is observed in the gate leakage current in comparison with the 6T,PP P4 and P3 SRAM cells,respectively,while at VDD =0.7 V,it is 97%,98%,87% and 84%.A significant reduction is also observed in the overall standby leakage power by 56%,the active write power by 44% and the active read power by 99%,compared with the conventional 6T SRAM cell at VDD =0.8 V,with no loss in cell stability and performance with a small area penalty.The simulation environment used for this work is 45 nm deep sub-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology,tox =2.4 nm,Vthn =0.22 V,Vthp =0.224 V,VDD =0.7 V and 0.8 V,at T =300 K.

  15. Generation of Col2a1-EGFP iPS cells for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Saito

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC are a promising cell source for cartilage regenerative medicine; however, the methods for chondrocyte induction from iPSC are currently developing and not yet sufficient for clinical application. Here, we report the establishment of a fluorescent indicator system for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation from iPSC to simplify screening for effective factors that induce chondrocytes from iPSC. We generated iPSC from embryonic fibroblasts of Col2a1-EGFP transgenic mice by retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Among the 30 clones of Col2a1-EGFP iPSC we established, two clones showed high expression levels of embryonic stem cell (ESC marker genes, similar to control ESC. A teratoma formation assay showed that the two clones were pluripotent and differentiated into cell types from all three germ layers. The fluorescent signal was observed during chondrogenic differentiation of the two clones concomitant with the increase in chondrocyte marker expression. In conclusion, Col2a1-EGFP iPSC are useful for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation and will contribute to research in cartilage regenerative medicine.

  16. Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-08

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation.

  17. Cloning Mice and Men: Prohibiting the Use of iPS Cells for Human Reproductive Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation.

  18. Pitfalls in global normalization of ChIP-seq data in CD4(+) T cells treated with butyrate: A possible solution strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Yukihiro; Endo, Takaho A; Obata, Yuuki; Ohara, Osamu; Ohno, Hiroshi; Hase, Koji

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a central role in the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses. Colonization of certain gut commensal microbes such as Clostridia class IV and XIVa in the gut can induce development of colonic Treg cells contributing to the maintenance of gut immune homeostasis. Clostridia-derived butyrate promotes the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells through upregulation of Foxp3, the master transcription factor of Treg cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis revealed that treatment of naïve T cells with butyrate induces Treg-polarizing conditions by enhanced histone H3 acetylation in the promoter and conserved non-coding sequence regions of the Foxp3 locus. In general, global normalization was utilized for ChIP-seq analysis to compare the data obtained from two or more samples. However, global normalization is not appropriate for the evaluation of ChIP-seq data when treatment can affect the total amount of target protein. Here, we introduce a unique normalization method for ChIP-seq analysis in cells treated with butyrate, a pan-HDAC inhibitor that is likely to affect total acetylation levels of histone H3.

  19. Boron Concentration Measurements at the I/P Interface in Nip a-Si Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aken, Van; Duchamp, Martial; Boothroyd, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The p-type Si layer in n-i-p a-Si and μc-Si solar cells on foil has several important requirements with respect to conductivity and optical transmission. We control the optical band gap and activation energy of p-a-SiC by varying the B2H6 and CH4 flows in the process chamber. Modelling shows...... that the optimum efficiency in n-i-p solar cells is obtained when the p-a-SiC band gap is just above the band gap of the absorber layer. We have assessed the potential of core-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) for detecting B and C and of low-loss EELS, in a spatially resolved manner, as probe of local...

  20. DNA repair and replication links to pluripotency and differentiation capacity of pig iPS cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lipu; Fan, Anran; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Jianyu; Fan, Nana; Liu, Na; Ye, Xiaoying; Fu, Haifeng; Zhou, Zhongcheng; Wang, Yong; Wei, Hong; Liu, Zhonghua; Li, Ziyi; Lai, Liangxue; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Pigs are proposed to be suitable large animal models for test of the efficacy and safety of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for stem cell therapy, but authentic pig ES/iPS cell lines with germline competence are rarely produced. The pathways or signaling underlying the defective competent pig iPSCs remain poorly understood. By improving induction conditions using various small chemicals, we generated pig iPSCs that exhibited high pluripotency and differentiation capacity that can contribute to chimeras. However, their potency was reduced with increasing passages by teratoma formation test, and correlated with declined expression levels of Rex1, an important marker for naïve state. By RNA-sequencing analysis, genes related to WNT signaling were upregulated and MAPK signaling and TGFβ pathways downregulated in pig iPSCs compared to fibroblasts, but they were abnormally expressed during passages. Notably, pathways involving in DNA repair and replication were upregulated at early passage, but downregulated in iPSCs during prolonged passage in cluster with fibroblasts. Our data suggests that reduced DNA repair and replication capacity links to the instability of pig iPSCs. Targeting these pathways may facilitate generation of truly pluripotent pig iPSCs, with implication in translational studies. PMID:28253351

  1. Induced adult stem (iAS) cells and induced transit amplifying progenitor (iTAP) cells-a possible alternative to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Richards, Mark; Ge, Zigang; Shu, Yimin

    2010-02-01

    The successful derivation of iPSC lines effectively demonstrates that it is possible to reset the 'developmental clock' of somatic cells all the way back to the initial embryonic state. Hence, it is plausible that this clock may instead be turned back half-way to a less immature developmental stage that is more directly applicable to clinical therapeutic applications or for in vitro pharmacology/toxicology screening assays. Such a suitable developmental state is postulated to be either the putative transit amplifying progenitor stage or adult stem cell stage. It is hypothetically possible to reprogram mature and terminally differentiated somatic cells back to the adult stem cell or transit amplifying progenitor stage, in a manner similar to the derivation of iPSC. It is proposed that the terminology 'Induced Adult Stem Cells' (iASC) or 'Induced Transit Amplifying Progenitor Cells' (iTAPC) be used to described such reprogrammed somatic cells. Of particular interest, is the possibility of resetting the developmental clock of mature differentiated somatic cells of the mesenchymal lineage, explanted from adipose tissue, bone marrow and cartilage. The putative adult stem cell sub-population from which these cells are derived, commonly referred to as 'mesenchymal stem cells', are highly versatile and hold much therapeutic promise in regenerative medicine, as attested to by numerous human clinical trials and animal studies. Perhaps it may be appropriate to term such reprogrammed cells as 'Induced Mesenchymal Stem Cells' (iMSC) or as 'Induced Mesenchumal Progenitor Cells' (iMPC). Given that cells from the same organ/tissue will share some commonalities in gene expression, we hypothesize that the generation of iASC or iTAPC would be more efficient as compared to iPSC generation, since a common epigenetic program must exist between the reprogrammed cells, adult stem cell or progenitor cell types and terminally differentiated cell types from the same organ/tissue.

  2. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J.; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-10-01

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure.

  3. Model for long QT syndrome type 2 using human iPS cells demonstrates arrhythmogenic characteristics in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Lahti

    2012-03-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS is caused by functional alterations in cardiac ion channels and is associated with prolonged cardiac repolarization time and increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Inherited type 2 LQTS (LQT2 and drug-induced LQTS both result from altered function of the hERG channel. We investigated whether the electrophysiological characteristics of LQT2 can be recapitulated in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology. Spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes were differentiated from two iPSC lines derived from an individual with LQT2 carrying the R176W mutation in the KCNH2 (HERG gene. The individual had been asymptomatic except for occasional palpitations, but his sister and father had died suddenly at an early age. Electrophysiological properties of LQT2-specific cardiomyocytes were studied using microelectrode array and patch-clamp, and were compared with those of cardiomyocytes derived from control cells. The action potential duration of LQT2-specific cardiomyocytes was significantly longer than that of control cardiomyocytes, and the rapid delayed potassium channel (IKr density of the LQT2 cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced. Additionally, LQT2-derived cardiac cells were more sensitive than controls to potentially arrhythmogenic drugs, including sotalol, and demonstrated arrhythmogenic electrical activity. Consistent with clinical observations, the LQT2 cardiomyocytes demonstrated a more pronounced inverse correlation between the beating rate and repolarization time compared with control cells. Prolonged action potential is present in LQT2-specific cardiomyocytes derived from a mutation carrier and arrhythmias can be triggered by a commonly used drug. Thus, the iPSC-derived, disease-specific cardiomyocytes could serve as an important platform to study pathophysiological mechanisms and drug sensitivity in LQT2.

  4. An HDAC2-TET1 switch at distinct chromatin regions significantly promotes the maturation of pre-iPS to iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tingyi; Chen, Wen; Wang, Xiukun; Zhang, Man; Chen, Jiayu; Zhu, Songcheng; Chen, Long; Yang, Dandan; Wang, Guiying; Jia, Wenwen; Yu, Yangyang; Duan, Tao; Wu, Minjuan; Liu, Houqi; Gao, Shaorong; Kang, Jiuhong

    2015-06-23

    The maturation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) is one of the limiting steps of somatic cell reprogramming, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we reported that knockdown of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) specifically promoted the maturation of iPS cells. Further studies showed that HDAC2 knockdown significantly increased histone acetylation, facilitated TET1 binding and DNA demethylation at the promoters of iPS cell maturation-related genes during the transition of pre-iPS cells to a fully reprogrammed state. We also found that HDAC2 competed with TET1 in the binding of the RbAp46 protein at the promoters of maturation genes and knockdown of TET1 markedly prevented the activation of these genes. Collectively, our data not only demonstrated a novel intrinsic mechanism that the HDAC2-TET1 switch critically regulates iPS cell maturation, but also revealed an underlying mechanism of the interplay between histone acetylation and DNA demethylation in gene regulation.

  5. Modelling of pressurised hybrid systems based on integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell (IP-SOFC) technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magistri, L.; Traverso, A.; Massardo, A.F. [TPG-DIMSET, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genova (Italy); Cerutti, F.; Costamagna, P. [TPG-DICHEP, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genova (Italy); Bozzolo, M. [Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems Ltd, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    This work describes different models, developed by the Thermochemical Power Group at the University of Genoa (Italy), for the simulation of solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid systems. The paper focuses on both ''cores'' of the system: the fuel cell stack on the one hand and the turbomachinery and the auxiliaries on the other hand. Therefore, in the first part of the paper the models developed for the analysis of the Rolls-Royce Integrated Planar SOFC cells are presented; the results are compared to experimental data, and carefully analysed and discussed. In the second part of the paper, design and off design models of IP-SOFC pressurised hybrid systems in the range 250 kW-20 MW are presented; the hybrid performance results are presented and discussed, also taking ambient condition effects and a possible control strategy into account. Finally, using an in-house general purpose transient system analysis code (TRANSEO code), where chemical composition, heat transfer, and fluid dynamic influences vs. time are considered in detail, a preliminary time dependent investigation of a pressurised hybrid system behaviour is presented. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Space exploration by dendritic cells requires maintenance of myosin II activity by IP3 receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanes, Paola; Heuzé, Mélina L; Maurin, Mathieu; Bretou, Marine; Lautenschlaeger, Franziska; Maiuri, Paolo; Terriac, Emmanuel; Thoulouze, Maria-Isabel; Launay, Pierre; Piel, Matthieu; Vargas, Pablo; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-03-12

    Dendritic cells (DCs) patrol the interstitial space of peripheral tissues. The mechanisms that regulate their migration in such constrained environment remain unknown. We here investigated the role of calcium in immature DCs migrating in confinement. We found that they displayed calcium oscillations that were independent of extracellular calcium and more frequently observed in DCs undergoing strong speed fluctuations. In these cells, calcium spikes were associated with fast motility phases. IP₃ receptors (IP₃Rs) channels, which allow calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, were identified as required for immature DCs to migrate at fast speed. The IP₃R1 isoform was further shown to specifically regulate the locomotion persistence of immature DCs, that is, their capacity to maintain directional migration. This function of IP₃R1 results from its ability to control the phosphorylation levels of myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC) and the back/front polarization of the motor protein. We propose that by upholding myosin II activity, constitutive calcium release from the ER through IP₃R1 maintains DC polarity during migration in confinement, facilitating the exploration of their environment.

  7. Boron concentration measurements at the I/P interface in nip a-Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Soppe, W.J. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Duchamp, M.; Boothroyd, C.B. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. [Institute for Microstructure Research, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Barnes, J.P.; Veillerot, M. [CEA-Leti, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, FR-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-09-15

    The p-type Si layer in n-i-p a-Si and {mu}c-Si solar cells on foil has several important requirements with respect to conductivity and optical transmission. We control the optical band gap and activation energy of p-a-SiC by varying the B2H6 and CH4 flows in the process chamber. Modelling shows that the optimum efficiency in n-i-p solar cells is obtained when the p-a-SiC band gap is just above the band gap of the absorber layer. We have assessed the potential of core-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) for detecting B and C and of low-loss EELS, in a spatially resolved manner, as probe of local variations in bulk plasmon energy. EELS in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) combines the necessary spatial resolution to investigate the boundary between p-a-SiC and i-a-Si with sufficient sensitivity to the boron content.

  8. Identifying Cell Type-Specific Transcription Factors by Integrating ChIP-seq and eQTL Data-Application to Monocyte Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Mudra; Ramsey, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel computational approach to identify transcription factors (TFs) that are candidate regulators in a human cell type of interest. Our approach involves integrating cell type-specific expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data and TF data from chromatin immunoprecipitation-to-tag-sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments in cell lines. To test the method, we used eQTL data from human monocytes in order to screen for TFs. Using a list of known monocyte-regulating TFs, we tested the hypothesis that the binding sites of cell type-specific TF regulators would be concentrated in the vicinity of monocyte eQTLs. For each of 397 ChIP-seq data sets, we obtained an enrichment ratio for the number of ChIP-seq peaks that are located within monocyte eQTLs. We ranked ChIP-seq data sets according to their statistical significances for eQTL overlap, and from this ranking, we observed that monocyte-regulating TFs are more highly ranked than would be expected by chance. We identified 27 TFs that had significant monocyte enrichment scores and mapped them into a protein interaction network. Our analysis uncovered two novel candidate monocyte-regulating TFs, BCLAF1 and SIN3A. Our approach is an efficient method to identify candidate TFs that can be used for any cell/tissue type for which eQTL data are available.

  9. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells may bridge the gap between mouse and human iPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Miguel A; Peng, Meixiu; Deli, Zhang; Cai, Jie; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Jianyong; Lai, Liangxue; Pei, Duanqing

    2010-04-01

    Recently, three independent laboratories reported the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from pig (Sus scrofa). This finding sums to the growing list of species (mouse, human, monkey, and rat, in this order) for which successful reprogramming using exogenous factors has been achieved, and multiple others are possibly forthcoming. But apart from demonstrating the universality of the network identified by Shinya Yamanaka, what makes the porcine model so special? On one side, pigs are an agricultural commodity and have an easy and affordable maintenance compared with nonhuman primates that normally need to be imported. On the other side, resemblance (for example, size of organs) of porcine and human physiology is striking and because pigs are a regular source of food the ethical concerns that still remain in monkeys are not applicable. Besides, the prolonged lifespan of pigs compared with other domestic species can allow exhaustive follow up of side effects after transplantation. Porcine iPSCs may thus fill the gap between the mouse model, which due to its ease is preferred for mechanistic studies, and the first clinical trials using iPSCs in humans. However, although these studies are relevant and have created significant interest they face analogous problems that we discuss herein together with potential new directions.

  10. ChIP-on-chip analysis identifies IL-22 as direct target gene of ectopically expressed FOXP3 transcription factor in human T cells

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    Jeron Andreas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor (TF forkhead box P3 (FOXP3 is constitutively expressed at high levels in naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (nTregs. It is not only the most accepted marker for that cell population but is also considered lineage determinative. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP of TFs in combination with genomic tiling microarray analysis (ChIP-on-chip has been shown to be an appropriate tool for identifying FOXP3 transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs on a genome-wide scale. In combination with microarray expression analysis, the ChIP-on-chip technique allows identification of direct FOXP3 target genes. Results ChIP-on-chip analysis of the human FOXP3 expressed in resting and PMA/ionomycin–stimulated Jurkat T cells revealed several thousand putative FOXP3 binding sites and demonstrated the importance of intronic regions for FOXP3 binding. The analysis of expression data showed that the stimulation-dependent down-regulation of IL-22 was correlated with direct FOXP3 binding in the IL-22 promoter region. This association was confirmed by real-time PCR analysis of ChIP-DNA. The corresponding ChIP-region also contained a matching FOXP3 consensus sequence. Conclusions Knowledge of the general distribution patterns of FOXP3 TFBSs in the human genome under resting and activated conditions will contribute to a better understanding of this TF and its influence on direct target genes, as well as its importance for the phenotype and function of Tregs. Moreover, FOXP3-dependent repression of Th17-related IL-22 may be relevant to an understanding of the phenomenon of Treg/Th17 cell plasticity.

  11. bFGF and Activin A function to promote survival and proliferation of single iPS cells in conditioned half-exchange mTeSR1 medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoling; Lian, Ruiling; Guo, Yonglong; Liu, Qing; Ji, Qingshan; Chen, Jiansu

    2015-07-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be well maintained by clonal growth. The pluripotent growth of single iPS cells is limited by low survival. To facilitate robust single iPS cells cultured in vitro, half-exchange mTeSR1 medium (HM), whole-exchange medium (WM) and iPS cell-derived conditioned medium (iPS-CM) culture were used. The effects of bFGF and Activin A on the growth of single iPS cells were explored. The dissociation and propagation of single iPS cells also included Accutase enzymatic isolation, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 protection and high-density single-cell seeding (1 × 10(6) cells/well). CCK-8 assays demonstrated that the viability of clonal iPS cells in mTeSR1 medium and single iPS cells in HM, iPS-CM or WM supplemented with 100 ng/ml bFGF and 10 ng/ml Activin A was significantly higher than that in WM. Annexin v and propidium iodide (PI) assay, Calcein AM and EthD-III double staining also confirmed the similar results. ELISA assays showed that the levels of bFGF and Activin A of single iPS cells in HM and iPS-CM were higher than single iPS cells in WM. Meanwhile, Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), Western Blotting (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF) and karyotype analysis revealed that HM culture was able to maintain undifferentiated markers of Nanog, Klf4, Sox2, Oct4, and did not affect the karyotype of iPS cells. Undifferentiated single iPS cells in HM displayed homogenized growth. These findings demonstrate that bFGF and Activin A are important for the survival and growth of single iPS cells. HM culture system combined Accutase, Y27632 and high-density single-cell seeding can facilitate short-term growth of single iPS cells in vitro.

  12. Juxtaglomerular cell CaSR stimulation decreases renin release via activation of the PLC/IP(3) pathway and the ryanodine receptor.

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    Ortiz-Capisano, M Cecilia; Reddy, Mahendranath; Mendez, Mariela; Garvin, Jeffrey L; Beierwaltes, William H

    2013-02-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-coupled protein expressed in renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. Its activation stimulates calcium-mediated decreases in cAMP content and inhibits renin release. The postreceptor pathway for the CaSR in JG cells is unknown. In parathyroids, CaSR acts through G(q) and/or G(i). Activation of G(q) stimulates phospholipase C (PLC), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), releasing calcium from intracellular stores. G(i) stimulation inhibits cAMP formation. In afferent arterioles, the ryanodine receptor (RyR) enhances release of stored calcium. We hypothesized JG cell CaSR activation inhibits renin via the PLC/IP(3) and also RyR activation, increasing intracellular calcium, suppressing cAMP formation, and inhibiting renin release. Renin release from primary cultures of isolated mouse JG cells (n = 10) was measured. The CaSR agonist cinacalcet decreased renin release 56 ± 7% of control (P PLC inhibitor U73122 reversed cinacalcet inhibition of renin (104 ± 11% of control). The IP(3) inhibitor 2-APB also reversed inhibition of renin from 56 ± 6 to 104 ± 11% of control (P PLC/IP(3) pathway, activating RyR, increasing intracellular calcium, and resulting in calcium-mediated renin inhibition.

  13. Effect of oxygen on cardiac differentiation in mouse iPS cells: role of hypoxia inducible factor-1 and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

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    Tanya L Medley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disturbances in oxygen levels have been found to impair cardiac organogenesis. It is known that stem cells and differentiating cells may respond variably to hypoxic conditions, whereby hypoxia may enhance stem cell pluripotency, while differentiation of multiple cell types can be restricted or enhanced under hypoxia. Here we examined whether HIF-1alpha modulated Wnt signaling affected differentiation of iPS cells into beating cardiomyocytes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether transient and sustained hypoxia affects differentiation of cardiomyocytes derived from murine induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, assessed the involvement of HIF-1alpha (hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and the canonical Wnt pathway in this process. METHODS: Embryoid bodies (EBs derived from iPS cells were differentiated into cardiomyocytes and were exposed either to 24 h normoxia or transient hypoxia followed by a further 13 days of normoxic culture. RESULTS: At 14 days of differentiation, 59 ± 2% of normoxic EBs were beating, whilst transient hypoxia abolished beating at 14 days and EBs appeared immature. Hypoxia induced a significant increase in Brachyury and islet-1 mRNA expression, together with reduced troponin C expression. Collectively, these data suggest that transient and sustained hypoxia inhibits maturation of differentiating cardiomyocytes. Compared to normoxia, hypoxia increased HIF-1alpha, Wnt target and ligand genes in EBs, as well as accumulation of HIF-1alpha and beta-catenin in nuclear protein extracts, suggesting involvement of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia impairs cardiomyocyte differentiation and activates Wnt signaling in undifferentiated iPS cells. Taken together the study suggests that oxygenation levels play a critical role in cardiomyocyte differentiation and suggest that hypoxia may play a role in early cardiogenesis.

  14. Hepatic maturation of human iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells by ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Daiki; Takayama, Kazuo; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Mitani, Seiji; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human iPS cells (human iPS-HLCs) are expected to be utilized in drug development and research. However, recent hepatic characterization of human iPS-HLCs showed that these cells resemble fetal hepatocytes rather than adult hepatocytes. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop a method to enhance the hepatic function of human iPS-HLCs. Because the gene expression levels of the hepatic transcription factors (activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (c/EBPα), and prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1)) in adult liver were significantly higher than those in human iPS-HLCs and fetal liver, we expected that the hepatic functions of human iPS-HLCs could be enhanced by adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction. The gene expression levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9, 2E1, alpha-1 antitrypsin, transthyretin, Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 and protein expression levels of CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 were upregulated by ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction. These results suggest that the hepatic functions of the human iPS-HLCs could be enhanced by ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction. Our findings would be useful for the hepatic maturation of human iPS-HLCs.

  15. MULTICELLULAR-MEDIATED EXPRESSION OF P-GP AND MRP AND RELATIONSHIP WITH CELL CYCLE PROFILES IN HUMAN OVARIAN CANCER SK-OV-3ip1 MULTICELLULAR AGGREGATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建利; 丰有吉; 张琴

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance- associated protein (MRP) and the relationship with cell cycle profiles in ovarian cancer SK-OV-3ip1 multicellular aggregates. Methods: Liquid overlay system was employed to obtain multicellular aggregates. Expression of P-gp and MRP was detected with flow cytometry (FCM). Outer, intermediate and inner cells from multicellular aggregates were collected by layer-trypsinized method. Cell cycle profiles were also analyzed by FCM. Results: Compared with control cells, no expression of P-gp and MRP was detected in monolyer cells (P=0.128 and P=0.604), but expression of P-gp and MRP in aggregate cells was significantly elevated (P<0.01). P-gp expression in every layer cells was also obviously increased (P<0.01). Furthermore, P-gp expression in every layer cells was also obviously increased (P=0.071). Tendency to increased G0-G1 phase and reduced S phase cells existed from outer through intermediate to inner layers in multicellular aggregates but with no statistical difference. Cell percentages in G2-M phase also had no difference. However, compared with monolayer cells, cells in G0-G1 phase increased and cells in S and G2-M phases lowered significantly in every layer and in the whole multicellular aggregates. Expression elevation of P-gp and MRP was consistent with increased G0-G1 percentage in aggregate cells. Conclusion: Expression of P-gp and MRP increases in cells of SK-OV-3ip1 multicellular aggregates and is consistent with increased G0-G1 percentage, which implies the possible relationship between them and the possible role in multicellular-mediated drug resistance.

  16. Anti-Aβ drug screening platform using human iPS cell-derived neurons for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Naoki Yahata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive memory and cognitive decline during middle to late adult life. The AD brain is characterized by deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ, which is produced from amyloid precursor protein by β- and γ-secretase (presenilin complex-mediated sequential cleavage. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells potentially provide an opportunity to generate a human cell-based model of AD that would be crucial for drug discovery as well as for investigating mechanisms of the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We differentiated human iPS (hiPS cells into neuronal cells expressing the forebrain marker, Foxg1, and the neocortical markers, Cux1, Satb2, Ctip2, and Tbr1. The iPS cell-derived neuronal cells also expressed amyloid precursor protein, β-secretase, and γ-secretase components, and were capable of secreting Aβ into the conditioned media. Aβ production was inhibited by β-secretase inhibitor, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI, and an NSAID; however, there were different susceptibilities to all three drugs between early and late differentiation stages. At the early differentiation stage, GSI treatment caused a fast increase at lower dose (Aβ surge and drastic decline of Aβ production. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the hiPS cell-derived neuronal cells express functional β- and γ-secretases involved in Aβ production; however, anti-Aβ drug screening using these hiPS cell-derived neuronal cells requires sufficient neuronal differentiation.

  17. Vector-free and transgene-free human iPS cells differentiate into functional neurons and enhance functional recovery after ischemic stroke in mice.

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    Osama Mohamad

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability in the adult population in the United States and around the world. While stroke treatment is limited, stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising regenerative therapy to replace or repair damaged tissues and enhance functional recovery after stroke. Recently, the creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells through reprogramming of somatic cells has revolutionized cell therapy by providing an unlimited source of autologous cells for transplantation. In addition, the creation of vector-free and transgene-free human iPS (hiPS cells provides a new generation of stem cells with a reduced risk of tumor formation that was associated with the random integration of viral vectors seen with previous techniques. However, the potential use of these cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke has not been explored. In the present investigation, we examined the neuronal differentiation of vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells and the transplantation of hiPS cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs in an ischemic stroke model in mice. Vector-free hiPS cells were maintained in feeder-free and serum-free conditions and differentiated into functional neurons in vitro using a newly developed differentiation protocol. Twenty eight days after transplantation in stroke mice, hiPS-NPCs showed mature neuronal markers in vivo. No tumor formation was seen up to 12 months after transplantation. Transplantation of hiPS-NPCs restored neurovascular coupling, increased trophic support and promoted behavioral recovery after stroke. These data suggest that using vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells in stem cell therapy are safe and efficacious in enhancing recovery after focal ischemic stroke in mice.

  18. Human induced hepatic lineage-oriented stem cells: autonomous specification of human iPS cells toward hepatocyte-like cells without any exogenous differentiation factors.

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    Tetsuya Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Preparing targeted cells for medical applications from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs using growth factors, compounds, or gene transfer has been challenging. Here, we report that human induced hepatic lineage-oriented stem cells (hiHSCs were generated and expanded as a new type of hiPSC under non-typical coculture with feeder cells in a chemically defined hiPSC medium at a very high density. Self-renewing hiHSCs expressed markers of both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and hepatocytes. Those cells were highly expandable, markedly enhancing gene expression of serum hepatic proteins and cytochrome P450 enzymes with the omission of FGF-2 from an undefined hiPSC medium. The hepatic specification of hiHSCs was not attributable to the genetic and epigenetic backgrounds of the starting cells, as they were established from distinct donors and different types of cells. Approximately 90% of hiHSCs autonomously differentiated to hepatocyte-like cells, even in a defined minimum medium without any of the exogenous growth factors necessary for hepatic specification. After 12 days of this culture, the differentiated cells significantly enhanced gene expression of serum hepatic proteins (ALB, SERPINA1, TTR, TF, FABP1, FGG, AGT, RBP4, and AHSG, conjugating enzymes (UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, GSTA2, and GSTA5, transporters (SULT2A1, SLC13A5, and SLCO2B1, and urea cycle-related enzymes (ARG1 and CPS1. In addition, the hepatocyte-like cells performed key functions of urea synthesis, albumin secretion, glycogen storage, indocyanine green uptake, and low-density lipoprotein uptake. The autonomous hepatic specification of hiHSCs was due to their culture conditions (coculture with feeder cells in a defined hiPSC medium at a very high density in self-renewal rather than in differentiation. These results suggest the feasibility of preparing large quantities of hepatocytes as a convenient and inexpensive hiPSC differentiation. Our study also suggests the

  19. Rabies virus infection induces type I interferon production in an IPS-1 dependent manner while dendritic cell activation relies on IFNAR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Elizabeth J; Wanjalla, Celestine N; Suthar, Mehul S; Gale, Michael; Wirblich, Christoph; Schnell, Matthias J

    2010-07-22

    As with many viruses, rabies virus (RABV) infection induces type I interferon (IFN) production within the infected host cells. However, RABV has evolved mechanisms by which to inhibit IFN production in order to sustain infection. Here we show that RABV infection of dendritic cells (DC) induces potent type I IFN production and DC activation. Although DCs are infected by RABV, the viral replication is highly suppressed in DCs, rendering the infection non-productive. We exploited this finding in bone marrow derived DCs (BMDC) in order to differentiate which pattern recognition receptor(s) (PRR) is responsible for inducing type I IFN following infection with RABV. Our results indicate that BMDC activation and type I IFN production following a RABV infection is independent of TLR signaling. However, IPS-1 is essential for both BMDC activation and IFN production. Interestingly, we see that the BMDC activation is primarily due to signaling through the IFNAR and only marginally induced by the initial infection. To further identify the receptor recognizing RABV infection, we next analyzed BMDC from Mda-5-/- and RIG-I-/- mice. In the absence of either receptor, there is a significant decrease in BMDC activation at 12h post infection. However, only RIG-I-/- cells exhibit a delay in type I IFN production. In order to determine the role that IPS-1 plays in vivo, we infected mice with pathogenic RABV. We see that IPS-1-/- mice are more susceptible to infection than IPS-1+/+ mice and have a significantly increased incident of limb paralysis.

  20. Generation and characterization of the human iPSC line PBMC1-iPS4F1 from adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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    Rosa Montes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the generation and characterization of the human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line PBMC1-iPS4F1 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a healthy female with Spanish background. We used heat sensitive, non-integrative Sendai viruses containing the reprogramming factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, whose expression was silenced in the established iPSC line. Characterization of the PBMC1-iPS4F1 cell line included analysis of typical pluripotency-associated factors at mRNA and protein level, alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity, and in vivo and in vitro differentiation studies.

  1. Planckian Information (Ip): A New Measure of Order in Atoms, Enzymes, Cells, Brains, Human Societies, and the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sungchul

    A new mathematical formula referred to as the Planckian distribution equation (PDE) has been found to fit long-tailed histograms generated in various fields of studies, ranging from atomic physics to single-molecule enzymology, cell biology, brain neurobiology, glottometrics, econophysics, and to cosmology. PDE can be derived from a Gaussian-like equation (GLE) by non-linearly transforming its variable, x, while keeping the y coordinate constant. Assuming that GLE represents a random distribution (due to its symmetry), it is possible to define a binary logarithm of the ratio between the areas under the curves of PDE and GLE as a measure of the non-randomness (or order) underlying the biophysicochemical processes generating long-tailed histograms that fit PDE. This new function has been named the Planckian information, IP, which (i) may be a new measure of order that can be applied widely to both natural and human sciences and (ii) can serve as the opposite of the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy, S, which is a measure of disorder. The possible rationales for the universality of PDE may include (i) the universality of the wave-particle duality embedded in PDE, (ii) the selection of subsets of random processes (thereby breaking the symmetry of GLE) as the basic mechanism of generating order, organization, and function, and (iii) the quantity-quality complementarity as the connection between PDE and Peircean semiotics.

  2. Integrated transcriptome analysis of human iPS cells derived from a fragile X syndrome patient during neuronal differentiation.

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    Lu, Ping; Chen, Xiaolong; Feng, Yun; Zeng, Qiao; Jiang, Cizhong; Zhu, Xianmin; Fan, Guoping; Xue, Zhigang

    2016-11-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients carry the expansion of over 200 CGG repeats at the promoter of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1), leading to decreased or absent expression of its encoded fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). However, the global transcriptional alteration by FMRP deficiency has not been well characterized at single nucleotide resolution, i.e., RNA-seq. Here, we performed in-vitro neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that were derived from fibroblasts of a FXS patient (FXS-iPSC). We then performed RNA-seq and examined the transcriptional misregulation at each intermediate stage during in-vitro differentiation of FXS-iPSC into neurons. After thoroughly analyzing the transcriptomic data and integrating them with those from other platforms, we found up-regulation of many genes encoding TFs for neuronal differentiation (WNT1, BMP4, POU3F4, TFAP2C, and PAX3), down-regulation of potassium channels (KCNA1, KCNC3, KCNG2, KCNIP4, KCNJ3, KCNK9, and KCNT1) and altered temporal regulation of SHANK1 and NNAT in FXS-iPSC derived neurons, indicating impaired neuronal differentiation and function in FXS patients. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the FMRP deficiency in FXS patients has significant impact on the gene expression patterns during development, which will help to discover potential targeting candidates for the cure of FXS symptoms.

  3. Whole-exome sequencing of fibroblast and its iPS cell lines derived from a patient diagnosed with xeroderma pigmentosum

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    Kohji Okamura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cells from a patient with a DNA repair-deficiency disorder are anticipated to bear a large number of somatic mutations. Because such mutations occur independently in each cell, there is a high degree of mosaicism in patients' tissues. While major mutations that have been expanded in many cognate cells are readily detected by sequencing, minor ones are overlaid with a large depth of non-mutated alleles and are not detected. However, cell cloning enables us to observe such cryptic mutations as well as major mutations. In the present study, we focused on a fibroblastic cell line that is derived from a patient diagnosed with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP, which is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in nucleotide excision repair. By making a list of somatic mutations, we can expect to see a characteristic pattern of mutations caused by the hereditary disorder. We cloned a cell by generating an iPS cell line and performed a whole-exome sequencing analysis of the progenitor and its iPS cell lines. Unexpectedly, we failed to find causal mutations in the XP-related genes, but we identified many other mutations including homozygous deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1. In addition, we found that the long arm of chromosome 9 formed uniparental disomy in the iPS cell line, which was also confirmed by a structural mutation analysis using a SNP array. Type and number of somatic mutations were different from those observed in XP patients. Taken together, we conclude that the patient might be affected by a different type of the disorder and that some of the mutations that we identified here may be responsible for exhibiting the phenotype. Sequencing and SNP-array data have been submitted to SRA and GEO under accession numbers SRP059858 and GSE55520, respectively.

  4. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) blocks proliferation of human breast cancer cells through a PKCdelta-dependent increase in p27Kip1 and decrease in retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucenik, Ivana; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Tantivejkul, Kwanchanit; Anderson, Lucy M; Ramljak, Danica

    2005-05-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate with demonstrated anti-proliferative and anti-cancer activity in mammary cells. We hypothesized that IP6 modulates cell cycle proteins by action on cytoplasmic signaling molecules. The effects of both pharmacological (2 mM) and physiological (100 microM) doses of IP6 on major PKC isoforms (PKCalpha, delta, epsilon, beta and zeta), PI3-K/Akt and ras/Erk1/2 were evaluated. Treatment of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with 2 mM IP6 for 24 h caused a 3.1-fold increase in the expression of anti-proliferative PKCdelta. Similar results were observed with 100 microM IP6 at only 30-60 min post-treatment. IP6 also caused an increase in PKCdelta activity, shown by its translocation from cytosol to membrane. No changes in expression of PKC alpha, delta, epsilon, beta and zeta were detected. Additionally, IP6 caused a decrease of Erk1/2 and Akt activity. Among cell cycle control proteins, IP6 resulted in increased p27Kip1 protein levels and marked reduction of pRb phosphorylation. Specificity of the IP6 effects on p27Kip1 and pRb in MCF-7 cells (hormone-dependent) were additionally confirmed in highly invasive hormone-independent MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells. Use of specific pharmaclogical inhibitors of PKC delta, MEK/Erk, and PI3K/Akt pathways indicated that the IP6-mediated effects on PKC delta were responsible for up-regulation of p27Kip, and pRb hypo-phosphorylation. In addition, IP6-induced apoptosis detected in MCF-7 cells appeared also to be PKC delta-dependent. Our data suggest potential usefulness of IP6 as a novel therapeutic modulator of PKC delta and p27Kip1, an important prognostic factor in human breast cancers.

  5. Highly sensitive in vitro methods for detection of residual undifferentiated cells in retinal pigment epithelial cells derived from human iPS cells.

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    Takuya Kuroda

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs possess the capabilities of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types, and they are free of the ethical problems associated with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. These characteristics make hiPSCs a promising choice for future regenerative medicine research. There are significant obstacles, however, preventing the clinical use of hiPSCs. One of the most obvious safety issues is the presence of residual undifferentiated cells that have tumorigenic potential. To locate residual undifferentiated cells, in vivo teratoma formation assays have been performed with immunodeficient animals, which is both costly and time-consuming. Here, we examined three in vitro assay methods to detect undifferentiated cells (designated an in vitro tumorigenicity assay: soft agar colony formation assay, flow cytometry assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR. Although the soft agar colony formation assay was unable to detect hiPSCs even in the presence of a ROCK inhibitor that permits survival of dissociated hiPSCs/hESCs, the flow cytometry assay using anti-TRA-1-60 antibody detected 0.1% undifferentiated hiPSCs that were spiked in primary retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Moreover, qRT-PCR with a specific probe and primers was found to detect a trace amount of Lin28 mRNA, which is equivalent to that present in a mixture of a single hiPSC and 5.0×10⁴ RPE cells. Our findings provide highly sensitive and quantitative in vitro assays essential for facilitating safety profiling of hiPSC-derived products for future regenerative medicine research.

  6. CPM Is a Useful Cell Surface Marker to Isolate Expandable Bi-Potential Liver Progenitor Cells Derived from Human iPS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Taketomo; Koui, Yuta; Suzuki, Kaori; Kobayashi, Ayaka; Miura, Yasushi; Chern, Edward Y; Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2015-10-13

    To develop a culture system for large-scale production of mature hepatocytes, liver progenitor cells (LPCs) with a high proliferation potential would be advantageous. We have found that carboxypeptidase M (CPM) is highly expressed in embryonic LPCs, hepatoblasts, while its expression is decreased along with hepatic maturation. Consistently, CPM expression was transiently induced during hepatic specification from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). CPM(+) cells isolated from differentiated hiPSCs at the immature hepatocyte stage proliferated extensively in vitro and expressed a set of genes that were typical of hepatoblasts. Moreover, the CPM(+) cells exhibited a mature hepatocyte phenotype after induction of hepatic maturation and also underwent cholangiocytic differentiation in a three-dimensional culture system. These results indicated that hiPSC-derived CPM(+) cells share the characteristics of LPCs, with the potential to proliferate and differentiate bi-directionally. Thus, CPM is a useful marker for isolating hiPSC-derived LPCs, which allows development of a large-scale culture system for producing hepatocytes and cholangiocytes.

  7. The PTTG1-binding factor (PBF/PTTG1IP) regulates p53 activity in thyroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Martin L; Seed, Robert I; Fong, Jim C W; Modasia, Bhavika; Ryan, Gavin A; Watkins, Rachel J; Gagliano, Teresa; Smith, Vicki E; Stratford, Anna L; Kwan, Perkin K; Sharma, Neil; Dixon, Olivia M; Watkinson, John C; Boelaert, Kristien; Franklyn, Jayne A; Turnell, Andrew S; McCabe, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    The PTTG1-binding factor (PBF/PTTG1IP) has an emerging repertoire of roles, especially in thyroid biology, and functions as a protooncogene. High PBF expression is independently associated with poor prognosis and lower disease-specific survival in human thyroid cancer. However, the precise role of PBF in thyroid tumorigenesis is unclear. Here, we present extensive evidence demonstrating that PBF is a novel regulator of p53, a tumor suppressor protein with a key role in maintaining genetic stability, which is infrequently mutated in differentiated thyroid cancer. By coimmunoprecipitation and proximity-ligation assays, we show that PBF binds specifically to p53 in thyroid cells and significantly represses transactivation of responsive promoters. Further, we identify that PBF decreases p53 stability by enhancing ubiquitination, which appears dependent on the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2. Impaired p53 function was evident in a transgenic mouse model with thyroid-specific PBF overexpression (transgenic PBF mice), which had significantly increased genetic instability as indicated by fluorescent inter simple sequence repeat-PCR analysis. Consistent with this, approximately 40% of all DNA repair genes examined were repressed in transgenic PBF primary cultures, including genes with critical roles in maintaining genomic integrity such as Mgmt, Rad51, and Xrcc3. Our data also revealed that PBF induction resulted in up-regulation of the E2 enzyme Rad6 in murine thyrocytes and was associated with Rad6 expression in human thyroid tumors. Overall, this work provides novel insights into the role of the protooncogene PBF as a negative regulator of p53 function in thyroid tumorigenesis, in which PBF is generally overexpressed and p53 mutations are rare compared with other tumor types.

  8. iPS cell modeling of Best disease: insights into the pathophysiology of an inherited macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchira; Shen, Wei; Kuai, David; Martin, Jessica M; Guo, Xiangrong; Smith, Molly A; Perez, Enio T; Phillips, M Joseph; Simonett, Joseph M; Wallace, Kyle A; Verhoeven, Amelia D; Capowski, Elizabeth E; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yin, Yingnan; Halbach, Patrick J; Fishman, Gerald A; Wright, Lynda S; Pattnaik, Bikash R; Gamm, David M

    2013-02-01

    Best disease (BD) is an inherited degenerative disease of the human macula that results in progressive and irreversible central vision loss. It is caused by mutations in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) gene BESTROPHIN1 (BEST1), which, through mechanism(s) that remain unclear, lead to the accumulation of subretinal fluid and autofluorescent waste products from shed photoreceptor outer segments (POSs). We employed human iPS cell (hiPSC) technology to generate RPE from BD patients and unaffected siblings in order to examine the cellular and molecular processes underlying this disease. Consistent with the clinical phenotype of BD, RPE from mutant hiPSCs displayed disrupted fluid flux and increased accrual of autofluorescent material after long-term POS feeding when compared with hiPSC-RPE from unaffected siblings. On a molecular level, RHODOPSIN degradation after POS feeding was delayed in BD hiPSC-RPE relative to unaffected sibling hiPSC-RPE, directly implicating impaired POS handling in the pathophysiology of the disease. In addition, stimulated calcium responses differed between BD and normal sibling hiPSC-RPE, as did oxidative stress levels after chronic POS feeding. Subcellular localization, fractionation and co-immunoprecipitation experiments in hiPSC-RPE and human prenatal RPE further linked BEST1 to the regulation and release of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. Since calcium signaling and oxidative stress are critical regulators of fluid flow and protein degradation, these findings likely contribute to the clinical picture of BD. In a larger context, this report demonstrates the potential to use patient-specific hiPSCs to model and study maculopathies, an important class of blinding disorders in humans.

  9. Optimization of n/i and i/p buffer layers in n-i-p hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yujie; Hou Guofu; Zhang Jianjun; Xue Junming; Cao Liran; Zhao Ying; Geng Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) intrinsic films and solar cells with n-i-p configuration were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The influence of n/i and i/p buffer layerson the μc-Si:H cell performance was studied in detail. The experimental results demonstrated that the efficiency is much improved when there is a higher crystallinity at n/i interface and an optimized a-Si:H buffer layer at i/p interface. By combining the above methods, the performance ofμc-Si:H single-junction and a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandemsolar ceils has been significantly improved.

  10. A one-day, dispense-only IP-One HTRF assay for high-throughput screening of Galphaq protein-coupled receptors: towards cells as reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsdorf, Christian; Kropp-Goerkis, Carmen; Kaehler, Irene; Ketscher, Lars; Boemer, Ulf; Parczyk, Karsten; Bader, Benjamin

    2008-02-01

    Abstract: Compared to biochemical high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, cell-based functional assays are generally thought to be more time consuming and complex because of additional efforts for running continuous cell cultures as well as the numerous assay steps when transferring media and compounds. A common strategy to compensate the anticipated reduction in overall throughput is to implement highly automated cell culture and screening systems. However, such systems require substantial investments in sophisticated hardware and highly specialized personnel. In trying to set up alternatives to increasing throughput in functional cell-based screening, we combined several approaches. By using (1) cryopreserved cell aliquots instead of continuous cell culture, (2) cells in suspension instead of adherent cells, and (3) "ready-to-screen" assay plates with nanoliter aliquots of test compounds, an assay procedure was developed that very much resembles a standard biochemical, enzymatic assay comprising only a few dispense steps. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably overexpressing a Galphaq-coupled receptor were used as a model system to measure receptor activation by detection of intracellular D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate with the help of homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF, CISbio International, Bagnols-sur-Cèze, France). Initially established in 384-well adherent cell format, the assay was successfully transferred to 1,536-well format. The assay quality was sufficient to run HTS campaigns in both formats with good Z'-factors and excellent reproducibility of antagonists. Subsequently, the assay procedure was optimized for usage of suspension cells. The influences of cell culture media, plate type, cell number, and incubation time were assessed. Finally, the suspension cell assay was applied to pharmacological characterization of a small molecule antagonist by Schild plot analysis. Our data demonstrate not only the application of the IP-One HTRF assay (CISbio

  11. Generation of GFAP::GFP astrocyte reporter lines from human adult fibroblast-derived iPS cells using zinc-finger nuclease technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping-Wu; Haidet-Phillips, Amanda M; Pham, Jacqueline T; Lee, Youngjin; Huo, Yuqing; Tienari, Pentti J; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Sattler, Rita; Rothstein, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are instrumental to major brain functions, including metabolic support, extracellular ion regulation, the shaping of excitatory signaling events and maintenance of synaptic glutamate homeostasis. Astrocyte dysfunction contributes to numerous developmental, psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The generation of adult human fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has provided novel opportunities to study mechanisms of astrocyte dysfunction in human-derived cells. To overcome the difficulties of cell type heterogeneity during the differentiation process from iPSCs to astroglial cells (iPS astrocytes), we generated homogenous populations of iPS astrocytes using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) driven by the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter was inserted into the safe harbor adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1) locus in disease and control-derived iPSCs. Astrocyte populations were enriched using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) and after enrichment more than 99% of iPS astrocytes expressed mature astrocyte markers including GFAP, S100β, NFIA and ALDH1L1. In addition, mature pure GFP-iPS astrocytes exhibited a well-described functional astrocytic activity in vitro characterized by neuron-dependent regulation of glutamate transporters to regulate extracellular glutamate concentrations. Engraftment of GFP-iPS astrocytes into rat spinal cord grey matter confirmed in vivo cell survival and continued astrocytic maturation. In conclusion, the generation of GFAP::GFP-iPS astrocytes provides a powerful in vitro and in vivo tool for studying astrocyte biology and astrocyte-driven disease pathogenesis and therapy.

  12. IPS-1 is essential for type III IFN production by hepatocytes and dendritic cells in response to hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masaaki; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Masahiro; Kato, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2014-03-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. The innate immune system is essential for controlling HCV replication, and HCV is recognized by RIG-I and TLR3, which evoke innate immune responses through IPS-1 and TICAM-1 adaptor molecules, respectively. IL-28B is a type III IFN, and genetic polymorphisms upstream of its gene are strongly associated with the efficacy of polyethylene glycol-IFN and ribavirin therapy. As seen with type I IFNs, type III IFNs induce antiviral responses to HCV. Recent studies established the essential role of TLR3-TICAM-1 pathway in type III IFN production in response to HCV infection. Contrary to previous studies, we revealed an essential role of IPS-1 in type III IFN production in response to HCV. First, using IPS-1 knockout mice, we revealed that IPS-1 was essential for type III IFN production by mouse hepatocytes and CD8(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in response to cytoplasmic HCV RNA. Second, we demonstrated that type III IFN induced RIG-I but not TLR3 expression in CD8(+) DCs and augmented type III IFN production in response to cytoplasmic HCV RNA. Moreover, we showed that type III IFN induced cytoplasmic antiviral protein expression in DCs and hepatocytes but failed to promote DC-mediated NK cell activation or cross-priming. Our study indicated that IPS-1-dependent pathway plays a crucial role in type III IFN production by CD8(+) DCs and hepatocytes in response to HCV, leading to cytoplasmic antiviral protein expressions.

  13. Rabies virus infection induces type I interferon production in an IPS-1 dependent manner while dendritic cell activation relies on IFNAR signaling.

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    Elizabeth J Faul

    Full Text Available As with many viruses, rabies virus (RABV infection induces type I interferon (IFN production within the infected host cells. However, RABV has evolved mechanisms by which to inhibit IFN production in order to sustain infection. Here we show that RABV infection of dendritic cells (DC induces potent type I IFN production and DC activation. Although DCs are infected by RABV, the viral replication is highly suppressed in DCs, rendering the infection non-productive. We exploited this finding in bone marrow derived DCs (BMDC in order to differentiate which pattern recognition receptor(s (PRR is responsible for inducing type I IFN following infection with RABV. Our results indicate that BMDC activation and type I IFN production following a RABV infection is independent of TLR signaling. However, IPS-1 is essential for both BMDC activation and IFN production. Interestingly, we see that the BMDC activation is primarily due to signaling through the IFNAR and only marginally induced by the initial infection. To further identify the receptor recognizing RABV infection, we next analyzed BMDC from Mda-5-/- and RIG-I-/- mice. In the absence of either receptor, there is a significant decrease in BMDC activation at 12h post infection. However, only RIG-I-/- cells exhibit a delay in type I IFN production. In order to determine the role that IPS-1 plays in vivo, we infected mice with pathogenic RABV. We see that IPS-1-/- mice are more susceptible to infection than IPS-1+/+ mice and have a significantly increased incident of limb paralysis.

  14. From confluent human iPS cells to self-forming neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Sacha; Terray, Angélique; Slembrouck, Amélie; Nanteau, Céline; Orieux, Gaël; Habeler, Walter; Nandrot, Emeline F; Sahel, José-Alain; Monville, Christelle; Goureau, Olivier

    2014-06-10

    Progress in retinal-cell therapy derived from human pluripotent stem cells currently faces technical challenges that require the development of easy and standardized protocols. Here, we developed a simple retinal differentiation method, based on confluent human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC), bypassing embryoid body formation and the use of exogenous molecules, coating, or Matrigel. In 2 wk, we generated both retinal pigmented epithelial cells and self-forming neural retina (NR)-like structures containing retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). We report sequential differentiation from RPCs to the seven neuroretinal cell types in maturated NR-like structures as floating cultures, thereby revealing the multipotency of RPCs generated from integration-free hiPSCs. Furthermore, Notch pathway inhibition boosted the generation of photoreceptor precursor cells, crucial in establishing cell therapy strategies. This innovative process proposed here provides a readily efficient and scalable approach to produce retinal cells for regenerative medicine and for drug-screening purposes, as well as an in vitro model of human retinal development and disease.

  15. [Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for nerve injury in the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), with both pluripotency and replication competence similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), have been developed from mouse fibroblasts in 2006 by Yamanaka et al. iPSCs are unique in employing somatic cells for their production, and can avoid ethical issues existing in ESCs. It is clear that progress in technology to produce iPSCs is one of the most crucial achievements of medicine in this century. Technology with the new pluripotent cells will offer many advantages in the field of regeneration medicine supplying new tissues to the injured organ and/or development of methodology to uncover many genetic diseases. On the other hand, we have to await adequate progress in issues regarding iPSCs, including enhanced efficiency to obtain iPSCs, the technology to produce organs from the cells, avoidance of tumorigenesis and decrease in immunity in response to iPSCs.

  16. Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Hui Jin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As cancer stem cells (CSCs are postulated to play critical roles in cancer development, including metastasis and recurrence, CSC imaging would provide valuable information for cancer treatment and lead to CSC-targeted therapy. To assess the possibility of in vivo CSC targeting, we conducted basic studies on radioimmunotargeting of cancer cells positive for CD133, a CSC marker recognized in various cancers. Antibodies against CD133 were labeled with 125I, and their in vitro cell binding properties were tested. Using the same isotype IgG as a control, in vivo biodistribution of the labeled antibody retaining immunoreactivity was examined in mice bearing an HCT116 xenograft in which a population of the cancer cells expressed CD133. Intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody was examined and compared to the CD133 expression pattern. The 125I-labeled anti-CD133 antibody showed a modest but significantly higher accumulation in the HCT116 xenograft compared to the control IgG. The intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody mostly overlapped with the CD133 expression, whereas the control IgG was found in the area close to the necrotic tumor center. Our results indicate that noninvasive in vivo targeting of CSCs could be possible with radiolabeled antibodies against cell membrane markers.

  17. Development of iPS (induced pluripotent stem cells) using natural product from extract of fish oocyte to provide stem cell for regenerative therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilany, Sofy; Firdausiyah, Qonitha S.; Naroeni, Aroem

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we developed a method to induce pluripotency of adult cells (fibroblast) into stem cells using a natural product, extract of fish oocyte, by comparing the extract concentration, 1 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml. The analyses were done by measuring the Nanog gene expression in cells using qPCR and detecting fibroblast marker anti H2-KK. The results revealed existence of a colony of stem cells in the cell that was induced with 2mg/ml concentration of oocytes. Nanoggene expression was analyzed by qPCR and the results showed expression of Nanog gene compared to the control. Analysis of result of fibroblast using Tali Cytometer and anti H2KK antibody showed loss of expression of Anti H2KK meaning there was transformation from fibroblast type cell to pluripotent cell type.

  18. miR-140-5p attenuates chemotherapeutic drug-induced cell death by regulating autophagy through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate kinase 2 (IP3k2) in human osteosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Renxiong; Cao, Gang; Deng, Zhouming; Su, Jiajia; Cai, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of drug-resistant phenotypes is often associated with chemotherapy in osteosarcoma. A number of studies have demonstrated a critical role for autophagy in osteosarcoma development, therapy and drug resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the autophagy-mediated chemotherapy resistance of osteosarcoma cells remain largely unknown. In the present study, we determined the autophagy and microRNA-140 (miR-140-5p, miRBase ID: MIMAT0000431) expression induced by chemotherapeutic drugs in osteosarcoma cells. Then we determined the promotory role of miR-140-5p to the chemotherapy-induced autophagy. Our results demonstrated that miR-140-5p expression was highly induced during chemotherapy of osteosarcoma cells, and this was accompanied by up-regulated autophagy. The increased miR-140-5p expression levels up-regulated anticancer drug-induced autophagy in osteosarcoma cells and ameliorated the anticancer drug-induced cell proliferation and viability decrease. Importantly, miR-140-5p regulates this context-specific autophagy through its target, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate kinase 2 (IP3k2). Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrated that miR-140-5p mediated drug-resistance in osteosarcoma cells by inducing autophagy. The present study provides evidence of miRNA regulation of autophagy through modulation of IP3 signalling. The present study recognized a novel mechanism of chemoresistance in osteosarcoma cancers. PMID:27582507

  19. Cryopreservation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) through vitrification in mini straw%麦管玻璃化法冷冻保存人诱导多能干细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋春艳; 董娟; 廖婷婷; 宁松; 范国平; 曾桥; 薛志刚; 刘嘉茵

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the method of cryopreservating human induced pluripotent. Methods:Colonies of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) were dissected into pieces (containing approximately 100~200 cells) using mechanical methods, then sequentially treated with 10%,20% vitrification solution, and sealed in mini straws with the second solution. Mini straws were then dropped into liquid nitrogen imInediately for vitrification and cryopreservation. After vitrificated preservation, iPS cells were thawed in 37℃ water bath, and were immediately balanced in 0.2 mol/L sucrose solution and then in 0.1 mol/L sucrose solution, and at last plated on feeder layer cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity, expressions of OCT4, SOX2 in iPS cells and cell differentiation were evaluated. Results:Post vitrification and thawing, iPS cells maintain properties of pluripotent stem cells, including normal morphology, alkaline phosphatase staining,OCT4 and SOX2 expression. Calculation of colony recovery rates indicates that approximate (77.40±13.12)% of iPS cell colonies survived the freezing and thaw procedures. Conclusion:Vitrification with ministraws is a very useful and effective cryopresorvation method for iPS cells.%目的:麦管玻璃化法冷冻保存人诱导多能干细胞(induced pluripotent cells,iPS细胞).方法:将机械法切割的iPS细胞团块,依次在10%玻璃化冷冻液和20%玻璃化冷冻液中处理后保存于20%的冷冻液中,封装于0.25 ml麦管并快速置于液氮中保存.解冻时将iPS团块依次置入0.2 mol/L蔗糖溶液和0.1 mol/L蔗糖溶液后,接种至饲养层上培养.检测复苏效率,并对解冻后长期培养的iPS细胞进行特性鉴定,包括:碱性磷酸酶染色、OCT4等免疫荧光染色、RT-PCR法检测内源性oct4和sox2的表达、拟胚体(embryoid,EB)分化、神经细胞分化和畸胎瘤分化能力检测等.结果:麦管玻璃化法冷冻保存的iPS细胞解冻后复苏率可达(77.40±13.12)%,解冻后iPS

  20. 诱导多能干细胞体外定向分化为雄性生殖细胞研究进展%Advances in Differentiation of iPS Cells into Male Germ Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军慧; 曹文广

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) refers to reprograming animals or human somatic cells by gene transfer technology, i.e. using so-called packed viral vectors or particles to infect the cells to be induced. Different somatic cells can be induced into iPS cells through different vectors or different transcription factors combination, such as fibroblasts, hepatocytes, keratinocytes and cord blood, etc. As a new member, iPS cells were similar to embryonic stem cells, i.e. clonal morphology, gene expression pattern, surface marker, embryoid bodies formation, differentiative capacity, teratoma and chimeras (in mice) and so on. Just like ESCs, studies have shown that iPS cells can be induced into different cellsin vitro under the conditions of specific induction, including myocardial cells, blood cells and germ cells. It shortens the distance between stem cells and clinical disease, Therefore iPS cells have become the most promising seed cells in cell therapy and tissue organ regeneration, and they have a potential value in the cells’ alternative treatment, pathogenesis research and new drug screening simultaneously. Male sterility not only affects human normal life, but is also very adverse to the development of animal husbandry. Great progress has been made inthat iPS cells from humans and mice can be differentiated into primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatozoa and their precursors. These findings can help not only avoid the difficulties in obtaining ESCs, immune rejection and ethical problems, which may be aroused by using embryonic stem cells, but also provide a good research platform for revealing the developmental mechanism of male germ cells. Patients can use their iPS cells derived male gametes to reproduction. Therefore, differentiation of iPS cells into male germ cells brings new hope for the treatment of male sterility in the future. In addition, differentiation of iPS cellsin vitro has broad application potentials for modern animal husbandry. It

  1. MECP2e1 isoform mutation affects the form and function of neurons derived from Rett syndrome patient iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Ugljesa; Cheung, Aaron Y L; Zhang, Wenbo; Mok, Rebecca S; Lai, Wesley; Piekna, Alina; Hendry, Jason A; Ross, P Joel; Pasceri, Peter; Kim, Dae-Sung; Salter, Michael W; Ellis, James

    2015-04-01

    MECP2 mutations cause the X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder Rett Syndrome (RTT) by consistently altering the protein encoded by the MECP2e1 alternative transcript. While mutations that simultaneously affect both MECP2e1 and MECP2e2 isoforms have been widely studied, the consequence of MECP2e1 deficiency on human neurons remains unknown. Here we report the first isoform-specific patient induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of RTT. RTTe1 patient iPS cell-derived neurons retain an inactive X-chromosome and express only the mutant allele. Single-cell mRNA analysis demonstrated they have a molecular signature of cortical neurons. Mutant neurons exhibited a decrease in soma size, reduced dendritic complexity and decreased cell capacitance, consistent with impaired neuronal maturation. The soma size phenotype was rescued cell-autonomously by MECP2e1 transduction in a level-dependent manner but not by MECP2e2 gene transfer. Importantly, MECP2e1 mutant neurons showed a dysfunction in action potential generation, voltage-gated Na(+) currents, and miniature excitatory synaptic current frequency and amplitude. We conclude that MECP2e1 mutation affects soma size, information encoding properties and synaptic connectivity in human neurons that are defective in RTT.

  2. Refinement of the androgen response element based on ChIP-Seq in androgen-insensitive and androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen; Qi, Jianfei; Filipp, Fabian V

    2016-09-14

    Sequence motifs are short, recurring patterns in DNA that can mediate sequence-specific binding for proteins such as transcription factors or DNA modifying enzymes. The androgen response element (ARE) is a palindromic, dihexameric motif present in promoters or enhancers of genes targeted by the androgen receptor (AR). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) we refined AR-binding and AREs at a genome-scale in androgen-insensitive and androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines. Model-based searches identified more than 120,000 ChIP-Seq motifs allowing for expansion and refinement of the ARE. We classified AREs according to their degeneracy and their transcriptional involvement. Additionally, we quantified ARE utilization in response to somatic copy number amplifications, AR splice-variants, and steroid treatment. Although imperfect AREs make up 99.9% of the motifs, the degree of degeneracy correlates negatively with validated transcriptional outcome. Weaker AREs, particularly ARE half sites, benefit from neighboring motifs or cooperating transcription factors in regulating gene expression. Taken together, ARE full sites generate a reliable transcriptional outcome in AR positive cells, despite their low genome-wide abundance. In contrast, the transcriptional influence of ARE half sites can be modulated by cooperating factors.

  3. No Immunogenicity of IPS Cells in Syngeneic Host Studied by In Vivo Injection and 3D Scaffold Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganya Thanasegaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPSCs open the great possibility to employ patient’s own tissue to the previously incurable diseases. However these cells can be used in cell therapy only if they are not rejected when transplanted back into the syngeneic host. We found that the injection of iPSCs derived from different ages of mice into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice produced teratoma and was not rejected. Then we cultured iPSCs and myeloid differentiated iPSCs in three-dimensional porous scaffold and transplanted to C57BL/6 mice and BALB/C mice. After transplantation, we could observe the cell density inside the scaffold increased rapidly in syngeneic mice compared to the allogeneic mice indicating the favorable conditions supporting the growth of iPSCs in vivo. Unlike the allogeneic counterpart, we could not observe few infiltrating T cells inside the scaffold of syngeneic mice. These results contribute to the optimistic view of iPSCs for regenerative medicine in near future.

  4. New type of Sendai virus vector provides transgene-free iPS cells derived from chimpanzee blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumitsu Fujie

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are potentially valuable cell sources for disease models and future therapeutic applications; however, inefficient generation and the presence of integrated transgenes remain as problems limiting their current use. Here, we developed a new Sendai virus vector, TS12KOS, which has improved efficiency, does not integrate into the cellular DNA, and can be easily eliminated. TS12KOS carries KLF4, OCT3/4, and SOX2 in a single vector and can easily generate iPSCs from human blood cells. Using TS12KOS, we established iPSC lines from chimpanzee blood, and used DNA array analysis to show that the global gene-expression pattern of chimpanzee iPSCs is similar to those of human embryonic stem cell and iPSC lines. These results demonstrated that our new vector is useful for generating iPSCs from the blood cells of both human and chimpanzee. In addition, the chimpanzee iPSCs are expected to facilitate unique studies into human physiology and disease.

  5. Laser-Based Propagation of Human iPS and ES Cells Generates Reproducible Cultures with Enhanced Differentiation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi A. Hohenstein Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper maintenance of stem cells is essential for successful utilization of ESCs/iPSCs as tools in developmental and drug discovery studies and in regenerative medicine. Standardization is critical for all future applications of stem cells and necessary to fully understand their potential. This study reports a novel approach for the efficient, consistent expansion of human ESCs and iPSCs using laser sectioning, instead of mechanical devices or enzymes, to divide cultures into defined size clumps for propagation. Laser-mediated propagation maintained the pluripotency, quality, and genetic stability of ESCs/iPSCs and led to enhanced differentiation potential. This approach removes the variability associated with ESC/iPSC propagation, significantly reduces the expertise, labor, and time associated with manual passaging techniques and provides the basis for scalable delivery of standardized ESC/iPSC lines. Adoption of standardized protocols would allow researchers to understand the role of genetics, environment, and/or procedural effects on stem cells and would ensure reproducible production of stem cell cultures for use in clinical/therapeutic applications.

  6. Mitochondrial-associated cell death mechanisms are reset to an embryonic-like state in aged donor-derived iPS cells harboring chromosomal aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigione, Alessandro; Hossini, Amir M; Lichtner, Björn; Serin, Akdes; Fauler, Beatrix; Megges, Matthias; Lurz, Rudi; Lehrach, Hans; Makrantonaki, Eugenia; Zouboulis, Christos C; Adjaye, James

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cells reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) acquire features of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and thus represent a promising source for cellular therapy of debilitating diseases, such as age-related disorders. However, reprogrammed cell lines have been found to harbor various genomic alterations. In addition, we recently discovered that the mitochondrial DNA of human fibroblasts also undergoes random mutational events upon reprogramming. Aged somatic cells might possess high susceptibility to nuclear and mitochondrial genome instability. Hence, concerns over the oncogenic potential of reprogrammed cells due to the lack of genomic integrity may hinder the applicability of iPSC-based therapies for age-associated conditions. Here, we investigated whether aged reprogrammed cells harboring chromosomal abnormalities show resistance to apoptotic cell death or mitochondrial-associated oxidative stress, both hallmarks of cancer transformation. Four iPSC lines were generated from dermal fibroblasts derived from an 84-year-old woman, representing the oldest human donor so far reprogrammed to pluripotency. Despite the presence of karyotype aberrations, all aged-iPSCs were able to differentiate into neurons, re-establish telomerase activity, and reconfigure mitochondrial ultra-structure and functionality to a hESC-like state. Importantly, aged-iPSCs exhibited high sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis and low levels of oxidative stress and DNA damage, in a similar fashion as iPSCs derived from young donors and hESCs. Thus, the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities within aged reprogrammed cells might not be sufficient to over-ride the cellular surveillance machinery and induce malignant transformation through the alteration of mitochondrial-associated cell death. Taken together, we unveiled that cellular reprogramming is capable of reversing aging-related features in somatic cells from a very old subject, despite the presence of genomic

  7. Mitochondrial-associated cell death mechanisms are reset to an embryonic-like state in aged donor-derived iPS cells harboring chromosomal aberrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Prigione

    Full Text Available Somatic cells reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs acquire features of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and thus represent a promising source for cellular therapy of debilitating diseases, such as age-related disorders. However, reprogrammed cell lines have been found to harbor various genomic alterations. In addition, we recently discovered that the mitochondrial DNA of human fibroblasts also undergoes random mutational events upon reprogramming. Aged somatic cells might possess high susceptibility to nuclear and mitochondrial genome instability. Hence, concerns over the oncogenic potential of reprogrammed cells due to the lack of genomic integrity may hinder the applicability of iPSC-based therapies for age-associated conditions. Here, we investigated whether aged reprogrammed cells harboring chromosomal abnormalities show resistance to apoptotic cell death or mitochondrial-associated oxidative stress, both hallmarks of cancer transformation. Four iPSC lines were generated from dermal fibroblasts derived from an 84-year-old woman, representing the oldest human donor so far reprogrammed to pluripotency. Despite the presence of karyotype aberrations, all aged-iPSCs were able to differentiate into neurons, re-establish telomerase activity, and reconfigure mitochondrial ultra-structure and functionality to a hESC-like state. Importantly, aged-iPSCs exhibited high sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis and low levels of oxidative stress and DNA damage, in a similar fashion as iPSCs derived from young donors and hESCs. Thus, the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities within aged reprogrammed cells might not be sufficient to over-ride the cellular surveillance machinery and induce malignant transformation through the alteration of mitochondrial-associated cell death. Taken together, we unveiled that cellular reprogramming is capable of reversing aging-related features in somatic cells from a very old subject, despite the presence

  8. Effects of Overexpression of IP-10 Gene on MA-10 Mouse Leydig Tumor Cell Steroidogenesis and Cell Proliferation%IP-10基因过量表达对MA-10小鼠Leydig肿瘤细胞类固醇合成及细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈粤; 苏文金; LIN T; NAGPAL ML

    2005-01-01

    背景与目的:研究在体外培养的MA-10小鼠Leydig肿瘤细胞中,IP-10基因的过表达对细胞类固醇合成以及细胞增殖的影响作用.材料与方法:采用细胞转染实验,将含有IP-10基因cDNA的重组质粒转入MA-10小鼠Leydig肿瘤细胞中,用Western blotting法检测细胞IP-10基因的过表达,用放免分析(Radioimmuno assay,RIA)方法检测IP-10基因过表达对MA-10细胞孕酮合成的影响,用3H-Thymidine掺入DNA合成实验研究IP-10基因过表达对MA-10细胞增殖的作用.结果:实验数据表明,成功地在MA-10细胞中过量表达了IP-10蛋白;MA-10细胞内转染的IP-10基因的过量表达可显著抑制8-bromo-cAMP(0.2 mmol/L)诱导的孕酮生成,加入1.0 μgIP-10重组质粒转染细胞时,可以使8-bromo-cAMP诱导的孕酮的合成水平由对照组的(38.5±1.7)ng/mL显著降低到(23.2±1.5)ng/ml(1.5×105cells/ml),且抑制作用随所用IP-10重组质粒的浓度增加而增加,它的抑制作用可能是通过减少了类固醇合成急性调节蛋白StAR基因的表达而达到的.3H-Thymidine掺入实验结果还显示,IP-10基因在转染的MA-10细胞中过量表达能够显著抑制MA-10细胞的增殖.结论:过量表达的IP-10基因对MA-10小鼠Leydig肿瘤细胞的类固醇合成及生长具有显著的抑制作用,此结果提示我们可以考虑使用转入IP-10基因的基因疗法治疗前列腺癌等肿瘤疾病,而其抑制细胞增殖的机制还需进一步探讨.

  9. Nbs1 ChIP-Seq Identifies Off-Target DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by AID in Activated Splenic B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyne Khair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID is required for initiation of Ig class switch recombination (CSR and somatic hypermutation (SHM of antibody genes during immune responses. AID has also been shown to induce chromosomal translocations, mutations, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs involving non-Ig genes in activated B cells. To determine what makes a DNA site a target for AID-induced DSBs, we identify off-target DSBs induced by AID by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP for Nbs1, a protein that binds DSBs, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq. We detect and characterize hundreds of off-target AID-dependent DSBs. Two types of tandem repeats are highly enriched within the Nbs1-binding sites: long CA repeats, which can form Z-DNA, and tandem pentamers containing the AID target hotspot WGCW. These tandem repeats are not nearly as enriched at AID-independent DSBs, which we also identified. Msh2, a component of the mismatch repair pathway and important for genome stability, increases off-target DSBs, similar to its effect on Ig switch region DSBs, which are required intermediates during CSR. Most of the off-target DSBs are two-ended, consistent with generation during G1 phase, similar to DSBs in Ig switch regions. However, a minority are one-ended, presumably due to conversion of single-strand breaks to DSBs during replication. One-ended DSBs are repaired by processes involving homologous recombination, including break-induced replication repair, which can lead to genome instability. Off-target DSBs, especially those present during S phase, can lead to chromosomal translocations, deletions and gene amplifications, resulting in the high frequency of B cell lymphomas derived from cells that express or have expressed AID.

  10. Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Derived from the BC1 iPS Cell Line Exhibit a Blood-Brain Barrier Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katt, Moriah E; Xu, Zinnia S; Gerecht, Sharon; Searson, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial cells that form capillaries in the brain are highly specialized, with tight junctions that minimize paracellular transport and an array of broad-spectrum efflux pumps that make drug delivery to the brain extremely challenging. One of the major limitations in blood-brain barrier research and the development of drugs to treat central nervous system diseases is the lack of appropriate cell lines. Recent reports indicate that the derivation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a solution to this problem. Here we demonstrate the derivation of hBMECs extended to two new human iPSC lines: BC1 and GFP-labeled BC1. These hBMECs highly express adherens and tight junction proteins VE-cadherin, ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. The addition of retinoic acid upregulates VE-cadherin expression, and results in a significant increase in transendothelial electrical resistance to physiological values. The permeabilities of tacrine, rhodamine 123, and Lucifer yellow are similar to values obtained for MDCK cells. The efflux ratio for rhodamine 123 across hBMECs is in the range 2-4 indicating polarization of efflux transporters. Using the rod assay to assess cell organization in small vessels and capillaries, we show that hBMECs resist elongation with decreasing diameter but show progressive axial alignment. The derivation of hBMECs with a blood-brain barrier phenotype from the BC1 cell line highlights that the protocol is robust. The expression of GFP in hBMECs derived from the BC1-GFP cell line provides an important new resource for BBB research.

  11. Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Derived from the BC1 iPS Cell Line Exhibit a Blood-Brain Barrier Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Katt, Moriah E.; Xu, Zinnia S.; Gerecht, Sharon; Searson, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial cells that form capillaries in the brain are highly specialized, with tight junctions that minimize paracellular transport and an array of broad-spectrum efflux pumps that make drug delivery to the brain extremely challenging. One of the major limitations in blood-brain barrier research and the development of drugs to treat central nervous system diseases is the lack of appropriate cell lines. Recent reports indicate that the derivation of human brain microvascular endothelial...

  12. Engraftment of human iPS cells and allogeneic porcine cells into pigs with inactivated RAG2 and accompanying severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiho; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Chankyu; Ericsson, Aaron C.; Brown, Alana N.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Park, Kwang-Wook; Walters, Eric M.; Kim, Dae Young; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Franklin, Craig L.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Roberts, R. Michael; Prather, Randall S.; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) may provide useful models for regenerative medicine, xenotransplantation, and tumor development and will aid in developing therapies for human SCID patients. Using a reporter-guided transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system, we generated targeted modifications of recombination activating gene (RAG) 2 in somatic cells at high efficiency, including some that affected both alleles. Somatic-cell nuclear transfer performed with the mutated cells produced pigs with RAG2 mutations without integrated exogenous DNA. Biallelically modified pigs either lacked a thymus or had one that was underdeveloped. Their splenic white pulp lacked B and T cells. Under a conventional housing environment, the biallelic RAG2 mutants manifested a “failure to thrive” phenotype, with signs of inflammation and apoptosis in the spleen compared with age-matched wild-type animals by the time they were 4 wk of age. Pigs raised in a clean environment were healthier and, following injection of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), quickly developed mature teratomas representing all three germ layers. The pigs also tolerated grafts of allogeneic porcine trophoblast stem cells. These SCID pigs should have a variety of uses in transplantation biology. PMID:24799706

  13. Engraftment of human iPS cells and allogeneic porcine cells into pigs with inactivated RAG2 and accompanying severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiho; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Chankyu; Ericsson, Aaron C; Brown, Alana N; Samuel, Melissa S; Park, Kwang-Wook; Walters, Eric M; Kim, Dae Young; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Franklin, Craig L; Murphy, Clifton N; Roberts, R Michael; Prather, Randall S; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-05-20

    Pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) may provide useful models for regenerative medicine, xenotransplantation, and tumor development and will aid in developing therapies for human SCID patients. Using a reporter-guided transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system, we generated targeted modifications of recombination activating gene (RAG) 2 in somatic cells at high efficiency, including some that affected both alleles. Somatic-cell nuclear transfer performed with the mutated cells produced pigs with RAG2 mutations without integrated exogenous DNA. Biallelically modified pigs either lacked a thymus or had one that was underdeveloped. Their splenic white pulp lacked B and T cells. Under a conventional housing environment, the biallelic RAG2 mutants manifested a "failure to thrive" phenotype, with signs of inflammation and apoptosis in the spleen compared with age-matched wild-type animals by the time they were 4 wk of age. Pigs raised in a clean environment were healthier and, following injection of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), quickly developed mature teratomas representing all three germ layers. The pigs also tolerated grafts of allogeneic porcine trophoblast stem cells. These SCID pigs should have a variety of uses in transplantation biology.

  14. Inherited heart disease - what can we expect from the second decade of human iPS cell research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, Milena; Mummery, Christine L

    2016-08-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were first generated 10 years ago. Their ability to differentiate into any somatic cell type of the body including cardiomyocytes has already made them a valuable resource for modelling cardiac disease and drug screening. Initially human iPSCs were used mostly to model known disease phenotypes; more recently, and despite a number of recognised shortcomings, they have proven valuable in providing fundamental insights into the mechanisms of inherited heart disease with unknown genetic cause using surprisingly small cohorts. In this review, we summarise the progress made with human iPSCs as cardiac disease models with special focus on the latest mechanistic insights and related challenges. Furthermore, we suggest emerging solutions that will likely move the field forward.

  15. Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons From Patient Derived iPS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0414 TITLE: Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons From Patient-Derived iPS...3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2013 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons From...progenitors (NPCs) and neurons to study cellular phenotypes that directly test whether brain overgrowth and/or synaptogenesis mechanisms are found in

  16. Potentiation of nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells by ifenprodil: the role of sigma-1 and IP3 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Ishima

    Full Text Available In addition to both the α1 adrenergic receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonists, ifenprodil binds to the sigma receptor subtypes 1 and 2. In this study, we examined the effects of ifenprodil on nerve growth factor (NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Ifenprodil significantly potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, the α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin and the NMDA receptor NR2B antagonist, Ro 25-6981 did not alter NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Potentiation of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth mediated by ifenprodil was significantly antagonized by co-administration of the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist, NE-100, but not the sigma-2 receptor antagonist, SM-21. Similarly, ifenprodil enhanced NGF-induced neurite outgrowth was again significantly reduced by the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3 receptor antagonists, xestospongin C and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB treatment. Furthermore, BAPTA-AM, a chelator of intracellular Ca(2+, blocked the effects of ifenprodil on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, indicating the role of intracellular Ca(2+ in the neurite outgrowth. These findings suggest that activation at sigma-1 receptors and subsequent interaction with IP(3 receptors may mediate the pharmacological effects of ifenprodil on neurite outgrowth.

  17. CtIP-BRCA1 modulates the choice of DNA double-strand break repair pathway throughout the cell cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Maximina H.; Hiom, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is tightly regulated during the cell cycle. In G1 phase, the absence of a sister chromatid means that repair of DSB occurs through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ)1. These pathways often involve loss of DNA sequences at the break site and are therefore error-prone. In late S and G2 phases, even though DNA end-joining pathways remain functional2, there is an increase in repair of DSB by homologous recomb...

  18. Cellular Functions and Gene and Protein Expression Profiles in Endothelial Cells Derived from Moyamoya Disease-Specific iPS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamauchi, Shuji; Shichinohe, Hideo; Uchino, Haruto; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Nakayama, Naoki; Kazumata, Ken; Osanai, Toshiya; Abumiya, Takeo; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Era, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a slow, progressive steno-occlusive disease, arising in the terminal portions of the cerebral internal carotid artery. However, the functions and characteristics of the endothelial cells (ECs) in MMD are unknown. We analyzed these features using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived ECs. Methods iPSC lines were established from the peripheral blood of three patients with MMD carrying the variant RNF213 R4810K, and three healthy persons used as controls. After the endothelial differentiation of iPSCs, CD31+CD144+ cells were purified as ECs using a cell sorter. We analyzed their proliferation, angiogenesis, and responses to some angiogenic factors, namely VEGF, bFGF, TGF-β, and BMP4. The ECs were also analyzed using DNA microarray and proteomics to perform comprehensive gene and protein expression analysis. Results Angiogenesis was significantly impaired in MMD regardless of the presence of any angiogenic factor. On the contrary, endothelial proliferation was not significant between control- and MMD-derived cells. Regarding DNA microarray, pathway analysis illustrated that extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor-related genes, including integrin β3, were significantly downregulated in MMD. Proteomic analysis revealed that cytoskeleton-related proteins were downregulated and splicing regulation-related proteins were upregulated in MMD. Conclusions Downregulation of ECM receptor-related genes may be associated with impaired angiogenic activity in ECs derived from iPSCs from patients with MMD. Upregulation of splicing regulation-related proteins implied differences in splicing patterns between control and MMD ECs. PMID:27662211

  19. Integrative ChIP-seq/microarray analysis identifies a CTNNB1 target signature enriched in intestinal stem cells and colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhide Watanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deregulation of canonical Wnt/CTNNB1 (beta-catenin pathway is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Mutations in APC or CTNNB1 are highly frequent in colon cancer and cause aberrant stabilization of CTNNB1, which activates the transcription of Wnt target genes by binding to chromatin via the TCF/LEF transcription factors. Here we report an integrative analysis of genome-wide chromatin occupancy of CTNNB1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq and gene expression profiling by microarray analysis upon RNAi-mediated knockdown of CTNNB1 in colon cancer cells. RESULTS: We observed 3629 CTNNB1 binding peaks across the genome and a significant correlation between CTNNB1 binding and knockdown-induced gene expression change. Our integrative analysis led to the discovery of a direct Wnt target signature composed of 162 genes. Gene ontology analysis of this signature revealed a significant enrichment of Wnt pathway genes, suggesting multiple feedback regulations of the pathway. We provide evidence that this gene signature partially overlaps with the Lgr5+ intestinal stem cell signature, and is significantly enriched in normal intestinal stem cells as well as in clinical colorectal cancer samples. Interestingly, while the expression of the CTNNB1 target gene set does not correlate with survival, elevated expression of negative feedback regulators within the signature predicts better prognosis. CONCLUSION: Our data provide a genome-wide view of chromatin occupancy and gene regulation of Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling in colon cancer cells.

  20. Genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis of human TOP2B occupancy in MCF7 breast cancer epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona M. Manville

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the whole genome ChIP seq for human TOP2B from MCF7 cells. Using three different peak calling methods, regions of binding were identified in the presence or absence of the nuclear hormone estradiol, as TOP2B has been reported to play a role in ligand-induced transcription. TOP2B peaks were found across the whole genome, 50% of the peaks fell either within a gene or within 5 kb of a transcription start site. TOP2B peaks coincident with gene promoters were less frequently associated with epigenetic features marking active promoters in estradiol treated than in untreated cells. Significantly enriched transcription factor motifs within the DNA sequences underlying the peaks were identified. These included SP1, KLF4, TFAP2A, MYF, REST, CTCF, ESR1 and ESR2. Gene ontology analysis of genes associated with TOP2B peaks found neuronal development terms including axonogenesis and axon guidance were significantly enriched. In the absence of functional TOP2B there are errors in axon guidance in the zebrafish eye. Specific heparin sulphate structures are involved in retinal axon targeting. The glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis–heparin sulphate/heparin pathway is significantly enriched in the TOP2B gene ontology analysis, suggesting changes in this pathway in the absence of TOP2B may cause the axon guidance faults.

  1. 人诱导性多潜能干细胞(iPS细胞)系的建立%Generation of A Human Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cells Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志芳; 史俊文; 贾俊双; 申红芬; 林晓琳; 肖高芳; 张晟; 肖东; 姚开泰

    2011-01-01

    To master the technology of reprogramming human somatic cells to iPS cells and set up a technical platform to reprogram human cancer cells into iPS cells. Under human embryonic stem cell (hES cell) culture conditions, human skin fibroblasts (CCD-1079SK) cells infected by lentivirus mixture harboring Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4 genes were induced into hES cell-like colonies, following characterization were done by comparatively analyzing hES cells markers: colony morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, the expression profile of ES cell-marker genes, karyotype and embryoid body (EB)-mediated in vitro differentiation of CCD-1079SK cell-derived hES cell-like colonies. The results showed that human iPS cell line (iPSC-1) was generated from CCD-1079SK cells by introducing four genes, Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4, under hES cell culture conditions. iPSC was similar to hES cells in morphology, proliferation, hES cell-specific surfaceanti-gens and gene expression. Additionally, iPSC could be cultured in suspension to form embryoid bodies (Ebs) and differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers in vitro, in addition, human iPS cell line is successfully established, which will lay a solid foundation for performing cancer cell reprogramming by using iPS cell technology.%掌握建立人iPS细胞系(induced pluripotent stem cells,iPSCs)的技术,以便为人肿瘤细胞重编程为iPS细胞建立技术平台.在人胚胎干细胞的培养条件下,通过携带Oct4、Sox2、c-Myc、Klf44个混合因子的慢病毒感染人皮肤成纤维细胞(CCD-1079SK细胞),从而诱导成干细胞样的克隆.根据人胚胎干细胞的特性进行如下鉴定:克隆形态、碱性磷酸酶活性、核型和CCD-1079SK细胞来源的克隆拟胚体(embryoid bodies,EBs)形成及分化等.结果显示,在人胚胎干细胞的培养环境中,导入Oct4、Sox2、c-Myc、Klf44个因子的CCD-1079SK细胞产生了一株iPSC克隆,这株iPSC克隆在细胞形态、增殖能力、胚胎

  2. 脑缺血发生后 IP-10趋化 NK 细胞通过血脑屏障%Chemotactic effect of IP-10 to natural killer cells getting through blood brain barrier after cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑶; 冯涛; 祝鸿雁; 王广友; 王丹丹; 李呼伦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To research the chemotactic effect of IP-10 on natural killer cells after cerebral ischemia .Methods Experiments in vivo: NK infiltration and IP-10 and CXCR3 ex-pression in pMCAO mouse brain were detected by immunofluorescence;NK infiltration in pM-CAO brains was detected by flowcytometry;IP-10 total expression level in brain were investiga-ted by RT-PCR.Experiments in vitro:Established blood brain barrier ( B.B.B.) in vitro;IP-10 expression of the supernatant from brain microvascular endothclial cell ( BMVEC ) and neu-ral cells after oxygen-gluoose depriuation ( OGD) were detected by ELISA; B.B.B.in vitro were separated into NK , NK+IP-10 blockade two groups , after OGD 6 h, NK cells migration counts were detected by flowcytometry;NK cells were cultured together with IP -10 ( 10 ng/mL), IP-10 (50 ng/mL), IP-10(100 ng/mL), then CXCR3 geomean.MFI value were de-tected by flowcytometry .Results Experiments in vivo:NK cells were found in pMCAO brain section and expressing CXCR 3 and IP-10; NK cells infiltration were higher in ischemia-hemi-sphere , and got a peak at 12 h ( P<0.05 );NK cells had anobviously increase by 12 h at in-filtration frequency (P<0.01 );IP-10 had a highest level at 12 h ( P<0.001 ) .Experiments in vitro:Neural cell had higher expression of IP-10 after OGD than BMVEC ( P <0.001 );Compared with group NK , group NK+IP-10 blockade had lower NK cells migration counts ( P<0.05 ) and permeability ( P<0.001 ) .Conclusion ①NK cells plays an important role dur-ing cerebral ischemia;②IP-10 can absorb NK cells across B .B.B.when ischemia happens by combined with its receptor CXCR 3 and has dose dependent .%目的:探讨脑缺血发生后 IP-10对NK细胞的趋化作用。方法体内实验:免疫荧光染色观察永久性大脑中动脉栓塞小鼠模型( pMCAO)脑组织中NK细胞浸润情况以及IP-10、CXCR3表达情况;流式细胞术检测pMCAO小鼠模型脑中NK细胞浸润数目;RT-PCR

  3. ChIP-seq analysis of histone H3K9 trimethylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of membranous nephropathy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, W.G. [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases Research, Nephrology Department, 181st Hospital, Guilin, Guangxi (China); He, H.Y. [The Life Science College, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, Guangxi (China); Yan, Q.; Chen, J.J. [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases Research, Nephrology Department, 181st Hospital, Guilin, Guangxi (China); Zhang, R.H. [The Life Science College, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, Guangxi (China); Dai, Y. [Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College, Shenzhen People’s Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2013-12-12

    Membranous nephropathy (MN), characterized by the presence of diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and subepithelial in situ immune complex disposition, is the most common cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in adults, with an incidence of 5-10 per million per year. A number of studies have confirmed the relevance of several experimental insights to the pathogenesis of human MN, but the specific biomarkers of MN have not been fully elucidated. As a result, our knowledge of the alterations in histone methylation in MN is unclear. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) to analyze the variations in a methylated histone (H3K9me3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 10 MN patients and 10 healthy subjects. There were 108 genes with significantly different expression in the MN patients compared with the normal controls. In MN patients, significantly increased activity was seen in 75 H3K9me3 genes, and decreased activity was seen in 33, compared with healthy subjects. Five positive genes, DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 6 (DGCR6), sorting nexin 16 (SNX16), contactin 4 (CNTN4), baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3 (BIRC3), and baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2 (BIRC2), were selected and quantified. There were alterations of H3K9me3 in MN patients. These may be candidates to help explain pathogenesis in MN patients. Such novel findings show that H3K9me3 may be a potential biomarker or promising target for epigenetic-based MN therapies.

  4. DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca²⁺/CaMK IIβ Operate in Parallel to Each Other in PLCγ1-Driven Cell Proliferation and Migration of Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells, through Akt/mTOR/S6 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lianzhi; Zhuang, Luhua; Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Fen; Chen, Xiaolei; Xia, Chun; Zhang, Bing

    2015-12-01

    Phosphoinositide specific phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) activates diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)/Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) axes to regulate import events in some cancer cells, including gastric adenocarcinoma cells. However, whether DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca(2+)/CaMK IIβ axes are simultaneously involved in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and the underlying mechanism are not elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of DAG/PKCδ or CaMK IIβ in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, using the BGC-823 cell line. The results indicated that the inhibition of PKCδ and CaMK IIβ could block cell proliferation and migration of BGC-823 cells as well as the effect of inhibiting PLCγ1, including the decrease of cell viability, the increase of apoptotic index, the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression level, and the decrease of cell migration rate. Both DAG/PKCδ and CaMK IIβ triggered protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6 pathway to regulate protein synthesis. The data indicate that DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca(2+)/CaMK IIβ operate in parallel to each other in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells through Akt/mTOR/S6 pathway, with important implication for validating PLCγ1 as a molecular biomarker in early gastric cancer diagnosis and disease surveillance.

  5. Amplification of pico-scale DNA mediated by bacterial carrier DNA for small-cell-number transcription factor ChIP-seq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus S; Bagger, Frederik O; Hasemann, Marie S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chromatin-Immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) is used to map transcription factor occupancy and generate epigenetic profiles genome-wide. The requirement of nano-scale ChIP DNA for generation of sequencing libraries has impeded ChIP-seq on in vivo tissues of lo...

  6. Propagation of human iPS cells in alginate-based microcapsules prepared using reactions catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase and catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Tomoaki; Sakai, Shinji; Taya, Masahito

    2016-09-01

    Cell encapsulation has been investigated as a bioproduction system in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. We encaps-ulated human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells in duplex microcapsules prepared from an alginate derivative possessing phenolic hydroxyl moieties, in a single-step procedure based on two competing enzymatic reactions catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and catalase. The encapsulated cells maintained 91.4% viability and proliferated to fill the microcapsules following 19 days of culture. Encapsulated hiPS cells showed pluripotency comparable to that of unencapsulated cells during the cultures, as demonstrated by the expression of the SSEA-4 marker.

  7. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS ...

  8. The cargo protein MAP17 (PDZK1IP1) regulates the cancer stem cell pool activating the Notch pathway by abducting NUMB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Heredia, Jose M; Lucena-Cacace, Antonio; Verdugo-Sivianes, Eva M; Perez, Marco; Carnero, Amancio

    2017-02-02

    Purpose Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are self-renewing tumor cells, with ability to generate the diverse differentiated tumor cell subpopulations. They differ from normal stem cells in the deregulation of the mechanisms that normally controls stem cell physiology. CSCs are the origin of metastasis and highly resistant to therapy. Therefore the understanding of the CSC origin and deregulated pathways is important for tumor control. Experimental design We have included experiments in vitro, in cell lines and tumors of different origins. We have used PDXs and public transcriptomic databases of human tumors. Results MAP17 (PDZKIP1), a small cargo protein overexpressed in tumors, interacts with NUMB through the PDZ-binding domain activating the Notch pathway, leading to an increase in stem cell factors and cancer-initiating-like cells. Identical behavior was mimicked by inhibiting NUMB. Conversely, MAP17 downregulation in a tumor cell line constitutively expressing this gene led to Notch pathway inactivation and a marked reduction of stemness. In PDX models, MAP17 levels directly correlated with tumorsphere formation capability. Finally, in human colon, breast or lung there is a strong correlation of MAP17 expression with a signature of Notch and stem cell genes. Conclusions MAP17 overexpression activates Notch pathway by sequestering NUMB. High levels of MAP17 correlated with tumorspheres formation and Notch and Stem gene transcription. Its direct modification causes direct alteration of tumorsphere number and Notch and Stem pathway transcription. This defines a new mechanism of Notch pathway activation and Stem cell pool increase that may be active in a large percentage of tumors.

  9. CtIP is regulated by the APC/C-Cdh1 to mediate cell cycle-dependent control of DNA repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harmen R.; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; Neugebauer, Christine; Fehrmann, Rudolf; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Sartori, Alessandro A.; van Vugt, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Human cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms for responding to DNA damage to maintain genome stability and prevent carcinogenesis. For instance, the cell cycle can be arrested at different stages to allow time for DNA repair. The APC/C-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase regulates mitotic exit but is also implic

  10. 建立骨质疏松症 iPS 细胞的重要性及其应用前景%The importance of the establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells and its therapeutic potential in osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石梦琪; 刘文佳; 张立强

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis ( OP) is a complex disease characterized by descending of bone strength and increasing of bone fracture risk, which is associated with genetic and environmental factors.Currently the incidence of osteoporosis has risen year by year, which severely influences the health of the elderly.However, the pathogenic mechanism of OP is not clear, and there still remain many problems in drug therapies, such as long treatment cycle, high cost, and many adverse drug effects.Recently the emergence of induced pluripotent stem ( iPS) cells creates a novel platform for OP.It is reported that iPS cells have been successfully used in Parkinson’ s disease, Alzheimer’ s disease, Schizophrenia, spinal cord injury and so on.Modeling the osteoporosis with iPS cells will help to make some vital breakthroughs in the research of pathogenic mechanism and drug screening.This review describes the importance of modeling the osteoporosis with iPS cells and predicts its potentials in the basic experimental research and clinical treatment.%骨质疏松症( osteoporosis, OP)是一种以骨强度下降、骨折危险性增加为特征,受遗传和环境因素共同作用的复杂疾病。目前OP的发病率逐年升高,严重影响了老年人的健康。然而由于发病机制尚不明确,药物治疗还存在周期长、费用高、不良反应多等问题。近年来诱导多功能干细胞( induced pluripotent stem cells, iPS细胞)技术的诞生为OP的防治开创了新平台。研究报道iPS细胞模型已成功用于帕金森病、阿尔茨海默症、精神分裂症、脊髓损伤等众多疾病,建立OP的iPS细胞模型将有助于在其致病机制研究和药物筛选中取得新突破。这篇综述主要介绍建立OP的iPS细胞模型的重要性,并预测它在OP的基础研究与临床治疗上的应用前景。

  11. Endogenously produced TNF-α contributes to the expression of CXCL10/IP-10 in IFN-λ3-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotti, Giulia; Tamassia, Nicola; Calzetti, Federica; Fattovich, Giovanna; Cassatella, Marco A

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between IFN-λs and dendritic cells is becoming increasingly relevant, particularly in light of their key role in inducing the antiviral state, including in hepatitis C virus infection. In this work, we have analyzed extensively how human plasmacytoid dendritic cells respond to IFN-λ3. We report that plasmacytoid dendritic cells incubated with IFN-λ3 prolong their survival; alter their expression pattern of surface HLA-DRα, CD123, CD86, and CD303; and time dependently produce IFN-α, CXCL10/IFN-γ-induced protein 10, and even modest quantities of TNF-α. Nevertheless, endogenously produced TNF-α, but not IFN-α, was found to be essential for driving the expression of CXCL10/IFN-γ-induced protein 10 in IFN-λ3-treated plasmacytoid dendritic cells, as revealed by neutralizing experiments by use of adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab. We also observed that based on the kinetics and levels of IFN-α and CXCL10/IFN-γ-induced protein 10 produced by their IFN-λ3-treated plasmacytoid dendritic cells, healthy donors could be categorized into 2 and 3 groups, respectively. In particular, we identified a group of donors whose plasmacytoid dendritic cells produced modest quantities of CXCL10/IFN-γ-induced protein 10; another one whose plasmacytoid dendritic cells produced elevated CXCL10/IFN-γ-induced protein 10 levels, already after 18 h, declining thereafter; and a 3rd group characterized by plasmacytoid dendritic cells releasing very high CXCL10/IFN-γ-induced protein 10 levels after 42 h only. Finally, we report that in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, equivalent concentrations of IFN-λ3 and IFN-λ1 promote survival, antigen modulation, and cytokine production in a comparable manner and without acting additively/synergistically. Altogether, data not only extend the knowledge on the biologic effects that IFN-λs exert on plasmacytoid dendritic cells but also add novel light to the networking between IFN-λs and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in fighting

  12. Efficient generation of integration-free ips cells from human adult peripheral blood using BCL-XL together with Yamanaka factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rui-Jun; Baylink, David J; Neises, Amanda; Kiroyan, Jason B; Meng, Xianmei; Payne, Kimberly J; Tschudy-Seney, Benjamin; Duan, Yuyou; Appleby, Nancy; Kearns-Jonker, Mary; Gridley, Daila S; Wang, Jun; Lau, K-H William; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently generate integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the most readily available source-peripheral blood-has the potential to expedite the advances of iPSC-based therapies. We have successfully generated integration-free iPSCs from cord blood (CB) CD34(+) cells with improved oriP/EBNA1-based episomal vectors (EV) using a strong spleen focus forming virus (SFFV) long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. Here we show that Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, MYC, and KLF4)-expressing EV can also reprogram adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) into pluripotency, yet at a very low efficiency. We found that inclusion of BCL-XL increases the reprogramming efficiency by approximately 10-fold. Furthermore, culture of CD3(-)/CD19(-) cells or T/B cell-depleted MNCs for 4-6 days led to the generation of 20-30 iPSC colonies from 1 ml PB, an efficiency that is substantially higher than previously reported. PB iPSCs express pluripotency markers, form teratomas, and can be induced to differentiate in vitro into mesenchymal stem cells, cardiomyocytes, and hepatocytes. Used together, our optimized factor combination and reprogramming strategy lead to efficient generation of integration-free iPSCs from adult PB. This discovery has potential applications in iPSC banking, disease modeling and regenerative medicine.

  13. Efficient generation of integration-free ips cells from human adult peripheral blood using BCL-XL together with Yamanaka factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Jun Su

    Full Text Available The ability to efficiently generate integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from the most readily available source-peripheral blood-has the potential to expedite the advances of iPSC-based therapies. We have successfully generated integration-free iPSCs from cord blood (CB CD34(+ cells with improved oriP/EBNA1-based episomal vectors (EV using a strong spleen focus forming virus (SFFV long terminal repeat (LTR promoter. Here we show that Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, MYC, and KLF4-expressing EV can also reprogram adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs into pluripotency, yet at a very low efficiency. We found that inclusion of BCL-XL increases the reprogramming efficiency by approximately 10-fold. Furthermore, culture of CD3(-/CD19(- cells or T/B cell-depleted MNCs for 4-6 days led to the generation of 20-30 iPSC colonies from 1 ml PB, an efficiency that is substantially higher than previously reported. PB iPSCs express pluripotency markers, form teratomas, and can be induced to differentiate in vitro into mesenchymal stem cells, cardiomyocytes, and hepatocytes. Used together, our optimized factor combination and reprogramming strategy lead to efficient generation of integration-free iPSCs from adult PB. This discovery has potential applications in iPSC banking, disease modeling and regenerative medicine.

  14. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS Cells):Current Status and Future Prospect%诱导性多潜能干细胞(iPS cells)——现状及前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申红芬; 姚志芳; 肖高芳; 贾俊双; 肖东; 姚开泰

    2009-01-01

    主要从iPS细胞发展历程、获得iPS细胞的几个关键步骤f如基因导入方式、诱导iPS细胞所需凶子组合与小分子化合物运用和体细胞种类选择等)、病人或疾病特异性iPS细胞、iPS细胞体内外诱导分化与其衍生物的临床应用和制各无遗传修饰的(genetic modification-free)iPs细胞的可行性与前景等方面对iPS细胞最新研究进展做评述.日本和美国研究小组先后用4种基因将小鼠(2006年8月)和人(2007年11~12月)的体细胞在体外重编程为诱导性多潜能干细胞(induced pluripotent stem cells,iPS cells),此后在短短两年多时间内,iPS细胞的研究和关注度呈爆炸式增长.体细胞重编程、去分化和多潜能干细胞来源等一系列热点问题再次成为干细胞和发育生物学等研究的热点和焦点.与胚胎干细胞(embryonic stem cells,ES cells)一样,iPS细胞在体内可分化为3个胚层来源的所有细胞,进而参与形成机体所有组织和器官.迄今,在体外已由iPS细胞定向诱导分化出功能性的多种成熟细胞.因此,iPS细胞研究不仅具有重要理论意义,而且在再生医学、组织工程和药物发现与评价等方面极具应用价值.

  15. Protection by beverages, fruits, vegetables, herbs, and flavonoids against genotoxicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in metabolically competent V79 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenharder, R; Sager, J W; Glatt, H; Muckel, E; Platt, K L

    2002-11-26

    Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts, genetically engineered for the expression of rat cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase 1A2 and rat sulfotransferase 1C1 (V79-rCYP1A2-rSULT1C1 cells), were utilized to check for possible protective effects of beverages of plant origin, fruits, vegetables, and spices against genotoxicity induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Antigenotoxic activities of juices from spinach and red beets against AAF could be monitored with similar effectivity by the HPRT-mutagenicity test (IC(50)=0.64%; 2.57%) and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay; IC(50)=0.12%; 0.89%) which detects DNA strand breaks and abasic sites. Applying the comet assay, genotoxicity of PhIP could, however, be demonstrated only in the presence of hydroxyurea and 1-[beta-D-arabinofuranosyl]cytosine, known inhibitors of DNA repair synthesis. As expected, AAF and PhIP were unable to induce any genotoxic effects in the parent V79 cells. Genotoxic activity of PhIP was strongly reduced in a dose-related manner by green tea and red wine, by blueberries, blackberries, red grapes, kiwi, watermelon, parsley, and spinach, while two brands of beer, coffee, black tea, rooibos tea, morellos, black-currants, plums, red beets, broccoli (raw and cooked), and chives were somewhat less active. One brand of beer was only moderately active while white wine, bananas, white grapes, and strawberries were inactive. Similarly, genotoxicity of AAF was strongly reduced by green, black, and rooibos tea, red wine, morellos, black-currants, kiwi, watermelon, and spinach while plums, red beets, and broccoli (raw) were less potent. Broccoli cooked exerted only moderate and white wine weak antigenotoxic activity. With respect to the possible mechanism(s) of inhibition of genotoxicity, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (BaP-7,8-OH) and N-OH-PhIP were applied as substrates for the CYP1A family and for rSULT 1C1, respectively. Morellos

  16. GM-CSF and MEF-conditioned media support feeder-free reprogramming of mouse granulocytes to iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firas, Jaber; Liu, Xiaodong; Nefzger, Christian M; Polo, Jose M

    2014-06-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are characterised by their ability to differentiate into any cell type of the body. Accordingly, iPSCs possess immense potential for disease modelling, pharmaceutical screening and autologous cell therapies. The most common source of iPSCs derivation is skin fibroblasts. However, from a clinical point of view, skin fibroblasts may not be ideal, as invasive procedures such as skin biopsies are required for their extraction. Moreover, fibroblasts are highly heterogeneous with a poorly defined developmental pathway, which makes studying reprogramming mechanistics difficult. Granulocytes, on the other hand, are easily obtainable, their developmental pathway has been extensively studied and fluorescence activated cell sorting allows for the isolation of these cells at high purity; thus iPSCs derivation from granulocytes could provide an alternative to fibroblast-derived iPSCs. Previous studies succeeded in producing iPSC colonies from mouse granulocytes but with the use of a mitotically inactivated feeder layer, restricting their use for studying reprogramming mechanistics. As granulocytes display poor survival under culture conditions, we investigated the influence of haematopoietic cytokines to stabilise this cell type in vitro and allow for reprogramming in the absence of a feeder layer. Our results show that treatment with MEF-conditioned media and/or initial exposure to GM-CSF allows for reprogramming of granulocytes under feeder-free conditions. This work can serve as a basis for future work aimed at dissecting the reprogramming mechanism as well as obtaining large numbers of iPSCs from a clinically relevant cell source.

  17. Functional characterizations of IPS-1 in CIK cells: Potential roles in regulating IFN-I response dependent on IRF7 but not IRF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yixuan; Yang, Chunrong; Liao, Lanjie; Wang, Yaping; Su, Jianguo

    2015-11-01

    IPS-1, as the sole adaptor of RIG-I and MDA5, plays a central role in innate antiviral immunity. In this study, we investigated potential roles of IPS-1 in innate immunity and the domain-requirement of IPS-1 for its signaling in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Overexpression experiment showed that CiIPS-1 mediated IFN-I signal possibly dependent on CiIRF7 but not CiIRF3. Post GCRV challenge, CiIPS-1 could enhance antiviral immune responses. CARD and TM domains were crucial for antiviral function of CiIPS-1, and TRAF motif played an assistant role. PRO domain seemed as a negative regulator but was pivotal for the initiation of CiIFN-I and CiMx1. Post viral/bacterial PAMPs stimulation, CiIPS-1-mediated signaling was tightly controlled. CARD domain of CiIPS-1 could significantly elicit poly I:C/LPS/PGN-mediated signaling. PRO domain negatively regulated CiIRF7 and CiIFN-I but was indispensable for inductions of CiMx1 and CiIL-1β. TRAF motif and TM domain regulated the signaling presumably in a cooperative fashion. Post poly I:C stimulation, TRAF motif negatively regulated CiIRF7, CiIFN-I and CiIL-1β at a relative early time while TM domain functioned at a relative late time. TRAF motif was indispensable for the production of CiMx1, while TM domain slightly negatively regulated the expression. Post LPS and PGN stimulation, TRAF motif excited an assistant and persistent negative role on CiIFN-I, CiIRF7 and CiIL-1β induction, but was crucial for induction of CiMx1. TM domain slightly negatively regulated LPS- and PGN-triggered signaling. Taken together, CiIPS-1 not only exerted important functions in antiviral immune response but also participated in viral/bacterial PAMPs-triggered immune response which was tightly controlled to prevent harmful effects resulting from excessive activation. This study provided novel insights into the pivotal role of IPS-1 in innate immunity.

  18. Examination of a Viral Infection Mimetic Model in Human iPS Cell-Derived Insulin-Producing Cells and the Anti-Apoptotic Effect of GLP-1 Analogue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megu Yamaguchi Baden

    Full Text Available Viral infection is associated with pancreatic beta cell destruction in fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the acceleration and protective mechanisms of beta cell destruction by establishing a model of viral infection in pancreatic beta cells.Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid was transfected into MIN6 cells and insulin-producing cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells via small molecule applications. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, and apoptosis was evaluated by caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining. The anti-apoptotic effect of Exendin-4 was also evaluated.Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid transfection led to elevated expression of the genes encoding IFNα, IFNβ, CXCL10, Fas, viral receptors, and IFN-inducible antiviral effectors in MIN6 cells. Exendin-4 treatment suppressed the elevated gene expression levels and reduced polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid-induced apoptosis both in MIN6 cells and in insulin-producing cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, protein kinase A, and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitors counteracted the anti-apoptotic effect of Exendin-4.Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid transfection can mimic viral infection, and Exendin-4 exerted an anti-apoptotic effect both in MIN6 and insulin-producing cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

  19. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Knott, Jason G. [Developmental Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro.

  20. Generating a non-integrating human induced pluripotent stem cell bank from urine-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Xue

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell holds great potential for applications in regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and disease modeling. We describe here a practical method to generate human iPS cells from urine-derived cells (UCs under feeder-free, virus-free, serum-free condition and without oncogene c-MYC. We showed that this approach could be applied in a large population with different genetic backgrounds. UCs are easily accessible and exhibit high reprogramming efficiency, offering advantages over other cell types used for the purpose of iPS generation. Using the approach described in this study, we have generated 93 iPS cell lines from 20 donors with diverse genetic backgrounds. The non-viral iPS cell bank with these cell lines provides a valuable resource for iPS cells research, facilitating future applications of human iPS cells.

  1. RNA-Seq of human neurons derived from iPS cells reveals candidate long non-coding RNAs involved in neurogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyan Lin

    Full Text Available Genome-wide expression analysis using next generation sequencing (RNA-Seq provides an opportunity for in-depth molecular profiling of fundamental biological processes, such as cellular differentiation and malignant transformation. Differentiating human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide an ideal system for RNA-Seq since defective neurogenesis caused by abnormalities in transcription factors, DNA methylation, and chromatin modifiers lie at the heart of some neuropsychiatric disorders. As a preliminary step towards applying next generation sequencing using neurons derived from patient-specific iPSCs, we have carried out an RNA-Seq analysis on control human neurons. Dramatic changes in the expression of coding genes, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, pseudogenes, and splice isoforms were seen during the transition from pluripotent stem cells to early differentiating neurons. A number of genes that undergo radical changes in expression during this transition include candidates for schizophrenia (SZ, bipolar disorder (BD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD that function as transcription factors and chromatin modifiers, such as POU3F2 and ZNF804A, and genes coding for cell adhesion proteins implicated in these conditions including NRXN1 and NLGN1. In addition, a number of novel lncRNAs were found to undergo dramatic changes in expression, one of which is HOTAIRM1, a regulator of several HOXA genes during myelopoiesis. The increase we observed in differentiating neurons suggests a role in neurogenesis as well. Finally, several lncRNAs that map near SNPs associated with SZ in genome wide association studies also increase during neuronal differentiation, suggesting that these novel transcripts may be abnormally regulated in a subgroup of patients.

  2. Genetic correction of β-thalassemia patient-specific iPS cells and its use in improving hemoglobin production in irradiated SCID mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixuan Wang; Juan Du; Ze Yang; Shaorong Gao; Chen-Guang Zheng; Yonghua Jiang; Jiqin Zhang; Jiayu Chen; Chao Yao; Qingguo Zhao; Sheng Liu; Ke Chen

    2012-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from differentiated somatic cells by over-expression of several transcription factors has the potential to cure many genetic and degenerative diseases currently recalcitrant to traditional clinical approaches.One such genetic disease is β-thalassemia major (Cooley's anemia).This disease is caused by either a point mutation or the deletion of several nucleotides in the β-globin gene,and it threatens the lives of millions of people in China.In the present study,we successfully generated iPSCs from fibroblasts collected from a 2-year-old patient who was diagnosed with a homozygous 41/42 deletion in his β-globin gene.More importantly,we successfully corrected this genetic mutation in the β-thalassemia iPSCs by homologous recombination.Furthermore,transplantation of the genetically corrected iPSCs-derived hematopoietic progenitors into sub-lethally irradiated immune deficient SCID mice showed improved hemoglobin production compared with the uncorrected iPSCs.Moreover,the generation of human β-globin could be detected in the mice transplanted with corrected iPSCs-derived hematopietic progenitors.Our study provides strong evidence that iPSCs generated from a patient with a genetic disease can be corrected by homologous recombination and that the corrected iPSCs have potential clinical uses.

  3. Genetic correction of β-thalassemia patient-specific iPS cells and its use in improving hemoglobin production in irradiated SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Zheng, Chen-Guang; Jiang, Yonghua; Zhang, Jiqin; Chen, Jiayu; Yao, Chao; Zhao, Qingguo; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Ke; Du, Juan; Yang, Ze; Gao, Shaorong

    2012-04-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from differentiated somatic cells by over-expression of several transcription factors has the potential to cure many genetic and degenerative diseases currently recalcitrant to traditional clinical approaches. One such genetic disease is β-thalassemia major (Cooley's anemia). This disease is caused by either a point mutation or the deletion of several nucleotides in the β-globin gene, and it threatens the lives of millions of people in China. In the present study, we successfully generated iPSCs from fibroblasts collected from a 2-year-old patient who was diagnosed with a homozygous 41/42 deletion in his β-globin gene. More importantly, we successfully corrected this genetic mutation in the β-thalassemia iPSCs by homologous recombination. Furthermore, transplantation of the genetically corrected iPSCs-derived hematopoietic progenitors into sub-lethally irradiated immune deficient SCID mice showed improved hemoglobin production compared with the uncorrected iPSCs. Moreover, the generation of human β-globin could be detected in the mice transplanted with corrected iPSCs-derived hematopietic progenitors. Our study provides strong evidence that iPSCs generated from a patient with a genetic disease can be corrected by homologous recombination and that the corrected iPSCs have potential clinical uses.

  4. Running TCP/IP over ATM Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Internet protocol (IP) and subnets and describes how IP may operate over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Topics include TCP (transmission control protocol), ATM cells and adaptation layers, a basic architectural model for IP over ATM, address resolution, mapping IP to a subnet technology, and connection management strategy. (LRW)

  5. Erratum: Hayward IP, Bridle KR, Campbell GR, Underwood PA, Campbell JH (1995) Effect of Extracellular Matrix Proteins on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype. Cell Biology International 19: 839-846. doi: 10.1006/cbir.1995.1019.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The above article, published in print in Cell Biology International in September 1995 and online on 2 January 2013 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1006/cbir.1995.1019/abstract), is an exact duplicate of the article 'Effect of Extracellular Matrix Proteins on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype' (Hayward et al., ), which was published in the previous issue of Cell Biology International (Hayward et al., ). The duplicate publication is the result of an administrative error. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience.

  6. Study of CCNB1IP1 and c-Cbl gene mutation in peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer%非小细胞肺癌患者外周血CCNB1IP1及c-Cbl基因突变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯士生; 梁建琴; 王金河; 史晓朋

    2013-01-01

    目的 检测NSCLC患者外周血c-Cbl和CCNB1IP1基因突变情况.方法收集20例健康人、20例肺结核和40例NSCLC患者外周血标本,采用RT-PCR和基因测序方法,检测c-Cbl和CCNB1IP1基因突变.结果 所有标本中均未检测出CCNB1IP1基因突变;而仅在NSCLC患者外周血检测到4种c-Cbl基因突变,突变率为20%;突变率与患者的性别、年龄及病理学分型均无相关性(P>0.05);而不同临床分期间突变率不同,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 NSCLC患者外周血中检测到c-Cbl基因突变,且不同临床分期间突变率不同.%Objective To observe the changes of GGNB11P1 and c-Gbl gene mutations in peripheral blood of non-small cell lung cancer ( NSCLC ) patients. Methods The peripheral blood was collected from 40 patients with NSCLC, 20 TB patients, and 20 healthy people. The gene mutations of GGNB11P1 and c-Gbl were tested by RT-PGR and gene sequencing method. Results The gene mutations of GGNB11P1 were not detected in peripheral blood of all selected cases. 4 kinds of gene mutations of c-Gbl were detected in peripheral blood of NSGLG patients, with a mutation rate of 20% . The mutation rate of c-Gbl had no obvious relationship with gender, age and pathology types ( P >0. 05 ), but it was closely related to different clinical stages with statistical significance ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The gene mutations of c-Gbl are detected in peripheral blood of NSGLG patients, and its mutation rate is closely related to different clinical stages with statistical significance.

  7. 肌醇六磷酸对人结肠细胞系HT-29细胞周期的影响%EFFECTS OF INOSITOL HEXAPHOSPHATE (IP6) ON CELL CYCLE OF HT-29 HUMAN COLON CARCINOMA CELL LINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋扬; 张铮; 马葆兰

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究肌醇六磷酸(IP6)对HT-29细胞周期的影响并探讨其作用机制.方法:应用四甲基偶氮唑蓝实验(MTT法)观察IP6对HT-29细胞增殖的影响;流式细胞仪检测不同浓度IP6作用72h对HT-29细胞周期的影响;应用免疫细胞化学法检测IP6对HT-29细胞内突变型p53、细胞周期抑制蛋白p21表达的影响.结果:IP6对结肠癌细胞株的生长具有抑制作用,且具有浓度依赖和时间依赖关系.经IP6作用处理的HT-29细胞的细胞周期发生G1期阻滞.与对照组比,各IP6浓度组均能抑制突变型p53蛋白的表达(P<0.05),上调p21蛋白的表达(P<0.05).结论:IP6对HT-29细胞的生长具有明显的抑制作用.其机制可能是IP6降低p53蛋白的异常表达,刺激p21蛋白的表达,使细胞周期发生G1期阻滞,从而起到抑制细胞增殖的作用.

  8. Cell transplantation therapies for spinal cord injury focusing on induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaya Nakamura; Hideyuki Okano

    2013-01-01

    Stimulated by the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded for Shinya Yamanaka and Sir John Gurdon,there is an increasing interest in the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and reprograming technologies in medical science.While iPS cells are expected to open a new era providing enormous opportunities in biomedical sciences in terms of cell therapies and regenerative medicine,safety-related concerns for iPS cell-based cell therapy should be resolved prior to the clinical application of iPS cells.In this review,the pre-clinical investigations of cell therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neural stem/progenitor cells derived from iPS cells,and their safety issues in vivo,are outlined.We also wish to discuss the strategy for the first human trails of iPS cell-based cell therapy for SCI patients.

  9. Cell transplantation therapies for spinal cord injury focusing on induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Stimulated by the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded for Shinya Yamanaka and Sir John Gurdon, there is an increasing interest in the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and reprograming technologies in medical science. While iPS cells are expected to open a new era providing enormous opportunities in biomedical sciences in terms of cell therapies and regenerative medicine, safety-related concerns for iPS cell-based cell therapy should be resolved prior to the clinical application of iPS cells. In this review, the pre-clinical investigations of cell therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neural stem/progenitor cells derived from iPS cells, and their safety issues in vivo, are outlined. We also wish to discuss the strategy for the first human trails of iPS cell-based cell therapy for SCI patients.

  10. Genetic and Chemical Correction of Cholesterol Accumulation and Impaired Autophagy in Hepatic and Neural Cells Derived from Niemann-Pick Type C Patient-Specific iPS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Maetzel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a fatal inherited lipid storage disorder causing severe neurodegeneration and liver dysfunction with only limited treatment options for patients. Loss of NPC1 function causes defects in cholesterol metabolism and has recently been implicated in deregulation of autophagy. Here, we report the generation of isogenic pairs of NPC patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs. We observed decreased cell viability, cholesterol accumulation, and dysfunctional autophagic flux in NPC1-deficient human hepatic and neural cells. Genetic correction of a disease-causing mutation rescued these defects and directly linked NPC1 protein function to impaired cholesterol metabolism and autophagy. Screening for autophagy-inducing compounds in disease-affected human cells showed cell type specificity. Carbamazepine was found to be cytoprotective and effective in restoring the autophagy defects in both NPC1-deficient hepatic and neuronal cells and therefore may be a promising treatment option with overall benefit for NPC disease.

  11. Induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddhartha Bhowmik; LI Yong

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a recent development which has brought a promise of great therapeutic values. The previous technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been ineffective in humans. Recent discoveries show that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by a transient over expression of a small number of genes; they can undergo induced pluripotency. iPS were first produced in 2006. By 2008, work was underway to remove the potential oncogenes from their structure. In 2009, protein iPS (piPS) cells were discovered. Surface markers and reporter genes play an important role in stem cell research. Clinical applications include generation of self renewing stem cells, tissue replacement and many more. Stem cell therapy has the ability to dramatically change the treatment of human diseases.

  12. Modelling familial dysautonomia in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gabsang; Studer, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have considerable promise as a novel tool for modelling human disease and for drug discovery. While the generation of disease-specific iPS cells has become routine, realizing the potential of iPS cells in disease modelling poses challenges at multiple fronts. Such challenges include selecting a suitable disease target, directing the fate of iPS cells into symptom-relevant cell populations, identifying disease-related phenotypes and showing reversibility of...

  13. iPS细胞的遗传安全性%The genetic safety of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈倩; 史庆华

    2012-01-01

    自2006 年Takahashi 和Yamanaka 首次成功地从小鼠成纤维细胞诱导得到诱导多能性干细胞(Inducedpluripotent stem cells,iPS 细胞)以来,iPS 细胞由于其潜在的广阔应用前景而迅速成为干细胞研究领域的新热点;与此同时,iPS 细胞的遗传安全性也越来越多地受到人们的关注.文章将对iPS 细胞遗传安全性的研究进展进行综述,分析造成iPS 细胞遗传不稳定的可能原因,希望可以促进对iPS 细胞诱导条件的优化,获得遗传上较为安全的iPS 细胞.

  14. PiggyBac transposon-mediated gene delivery efficiently generates stable transfectants derived from cultured primary human deciduous tooth dental pulp cells (HDDPCs) and HDDPC-derived iPS cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emi Inada; Masahiro Sato; Issei Saitoh; Satoshi Watanabe; Reiji Aoki; Hiromi Miura; Masato Ohtsuka; Tomoya Murakami; Tadashi Sawami; Youichi Yamasaki

    2015-01-01

    The ability of human deciduous tooth dental pulp cells (HDDPCs) to differentiate into odontoblasts that generate mineralized tissue holds immense potential for therapeutic use in the field of tooth regenerative medicine. Realization of this potential depends on efficient and optimized protocols for the genetic manipulation of HDDPCs. In this study, we demonstrate the use of a PiggyBac (PB)-based gene transfer system as a method for introducing nonviral transposon DNA into HDDPCs and HDDPC-derived inducible pluripotent stem cells. The transfection efficiency of the PB-based system was significantly greater than previously reported for electroporation-based transfection of plasmid DNA. Using the neomycin resistance gene as a selection marker, HDDPCs were stably transfected at a rate nearly 40-fold higher than that achieved using conventional methods. Using this system, it was also possible to introduce two constructs simultaneously into a single cell. The resulting stable transfectants, expressing tdTomato and enhanced green fluorescent protein, exhibited both red and green fluorescence. The established cell line did not lose the acquired phenotype over three months of culture. Based on our results, we concluded that PB is superior to currently available methods for introducing plasmid DNA into HDDPCs. There may be significant challenges in the direct clinical application of this method for human dental tissue engineering due to safety risks and ethical concerns. However, the high level of transfection achieved with PB may have significant advantages in basic scientific research for dental tissue engineering applications, such as functional studies of genes and proteins. Furthermore, it is a useful tool for the isolation of genetically engineered HDDPC-derived stem cells for studies in tooth regenerative medicine.

  15. 异氟醚对转染APPsw基因SH-SY5Y细胞凋亡的影响和IP3受体在其中的作用%Effect of isoflurane on apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells transfected with APPsw gene and the role of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋珊; 霍树平; 于丽丽; 于沛霞; 吕艳霞; 王秋筠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of isoflurane on the apoptosis of SH-SYSY cells transfected with APPsw gene and the role of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) recepters.Methods The SH-SYSY ceils transfected with APPsw gene were seeded in culture flasks with the density of 1.2 × 104/cm2.The cells were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =6 each):control group (group C),IP3 receptor antagonist group (group Ⅹ),isoflurane group (group Ⅰ) and isoflurane + IP3 receptor antagonist group (group Ⅰ + Ⅹ).After the cells were cultured for 24 h and attached to the wall,the cells were cultured routinely in group C,and Xestospongin C 100 nmol/L (IP3 receptor antagonist) was added to DMEM culture medium in groups X and Ⅰ + X,and 30 min later the cells were exposed to 1.2 % sevoflurane for 8 h in groups Ⅰ and Ⅰ + X.The cells were collected for examination of the ultrastructure and for determination of cell apoptosis,intracellular free calcium ion concentration [Ca2 +] i (by flow cytometry) and expression of IP3 receptor protein (by Western blot).The apoptosis rate was calculated.Results Compared with group C,there was no significant change in the apoptosis rate,[Ca2 +]i or IP3 receptor protein expression in group Ⅹ (P > 0.05),while the cell apoptosis rate and [Ca2 +] i were significantly increased and IP3 receptor protein expression was up-regulated in groups I and Ⅰ + Ⅹ (P < 0.05 or 0.01).Compared with group Ⅰ,cell apoptosis rate and [Ca2+]i were significantly decreased and IP3 receptor protein expression was down-regulated in group Ⅰ + Ⅹ (P < 0.01).The pathological changes of the cells happened in groups Ⅰ and Ⅰ + Ⅹ,and the pathological changes were severer in group Ⅰ than in group Ⅰ + Ⅹ.Conclusion Isoflurane can induce apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells transfected with APPsw gene through increasing [Ca2+]i and up-regulating IP3 receptor protein expression.%目的 评价异氟醚对转染APPsw基因SH-SY5Y细胞凋亡的影响和1,4,5-三磷酸肌醇(IP

  16. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human β-thalassemia fibroblast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixuan Wang; Yonghua Jiang; Sheng Liu; Xiaofang Sun; Shaorong Gao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have recently been generated by directly introducing several transcrip-tion factors into differentiated human somatic cells, and these iPS cells show great similarities to embryo-derived ES cells [1-3].

  17. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhaohui; Zhan, Huichun; Mali, Prashant; Dowey, Sarah; Williams, Donna M; Jang, Yoon-Young; Dang, Chi V; Spivak, Jerry L; Moliterno, Alison R; Cheng, Linzhao

    2009-12-24

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS cell lines were generated from previously frozen cord blood or adult CD34(+) cells of healthy donors, and could be redirected to hematopoietic differentiation. Multiple iPS cell lines were also generated from peripheral blood CD34(+) cells of 2 patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) who acquired the JAK2-V617F somatic mutation in their blood cells. The MPD-derived iPS cells containing the mutation appeared normal in phenotypes, karyotype, and pluripotency. After directed hematopoietic differentiation, the MPD-iPS cell-derived hematopoietic progenitor (CD34(+)CD45(+)) cells showed the increased erythropoiesis and gene expression of specific genes, recapitulating features of the primary CD34(+) cells of the corresponding patient from whom the iPS cells were derived. These iPS cells provide a renewable cell source and a prospective hematopoiesis model for investigating MPD pathogenesis.

  18. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  19. Generation of dendritic cells and macrophages from human induced pluripotent stem cells aiming at cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, S; Haruta, M; Matsumura, K; Matsunaga, Y; Fukushima, S; Ikeda, T; Takamatsu, K; Irie, A; Nishimura, Y

    2011-09-01

    This report describes generation of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. iPS cell-derived DC (iPS-DC) exhibited the morphology of typical DC and function of T-cell stimulation and antigen presentation. iPS-DC loaded with cytomegalovirus (CMV) peptide induced vigorous expansion of CMV-specific autologous CD8+ T cells. Macrophages (iPS-MP) with activity of zymosan phagocytosis and C5a-induced chemotaxis were also generated from iPS cells. Genetically modified iPS-MPs were generated by the introduction of expression vectors into undifferentiated iPS cells, isolation of transfectant iPS cell clone and subsequent differentiation. By this procedure, we generated iPS-MP expressing a membrane-bound form of single chain antibody (scFv) specific to amyloid β (Aβ), the causal protein of Alzheimer's disease. The scFv-transfectant iPS-MP exhibited efficient Aβ-specific phagocytosis activity. iPS-MP expressing CD20-specific scFv engulfed and killed BALL-1 B-cell leukemia cells. Anti-BALL-1 effect of iPS-MP in vivo was demonstrated in a xeno-transplantation model using severe combined immunodeficient mice. In addition, we established a xeno-free culture protocol to generate iPS-DC and iPS-MP. Collectively, we demonstrated the possibility of application of iPS-DC and macrophages to cell therapy.

  20. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells): Potential stem cells of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, engineering and disease treatment. The dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, the multipotent capacity of DFAT cells and comparisons and contrasts with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are discussed in this review.

  1. Induced pluripotent stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Xiao, Shi-Fu

    2011-04-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, are characterized by idiopathic neuron loss in different regions of the central nervous system, which contributes to the relevant dysfunctions in the patients. The application of cell replacement therapy using human embryonic stem (hES) cells, though having attracted much attention, has been hampered by the intrinsic ethical problems. It has been demonstrated that adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed into the embryonic state, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. It is soon realized that iPS cells may be an alternative source for cell replacement therapy, because it raises no ethical problems and using patient-specific iPS cells for autologous transplantation will not lead to immunological rejection. What's more, certain types of neurons derived from patient-specific iPS cells may display disease-relevant phenotypes. Thus, patient-specific iPS cells can provide a unique opportunity to directly investigate the pathological properties of relevant neural cells in individual patient, and to study the vulnerability of neural cells to pathogenic factors in vitro, which may help reveal the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, the recent development in cellular treatment of neurodegenerative diseases using iPS cells was summarized, and the potential value of iPS cells in the modeling of neurodegenerative disease was discussed.

  2. Current progress and prospects of induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN LingYi; Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are derived from somatic cells by ectopic expression of few transcription factors. Like embryonic stem (ES) cells, iPS cells are able to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into all types of cells in the body. iPS cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine,because iPS ceils circumvent not only immunological rejection but also ethical issues. Since the first report on the derivation of iPS cells in 2006, many laboratories all over the world started research on iPS cells and have made significant progress. This paper reviews recent progress in iPS cell research,Including the methods to generate iPS cells, the molecular mechanism of reprogramming in the formation of iPS ceils, and the potential applications of iPS cells in cell replacement therapy. Current problems that need to be addressed and the prospects for iPS research are also discussed.

  3. Origins of pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, B A J; Chuva De Sousa Lopes, S M

    2011-08-01

    Different types of pluripotent stem cells can be identified and cultured in vitro. Here an overview is presented of the various pluripotent stem cells types. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells that have been cultured in vitro provided the groundwork for future pluripotent cell cultures. Conditions established for these cells such as culture on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the importance of fetal calf serum were initially also used for the culture of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell masses of blastocysts. Embryonic stem cells derived from human blastocysts were found to require different conditions and are cultured in the presence of activin and basic fibroblast growth factor. Recently pluripotent stem cells have also been derived from mouse peri-implantation epiblasts. Since these epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) require the same conditions as the human ES cells it has been suggested that human ES cells are more similar to mouse EpiSCs than to mouse ES cells. Pluripotent cell lines have also been derived from migratory primordial germ cells and spermatogonial stem cells. The creation of pluripotent stem cells from adult cells by the introduction of reprogramming transcription factors, so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells allowed the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells without the need of creation of a human blastocyst after cloning by somatic cells nuclear transfer. Recently it has become clear however that iPS cells may be quite different to ES cells in terms of epigenetics.

  4. Efficient Generation of β-Globin-Expressing Erythroid Cells Using Stromal Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Patients with Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Naoya; Haro-Mora, Juan J; Fujita, Atsushi; Lee, Duck-Yeon; Winkler, Thomas; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2017-03-01

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent an ideal source for in vitro modeling of erythropoiesis and a potential alternative source for red blood cell transfusions. However, iPS cell-derived erythroid cells predominantly produce ε- and γ-globin without β-globin production. We recently demonstrated that ES cell-derived sacs (ES sacs), known to express hemangioblast markers, allow for efficient erythroid cell generation with β-globin production. In this study, we generated several iPS cell lines derived from bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and peripheral blood erythroid progenitors (EPs) from sickle cell disease patients, and evaluated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) generation after iPS sac induction as well as subsequent erythroid differentiation. MSC-derived iPS sacs yielded greater amounts of immature hematopoietic progenitors (VEGFR2 + GPA-), definitive HSPCs (CD34 + CD45+), and megakaryoerythroid progenitors (GPA + CD41a+), as compared to EP-derived iPS sacs. Erythroid differentiation from MSC-derived iPS sacs resulted in greater amounts of erythroid cells (GPA+) and higher β-globin (and βS-globin) expression, comparable to ES sac-derived cells. These data demonstrate that human MSC-derived iPS sacs allow for more efficient erythroid cell generation with higher β-globin production, likely due to heightened emergence of immature progenitors. Our findings should be important for iPS cell-derived erythroid cell generation. Stem Cells 2017;35:586-596.

  5. H5N1禽流感病毒NS1蛋白与干扰素诱导蛋白10表达的相关性研究%Influence of avian influenza virus NS1 protein on the expression of IP-10 in BEAS-2B cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓俊; 周剑芳; 王晶钰; 董婕; 薄洪; 李梓; 李魁彪; 蓝雨; 舒跃龙

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究高致病性禽流感(HPAI)H5N1病毒NS1蛋白对干扰素诱导蛋白10(IP-10)的影响.方法 分别将禽流感病毒A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1)的NS1基因、插入80-84位缺失氨基酸的NS1突变基因及流感病毒A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1)的NS1基因克隆至真核表达载体pEGFP-N1,转染人支气管上皮细胞BEAS-2B,流式细胞仪检测转染细胞内IP-10的表达情况.结果 与pEGFP-N1对照组相比,三种NS1蛋白均能下调BEAS-2B细胞IP-10的表达(P0.01).结论 A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1)禽流感病毒单一NS1蛋白能够抑制BEAS-2B细胞IP-10表达,但这并不能完全阐明其与病毒致病性之间的关系.%Objective To investigate the influence of avian influenza virus (AIV) NS1 protein on the expression of interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10). Methods NS1 gene from virus A/Anhui/1/2005 (H5N1),NS1 gene inserted with 80-84 amino acids from virus A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1)and NS1 gene from virus A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) were cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1, and transected into BEAS-2Bcells, IP-10 expression level in transected cells was detected by flow cytometry. Results Compared with the control group pEGFP-N1, Expression of these three different NS1 genes can down-regulate the expression of IP-10in BEAS-2B cells, but there is no significant difference as to the lower level among them. Conclusion NS1protein of A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) can down-regulate the expression level of IP-10, but this may not clarify its relationship with the virulence of AIV.

  6. CSAHi study: Validation of multi-electrode array systems (MEA60/2100) for prediction of drug-induced proarrhythmia using human iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes -assessment of inter-facility and cells lot-to-lot-variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yumiko; Honda, Yayoi; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Saiki, Shota; Koyabu, Kiyotaka; Itoh, Tetsuji; Nagasawa, Chiho; Nakamori, Chiaki; Nakayama, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shinobu; Washio, Ikumi; Takahashi, Etsushi; Miyamoto, Kaori; Yamanishi, Atsuhiro; Endo, Hiroko; Shinozaki, Junko; Nogawa, Hisashi; Kunimatsu, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    In vitro screening of hERG channels are recommended under ICH S7B guidelines to predict drug-induced QT prolongation and Torsade de Pointes (TdP), whereas proarrhythmia is known to be evoked by blockage of other ion channels involved in cardiac contraction and compensation mechanisms. A consortium for drug safety assessment using human iPS cells-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), CSAHi, has been organized to establish a novel in vitro test system that would enable better prediction of drug-induced proarrhythmia and QT prolongation. Here we report the inter-facility and cells lot-to-lot variability evaluated with FPDc (corrected field potential duration), FPDc10 (10% FPDc change concentration), beat rate and incidence of arrhythmia-like waveform or arrest on hiPS-CMs in a multi-electrode array system. Arrhythmia-like waveforms were evident for all test compounds, other than chromanol 293B, that evoked FPDc prolongation in this system and are reported to induce TdP in clinical practice. There was no apparent cells lot-to-lot variability, while inter-facility variabilities were limited within ranges from 3.9- to 20-folds for FPDc10 and about 10-folds for the minimum concentration inducing arrhythmia-like waveform or arrests. In conclusion, the new assay model reported here would enable accurate prediction of a drug potential for proarrhythmia.

  7. Very Rapid and Efficient Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mouse Pre-B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Bruno; Graf, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells suitable for therapeutic application is the low efficiency of the process and the long time required, with many iPS lines acquiring genomic aberrations. In this chapter we describe a highly efficient iPS reprogramming system based on the transient expression in pre-B cells of the transcription factor C/EBPα, followed by the induction of the four Yamanaka factors (OSKM). In addition, the process is very rapid, yielding Oct4 positive cells within 2 days and Nanog-positive iPS cell colonies within a week.

  8. Limited Gene Expression Variation in Human Embryonic Stem Cell and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines have differences in their epigenetic marks and transcriptomes, yet the impact of these differences on subsequent terminally differentiated cells is less well understood. Comparison of purified, homogeneous populations of somatic cells derived from multiple independent human iPS and ES lines will be required to address this critical question. Here, we report a differentiation protocol based ...

  9. Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Into Functional Oligodendrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czepiel, Marcin; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Schaafsma, Wandert; Stancic, Mirjana; Mikkers, Harald; Huisman, Christian; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2011-01-01

    The technology to generate autologous pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) from almost any somatic cell type has brought various cell replacement therapies within clinical research. Besides the challenge to optimize iPS protocols to appropriate safety and GMP levels, procedures need to be developed to

  10. Generation of corneal epithelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human dermal fibroblast and corneal limbal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuhei Hayashi

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be established from somatic cells. However, there is currently no established strategy to generate corneal epithelial cells from iPS cells. In this study, we investigated whether corneal epithelial cells could be differentiated from iPS cells. We tested 2 distinct sources: human adult dermal fibroblast (HDF-derived iPS cells (253G1 and human adult corneal limbal epithelial cells (HLEC-derived iPS cells (L1B41. We first established iPS cells from HLEC by introducing the Yamanaka 4 factors. Corneal epithelial cells were successfully induced from the iPS cells by the stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA differentiation method, as Pax6(+/K12(+ corneal epithelial colonies were observed after prolonged differentiation culture (12 weeks or later in both the L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells following retinal pigment epithelial and lens cell induction. Interestingly, the corneal epithelial differentiation efficiency was higher in L1B41 than in 253G1. DNA methylation analysis revealed that a small proportion of differentially methylated regions still existed between L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells even though no significant difference in methylation status was detected in the specific corneal epithelium-related genes such as K12, K3, and Pax6. The present study is the first to demonstrate a strategy for corneal epithelial cell differentiation from human iPS cells, and further suggests that the epigenomic status is associated with the propensity of iPS cells to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells.

  11. Stem cell biology and cell transplantation therapy in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakada, Fumitaka; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Masayo

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of mammalian blastocyst stage embryos, have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body and to grow indefinitely while maintaining pluripotency. During development, cells undergo progressive and irreversible differentiation into specialized adult cell types. Remarkably, in spite of this restriction in potential, adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed and returned to the naive state of pluripotency found in the early embryo simply by forcing expression of a defined set of transcription factors. These induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are molecularly and functionally equivalent to ES cells and provide powerful in vitro models for development, disease, and drug screening, as well as material for cell replacement therapy. Since functional impairment results from cell loss in most central nervous system (CNS) diseases, recovery of lost cells is an important treatment strategy. Although adult neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions, the CNS has poor potential for regeneration to compensate for cell loss. Thus, cell transplantation into damaged or diseased CNS tissues is a promising approach to treating various neurodegenerative disorders. Transplantation of photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from human ES cells can restore some visual function. Patient-specific iPS cells may lead to customized cell therapy. However, regeneration of retinal function will require a detailed understanding of eye development, visual system circuitry, and retinal degeneration pathology. Here, we review the current progress in retinal regeneration, focusing on the therapeutic potential of pluripotent stem cells.

  12. 高脂饮食对大鼠胰腺腺泡细胞三磷酸肌醇表达及淀粉酶释放影响的体外研究%In vitro studies of the effects of high-fat dieton the expression of pancreatic acinar cells' IP3 and amylase release in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫明先; 赵华清; 王亚茹; 李晓荣; 杨静; 王文奇; 王义国

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of high-fat diet on pancreatic acinar cells' IP3 expression and CCK-induced amylase release in rats.Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into high-fat diet group and normal diet group,they were fed for 4 weeks.Blood triglycerides,cholesterol,amylase and glucose levels were determined by automatic biochemical analyzer.Pancreatic tissues were taken for histopathological observations.Pancreatic acinar cells were isolated and cultured,and intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) was detected using a commercial kit.Amylase release rates were measured after CCK-8 stimulation.Results The rats in high-fat diet group appeared hyperlipidemia,vacuolization of acinar cells and the lymphocytes appeared around the acinar cells can be seen on the pancreatic tissue pathology staining.The levels of IP3 in acinar cells of rats fed a high-fat diet were higher than that of normal rats [(31.807 ± 3.448) pmol/106 cells vs (24.632 ± 3.649) pmol/106 cells,t=7.479,P<0.001];and amylase release rate in these rats'acinar cells were also higher than those of normal rats [when CCK-8=0.01 nmol/L:( 11.056 ±3.369)% vs (7.354 ± 2.181) %,t=3.912,P<0.001;when CCK-8=1 nmol/L:( 13.854 ± 4.087 ) % vs (9.432 ±2.477) %,t=3.939,P<0.001 ) after CCK-8 stimulation in different concentrations.Additionally,there was a positive co-relationship between acinar cell's IP3 level and amylase release (r=0.896,P<0.001 ).Conclusion Chronic high-fat diet induces hypersensitivity for pancreatic acinar cells' exocrine function,and IP3 as a signal molecule may play an important role in this process.%目的 探讨高脂饮食对胰腺腺泡细胞内三磷酸肌醇( IP3)表达及淀粉酶释放的影响.方法 雄性Wistar大鼠分为高脂饮食组和正常饮食组,分别喂养4周,全自动生化仪检测血液甘油三酯、胆固醇、淀粉酶和葡萄糖浓度,并观察胰腺病理组织学变化.两组大鼠分离并培养胰腺腺泡细胞,应用[3H

  13. Muse cells and induced pluripotent stem cell: implication of the elite model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Masaaki; Wakao, Shohei; Dezawa, Mari

    2012-11-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have attracted a great deal attention as a new pluripotent stem cell type that can be generated from somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, by introducing the transcription factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. The mechanism of generation, however, is not fully understood. Two mechanistic theories have been proposed; the stochastic model purports that every cell type has the potential to be reprogrammed to become an iPS cell and the elite model proposes that iPS cell generation occurs only from a subset of cells. Some reports have provided theoretical support for the stochastic model, but a recent publication demonstrated findings that support the elite model, and thus the mechanism of iPS cell generation remains under debate. To enhance our understanding of iPS cells, it is necessary to clarify the properties of the original cell source, i.e., the components of the original populations and the potential of each population to become iPS cells. In this review, we discuss the two theories and their implications in iPS cell research.

  14. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Cardiovascular Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Egashira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated by reprogramming human somatic cells through the forced expression of several embryonic stem (ES cell-specific transcription factors. The potential of iPS cells is having a significant impact on regenerative medicine, with the promise of infinite self-renewal, differentiation into multiple cell types, and no problems concerning ethics or immunological rejection. Human iPS cells are currently generated by transgene introduction principally through viral vectors, which integrate into host genomes, although the associated risk of tumorigenesis is driving research into nonintegration methods. Techniques for pluripotent stem cell differentiation and purification to yield cardiomyocytes are also advancing constantly. Although there remain some unsolved problems, cardiomyocyte transplantation may be a reality in the future. After those problems will be solved, applications of human iPS cells in human cardiovascular regenerative medicine will be envisaged for the future. Furthermore, iPS cell technology has generated new human disease models using disease-specific cells. This paper summarizes the progress of iPS cell technology in cardiovascular research.

  15. Current progress and prospects of induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem(iPS) cells are derived from somatic cells by ectopic expression of few transcription factors.Like embryonic stem(ES) cells,iPS cells are able to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into all types of cells in the body.iPS cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine,because iPS cells circumvent not only immunological rejection but also ethical issues.Since the first report on the derivation of iPS cells in 2006,many laboratories all over the world started research on iPS cells and have made significant progress.This paper reviews recent progress in iPS cell research,including the methods to generate iPS cells,the molecular mechanism of reprogramming in the formation of iPS cells,and the potential applications of iPS cells in cell replacement therapy.Current problems that need to be addressed and the prospects for iPS research are also discussed.

  16. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; E.PICKARD; Patricia; J.SOLLARS

    2010-01-01

    A new mammalian photoreceptor was recently discovered to reside in the ganglion cell layer of the inner retina.These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells(ipRGCs) express a photopigment,melanopsin,that confers upon them the ability to respond to light in the absence of all rod and cone photoreceptor input.Although relatively few in number,ipRGCs extend their dendrites across large expanses of the retina making them ideally suited to function as irradiance detectors to assess changes in ambient light levels.Phototransduction in ipRGCs appears to be mediated by transient receptor potential channels more closely resembling the phototransduction cascade of invertebrate rather than vertebrate photoreceptors.ipRGCs convey irradiance information centrally via the optic nerve to influence several functions.ipRGCs are the primary retinal input to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus(SCN),a circadian oscillator and biological clock,and this input entrains the SCN to the day/night cycle.ipRGCs contribute irradiance signals that regulate pupil size and they also provide signals that interface with the autonomic nervous system to regulate rhythmic gene activity in major organs of the body.ipRGCs also provide excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina,providing a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light.Here we review the ground-breaking discoveries,current progress and directions for future investigation.

  17. Dendritic Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Sevda Söker

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells, a member of family of antigen presenting cells, are most effective cells in the primary immune response. Dendritic cells originated from dendron, in mean of tree in the Greek, because of their long and elaborate cytoplasmic branching processes. Dendritic cells constitute approximately 0.1 to 1 percent of the blood’s mononuclear cell. Dendritic cells are widely distributed, and specialized for antigen capture and T cell stimulation. In this article, structures and functions of...

  18. Generation of pancreatic islet cells from human embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG DongHui; JIANG Wei; SHI Yan; DENG HongKui

    2009-01-01

    Efficiently obtaining functional pancreaUc islet cells derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells not only provides great potential to solve the shortage of islets sources for type I diabetes cell therapy,but also benefits the study of the development of the human pancreas and diabetes pathology. In 2001,hES cells were reported to have the capacity to generate insulin-producing cells by spontaneous differentiation in vitro. Since then, many strategies (such as overexpression of key transcription factors,delivery of key proteins for pancreatic development, co-transplantation of differentiated hES cells along with fetal pancreas, stepwise differentiation by mimicking in vivo pancreatic development) have been employed in order to induce the differentiation of pancreatic islet cells from hES cells. Moreover, patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells.iPS cells have characteristics similar to those of ES cells and offer a new cell source for type I diabetes cell therapy that reduces the risk of immunologic rejection. In this review, we summarize the recent progress made in the differentiation of hES and iPS cells into functional pancreatic islet cells and discuss the challenges for their future study.

  19. Cell reprogramming for the creation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells by defined factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqun YIN; Heng WANG; Hongguo CAO; Yunhai ZHANG; Yong TAO; Xiaorong ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), characterized by being able to differentiate into various types of cells, are generally regarded as the most promising sources for cell replacement therapies. However, as typical PSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are still far away from human clinics so far due to ethical issues and immune rejection response. One way to avoid such problems is to use stem cells derived from autologous somatic cells. Up to date, PSCs could be obtained by reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotent state with approaches including somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), fusion with stem cells, coculture with cells' extracts, and induction with defined factors. Among these, through reprogramming somatic cells directly by retroviral transduction of transcription factors, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been successfully generated in both mouse and human recently. These iPS cells shared similar morphology and growth properties to ESCs, could express ESCs marker genes, and could produce adult or germline-competent chimaeras and differentiate into a variety of cell types, including germ cells. Moreover, with iPS technique, patient specific PSCs could be derived more easily from handful somatic cells in human without immune rejection responses innately connected to ESCs. Consequently, generation of iPS cells would be of great help to further understand disease mechanisms, drug screening, and cell transplantation therapies as well.In summary,the recent progress in the study of cell reprogramming for the creation of patientspecific pluripotent stem cells, some existing problems, and research perspectives were suggested.

  20. Characterization and comparison of osteoblasts derived from mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Kannan, Vishnu; de Vries, Anneriek E; Czepiel, Marcin; Wesseling, Evelyn M; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Kuijer, Roelof; Vissink, Arjan; Copray, Sjef C V M; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    2016-01-01

    New developments in stem cell biology offer alternatives for the reconstruction of critical-sized bone defects. One of these developments is the use of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These stem cells are similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, but can be generated from adult somatic cells and t

  1. Induced pluripotent stem cells: origins, applications, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Jiang, Wen-jie; Sun, Chen; Hou, Cong-zhe; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Gao, Jian-gang

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are widely used for different purposes, including gene targeting, cell therapy, tissue repair, organ regeneration, and so on. However, studies and applications of ES cells are hindered by ethical issues regarding cell sources. To circumvent ethical disputes, great efforts have been taken to generate ES cell-like cells, which are not derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos. In 2006, Yamanaka et al. first reprogrammed mouse embryonic fibroblasts into ES cell-like cells called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. About one year later, Yamanaka et al. and Thomson et al. independently reprogrammed human somatic cells into iPS cells. Since the first generation of iPS cells, they have now been derived from quite a few different kinds of cell types. In particular, the use of peripheral blood facilitates research on iPS cells because of safety, easy availability, and plenty of cell sources. Now iPS cells have been used for cell therapy, disease modeling, and drug discovery. In this review, we describe the generations, applications, potential issues, and future perspectives of iPS cells.

  2. Analysis list: Atf7ip [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Atf7ip Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Atf7ip....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Atf7ip.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Atf7ip.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Atf7ip.Plurip...otent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pluripotent_stem_cell.gml ...

  3. Reprogramming of mouse amniotic fluid cells using a PiggyBac transposon system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated from mouse and human somatic cells by forced expression of defined transcription factors using different methods. Amniotic fluid (AF cells are easy to obtain from routinely scheduled procedures for prenatal diagnosis and iPS cells have been generated from human AF. Here, we generated iPS cells from mouse AF cells, using a non-viral-based approach constituted by the PiggyBac (PB transposon system. All iPS cell lines obtained exhibited characteristics of pluripotent cells, including the ability to differentiate toward derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, engineering and disease treatment. The dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, the multipotent capacity of DFAT cells and comparisons and contrasts with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are discussed in this review. PMID:23991357

  5. Establishment and identification of induced pluripotent stem cells in liver cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Ming Zhang; Jian-Jun Li; Peng Yan; Jian-Ting Hu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To induce pluripotent stem (IPS) cells from fibrocytes that are separated from liver cancer patients. Methods: The fibrocytes were reprogrammed to IPS cells by lentiviral vector, stained and identified by immunohistochemistry. Results: The IPS cells were successfully established from fibrocytes after infection, and IPS cell clones formed in round shape under a microscopy. The induction rate was 0.013%±0.007%. No tumor formed at the back of nude mice within 8 weeks after the inoculation of cell clones. However, tetatoma appeared in nude mice within 1 week after IPS inoculation. A few tumors formed in nude mice within 4 weeks after the inoculation of cell clones. However, subcutaneous tumors formed within 1 week after IPS inoculation. The induced IPS cells showed three germ layers in tetatoma. Nanog and OCT4 in the induced IPS cells showed hypomethylation. SSEA-A, TRA-1-6-, TRA-1-81 and Nanog were highly expressed in the induced IPS cells, indicating the IPS cells possessed the similar ability as the stem cells. Conclusion: The IPS cells of liver cancer patients can be established effectively from fibrocytes and can be cultured stably in vitro, which provides an approach for the treatment of intermediate or advanced stage liver cancer.

  6. Long-term maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells by automated cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Shuhei; Ando, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Suemori, Hirofumi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-11-17

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are regarded as new sources for cell replacement therapy. These cells can unlimitedly expand under undifferentiated conditions and be differentiated into multiple cell types. Automated culture systems enable the large-scale production of cells. In addition to reducing the time and effort of researchers, an automated culture system improves the reproducibility of cell cultures. In the present study, we newly designed a fully automated cell culture system for human iPS maintenance. Using an automated culture system, hiPS cells maintained their undifferentiated state for 60 days. Automatically prepared hiPS cells had a potency of differentiation into three germ layer cells including dopaminergic neurons and pancreatic cells.

  7. Induced pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Karen K; Li, Song; Roy, Krishnendu

    2014-07-11

    With the discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, it is now possible to convert differentiated somatic cells into multipotent stem cells that have the capacity to generate all cell types of adult tissues. Thus, there is a wide variety of applications for this technology, including regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modeling, and drug screening/discovery. Although biological and biochemical techniques have been well established for cell reprogramming, bioengineering technologies offer novel tools for the reprogramming, expansion, isolation, and differentiation of iPS cells. In this article, we review these bioengineering approaches for the derivation and manipulation of iPS cells and focus on their relevance to regenerative medicine.

  8. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  9. Genome-wide ChIP-seq mapping and analysis of butyrate-induced H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and epigenomic landscapes alteration in bovine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (VFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are nutrients especially critical to ruminants. Beyond their nutritional impact, clear evidence is beginning to link modifications in chromatin structure induced by butyrate to cell cycle progression, DNA replication and over...

  10. Genome-wide ChIP-seq mapping and analysis of butyrate-induced H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and epigenomic landscape alteration in bovine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing next-generation sequencing technology, combined with ChIP (Chromatin Immunoprecipitation) technology, we analyzed histone modification (acetylation) induced by butyrate and the large-scale mapping of the epigenomic landscape of normal histone H3 and acetylated histone H3K9 and H3K27. To d...

  11. Disease-corrected haematopoietic progenitors from Fanconi anaemia induced pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Raya, Ángel; Rodríguez-Pizà, Ignasi; Guenechea, Guillermo; Vassena, Rita; Navarro, Susana; Barrero, María José; Consiglio, Antonella; Castellà, Maria; Río, Paula; Sleep, Eduard; González, Federico; Tiscornia, Gustavo; Garreta, Elena; Aasen, Trond; Veiga, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has enabled the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent cells and provided valuable experimental platforms to model human disease. Patient-specific iPS cells are also thought to hold great therapeutic potential, although direct evidence for this is still lacking. Here we show that, on correction of the genetic defect, somatic cells from Fanconi anaemia patients can be reprogrammed to pluripotency to generate patient-specific iPS cells....

  12. Human induced pluripotent stem cells on autologous feeders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Takahashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For therapeutic usage of induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells, to accomplish xeno-free culture is critical. Previous reports have shown that human embryonic stem (ES cells can be maintained in feeder-free condition. However, absence of feeder cells can be a hostile environment for pluripotent cells and often results in karyotype abnormalities. Instead of animal feeders, human fibroblasts can be used as feeder cells of human ES cells. However, one still has to be concerned about the existence of unidentified pathogens, such as viruses and prions in these non-autologous feeders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This report demonstrates that human induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells can be established and maintained on isogenic parental feeder cells. We tested four independent human skin fibroblasts for the potential to maintain self-renewal of iPS cells. All the fibroblasts tested, as well as their conditioned medium, were capable of maintaining the undifferentiated state and normal karyotypes of iPS cells. Furthermore, human iPS cells can be generated on isogenic parental fibroblasts as feeders. These iPS cells carried on proliferation over 19 passages with undifferentiated morphologies. They expressed undifferentiated pluripotent cell markers, and could differentiate into all three germ layers via embryoid body and teratoma formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that autologous fibroblasts can be not only a source for iPS cells but also be feeder layers. Our results provide a possibility to solve the dilemma by using isogenic fibroblasts as feeder layers of iPS cells. This is an important step toward the establishment of clinical grade iPS cells.

  13. In vivo generation of transplantable human hematopoietic cells from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Giovanni; Welner, Robert S; Nombela-Arrieta, Cesar; D'Alise, Anna Morena; Di Ruscio, Annalisa; Ebralidze, Alexander K; Kraytsberg, Yevgenya; Ye, Min; Kocher, Olivier; Neuberg, Donna S; Khrapko, Konstantin; Silberstein, Leslie E; Tenen, Daniel G

    2013-02-21

    Lineage-restricted cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells through overexpression of 4 transcription factors. iPS cells are similar to human embryonic stem (hES) cells and have the same ability to generate all the cells of the human body, including blood cells. However, this process is extremely inefficient and to date has been unsuccessful at differentiating iPS into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We hypothesized that iPS cells, injected into NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ immunocompromised (NSG) mice could give rise to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) during teratoma formation. Here, we report a novel in vivo system in which human iPS cells differentiate within teratomas to derive functional myeloid and lymphoid cells. Similarly, HSPCs can be isolated from teratoma parenchyma and reconstitute a human immune system when transplanted into immunodeficient mice. Our data provide evidence that in vivo generation of patient customized cells is feasible, providing materials that could be useful for transplantation, human antibody generation, and drug screening applications.

  14. Abnormalities in human pluripotent cells due to reprogramming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Morey, Robert; O'Neil, Ryan C; He, Yupeng; Daughtry, Brittany; Schultz, Matthew D; Hariharan, Manoj; Nery, Joseph R; Castanon, Rosa; Sabatini, Karen; Thiagarajan, Rathi D; Tachibana, Masahito; Kang, Eunju; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Ahmed, Riffat; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Van Dyken, Crystal; Polat, Alim; Sugawara, Atsushi; Sparman, Michelle; Gokhale, Sumita; Amato, Paula; Wolf, Don P; Ecker, Joseph R; Laurent, Louise C; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-07-10

    Human pluripotent stem cells hold potential for regenerative medicine, but available cell types have significant limitations. Although embryonic stem cells (ES cells) from in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF ES cells) represent the 'gold standard', they are allogeneic to patients. Autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) are prone to epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations. To determine whether such abnormalities are intrinsic to somatic cell reprogramming or secondary to the reprogramming method, genetically matched sets of human IVF ES cells, iPS cells and nuclear transfer ES cells (NT ES cells) derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were subjected to genome-wide analyses. Both NT ES cells and iPS cells derived from the same somatic cells contained comparable numbers of de novo copy number variations. In contrast, DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of NT ES cells corresponded closely to those of IVF ES cells, whereas iPS cells differed and retained residual DNA methylation patterns typical of parental somatic cells. Thus, human somatic cells can be faithfully reprogrammed to pluripotency by SCNT and are therefore ideal for cell replacement therapies.

  15. Memory in induced pluripotent stem cells: reprogrammed human retinal-pigmented epithelial cells show tendency for spontaneous redifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qirui; Friedrich, Amy M; Johnson, Lincoln V; Clegg, Dennis O

    2010-11-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from a variety of somatic cell types via introduction of transcription factors that mediate pluripotency. However, it is unknown that all cell types can be reprogrammed and whether the origin of the parental cell ultimately determines the behavior of the resultant iPS cell line. We sought to determine whether human retinal-pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells could be reprogrammed, and to test the hypothesis that reprogrammed cells retain a "memory" of their origin in terms of propensity for differentiation. We reprogrammed primary fetal RPE cells via lentiviral expression of OCT4, SOX2, LIN28, and Nanog. The iPS cell lines derived from RPE exhibited morphologies similar to human embryonic stem cells and other iPS cell lines, expressed stem cell markers, and formed teratomas-containing derivatives of all three germ layers. To test whether these iPS cells retained epigenetic imprints from the parental RPE cells, we analyzed their propensity for spontaneous differentiation back into RPE after removal of FGF2. We found that some, but not all, iPS lines exhibited a marked preference for redifferentiation into RPE. Our results show that RPE cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency, and suggest that they often retain a memory of their previous state of differentiation.

  16. Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many standard physical chemistry textbooks contain ambiguities which lead to confusion about standard electrode potentials, calculating cell voltages, and writing reactions for galvanic cells. This article shows how standard electrode potentials can be used to calculate cell voltages and deduce cell reactions. (Author/RH)

  17. Cell Biochips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioufle, B. Le; Picollet-D'Hahan, N.

    A cell biochip is a microsystem, equipped with electronic and microfluidic functions, designed to manipulate or analyse living cells. The first publications in this emerging area of research appeared toward the end of the 1980s. In 1989 Washizu described a biochip designed to fuse two cells by electropermeabilisation of the cytoplasmic membrane [1]. Research centers have devised a whole range of cell chip structures, for simultaneous or sequential analysis of single cells, cell groups, or cell tissues reconstituted on the chip. The cells are arranged in a square array on a parallel cell chip for parallel analysis, while they are examined and processed one by one in a microchannel in the case of a series cell chip. In contrast to these biochips for high-throughput analysis of a large number of cells, single-cell chips focus on the analysis of a single isolated cell. As in DNA microarrays, where a large number of oligonucleotides are ordered in a matrix array, parallel cell chips order living cells in a similar way. At each point of the array, the cells can be isolated, provided that the cell type allows this, e.g., blood cells, or cultivated in groups (most adhesion cells can only survive in groups). The aim is to allow massively parallel analysis or processing. Le Pioufle et al. describe a microdevice for the culture of single cells or small groups of cells in a micropit array [2]. Each pit is equipped to stimulate the cell or group of cells either electrically or fluidically. Among the applications envisaged are gene transfer, cell sorting, and screening in pharmacology. A complementary approach, combining the DNA microarray and cell biochip ideas, has been put forward by Bailey et al. [3]. Genes previously arrayed on the chip transfect the cultured cells on the substrate depending on their position in the array (see Fig. 19.1). This way of achieving differential lipofection on a chip was then taken up again by Yoshikawa et al. [4] with primary cells, more

  18. Enhanced glutamate, IP3 and cAMP activity in the cerebral cortex of Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's rats: Effect of 5-HT, GABA and bone marrow cell supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Chinthu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which leads to dopamine depletion in the striatum and indirectly to cortical dysfunction. Increased glutamatergic transmission in the basal ganglia is implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and glutamate receptor mediated excitotoxicity has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of the neuronal degeneration. In the present study, the effects of serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid and bone marrow cells infused intranigrally to substantia nigra individually and in combination on unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's rat model was analyzed. Scatchard analysis of total glutamate and NMDA receptor binding parameters showed a significant increase in Bmax (P

  19. 六磷酸肌醇对人结肠腺癌LoVo细胞增殖分化影响%Influence of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on proliferation and differentiation of human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line LoVo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹃; 张振书; 张亚力

    2004-01-01

    目的观察六磷酸肌醇(IP6)对人结肠腺癌细胞株LoVo体外增殖、分化的影响.方法直接细胞记数法、MTT法、平皿集落形成实验、肠型ALP比活性测定等方法观察LoVo细胞增殖、分化特性.结果与对照组相比,IP6处理组在6h后细胞增殖与集落形成能力呈现抑制状态,并呈时间、剂量依赖关系.分化标志酶ALP比活性增高.结论IP6对LoVo细胞具有细胞毒作用,能明显抑制细胞增殖、诱导细胞分化.

  20. DNA damage responses in human induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Momcilovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells have the capability to undergo self-renewal and differentiation into all somatic cell types. Since they can be produced through somatic cell reprogramming, which uses a defined set of transcription factors, iPS cells represent important sources of patient-specific cells for clinical applications. However, before these cells can be used in therapeutic designs, it is essential to understand their genetic stability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe DNA damage responses in human iPS cells. We observe hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents resulting in rapid induction of apoptosis after γ-irradiation. Expression of pluripotency factors does not appear to be diminished after irradiation in iPS cells. Following irradiation, iPS cells activate checkpoint signaling, evidenced by phosphorylation of ATM, NBS1, CHEK2, and TP53, localization of ATM to the double strand breaks (DSB, and localization of TP53 to the nucleus of NANOG-positive cells. We demonstrate that iPS cells temporary arrest cell cycle progression in the G(2 phase of the cell cycle, displaying a lack of the G(1/S cell cycle arrest similar to human embryonic stem (ES cells. Furthermore, both cell types remove DSB within six hours of γ-irradiation, form RAD51 foci and exhibit sister chromatid exchanges suggesting homologous recombination repair. Finally, we report elevated expression of genes involved in DNA damage signaling, checkpoint function, and repair of various types of DNA lesions in ES and iPS cells relative to their differentiated counterparts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High degrees of similarity in DNA damage responses between ES and iPS cells were found. Even though reprogramming did not alter checkpoint signaling following DNA damage, dramatic changes in cell cycle structure, including a high percentage of cells in the S phase, increased radiosensitivity and loss of DNA damage-induced G(1/S cell cycle arrest, were

  1. Generation of pancreatic islet cells from human embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Efficiently obtaining functional pancreatic islet cells derived from human embryonic stem(hES) cells not only provides great potential to solve the shortage of islets sources for type I diabetes cell therapy,but also benefits the study of the development of the human pancreas and diabetes pathology.In 2001,hES cells were reported to have the capacity to generate insulin-producing cells by spontaneous differentiation in vitro.Since then,many strategies(such as overexpression of key transcription factors,delivery of key proteins for pancreatic development,co-transplantation of differentiated hES cells along with fetal pancreas,stepwise differentiation by mimicking in vivo pancreatic development) have been employed in order to induce the differentiation of pancreatic islet cells from hES cells.Moreover,patient-specific induced pluripotent stem(iPS) cells can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells.iPS cells have characteristics similar to those of ES cells and offer a new cell source for type I diabetes cell therapy that reduces the risk of immunologic rejection.In this review,we summarize the recent progress made in the differentiation of hES and iPS cells into functional pancreatic islet cells and discuss the challenges for their future study.

  2. Therapeutic opportunities: Telomere maintenance in inducible pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourronc, Francoise A. [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa (United States); Klingelhutz, Aloysius J., E-mail: al-klingelhutz@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa (United States)

    2012-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that exogenous expression of a combination of transcription factors can reprogram differentiated cells such as fibroblasts and keratinocytes into what have been termed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These iPS cells are capable of differentiating into all the tissue lineages when placed in the right environment and, in the case of mouse cells, can generate chimeric mice and be transmitted through the germline. Safer and more efficient methods of reprogramming are rapidly being developed. Clearly, iPS cells present a number of exciting possibilities, including disease modeling and therapy. A major question is whether the nuclei of iPS cells are truly rejuvenated or whether they might retain some of the marks of aging from the cells from which they were derived. One measure of cellular aging is the telomere. In this regard, recent studies have demonstrated that telomeres in iPS cells may be rejuvenated. They are not only elongated by reactivated telomerase but they are also epigenetically modified to be similar but not identical to embryonic stem cells. Upon differentiation, the derivative cells turn down telomerase, the telomeres begin to shorten again, and the telomeres and the genome are returned to an epigenetic state that is similar to normal differentiated somatic cells. While these preliminary telomere findings are promising, the overall genomic integrity of reprogrammed cells may still be problematic and further studies are needed to examine the safety and feasibility of using iPS cells in regenerative medicine applications.

  3. Regenerative cells for transplantation in hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Banas, Agnieszka; Teratani, Takumi; Iwaguro, Hideki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have an enormous potential; however, their potential clinical application is being arrested due to various limitations such as teratoma formation followed by tumorigenesis, emergent usage, and the quality control of cells, as well as safety issues regarding long-term culture are also delaying their clinical application. In addition, human ES cells have two crucial issues: immunogenicity and ethical issues associated with their clinical application. The efficient generation of human iPS cells requires gene transfer, yet the mechanism underlying pluripotent stem cell induction has not yet been fully elucidated. Otherwise, although human adult regenerative cells including mesenchymal stem cells have a limited capacity for differentiation, they are nevertheless promising candidates for tissue regeneration in a clinical setting. This review highlights the use of regenerative cells for transplantation in hepatic failure.

  4. Phosphorylation of Rat Melanopsin at Ser-381 and Ser-398 by Light/Dark and Its Importance for Intrinsically Photosensitive Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) Cellular Ca2+ Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Falktoft, Birgitte; Georg, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens; Kristiansen, Sarah B.; Klausen, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    The G protein-coupled light-sensitive receptor melanopsin is involved in non-image-forming light responses including circadian timing. The predicted secondary structure of melanopsin indicates a long cytoplasmic tail with many potential phosphorylation sites. Using bioinformatics, we identified a number of amino acids with a high probability of being phosphorylated. We generated antibodies against melanopsin phosphorylated at Ser-381 and Ser-398, respectively. The antibody specificity was verified by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical staining of HEK-293 cells expressing rat melanopsin mutated in Ser-381 or Ser-398. Using the antibody recognizing phospho-Ser-381 melanopsin, we demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical staining in HEK-293 cells expressing rat melanopsin that the receptor is phosphorylated in this position during the dark and dephosphorylated when light is turned on. On the contrary, we found that melanopsin at Ser-398 was unphosphorylated in the dark and became phosphorylated after light stimulation. The light-induced changes in phosphorylation at both Ser-381 and Ser-398 were rapid and lasted throughout the 4-h experimental period. Furthermore, phosphorylation at Ser-381 and Ser-398 was independent of each other. The changes in phosphorylation were confirmed in vivo by immunohistochemical staining of rat retinas during light and dark. We further demonstrated that mutation of Ser-381 and Ser-398 in melanopsin-expressing HEK-293 cells affected the light-induced Ca2+ response, which was significantly reduced as compared with wild type. Examining the light-evoked Ca2+ response in a melanopsin Ser-381 plus Ser-398 double mutant provided evidence that the phosphorylation events were independent. PMID:25378407

  5. Biological impact of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Miguel; Menéndez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Research on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells is currently a field of great potential in biomedicine. These cells represent a highly valuable tool for developmental biology studies, disease models, and drug screening and toxicity. The ultimate goal of hESCs and iPS cell research is the treatment of diseases or disorders for which there is currently no treatment or existing therapies are only partially effective. Despite the disproportionate short-term hopes generated, which are putting too much pressure on scientists, the international scientific community is making rapid progress in understanding hESCs and iPS cells. Nonetheless, great efforts have to be made to provide an answer to still quite basic questions concerning their biology. Moreover, translation to clinical applications in cell replacement therapy requires prior solution to ethical barriers. The recent development of iPS cells has provided a strong alternative to overcome ethical issues concerning hESCs. However, an in-depth characterization of their genetic and epigenetic features, as well as their differentiation potential still remains to be undertaken. This chapter will describe, precisely, what the critical issues are, where scientific and ethical barriers stand, and how we are to overcome them. Only then, we shall finally discover whether hESCs and iPS cells will allow building reproducible disease models, and whether they really are a safe tool, with great potential for regenerative medicine.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric proteins contribute to cytoadherence and anchor <i>P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 to the host cell cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberli, Alexander; Zurbrügg, Laura; Rusch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    is anchored to the cytoskeleton, and the Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric (PHIST) gene family plays a role in many host cell modifications including binding the intracellular domain of PfEMP1. Here, we show that conditional reduction of the PHIST protein PFE1605w strongly reduces adhesion...... of infected erythrocytes to the endothelial receptor CD36. Adhesion to other endothelial receptors was less affected or even unaltered by PFE1605w depletion, suggesting that PHIST proteins might be optimized for subsets of PfEMP1 variants. PFE1605w does not play a role in PfEMP1 transport, but it directly...

  7. Red Cell Morphology Interference in Platelet Indices from Patients with Anemia and Low Mean Corpuscular Volume from the IPS Universitaria, Clínica León XIII

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Arbeláez, Patricia E.; Universidad de Antioquia-Clínica León XIII; Acevedo Toro, Paola A.; Universidad de Antioquia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The microcytosis and poikilocytosis interfere with platelet count in microcytic anemia, which alters the platelet indices determination in hematology analyzers with impedance.Objective: To evaluate the red cell morphology in blood smears to identify those alterations that interfere with platelet indices results in patients with microcytic anemia. Materials and Methods: Fifty adult patients hospitalized with heterogeneous microcytic anemia were confirmed through automated full bl...

  8. Effects of inositol hexaphosphate on proliferation of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Tian; Yang Song

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on proliferation of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line.METHODS: Cells were exposed to various concentrations (0, 1.8, 3.3, 5.0, 8.0, 13.0 mmol/L) of IP6 for a certain period of time. Its effect on growth of HT-29 cells was measured by MTT assay. The expressions of cell cycle regulators treated with IP6 for 2 d were detected by immunocytochemistry.RESULTS: IP6 inhibited the HT-29 cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Analysis of cell cycle regulator expression revealed that IP6 reduced the abnormal expression of P53 and PCNA and induced the expression of P21.CONCLUSION: IP6 has potent inhibitory effect on proliferation of HT-29 cells by modulating the expression of special cell cycle regulators.

  9. Integrative genome-wide approaches in embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Huang, Jing

    2010-10-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from blastocysts. They can differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers and essentially any type of somatic cells. They therefore hold great potential in tissue regeneration therapy. The ethical issues associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells are resolved by the technical break-through of generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from various types of somatic cells. However, how ES and iPS cells self-renew and maintain their pluripotency is still largely unknown in spite of the great progress that has been made in the last two decades. Integrative genome-wide approaches, such as the gene expression microarray, chromatin immunoprecipitation based microarray (ChIP-chip) and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the mechanism of the pluripotency, reprogramming and DNA damage response of ES and iPS cells. This frontier article summarizes the fundamental biological questions about ES and iPS cells and reviews the recent advances in ES and iPS cell research using genome-wide technologies. To this end, we offer our perspectives on the future of genome-wide studies on stem cells.

  10. Stem cells in cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, Agneta; English, Denis; Sanberg, Paul R

    2006-12-01

    This commentary documents the increased number of stem cell-related research reports recently published in the cell transplantation field in the journal Cell Transplantation. The journal covers a wide range of issues in cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine and is attracting clinical and preclinical articles from around the world. It thereby complements and extends the basic coverage of stem cell physiology reported in Stem Cells and Development. Sections in Cell Transplantation cover neuroscience, diabetes, hepatocytes, bone, muscle, cartilage, skin, vessels, and other tissues, as well as tissue engineering that employs novel methods with stem cells. Clearly, the continued use of biomedical engineering will depend heavily on stem cells, and these two journals are well positioned to provide comprehensive coverage of these developments.

  11. Engineering cell-cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S; Milano, Daniel F; Natividad, Robert J; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-10-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling on the basis of quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilize synthetic cells, advanced 'chassis' and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues.

  12. Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell motility is a fascinating example of cell behavior which is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. It is based on a complex self-organized mechano-chemical machine consisting of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. In general, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the movement of the entire cell and for movements within the cell. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found. This long term goal can only be achieved if new experimental techniques are developed to extract physical information from these living systems and if theoretical models are found which bridge the gap between molecular and mesoscopic length scales. Cell Motility gives an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area.

  13. Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an overview of photovoltaic cells that are currently manufactured and those being developed, including one or several p-n junction, organic and dye-sensitized cells using quantum dots. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of various photovoltaic cells, identifies the main parameters, explains the main reasons for the losses that may occur in photovoltaic cells and looks at the ways to minimize them.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cells:origins, applications, and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing ZHAO; Wen-jie JIANG; Chen SUN; Cong-zhe HOU; Xiao-mei YANG; Jian-gang GAO

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are widely used for different purposes, including gene targeting, celltherapy, tissue repair, organ regeneration, and so on. However, studies and applications of ES cells are hindered by ethical issues regarding cellsources. To circumvent ethical disputes, great efforts have been taken to generate ES cel-like cells, which are not derived from the inner cellmass of blastocyst-stage embryos. In 2006, Yamanaka et al. first re-programmed mouse embryonic fibroblasts into ES cell-like cells cal ed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. About one year later, Yamanaka et al. and Thomson et al. independently reprogrammed human somatic cells into iPS cells. Since the first generation of iPS cells, they have now been derived from quite a few different kinds of celltypes. In particular, the use of peripheral blood facilitates research on iPS cells because of safety, easy availability, and plenty of cellsources. Now iPS cells have been used for celltherapy, disease modeling, and drug discovery. In this review, we describe the generations, applications, potential issues, and future perspectives of iPS cells.

  15. Induced pluripotent stem cells: opportunities as research and development tools in 21st century drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowntree, Rebecca K; McNeish, John D

    2010-07-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs), when compared with transformed, primary or engineered cells, have unique characteristics and advantages that have resulted in the development of important cell-based tools in modern drug discovery. However, a key limitation has been the availability of human ESCs from patients with specific medical needs and the broad range of genetic variation represented worldwide. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are derived from somatic cells that are reprogrammed to a pluripotent stem cell state and have functional characteristics similar to ESCs. The demonstration that human iPS cells can be derived, with relative ease, through the introduction of transcription factor combinations has allowed the generation of disease-specific iPS cell lines. Therefore, iPS cell technology may deliver robust, human pluripotent cell lines from a wide range of clinical phenotypes and genotypes. Although human iPS cell technology is still a new tool in drug discovery, the promise that this technology will impact the discovery of new therapies can be projected based on the uptake of stem cell applications in biopharmaceutical sciences. Here, the near-term opportunities that iPS cells may deliver to drug discoverers to generate and test hypotheses will be discussed, with a focus on the specific strengths and weaknesses of iPS cell technology. Finally, the future perspective will address novel opportunities iPS cells could uniquely deliver to the preclinical development of new drug therapies.

  16. Machine learning classification of cell-specific cardiac enhancers uncovers developmental subnetworks regulating progenitor cell division and cell fate specification

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Shaad M.; Busser, Brian W; Huang, Di; Cozart, Elizabeth J.; Michaud, Sébastien; Zhu, Xianmin; Jeffries, Neal; Aboukhalil, Anton; Bulyk, Martha L.; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Michelson, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila heart is composed of two distinct cell types, the contractile cardial cells (CCs) and the surrounding non-muscle pericardial cells (PCs), development of which is regulated by a network of conserved signaling molecules and transcription factors (TFs). Here, we used machine learning with array-based chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data and TF sequence motifs to computationally classify cell type-specific cardiac enhancers. Extensive testing of predicted enhancers at single-c...

  17. Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are a primary source of induced pluripotent stem cells in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Shigemoto, Taeko; Matsuse, Dai; Akashi, Hideo; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Kikuchi, Tomohiko; Goda, Makoto; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Dezawa, Mari

    2011-06-14

    The stochastic and elite models have been proposed for the mechanism of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell generation. In this study we report a system that supports the elite model. We previously identified multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells in human dermal fibroblasts that are characterized by stress tolerance, expression of pluripotency markers, self-renewal, and the ability to differentiate into endodermal-, mesodermal-, and ectodermal-lineage cells from a single cell. They can be isolated as stage-specific embryonic antigen-3/CD105 double-positive cells. When human fibroblasts were separated into Muse and non-Muse cells and transduced with Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, iPS cells were generated exclusively from Muse cells but not from non-Muse cells. Although some colonies were formed from non-Muse cells, they were unlike iPS cells. Furthermore, epigenetic alterations were not seen, and some of the major pluripotency markers were not expressed for the entire period during iPS cell generation. These findings were confirmed further using cells transduced with a single polycistronic virus vector encoding all four factors. The results demonstrate that in adult human fibroblasts a subset of preexisting adult stem cells whose properties are similar in some respects to those of iPS cells selectively become iPS cells, but the remaining cells make no contribution to the generation of iPS cells. Therefore this system seems to fit the elite model rather than the stochastic model.

  18. Engineering Cell-Cell Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S.; Milano, Daniel F.; Natividad, Robert J.; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-01-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cel...

  19. The mechanism of mTOR signaling pathway in the regulation of differentiation of iPS into retinal pigment epithelial cells%mTOR信号通路在iPS定向分化RPE细胞中的调控机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋超; 石厚霞; 丁思加; 赵晨

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of mTOR signaling pathway in the regulation of differentiation of iPS into retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Methods After embryoid bodies were formed by cultured iPS in suspension condition, they were induced to differentiate into RPE cells. The expressions of RPE specific proteins (RPE65, LRAT, ZO-1) in iPS-RPE cells during differentiation were detected by immunocytochemistry. Q-PCR and Western Blotting were carried out to analyze RPE specific genes, proteins and mTOR activity in iPS-RPE at different time points of differentiation (after one month, two months, three months). Finally, iPS-RPE were treated with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and RPE specific protein expression was evaluated. Results The RPE specific proteins (RPE65, LRAT, zo-1) of iPS-RPE cells were observed after one month of differentiation by fluorescence microscope. Compared with the control iPS, Q-PCR results showed that iPS-RPE exhibited significant higher level of RPE specific genes (RPE65, Best1, MerTK, CK18) after three months of differentiation (P<0.01). Western Blotting also showed that the expressions of RPE specific proteins BEST1, catenin and MerTK significantly increased in iPS-RPE cells as differentiation process went on. The activity of the mTOR was inhibited in this process. In addition, rapamycin treated cells exhibited higher expression of catenin, but expression of BEST1, MerTK and CK18 was not changed. Conclusions We established an efficient method to obtain iPS-RPE cells. And mTOR signaling pathway is gradually suppressed during the process of iPS differentiation into RPE cells in vitro.%目的:探讨mTOR信号通路在iPS定向分化RPE细胞中的调控机制。方法培养iPS细胞,悬浮培养后形成拟胚体EB,诱导分化为RPE细胞。通过免疫细胞化学的方法,观察iPS-RPE细胞分化一个月后特异性蛋白(RPE65、LRAT、zo-1)的表达。同时通过Q-PCR,Western Blotting的方法检测iPS-RPE在

  20. Beyond iPS!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s undoubtedly a jubilant moment for scientists and clinicians working in the stem cell arena as Prof. Gurdon and Prof. Shinya Yamanaka have been chosen for the Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine this year. The mystery of cell biology is something unfathomable and probably the work of this duo as well as the other scientists, who have put their hands on in- vitro de-differentiation have opened our eyes to a new window or a new paradigm in cell biology. The iPS invention has brought a lot of hope in terms of potential direct benefits to treat several diseases, which have no definite options at the moment. But, we envisage that several spin-offs could come out of this invention and one very significant spin-off finding recently witnessed is the finding by Prof. Masaharu Seno and his team of researchers at the Okayama University, Japan (Chen L, et al. 2012, PLoS ONE 7(4:e33544.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033544. According to Prof. Seno, mouse iPS cells (miPS when cultured in the conditioned medium derived from cancer cell lines, differentiate into cancer stem cells (CSCs. While differentiating into CSCs, they do retain the potential to develop endothelial progenitor cells. Several questions arise here: 1.Are these miPS derived CSCs really pluripotent, even if the terminal differentiation destined to specific phenotypes? 2.Shouldn’t the Cancer Stem Cells be termed as cancer progenitor cells, as till date they are considered to be producing only cancer cells but not pluripotent to yield other types of normal tissues? The spin-offs could be infinite as the process of differentiation and de-differentiation happening due to trillions of signals and pathways, most still remaining not-so-well understood. A special mention should be made to Prof. Shinya Yamanaka as he has several sterling qualities to be a role-model for budding scientists. Apart from his passion for science, which made him shift his career from orthopedics to a cell biologist, his

  1. Inositol pyrophosphates modulate cell cycle independently of alteration in telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfic, Hrvoje; Crljen, Vladiana; Lukinovic-Skudar, Vesna; Dembitz, Vilma; Lalic, Hrvoje; Bedalov, Antonio; Visnjic, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of inositol pyrophosphates through activation of Kcs1 plays an important role in the signalling response required for cell cycle progression after mating pheromone arrest. Overexpression of Kcs1 doubled the level of inositol pyrophosphates when compared to wild type cells and 30 min following the release from α-factor block further increase in inositol pyrophosphates was observed, which resulted that cells overexpressing Kcs1 reached G2/M phase earlier than wild type cells. Similar effect was observed in ipk1Δ cells, which are unable to synthesize IP6-derived inositol pyrophosphates (IP7 and IP8) but will synthesize IP5-derived inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IP4 and (PP)2-IP3). Although ipk1Δ cells have shorter telomeres than wild type cells, overexpression of Kcs1 in both strains have similar effect on cell cycle progression. As it is known that PP-IP4 regulates telomere length through Tel1, inositol polyphosphates, cell cycle and telomere length were determined in tel1Δ cells. The release of the cells from α-factor block and overexpression of Kcs1 in tel1Δ cells produced similar effects on inositol pyrophosphates level and cell cycle progression when compared to wild type cells, although tel1Δ cells possesses shorter telomeres than wild type cells. It can be concluded that telomere length does not affect cell cycle progression, since cells with short telomeres (ipk1Δ and tel1Δ) progress through cell cycle in a similar manner as wild type cells and that overexpression of Kcs1 in cells with either short or normal telomeres will increase S phase progression without affecting telomere length. Furthermore, IP5-derived inositol pyrophosphates can compensate for the loss of IP6-derived inositol pyrophosphates, in modulating S phase progression of the cell cycle.

  2. iPS-cell derived dendritic cells and macrophages for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Satoru

    2016-08-01

    Antibody-based anti-cancer immunotherapy was recently recognized as one of the truly effective therapies for cancer patients. Antibodies against cell surface cancer antigens, such as CD20, and also those against immune-inhibitory molecules called "immune checkpoint blockers", such as CTLA4 or PD1, have emerged. Large-scale clinical trials have confirmed that, in some cases, antibody-based drugs are superior to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These antibody-based drugs are now being manufactured employing a mass-production system by pharmaceutical companies. Anti-cancer therapy by immune cells, i.e. cell-based immunotherapy, is expected to be more effective than antibody therapy, because immune cells can recognize, infiltrate, and act in cancer tissues more directly than antibodies. In order to achieve cell-based anti-cancer immunotherapy, it is necessary to develop manufacturing systems for mass-production of immune cells. Our group has been studying immunotherapy with myeloid cells derived from ES cells or iPS cells. These pluripotent stem cells can be readily propagated under constant culture conditions, with expansion into a large quantity. We consider these stem cells to be the most suitable cellular source for mass-production of immune cells. This review introduces our studies on anti-cancer therapy with iPS cell-derived dendritic cells and iPS cell-derived macrophages.

  3. Pluripotency can be rapidly and efficiently induced in human amniotic fluid-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunliang; Zhou, Junmei; Shi, Guilai; Ma, Yu; Yang, Ying; Gu, Junjie; Yu, Hongyao; Jin, Shibo; Wei, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Jin, Ying

    2009-11-15

    Direct reprogramming of human somatic cells into pluripotency has broad implications in generating patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for disease modeling and cellular replacement therapies. However, the low efficiency and safety issues associated with generation of human iPS cells have limited their usage in clinical settings. Cell types can significantly influence reprogramming efficiency and kinetics. To date, human iPS cells have been obtained only from a few cell types. Here, we report for the first time rapid and efficient generation of iPS cells from human amniotic fluid-derived cells (hAFDCs) via ectopic expression of four human factors: OCT4/SOX2/KLF4/C-MYC. Significantly, typical single iPS cell colonies can be picked up 6 days after viral infection with high efficiency. Eight iPS cell lines have been derived. They can be continuously propagated in vitro and express pluripotency markers such as AKP, OCT4, SOX2, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81, maintaining the normal karyotype. Transgenes are completely inactivated and the endogenous OCT4 promoter is adequately demethylated in the established iPS cell lines. Moreover, various cells and tissues from all three germ layers are found in embryoid bodies and teratomas, respectively. In addition, microarray analysis demonstrates a high correlation coefficient between hAFDC-iPS cells and human embryonic stem cells, but a low correlation coefficient between hAFDCs and hAFDC-iPS cells. Taken together, these data identify an ideal human somatic cell resource for rapid and efficient generation of iPS cells, allowing us to establish human iPS cells using more advanced approaches and possibly to establish disease- or patient-specific iPS cells.

  4. Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Thakur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in the body. Often called as Magic Seeds, stem cells are produced in bone marrow and circulate in blood, albeit at a relatively low concentration. These virtues together with the ability of stem cells to grow in tissue culture have paved the way for their applications to generate new and healthy tissues and to replace diseased or injured human organs. Although possibilities of stem cell applications are many, much remains yet to be understood of these remarkable magic seeds. Conclusion: This presentation shall briefly cover the origin of stem cells, the pros and cons of their growth and division, their potential application, and shall outline some examples of the contributions of radiolabeled stem cells, in this rapidly growing branch of biomedical science

  5. SNL fibroblast feeder layers support derivation and maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chuanying; Hicks, Amy; Guan, Xuan; Chen, Hong; Bishop, Colin E

    2010-04-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be derived from human somatic cells by cellular reprogramming. This technology provides a potential source of non-controversial therapeutic cells for tissue repair, drug discovery, and opportunities for studying the molecular basis of human disease. Normally, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are used as feeder layers in the initial derivation of iPS lines. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SNL fibroblasts can be used to support the growth of human iPS cells reprogrammed from somatic cells using lentiviral expressed reprogramming factors. In our study, iPS cells expressed common pluripotency markers, displayed human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) morphology and unmethylated promoters of NANOG and OCT4. These data demonstrate that SNL feeder cells can support the derivation and maintenance of human iPS cells.

  6. Limited gene expression variation in human embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark P; Rufaihah, Abdul J; Liu, Lei; Ghebremariam, Yohannes T; Ivey, Kathryn N; Cooke, John P; Srivastava, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines have differences in their epigenetic marks and transcriptomes, yet the impact of these differences on subsequent terminally differentiated cells is less well understood. Comparison of purified, homogeneous populations of somatic cells derived from multiple independent human iPS and ES lines will be required to address this critical question. Here, we report a differentiation protocol based on embryonic development that consistently yields large numbers of endothelial cells (ECs) derived from multiple hESCs or iPS cells. Mesoderm differentiation of embryoid bodies was maximized, and defined growth factors were used to generate KDR(+) EC progenitors. Magnetic purification of a KDR(+) progenitor subpopulation resulted in an expanding, homogeneous pool of ECs that expressed EC markers and had functional properties of ECs. Comparison of the transcriptomes revealed limited gene expression variability between multiple lines of human iPS-derived ECs or between lines of ES- and iPS-derived ECs. These results demonstrate a method to generate large numbers of pure human EC progenitors and differentiated ECs from pluripotent stem cells and suggest individual lineages derived from human iPS cells may have significantly less variance than their pluripotent founders.

  7. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  8. Protection against cancer by dietary IP6 and inositol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucenik, Ivana; Shamsuddin, AbulKalam M

    2006-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6)) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate, abundantly present in many plant sources and in certain high-fiber diets, such as cereals and legumes. In addition to being found in plants, IP(6) is contained in almost all mammalian cells, although in much smaller amounts, where it is important in regulating vital cellular functions such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, and differentiation. For a long time IP(6) has been recognized as a natural antioxidant. Recently IP(6) has received much attention for its role in cancer prevention and control of experimental tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. In addition, IP(6) possesses other significant benefits for human health, such as the ability to enhance immune system, prevent pathological calcification and kidney stone formation, lower elevated serum cholesterol, and reduce pathological platelet activity. In this review we show the efficacy and discuss some of the molecular mechanisms that govern the action of this dietary agent. Exogenously administered IP(6) is rapidly taken up into cells and dephosphorylated to lower inositol phosphates, which further affect signal transduction pathways resulting in cell cycle arrest. A striking anticancer action of IP(6) was demonstrated in different experimental models. In addition to reducing cell proliferation, IP(6) also induces differentiation of malignant cells. Enhanced immunity and antioxidant properties also contribute to tumor cell destruction. Preliminary studies in humans show that IP(6) and inositol, the precursor molecule of IP(6), appear to enhance the anticancer effect of conventional chemotherapy, control cancer metastases, and improve quality of life. Because it is abundantly present in regular diet, efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and safe, IP(6) + inositol holds great promise in our strategies for cancer prevention and therapy. There is clearly enough evidence to justify the

  9. Reprogramming fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells with Bmi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jai-Hee Moon; June Seok Heo; Jun Sung Kim; Eun Kyoung Jun; Jung Han Lee; Aeree Kim; Jonggun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by the transcription factors Oct4,Sox2,and Klf4 in combination with c-Myc.Recently,Sox2 plus Oct4 was shown to reprogram fibroblasts and Oct4 alone was able to reprogram mouse and human neural stem cells (NSCs) into iPS cells.Here,we report that Bmi1 leads to the transdifferentiation of mouse fibroblasts into NSC-like cells,and,in combination with Oct4,can replace Sox2,Klf4 and c-Myc during the reprogramming of fibroblasts into iPS cells.Furthermore,activation of sonic hedgehog signaling (by Shh,purmorphamine,or oxysterol) compensates for the effects of Bmil,and,in combination with Oct4,reprograms mouse embryonic and adult fibroblasts into iPS cells.One- and two-factor iPS cells are similar to mouse embryonic stem cells in their global gene expression profile,epigenetic status,and in vitro and in vivo differentiation into all three germ layers,as well as teratoma formation and germline transmission in vivo.These data support that converting fibroblasts with Bmi1 or activation of the sonic hedgehog pathway to an intermediate cell type that expresses Sox2,KIf4,and N-Myc allows iPS generation via the addition of Oct4.

  10. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  11. Distribution Patterns and Developmental Changes of GnRH and GnRHR-Immunopositive Cells in the Pituitary of Ji Ning Gray Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao, Wang Shu-Ying, Huang Li-Bo, Hou Yan-Meng and Shi Yun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemical Strept Avidin Biotin-Peroxidase Complex (SABC three-step method was used to investigate the distribution patterns and developmental changes of GnRH and GnRHR immunopositive (GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells in the pituitary of Ji Ning Gray goats during 0-180 days of age. The results showed that GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells were detected only in the pars distalis of adenohypophysis. There were no positive cells in the pars intermedia and neurohypophysis. GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells were not observed in the anterior pituitary at birth day and 30 days of age. At 60 days, a number of GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells were found in the anterior pituitary. GnRH-ip cells were pale brown which scattered or clustered around the sinusoid capillary; GnRHR-ip cells were brown and the cytomembrane was darker. The size and percentage of GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells increased with the age growth. The numbers of GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells after sexual maturity were significantly bigger than that before sexual maturity. The results above suggested that GnRH and GnRHR in the pituitary of Ji Ning Gray goats play a pivotal role in the sexual development and sexual maturity.

  12. Two-step differentiation of mast cells from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Tanaka, Satoshi; Katayama, Sumie; Ishida, Waka; Fukuda, Ken; Fukushima, Atsuki; Araki, Ryoko; Abe, Masumi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kawabata, Kenji

    2013-03-01

    Mast cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. They are generally classified into 2 phenotypically distinct populations: connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMCs) and mucosal-type mast cells (MMCs). The number of mast cells that can be obtained from tissues is limited, making it difficult to study the function of mast cells. Here, we report the generation and characterization of CTMC-like mast cells derived from mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. iPS cell-derived mast cells (iPSMCs) were generated by the OP9 coculture method or embryoid body formation method. The number of Safranin O-positive cells, expression levels of CD81 protein and histidine decarboxylase mRNA, and protease activities were elevated in the iPSMCs differentiated by both methods as compared with those in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Electron microscopic analysis revealed that iPSMCs contained more granules than BMMCs. Degranulation was induced in iPSMCs after stimulation with cationic secretagogues or vancomycin. In addition, iPSMCs had the ability to respond to stimulation with the IgE/antigen complex in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, when iPSMCs generated on OP9 cells were cocultured with Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, protease activities as maturation index were more elevated, demonstrating that mature mast cells were differentiated from iPS cells. iPSMCs can be used as an in vitro model of CTMCs to investigate their functions.

  13. Antiplatelet activity of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucenik, I; Podczasy, J J; Shamsuddin, A M

    1999-01-01

    Platelet adhesion to endothelial cells, their aggregation and subsequent release of platelet-derived mediators are key steps in the pathogenesis of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Using impedance technology the effect of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release were simultaneously measured in whole blood obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 10). The platelets were activated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (10 microM), collagen (2 micrograms/mL), or thrombin (1 U/mL) in the presence or absence of IP6. IP6 significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced with all agonists in a dose-response manner (p IP6 strongly and significantly reduced agonist-induced ATP release (p = 0.00247 for ADP; p = 0.0074 for collagen; p = 0.0069 for thrombin). These data demonstrate that IP6 effectively inhibits human platelet aggregation in vitro, suggesting its potential in reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease.

  14. Influences of lamin A levels on induction of pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfeng Zuo

    2012-09-01

    Lamin A is an inner nuclear membrane protein that maintains nuclear structure integrity, is involved in transcription, DNA damage response and genomic stability, and also links to cell differentiation, senescence, premature aging and associated diseases. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells have been successfully generated from various types of cells and used to model human diseases. It remains unclear whether levels of lamin A influence reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotent states during iPS induction. Consistently, lamin A is expressed more in differentiated than in relatively undifferentiated somatic cells, and increases in expression levels with age. Somatic cells with various expression levels of lamin A differ in their dynamics and efficiency during iPS cell induction. Cells with higher levels of lamin A show slower reprogramming and decreased efficiency to iPS cells. Furthermore, depletion of lamin A by transient shRNA accelerates iPS cell induction from fibroblasts. Reduced levels of lamin A are associated with increased expression of pluripotent genes Oct4 and Nanog, and telomerase genes Tert and Terc. On the contrary, overexpression of lamin A retards somatic cell reprogramming to iPS-like colony formation. Our data suggest that levels of lamin A influence reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells and that artificial silencing of lamin A facilitates iPS cell induction. These findings may have implications in enhancing rejuvenation of senescent or older cells by iPS technology and manipulating lamin A levels.

  15. Stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redi, Carlo Alberto; Monti, Manuela; Merico, Valeria; Neri, Tui; Zanoni, Mario; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The application of stem cells to regenerative medicine is one of the actual hot topics in biomedicine. This research could help the cure of a number of diseases that are affecting a large share of the population. Some good results in cell replacement have already been obtained (infarcted heart, diabetes, Parkinson disease), apart from those of more traditional applications like severe burns and blood tumors. We are now facing crucial questions in stem cell biology. One of the key questions is how a cell begins to proliferate or differentiate. Genome reprogramming, both following nuclear transfer and cytoplast action, will likely highlight some of the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. In turn, these clues should be useful to the production of populations of reprogrammed cells that could develop into tissues or, in the future, into proper organs. We will overview what stem cells are, what roles they play in normal developmental processes and how stem cells could have the potential to treat diseases.

  16. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  17. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    '. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products....

  18. Sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anemia - sickle cell; Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS); Sickle cell disease Images Red blood cells, sickle cell Red blood cells, normal Red blood ... multiple sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle and ... Heeney MM, Ware RE. Sickle cell disease. In: Orkin SH, Fisher DE, Ginsburg D, Look ...

  19. Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morizane, Ryuji [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Monkawa, Toshiaki, E-mail: monkawa@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Hiroshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-25

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

  20. Cell therapy using induced pluripotent stem cells or somatic stem cells: this is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, Rodrigo A; Rubio, Francisco J

    2012-05-01

    A lot of effort has been developed to bypass the use of embryonic stem cells (ES) in human therapies, because of several concerns and ethical issues. Some unsolved problems of using stem cells for human therapies, excluding the human embryonic origin, are: how to regulate cell plasticity and proliferation, immunological compatibility, potential adverse side-effects when stem cells are systemically administrated, and the in vivo signals to rule out a specific cell fate after transplantation. Currently, it is known that almost all tissues of an adult organism have somatic stem cells (SSC). Whereas ES are primary involved in the genesis of new tissues and organs, SSC are involved in regeneration processes, immuno-regulatory and homeostasis mechanisms. Although the differentiating potential of ES is higher than SSC, several studies suggest that some types of SSC, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), can be induced epigenetically to differentiate into tissue-specific cells of different lineages. This unexpected pluripotency and the variety of sources that they come from, can make MSC-like cells suitable for the treatment of diverse pathologies and injuries. New hopes for cell therapy came from somatic/mature cells and the discovery that could be reprogrammed to a pluripotent stage similar to ES, thus generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). For this, it is necessary to overexpress four main reprogramming factors, Sox2, Oct4, Klf4 and c-Myc. The aim of this review is to analyze the potential and requirements of cellular based tools in human therapy strategies, focusing on the advantage of using MSC over iPS.

  1. KAJIAN INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEMCELL (iPS (HARAPAN DAN TANTANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masagus Zainuri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS are adult cells which the genetic information in the nucleus of those cells being reprogrammed (reprogram by inserting exogenous pluripotential genes. The exogenous gene transduction is using vectors, such as lentivirus, retrovirus, or adenovirus, which suppressed the gene expression of the original cells, so they will express the transduced exogenous gene. Viral vectors are then used to reprogramming and producing iPS clones that are pluripotent. iPS derived from adult cells of patient with certain diseases will be used as a tool to study the mechanisms of those specific diseases and the effects of selected drugs against the diseases. Several previous studies have shown that iPS clones developed from specific genetic disease have its original genotype and retain the character of the response to the drug that similar as the original adult cells. Opportunities for the utilization of autologous iPS cell therapy in the future is wide open as expected iPS transplant will not be rejected when transplanted back to the patient. Behind all its potential, iPS production is still facing some problems to be applicable clinically. The use of viruses as vectors may cause problems due to virus gene sequences may be integrated into the genome of the DNA donor cell, thereby causing mutations of the iPS clones. Several subsequent studies have succeeded in replacing the use of viruses as vectors, but the level of efficiency obtained is still very low. Another problem that arises is that epigenetic changes may occur in iPS cultures. Many advanced research related to iPS may be developed in Indonesia and is necessary to improve the production efficiency of iPS and solve iPS clones epigenetic changes problems in the future.Keywords: iPS, pluripotency, transduction, transfection.AbstrakInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS adalah sel somatic dewasa yang informasi genetika dalam inti selnyadiprogram ulang (reprogram dengan cara

  2. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties.

  3. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from dermal fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells has the potential to accelerate the implementation of stem cells for clinical treatment of degenerative diseases. Technologies including somatic cell nuclear transfer and cell fusion might generate such cells but are hindered by issues that might prevent them from being used clinically. Here, we describe methods to use dermal fibroblasts easily obtained from an individual human to generate human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by ...

  4. The Role of NK Cell in T Cell Recruitment in Murine Liver Infected with Adenovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游上游; 艾洪武; 黄巍; 张楚瑜

    2003-01-01

    To study the role of natural killer (NK) cells in T cell recruitment in murine liver infected with virus, mice wereintravenously injected daily with anti-NK1.1+ antibody to deplete NK cells. Lymphocytes in the liver tissue of mice infectedwith type 5 adenovirus depleted in the E1 and E3 regions were assessed by fluorometric activated cell sorting (FACS). Ex-pression of chemokine IP-10 and its receptor CXCR3 mRNA in the liver, hepatic lymphocytes and spleen tissue were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Serum almfine aminotransferase (ALT) was measured asan indicator of liver injury. It was found that infection of adenovims and anfi-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb) into mice caused liver injury and high expression of interfemn-γ inducible protein-10 (IP-10) mRNA in the liver. Anfi-NK1.1+ mAb, which was intraperitoneally injected into the mice infected with adenovirus, suppresses T cell recruitment and expression of IP-10 mRNA in the hver. Slighter hver injury was also observed. After vires infection, expression of CXCR3 mRNAin spleen and hver tissue was observed at different time. The results suggested that T cell recruitment was initiated by NKcell dependent chemokine IP-10, which induced activated T cells priming in the spleen to the hver of the mouse. NK cells played a key role in T cell recruitment in the liver of mouse infected with adenovims.

  5. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  6. Generation and characterization of induced pluripotent stem cells from Aid-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Shimamoto

    Full Text Available It has been shown that DNA demethylation plays a pivotal role in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. However, the underlying mechanism of this action is still unclear. Previous reports indicated that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (Aid, also known as Aicda is involved in DNA demethylation in several developmental processes, as well as cell fusion-mediated reprogramming. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that Aid may be involved in the DNA demethylation that occurs during the generation of iPS cells. In this study, we examined the function of Aid in iPS cell generation using Aid knockout (Aid⁻/⁻ mice expressing a GFP reporter under the control of a pluripotent stem cell marker, Nanog. By introducing Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, Nanog-GFP-positive iPS cells could be generated from the fibroblasts and primary B cells of Aid⁻/⁻ mice. Their induction efficiency was similar to that of wild-type (Aid⁺/⁺ iPS cells. The Aid⁻/⁻ iPS cells showed normal proliferation and gave rise to chimeras, indicating their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency. A comprehensive DNA methylation analysis showed only a few differences between Aid⁺/⁺ and Aid⁻/⁻ iPS cells. These data suggest that Aid does not have crucial functions in DNA demethylation during iPS cell generation.

  7. Cell, cell, cell: fuel cell applications moving ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2001-11-01

    Developments in fuel cell technology within the last decade, such as the targeting by major automakers of non-polluting fuel cells as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, are reviewed. For example, Ballard Power Systems of Vancouver is the exclusive supplier to both DaimlerCrysler and the Ford Motor Company of the fuel cell stacks that produce the power in fuel cell systems. Ballard plans the commercial launch of transit bus engines in 2002 and automotive products between 2003 and 2005. The company also sees huge opportunities for fuel cells in stationary and portable power applications. At the same time, the Calgary-based fuel cell division of Energy Ventures Inc. is developing a direct methanol fuel cell that eliminates the intermediate step of 'reforming' methanol into hydrogen that is required in the Ballard process. Energy Ventures targets small niche markets such as small utility vehicles for its direct methanol fuel cell. A completely self-contained fuel cell of this type is expected to be ready in 2002. Solid oxide fuel cells for off-grid remote power units as well as for home heat and power is yet another field of development that will be particularly attractive to operations in remote areas where reliable grid electricity is expensive and hard to obtain. A prototype 2.3 kW residential power system using natural gas was made available by Global Thermoelectric Inc in June 2001; field testing is planned for 2002, with commercial production in late 2003 or 2004. The Calgary-based Snow Leopard Resources Inc plans to use pure hydrogen sulphide obtained from sour natural gas as a hydrogen source. The prime focus of Snow Leopard is on gas plants looking for ways to increase their efficiency, obtain carbon dioxide credits and generate electricity on site. This type of fuel cell also could be of interest to companies with shut-in sour gas since these companies could use the stationary fuel cell system to generate electricity.

  8. Potential application of induced pluripotent stem cells in cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L W; Kuang, F; Wei, L C; Ding, Y X; Yung, K K L; Chan, Y S

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a common degenerative disease in humans, is known to result from loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and is characterized by severe motor symptoms of tremor, rigidity, bradykinsia and postural instability. Although levodopa administration, surgical neural lesion, and deep brain stimulation have been shown to be effective in improving parkinsonian symptoms, cell replacement therapy such as transplantation of dopamine neurons or neural stem cells has shed new light on an alternative treatment strategy for PD. While the difficulty in securing donor dopamine neurons and the immuno-rejection of neural transplants largely hinder application of neural transplants in clinical treatment, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) derived from somatic cells may represent a powerful tool for studying the pathogenesis of PD and provide a source for replacement therapies in this neurodegenerative disease. Yamanaka et al. [2006, 2007] first succeeded in generating iPS cells by reprogramming fibroblasts with four transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc in both mouse and human. Animal studies have further shown that iPS cells from fibroblasts could be induced into dopamine neurons and transplantation of these cells within the central nervous system improved motor symptoms in the 6-OHDA model of PD. More interestingly, neural stem cells or fibroblasts from patients can be efficiently reprogrammed and subsequently differentiated into dopamine neurons. Derivation of patient-specific iPS cells and subsequent differentiation into dopamine neurons would provide a disease-specific in vitro model for disease pathology, drug screening and personalized stem cell therapy for PD. This review summarizes current methods and modifications in producing iPS cells from somatic cells as well as safety concerns of reprogramming procedures. Novel reprogramming strategies that deter abnormal permanent genetic and epigenetic alterations are essential for

  9. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  10. More synergetic cooperation of Yamanaka factors in in-duced pluripotent stem cells than in embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyan Huang; Taotao Chen; Xiaosong Liu; Jing Jiang; Jinsong Li; Dangsheng Li; X Shirley Liu; Wei Li; Jiuhong Kang; Gang Pei

    2009-01-01

    The role of Yamanaka factors as the core regulators in the induction of pluripotency during somatic cell repro-gramming has been discovered recently. Our previous study found that Yamanaka factors regulate a developmental signaling network in maintaining embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency. Here, we established completely repro-grammed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and analyzed the global promoter occupancy of Yamanaka factors in these cells by ChiP-chip assays. We found that promoters of 565 genes were co-bound by four Yamanaka factors in iPS cells, a 10-fold increase when compared with their binding in ES cells. The promoters occupied by a single Ya-manaka factor distributed equally in activated and repressed genes in iPS cells, while in ES cells Oct4, Sox2, or Klf4 distributed mostly in repressed genes and c-Myc in activated ones. Pathway analysis of the ChIP-chip data revealed that Yamanaka factors regulated 16 developmental signaling pathways in iPS cells, among which 12 were common and 4 were unique compared to pathways regulated in ES cells. We further analyzed another recently published ChiP-chip dataset in iPS cells and observed similar results, showing the power of ChIP-chip plus pathway analysis for revealing the nature of pluripotency maintenance and regeneration. Next, we experimentally tested one of the repressive signaling pathways and found that its inhibition indeed improved efficiency of cell reprogramming. Taken together, we proposed that there is a core developmental signaling network necessary for pluripotency, with TGF-β, Hedgehog, Wnt, p53 as repressive (Yin) regulators and Jak-STAT, cell cycle, focal adhesion, adherens junction as ac-tive (Yang) ones; and Yamanaka factors synergistically regulate them in a Yin-Yang balanced way to induce pluripo-tency.

  11. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  12. iPS-Cinderella Story in Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As we step through the frontiers of modern Science, we are all witnesses to the Cinderella story repeating itself in the form of the iPS. The process of re-programming adult somatic cells to derive Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPS with the wand of transcription factors and then differentiating them back to adult somatic cells resembles the transformation of Cinderella from a Cinder girl to princess and back to a Cinder girl after the ball; but the iPS-Cinderella is the most fascinating thing ever in cell biology!From the day iPS first made its headlines when it was first produced by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University in Japan, Stem Cell scientists all over the world are re- doing their experiments so far done using other sources like embryonic and adult Stem cells with the iPS cells exploring their potential to the fullest. A Stem Cell science news page without this magic word of iPS is difficult to imagine these days and Scientists have been successful in growing most of the adult Cell types from iPS cells.iPS cells was the key to solve the problems of Immune rejection and Immunosupression required when using other allogeneic Stem cell types which had baffled scientists previously. But the issues raised by scientists about the use of viruses and Oncogenes in producing iPS cells were made groundless when scientists in February 2008 published the discovery of a technique that could remove oncogenes after the induction of pluripotency and now it is possible to induce pluripotency using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. The word of the day is pIPS which are protein-induced Pluripotent stem cells which are iPS cells that were generated without any genetic alteration of the adult cell. This research by the group of Sheng Ding in La Jolla, California made public in April 2009 showed that the generation of poly-arginine anchors was sufficient to induce

  13. Human stem cells and articular cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Atsuyuki; Iwakura, Takashi; Reddi, A Hari

    2012-11-05

    The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  14. Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hari Reddi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  15. Anti-angiogenic activity of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucenik, Ivana; Passaniti, Antonino; Vitolo, Michele I; Tantivejkul, Kwanchanit; Eggleton, Paul; Shamsuddin, Abulkalam M

    2004-11-01

    A significant anticancer activity of the naturally occurring carbohydrate inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6)) has been reported against numerous cancer models. Since tumors require angiogenesis for growth and metastasis, we hypothesize that IP(6) reduces tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Because angiogenesis depends on the interaction between endothelial and tumor cells, we investigated the effect of IP(6) on both. IP(6) inhibited the proliferation and induced the differentiation of endothelial cells in vitro; the growth of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) evaluated by MTT proliferation assay was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) = 0.74 mM). The combination of IP(6) and vasostatin, a calreticulin fragment with anti-angiogenic activity, was synergistically superior in growth inhibition than either compound. IP(6) inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation (in vitro capillary differentiation) on a reconstituted extracellular matrix, Matrigel, and disrupted pre-formed tubes. IP(6) significantly reduced basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced vessel formation (P < 0.01) in vivo in Matrigel plug assay. Exposure of HepG2, a human hepatoma cell line, to IP(6) for 8 h, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as assessed by RT-PCR. IP(6) treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h also significantly reduced the VEGF protein levels in conditioned medium, in a concentration-dependent manner (P = 0.012). Thus, IP(6) has an inhibitory effect on induced angiogenesis.

  16. Skin Biopsy and Patient-Specific Stem Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Nguyen, Huy V.; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells permits the development of next-generation patient-specific systems biology models reflecting personalized genomics profiles to better understand pathophysiology. In this chapter, we describe how to create a patient-specific iPS cell line. There are three major steps: (1) performing a skin biopsy procedure on the patient; (2) extracting human fibroblast cells from the skin biopsy tissue; and (3) reprogramming patient-specific fibroblast cells into the pluripotent stem cell stage. PMID:26141312

  17. Advances and applications of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietronave, Stefano; Prat, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent cells is an emerging technology for creating patient-specific cells, and potentially opens new scenarios in medical and pharmacological fields. From the discovery of Shinya Yamanaka, who first obtained pluripotent cells from fibroblasts by retrovirus-derived ectopic expression of defined embryonic transcription factors, new methods have been developed to generate safe induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells without genomic manipulations. This review will focus on the recent advances in iPS technology and their application in pharmacology and medicine.

  18. Synthesis of Biotinylated Inositol Hexakisphosphate To Study DNA Double-Strand Break Repair and Affinity Capture of IP6-Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Chensong; Summerlin, Matthew; Bruzik, Karol S; Hanakahi, Leslyn

    2015-10-20

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a soluble inositol polyphosphate, which is abundant in mammalian cells. Despite the participation of IP6 in critical cellular functions, few IP6-binding proteins have been characterized. We report on the synthesis, characterization, and application of biotin-labeled IP6 (IP6-biotin), which has biotin attached at position 2 of the myo-inositol ring via an aminohexyl linker. Like natural IP6, IP6-biotin stimulated DNA ligation by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in vitro. The Ku protein is a required NHEJ factor that has been shown to bind IP6. We found that IP6-biotin could affinity capture Ku and other required NHEJ factors from human cell extracts, including the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4, and XLF. Direct binding studies with recombinant proteins show that Ku is the only NHEJ factor with affinity for IP6-biotin. DNA-PKcs, XLF, and the XRCC4:ligase IV complex interact with Ku in cell extracts and likely interact indirectly with IP6-biotin. IP6-biotin was used to tether streptavidin to Ku, which inhibited NHEJ in vitro. These proof-of-concept experiments suggest that molecules like IP6-biotin might be used to molecularly target biologically important proteins that bind IP6. IP6-biotin affinity capture experiments show that numerous proteins specifically bind IP6-biotin, including casein kinase 2, which is known to bind IP6, and nucleolin. Protein binding to IP6-biotin is selective, as IP3, IP4, and IP5 did not compete for binding of proteins to IP6-biotin. Our results document IP6-biotin as a useful tool for investigating the role of IP6 in biological systems.

  19. Effect of phytic acid and inositol on the proliferation and apoptosis of cells derived from colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröterová, L; Hasková, P; Rudolf, E; Cervinka, M

    2010-03-01

    We characterized the effect of phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate, IP6) as a potential adjuvant in treatment of colorectal carcinoma and evaluated the optimal concentration and treatment time to produe the maximal therapeutic effect. There is some evidence that myoinositol (Ins) can potentiate anti-cancer effects of IP6. Therefore, we tested both IP6 and Ins individually and in combination on human cell lines HT-29, SW-480 and SW-620 derived from colorectal carcinoma in different stages of malignancy. The effect of tested chemicals on the cells was measured using metabolic activity assay (WST-1), DNA synthesis assay (BrdU), protein synthesis assay (Brilliant Blue) and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity). We tested IP6 and Ins at three concentrations: 0.2, 1 and 5 mM for 24, 48 and 72 h. The concentrations and incubation periods were chosen according to low toxicity of the tested substance that was observed in a long-term clinical study. We found that all employed concentrations of IP6 or IP6/Ins decreased proliferation of the cell lines, with the maximum decrease being observed in HT-29 cells. Metabolic activity of treated cells differed in response to IP6 and IP6/Ins treatment; in HT-29 and SW-620 significant decrease was observed only at the highest concentration, whereas in SW-480 cells metabolic activity was lower at each concentration except 0.2 and 1 mM IP6 or IP6/Ins in 24-h incubation. The results from protein content assay corresponded to the results obtained from WST assay. In addition, we found maximum increase in caspase-3 activity at concentration 5 mM IP6 or IP6/Ins in HT-29 cells and with IP6 at concentration of 0.2 mM or IP6/Ins in SW-480 cells with clear indication of Ins enhancing the proapoptotic effect of IP6 in all the cell lines studied.

  20. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzorov, Aleksei G; Matveeva, Natalia M.; Markakis, Marios Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently fibroblasts of many mammalian species have been reprogrammed to pluripotent state using overexpression of several transcription factors. This technology allows production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with properties similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells....... The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. RESULTS: We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 i......PS cell lines. The majority of the analyzed cell lines had normal diploid chromosome number. The only ES cell line with XX chromosome set had both X-chromosomes in active state that is characteristic of pluripotent cells. The pluripotency of ES and iPS cell lines was confirmed by formation of teratomas...

  1. Electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  2. Modelling familial dysautonomia in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gabsang; Studer, Lorenz

    2011-08-12

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have considerable promise as a novel tool for modelling human disease and for drug discovery. While the generation of disease-specific iPS cells has become routine, realizing the potential of iPS cells in disease modelling poses challenges at multiple fronts. Such challenges include selecting a suitable disease target, directing the fate of iPS cells into symptom-relevant cell populations, identifying disease-related phenotypes and showing reversibility of such phenotypes using genetic or pharmacological approaches. Finally, the system needs to be scalable for use in modern drug discovery. Here, we will discuss these points in the context of modelling familial dysautonomia (FD, Riley-Day syndrome, hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy III (HSAN-III)), a rare genetic disorder in the peripheral nervous system. We have demonstrated three disease-specific phenotypes in FD-iPS-derived cells that can be partially rescued by treating cells with the plant hormone kinetin. Here, we will discuss how to use FD-iPS cells further in high throughput drug discovery assays, in modelling disease severity and in performing mechanistic studies aimed at understanding disease pathogenesis. FD is a rare disease but represents an important testing ground for exploring the potential of iPS cell technology in modelling and treating human disease.

  3. Recent progressions in stem cell research: breakthroughs achieved and challenges faced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Jowy; Umbas, Rainy

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell studies have been conducted to study characteristics of stem cells, to develop better techniques for patient-specific stem cell lines generation, and to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells. Techniques that enable efficient generation of new stem cell lines would facilitate research and allow generation of patient-specific stem cell lines for transplantation therapy. Somatic-Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), which involves injection of donor cell nucleus into enucleated ovum, is the standard technique for new embryonic stem (ES) cell lines generation; presently its efficiency is low. A newer technique, pluripotent stem cell induction, reprograms somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by introducing certain factors into somatic cells. While certain adult stem cell treatments have been investigated on human participants, most ES cell or iPS cell treatments were still experimented on animal models. Recently, therapeutic potential of stem cell for several disorders was demonstrated. Researchers demonstrated stem cell's potential for treating hematologic disorders by correcting sickle cell anemia in rat model with iPS cells. Its potential role in treating cardiovascular disorder was demonstrated as injection of damaged rat heart with human ES cells derived cardiomyocyte plus "prosurvival" cocktail improved heart function. It might also treat nervous system disorders; injected into brain, ES cells derived neurons replace some loss cells in stroke rats and iPS cells derived neurons improved Parkinsonian syndrome in rats. Progress was also seen in other aspects of regenerative medicine. To overcome controversies caused by embryo destruction for obtaining ES cells, single blastomer stem cell derivation, Cdx2-inactivation, and parthenogenesis were proposed. All ES cell, iPS cell, and adult stem cell research should be continued with support from all sides.

  4. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...

  5. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived models to investigate human cytomegalovirus infection in neural cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo D'Aiuto

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is one of the leading prenatal causes of congenital mental retardation and deformities world-wide. Access to cultured human neuronal lineages, necessary to understand the species specific pathogenic effects of HCMV, has been limited by difficulties in sustaining primary human neuronal cultures. Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells now provide an opportunity for such research. We derived iPS cells from human adult fibroblasts and induced neural lineages to investigate their susceptibility to infection with HCMV strain Ad169. Analysis of iPS cells, iPS-derived neural stem cells (NSCs, neural progenitor cells (NPCs and neurons suggests that (i iPS cells are not permissive to HCMV infection, i.e., they do not permit a full viral replication cycle; (ii Neural stem cells have impaired differentiation when infected by HCMV; (iii NPCs are fully permissive for HCMV infection; altered expression of genes related to neural metabolism or neuronal differentiation is also observed; (iv most iPS-derived neurons are not permissive to HCMV infection; and (v infected neurons have impaired calcium influx in response to glutamate.

  6. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from cord blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishishita, Naoki; Takenaka, Chiemi; Fusaki, Noemi; Kawamata, Shin

    2011-01-01

    We report that iPS cells can be safely and effectively generated from fresh human cord blood (CB) cells with Sendai virus (SeV) vector carrying reprogramming factors OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. The SeV vector is a single strand RNA virus having no DNA phase, and selectively infects the freshly isolated CD34+ CD45low+ fraction of CB cells corresponding to hematopoietic progenitors. Approximately twenty ES cell-like colonies emerged from 1 x 104 freshly isolated CD34+ CB cells around 18 days after SeV infection and were selected for passage to reduce the frequency of the remaining SeV-infected cells. The complete elimination of viral constructs was confirmed after several passages by immunostaining with monoclonal antibody against hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and by RT-PCR analysis. Five ES cell-like clones were selected to examine their in vitro potential for three germ layer differentiation and their capacity for teratoma formation. Generation of non-integrating Sendai virus (SeV) iPS cells from CB cells may be an important step to provide allogeneic iPS cell-derived therapy in the future.

  7. CellTracks cell analysis system for rare cell detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagan, Michael T.; Trainer, Michael N.; Bendele, Teresa; Rao, Chandra; Horton, Allen; Tibbe, Arjan G.; Greve, Jan; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The CellTracks system is a Compact Disk-based cell analyzer that, similar to flow cytometry, differentiates cells that are aligned while passing through focused laser beams. In CellTracks, only immuno-magnetically labeled cells are aligned and remain in position for further analysis. This feature is

  8. Donor Dependent Variations in Hematopoietic Differentiation among Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Féraud

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis generated from human embryonic stem cells (ES and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS are unprecedented resources for cell therapy. We compared hematopoietic differentiation potentials from ES and iPS cell lines originated from various donors and derived them using integrative and non-integrative vectors. Significant differences in differentiation toward hematopoietic lineage were observed among ES and iPS. The ability of engraftment of iPS or ES-derived cells in NOG mice varied among the lines with low levels of chimerism. iPS generated from ES cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC reproduce a similar hematopoietic outcome compared to their parental ES cell line. We were not able to identify any specific hematopoietic transcription factors that allow to distinguish between good versus poor hematopoiesis in undifferentiated ES or iPS cell lines. There is a relatively unpredictable variation in hematopoietic differentiation between ES and iPS cell lines that could not be predicted based on phenotype or gene expression of the undifferentiated cells. These results demonstrate the influence of genetic background in variation of hematopoietic potential rather than the reprogramming process.

  9. RelationshipbetweentheexpressionofIP-10and IP-10mRNAinperipheralbloodandHBVDNA levelinpatientswithcirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang; Ping-Ping Wang; Gui-Ju Xiang; Xiao-Bin Hu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Post-hepatitic cirrhosis is regarded as common and severe form of liver damage. Interferonγ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), a member of the non-ELR (glutamic-leucine-arginine) motif CXC chemokine family, has recently been shown to recruit and activate speciifc subsets of leukocytes to sites of inlfammation or an immune response during the development of hepatic cirrhosis. However, the effects of IP-10 and IP-10 mRNA on inlfammatory inifltration at local sites and in the peripheral blood of patients with post-hepatitic cirrhosis as well as their relationship with viral load are still poorly deifned. This study aimed to detect the relationship between the expression of IP-10 in serum, IP-10 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and the levels of HBV DNA in the serum of patients, and to explore their role in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis. METHODS:Typical patients with cirrhosis after HBV infection were selected, and their serum IP-10 concentrations were evaluated with ELISA, the content of IP-10 mRNA in PBMCs was measured by real-time PCR, and the load of HBV DNA in serum and PBMCs was assessed by semi-quantitative analysis of gel imaging. RESULTS:The levels of IP-10 in serum and IP-10 mRNA in PBMCs of patients with cirrhosis were 299.9±77.2 pg/ml and 0.7500±0.1495, respectively. They were higher than those of controls (P CONCLUSIONS:The levels of IP-10 and IP-10 mRNA in the peripheral blood of patients with cirrhosis increase are closely correlated with the load of HBV DNA in serum, and play a key role in the progression of post-hepatitic cirrhosis.

  10. [Stem cell research and science and technology policy in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Yoshimi

    2011-12-01

    In this paper I review the present condition of the regeneration medicine research using pluripotency and a somatic stem cell, and I describe the subject of the science and technology policy in Japan towards realization of regeneration medicine. The Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) supported research promotion by the prompt action in 2007 when establishment of the iPS cell was reported by Shinya Yamanaka. Although the hospitable support of the Japanese government to an iPS cell is continued still now, there are some problems in respect of the support to other stem cell researches, and industrialization of regeneration medicine. In order to win a place in highly competitive area of investigation, MEXT needs to change policy so that funds may be widely supplied also to stem cell researches other than iPS cell research.

  11. Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells ... red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also get stuck in blood vessels, blocking blood ...

  12. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickle cell disease?Sickle cell disease, also called sickle cell anemia, is a hereditary condition (which means it runs ... disease, hemoglobin SS disease, hemoglobin synthesis, hemoglobinopathies, ... cell anemia, sickle cell crisis, vaso-occlusive crisis Family Health, ...

  13. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone, cartilage, stromal cells that support blood formation, fat, and fibrous tissue. Cell-based therapies —Treatment in which stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cells or ...

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  15. Application of HPLC for determination of phytic acid in the colonic epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglarz, Ludmiła; Parfiniewicz, Beata; Bat, Beata; Orchel, Arkadiusz; Dzierzewicz, Zofia; Wilczok, Tadeusz

    2004-12-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexaphosphate, IP6) is currently receiving a considerable interest because of its anticancer (preventive and therapeutic) potential against colon tumors and the need for methods of its determination. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake of IP6 by human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2 cell line) and to evaluate the method of its intracellular quantification with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Chromatographic analysis revealed a rapid uptake of IP6 by cells. The intracellular accumulation of IP6 was saturable at 0.5 h and it did not change with the prolongation of incubation up to 72 h.

  16. Electrochemical Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising a negative electrode, an electrolyte and a positive electrode in which the positive electrode structure comprises a lithium cobalt manganese oxide of the composition Li¿2?Co¿y?Mn¿2-y?O¿4? where 0

  17. Potent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  18. Photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  19. Pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R E; Fleming, H E; Khetani, S R; Bhatia, S N

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is an important clinical problem, impacting over 30 million Americans and over 600 million people worldwide. It is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States and the 16th worldwide. Due to a paucity of donor organs, several thousand Americans die yearly while waiting for liver transplantation. Unfortunately, alternative tissue sources such as fetal hepatocytes and hepatic cell lines are unreliable, difficult to reproduce, and do not fully recapitulate hepatocyte phenotype and functions. As a consequence, alternative cell sources that do not have these limitations have been sought. Human embryonic stem (hES) cell- and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells may enable cell based therapeutics, the study of the mechanisms of human disease and human development, and provide a platform for screening the efficacy and toxicity of pharmaceuticals. iPS cells can be differentiated in a step-wise fashion with high efficiency and reproducibility into hepatocyte-like cells that exhibit morphologic and phenotypic characteristics of hepatocytes. In addition, iPS-derived hepatocyte-like cells (iHLCs) possess some functional hepatic activity as they secrete urea, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and albumin. However, the combined phenotypic and functional traits exhibited by iHLCs resemble a relatively immature hepatic phenotype that more closely resembles that of fetal hepatocytes rather than adult hepatocytes. Specifically, iHLCs express fetal markers such as alpha-fetoprotein and lack key mature hepatocyte functions, as reflected by drastically reduced activity (~0.1%) of important detoxification enzymes (i.e. CYP2A6, CYP3A4). These key differences between iHLCs and primary adult human hepatocytes have limited the use of stem cells as a renewable source of functional adult hepatocytes for in vitro and in vivo applications. Unfortunately, the developmental pathways that control hepatocyte maturation from a fetal into an adult hepatocyte are

  20. Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Hyun; Lerou, Paul H; Zhao, Rui; Huo, Hongguang; Daley, George Q

    2008-01-01

    Pluripotent cells, such as embryonic stem cells, are invaluable tools for research and can potentially serve as a source of cell- and tissue-replacement therapy. Rejection after transplantation of cells and tissue derived from embryonic stem cells is a significant obstacle to their clinical use. Recently, human somatic cells have been reprogrammed directly to pluripotency by ectopic expression of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc) to yield induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Human iPS cells are a potential source of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells that would bypass immune rejection. iPS cells can also be used to study diseases for which there are no adequate human in vitro or animal models. In this protocol, we describe how to establish primary human fibroblasts lines and how to derive iPS cells by retroviral transduction of reprogramming factors. Overall, it takes 2 months to complete reprogramming human primary fibroblasts starting from biopsy.

  1. A pilot study on indunction and differentiation of human fibroblasts to iPS cells and iPS-RPE cells mediated by retrovirus infection%逆转录病毒感染法对RP患者人体细胞向iPS细胞和iPS-RPE细胞诱导分化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田媛媛; 蒋超; 陈雪; 丁思加; 徐敏; 赵晨

    2016-01-01

    胎瘤.免疫荧光染色显示,诱导分化后30 d时iPS-RPE细胞中RPE细胞特异性标志物RPE65、闭锁小带蛋白1(ZO-1)和卵磷脂视黄醇酰基转移酶(LRAT)蛋白均呈阳性表达.结论 利用逆转录病毒将Oct4、Sox2、c-Myc和Klf44种基因转入SNRNP200 p.S1087L突变的RP患者皮肤成纤维细胞后可以获得iPSCs,建立的iPSCs有ESCs的形态和多能分化的特征.采用同样的转染技术可在无SNRNP200 p.S1087L突变的人皮肤成纤维细胞中建立体外高分化、高效能的iPS-RPE细胞.%Background Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell transplantation is the primary means of human trial for the treatment of retinal degeneration.Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) will become an important source for cell transplantation.In addition,iPS-RPE cells may provide a personalized treatment platform for the patient's own cells treatment.Objective This study was to evaluate the feasibility of human fibroblasts differentiate toward iPSCs from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients and toward iPSC-RPE cells from non-RP individual by retroviral transfection of Oct4,Sox2,c-Myc and KLF4 genes.Methods Human thigh skin tissues were obtained from a RP patient with hotspot mutation of SNRNP200 p.S1087L and individual without SNRNP200 p.S1087L mutation,respectively,with the size 2 c m×3 cm.Human dermal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured by trypsin digestion and explant method.The fibroblasts were transfected by a series of retrovirus and cultured by human embyonic cellconditioned medium to generate and induce iPSCs,and then the iPSCs were identified by morphology,alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining and immunofluorescence assay of specific markers of pluripotent stem cells.iPSCs suspension were injected into SCID mouse to observe the tumorigenesis.The iPSCs from non-RP subject were induced to differentiate toward iPS-RPE cells by embryonic body (EB) inducing method,and iPS-RPE cells were identified by detecting the expression of RPE65

  2. Machine learning classification of cell-specific cardiac enhancers uncovers developmental subnetworks regulating progenitor cell division and cell fate specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shaad M; Busser, Brian W; Huang, Di; Cozart, Elizabeth J; Michaud, Sébastien; Zhu, Xianmin; Jeffries, Neal; Aboukhalil, Anton; Bulyk, Martha L; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Michelson, Alan M

    2014-02-01

    The Drosophila heart is composed of two distinct cell types, the contractile cardial cells (CCs) and the surrounding non-muscle pericardial cells (PCs), development of which is regulated by a network of conserved signaling molecules and transcription factors (TFs). Here, we used machine learning with array-based chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data and TF sequence motifs to computationally classify cell type-specific cardiac enhancers. Extensive testing of predicted enhancers at single-cell resolution revealed the added value of ChIP data for modeling cell type-specific activities. Furthermore, clustering the top-scoring classifier sequence features identified novel cardiac and cell type-specific regulatory motifs. For example, we found that the Myb motif learned by the classifier is crucial for CC activity, and the Myb TF acts in concert with two forkhead domain TFs and Polo kinase to regulate cardiac progenitor cell divisions. In addition, differential motif enrichment and cis-trans genetic studies revealed that the Notch signaling pathway TF Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] discriminates PC from CC enhancer activities. Collectively, these studies elucidate molecular pathways used in the regulatory decisions for proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells, implicate Su(H) in regulating cell fate decisions of these progenitors, and document the utility of enhancer modeling in uncovering developmental regulatory subnetworks.

  3. Mobile IP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Sallent, S.; Pras, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Internet is growing exponentially, both in the amount of traffic carried, and in the amount of hosts connected. IP technology is becoming more and more important, in company networks (Intranets), and also in the core networks for the next generation mobile networks. Further, wireless access to I

  4. Potential and Limitation of HLA-Based Banking of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casimir de Rham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Great hopes have been placed on human pluripotent stem (hPS cells for therapy. Tissues or organs derived from hPS cells could be the best solution to cure many different human diseases, especially those who do not respond to standard medication or drugs, such as neurodegenerative diseases, heart failure, or diabetes. The origin of hPS is critical and the idea of creating a bank of well-characterized hPS cells has emerged, like the one that already exists for cord blood. However, the main obstacle in transplantation is the rejection of tissues or organ by the receiver, due to the three main immunological barriers: the human leukocyte antigen (HLA, the ABO blood group, and minor antigens. The problem could be circumvented by using autologous stem cells, like induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, derived directly from the patient. But iPS cells have limitations, especially regarding the disease of the recipient and possible difficulties to handle or prepare autologous iPS cells. Finally, reaching standards of good clinical or manufacturing practices could be challenging. That is why well-characterized and universal hPS cells could be a better solution. In this review, we will discuss the interest and the feasibility to establish hPS cells bank, as well as some economics and ethical issues.

  5. Nonhuman Primate Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various species from which induced pluripotent stem cells have been derived, nonhuman primates (NHPs have a unique role as preclinical models. Their relatedness to humans and similar physiology, including central nervous system, make them ideal for translational studies. We review here the progress made in deriving and characterizing iPS cell lines from different NHP species. We focus on iPS cell lines from the marmoset, a small NHP in which several human disease states can be modeled. The marmoset can serve as a model for the implementation of patient-specific autologous cell therapy in regenerative medicine.

  6. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, W E; Richter, L; Yachechko, R; Pyle, A D; Tchieu, J; Sridharan, R; Clark, A T; Plath, K

    2008-02-26

    The generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells has the potential to accelerate the implementation of stem cells for clinical treatment of degenerative diseases. Technologies including somatic cell nuclear transfer and cell fusion might generate such cells but are hindered by issues that might prevent them from being used clinically. Here, we describe methods to use dermal fibroblasts easily obtained from an individual human to generate human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by ectopic expression of the defined transcription factors KLF4, OCT4, SOX2, and C-MYC. The resultant cell lines are morphologically indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells (HESC) generated from the inner cell mass of a human preimplantation embryo. Consistent with these observations, human iPS cells share a nearly identical gene-expression profile with two established HESC lines. Importantly, DNA fingerprinting indicates that the human iPS cells were derived from the donor material and are not a result of contamination. Karyotypic analyses demonstrate that reprogramming of human cells by defined factors does not induce, or require, chromosomal abnormalities. Finally, we provide evidence that human iPS cells can be induced to differentiate along lineages representative of the three embryonic germ layers indicating the pluripotency of these cells. Our findings are an important step toward manipulating somatic human cells to generate an unlimited supply of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. In the future, the use of defined factors to change cell fate may be the key to routine nuclear reprogramming of human somatic cells.

  7. Phospholipase C-β1 and β4 contribute to non-genetic cell-to-cell variability in histamine-induced calcium signals in HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ishida

    Full Text Available A uniform extracellular stimulus triggers cell-specific patterns of Ca(2+ signals, even in genetically identical cell populations. However, the underlying mechanism that generates the cell-to-cell variability remains unknown. We monitored cytosolic inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 concentration changes using a fluorescent IP3 sensor in single HeLa cells showing different patterns of histamine-induced Ca(2+ oscillations in terms of the time constant of Ca(2+ spike amplitude decay and the Ca(2+ oscillation frequency. HeLa cells stimulated with histamine exhibited a considerable variation in the temporal pattern of Ca(2+ signals and we found that there were cell-specific IP3 dynamics depending on the patterns of Ca(2+ signals. RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that phospholipase C (PLC-β1, -β3, -β4, -γ1, -δ3 and -ε were expressed at relatively high levels in HeLa cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of PLC isozymes revealed that PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 were specifically involved in the histamine-induced IP3 increases in HeLa cells. Modulation of IP3 dynamics by knockdown or overexpression of the isozymes PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 resulted in specific changes in the characteristics of Ca(2+ oscillations, such as the time constant of the temporal changes in the Ca(2+ spike amplitude and the Ca(2+ oscillation frequency, within the range of the cell-to-cell variability found in wild-type cell populations. These findings indicate that the heterogeneity in the process of IP3 production, rather than IP3-induced Ca(2+ release, can cause cell-to-cell variability in the patterns of Ca(2+ signals and that PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 contribute to generate cell-specific Ca(2+ signals evoked by G protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  8. Cancer inhibition by inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol: from laboratory to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucenik, Ivana; Shamsuddin, AbulKalam M

    2003-11-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is present in substantial amounts in almost all plant and mammalian cells. It was recently recognized to possess multiple biological functions. A striking anticancer effect of IP6 was demonstrated in different experimental models. Inositol is also a natural constituent possessing moderate anticancer activity. The most consistent and best anticancer results were obtained from the combination of IP6 plus inositol. In addition to reducing cell proliferation, IP6 increases differentiation of malignant cells, often resulting in a reversion to normal phenotype. Exogenously administered IP6 is rapidly taken into the cells and dephosphorylated to lower-phosphate inositol phosphates, which further interfere with signal transduction pathways and cell cycle arrest. Enhanced immunity and antioxidant properties can also contribute to tumor cell destruction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anticancer action are not fully understood. Because it is abundantly present in regular diet, efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and safe, IP6 holds great promise in our strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancer. IP6 plus inositol enhances the anticancer effect of conventional chemotherapy, controls cancer metastases, and improves the quality of life, as shown in a pilot clinical trial. The data strongly argue for the use of IP6 plus inositol in our strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. However, the effectiveness and safety of IP6 plus inositol at therapeutic doses needs to be determined in phase I and phase II clinical trials in humans.

  9. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  10. Melanopsin expressing human retinal ganglion cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Christensen, Anders Tolstrup; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin belong to a heterogenic population of RGCs which regulate the circadian clock, masking behavior, melatonin suppression, the pupillary light reflex and sleep/wake cycles. The different functions seem...

  11. Generation of human melanocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Ohta

    Full Text Available Epidermal melanocytes play an important role in protecting the skin from UV rays, and their functional impairment results in pigment disorders. Additionally, melanomas are considered to arise from mutations that accumulate in melanocyte stem cells. The mechanisms underlying melanocyte differentiation and the defining characteristics of melanocyte stem cells in humans are, however, largely unknown. In the present study, we set out to generate melanocytes from human iPS cells in vitro, leading to a preliminary investigation of the mechanisms of human melanocyte differentiation. We generated iPS cell lines from human dermal fibroblasts using the Yamanaka factors (SOX2, OCT3/4, and KLF4, with or without c-MYC. These iPS cell lines were subsequently used to form embryoid bodies (EBs and then differentiated into melanocytes via culture supplementation with Wnt3a, SCF, and ET-3. Seven weeks after inducing differentiation, pigmented cells expressing melanocyte markers such as MITF, tyrosinase, SILV, and TYRP1, were detected. Melanosomes were identified in these pigmented cells by electron microscopy, and global gene expression profiling of the pigmented cells showed a high similarity to that of human primary foreskin-derived melanocytes, suggesting the successful generation of melanocytes from iPS cells. This in vitro differentiation system should prove useful for understanding human melanocyte biology and revealing the mechanism of various pigment cell disorders, including melanoma.

  12. IP-I0 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  13. Disease-corrected haematopoietic progenitors from Fanconi anaemia induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Angel; Rodríguez-Pizà, Ignasi; Guenechea, Guillermo; Vassena, Rita; Navarro, Susana; Barrero, María José; Consiglio, Antonella; Castellà, Maria; Río, Paula; Sleep, Eduard; González, Federico; Tiscornia, Gustavo; Garreta, Elena; Aasen, Trond; Veiga, Anna; Verma, Inder M; Surrallés, Jordi; Bueren, Juan; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2009-07-02

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has enabled the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent cells and provided valuable experimental platforms to model human disease. Patient-specific iPS cells are also thought to hold great therapeutic potential, although direct evidence for this is still lacking. Here we show that, on correction of the genetic defect, somatic cells from Fanconi anaemia patients can be reprogrammed to pluripotency to generate patient-specific iPS cells. These cell lines appear indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells and iPS cells from healthy individuals. Most importantly, we show that corrected Fanconi-anaemia-specific iPS cells can give rise to haematopoietic progenitors of the myeloid and erythroid lineages that are phenotypically normal, that is, disease-free. These data offer proof-of-concept that iPS cell technology can be used for the generation of disease-corrected, patient-specific cells with potential value for cell therapy applications.

  14. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  15. Generation of colonies of induced trophoblast cells during standard reprogramming of porcine fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezashi, Toshihiko; Matsuyama, Haruyo; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Roberts, R Michael

    2011-10-01

    During reprogramming of porcine mesenchymal cells with a four-factor (POU5F1/SOX2/KLF4/MYC) mixture of vectors, a fraction of the colonies had an atypical phenotype and arose earlier than the recognizable porcine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell colonies. Within days after each passage, patches of cells with an epithelial phenotype formed raised domes, particularly under 20% O(2) conditions. Relative to gene expression of the iPS cells, there was up-regulation of genes for transcription factors associated with trophoblast (TR) lineage emergence, e.g., GATA2, PPARG, MSX2, DLX3, HAND1, GCM1, CDX2, ID2, ELF5, TCFAP2C, and TEAD4 and for genes required for synthesis of products more typical of differentiated TR, such as steroids (HSD17B1, CYP11A1, and STAR), pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG6), and select cytokines (IFND, IFNG, and IL1B). Although POU5F1 was down-regulated relative to that in iPS cells, it was not silenced in the induced TR (iTR) cells over continued passage. Like iPS cells, iTR cells did not senesce on extended passage and displayed high telomerase activity. Upon xenografting into immunodeficient mice, iTR cells formed nonhemorrhagic teratomas composed largely of layers of epithelium expressing TR markers. When cultured under conditions that promoted embryoid body formation, iTR cells formed floating spheres consisting of a single epithelial sheet whose cells were tethered laterally by desmosome-like structures. In conclusion, reprogramming of porcine fibroblasts to iPS cells generates, as a by-product, colonies composed of self-renewing populations of TR cells, possibly containing TR stem cells.

  16. Mouse dendritic cells pulsed with capsular polysaccharide induce resistance to lethal pneumococcal challenge: roles of T cells and B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Cohen

    Full Text Available Mice are exceedingly sensitive to intra-peritoneal (IP challenge with some virulent pneumococci (LD50 = 1 bacterium. To investigate how peripheral contact with bacterial capsular polysaccharide (PS antigen can induce resistance, we pulsed bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDC of C57BL/6 mice with type 4 or type 3 PS, injected the BMDC intra-foot pad (IFP and challenged the mice IP with supra-lethal doses of pneumococci. We examined the responses of T cells and B cells in the draining popliteal lymph node and measured the effects on the bacteria in the peritoneum and blood. We now report that: 1 The PS co-localized with MHC molecules on the BMDC surface; 2 PS-specific T and B cell proliferation and IFNγ secretion was detected in the draining popliteal lymph nodes on day 4; 3 Type-specific resistance to lethal IP challenge was manifested only after day 5; 4 Type-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in the sera of only some of the mice, but B cells were essential for resistance; 5 Control mice vaccinated with a single injection of soluble PS did not develop a response in the draining popliteal lymph node and were not protected; 6 Mice injected with unpulsed BMDC also did not resist challenge: In unprotected mice, pneumococci entered the blood shortly after IP inoculation and multiplied exponentially in both blood and peritoneum killing the mice within 20 hours. Mice vaccinated with PS-pulsed BMDC trapped the bacteria in the peritoneum. The trapped bacteria proliferated exponentially IP, but died suddenly at 18-20 hours. Thus, a single injection of PS antigen associated with intact BMDC is a more effective vaccine than the soluble PS alone. This model system provides a platform for studying novel aspects of PS-targeted vaccination.

  17. Mouse dendritic cells pulsed with capsular polysaccharide induce resistance to lethal pneumococcal challenge: roles of T cells and B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noam; Margalit, Raanan; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Yona, Simon; Jung, Steffen; Eisenbach, Lea; Cohen, Irun R

    2012-01-01

    Mice are exceedingly sensitive to intra-peritoneal (IP) challenge with some virulent pneumococci (LD50 = 1 bacterium). To investigate how peripheral contact with bacterial capsular polysaccharide (PS) antigen can induce resistance, we pulsed bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDC) of C57BL/6 mice with type 4 or type 3 PS, injected the BMDC intra-foot pad (IFP) and challenged the mice IP with supra-lethal doses of pneumococci. We examined the responses of T cells and B cells in the draining popliteal lymph node and measured the effects on the bacteria in the peritoneum and blood. We now report that: 1) The PS co-localized with MHC molecules on the BMDC surface; 2) PS-specific T and B cell proliferation and IFNγ secretion was detected in the draining popliteal lymph nodes on day 4; 3) Type-specific resistance to lethal IP challenge was manifested only after day 5; 4) Type-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in the sera of only some of the mice, but B cells were essential for resistance; 5) Control mice vaccinated with a single injection of soluble PS did not develop a response in the draining popliteal lymph node and were not protected; 6) Mice injected with unpulsed BMDC also did not resist challenge: In unprotected mice, pneumococci entered the blood shortly after IP inoculation and multiplied exponentially in both blood and peritoneum killing the mice within 20 hours. Mice vaccinated with PS-pulsed BMDC trapped the bacteria in the peritoneum. The trapped bacteria proliferated exponentially IP, but died suddenly at 18-20 hours. Thus, a single injection of PS antigen associated with intact BMDC is a more effective vaccine than the soluble PS alone. This model system provides a platform for studying novel aspects of PS-targeted vaccination.

  18. [Inflammatory dendritic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Elodie; Amigorena, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells are a rare and heterogeneous population of professional antigen-presenting cells. Several murine dendritic cell subpopulations have been identified that differ in their phenotype and functional properties. In the steady state, committed dendritic cell precursors differentiate into lymphoid organ-resident dendritic cells and migratory tissue dendritic cells. During inflammation appears an additional dendritic cell subpopulation that has been termed « inflammatory dendritic cells ». Inflammatory dendritic cells differentiate in situ from monocytes recruited to the site of inflammation. Here, we discuss how mouse inflammatory dendritic cells differ from macrophages and from other dendritic cell populations. Finally, we review recent work on human inflammatory dendritic cells.

  19. Advances in the study on induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuang; DUAN EnKui

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the study on "induced pluripotent stem cells" (iPS cells) has made a great breakthrough, and it is considered as a new milestone in the history of life science. This progress has updated our traditional concepts about pluripotency control, and provided people with a brand-new strategy for somatic cell nuclear reprogramming. In virtue of its availability and stability, this method holds great potential in both biological and clinical research. In order to introduce this rising field of study, this paper starts with an overview of the development of iPS cell establishment, describes the key steps in generating iPS cells, elaborates several relevant scientific issues, and evaluates its current restrictions and promises in future research.

  20. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  1. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  2. In Vitro Generation of Antigen-Specific T Cells from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells of Antigen-Specific T Cell Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from T lymphocyte (T-iPS cells) preserve the T cell receptor (TCR) α and β gene rearrangements identical to the original T cell clone. Re-differentiated CD8 single positive αβ T cells from the T-iPS cells exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity, improved proliferative response, and elongation of telomere indicating rejuvenation of antigen specific T cell immunity in vitro. To regenerate antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), first, we have optimized a method for reprogramming-resistant CD8 T cell clones into T-iPS cells by using sendaiviral vectors. Second, we have optimized stepwise differentiation methods for inducing hematopoietic progenitor cells, T cell progenitors, and functionally matured CD8 single positive CTL. These protocols provide useful in vitro tools and models both for research of antigen-specific T cell immunotherapy and for research of normal and pathological thymopoiesis.

  3. Human parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells: one potential resource for cell therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jie; HU WanWan; SHENG Chao; YU Yang; ZHOU Qi

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells derived from somatic cells through such processes as nuclear transfer or in duced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells present an important model for biomedical research and provide potential resources for cell replacement therapies. However, the overall efficiency of the conversional nuclear transfer is very low and the safety issue remains a major concern for iPS cells. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated from parthenogenetic embryos are one attractive alternative as a source of histocompatible cells and tissues for cell therapy. Recent studies on human parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (hPG ESCs) have revealed that these ESCs are very similar to the hESCs derived from IVF or in vivo produced blastocysts in gene expression and other characteristics, but full differentiation and development potential of these hPG ESCs have to be further investigated before clinical research and therapeutic interventions. To generate various pluripotent stem cells, diverse reprogramming techniques and approaches will be developed and integrated. This may help elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying reprogramming and stem cell biology, and ultimately benefit cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  4. CellFinder: a cell data repository

    OpenAIRE

    Stachelscheid, H.; Seltmann, S.; Lekschas, F.; Fontaine, J.F.; Mah, N.; Neves, M.; Andrade-Navarro, M.A.; Leser, U; Kurtz, A.

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue t...

  5. Interactions between neuronal and non-neuronal cells in adult rat isolated dorsal root ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NG K Y; WONG Y H; WISE H

    2008-01-01

    Objective The glial cells of the central nervous system are involved in tripartite signaling, therefore we have been investigating the relationship between sensory neurons and non-neuronal cells in isolated preparations of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Methods The mixed cell cultures of dissociated DRG cells were separated to yield enriched fractions of IB4-positive cells (small diameter, non-peptidergic cells), IB4-negative cells (small diameter, peptidergic cells, and large diameter cells), and non-neuronal cells (principally satellite glial cells, Schwarm cells and fibroblasts). Adenylyl cyclase activity was assayed by measuring production of [3H]cAMP from cells preloaded with [3H]adenine. Results PGE2 and the PGI2 mimetic eicaprost stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity which was inhibited by ONO-AE3-208 (EP4 antagonist) or CAY10441 (IP antagonist) with estimated pA2 values of 8.9 and 8.2, respectively. Surprisingly, both PGE2 and cicaprost-stimulated [3H] cAMP production was greatest in the non-neuronal cell preparation. Furthermore, when the number of non-neuronal cells was kept constant and the number of neuronal cells was increased, we observed a progressive decrease in prostanoid-stimulated activity. Conclusions Sensory neurons appear to regulate prostanoid receptor-mediated cell signaling in non-neuronal cells within the DRG.

  6. Limbal Stromal Tissue Specific Stem Cells and Their Differentiation Potential to Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddy, Kishore Reddy; Jurkunas, Ula V

    2016-01-01

    From the derivation of the first human embryonic stem (hES) cell line to the development of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells; it has become evident that tissue specific stem cells are able to differentiate into a specific somatic cell types. The understanding of key processes such as the signaling pathways and the role of the microenvironment in epidermal/epithelial development has provided important clues for the derivation of specific epithelial cell types.Various differentiation protocols/methods were used to attain specific epithelial cell types. Here, we describe in detail the procedure to follow for isolation of tissue specific stem cells, mimicking their microenvironment to attain stem cell characteristics, and their potential differentiation to corneal epithelial cells.

  7. Establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells from aged mice using bone marrow-derived myeloid cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Cheng; Sachiko Ito; Naomi Nishio; Hengyi Xiao; Rong Zhang; Haruhiko Suzuki; Yayoi Okawa; Toyoaki Murohara; Ken-ichi Isobe

    2011-01-01

    If induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are to be used to treat damaged tissues or repair organs in elderly patients, it will be necessaryto establish iPS cells from their tissues. To determine the feasibility of using this technology with elderly patients, we asked if itwas indeed possible to establish iPS cells from the bone marrow (BM) of aged mice. BM cells from aged C57BL/6 mice carrying thegreen fluorescence protein (GFP) gene were cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for 4 days.Four factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) were introduced into the BM-derived myeloid (BM-M) cells. The efficiency of generating iPS cells from aged BM cultured in GM-CSF was low. However, we succeeded in obtaining BM-M-iPS cells from aged C57BL/6 mice,which carried GFP. Our BM-M-iPS cells expressed SSEA-1 and Pou5f1 and were positive for alkaline phosphatase staining. The iPScells did make teratoma with three germ layers following injection into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, and can be differentiated to threegerm layers in vitro. By co-culturing with OP9, the BM-M-iPS cells can be differentiated to the myeloid lineage. The differentiated BM-M-iPS cells proliferated well in the presence of GM-CSF, and lost expression of Nanog and Pou5f1, at least in part, due to methylation of their promoters. On the contrary, Tnf and Il1b gene expression was upregulated and their promoters were hypornethylated.

  8. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as bi...

  9. In silico pooling of ChIP-seq control experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guannan; Srinivasan, Rajini; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Hung, Holly A; Svaren, John; Keleş, Sündüz

    2014-01-01

    As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples.

  10. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  12. Electrorefining cell evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M.C.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

    1989-04-14

    Operational characteristics of the LANL electrorefining cell, a modified LANL electrorefining cell, and an advanced electrorefining cell (known as the CRAC cell) were determined. Average process yields achieved were: 75% for the LANL cell, 82% for the modified LANL cell, and 86% for the CRAC cell. All product metal from the LANL and modified LANL cells was within foundry specifications. Metal from one run in the CRAC cell exceeded foundry specifications for tantalum. The LANL and modified LANL cells were simple in design and operation, but product separation was more labor intensive than with the CRAC cell. The CRAC cell was more complicated in design but remained relatively simple in operation. A decision analysis concluded that the modified LANL cell was the preferred cell. It was recommended that the modified LANL cell be implemented by the Plutonium Recovery Project at Rocky Flats and that development of the CRAC cell continue. 8 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; ...

  14. Global transcriptional profiles of beating clusters derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells are highly similar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Manoj K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and molecular integrity of cardiomyocytes (CMs derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells is essential for their use in tissue repair, disease modelling and drug screening. In this study we compared global transcriptomes of beating clusters (BCs microdissected from differentiating human iPS cells and embryonic stem (ES cells. Results Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed that iPS-BCs and ES-BCs cluster together, are similarly enriched for cardiospecific genes and differ in expression of only 1.9% of present transcripts. Similarly, sarcomeric organization, electrophysiological properties and calcium handling of iPS-CMs were indistinguishable from those of ES-CMs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that among 204 genes that were upregulated in iPS-BCs vs ES-BCs the processes related to extracellular matrix, cell adhesion and tissue development were overrepresented. Interestingly, 47 of 106 genes that were upregulated in undifferentiated iPS vs ES cells remained enriched in iPS-BCs vs ES-BCs. Most of these genes were found to be highly expressed in fibroblasts used for reprogramming and 34% overlapped with the recently reported iPS cell-enriched genes. Conclusions These data suggest that iPS-BCs are transcriptionally highly similar to ES-BCs. However, iPS-BCs appear to share some somatic cell signature with undifferentiated iPS cells. Thus, iPS-BCs may not be perfectly identical to ES-BCs. These minor differences in the expression profiles may occur due to differential cellular composition of iPS-BCs and ES-BCs, due to retention of some genetic profile of somatic cells in differentiated iPS cell-derivatives, or both.

  15. Generation of functional eyes from pluripotent cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are the starting point from which to generate organ specific cell types. For example, converting pluripotent cells to retinal cells could provide an opportunity to treat retinal injuries and degenerations. In this study, we used an in vivo strategy to determine if functional retinas could be generated from a defined population of pluripotent Xenopus laevis cells. Animal pole cells isolated from blastula stage embryos are pluripotent. Untreated, these cells formed only epidermis, when transplanted to either the flank or eye field. In contrast, misexpression of seven transcription factors induced the formation of retinal cell types. Induced retinal cells were committed to a retinal lineage as they formed eyes when transplanted to the flanks of developing embryos. When the endogenous eye field was replaced with induced retinal cells, they formed eyes that were molecularly, anatomically, and electrophysiologically similar to normal eyes. Importantly, induced eyes could guide a vision-based behavior. These results suggest the fate of pluripotent cells may be purposely altered to generate multipotent retinal progenitor cells, which differentiate into functional retinal cell classes and form a neural circuitry sufficient for vision.

  16. Pluripotent muse cells derived from human adipose tissue: a new perspective on regenerative medicine and cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Simerman, Ariel A; Dumesic, Daniel A; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Multilineage Differentiating Stress Enduring (Muse) cells were introduced to the scientific community, offering potential resolution to the issue of teratoma formation that plagues both embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells. Isolated from human bone marrow, dermal fibroblasts, adipose tissue and commercially available adipose stem cells (ASCs) under severe cellular stress conditions, Muse cells self-renew in a controlled manner and do not form teratomas when in...

  17. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECT OF INOSITOL HEXAPHOSPHATE ON HUMAN SKIN MELANOMA CELLS IN VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawszczyk, Joanna; Kapral, Małgorzata; Lodowska, Jolanta; Jesse, Katarzyna; Hollek, Andrzej; Węglarz, Ludmiła

    2015-01-01

    Human malignant melanoma is a highly metastatic tumor with poor prognosis. The majority of metastatic melanomas are resistant to diverse chemotherapeutic agents. Consequently, the search for novel antimelanoma agents continues. In recent years, the interest in plants and their biologically active constituents as a source of novel potential drugs significantly increased. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring compound that has been shown to inhibit the growth of a wide variety of tumor cells in multiple experimental model systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic influence of IP6 on melanotic melanoma cells in vitro. The A2058 cells used as a model of human skin melanoma malignum were exposed to different concentrations of IP6 (0.1-5 mM) for a various period of time and their growth was determined by sulforhodamine B assay after 24, 48 and 72 h. The cytotoxicity of IP6 was measured at 24 and 72 h by XTT assay. IP6 has been found to cause dose-dependent growth suppression of A2058 melanoma cells. At low concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 mM) it did not exert any influence on the cell proliferation as compared to control cultures. Higher concentrations of IP6 (from 1 to 5 mM) had a statistically significant, suppressive effect on cell proliferation after 24 h incubation. When the experimental time period was increased up to 72 h, statistically significant inhibition of cell proliferation was monitored at all IP6 concentrations used. Data obtained from XTT assay indicated that IP6 had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on melanoma cells. The results demonstrate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic properties of IP6 in a wide range of concentrations on human A2058 melanoma cells. Hence, it can be suggested that IP6 could have a promising therapeutic significance in treating cancer.

  18. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, T P; Bickham, U; Bayne, C J

    2013-06-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome.

  19. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  20. Standardizing chromatin research: a simple and universal method for ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Laura; Richter, Andreas S; Betancourt, Emily; Bruder, Kerstin; Diehl, Sarah; Manke, Thomas; Bönisch, Ulrike

    2016-04-20

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a key technique in chromatin research. Although heavily applied, existing ChIP-seq protocols are often highly fine-tuned workflows, optimized for specific experimental requirements. Especially the initial steps of ChIP-seq, particularly chromatin shearing, are deemed to be exceedingly cell-type-specific, thus impeding any protocol standardization efforts. Here we demonstrate that harmonization of ChIP-seq workflows across cell types and conditions is possible when obtaining chromatin from properly isolated nuclei. We established an ultrasound-based nuclei extraction method (NEXSON: Nuclei EXtraction by SONication) that is highly effective across various organisms, cell types and cell numbers. The described method has the potential to replace complex cell-type-specific, but largely ineffective, nuclei isolation protocols. By including NEXSON in ChIP-seq workflows, we completely eliminate the need for extensive optimization and sample-dependent adjustments. Apart from this significant simplification, our approach also provides the basis for a fully standardized ChIP-seq and yields highly reproducible transcription factor and histone modifications maps for a wide range of different cell types. Even small cell numbers (∼10,000 cells per ChIP) can be easily processed without application of modified chromatin or library preparation protocols.

  1. Low microRNA-199a expression in human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintains human-induced pluripotent stem cell pluripotency via increased leukemia inhibitory factor expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Te Liu; Qing Chen; Yongyi Huang; Qin Huang; Lizhen Jiang; Lihe Guo

    2012-01-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells,and may be generated from patient- or disease-specific sources,which makes them attractive for personalized medicine,drug screens,or cellular therapy.Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state is a major challenge.Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells,or spermatogonial stem cells,as they express endogenous leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) at high levels.Here,we examined the effect of exogenous microRNA-199a regulation on endogenous LIF expression in HuAECs,and in torn on human iPS cell pluripotency.We found that HuAECs feeder cells transfected with microRNA-199a mutant expressed LIF at high levels,allowing iPS to maintain a high level of alkaline phosphatase activity in longterm culture and form teratomas in severe combined immunodeficient mice.The expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS cultured on HuAECs feeder cells transfected with the microRNA-199a mutant,compared with iPS cultured on HuAECs transfected with microRNA-199a or mouse embryo fibroblasts.Taken together,these results suggested that LIF expression might be regulated by microRNA-199a,and LIF was a crucial component in feeder cells,and also was required for maintenance of human iPS cells in an undifferentiated,proliferative state capable of self-renewal.

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Cell-cell Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-Huai

    2004-01-01

    Cell-cell recognition is the key for multicellular organisms to survive. This recognition critically depends on protein-protein interactions from opposing cell surfaces. Recent structural investigations reveal unique features of these cell surface receptors and how they interact. These interactions are specific, but usually relatively weak, with more hydrophilic forces involved in binding. The receptors appear to have specialized ways to present their key interacting elements for ligand-binding from the cell surface. Cell-cell contacts are multivalent. A large group of cell surface molecules are engaged in interactions. Characteristic weak interactions make possible for each individual molecule pair within the group to constantly associate-dissociate-reassociate, such that the cell-cell recognition becomes a dynamic process. The immunological synapse is a good example for immune receptors to be orchestrated in performing immunological function in a collective fashion.

  3. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  4. Induced pluripotent stem cells, from generation to application: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells which have the ability to indefinitely self-renew and differentiate into all differentiated cells of the body. Regarding their two main properties (unlimited self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation, these cells have various biomedical applications in basic research and cell based therapy. Because the transplantation of differentiated cells that are derived from embryonic stem cells is allogenic, they face the problem of immune rejection following the transplantation of embryonic stem cell-derived cells into patients. In 2006, researchers from Japan reported the derivation of a new type of pluripotent stem cells which could overcome the problem of immune rejection that is associated with the application of embryonic stem cells. They designated these cells as induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, because their production was ‘induced’ from differentiated somatic cells using a combination of four embryonic stem cell-associated transcription factors. Importantly, these pluripotent stem cells exhibit all the key features of embryonic stem cells including unlimited self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential, and can pass the most stringent test of pluripotency which is known as the tetraploid (4n complementation. Hence, in addition to bypassing the problem of immune rejection, iPS cells have all of the potential applications of embryonic stem cells, including in developmental studies, toxicology research, drug discovery and disease modeling. Also, considering that they could be generated from patient’s own cells, iPS cells hold great promise in the future of patient-specific cell replacement therapies using pluripotent stem cells. In this review article, we will present a comprehensive review on the how and why of the generation of iPS cell from somatic cells of the body and discuss how they should be characterized in terms of morphologically, pluripotent stem cell behavior, and

  5. Generating Porcine Chimeras Using Inner Cell Mass Cells and Parthenogenetic Preimplantation Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Masahito; Matsunari, Hitomi; Matsuda, Taisuke; Honda, Kasumi; Maehara, Miki; Kanai, Takahiro; Hayashida, Gota; Kobayashi, Mirina; Kuramoto, Momoko; Arai, Yoshikazu; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Fujishiro, Shuh-hei; Mizukami, Yoshihisa; Nagaya, Masaki; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Background The development and validation of stem cell therapies using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be optimized through translational research using pigs as large animal models, because pigs have the closest characteristics to humans among non-primate animals. As the recent investigations have been heading for establishment of the human iPS cells with naïve type characteristics, it is an indispensable challenge to develop naïve type porcine iPS cells. The pluripotency of the porcine iPS cells can be evaluated using their abilities to form chimeras. Here, we describe a simple aggregation method using parthenogenetic host embryos that offers a reliable and effective means of determining the chimera formation ability of pluripotent porcine cells. Methodology/Significant Principal Findings In this study, we show that a high yield of chimeric blastocysts can be achieved by aggregating the inner cell mass (ICM) from porcine blastocysts with parthenogenetic porcine embryos. ICMs cultured with morulae or 4–8 cell-stage parthenogenetic embryos derived from in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes can aggregate to form chimeric blastocysts that can develop into chimeric fetuses after transfer. The rate of production of chimeric blastocysts after aggregation with host morulae (20/24, 83.3%) was similar to that after the injection of ICMs into morulae (24/29, 82.8%). We also found that 4–8 cell-stage embryos could be used; chimeric blastocysts were produced with a similar efficiency (17/26, 65.4%). After transfer into recipients, these blastocysts yielded chimeric fetuses at frequencies of 36.0% and 13.6%, respectively. Conclusion/Significance Our findings indicate that the aggregation method using parthenogenetic morulae or 4–8 cell-stage embryos offers a highly reproducible approach for producing chimeric fetuses from porcine pluripotent cells. This method provides a practical and highly accurate system for evaluating pluripotency of undifferentiated cells, such

  6. Photoelectrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA); Boudreau, Robert A. (Norton, MA)

    1983-06-14

    A photoelectrochemical cell comprising a sealed container having a light-transmitting window for admitting light into the container across a light-admitting plane, an electrolyte in the container, a photoelectrode in the container having a light-absorbing surface arranged to receive light from the window and in contact with the electrolyte, the surface having a plurality of spaced portions oblique to the plane, each portion having dimensions at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum wavelength of incident sunlight, the total surface area of the surface being larger than the area of the plane bounded by the container, and a counter electrode in the container in contact with the electrolyte.

  7. Functional analysis of carboxylesterase in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived enterocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeya, Tomoki; Matsumura, Wakana; Iwao, Takahiro; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Matsunaga, Tamihide

    2017-04-22

    Human carboxylesterase (CES) is a key esterase involved in the metabolism and biotransformation of drugs. Hydrolysis activity in the human small intestine is predominantly mediated by CES2A1 rather than CES1A. In drug development studies, Caco-2 cells are commonly used as a model to predict drug absorption in the human small intestine. However, the expression patterns of CES2A1 and CES1A in Caco-2 cells differ from those in the human small intestine. There are also species-specific differences in CES expression patterns between human and experimental animals. Furthermore, it is difficult to obtain primary human intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, there is currently no system that can precisely predict features of drug absorption, such as CES-mediated metabolism, in the human intestine. To develop a novel system to evaluate intestinal pharmacokinetics, we analyzed CES expression and function in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived enterocytes. CES2A1 mRNA and protein levels in human iPS cell-derived enterocytes were comparable to Caco-2 cells, whereas CES1A levels were lower in human iPS cell-derived enterocytes compared with Caco-2 cells. p-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis in human iPS cell-derived enterocytes was significantly inhibited by the CES2A1-specific inhibitor telmisartan. Hydrolysis levels of the CES2A1-specific substrate aspirin were similar in human iPS cell-derived enterocytes and Caco-2 cells, whereas hydrolysis of the CES1A-specific substrate monoethylglycylxylidine was observed in Caco-2 cells but not in human iPS cell-derived enterocytes. These findings demonstrated that the expression and activity of CES isozymes in human iPS cell-derived enterocytes are more similar to the human small intestine compared with Caco-2 cells.

  8. File list: ALL.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX9774...30,SRX146524,SRX146522,SRX146547 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: His.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: DNS.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: His.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: DNS.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Oth.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 TFs and others Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX65...RX146524 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX110015,S...315,SRX381309 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX088...27,SRX189400,SRX189399 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Oth.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 TFs and others Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX65...RX146524 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX088...16,SRX189400,SRX189399 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX317576,S...077,SRX317607 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  4. A murine ESC-like state facilitates transgenesis and homologous recombination in human pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Buecker (Christa); H.H. Chen; J.M. Polo (Jose); L. Daheron (Laurence); L. Bu (Lei); T.S. Barakat (Tahsin Stefan); P. Okwieka (Patricia); A. Porter (Andrew); J.H. Gribnau (Joost); K. Hochedlinger (Konrad); N. Geijsen (Niels)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMurine pluripotent stem cells can exist in two functionally distinct states, LIF-dependent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and bFGF-dependent epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). However, human pluripotent cells so far seemed to assume only an epiblast-like state. Here we demonstrate that human iPS

  5. 293FT cells transduced with four transcription factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28 generate aberrant ES-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The HEK 293 cell line (293 cells was derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK cells grown in tissue culture. 293 cells are very easy to grow and transfect and have been widely used in cell biological research for many years. 293 cells have many of the properties of immature neurons, suggesting that they represent a transformed neuronal cell present in the original kidney culture, and they are not useful as an in vitro model for kidney cell function. The 293T cell line contains the SV40 large T-antigen, which allows the episomal replication of transfected plasmids containing the SV40 origin of replication, and 293FT cells are a fast-growing variant. A recent report showed that introducing a set of transcription factors associated with pluripotency into human somatic cells can directly reprogram them to produce induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. To date, however, iPS cells have not been generated from immortalized cells. We examined whether iPS cells could be generated from 293 FT cells transfected with four transcription factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28. The obtained cells morphologically resembled human ES cells, and showed a similar marker gene expression pattern. These cells had an impaired ability to differentiate, and formed immature ectodermal tumors after they were transplanted into nude mice. Thus, we could not derive fully reprogrammed iPS cells from 293FT cells. We conclude that the 293FT cells transduced with OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28 produced aberrant ES-like cells.

  6. Effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells into mesodermal progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki, E-mail: tishizu@ndmc.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513 (Japan); Goshima, Hazuki; Ozawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Yasuhiro [Department of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II enhanced LIF-induced DNA synthesis of mouse iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the DNA synthesis via induction of superoxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II enhanced differentiation into mesodermal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the differentiation via activation of p38 MAPK. -- Abstract: Previous studies suggest that angiotensin receptor stimulation may enhance not only proliferation but also differentiation of undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the involvement of the angiotensin receptor in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) significantly increased DNA synthesis in mouse iPS cells cultured in a medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Pretreatment of the cells with either candesartan (a selective Ang II type 1 receptor [AT{sub 1}R] antagonist) or Tempol (a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger) significantly inhibited Ang II-induced DNA synthesis. Treatment with Ang II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Pretreatment with candesartan significantly inhibited Ang II- induced JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. In contrast, induction of mouse iPS cell differentiation into Flk-1-positive mesodermal progenitor cells was performed in type IV collagen (Col IV)- coated dishes in a differentiation medium without LIF. When Col IV-exposed iPS cells were treated with Ang II for 5 days, the expression of Flk-1 was significantly increased compared with that in the cells treated with the vehicle alone. Pretreatment of the cells with both candesartan and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited the Ang II- induced increase in Flk-1 expression

  7. nduced pluripotent stem cells and cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst-stage embryo. They hold a huge promise for cell therapy with their self-renewing ability and pluripotency, which is known as the potential to differentiate into all cell types originating from three embryonic germ layers. However, their unique pluripotent feature could not be utilised for therapeutic purposes due to the ethical and legal problems during derivation. Recently, it was shown that the cells from adult tissues could be reverted into embryonic state, thereby restoring their pluripotent feature. This has strenghtened the possiblity of directed differentition of the reprogrammed somatic cells into the desired cell types in vitro and their use in regenerative medicine. Although these cells were termed as induced pluripotent cells, the mechanism of pluripotency has yet to be understood. Still, induced pluripotent stem cell technology is considered to be significant by proposing novel approaches in disease modelling, drug screening and cell therapy. Besides their self-renewing ability and their potential to differentiate into all cell types in a human body, they arouse a great interest in scientific world by being far from the ethical concerns regarding their embryonic counterparts and their unique feature of being patient-specific in prospective cell therapies. In this review, induced pluripotent stem cell technology and its role in cell-based therapies from past to present will be discussed. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 550-561

  8. Human induced pluripotent stem cells labeled with lfuorescent magnetic nanoparticles for targeted imaging and hyperthermia therapy for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Li; Wei-Lin Jin; Da-Xiang Cui; Jing Ruan; Meng Yang; Fei Pan; Guo Gao; Su Qu; You-Lan Shen; Yong-Jun Dang; Kan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells exhibit great potential for generating functional human cells for medical therapies. In this paper, we report for use of human iPS cells labeled with lfuorescent magnetic nanoparticles (FMNPs) for targeted imaging and synergistic therapy of gastric cancer cellsin vivo. Methods: Human iPS cells were prepared and cultured for 72 h. The culture medium was collected, and then was co-incubated with MGC803 cells. Cell viability was analyzed by the MTT method. FMNP-labeled human iPS cells were prepared and injected into gastric cancer-bearing nude mice. hTe mouse model was observed using a small-animal imaging system. hTe nude mice were irradiated under an external alternating magnetic ifeld and evaluated using an infrared thermal mapping instrument. Tumor sizes were measured weekly. Results: iPS cells and the collected culture medium inhibited the growth of MGC803 cells. FMNP-labeled human iPS cells targeted and imaged gastric cancer cellsin vivo, as well as inhibited cancer growthin vivo through the external magnetic ifeld. Conclusion: FMNP-labeled human iPS cells exhibit considerable potential in applications such as targeted dual-mode imaging and synergistic therapy for early gastric cancer.

  9. Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    He, M-f; Wang, S.; Wang, Y; Wang, X-N.

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-in-cell structure was noted 100 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of ‘entering' and the destination of cell-in-cell remain largely unclear. It takes place among the same type of cells (homotypic cell-in-cell) or different types of cells (heterotypic cell-in-cell). Cell-in-cell formation affects both effector cells and their host cells in multiple aspects, while cell-in-cell death is under more intensive investigation. Given that cell-in-cell has an important role in maintainin...

  10. Eradication of tumour cells by successive injections of allogeneic immune and hyperimmune peritoneal cells in a murine lymphoma system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullens, H.F.J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Weger, R.A. de; Otter, W. den

    2006-01-01

    Allogeneic C57BL immune and hyperimmune (vs SL2) peritoneal cells are used for eradication of DBA/2 derived SL2 lymphoma cells injected into the peritoneal cavity of DBA/2 mice. SL2 bearing DBA/2 mice are treated with 3, 5, or 8 successive i.p. injections of 2 × 106 allogeneic C57BL immune or hyper

  11. Novel characteristics of CtIP at damage-induced foci following the initiation of DNA end resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujimori, Akira [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Okayasu, Ryuichi [International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uesaka, Mitsuru [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yajima, Hirohiko, E-mail: hyajima@nirs.go.jp [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • CtIP becomes hyperphosphorylated and forms foci following cell irradiation. • CtIP accumulates in foci subsequent to the peak of hyperphosphorylation. • CtIP is maintained in a hypophosphorylated state at later times. • CtIP is continuously recruited to DNA double strand breaks downstream of resection. • CtIP presumably have a distinct role following the initiation of resection. - Abstract: Homologous recombination (HR) is a major repair pathway for DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and end resection, which generates a 3′-single strand DNA tail at the DSB, is an early step in the process. Resection is initiated by the Mre11 nuclease together with CtIP. Here, we describe novel characteristics of CtIP at DSBs. At early times following exposure of human cells to ionizing radiation, CtIP localized to the DSB, became hyperphosphorylated and formed foci in an ATM-dependent manner. At later times, when the initiation of resection had occurred, CtIP foci persist but CtIP is maintained in a hypophosphorylated state, which is dependent on ATM and ATR. Exposure to cycloheximide revealed that CtIP turns over at DSB sites downstream of resection. Our findings provide strong evidence that CtIP is continuously recruited to DSBs downstream of both the initiation and extension step of resection, strongly suggesting that CtIP has functions in addition to promoting the initiation of resection during HR.

  12. Human embryonic stem cell therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Crook, Jeremy M

    2011-06-01

    There is a renewed enthusiasm for the clinical translation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells. This is abetted by putative clinically-compliant strategies for hES cell maintenance and directed differentiation, greater understanding of and accessibility to cells through formal cell registries and centralized cell banking for distribution, the revised US government policy on funding hES cell research, and paradoxically the discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Additionally, as we consider the constraints (practical and fiscal) of delivering cell therapies for global healthcare, the more efficient and economical application of allogeneic vs autologous treatments will bolster the clinical entry of hES cell derivatives. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease are primary candidates for hES cell therapy, although there are significant hurdles to be overcome. The present review considers key advances and challenges to translating hES cells into novel therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, with special consideration given to Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, despite the focus on degenerative brain disorders and hES cells, many of the issues canvassed by this review are relevant to systemic application of hES cells and other pluripotent stem cells such as iPS cells.

  13. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R; Smith, Charles E; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S

    2015-10-30

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca(2+) yet the mechanisms mediating Ca(2+) dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca(2+) influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools followed by Ca(2+) entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca(2+) uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca(2+) release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca(2+)]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca(2+) entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca(2+) uptake in enamel formation.

  14. IN-CELL visual examinations of K east fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L.; Pyecha, T.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    Nine outer fuel elements were recovered from the K East Basin and transferred to a hot cell for examination. Extensive testing planned for these elements will support the process design for the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS), with emphasis on drying and conditioning behavior. Visual examinations of the fuel elements confirmed that they are appropriate to meet testing objectives to provide design guidance for IPS processing parameters.

  15. Tumor cell "dead or alive": caspase and survivin regulate cell death, cell cycle and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A; Shiraki, K

    2001-04-01

    Cell death and cell cycle progression are two sides of the same coin, and these two different phenomenons are regulated moderately to maintain the cellular homeostasis. Tumor is one of the disease states produced as a result of the disintegrated regulation and is characterized as cells showing an irreversible progression of cell cycle and a resistance to cell death signaling. Several investigations have been performed for the understanding of cell death or cell cycle, and cell death research has remarkably progressed in these 10 years. Caspase is a nomenclature referring to ICE/CED-3 cysteine proteinase family and plays a central role during cell death. Recently, several investigations raised some possible hypotheses that caspase is also involved in cell cycle regulation. In this issue, therefore, we review the molecular basis of cell death and cell cycle regulated by caspase in tumor, especially hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  16. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from bovine embryonic fibroblast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Han; Ning Li; Jianyong Han; Fangrong Ding; Suying Cao; Seong Soo Lim; Yunping Dai; Ran Zhang; Yurui Zhang; Bing Lim

    2011-01-01

    Dear Editor,Embryonic stem cell (ES cell) lines were first generated by culturing mouse inner cell mass (ICM) on feeder layers in 1981 [1].However,in large domestic animals,attempts to establish ES cell lines from ICM of blastocysts or the later epiblast have not been successful.This has hindered the efficient production of genetically modified livestocks by using ES-based approaches.Recently,it was found that ectopic expression of various combinations oftranscriptinn factors is able to reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state [2-5].These induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells show similarities to embryo-derived ES cells and can be used to produce viable mice through tetraploid complementation [6,7].So far,iPS cells of several mammalian species have been successfully generated [2,3,8-12].In this letter,we report the first establishment of bovine iPS cells using defined transcription factors and a modified culture medium.

  17. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells