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Sample records for cells incorporate immunoglobulins

  1. Cerebellar Purkinje cells incorporate immunoglobulins and immunotoxins in vitro: implications for human neurological disease and immunotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose John W

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies reactive with intracellular neuronal proteins have been described in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune disorders. Because neurons have been thought impermeable to immunoglobulins, however, such antibodies have been considered unable to enter neurons and bind to their specific antigens during life. Cerebellar Purkinje cells - an important target in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune diseases - have been shown in experimental animals to incorporate a number of molecules from cerebrospinal fluid. IgG has also been detected in Purkinje cells studied post mortem. Despite the possible significance of these findings for human disease, immunoglobulin uptake by Purkinje cells has not been demonstrated in living tissue or studied systematically. Methods To assess Purkinje cell uptake of immunoglobulins, organotypic cultures of rat cerebellum incubated with rat IgGs, human IgG, fluorescein-conjugated IgG, and rat IgM were studied by confocal microscopy in real time and following fixation. An IgG-daunorubicin immunotoxin was used to determine whether conjugation of pharmacological agents to IgG could be used to achieve Purkinje cell-specific drug delivery. Results IgG uptake was detected in Purkinje cell processes after 4 hours of incubation and in Purkinje cell cytoplasm and nuclei by 24-48 hours. Uptake could be followed in real time using IgG-fluorochrome conjugates. Purkinje cells also incorporated IgM. Intracellular immunoglobulin did not affect Purkinje cell viability, and Purkinje cells cleared intracellular IgG or IgM within 24-48 hours after transfer to media lacking immunoglobulins. The IgG-daunomycin immunotoxin was also rapidly incorporated into Purkinje cells and caused extensive, cell-specific death within 8 hours. Purkinje cell death was not produced by unconjugated daunorubicin or control IgG. Conclusion Purkinje cells in rat organotypic cultures incorporate and clear host (rat and non

  2. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/106 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/106 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG

  3. Alpha chain determinants on the membrane of immunoglobulin synthesizing cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, W.; Schuit, H.R.E.; Radl, J.; Vossen, J.M.J.J.

    1974-01-01

    In a study of surface immunoglobulins (Ig) on lymphocytes from patients with paraproteinemia (1), we observed that a variable number of plasma cells not only contained intracellular Ig, but also had Ig on their surface, as shown in the vital technique of immunofluorescence. Moreover, in the bone mar

  4. Requirement for noncognate interaction with T cells for the activation of B cell immunoglobulin secretion by IL-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1991-01-01

    23.1+ TH1 clone E9.D4 in F23.1 (anti-T cell receptor V-beta 8)-coated microwells. This induced polyclonal B cell activation to enter cell cycle (thymidine incorporation) at 2 days and to secrete immunoglobulin at 5 days. An anti-IL-2 mAb (S4B6) inhibited antibody production completely. Anti-IL-2 did...... not inhibit either LPS-induced B cell responses, or T cell activation (measured as IL-3 secretion). Anti-IL-2 receptor (anti-Tac) mAbs also inhibited T-dependent B cell responses, without affecting LPS responses. An anti-IFN-gamma mAb partially inhibited Ig secretion, without affecting entry into...

  5. Failure of anti-D immunoglobulin to remove fetal red cells from maternal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, J A; Emblin, K F; Hutchinson, R M

    1979-01-01

    A Rhesus negative female was found post delivery to have circulating cells of fetal origin. The neonate was typed as D-positive. In spite of more than conventionally adequate doses of anti-D immunoglobulin given to the mother, the fetal cell count in the maternal circulation remained unchanged. Further investigation showed the fetus to be a Du variant and to exhibit a diminished reaction with the batch of anti-D immunoglobulin used. PMID:111422

  6. Detection of radiolabelled bone marrow cells bearing surface immunoglobulins by combined autoradiography and immunoperoxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the simultaneous detection of radiolabelled bone marrow cells bearing surface immunoglobulins by combined autoradiography and immunoperoxidase. Bone marrow cells from normal CBA mice prelabelled in vivo with 125IUDR or exposed in vitro to [3H]thymidine were incubated with rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulins under capping conditions, washed, cytocentrifuged and treated with methanol and hydrogen peroxide to destroy endogenous peroxidase. Cells were then covered with peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins, washed, treated with diaminobenzidine and hydrogen peroxide and finally covered with autoradiographic stripping film and exposed for different times. Peroxidase-positive cells were typically capped and those radiolabelled had autoradiographic silver grains overlying the nucleus. (Auth.)

  7. Effects of Ovarian Steroids on Immunoglobulin-Secreting Cell Function in Healthy Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lü, Fabien X.; Ma, Zhongmin; Moser, Susie; Evans, Thomas G.; Christopher J. Miller

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of the ovarian hormone cycle on immunity, immunoglobulin-secreting cell (ISC) frequency and lymphocyte subsets were examined in the blood of healthy women. We found that immunoglobulin A (IgA)-secreting cells (IgA-ISC) were fourfold more frequent than IgG-ISC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Further, the ISC frequency in PBMC was highest (P < 0.05) during the periovulatory stage of the menstrual cycle. Thus, endogenous ovarian steroids regulate the ISC fre...

  8. Folate-conjugated immunoglobulin targets melanoma tumor cells for NK cell effector functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Cassandra C.; McMichael, Elizabeth L.; Jaime-Ramirez, Alena C.; Abrams, Zachary B.; Lee, Robert J.; Carson, William E.

    2016-01-01

    The folate receptor (FR) is over-expressed on the vascular side of cancerous cells including those of the breast, ovaries, testes, and cervix. We hypothesized that a folate-conjugated immunoglobulin (F-IgG) would bind to the FR that is over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells to target these cells for lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Folate receptor expression was confirmed in the Mel-39 (human melanoma) cell line by flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis, using KB (human oral epithelial) and F01 (human melanoma) as a positive and negative control, respectively. FR-positive and negative cell lines were treated with F-IgG or control immunoglobulin G (C-IgG) in the presence or absence of cytokines in order to determine NK cell ability to lyse FR-positive cell lines. NK cell activation was significantly upregulated and lysis of Mel 39 tumor cells enhanced following treatment with F-IgG, as compared to C-IgG at all effector:target (E:T) ratios (p<0.01). This trend was further enhanced by NK cell stimulation with the activating cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12). NK cell production of cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α), and regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were also significantly increased in response to co-stimulation with IL-12 stimulation and F-IgG-coated Mel 39 target cells, as compared to controls (p<0.01). In contrast, F-IgG did not bind to the FR-negative cell line F01 and had no significant effect on NK cell lysis or cytokine production. This research indicates the potential use of F-IgG for its ability to induce an immune response from NK cells against FR-positive melanoma tumor cells which can be further enhanced by the addition of cytokines. PMID:27035691

  9. Monoclonal antibodies to snakehead, Channa striata immunoglobulins: detection and quantification of immunoglobulin-positive cells in blood and lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Rathore, Gaurav; Singh, Akhilesh; Lakra, W S

    2011-02-01

    Snakehead Channa striata is an important freshwater food fish in many Southeast Asian countries. Three monoclonal antibodies (C9, C10 and D10) were developed against purified serum immunoglobulins of Channa striata (Cs-Ig) and characterized. C9 and D10 MAbs were specific to heavy chain, while C10 MAb detected only unreduced Cs-Ig in western blotting. In competitive ELISA, C9 and C10 MAbs were specific to C. striata Ig and showed no cross reactivity with serum Ig of other fish species i.e. Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Clarias batrachus and Labeo rohita. D10 MAb showed reactivity to serum Ig of C. striata and C. marulius. In FACS analysis of gated lymphocytes, the percentage of Ig+ cells detected by C9 MAb was 18.2%, 27.7% and 10.3% in blood, spleen and kidney, respectively (n=3, body weight 500-600 g). However, only a few cells (0.5%) were found to be Ig+ in thymus (n=5). C9 MAb was also successfully employed to demonstrate Ig+ cells in blood smears and formalin fixed sections of spleen and kidney. These findings suggest that the spleen plays an important role in humoral immunity as compared to head kidney. Further, these MAbs can be useful immunological tool in monitoring health status of cultured C. striata. PMID:21167285

  10. DUAL ROLES OF CANCER CELL-EXPRESSED IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN CANCER IMMUNOLOGY

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    Gregory Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the expression of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors on cancer cells has been well-established for decades, the potential roles and mechanisms of action of these cancerous antigen receptors have not been fully elucidated. A monoclonal antibody designated as RP215, which reacts specifically with the carbohydrate-associated epitope located on the heavy chain region of cancerous immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, was used as a unique probe to study the roles of antigen receptors in the immunology of cancer cells. Through extensive cell-based biological and immunological studies, it was found that both anti-antigen receptors and RP215 demonstrated similar actions on the gene regulations involved in the growth/proliferation of cancer cells, as well as on toll-like receptors involved in innate immunity. In addition, RP215-specific cancerous immunoglobulins are believed to capture or neutralize circulating antigen/antibodies which may be harmful to cancer cells within the human body. In contrast to normal B and T cells and their respective receptors in the conventional immune system, cancer cells co-express both immunoglobulins and T cell receptors and immune protection is exercised by unique mechanisms. For example, these cancer cell-expressed antigen receptors display a lack of class switching, limited hyper-mutation, aberrant glycosylations and a strong influence on the toll-like receptors of cancer cells. Therefore, it is hypothesized that both normal and cancerous immune systems may co-exist and operate simultaneously within the human body. The balance of these two immune factors for respective surveillance and protection may be relevant to the outcome of cancer immunotherapy in humans. A potential therapeutic strategy is being developed by using RP215 as a drug candidate to target cancer cells based on these observations.

  11. Enhanced cell-free protein expression by fusion with immunoglobulin Cκ domain

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Elizabeth; Liu, Hong; Khan, Farid; Taussig, Michael J; He, Mingyue

    2006-01-01

    While cell-free systems are increasingly used for protein expression in structural and functional studies, several proteins are difficult to express or expressed only at low levels in cell-free lysates. Here, we report that fusion of the human immunoglobulin κ light chain constant domain (Cκ) at the C terminus of four representative proteins dramatically improved their production in the Escherichia coli S30 system, suggesting that enhancement of cell-free protein expression by Cκ fusion will ...

  12. Importance of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Santana Alessio Franceschi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for many hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma, bone marrow aplasia and leukemia. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA compatibility is an important tool to prevent post-transplant complications such as graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease, but the high rates of relapse limit the survival of transplant patients. Natural Killer cells, a type of lymphocyte that is a key element in the defense against tumor cells, cells infected with viruses and intracellular microbes, have different receptors on their surfaces that regulate their cytotoxicity. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors are the most important, interacting consistently with human leukocyte antigen class I molecules present in other cells and thus controlling the activation of natural killer cells. Several studies have shown that certain combinations of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens (in both donors and recipients can affect the chances of survival of transplant patients, particularly in relation to the graft-versusleukemia effect, which may be associated to decreased relapse rates in certain groups. This review aims to shed light on the mechanisms and effects of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors - human leukocyte antigen associations and their implications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and to critically analyze the results obtained by the studies presented herein.

  13. Leukocyte common antigen (CD45) is required for immunoglobulin E- mediated degranulation of mast cells

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate using primary mast cell cultures derived from wild-type and CD45-deficient mice that mast cell triggering through the high- affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor requires the cell surface tyrosine phosphatase CD45. Unlike wild-type cells, cross-linking of surface-bound IgE in mast cells deficient in CD45 does not induce degranulation. Degranulation in these mutant cells does occur after treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 indicating that the degranulation machinery i...

  14. Molecular Mechanism of Immunoglobulin Gene Conversion in Chicken DT40 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Saribasak, Huseyin

    2006-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) gene conversion is one of three B cell specific processes which create the repertoire of antigen receptors in B cells. The process involves the unidirectional transfer of sequences from pseudogene V segments into the rearranged V gene. There are general and lymphoid-specific trans-acting factors as well as cis-acting elements involved in this process. Gene conversion is most likely initiated by AID mediated cytosine deamination. If the resulting uracils need to be further ...

  15. Accumulation of immunoglobulin-containing cells in the gut mucosa and presence of faecal immunoglobulin in severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice with T cell-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Brimnes, J; Reimann, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    individual colon segments obtained from 20 gut wall- or CD4+ T cell-transplanted diseased scid mice was evaluated by histology and the numbers of infiltrating immunoglobulin-containing cells were determined. In particular, cells positive for IgM, IgA and non-inflammatory immunoglobulin isotypes such as IgG1...... positive for the IgG classes. Faecal extracts of the CD4+ T cell-transplanted scid mice revealed the presence of all six murine immunoglobulin isotypes. Disease progression was accompanied by an increased level of excreted IgM and IgG3 and decreased levels of IgA. It is concluded that locally secreted...... immunoglobulins may play an immunomodulating role in the pathological changes observed in the present model of T cell-induced inflammatory bowel disease....

  16. Clonal expansion of immunoglobulin M+CD27+ B cells in HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Edgar D.; Green, Rashidah M.; Marukian, Svetlana; Talal, Andrew H.; Lake-Bakaar, Gerond V.; Jacobson, Ira M.; Rice, Charles M.; Dustin, Lynn B.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders such as mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). The pathogenesis of these disorders remains unclear, and it has been proposed that HCV drives the pro-liferation of B cells. Here we demonstrate that certain HCV+MC+ subjects have clonal expansions of immunoglobulin M (IgM)+κ+IgDlow/−CD21lowCD27+ B cells. Using RT-PCR to amplify Ig from these singly sorted cells, we show that these predom...

  17. Those other mammals: The immunoglobulins and T cell receptors of marsupials and monotremes

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes analyses of marsupial and monotreme immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genetics and expression published over the past decade. Analyses of recently completed whole genome sequences from the opossum and the platypus have yielded insight into the evolution of the common antigen receptor systems, as well as discovery of novel receptors that appear to have been lost in eutherian mammals. These species are also useful for investigation of the development of the immune system...

  18. The mouse B cell repertoire : antibody specificities and immunoglobulin (sub) class distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Hooijkaas, Herbert

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe total number of different immunoglobulin (I g) molecules that the immune system produces is often called the antibody specificity repertoire orB cell repertoire (Chapter 1). This repertoire can be subdivided into three categories: the potential, the available and the actual repertoires. The potential repertoire is determined by the number, structure and mechanisms of expression of the germl ine genes encoding lg molecules plus the possible somatic variants derived from them an...

  19. Mutation Pattern of Paired Immunoglobulin Heavy and Light Variable Domains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ghiotto, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV-diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥ 2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation analysis. Replacement (R) mutation frequency within IGK/LV chain CDRs correlated significantly with mutation frequency of paired IGHV CDRs in λ but not κ isotype CLL clones. CDRs of IGKV-J rearrangements displayed a lower percentage of R mutations than IGHVs. The frequency/pattern of mutations in kappa CLL Igs differed also from that in κ-expressing normal B cells described in the literature. Instead, the mutation frequency within the FRs of IGHV and either IGKV or IGLV was correlated. Notably, the amount of diversity introduced by replaced amino acids was comparable between IGHVs and IGKVs. The data indicate a different mutation pattern between κ and λ isotype CLL clones and suggest an antigenic selection that, in κ samples, operates against CDR variation.

  20. Modulation of Immunoglobulin Production by Invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR-Bearing Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Hidaka, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR+ (Vα19i T) cells suppress the disease progress in some models for organ specific autoimmune diseases and type IV allergy that deteriorate along with decline to excess in Th1- or Th17- immunity. In this study, we examined the effects of over-generation of Vα19i T cells on the Th2-controlled immunoglobulin isotype production in the models for type I allergy. IgE production by invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR transgenic (Tg) mice was suppressed compar...

  1. Frequency patterns of T-cell exposed motifs in immunoglobulin heavy chain peptides presented by MHCs

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    Robert D. Bremel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are highly diverse protein sequences that are processed and presented to T-cells by B-cells and other antigen presenting cells. We examined a large dataset of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions (IGHV to assess the diversity of T-cell exposed motifs (TCEM. TCEM comprise those amino acids in a MHC-bound peptide which face outwards, surrounded by the MHC histotope, and which engage the T-cell receptor. Within IGHV there is a distinct pattern of predicted MHC class II binding and a very high frequency of re-use of the TCEMs. The re-use frequency indicates that only a limited number of different cognate T-cells are required to engage many different clonal B-cells. The amino acids in each outward-facing TCEM are intercalated with the amino acids of inward-facing MHC groove-exposed motifs (GEM. Different GEM may have differing, allele-specific, MHC binding affinities. The intercalation of TCEM and GEM in a peptide allows for a vast combinatorial repertoire of epitopes, each eliciting a different response. Outcome of T-cell receptor binding is determined by overall signal strength, which is a function of the number of responding T-cells and the duration of engagement. Hence, the frequency of T-cell exposed motif re-use appears to be an important determinant of whether a T-cell response is stimulatory or suppressive. The frequency distribution of TCEMs implies that somatic hypermutation is followed by clonal expansion that develop along repeated pathways. The observations of TCEM and GEM derived from immunoglobulins suggest a relatively simple, yet powerful, mechanism to correlate T-cell polyspecificity, through re-use of TCEMs, with a very high degree of specificity achieved by combination with a diversity of GEMs. The frequency profile of TCEMs also points to an economical mechanism for maintaining T-cell memory, recall, and self-discrimination based on an endogenously generated profile of motifs.

  2. Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorczyk, E; Łuszczek, W; Nowak, I; Pawlik, A; Wiśniewski, A; Jasek, M; Kuśnierczyk, P

    2008-08-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) present on natural killer cells and minor subpopulations of T cells recognize class I human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecules on the surface of target cells. Humans differ by the presence or absence of some KIR genes on their chromosomes. As KIRs are important for the outcome of tissue transplantation (particularly for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and possibly for pregnancy and autoimmune diseases, knowledge of the KIR gene distribution in a given human population is of practical value. Therefore, we tested 363 healthy individuals from Western Poland for the presence or absence of KIR genes. Results are compared with those published for other human populations. KIR gene frequencies in Poles are close to these in other Caucasoids but different from those in Asian and African populations, and particularly distant from those in Australian Aborigines. PMID:18976447

  3. Distribution of kappa and lambda light chain isotypes among human blood immunoglobulin-secreting cells after vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T

    1989-01-01

    The light chain isotype of immunoglobulin-secreting blood cells was investigated by means of monolayer plaque-forming cell assays allowing direct immunofluorescence staining for cytoplasmic kappa and lambda light chains in centre cells. The study revealed that cultured, polyclonally activated pok...

  4. Mesangial cell-binding activity of serum immunoglobulin G in patients with lupus nephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Desmond Y.H.; Yung, Susan; Zhang, Qing; Tang, Colin; Chan, Tak Mao

    2014-01-01

    In vitro data showed that immunoglobulin G (IgG) from patients with lupus nephritis (LN) could bind to cultured human mesangial cells (HMC). The clinical relevance of such binding was unknown. Binding of IgG and subclasses was measured in 189 serial serum samples from 23 patients with Class III/IV+/-V LN (48 during renal flares, 141 during low level disease activity (LLDA)). 64 patients with non-lupus glomerular diseases (NLGD) and 23 healthy individuals were used as controls. HMC-binding was...

  5. Influence of elevated body temperature on circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, M; Barington, T; Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    1995-01-01

    This work was designed to investigate the effect of in vivo hyperthermia in man on circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells. Eight healthy male volunteers were immersed into a hot waterbath (WI) (water temperature 39.5 degrees C) for 2 h, whereby their body temperature rose to 39.5 degrees C. On...... another occasion they served as their own controls, being immersed into thermoneutral water (water temperature 34.5 degrees C) for 2 h. Blood samples were drawn before immersion, at body temperatures of 38, 39 and 39.5 degrees C, as well as 2 h after WI when their body temperatures were normalized. In the...

  6. Trafficking of Endogenous Immunoglobulins by Endothelial Cells at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Villaseñor, Roberto; Ozmen, Laurence; Messaddeq, Nadia; Grüninger, Fiona; Loetscher, Hansruedi; Keller, Annika; Betsholtz, Christer; Freskgård, Per-Ola; Collin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) restricts access of large molecules to the brain. The low endocytic activity of brain endothelial cells (BECs) is believed to limit delivery of immunoglobulins (IgG) to the brain parenchyma. Here, we report that endogenous mouse IgG are localized within intracellular vesicles at steady state in BECs in vivo. Using high-resolution quantitative microscopy, we found a fraction of endocytosed IgG in lysosomes. We observed that loss of pericytes (key components of the...

  7. Expression of members of immunoglobulin gene family in somatic cell hybrids between human B and T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozbor, D.; Burioni, R.; Ar-Rushdi, A.; Zmijewski, C.; Croce, C.M.

    1987-07-01

    Somatic cell hybrids were obtained between human T and B cells and tested for the expression of differentiated traits of both cell lineages. The T-cell parent SUP-T1 is CD3/sup -/, CD4/sup +/, CD1/sup +/, CD8/sup +/, is weakly positive for HLA class I determinants, and has an inversion of chromosome 14 due to a site-specific recombination event between an immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene and the joining segment of the T-cell receptor ..cap alpha.. chain. The B-cell parent, the 6-thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant mutant GM1500, is a lymphoblastoid cell line that secretes IgG2, K chains, and expresses B1, B532, and HLA class I and II antigens. All hybrids expressed characteristics of B cells (Ig/sup +/, B1/sup +/, B532/sup +/, EBNA/sup +/, HLA antigens), whereas only CD4 among the T-cell markers was expressed. The level of T-cell receptor ..beta..-chain transcript was greatly reduced and no RNA of the chimeric T-cell receptor ..cap alpha..-chain joining segment-immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region was detected. Southern blot analysis indicated that absence of T-cell differentiation markers in the hybrids was not due to chromosomal loss. Rather, some B-cell-specific factor present in the hybrids may account for the suppression.

  8. Expression of members of immunoglobulin gene family in somatic cell hybrids between human B and T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic cell hybrids were obtained between human T and B cells and tested for the expression of differentiated traits of both cell lineages. The T-cell parent SUP-T1 is CD3-, CD4+, CD1+, CD8+, is weakly positive for HLA class I determinants, and has an inversion of chromosome 14 due to a site-specific recombination event between an immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene and the joining segment of the T-cell receptor α chain. The B-cell parent, the 6-thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant mutant GM1500, is a lymphoblastoid cell line that secretes IgG2, K chains, and expresses B1, B532, and HLA class I and II antigens. All hybrids expressed characteristics of B cells (Ig+, B1+, B532+, EBNA+, HLA antigens), whereas only CD4 among the T-cell markers was expressed. The level of T-cell receptor β-chain transcript was greatly reduced and no RNA of the chimeric T-cell receptor α-chain joining segment-immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region was detected. Southern blot analysis indicated that absence of T-cell differentiation markers in the hybrids was not due to chromosomal loss. Rather, some B-cell-specific factor present in the hybrids may account for the suppression

  9. The role of the interleukin-10 subfamily members in immunoglobulin production by human B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshoj, L; Ryder, L P; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 has been shown to have various effects on B cells, including positively affecting the production of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG. Several human IL-10-related molecules have been identified. These include IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28 and IL-29. To determine the...... effects of the IL-10 analogues on the class switch recombination in B cells, we analysed Ig production from naïve B cells stimulated with these cytokines in the presence of anti-CD40. None of the cytokines were found to induce Ig production by themselves in the presence of anti-CD40 Ab. However, all...... involved in the Ig regulation in B cells. However, some of the analogues might have regulatory effects on CSR induced by CD40-ligation in combination with IL-4 or TGF-beta....

  10. The Role of Immunoglobulin Superfamily Cell Adhesion Molecules in Cancer Metastasis

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    Chee Wai Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major clinical problem and results in a poor prognosis for most cancers. The metastatic pathway describes the process by which cancer cells give rise to a metastatic lesion in a new tissue or organ. It consists of interconnecting steps all of which must be successfully completed to result in a metastasis. Cell-cell adhesion is a key aspect of many of these steps. Adhesion molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (Ig-SF commonly play a central role in cell-cell adhesion, and a number of these molecules have been associated with cancer progression and a metastatic phenotype. Surprisingly, the contribution of Ig-SF members to metastasis has not received the attention afforded other cell adhesion molecules (CAMs such as the integrins. Here we examine the steps in the metastatic pathway focusing on how the Ig-SF members, melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM, L1CAM, neural CAM (NCAM, leukocyte CAM (ALCAM, intercellular CAM-1 (ICAM-1 and platelet endothelial CAM-1 (PECAM-1 could play a role. Although much remains to be understood, this review aims to raise the profile of Ig-SF members in metastasis formation and prompt further research that could lead to useful clinical outcomes.

  11. Modulation of human B cell immunoglobulin secretion by the C3b component of complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokos, G C; Berger, M; Balow, J E

    1984-02-01

    The human C3b component of complement was found to inhibit the differentiation of human B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-secreting cells in vitro. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced plaque-forming cell (PFC) responses were inhibited by C3-coated zymosan particles and by purified human C3b. C3b inhibited the PWM-driven responses in a dose-dependent fashion, and it was necessary for C3b to be present in the early phases of the cultures. C3b acted directly on B cells rather than on helper T cells because it inhibited the PFC responses of MNC depleted of T cells and subsequently stimulated with a T cell-independent Epstein Barr virus mitogen. Furthermore, C3b failed to stimulate the generation of suppressor lymphocytes and/or monocytes that might have been responsible for the inhibition of B cell responses. Our results indicate that C3b or its fragments exert negative modulatory effects on human B lymphocyte responses. PMID:6228593

  12. Reciprocal interactions between cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily and the cytoskeleton in neurons

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    Vladimir eSytnyk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF including the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM and members of the L1 family of neuronal cell adhesion molecules play important functions in the developing nervous system by regulating formation, growth and branching of neurites and establishment of the synaptic contacts between neurons. In the mature brain, members of IgSF regulate synapse composition, function and plasticity required for learning and memory. The intracellular domains of IgSF cell adhesion molecules interact with the components of the cytoskeleton including the submembrane actin-spectrin meshwork, actin microfilaments, and microtubules. In this review, we summarize current data indicating that interactions between IgSF cell adhesion molecules and the cytoskeleton are reciprocal, and that while IgSF cell adhesion molecules regulate the assembly of the cytoskeleton, the cytoskeleton plays an important role in regulation of the functions of IgSF cell adhesion molecules. Reciprocal interactions between NCAM and L1 family members and the cytoskeleton and their role in neuronal differentiation and synapse formation are discussed in detail.

  13. Reciprocal Interactions between Cell Adhesion Molecules of the Immunoglobulin Superfamily and the Cytoskeleton in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Sytnyk, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) including the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and members of the L1 family of neuronal cell adhesion molecules play important functions in the developing nervous system by regulating formation, growth and branching of neurites, and establishment of the synaptic contacts between neurons. In the mature brain, members of IgSF regulate synapse composition, function, and plasticity required for learning and memory. The intracellular domains of IgSF cell adhesion molecules interact with the components of the cytoskeleton including the submembrane actin-spectrin meshwork, actin microfilaments, and microtubules. In this review, we summarize current data indicating that interactions between IgSF cell adhesion molecules and the cytoskeleton are reciprocal, and that while IgSF cell adhesion molecules regulate the assembly of the cytoskeleton, the cytoskeleton plays an important role in regulation of the functions of IgSF cell adhesion molecules. Reciprocal interactions between NCAM and L1 family members and the cytoskeleton and their role in neuronal differentiation and synapse formation are discussed in detail. PMID:26909348

  14. Monoclonal antibodies against goldfish (Carassius auratus) immunoglobulin: application to the quantification of immunoglobulin and antibody-secreting cells by ELISPOT and seric immunoglobulin and antibody levels by ELISA in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwicki, A K; Vergnet, C; Charlemagne, J; Dunier, M

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against heavy and light chains of goldfish immunoglobulin (Ig) were characterized by a Western blot technique. A complete cross-reactivity was observed between carp and goldfish Ig. These mAbs were used for the quantification of carp Ig and anti-Yersinia ruckeri antibodies by ELISA. An ELISPOT assay was also developed in carp to quantify Ig-secreting cells (ISC) and antibody-secreting cells (ASC). The number of ASC was maximum on day 18 post-vaccination and decreased to the basal level on day 28. The antibody levels in sera were maximum on day 18 and slowly decreased until day 28. PMID:7951348

  15. Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection of Host Epithelial Cells via Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor Transiently Induces Calcium Release from Intracellular Stores*

    OpenAIRE

    Asmat, T. M.; Agarwal, V; Rath, S.; Hildebrandt, J.-P.; Hammerschmidt, S.

    2011-01-01

    The pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is a major adhesin of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) that interacts in a human-specific manner with the ectodomain of the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) produced by respiratory epithelial cells. This interaction promotes bacterial colonization and bacterial internalization by initiating host signal transduction cascades. Here, we examined alterations of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels in epithelial cells during host cell...

  16. Cernunnos influences human immunoglobulin class switch recombination and may be associated with B cell lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Likun; Peng, Roujun; Björkman, Andrea; Filipe de Miranda, Noel; Rosner, Cornelia; Kotnis, Ashwin; Berglund, Mattias; Liu, Chonghai; Rosenquist, Richard; Enblad, Gunilla; Sundström, Christer; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Teixeira, Manuel R; Revy, Patrick; Durandy, Anne; Zeng, Yixin; Gennery, Andrew R; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang

    2012-02-13

    Cernunnos is involved in the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) process during DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we studied immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR), a physiological process which relies on proper repair of the DSBs, in B cells from Cernunnos-deficient patients. The pattern of in vivo generated CSR junctions is altered in these cells, with unusually long microhomologies and a lack of direct end-joining. The CSR junctions from Cernunnos-deficient patients largely resemble those from patients lacking DNA ligase IV, Artemis, or ATM, suggesting that these factors are involved in the same end-joining pathway during CSR. By screening 269 mature B cell lymphoma biopsies, we also identified a somatic missense Cernunnos mutation in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma sample. This mutation has a dominant-negative effect on joining of a subset of DNA ends in an in vitro NHEJ assay. Translocations involving both Ig heavy chain loci and clonal-like, dynamic IgA switching activities were observed in this tumor. Collectively, our results suggest a link between defects in the Cernunnos-dependent NHEJ pathway and aberrant CSR or switch translocations during the development of B cell malignancies. PMID:22312109

  17. Modulation of immunoglobulin production by invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR-bearing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Hidaka, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR(+) (Vα19i T) cells suppress the disease progress in some models for organ specific autoimmune diseases and type IV allergy that deteriorate along with decline to excess in Th1- or Th17- immunity. In this study, we examined the effects of over-generation of Vα19i T cells on the Th2-controlled immunoglobulin isotype production in the models for type I allergy. IgE production by invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR transgenic (Tg) mice was suppressed compared with that by non-Tg controls following administration with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum or OVA, while IgG2a production was not influenced by the introduction of the transgene into the recipients. IgE production by wild type mice was similarly reduced when they were subjected to adoptive transfer with invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR Tg(+) but not Tg(-) cells prior to immunization. Furthermore, the suppression of IgE production by these recipients was enhanced when they were previously administered with a Vα19i T cell activator, one of the modified α-mannosyl ceramides. In summary, it is suggested that Vα19i T cells have potential to participate in the homeostasis of immunity and that they suppress disease progression resulting from not only Th1- but also Th2- immunity excess. PMID:21698203

  18. Association of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin- Like Receptor Genes in Iranian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Nazari

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by persistent synovitis, ultimately leading to cartilage and bone degeneration. Natural Killer cells and CD28 null T-cells are suspected as role players in RA pathogenesis. These cells are similar in feature and function, as they both exert their cytotoxic effect via Killer Cell Immunoglobulin- Like Receptors (KIR on their surface. KIR genes have either an inhibitory or activating effect depending on their intracytoplasmic structure. Herein we genotyped 16 KIR genes, 3 pseudo genes and 6 HLA class І genes as their corresponding ligands in RA patients and control subjects.In this case-control study, KIR and HLA genes were genotyped in 400 RA patients and 372 matched healthy controls using sequence-specific primers (SSP-PCR. Differences in the frequency of genes and haplotypes were determined by χ² test.KIR2DL2, 2DL5a, 2DL5b and activating KIR: KIR2DS5 and 3DS1 were all protective against RA. KIR2DL5 removal from a full Inhibitory KIR haplotype converted the mild protection (OR = 0.56 to a powerful predisposition to RA (OR = 16.47. Inhibitory haplotype No. 7 comprising KIR2DL5 in the absence of KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL3 confers a 14-fold protective effect against RA.Individuals carrying the inhibitory KIR haplotype No. 6 have a high potential risk for developing RA.

  19. Expression Patterns of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors (KIR) of NK-Cell and T-Cell Subsets in Old World Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes, Meike; Albrecht, Christina; Schrod, Annette; Brameier, Markus; Walter, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The expression of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) on lymphocytes of rhesus macaques and other Old World monkeys was unknown so far. We used our recently established monoclonal anti-rhesus macaque KIR antibodies in multicolour flow cytometry for phenotypic characterization of KIR protein expression on natural killer (NK) cells and T cell subsets of rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, hamadryas baboons, and African green monkeys. Similar to human KIR, we found clonal expressio...

  20. Interleukin 13-positive mast cells are increased in immunoglobulin G4-related sialadenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Mai; Ohno, Kyotaro; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Gion, Yuka; Tachibana, Tomoyasu; Orita, Yorihisa; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-13 is a T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine that plays important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-13 induces hypersensitivity of the airways, increased mucous production, elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and increased numbers of eosinophils. Many patients with IgG4-related disease have allergic backgrounds and show elevated serum IgE levels and an increase in the number of eosinophils. Upregulation of Th2/regulatory T (Treg) cytokines, including IL-13, has been detected in affected tissues of patients with IgG4-related disease. We previously reported that mast cells might be responsible for the production of the Th2/Treg cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in IgG4-related disease. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis showed increased numbers of IL-13-positive mast cells in IgG4-related disease, which suggests that mast cells also produce IL-13 and contribute to elevation of serum IgE levels and eosinophil infiltration in IgG4-related disease. PMID:25571893

  1. Molecular and immuno-characteristics of immunoglobulin-like glycoproteins in cancer cell-expressed biomarker, CA215.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory; Cheung, Anthony P; Li, Bo; Ge, Bixia; Chow, Po-Ming

    2012-01-01

    RP215 monoclonal antibody (Mab) was shown to recognize a specific carbohydrate-associated epitope found in cancer cell-expressed glycoproteins, known as CA215. The membrane-bound and soluble forms of CA215 were detected in almost all of the cancer cells in humans, but rarely found in normal tissues. Through MALDI-TOF MS analysis, it has been reported previously that as much as 40% of the detected tryptic peptides of CA215 showed high degrees of sequence homology to those found in immunoglobulin heavy chains. The cancer cell-derived immunoglobulins were further purified from CA215 by affinity column-linked with goat anti-human IgG for molecular characterizations. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the mRNA levels of various immunoglobulin genes expressed by cancer cells of single or multi-cell origins and compared with those found in normal human serum. The stability of CA215 was investigated under different experimental conditions. It was observed that the RP215-specific epitope in CA215 is stable at neutral pH, in human serum or in mice (half life of 5-18 days), but unstable at extreme pH's (pH ≤ 2.0; pH ≥ 12.0) or high temperatures. Enzyme immunoassays were performed with several secondary antibody probes related to human IgG. It was demonstrated that cancer cell-expressed immunoglobulins with RP215-specific epitope have much lower immunoactivity than that of normal human IgG (≤ 5%), despite the fact that both showed almost identical amino acid sequence in the respective Fc region reported previously. This could be the result of aberrant glycosylation of CA215 in cancer cells. Aberrant glycosylation of glycoproteins may have important biological implications on the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro or in vivo. PMID:22417288

  2. Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors and cytomegalovirus reactivation during late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Hernández, D L; Benítez-Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Cuevas, J S; Rosales-Saavedra, T; Guerra-Palomares, S E; Comas-García, A; Noyola, D E; García-Sepúlveda, C A

    2016-08-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) represents an important public health concern as it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients, HIV-infected individuals and pregnant women given the risk of congenital infection. Congenital CMV is a leading cause of neurological sequelae, developmental delay and birth defects worldwide. Cytomegalovirus can be transmitted to the foetus following maternal infection or reactivation. NK cells expressing killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are part of the innate immune system and the first line of defence against viral incursions. Previous reports have shown that KIR genes are associated with CMV infections in the post-transplant setting. In this study, we set out to determine whether a protective effect of KIR genes over CMV infection is seen in Mexican pregnant women. Cytomegalovirus infection was assessed through nucleic acid testing in 200 pregnant women and 600 healthy blood donors comprising the Mexican mestizo reference population. Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors and HLA-C genotypes were obtained from 200 pregnant women and 300 reference samples using a comprehensive PCR-SSP approach. We observed statistically lower carrier frequencies of cB03|tA01 gene-content haplotype, of cB03 haplotype motif, of the KIR2DL5 + 2DS3/2DS5 gene pair and of KIR2DL5 amongst CMV-positive pregnant women in comparison with those CMV negative. None of these were associated with CMV status in the reference population. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the most important factor determining CMV status during third-trimester pregnancies was the KIR2DL5 + 2DS3/2DS5 gene pair (OR 0.376 (95%CI 0.174, 0.811, P = 0.013). Our results indicate that CMV-protective KIR gene associations described in Caucasoid populations are also present in the genetically distinct Mexican mestizo population. Our results suggest that certain KIR gene combinations provide protection against CMV infections occurring

  3. The alteration in intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A and its secreting cells during ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-qun SUN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the change in intestinal secretion immunoglobulin A (sIgA level and IgA-secreting cells during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Methods Forty-eight BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups in accordance with different reperfusion times (R2h, R6h, R12h, R24h, and R72h group, and one sham group (n=8. Bacterial translocation to distant organs (lung, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes was observed. The sIgA level of the intestinal tract was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The B cell subgroup in the lymphocytes related to the intestinal tract was measured by flow cytometry. Results The bacterial translocation occurred during I/R injury, and the intestinal sIgA level decreased, and they showed an obvious negative correlation (r2=0.729. With the increase in intestinal I/R injury, the ratio of IgM+B220+ cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue increased, whereas the proportion of IgA+B220+ cells decreased. The most significant change was found in R12h group (P < 0.01. Conclusions The proportion of IgM+ B cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue increased, whereas that of IgA+ B cells reduced during I/R injury. These phenomena may cause sIgA level to reduce and bacterial translocation of the distant organs to occur.

  4. B cells in the appendix and other lymphoid organs of the rabbit: stimulation of DNA synthesis by anti-immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphocytes from rabbit lymphoid organs were cultured in the presence of class specific anti-immunoglobulin sera and of anti-allotype sera. Stimulation of tritiated thymidine uptake into DNA was taken to indicate the presence of the corresponding immunoglobulins on the cell surfaces. Thymus and bone marrow lymphocytes were unresponsive to all reagents tested. Popliteal lymph node contained cells responsive to anti-μ, anti-γ, and anti-α and therefore presumably bearing IgM, IgG, and IgA. Spleen had only IgM- and IgG-bearing cells, and the appendix contained cells with IgM and IgA receptors only. The lymph node, spleen, and appendix cells of rabbits depleted of B lymphocytes by irradiation (900 R) and injection of thymocytes were unresponsive to anti-immunoglobulin but were stimulated at almost normal levels by PHA and Con A. T cell-depleted animals (thymectomy, irradiation with three divided doses of 450 R and bone marrow shielding) had immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes but were unresponsive to the mitogens. However a moderate level of mitogen-responsiveness reappeared by 3 to 4 wk after irradiation. Cells of morphologically distinct regions of the appendix, separated manually, showed different responses corresponding to the inferred origins of these anatomic areas. The ''dome'' and ''corona'' contained functional IgM- and IgA-bearing cells. The ''TDA'' reacted well to PHA, Con A, and PWM, but was depleted of immunoglobulin-bearing cells. The ''follicle'' cells, which are almost all in active DNA synthesis or mitosis, were relatively unresponsive to either T or B cell stimuli. Anti-allotype serum stimulated the same populations which responded to class-specific heteroantisera but at a slightly lower level. It was inferred that gut-associated lymphoid tissues like the appendix may play a special role as an amplification site for B-cells destined to produce IgM and IgA elsewhere in the organism

  5. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene utilization by B cell hybridomas derived from rheumatoid synovial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C M; Longhurst, C; Haynes, G; Plater-Zyberk, C; Malcolm, A; Maini, R N

    1992-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects synovial joints. Activated B lymphocytes and plasma cells are present in the synovial tissue and are thought to contribute to the immunopathology of the rheumatoid joint. To investigate rheumatoid synovial B lymphocytes, we have generated B cell hybridomas from synovial tissue of an RA patient. Here we describe the immunoglobulin VH gene repertoire of eight IgM- and 10 IgG-secreting synovial-derived hybridomas. The VH4 gene family is highly represented (38.5%) in this panel of hybridomas compared with the frequency of VH4 gene expression in circulating B lymphocytes reported previously (19-22%) and with the VH4 gene frequency we observed in a panel of hybridomas derived in the same manner from the spleen and tonsil of normal individuals (19%). The increased frequency of VH4 gene expression was not due to the expansion of a single B cell clone in vivo as none of these hybridomas was clonally related. Two synovial-derived hybridomas secreted autoantibodies; one (VH3+) secreted an IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) and the other (VH4+) secreted IgM with polyreactive binding to cytoskeletal proteins and cardiolipin. The antibodies secreted by the remaining synovial-derived hybridomas were not reactive with the autoantigens tested. The VH gene usage in a proportion (5/17) of synovial-derived hybridomas that expressed CD5 antigen provided preliminary evidence that CD5+ B cells in RA synovium have a similar increase of VH4 gene expression reported for CD5+ B cells from normal individuals and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. PMID:1379132

  6. Immunospecific red cell binding of iodine 125-labeled immunoglobulin G erythrocyte autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary interaction of autoantibodies with red cells has been studied by using labeled autoantibodies. Immunoglobulin G red cell autoantibodies obtained from IgG antiglobulin-positive normal blood donors were labeled with radioactive iodine and compared with alloanti-D with respect to their properties and binding behavior. Iodine 125-labeled IgG autoantibody migrated as a single homogeneous peak with the same relative mobility as human IgG on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric focusing pattern of labeled autoantibodies varied from donor to donor but was similar to that of alloanti-D, consisting of multiple IgG populations with isoelectric points in the neutral to alkaline range. 125I-autoantibody bound to all human red cells of common Rh phenotypes. Evidence for immunospecific antibody binding of the labeled autoantibody was based on variation in equilibrium binding to nonhuman and human red cells of common and rare phenotypes, enhanced binding after red cell protease modification, antiglobulin reactivity of cell-bound IgG comparable to that of cell-bound anti-D, and saturation binding in autoantibody excess. Scatchard analysis of two 125I-autoantibody preparations yielded site numbers of 41,500 and 53,300 with equilibrium constants of 3.7 and 2.1 X 10(8) L X mol-1. Dog, rabbit, rhesus monkey, and baboon red cells were antigen(s) negative by quantitative adsorption studies adsorbing less than 3% of the labeled autoantibody. Reduced ability of rare human D--red blood cells to adsorb the autoantibody and identification of donor autoantibodies that bind to Rh null red blood cells indicated that eluates contained multiple antibody populations of complex specificities in contrast to anti-D, which consists of a monospecific antibody population. Another difference is that less than 70% of the autoantibody IgG was adsorbed by maximum binding red blood cells as compared with greater than 85% for alloanti-D

  7. Immunospecific red cell binding of iodine /sup 125/-labeled immunoglobulin G erythrocyte autoantibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masouredis, S.P.; Branks, M.J.; Garratty, G.; Victoria, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    The primary interaction of autoantibodies with red cells has been studied by using labeled autoantibodies. Immunoglobulin G red cell autoantibodies obtained from IgG antiglobulin-positive normal blood donors were labeled with radioactive iodine and compared with alloanti-D with respect to their properties and binding behavior. Iodine /sup 125/-labeled IgG autoantibody migrated as a single homogeneous peak with the same relative mobility as human IgG on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric focusing pattern of labeled autoantibodies varied from donor to donor but was similar to that of alloanti-D, consisting of multiple IgG populations with isoelectric points in the neutral to alkaline range. /sup 125/I-autoantibody bound to all human red cells of common Rh phenotypes. Evidence for immunospecific antibody binding of the labeled autoantibody was based on variation in equilibrium binding to nonhuman and human red cells of common and rare phenotypes, enhanced binding after red cell protease modification, antiglobulin reactivity of cell-bound IgG comparable to that of cell-bound anti-D, and saturation binding in autoantibody excess. Scatchard analysis of two /sup 125/I-autoantibody preparations yielded site numbers of 41,500 and 53,300 with equilibrium constants of 3.7 and 2.1 X 10(8) L X mol-1. Dog, rabbit, rhesus monkey, and baboon red cells were antigen(s) negative by quantitative adsorption studies adsorbing less than 3% of the labeled autoantibody. Reduced ability of rare human D--red blood cells to adsorb the autoantibody and identification of donor autoantibodies that bind to Rh null red blood cells indicated that eluates contained multiple antibody populations of complex specificities in contrast to anti-D, which consists of a monospecific antibody population. Another difference is that less than 70% of the autoantibody IgG was adsorbed by maximum binding red blood cells as compared with greater than 85% for alloanti-D.

  8. Circulating lymphoma cells in patients with B & T non-Hodgkin's lymphoma detected by immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement.

    OpenAIRE

    Brada, M.; Mizutani, S; Molgaard, H.; Sloane, J P; Treleaven, J.; Horwich, A.; Peckham, M J

    1987-01-01

    We studied peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 50 patients with active B- and T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma by DNA hybridisation. Nineteen patients (38%) had circulating clones of cells detected by immunoglobulin gene rearrangement (17 patients) or T-cell receptor gene rearrangement (2 patients) with JH and J beta 2 probes. Lymphoma tissue and peripheral blood were studied simultaneously in 22 patients, 9 of which had a circulating clone of cells in peripheral blood. In 7 patients the gen...

  9. [Dendritic Cells Promote the Proliferation of Peripheral Blood CRTH2 Cells (CD4(+)CD294(+)Th2) and Help B Cells to Secrete Immunoglobulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fa-Qing; Li, Juan; Li, Ju-Heng; Tang, Mei-Qin; Cheng, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Ying-Cai; Li, Hui-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Objective:To investigate the promotive effect of dendritic cells(DCs) on proliferation of CRTH2 (CD4(+)CD294(+)Th2) cells and the influence of CRTH2 cells on secretion of immunoglobulin from B cells so as to provide a new approach for amplification and sorting of Th2 cells. Methods:DCs were induced from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, then the loaded-BCGV-Ag-DCs were cocultured with T cells, and the mixed lymphocyte reaction(MLR) was performed by CCK8 method. The phenotypes of DCs and CRTH2 cells were detected by flow cytometry. CRTH2 cells sorted by MACS were co-cultured with B cells for 5 days to detect the secretion of immunoglobulin. Results:The subsets and absolute number CRTH2 cells were significantly increased by loaded-BCGV-Ag-DCs. The levels of IgG, IgA and IgE were higher increased in supernatant of CRTH2 and B cell co-culture system than that in control group or that in transwell group(Pcells can be greatly promoted by loaded-BCGV-Ag-DCs, and the CRTH2 cells can help B cells to secrete IgG, IgA and IgE. PMID:27531793

  10. Trafficking of Endogenous Immunoglobulins by Endothelial Cells at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, Roberto; Ozmen, Laurence; Messaddeq, Nadia; Grüninger, Fiona; Loetscher, Hansruedi; Keller, Annika; Betsholtz, Christer; Freskgård, Per-Ola; Collin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) restricts access of large molecules to the brain. The low endocytic activity of brain endothelial cells (BECs) is believed to limit delivery of immunoglobulins (IgG) to the brain parenchyma. Here, we report that endogenous mouse IgG are localized within intracellular vesicles at steady state in BECs in vivo. Using high-resolution quantitative microscopy, we found a fraction of endocytosed IgG in lysosomes. We observed that loss of pericytes (key components of the BBB) in pdgf-b(ret/ret) mice affects the intracellular distribution of endogenous mouse IgG in BECs. In these mice, endogenous IgG was not detected within lysosomes but instead accumulate at the basement membrane and brain parenchyma. Such IgG accumulation could be due to reduced lysosomal clearance and increased sorting to the abluminal membrane of BECs. Our results suggest that, in addition to low uptake from circulation, IgG lysosomal degradation may be a downstream mechanism by which BECs further restrict IgG access to the brain. PMID:27149947

  11. Monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus that can react with a nuclear antigen in mammalian cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, E A; Chanas, A C; Buckley, A.; Clegg, C S

    1983-01-01

    An immunoglobulin M (IgM) class monoclonal antibody raised against Japanese encephalitis virus reacted with an epitope on the nonstructural virus protein P74 (NV4 in the old nomenclature) of several flaviviruses and also with an antigen present in the nuclei of a variety of mammalian cell types. This antigen had a characteristic granular distribution by immunofluorescence and may correspond to a polypeptide of molecular weight 56,000 seen in nitrocellulose transfers of sodium dodecyl sulfate-...

  12. New perspectives on the ligands and function of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor KIR3DL2 in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline eShaw

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available KIR3DL2/CD158k/p140 is a 3 domain killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor incorporating cytoplasmic ITIM motifs, expressed as a disulphide-bonded dimer. KIR3DL2 is a framework gene within the KIR locus and is highly polymorphic, with 62 allelic variants possibly coding for protein reported. KIR3DL2 binds to HLA-A3 and A11 in a peptide-dependent fashion and to B27 free heavy chain forms. In addition, KIR3DL2 can also function as an innate immune receptor for delivery of CpG DNA to TLR9 in NK cells. The increased levels of expression of KIR3DL2 compared with other KIR expressed by T cell subsets in healthy individuals suggest it may function as a default KIR receptor. KIR3DL2-expressing natural killer cells and IL17 secreting CD4 T cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis. Moreover, KIR3DL2 expression delineates circulating and cutaneous lymphoma T cells in Sezary’s syndrome.Here I discuss how the unique molecular attributes of KIR3DL2 impact on its function on NK and T cells and how this may relate to its role in disease.

  13. Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes in the Italian Caucasian population

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    Mariani M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs are a family of inhibitory and activatory receptors that are expressed by most natural killer (NK cells. The KIR gene family is polymorphic: genomic diversity is achieved through differences in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The number of KIR loci has been reported to vary among individuals, resulting in different KIR haplotypes. In this study we report the genotypic structure of KIRs in 217 unrelated healthy Italian individuals from 22 immunogenetics laboratories, located in the northern, central and southern regions of Italy. Methods Two hundred and seventeen DNA samples were studied by a low resolution PCR-SSP kit designed to identify all KIR genes. Results All 17 KIR genes were observed in the population with different frequencies than other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations; framework genes KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL2 were present in all individuals. Sixty-five different profiles were found in this Italian population study. Haplotype A remains the most prevalent and genotype 1, with a frequency of 28.5%, is the most commonly observed in the Italian population. Conclusion The Italian Caucasian population shows polymorphism of the KIR gene family like other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. Although 64 genotypes have been observed, genotype 1 remains the most frequent as already observed in other populations. Such knowledge of the KIR gene distribution in populations is very useful in the study of associations with diseases and in selection of donors for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation.

  14. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

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    Paves Heiti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  15. Immunoglobulin (IG and T cell receptor (TR genes: IMGT® and the birth and rise of immunoinformatics

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    Marie-Paule eLefranc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, http://www.imgt.org (CNRS and Université Montpellier 2 is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. By its creation in 1989, IMGT® marked the advent of immunoinformatics, which emerged at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. IMGT® is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR, major histocompatibility (MH, and proteins of the IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. IMGT® has been built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences and three-dimensional (3D structures. The concepts include the IMGT® standardized keywords (concepts of identification, IMGT® standardized labels (concepts of description, IMGT® standardized nomenclature (concepts of classification, IMGT unique numbering and IMGT Colliers de Perles (concepts of numerotation. IMGT® comprises 7 databases, 15,000 pages of web resources and 17 tools, and provides a high-quality and integrated system for the analysis of the genomic and expressed IG and TR repertoire of the adaptive immune responses. Tools and databases are used in basic, veterinary and medical research, in clinical applications (mutation analysis in leukemia and lymphoma and in antibody engineering and humanization. They include, as examples: IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis for nucleotide sequence analysis and their high-throughput version IMGT/HighV-QUEST for next generation sequencing (500,000 sequences per batch, IMGT/DomainGapAlign for amino acid sequence analysis of IG and TR variable and constant domains and of MH groove domains, IMGT/3Dstructure-DB for 3D structures, contact analysis and paratope/epitope interactions of IG/antigen and TR/peptide-MH complexes and IMGT/mAb-DB interface for therapeutic antibodies and fusion proteins for immunological applications (FPIA.

  16. Targeting of T Lymphocytes to Melanoma Cells Through Chimeric Anti-GD3 Immunoglobulin T-Cell Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Yun

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin T-cell receptors (IgTCRs combine the specificity of antibodies with the potency of cellular killing by grafting antibody recognition domains onto TCR signaling chains. IgTCR-modified T cells are thus redirected to kill tumor cells based on their expression of intact antigen on cell surfaces, bypassing the normal mechanism of activation through TCR—peptide—major histocompatibility complex (MHC recognition. Melanoma is one of the most immunoresponsive of human cancers and has served as a prototype for the development of a number of immunotherapies. The target antigen for this study is the ganglioside GD3, which is highly expressed on metastatic melanoma with only minor immunologic cross-reaction with normal tissues. To determine an optimal configuration for therapy, four combinations of IgTCRs were prepared and studied: sFv-ɛ, sFv-ζ, Fab-ɛ, Fab-ζ. These were expressed on the surface of human T cells by retroviral transduction. IgTCR successfully redirected T-cell effectors in an MHC-unrestricted manner, in this case against a non—T-dependent antigen, with specific binding, activation, and cytotoxicity against GD3+ melanoma cells. Soluble GD3 in concentrations up to 100 μg/ml did not interfere with recognition and binding of membrane-bound antigen. Based on the outcomes of these structural and functional tests, the sFv-ζ construct was selected for clinical development. These results demonstrate key features that emphasize the potential of anti-GD3 IgTCR-modified autologous T cells for melanoma therapies.

  17. Soluble suppressor supernatants elaborated by concanavalin A-activated human mononuclear cells. Characterization of a soluble suppressor of B cell immunoglobulin production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) activated with the mitogenic lectin concanavalin A (Con A) elaborate a soluble immune suppressor supernatant (SISS) that contains at least 2 distinct suppressor factors. One of these, SISS-B, inhibits polyclonal B cell immunoglobulin production, whereas the other, SISS-T, suppresses T cell proliferation to both mitogens and antigens. The latter mediator is discussed in the companion paper. Characteristics of the human soluble suppressor of B cell immunoglobulin production (SISS-B) include: 1) inhibition by a noncytotoxic mechanism, 2) loss of activity in the presence of the monosaccharide L-rhamnose, 3) appearance within 8 to 16 hr after the addition of Con A, 4) elaboration by cells irradiated with 500 or 2000 rads, 5) production by highly purified T cells, 6) stability at pH 2.5 but instability at 56/sup o/C, and 7) m.w. of 60 to 80,000. These data indicate that after Con A activation, selected T cells not only become potent suppressor cells, but also generate a soluble saccharide-specific factor(s) that inhibits polyclonal immunoglobulin production by human B cells

  18. Impact of rituximab on immunoglobulin concentrations and B cell numbers after cyclophosphamide treatment in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Venhoff

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of immunosuppressive therapy with cyclophosphamide (CYC and rituximab (RTX on serum immunoglobulin (Ig concentrations and B lymphocyte counts in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAVs. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of Ig concentrations and peripheral B cell counts in 55 AAV patients. RESULTS: CYC treatment resulted in a decrease in Ig levels (median; interquartile range IQR from IgG 12.8 g/L (8.15-15.45 to 9.17 g/L (8.04-9.90 (p = 0.002, IgM 1.05 g/L (0.70-1.41 to 0.83 g/L (0.60-1.17 (p = 0.046 and IgA 2.58 g/L (1.71-3.48 to 1.58 g/L (1-31-2.39 (p = 0.056 at a median follow-up time of 4 months. IgG remained significantly below the initial value at 14.5 months and 30 months analyses. Subsequent RTX treatment in patients that had previously received CYC resulted in a further decline in Ig levels from pre RTX IgG 9.84 g/L (8.71-11.60 to 7.11 g/L (5.75-8.77; p = 0.007, from pre RTX IgM 0.84 g/L (0.63-1.18 to 0.35 g/L (0.23-0.48; p<0.001 and from pre RTX IgA 2.03 g/L (1.37-2.50 to IgA 1.62 g/L (IQR 0.84-2.43; p = 0.365 14 months after RTX. Treatment with RTX induced a complete depletion of B cells in all patients. After a median observation time of 20 months median B lymphocyte counts remained severely suppressed (4 B-cells/µl, 1.25-9.5, p<0.001. Seven patients (21% that had been treated with CYC followed by RTX were started on Ig replacement because of severe bronchopulmonary infections and serum IgG concentrations below 5 g/L. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AAVs, treatment with CYC leads to a decline in immunoglobulin concentrations. A subsequent RTX therapy aggravates the decline in serum immunoglobulin concentrations and results in a profoundly delayed B cell repopulation. Surveying patients with AAVs post CYC and RTX treatment for serum immunoglobulin concentrations and persisting hypogammaglobulinemia is warranted.

  19. Ongoing Immunoglobulin Class Switch DNA Recombination in Lupus B Cells: Analysis of Switch Regulatory Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiquan; Cerutti, Andrea; Casali, Paolo; CROW, MARY K.

    2004-01-01

    Inflammation and tissue damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are mediated by class-switched autoantibodies reactive with nucleic acids, nucleic acid-binding proteins, phospholipids and other self-antigens. While some healthy individuals produce IgM antibodies with specificities similar to those of lupus patients, immunoglobulin class switching to mature downstream isotypes appears to be required for the generation of pathogenic autoantibodies. To characterize the cellular and molecula...

  20. Interleukin 13-positive mast cells are increased in immunoglobulin G4-related sialadenitis

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Mai; Ohno, Kyotaro; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Gion, Yuka; Tachibana,Tomoyasu; Orita, Yorihisa; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-13 is a T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine that plays important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-13 induces hypersensitivity of the airways, increased mucous production, elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and increased numbers of eosinophils. Many patients with IgG4-related disease have allergic backgrounds and show elevated serum IgE levels and an increase in the number of eosinophils. Upregulation of Th2/regulatory T (Treg) cytokines, including IL-13, has been detec...

  1. Light scattering sensing detection of pathogens based on the molecular recognition of immunoglobulin with cell wall-associated protein A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution, we report a rapid optical detection method of pathogens using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as the model analyte based on the molecular recognition of immunoglobulin with cell wall-associated Protein A (SpA). It was found that the molecular recognition of human immunoglobulin (IgG) with protein A on the cell wall of S. aureus on glass slide sensing area could result in strong surface enhanced light scattering (SELS) signals, and the SELS intensity (ΔI) increases proportionally with the concentration of S. aureus over the range of 2.5 x 105-1.0 x 108 CFU mL-1 with right angle light scattering (RALS) signals detection mode. In order to identify the solid support based molecular recognition between IgG with SpA, we also employed water-soluble CdS quantum dots (CdS-QDs) as a fluorescent marker for IgG by immobilizing the IgG onto the surfaces of CdS-QDs through covalent binding in order to generate recognition probes for SpA on the cell wall of S. aureus. Consequently, the fluorescent method also showed that the detection for pathogens with solid supports is reliable based on the molecular recognition of IgG with SpA

  2. Immunoglobulin E signal inhibition during allergen ingestion leads to reversal of established food allergy and induction of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Oliver T; Noval Rivas, Magali; Zhou, Joseph S; Logsdon, Stephanie L; Darling, Alanna R; Koleoglou, Kyle J; Roers, Axel; Houshyar, Hani; Crackower, Michael A; Chatila, Talal A; Oettgen, Hans C

    2014-07-17

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are known for triggering immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as food anaphylaxis. In this study, we tested whether they might additionally function to amplify nascent antibody and T helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated responses to ingested proteins and whether blocking IgE would modify sensitization. By using mice harboring a disinhibited form of the IL-4 receptor, we developed an adjuvant-free model of peanut allergy. Mast cells and IgE were required for induction of antibody and Th2-cell-mediated responses to peanut ingestion and they impaired regulatory T (Treg) cell induction. Mast-cell-targeted genetic deletion of the FcεRI signaling kinase Syk or Syk blockade also prevented peanut sensitization. In mice with established allergy, Syk blockade facilitated desensitization and induction of Treg cells, which suppressed allergy when transferred to naive recipients. Our study suggests a key role for IgE in driving Th2 cell and IgE responses while suppressing Treg cells in food allergy. PMID:25017467

  3. The chromosome 14 breakpoint in neoplastic B cells with the t(11;14) translocation involves the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Erikson, J; Finan, J; Tsujimoto, Y; Nowell, P C; Croce, C M

    1984-01-01

    We hybridized neoplastic cells from a patient with chromic lymphocytic leukemia of the B-cell type, which carried a reciprocal chromosomal translocation between chromosomes 11 (q13) and 14 (q32) with mouse plasmacytoma cells. The hybrid cells were studied for the presence, rearrangement, and expression of the human immunoglobulin mu chain locus. The results indicate that the expressed mu chain gene is located on the normal chromosome 14, whereas the 14q+ translocation chromosome carries the e...

  4. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene repertoire and B-cell receptor stereotypes in Indian patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Lata; Mathur, Nitin; Gogia, Ajay; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Kumar, Lalit; Sharma, Atul; Dube, Divya; Kaur, Punit; Gupta, Ritu

    2016-10-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the geographical bias in immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) gene usage lead us to analyze IGHV gene usage and B-cell receptor stereotypy in 195 patients from India. IGHV3, IGHV4, and IGHV1 families were the most frequently used. 20.5% sequences had stereotyped BCR and were clustered in 12 pre-defined and 6 novel subsets. Unmutated IGHV was significantly associated with reduced time to first treatment (p cases (p = 0.045) in early stage patients. Regarding subfamily usage, only IGHV1-69 expression was found to have statistically significant poor outcome (p = 0.017). Our results from the analysis of various molecular and clinical features suggest that the expression of specific IGHV gene influences the outcome in early stage CLL, and hence its assessment may be added to the clinical leukemia laboratory armamentarium. PMID:26942309

  5. Immunoglobulin D Multiple Myeloma, Plasma Cell Leukemia and Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in a Single Patient Treated Simultaneously with Lenalidomide, Bortezomib, Dexamethasone and Imatinib

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed Ali; Pickens, Peter V.; Auerbach, Herbert E.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by uncontrolled monoclonal plasma cell proliferation. Among different isotypes of MM, immunoglobulin D (IgD) MM is very rare, representing only 1 to 2% of all isotypes. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a neoplastic myeloproliferative disorder of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell, which is characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of myeloid cells. An 88-year-old male was diagnosed simultaneously with...

  6. Identification of Bach2 as a B-cell-specific partner for small maf proteins that negatively regulate the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene 3' enhancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Muto, A; Hoshino, H.; Madisen, L; Yanai, N; Obinata, M; Karasuyama, H.; Hayashi, N.; Nakauchi, H; M. Yamamoto; Groudine, M; K. Igarashi

    1998-01-01

    Maf family transcription factors are important regulators in various differentiation systems. Putative Maf recognition elements (MAREs) are found in the 3' enhancer region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene. These elements are bound in B-cell extracts by a heterodimeric protein complex containing both Bach2 and a small Maf protein. Analysis of normal hematopoietic cells revealed that Bach2 is specifically expressed in B cells. Bach2 is abundantly expressed in the early stages of B-c...

  7. Mucosal immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woof, Jenny M; Mestecky, Jiri

    2005-08-01

    Due to their vast surface area, the mucosal surfaces of the body represent a major site of potential attack by invading pathogens. The secretions that bathe mucosal surfaces contain significant levels of immunoglobulins (Igs), which play key roles in immune defense of these surfaces. IgA is the predominant antibody class in many external secretions and has many functional attributes, both direct and indirect, that serve to prevent infective agents such as bacteria and viruses from breaching the mucosal barrier. This review details current understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of IgA, including interaction with specific receptors (such as Fc(alpha)RI, Fc(alpha)/microR, and CD71) and presents examples of the means by which certain pathogens circumvent the protective properties of this important Ig. PMID:16048542

  8. Solution-processed organic trilayer solar cells incorporating conjugated polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myoung Joo; Seo, Jung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    We report solution-processed organic trilayer solar cells consisting of a bottom poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layer, a conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) interlayer and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) top layer, wherein the CPE exists as an interlayer within the donor-acceptor junction. The influence of interlayer thickness on device properties was investigated, as well as the behavior of molecular dipoles in the trilayer solar cells when influenced by external electrical stimuli. We found that incorporation of an interlayer which is too thick results in decreased performance due to reduced short-circuit current (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), and fill factor (FF). However the VOC is found to increase significantly when a thin CPE layer is used in conjunction with an external electric field. These results provide an experimental approach to probe the influence of interfacial dipoles on the solar cell parameters and behavior of charge separating organic donor/acceptor junctions, yielding fundamental information about the influence of electrical dipoles on the donor/acceptor interface in organic solar cells.

  9. Paternal HLA-C and Maternal Killer-Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genotypes in the Development of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Moriya; Anderson, Karen L.; Ebstein, Richard P.; Yirmiya, Nurit; Mankuta, David

    2016-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of cell surface proteins found on natural killer cells, which are components of the innate immune system. KIRs recognize MHC class I proteins, mainly HLA-C and are further divided into two groups: short-tailed 2/3DS activating receptors and long-tailed 2/3DL inhibitory receptors. Based on the Barker Hypothesis, the origins of illness can be traced back to embryonic development in the uterus, and since KIR:HLA interaction figures prominently in the maternal–fetal interface, we investigated whether specific KIR:HLA combinations may be found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) children compared with their healthy parents. This study enrolled 49 ASD children from different Israeli families, and their healthy parents. Among the parents, a higher frequency of HLA-C2 allotypes was found in the fathers, while its corresponding ligand 2DS1 was found in higher percentage in the maternal group. However, such skewing in KIR:HLA frequencies did not appear in the ASD children. Additionally, analysis of “overall activation” indicated higher activation in maternal than in paternal cohorts. PMID:27517034

  10. Intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy in common variable immunodeficiency induces B cell depletion through differentiation into apoptosis-prone CD21(low) B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrevski, Milica; Marrapodi, Ramona; Camponeschi, Alessandro; Lazzeri, Cristina; Todi, Laura; Quinti, Isabella; Fiorilli, Massimo; Visentini, Marcella

    2014-12-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), besides its use as replacement therapy in patients with antibody deficiencies, is broadly used as an immunomodulatory agent for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. The mechanisms of action of IVIG include Fc receptor blockade, inhibition of cytokines and growth factors, modulation of macrophages and dendritic cells, enhancement of regulatory T cells, and modulation of B cells through the FcγRIIB receptor and CD22. Recent studies suggest that in vitro exposure of human B cells to IVIG determines functional changes reminiscent of anergy and that IVIG treatment of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) induces in B cells ERK activation, a feature of anergy. Here, we show that IVIG therapy drives the B cells of patients with CVID to down-regulate CD21 expression and to assume the peculiar phenotype of the anergic-like, apoptosis-prone CD21(low) B cells that are spontaneously expanded in a subset of CVID and in some other immunological disorders. The CD21(low) B cells newly generated after IVIG infusion undergo spontaneous apoptosis upon in vitro culture. Furthermore, IVIG infusion is rapidly followed by a significant, although discrete, decrease in the number of circulating B cells, but not of T cells or of natural killer cells. These findings suggest that IVIG therapy may constrain antibody responses by inducing B cell depletion through differentiation into CD21(low) B cells that undergo accelerated apoptosis. PMID:25407649

  11. The investigation of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genotyping in patients with systemic lupus erytematosus and systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkır, Jülide Duymaz; Tozkır, Hilmi; Gürkan, Hakan; Dönmez, Salim; Eker, Damla; Pamuk, Gülsüm Emel; Pamuk, Ömer Nuri

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterised by the production of autoantibodies and the involvement of multiple organ systems. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is another autoimmune disease that causes fibrosis. We will aim to analyse the role of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotypes and their existence with the respective HLA ligands in patients with SLE and SSc. Forty-five SLE, 25 SSc and 40 healthy controls were included. We examined the presence/absence of KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5A, 2DL5B, 2DS1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1, 2DP1, 3DP1 and their known HLA ligands. In the SLE group, the KIR2DL5, KIR2DL5B and KIR2DS3 genes were significantly more frequent, and KIR2DL3 gene was significantly less than in controls (p values pathogenesis of SLE and SSc. Also, the presence of KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL5B may cause major organ involvement, like neurologic involvement, in SLE. PMID:26960450

  12. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor-Ligand Matching and Outcomes after Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Vanderson; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Spellman, Stephen; Wang, Tao; Sobecks, Ronald; Locatelli, Franco; Askar, Medhat; Michel, Gerard; Arcese, William; Iori, Anna Paola; Purtill, Duncan; Danby, Robert; Sanz, Guillermo F; Gluckman, Eliane; Eapen, Mary

    2016-07-01

    The effect of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-ligand matching on outcomes after unrelated cord blood (CB) transplantation was studied in 461 patients with acute myeloid leukemia, categorizing KIR ligand for HLA-C groups C1 and C2 and Bw4. Donor-recipient HLA matching considered allele-level matching at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1. Separate analyses were conducted for 6-7/8 HLA-matched and 3-5/8 HLA-matched transplants because HLA matching confounded KIR-ligand matching (ie, KIR-ligand mismatching was less likely with better HLA matching). All patients received single CB unit and myeloablative conditioning. There were no significant differences in nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and overall mortality by KIR-ligand match status. However, among recipients of 3-5/8 HLA-matched transplants, NRM (HR, 2.26; P = .008) and overall mortality (HR, 1.78; P = .008) but not relapse were higher with KIR-ligand mismatched (host-versus-graft direction) compared with KIR-ligand matched transplants. These data do not support selecting CB units based on KIR-ligand match status for transplants mismatched at 1 or 2 HLA loci. Although transplants mismatched at 3 or more HLA loci are not recommended, avoiding KIR-ligand mismatching in this setting lowers mortality risks. PMID:27090957

  13. Production of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor by knocking into the active immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus in the hybridoma cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwana, Yoshihisa; Funayama, Kikuko; Miyaji, Hiromasa; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Yoshida, Hajime; Itoh, Seiga

    2001-01-01

    The hybridoma cell line KM50 originally produces a monoclonal antibody at a concentration of ∼40 mg ml-1 in ascites. To investigate the possibility to apply this expression system to the production of useful proteins, the cDNA encoding human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was inserted by homologous recombination into just downstream of the promoter of the active immunoglobulin heavy chain gene of KM50. Site directed integration of targeting DNAs resulted in the disruption of expression...

  14. Aberrant recombination and repair during immunoglobulin class switching in BRCA1-deficient human B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Andrea; Qvist, Per; Du, Likun;

    2015-01-01

    machinery. A shift to the use of microhomology-based, alternative end-joining (A-EJ) and increased frequencies of intra-S region deletions as well as insertions of inverted S sequences were observed at the recombination junctions amplified from BRCA1-deficient human B cells. Furthermore, increased use of...... underlying BRCA1’s function in maintaining genome stability and tumor suppression but may also point to a previously unrecognized role of BRCA1 in B-cell lymphomagenesis....

  15. Immune cell distribution and immunoglobulin levels change following sciatic nerve injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To investigate the systemic and local immune status of two surgical rat models of sciatic nerve injury, a crushed sciatic nerve, and a sciatic nerve transection Materials and Methods:Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group, sciatic nerve crush, and sciatic nerve transaction. Sciatic nerve surgery was performed. The percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ratio were determined by flow cytometry. Serum IgM and IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA. T-cells (CD3 and macrophages (CD68 in sciatic nerve tissue sections were identified through immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to sham-operated controls, in rats that underwent nerve injury, the percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly  decreased 7 days after surgery, serum IgM levels were increased 14 days after surgery, and serum IgG levels were increased 21 days after surgery. There were a large number of CD3+ cells and a small number of CD68+ cells in sciatic nerve tissue sections 21 days after surgery, indicating T-cell and macrophage activation and infiltration. Local IgG deposition was also detected at the nerve injury site 21 days after surgery. Conclusion: Rat humoral and cellular immune status changed following sciatic nerve injury, particularly with regard to the cellular immune response at the nerve injury site.

  16. Immune cell distribution and immunoglobulin levels change following sciatic nerve injury in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Feng, Xinhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To investigate the systemic and local immune status of two surgical rat models of sciatic nerve injury, a crushed sciatic nerve, and a sciatic nerve transection Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group), sciatic nerve crush, and sciatic nerve transaction. Sciatic nerve surgery was performed. The percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ratio were determined by flow cytometry. Serum IgM and IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA. T-cells (CD3) and macrophages (CD68) in sciatic nerve tissue sections were identified through immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to sham-operated controls, in rats that underwent nerve injury, the percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly decreased 7 days after surgery, serum IgM levels were increased 14 days after surgery, and serum IgG levels were increased 21 days after surgery. There were a large number of CD3+ cells and a small number of CD68+ cells in sciatic nerve tissue sections 21 days after surgery, indicating T-cell and macrophage activation and infiltration. Local IgG deposition was also detected at the nerve injury site 21 days after surgery. Conclusion: Rat humoral and cellular immune status changed following sciatic nerve injury, particularly with regard to the cellular immune response at the nerve injury site.

  17. Suppression by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol of the primary immunoglobulin M response by human peripheral blood B cells is associated with impaired STAT3 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to gain insights into the mechanism for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC)-mediated suppression of primary immunoglobulin M (IgM) responses in humans. An in vitro activation model, which employs cell surface-expressed CD40 ligand (CD40L) and recombinant cytokines (interleukin (IL)-2, -6, and -10), was used to differentiate human peripheral blood (HPB) naïve B cells into IgM secreting cells. Pretreatment with Δ9-THC significantly decreased the number of IgM secreting cells as determined by ELISPOT. The attenuation of IgM secretion by Δ9-THC involved, at least in part, the impairment of plasma cell differentiation as evidenced by suppression of immunoglobulin joining chain (IgJ) mRNA expression. The analysis at each of two different stages critically involved in plasma cell differentiation indicates that Δ9-THC impaired both the primary activation stage and proliferation of B cells. Interestingly, Δ9-THC selectively suppressed the surface expression of CD80, but not other measured B-cell activation markers (CD69, CD86, and ICAM1). Furthermore, pretreatment with Δ9-THC was accompanied by a robust decrease of STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas the phosphorylation of the p65 NFκB subunit was not affected. Collectively, these data provide new insights into the mechanisms for impaired B cell function by Δ9-THC

  18. Inhibitory effect of hot-water extract of quince (Cydonia oblonga) on immunoglobulin E-dependent late-phase immune reactions of mast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Takeshi; Iizuka, Tatsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of a crude hot-water extract (HW) of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent late-phase immune reactions of mast cells using in vitro system. Mast cell-like RBL-2H3 cells were treated with quince HW and late-phase reaction was then induced by stimulation with IgE + Antigen. Quince HW reduced the elevation of interleukin-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α expression level. Furthermore, quince HW suppressed these cytokine expressions of mous...

  19. Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Indonesian populations of Sumatra, Sulawesi and Moluccas Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velickovic, M; Velickovic, Z; Panigoro, R; Dunckley, H

    2010-10-01

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activity of natural killer and T cells through interaction with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules on target cells. Like HLA class I genes that are characterised by extreme allelic polymorphism, KIR genes are diverse and vary in both gene content and allelic polymorphism. Population studies conducted over the last several years have showed that KIR gene frequencies (GF) and genotype content vary among different ethnic groups, indicating the extent of KIR diversity. Some studies have also shown the effect of the presence or absence of specific KIR genes in human disease. We have recently reported the distribution of KIR genes in populations from Java (Central Javanese and the Sundanese of West Java), East Timor (Timorese), Kalimantan provinces of Indonesian Borneo (Dayaks) and Irian Jaya (Western half of the island of New Guinea; Melanese). We here extend analysis of the KIR genes in populations from North Sulawesi (Minahasans), West Sumatra (Minangs) and Moluccas Islands. All 16 KIR genes were observed in all three populations. Variation in GF between populations was observed, except for the KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3 and KIR3DP1 genes, which were present in every individual tested. When comparing KIR GF between populations, both principal component analysis and phylogenetic tree analyses showed a close relationship between Minahasan and Moluccan populations that are clustered with Timorese in the same clade. The Minang tribe lies between the Javanese/Kalimantan and the Timorese/Minahasan/Moluccan clades, whereas Irianese show the greatest genetic distances from other Indonesian populations. The results correspond well with the history of migration in Indonesia and will contribute to the understanding of the genetic as well as the geographic history of the region. PMID:20670355

  20. Interleukin-21 stimulates B-cell immunoglobulin E synthesis in human beings concomitantly with activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression and differentiation into plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Haruo, Nagumo; Sugane, Kazuo; Ochs, Hans D; Agematsu, Kazunaga

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-21 downregulates immunoglobulin E (IgE) production in murine systems by inhibiting germline epsilon transcription in IL-4-stimulated B cells. We here sought to clarify the function of IL-21 in human B-cell IgE synthesis. IL-21 dramatically enhanced IgE production by human mononuclear cells, or purified total, naive, or memory B cells in the presence of IL-4 plus anti-CD40 mAb cross-linked with CD32-transfectants, and the production was strengthened with further addition of IL-10. It was concomitant to the enhancement of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mRNA expression, but no increase of germline epsilon transcription. We also observed that IL-21 promoted B-cell differentiation into plasma cells with increase of B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), but not X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), which was further accentuated by co-stimulation with IL-4 plus CD40 signaling. Thus, IL-21 is a strong inducer of IgE production in human beings concomitantly with AID expression and the differentiation into plasma cells. Our data suggest that IL-21 plays an important role in occurrence and the treatment of allergic disorders. PMID:19026702

  1. Selective incorporation of 5-hydroxytryptophan into proteins in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-02-25

    This invention provides methods and compositions for incorporation of an unnatural amino acid into a peptide using an orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair. In particular, an orthogonal pair is provided to incorporate 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan in a position encoded by an opal mutation.

  2. THE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE OF ABILITY BINDING BRAIN TUMOR CELLS WITH IMMUNOGLOBULIN G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Ostreiko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Were researched IgG on the surface cells of different histological types tumors of cerebrum, using fluorescing staphylococcus A-protein. The study of target IgG shows divers intensive of microscopic fluorescent illumination. This results associate related with level amount IgG. The maximum concentrate of surface’s IgG was on the cells of malignant tumors and there was direct correlate with aggressive manner and quickly recurrence of tumor’s growth, and shot survival. The fraction of IgG with specific antitumor’s antibody covers tumor’s antigens has been block this antigens for receptors of T-lymphocytes. Linked with immunological anticell’s deficit phenomenon may be one from famous reasons of malignant clinical type tumor disease. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 6, pp 593-596.

  3. Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in the Bengali population of northern West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, P; Bhattacharjee, S; Chaudhuri, T K

    2014-12-01

    The Indian Subcontinent exhibits extensive diversity in its culture, religion, ethnicity and linguistic heritage, which symbolizes extensive genetic variations within the populations. The highly polymorphic Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) family plays an important role in tracing genetic differentiation in human population. In this study, we aimed to analyse the KIR gene polymorphism in the Bengali population of northern West Bengal, India. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the KIR gene polymorphism in the Bengalis of West Bengal, India. Herein, we have studied the distribution of 14 KIR genes (KIR3DL1-3DL3, KIR2DL1-2DL5, KIR2DS1-2DS5 AND KIR3DS1) and two pseudogenes (KIR3DP1 and 2DP1) in the Bengalis. Apart from the framework genes (KIR2DL4, 3DL2, 3DL3 and 3DP1), which are present in all the individuals, the gene frequencies of other KIR genes varied between 0.34 and 0.88. Moreover, upon comparing the KIR polymorphism of the Bengalis with the available published data of other world populations, it has been found that the Indo-European-speaking Bengalis from the region share both Dravidian and Indo-Aryan gene pool with considerable influences of mongoloid and European descents. Furthermore, evidences from previously published data on human leucocyte antigen and Y-chromosome haplogroup diversity support the view. Our results will help to understand the genetic background of the Bengali population, in illustrating the population migration events in the eastern and north-eastern part of India, in explaining the extensive genetic admixture amongst the different linguistic groups of the region and also in KIR-related disease researches. PMID:25205074

  4. Inhibition of Immunoglobulin E signals during allergen ingestion leads to reversal of established food allergy and induction of regulatory T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Oliver T.; Noval-Rivas, Magali; Zhou, Joseph S.; Logsdon, Stephanie L.; Darling, Alanna R.; Koleoglou, Kyle J.; Roers, Axel; Houshyar, Hani; Crackower, Michael A.; Chatila, Talal A; Oettgen, Hans C.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are known for triggering immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as food anaphylaxis. In this study, we tested whether they might additionally function to amplify nascent antibody and T helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated responses to ingested proteins and if blocking IgE would modify sensitization. Using mice harboring a disinhibited form of the IL-4 receptor, we developed an adjuvant-free model of peanut allergy. Mast cells and IgE were required for induction of...

  5. Fluorodeoxyglucose cell incorporation as an index of cell proliferation: evaluation of accuracy in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to correlate the effects of the toxic agents bleomycin and unlabelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) on cellular metabolism and proliferation. We determined the in vitro metabolic and cytotoxic effects of bleomycin and mIBG by measuring the incorporation of fluorine-18 FDG (%UFDG) and hydrogen-3 thymidine (%UTHY) in cells of the human premonocytic line U937 in the presence of increasing concentrations of these agents. Proliferation rate of these cells was studied by means of limiting dilution analysis. %UTHY appeared more sensitive to bleomycin or mIBG-mediated cell injury than %UFDG. After 1 h of exposure to 0.5 μM bleomycin, %UTHY was significantly reduced to 62.0% ± 10.4% of control value whereas %UFDG remained unchanged (91.6% ± 5.3%). Similar results were obtained after 1 h of exposure to increasing concentrations of mIBG (1 μM to 1 mM). After 20 h of exposure to bleomycin, %UTHY and %UFDG were significantly reduced as a function of concentration. After 20 h of exposure to mIBG, a transient increase in %UFDG up to 149.3% ± 11.2% with 50 μM mIBG was further followed by a reduction to 20.1% ± 6.7% with 0.5 mM. The clonogenic efficiency was reduced as a function of bleomycin or mIBG concentration and nearly abolished with 0.1 μM bleomycin or 0.1 mM mIBG. In conclusion, %UTHY appears to be a more sensitive index of cytotoxicity in vitro and more accurately relates to cell proliferation than %UFDG. (orig./MG)

  6. Mantle cell lymphoma cell lines show no evident immunoglobulin heavy chain stereotypy but frequent light chain stereotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pighi, Chiara; Barbi, Stefano; Bertolaso, Anna; Zamò, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma shows a peculiar immunogenetic profile, but the functional consequences of this fact are unknown. We have determined the precise sequences of rearranged heavy and light chain genes in several mantle cell lymphoma cell lines and investigated the presence of heavy and light chain stereotypy. These cell lines use IGHV and IGLV genes that are known to be preferentially rearranged in mantle cell lymphoma, but we found no evidence of heavy chain stereotypy. In contrast, one cell line (Mino) showed a nearly identical light chain complementarity-determining region 3 when compared to the only published light chain cluster. Two cell line couples (Jeko-1/UPN-2 and JVM-2/JVM-13) showed a highly similar light chain that satisfied the criteria for stereotypy. Our data show that mantle cell lymphoma cell lines resemble the IGHV and IGLV usage of mantle cell lymphoma, and foster the hypothesis that light chain stereotypy might be under-recognized. PMID:23245212

  7. Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and involved in cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is expressed on most types of hamatopoietic cells and negatively regulate immune response, but the roles of LAIR-1 in tumor of the non-hematopoietic lineage have not been determined. Despite advances in therapy of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), many questions relating to EOC pathogenesis remain unanswered. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of LAIR-1 expression in EOC and explore the possible association between LAIR-1 and cancer. In this study, a tissue microarray containing 78 ovarian cancer cases was stained following a standard immunohistochemical protocol for LAIR-1 and the correlation of LAIR-1 expression with clinicopathologic features was assessed. LAIR-1 was detected to express in tumor cells of ovarian cancer tissues (73.1%) and EOC cell lines COC1 and HO8910, not in normal ovarian tissues. In addition, LAIR-1 expression correlates significantly with tumor grade (p = 0.004). Furthermore, down-regulation of LAIR-1 in HO8910 cells increased cell proliferation, colony formation and cell invasion. These data suggest that LAIR-1 has a relevant impact on EOC progression and may be helpful for a better understanding of molecular pathogenesis of cancer. - Highlights: • LAIR-1 is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. • LAIR-1 expression correlates significantly with tumor grade. • Down-regulation of LAIR-1 expression increased cell proliferation and invasion. • LAIR-1 may be a novel candidate for cancer diagnosis and therapy

  8. Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and involved in cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qizhi [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China); Fu, Aili [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China); The People' s Liberation Army 107 Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Bin Zhou Medical University, Yantai (China); Yang, Shude [Institute of Fungi Science and Technology, Ludong University, Yantai (China); He, Xiaoli; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhou, Jiadi; Luan, Xiying [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China); Yu, Wenzheng, E-mail: bzywz2009@163.com [Department of Hemotology, The Hospital Affiliated Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou (China); Xue, Jiangnan, E-mail: xuejinagnan@263.net [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China)

    2015-03-06

    Previous studies have shown that leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is expressed on most types of hamatopoietic cells and negatively regulate immune response, but the roles of LAIR-1 in tumor of the non-hematopoietic lineage have not been determined. Despite advances in therapy of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), many questions relating to EOC pathogenesis remain unanswered. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of LAIR-1 expression in EOC and explore the possible association between LAIR-1 and cancer. In this study, a tissue microarray containing 78 ovarian cancer cases was stained following a standard immunohistochemical protocol for LAIR-1 and the correlation of LAIR-1 expression with clinicopathologic features was assessed. LAIR-1 was detected to express in tumor cells of ovarian cancer tissues (73.1%) and EOC cell lines COC1 and HO8910, not in normal ovarian tissues. In addition, LAIR-1 expression correlates significantly with tumor grade (p = 0.004). Furthermore, down-regulation of LAIR-1 in HO8910 cells increased cell proliferation, colony formation and cell invasion. These data suggest that LAIR-1 has a relevant impact on EOC progression and may be helpful for a better understanding of molecular pathogenesis of cancer. - Highlights: • LAIR-1 is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. • LAIR-1 expression correlates significantly with tumor grade. • Down-regulation of LAIR-1 expression increased cell proliferation and invasion. • LAIR-1 may be a novel candidate for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor Genotype and Haplotype Investigation of Natural Killer Cells from an Australian Population of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, T. K.; Brenu, E. W.; Staines, D. R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes encode for activating and inhibitory surface receptors, which are correlated with the regulation of Natural Killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity. Reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity has been consistently reported in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients, and KIR haplotypes and allelic polymorphism remain to be investigated. The aim of this article was to conduct a pilot study to examine KIR genotypes, haplotypes, and allelic polymorphism in CFS/ME patients and nonfatigued controls (NFCs). Comparison of KIR and allelic polymorphism frequencies revealed no significant differences between 20 CFS/ME patients and 20 NFCs. A lower frequency of the telomeric A/B motif (P < 0.05) was observed in CFS/ME patients compared with NFCs. This pilot study is the first to report the differences in the frequency of KIR on the telomeric A/B motif in CFS/ME patients. Further studies with a larger CFS/ME cohort are required to validate these results. PMID:27346947

  10. CIG-DB: the database for human or mouse immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes available for cancer studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furue Motoki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoglobulin (IG or antibody and the T-cell receptor (TR are pivotal proteins in the immune system of higher organisms. In cancer immunotherapy, the immune responses mediated by tumor-epitope-binding IG or TR play important roles in anticancer effects. Although there are public databases specific for immunological genes, their contents have not been associated with clinical studies. Therefore, we developed an integrated database of IG/TR data reported in cancer studies (the Cancer-related Immunological Gene Database [CIG-DB]. Description This database is designed as a platform to explore public human and murine IG/TR genes sequenced in cancer studies. A total of 38,308 annotation entries for IG/TR proteins were collected from GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL and the Protein Data Bank, and 2,740 non-redundant corresponding MEDLINE references were appended. Next, we filtered the MEDLINE texts by MeSH terms, titles, and abstracts containing keywords related to cancer. After we performed a manual check, we classified the protein entries into two groups: 611 on cancer therapy (Group I and 1,470 on hematological tumors (Group II. Thus, a total of 2,081 cancer-related IG and TR entries were tabularized. To effectively classify future entries, we developed a computational method based on text mining and canonical discriminant analysis by parsing MeSH/title/abstract words. We performed a leave-one-out cross validation for the method, which showed high accuracy rates: 94.6% for IG references and 94.7% for TR references. We also collected 920 epitope sequences bound with IG/TR. The CIG-DB is equipped with search engines for amino acid sequences and MEDLINE references, sequence analysis tools, and a 3D viewer. This database is accessible without charge or registration at http://www.scchr-cigdb.jp/, and the search results are freely downloadable. Conclusions The CIG-DB serves as a bridge between immunological gene data and cancer studies, presenting

  11. CCL28 Controls Immunoglobulin (Ig)A Plasma Cell Accumulation in the Lactating Mammary Gland and IgA Antibody Transfer to the Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Eric; Butcher, Eugene C.

    2004-01-01

    The accumulation of immunoglobulin (Ig)A antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in the lactating mammary gland leads to secretion of antibodies into milk and their passive transfer to the suckling newborn. This transfer of IgA from mother to infant provides transient immune protection against a variety of gastrointestinal pathogens. Here we show that the mucosal epithelial chemokine CCL28 is up-regulated in the mammary gland during lactation and that IgA ASCs from this tissue express CCR10 and migra...

  12. Studies investigating peripherial blood derived cells that express the high affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (FceRI) in allergic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sihra, Bhupinder Singh

    2008-01-01

    It is just forty years since the identification of immunoglobulin E (IgE) as the reagin responsible for allergen induced immediate hypersensitivity reactions. IgE exerts its biological actions through the binding of its Fc fragment to specific Fc receptors on effector cells. There are two predominant Fc receptors for IgE – Fc?RI, which has a very high affinity for IgE and Fc?RII, which shows less avid binding. For much of the first two decades after the identification of IgE, it w...

  13. Studies investigating peripheral blood derived cells that express the high affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (Fc?RI) In Allergic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sihra, Bhupinder Singh

    2008-01-01

    It is just forty years since the identification of immunoglobulin E (IgE) as the reagin responsible for allergen induced immediate hypersensitivity reactions. IgE exerts its biological actions through the binding of its Fc fragment to specific Fc receptors on effector cells. There are two predominant Fc receptors for IgE – Fc?RI, which has a very high affinity for IgE and Fc?RII, which shows less avid binding. For much of the first two decades after the identification of IgE, it was thought t...

  14. Corrective recombination of mouse immunoglobulin kappa alleles in Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed pre-B cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Feddersen, R M; Van Ness, B G

    1990-01-01

    Previous characterization of mouse immunoglobulin kappa gene rearrangement products cloned from murine plasmacytomas has indicated that two recombination events can take place on a single kappa allele (R. M. Feddersen and B. G. Van Ness, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:4792-4797, 1985; M. A. Shapiro and M. Weigert, J. Immunol. 139:3834-3839, 1987). To determine whether multiple recombinations on a single kappa allele can contribute to the formation of productive V-J genes through corrective rec...

  15. Mediation of cytotoxic functions by classes and subclasses of sheep antibody reactive with cell surface immunoglobulin idiotypic and constant region determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheep antibodies, reactive with either the idiotypic or constant region antigenic determinants of the immunoglobulin light chain in guinea-pig L2C leukaemic cells, were separated into IgM and into the two subclasses of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2. Antibody of both IgG subclasses inhibited the migration of L2C cells along plastic surfaces; IgM was only weakly inhibitory. Antibody of class IgM and of subclass IgG1 mediated complement cytotoxicity against the L2C cells whereas only that of subclass IgG2 mediated K-cell cytotoxicity; the effector arms were rabbit complement and sheep peripheral leucocytes, respectively. (author)

  16. Immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma, plasma cell leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia in a single patient treated simultaneously with lenalidomide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and imatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a neoplastic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by uncontrolled monoclonal plasma cell proliferation. Among different isotypes of MM, immunoglobulin D (IgD MM is very rare, representing only 1 to 2% of all isotypes. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML is a neoplastic myeloproliferative disorder of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell, which is characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of myeloid cells. An 88-year-old male was diagnosed simultaneously with IgD kappa MM and CML. A distinctive feature in this patient was the progression to plasma cell leukemia without any symptomatic myeloma stage. He was treated simultaneously with lenalidomide, bortezomib and imatinib. Synchronous occurrence of these rare hematological malignancies in a single patient is an exceedingly rare event. Multiple hypotheses to explain co-occurrence of CML and MM have been proposed; however, the exact etiological molecular pathophysiology remains elusive.

  17. Profile of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor and its human leucocyte antigen ligands in dengue-infected patients from Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagarasu, K; Bachal, R V; Shah, P S; Cecilia, D

    2015-12-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activation of natural killer cells (NKs). Qualitative and quantitative differences in the type and the number of KIRs expressed on NK cells affect its activation which would influence the outcome of the disease. In this study, 114 hospitalized cases of dengue [82 dengue fever (DF) and 32 dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases] and 104 healthy controls (HC) without no known history of hospitalization for dengue-like illness were investigated for their KIR gene profile to find out the association of KIR genes with dengue disease severity. KIR gene profile was investigated using duplex sequence-specific priming polymerase chain reaction-based typing system. The results revealed a higher frequency of KIR3DL1 gene [P = 0.0225; odds ratio (OR) 4.1 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-14.8] and lower frequency of KIR3DS1/3DS1 genotype [P = 0.0225; OR 0.24 95% CI (0.068-0.88)] in DF cases compared to HC. Immunoglobulin-like receptor gene frequencies were not different between DHF and DF or HC. The results suggest that KIR3DL1/KIR3DS1 locus might be associated with the risk of developing DF. PMID:26385514

  18. A diverse repertoire of human immunoglobulin variable genes in a chicken B cell line is generated by both gene conversion and somatic hypermutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Leighton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chicken immune responses to human proteins are often more robust than rodent responses because of the phylogenetic relationship between the different species. For discovery of a diverse panel of unique therapeutic antibody candidates, chickens therefore represent an attractive host for human-derived targets. Recent advances in monoclonal antibody technology, specifically new methods for the molecular cloning of antibody genes directly from primary B cells, has ushered in a new era of generating monoclonal antibodies from non-traditional host animals that were previously inaccessible through hybridoma technology. However, such monoclonals still require post-discovery humanization in order to be developed as therapeutics. To obviate the need for humanization, a modified strain of chickens could be engineered to express a human sequence immunoglobulin variable region repertoire. Here, human variable genes introduced into the chicken immunoglobulin loci through gene targeting were evaluated for their ability to be recognized and diversified by the native chicken recombination machinery that is present in the B-lineage cell line DT40. After expansion in culture the DT40 population accumulated genetic mutants that were detected via deep sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the human targeted constructs are performing as expected in the cell culture system, and provide a measure of confidence that they will be functional in transgenic animals.

  19. Incorporation of 14C in chemical constituents of algal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two marine algal species Dunaliella premodecta, Chlamydemonas sp. and one fresh water species Scenedesmus obliquus were studied for 14C incorporation under laboratory conditions. The uptake of 14C in dry marine algal species was found to be more compared to that in fresh water species for the same initial concentration in the respective media. A sequential extraction technique was employed to study the distribution of 14C in different organic constituents. 14C fixation was found to be more in fatty acid fractions followed by protein and nucleoprotein fraction. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Coniferyl Ferulate Incorporation into Lignin Enhances the Alkaline Delignification and Enzymatic Degradation of Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporating ester interunit linkages into lignin could facilitate fiber delignification and utilization. In model studies with maize cell walls, we examined how partial substitution of coniferyl alcohol (a normal monolignol) with coniferyl ferulate (an ester conjugate from lignan biosynthesis) alt...

  1. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I induce immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG4 production by human B cells

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effects of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, and insulin on human immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG4 production. GH and IGF-I induced IgE and IgG4 production by normal donors' mononuclear cells (MNC) depleted of sIgE+ and sIgG4+ B cells without affecting IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgA1, or IgA2 production, whereas IGF-II and insulin failed to do so. GH-induced IgE and IgG4 production was specific, and was not mediated by IGF-I, interleukin 4 (IL-4), or...

  2. PRODUCTION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST HUMAN IMMUNOGLOBULIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Majidi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin E is one of the five classes of immonoglobulins that plays an important role in allergic diseases. Production of monoclonal antibodies by a single clonotype against different epitopes of immunoglobulin E has high priority in development of diagnostic kits.In this study, an attempt was made to produce monoclonal antibodies against human immunoglobulin E. Balb/c mice were immunized with semipurified immunoglobulin E and spleen cells fused with SP2.0 mouse myeloma eel! line in the presence of polyethylene glycol. Supernatant of hybridoma cells was screened for detection of antibody by enzyme linked immonosorbent assay method. Cloning of selective high absorbance wells were done with limiting dilution method. The suitable clone (monoclone was selected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by immunoblot. The subclass of the chosen monoclonal antibodies was determined and the clones freezed and kept in liquid nitrogen.During this study three successful fusions were carried out, which resulted in development of 156 clones with high production of anti-IgE. Fourteen clones with the highest titres were selected for cloning. After limiting dilution more than 100 monoclonal antibodies were produced and the suitable (me (GJ0F7, i.e.; the clone which displayed the high absorbance in reaction with purified immunoglobulin E and the lowest cross-reactivity with immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G and immoglobulin A was chosen. In immunoblotting, presence of high density band in reaction with immunoglobulin E was confirmed. The suitable mab was shown to be IgG 1 subclass with kappa light chain. It seems that, this mab could be successfully used in diagnostic kits.

  3. Inhibitory effect of hot-water extract of quince (Cydonia oblonga) on immunoglobulin E-dependent late-phase immune reactions of mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Takeshi; Iizuka, Tatsuhiro

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of a crude hot-water extract (HW) of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent late-phase immune reactions of mast cells using in vitro system. Mast cell-like RBL-2H3 cells were treated with quince HW and late-phase reaction was then induced by stimulation with IgE + Antigen. Quince HW reduced the elevation of interleukin-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α expression level. Furthermore, quince HW suppressed these cytokine expressions of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), a normal mast cell model. Leukotriene C(4) and prostaglandin D(2) production in BMMCs after 1 and 6 h of stimulation, respectively, were also reduced by treating the cells with quince HW. We found that the induction of intracellular cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression but not COX-1 expression in BMMCs was reduced by quince HW. These results suggest that quince HW has an inhibitory effect on broad range of the late-phase immune reactions of mast cells. PMID:21264509

  4. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  5. Rapid assay system for cytotoxicity tests using 14C-leucine incorporation into tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell viability under various conditions of cytotoxicity test was assessed by terminal labeling of tumor cells, T24 cell line derived from urinary bladder carcinoma, with 14C-leucine. Changes of 14C-leucine incorporation into the cells were fairly proportional to those of viable cell number measured by the trypan blue exclusion method, but a definite correlation between the two measurements was not always found following cytotoxic manipulations. When the cells were labeled immediately after drug treatments, 14C-leucine incorporation usually led to fluctuated and insensitive results presumably due to disturbed metabolic activities unrelated to cell viability and failed to indicate the degree of cell damage. It was shown, however, that the cytotoxicity test was satisfactorily determined by labeling tumor cells with 14C-leucine after recovery in fresh medium for 24 hr. Cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs with concentration- and time-dependency, hyperthermia and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes were demonstrated by the radioactivity incorporated into the target cells on day 2 after removal of the cytotoxic factors. The results indicate that the terminal labeling of tumor cells with 14C-leucine can be used as a rapid and reliable measure sensitivities to cell viability for an in vitro assay system. (author)

  6. Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-like Lectin G Promotes Atherosclerosis and Liver Inflammation by Suppressing the Protective Functions of B-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Gruber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is initiated and sustained by hypercholesterolemia, which results in the generation of oxidized LDL (OxLDL and other metabolic byproducts that trigger inflammation. Specific immune responses have been shown to modulate the inflammatory response during atherogenesis. The sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin G (Siglec-G is a negative regulator of the functions of several immune cells, including myeloid cells and B-1 cells. Here, we show that deficiency of Siglec-G in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibits plaque formation and diet-induced hepatic inflammation. We further demonstrate that selective deficiency of Siglec-G in B cells alone is sufficient to mediate these effects. Levels of B-1 cell-derived natural IgM with specificity for OxLDL were significantly increased in the plasma and peritoneal cavity of Siglec-G-deficient mice. Consistent with the neutralizing functions of OxLDL-specific IgM, Siglec-G-deficient mice were protected from OxLDL-induced sterile inflammation. Thus, Siglec-G promotes atherosclerosis and hepatic inflammation by suppressing protective anti-inflammatory effector functions of B cells.

  7. Studies on the mechanisms of activation of potassium efflux and receptor-cytoskeleton association by aggregated immunoglobulin E-receptor complexes on rat basophilic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence for the activation of an outwardly-directed K+ permeability pathway was obtained by studying changes in plasma membrane potential that result from the aggregation of immunoglobulin E-complexes on rat basophilic leukemia cells. With the potential-sensitive dye, bisoxonol, we observe that activation by multivalent antigen causes membrane depolarization that is followed by a return towards the resting potential that we term repolarization. The depolarization response may reflect a Ca2+ influx pathway, and it exhibits the same antigen-dose dependence and temperature dependence as the degranulation response. The polarization phase of the membrane potential response is selectively inhibited by the K+ channel blockers quinidine and Ba2+ in parallel with their inhibition of the degranulation response, suggesting an important role for a K+ efflux pathway in antigen-stimulated degranulation. 86Rb+ efflux measurements were used to characterize the K+ permeability pathways responsible for the repolarization response

  8. Detection of clonal B cells in microdissected reactive lymphoproliferations: possible diagnostic pitfalls in PCR analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, X.G.; Sandvej, K.; Gregersen, Niels;

    1999-01-01

    Aims-To evaluate the specificity of standard and fluorescence based (GENESCAN) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement analysis in complete and microdissected paraffin wax embedded sections from lymphoid proliferations. Methods-PCR IgH gene rearrangement...... analysis of whole sections and microdissected fragments (n = 62) from paraffin wax embedded reactive lymph nodes (n = 6) and tonsils (n = 3). Amplificant analysis used both standard methods and automated high resolution fluorescence based quantification and size determination using GENESCAN software...... rearrangement analysis is a sensitive and specific method for demonstrating B cell clonality in whole paraffin wax embedded sections. However, oligoclonal and monoclonal rearrangement patterns are regularly encountered in small tissue fragments from otherwise unremarkable reactive lymphoproliferations, possibly...

  9. Design and standardization of PCR primers and protocols for detection of clonal immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene recombinations in suspect lymphoproliferations: report of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.J.M. van; Langerak, A.W.; Bruggemann, M.; Evans, P.; Hummel, M.; Lavender, F.L.; Delabesse, E.; Davi, F.; Schuuring, E.; Garcia-Sanz, R.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Droese, J.; Gonzalez, D.; Bastard, C.; White, H.E.; Spaargaren, M.C.; Gonzalez, M.; Parreira, A.; Smith, J.L.; Morgan, G.J.; Kneba, M.; Macintyre, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    In a European BIOMED-2 collaborative study, multiplex PCR assays have successfully been developed and standardized for the detection of clonally rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes and the chromosome aberrations t(11;14) and t(14;18). This has resulted in 107 different pri

  10. Oxidant injury and dynamics or vitamin E incorporation in pulmonary artery endothelial cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an environmental oxidant, is known to cause peroxidative injury to pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC). Vitamin E (E), a dietary antioxidant, protects against free-radical-initiated injury and stabilizes cell membrane structure. Because E represents the only known hydrophobic antioxidant in the lipid bilayer, we hypothesize that site-specific injury from NO2 may differentially influence the incorporation of E and the stabilization of membrane structure in PAEC. To test this, confluent porcine PAEC were exposed to 5 ppm NO2 in 5% CO2 or air (control) for 24 hr. After exposure, cells were incubated wither with labeled (3H), unlabeled E, or with vehicle alone (control) for 24 hr. After incubation, incorporation of E was measured in mitochondrial (MT), microsomal (MS), and plasma membranes (PM). Alterations in physical state of these membranes were measured by monitoring fluorescence anisotrophy (rs) of diphenylhexatriene (DPH). Increases in rs represent decreases in fluidity. E incorporation in control MT, MS, and PM was 7.2, 5.3, and 21.8 nmol/mg protein, respectively. In NO2-exposed cells, E incorporation was increased in PM only (31.6 nmol/mg protein). As a result of increased E incorporation, rs values for DPH were significantly increased in PM. These results indicate that site-specific injury and the physical state of membrane lipids are determinants of E incorporation and the stability of membrane structure

  11. Stiffening of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Spheroid Microenvironments Induced by Incorporation of Gelatin Microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraniak, Priya R.; Cooke, Marissa T.; Saeed, Rabbia; Kinney, Melissa A.; Fridley, Krista M.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    Culturing multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells as 3D aggregates augments their differentiation potential and paracrine activity. One caveat of stem cell spheroids, though, can be the limited diffusional transport barriers posed by the inherent 3D structure of the multicellular aggregates. In order to circumvent such limitations, polymeric microparticles have been incorporated into stem cell aggregates as a means to locally control the biochemical and physical properties of the 3D microenvironment. However, the introduction of biomaterials to the 3D stem cell microenvironment could alter the mechanical forces sensed by cells within aggregates, which in turn could impact various cell behaviors and overall spheroid mechanics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of biomaterial incorporation within mesenchymal stem cell spheroids on aggregate structure and mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrate that although gelatin microparticle incorporation results in similar multi-cellular organization within human mesenchymal stem cell spheroids, the introduction of gelatin materials significantly impacts spheroid mechanical properties. The marked differences in spheroid mechanics induced by microparticle incorporation may hold major implications for in vitro directed differentiation strategies and offer a novel route to engineer the mechanical properties of tissue constructs ex vivo. PMID:22658155

  12. Stiffening of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Spheroid Microenvironments Induced by Incorporation of Gelatin Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Baraniak, Priya R.; Cooke, Marissa T; Saeed, Rabbia; Kinney, Melissa A.; Krista M Fridley; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    Culturing multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells as 3D aggregates augments their differentiation potential and paracrine activity. One caveat of stem cell spheroids, though, can be the limited diffusional transport barriers posed by the inherent 3D structure of the multicellular aggregates. In order to circumvent such limitations, polymeric microparticles have been incorporated into stem cell aggregates as a means to locally control the biochemical and physical properties of the 3D microenv...

  13. An assay for transient gene expression in transfected Drosophila cells, using [3H]guanine incorporation.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, J F; Sinclair, J H; Sang, J. H.; Ish-Horowicz, D.

    1984-01-01

    We have developed an assay for transient gene expression using a dominant-selectable marker previously employed to transform Drosophila cultured cells. Drosophila hydei cells transfected with a functional Escherichia coli xanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene (gpt), under the control of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the copia transposable element, rapidly incorporate guanine into acid-precipitable counts. Autoradiographic analysis in situ shows that approximately 20% of cells...

  14. In vivo bioluminescence imaging for viable human neural stem cells incorporated within in situ gelatin hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Do Won; Park, Kyung Min; Shim, Hye-kyung; Jin, Yeona; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Oh, So Won; Lee, Song; Youn, Hyewon; Joung, Yoon Ki; Lee, Hong J.; Kim, Seung U.; Park, Ki Dong; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel-based stem cell therapies contribute to enhanced therapeutic efficacy in treating diseases, and determining the optimal mechanical strength of the hydrogel in vivo is important for therapeutic success. We evaluated the proliferation of human neural stem cells incorporated within in situ-forming hydrogels and compared the effect of hydrogels with different elastic properties in cell/hydrogel-xenografted mice. Methods The gelatin-polyethylene glycol-ty...

  15. HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Impairs Anti-viral Immunity by Inducing Co-inhibitory Molecule, T Cell Immunoglobulin and ITIM Domain (TIGIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Yasuma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infects CD4+ T cells and induces proliferation of infected cells in vivo, which leads to the onset of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL in some infected individuals. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ gene, which is encoded in the minus strand of HTLV-1, plays critical roles in pathogenesis. In this study, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses using HBZ transduced T cells revealed that HBZ upregulates the expression and promoter acetylation levels of a co-inhibitory molecule, T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT, in addition to those of regulatory T cells related genes, Foxp3 and Ccr4. TIGIT was expressed on CD4+ T cells from HBZ-transgenic (HBZ-Tg mice, and on ATL cells and HTLV-1 infected CD4+ T cells of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in vivo. Expression of Blimp1 and IL-10 was upregulated in TIGIT+CD4+ cells of HBZ-Tg mice compared with TIGIT-CD4+ T cells, suggesting the correlation between TIGIT expression and IL-10 production. When CD4+ T cells from HBZ-Tg mice were stimulated with TIGIT's ligand, CD155, their production of the inhibitory cytokine IL-10 was enhanced. Furthermore, dendritic cells from HBZ-Tg mice produced high levels of IL-10 after stimulation. These data suggest that HBZ alters immune system to suppressive state via TIGIT and IL-10. Importantly, TIGIT suppressed T-cell responses to another HTLV-1 virus protein, Tax, in vitro. Blocking of TIGIT and PD-1 slightly increased anti-Tax T-cell activity in some HAM/TSP patients. These results suggest that HBZ-induced TIGIT on HTLV-1 infected cells impairs T-cell responses to viral antigens. This study shows that HBZ-induced TIGIT plays a pivotal role in attenuating host immune responses and shaping a microenvironment favorable to HTLV-1.

  16. Silicon nanowire array/polymer hybrid solar cell incorporating carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we present a simple and novel approach of fabricating three dimensional (3D) n-Si nanowires (NWs) and poly(3-octylthiophene) hybrid solar cells incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Vertically aligned n-Si NWs arrays were fabricated by electroless chemical etching of a n-Si [1 1 1] wafer. n-Si NWs/poly(3-octylthiophene) hybrid solar cells were fabricated with and without functionalized CNTs incorporation. Fabricated solar cells incorporating CNTs show open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current density (Jsc) fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency as 0.353, 7.85 mA cm-2, 22% and 0.61%, respectively. In fabricated devices n-Si NWs arrays form multiple heterojunctions with the polymer and provide efficient electron collection and transportation, whereas CNTs provide efficient hole transportation.

  17. Maternal-fetal immunoglobulin transport: Studies on the binding, internalization, and release of IgG by chick yolk sac tissue and cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is transported from the yolk across the endodermal cells of the yolk sac and into the fetal circulation during chick embryonic development, thus providing the chick with passive immunity until it becomes immunocompetent. Saturable, Fc-specific receptors are present on the endodermal cells and are believed to mediate this transfer. In this study, IgG receptors were shown to be present on the yolk sac endodermal cells throughout the 21 days of development, although most of the transport occurs during the last 3 days prior to hatching. Fluorescently conjugated IgG was internalized by a receptor mechanism into small apical vesicles in yolk sac endoderm throughout, but cells from 19 day yolk sacs internalized more conjugate than those from 14 day yolk sacs. This was confirmed and quantitated by assaying the internalization of 125I-IgG into yolk sac tissue. IgG was internalized by a receptor mediated mechanism, reaching a steady state level after 1 to 2 hours. Although both ages of yolk sac tissue possessed the same number of surface IgG receptors, as measured by equilibrium binding assays at 4 degree C, 19 day yolk sac had the capacity to internalize six times as much IgG by a receptor mechanism as 14 day yolk sac

  18. Construction of a multicolor GeneScan analytical system to detect clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes in canine lymphoid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Sato, Masahiko; Nakashima, Ko; Hiyoshi, Saaya; Fujiwara-Igarashi, Aki; Maeda, Shingo; Nakamura, Kenji; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2015-05-15

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification to detect immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T cell receptor γ-chain (TCRγ) gene rearrangements has recently become widely used as part of the diagnostic strategy for lymphoid tumors in dogs. In this study, we constructed a multicolor GeneScan analytical system to improve the sensitivity and resolution of the clonality analysis of antigen receptor gene rearrangements in dogs. We used 7 reactions per sample, with 2 PCR conditions, to amplify IgH/TCRγ and control genes. By using multicolor-labeled primers, these 7 PCR products could be combined into 3 tubes before capillary electrophoresis. Clonal rearrangement of the IgH/TCRγ genes was detected in 93.3% of dogs with multicentric lymphoma and 84.6% of dogs with gastrointestinal lymphoma. Detection sensitivity of the clonally expanded cells in the background of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 1-10%. The multicolor GeneScan analytical system developed here may prove to be helpful for the diagnosis of lymphoid tumors in dogs. PMID:25840823

  19. MUC18, a marker of tumor progression in human melanoma, show sequence similarity to the neural cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MUC18 antigen is an integral membrane glycoprotein of 113 kDa whose expression on primary human melanomas correlates with poor prognosis and the development of metastatic disease. MUC18 is expressed only sporadically in benign melanocytic nevi and thin primary melanomas that have a low probability of metastasizing. However, with increasing tumor thickness, MUC18 expression becomes more frequent and it is found on 80% of advanced primary tumors and metastases. MUC18-encoding cDNA clones were obtained by screening a human melanoma phage λ expression library with monoclonal antibodies produced against the denatured antigen. The deduced sequence of 603 amino acids consists of a signal peptide, five immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane region, and a short cytoplasmic tail. The highest sequence similarity is with a group of nervous system cell adhesion molecules, which includes neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM). The close structural relationship with these molecules suggests that MUC18 may also be a developmentally regulated cell adhesion molecule

  20. Improving Efficiency of Multicrystalline Silicon and CIGS Solar Cells by Incorporating Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the use of gold (Au and silver (Ag nanoparticles in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS solar cells. Au and Ag nanoparticles are deposited by spin-coating method, which is a simple and low cost process. The random distribution of nanoparticles by spin coating broadens the resonance wavelength of the transmittance. This broadening favors solar cell applications. Metal shadowing competes with light scattering in a manner that varies with nanoparticle concentration. Experimental results reveal that the mc-Si solar cells that incorporate Au nanoparticles outperform those with Ag nanoparticles. The incorporation of suitable concentration of Au and Ag nanoparticles into mc-Si solar cells increases their efficiency enhancement by 5.6% and 4.8%, respectively. Incorporating Au and Ag nanoparticles into CIGS solar cells improve their efficiency enhancement by 1.2% and 1.4%, respectively. The enhancement of the photocurrent in mc-Si solar cells is lower than that in CIGS solar cells, owing to their different light scattering behaviors and material absorption coefficients.

  1. Infection of neuroblastoma cells with Semliki Forest virus. Incorporation of 35S or 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate-free medium is used for the incorporation of 32P and methionine-free medium for 35S-methionine labelling. After virus replication, the culture shows a clear CPE all of the cells appearing round and dead. Materials used are presented and experimental procedure is described

  2. Polyphenolic Extracts of Edible Flowers Incorporated onto Atelocollagen Matrices and Their Effect on Cell Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge López-García; Zdenka Kuceková; Petr Humpolíček; Jiři Mlček; Petr Sáha

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic extract of chives flowers (Allium schoenoprasum, Liliaceae), introduced Sage (Salvia pratensis, Lamiaceae), European elderberry (Sambucus nigra, Caprifoliaceae) and common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, Asteraceae) were characterised by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and incorporated in different concentrations onto atelocollagen thin films. In order to assess the biological impact of these phenolic compounds on cell viability, human immortalised non-tumorigenic keratin...

  3. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  4. Deletions of Immunoglobulin heavy chain and T cell receptor gene regions are uniquely associated with lymphoid blast transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valgañon Mikel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML results from the neoplastic transformation of a haematopoietic stem cell. The hallmark genetic abnormality of CML is a chimeric BCR/ABL1 fusion gene resulting from the Philadelphia chromosome rearrangement t(9;22(q34;q11. Clinical and laboratory studies indicate that the BCR/ABL1 fusion protein is essential for initiation, maintenance and progression of CML, yet the event(s driving the transformation from chronic phase to blast phase are poorly understood. Results Here we report multiple genome aberrations in a collection of 78 CML and 14 control samples by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. We found a unique signature of genome deletions within the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH and T cell receptor regions (TCR, frequently accompanied by concomitant loss of sequences within the short arm regions of chromosomes 7 and 9, including IKZF1, HOXA7, CDKN2A/2B, MLLT3, IFNA/B, RNF38, PAX5, JMJD2C and PDCD1LG2 genes. Conclusions None of these genome losses were detected in any of the CML samples with myeloid transformation, chronic phase or controls, indicating that their presence is obligatory for the development of a malignant clone with a lymphoid phenotype. Notably, the coincidental deletions at IGH and TCR regions appear to precede the loss of IKZF1 and/or p16 genes in CML indicating a possible involvement of RAG in these deletions.

  5. Cyclosporine,prednisone,and high-dose immunoglobulin treatment of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma refractory to prior CHOP or CHOP-like regimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Gui Chen; He Huang; Ying Tian; Cheng-Cheng Guo; Chao-Yong Liang; Yao-Ling Gong; Ben-Yan Zou; Rui-Qing Cai; Tong-Yu Lin

    2011-01-01

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma(AITL) is a rare,distinct subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma,possessing an aggressive course and poor prognosis with no standard therapy.Twelve patients who have failed at least two initial CHOP or CHOP-like regimens were enrolled in this study and treated with individualized cyclosporine(CsA),prednisone(PDN),and monthly,high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (HI?IVIG).The dose of CsA was adjusted individually based on the blood trough concentration of CsA and renal function.All patients were examined for response,toxicity and survival.The most significant toxicities insomnia(16.7%).Discontinuation of treatment occurred in one patient(8.3%) due to grade 3 renal toxicity and subsequent grade 4 pulmonary infection.Treatment-related death was not observed.The overall response rate was 75.0%(complete response,33.3%; partial response,41.7%).With a median follow-up of 25.5 months,the median duration of response was 20 months (range,12 to 49 months) and the median progression-free survival(PFS) was 25.5 months(range,10 to 56 months).The 2-year PFS rate was 81.5%.Our findings indicate the combination of CsA,PDN and HDIVIG is an effective salvage regimen for refractory or relapsed AITL with predictable and manageable toxicity.

  6. Lactic Acid Bacteria Improves Peyer's Patch Cell-Mediated Immunoglobulin A and Tight-Junction Expression in a Destructed Gut Microbial Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jeung, Woonhee; Choi, Il-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Kim, Geun-Bae; Hong, Seong Soo; Shim, Jae-Jung; Lee, Jung Lyoul; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2016-06-28

    To evaluate the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on Peyer's patch cells, mice were treated with a high dose of kanamycin to disturb the gut microbial environment. The overarching goal was to explore the potential of LAB for use as a dietary probiotic that buffers the negative consequences of antibiotic treatment. In vitro, LAB stimulated the production of immunoglobulin A (IgA) from isolated Peyer's patch cells. Inflammation-related genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8) were up-regulated in Caco-2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while tight-junction-related genes (ZO-1 and occludin) were down-regulated; the effects of LPS on inflammatory gene and tight-junction gene expression were reversed by treatment with LAB. Mice treated with a high dose of kanamycin showed increased serum IgE levels and decreases in serum IgA and fecal IgA levels; the number of Peyer's patch cells decreased with kanamycin treatment. However, subsequent LAB treatment was effective in reducing the serum IgE level and recovering the serum IgA and fecal IgA levels, as well as the number of Peyer's patch cells. In addition, ZO-1 and occludin mRNA levels were up-regulated in the ileum tissues of mice receiving LAB treatment. Lactic acid bacteria can enhance the intestinal immune system by improving the integrity of the intestinal barrier and increasing the production of IgA in Peyer's patches. Lactic acid bacteria should be considered a potential probiotic candidate for improving intestinal immunity, particularly in mitigating the negative consequences of antibiotic use. PMID:26975767

  7. Distinct TLR-mediated cytokine production and immunoglobulin secretion in human newborn naïve B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, Matthew A; van Haren, Simon D; Li, Ning; Dowling, David J; Bergelson, Ilana; Jans, Jop; Ferwerda, Gerben; Levy, Ofer

    2016-08-01

    Neonatal innate immunity is distinct from that of adults, which may contribute to increased susceptibility to infection and limit vaccine responses. B cells play critical roles in protection from infection and detect PAMPs via TLRs, that, when co-activated with CD40, can drive B-cell proliferation and Ab production. We characterized the expression of TLRs in circulating B cells from newborns and adults, and evaluated TLR- and CD40-mediated naïve B-cell class-switch recombination (CSR) and cytokine production. Gene expression levels of most TLRs was similar between newborn and adult B cells, except that newborn naïve B cells expressed more TLR9 than adult naïve B cells. Neonatal naïve B cells demonstrated impaired TLR2- and TLR7- but enhanced TLR9-mediated cytokine production. Significantly fewer newborn naïve B cells underwent CSR to produce IgG, an impairment also noted with IL-21 stimulation. Additionally, co-stimulation via CD40 and TLRs induced greater cytokine production in adult B cells. Thus, while newborn naïve B cells demonstrate adult-level expression of TLRs and CD40, the responses to stimulation of these receptors are distinct. Relatively high expression of TLR9 and impaired CD40-mediated Ig secretion contributes to distinct innate and adaptive immunity of human newborns and may inform novel approaches to early-life immunization. PMID:27252169

  8. Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Normark, M; Hansen, B F;

    1999-01-01

    shown between the expression of tumor cell proteases and tumor invasion. Therefore, phenotypic characterization of disseminated carcinoma cells for expression of protease activators might define the invasive potential of the cells. We present an immunocytochemically enhanced staining method that allows......The presence of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood has prognostic importance in patients with carcinomas. Much evidence indicates that dissemination of tumor cells may depend on activation of a variety of degradative enzymes. A strong positive correlation has been...... phenotyping of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood smears. In the first step, the cells were incubated with antibodies against urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and subsequently with secondary antibodies conjugated to peroxidase-labeled dextran polymers. A brown...

  9. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance with Carbon Nanotubes Incorporating into Hole Transport Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junxia; Li, Jingling; Xu, Xueqing; Xu, Gang; Shen, Honglie

    2016-06-01

    In an attempt to further enhance the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) fabricated by spray deposition under ambient conditions, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are introduced for incorporation into hole transport materials (HTM). The effect of CNT category and length on the efficiency of the perovskite solar cell for incorporation into HTM is investigated. The enhanced photovoltaic performance is achieved in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with the shortest length. The efficiency of acid-treated MWCNT-based cells is improved compared to that of purified MWCNTs due to the better dispersibility and the π-π interaction between the -COOH group and spiro-OMeTAD. As the volume ratio of the spiro-OMeTAD and spiro/MWCNTs mixture is 2:2 or 3:1, the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs containing MWCNTs reaches 8.7% with the enhanced short-circuit current density (J sc) and open-circuit voltage (V oc).

  10. Electrical and optical properties of hybrid polymer solar cells incorporating Au and CuO nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna P. Wanninayake; Shengyi Li; Benjamin C. Church; Nidal Abu-Zahra

    2015-01-01

    In this study, to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the polymer solar cells (PSCs), Gold (Au) and Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are incorporated into the PEDOT:PSS and P3HT/PCBM active layers respectively. PSCs with a constant CuO-NP content were fabricated with varying amounts of Au NPs. Addition of Au NPs increased the power conversion efficiency by up to 18% compared to a reference cell without Au-NPs. The short circuit current(Jsc) of the cells containing 0.06 mg of ...

  11. In vitro incorporation studies of 99mTc-alendronate sodium at different bone cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphosphonates can be labeled with Technetium-99m (99mTc) and are used for bone imaging because of their good localization in the skeleton and rapid clearance from soft tissues. Over the last decades bone scintigraphy has been used extensively in the evaluation of oncological patients to provide information about the sites of bone lesions, their prognosis and the effectiveness of therapy by showing the sequential changes in tracer uptake. Since the lesion visualization and lesion/bone ratio are important utilities for a bone scanning radiopharmaceutic; in this study incorporation of 99mTc labeled alendronate sodium (99mTc-ALD) was evaluated in U2OS (human bone osteosarcoma) and NCI-H209 (human bone carcinoma) cell lines. ALD was directly labeled by 99mTc, radiochemical purity and stability of the complex were analyzed by radioactive thin layer chromatography and radioactive high performance liquid chromatography studies. For cell incorporation study, NCI-H209 and U2OS cell lines were used with standard cell culture methods. The six well plates were used for all experiments and the integrity of each cell monolayer was checked by measuring its transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) with an epithelial voltammeter. Results confirmed that ALD was successfully radiolabeled with 99mTc. 99mTc-ALD incorporated with NCI-H209 and U2OS cells. The uptake percentages of 99mTc-ALD in NCI-H209 and U2OS cell lines were found significantly different. Since 99mTc-ALD highly uptake in cancer cell line, the results demonstrated that radiolabeled ALD may be a promising agent for bone cancer diagnosis. (author)

  12. Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Normark, M; Hansen, B F; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The presence of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood has prognostic importance in patients with carcinomas. Much evidence indicates that dissemination of tumor cells may depend on activation of a variety of degradative enzymes. A strong positive correlation has been sh...

  13. Distinct distribution of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in the Mugil and Ilaita areas of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, E; Christiansen, F T; Mueller, I; Schofield, L; Senitzer, D; Siba, P; Witt, C S

    2012-04-01

    The frequency of the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes and transmembrane alleles of KIR2DL4 were studied in coastal (Mugil community) and inland (Ilaita community) communities in Papua New Guinea. Linkage disequilibria between KIR genes and between alleles of KIR2DL4 and the KIR genes were similar to those found in other populations suggesting conservation of the usual gene order in Papua New Guinean haplotypes. Significant differences in the frequency of KIR genes were found between the two populations despite being separated by only 300 km. Examples of individuals who lacked the KIR2DL4 gene and others whose KIR2DL4 allele appeared to have 11 adenines in the polyadenine tract in exon 6 were identified. A relatively low frequency of the KIR A haplotype was found in both populations and particularly in the inland community. The KIR gene frequencies were consistent with the inland Ilaita community being closely related to Australian Aborigines and southern Indians, whereas the KIR gene frequencies of the coastal Mugil community appeared to have been influenced either by recent or ancient admixture from populations with a higher frequency of the KIR A haplotype. PMID:22320834

  14. Enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline that parallels histamine discharge in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified rat peritoneal and pleural mast cells preincubated briefly with radioactively labeled fatty acid were treated with A23187, which bypasses primary receptors in stimulating exocytosis. An enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline (PC) that occurred in parallel with histamine release at 24-25 degrees C was observed and was initially proportional to the total amount of histamine discharged. Enhanced PC labeling and histamine secretion were also proportional at temperatures ranging from 17-37 degrees C. Both radioactive linoleic and palmitic acids were incorporated selectively at the beta-position of the glycerol backbone of PC. PC labeling by [3H]choline was not detectably different in control and stimulated cells, and phosphatidic acid did not exhibit selectively enhanced beta-acylation. Thus, the stimulated labeling in A23187-treated cells may occur secondary to the action of a phospholipase A2 that favors PC as a substrate. Other peritoneal cell types exhibit a very similar A23187-stimulated selective labeling of PC. Therefore, autoradiography has been used to provide a direct demonstration that in purified preparations, mast cells are the principal cell type engaged in A23187-elicited incorporation of fatty acid into PC. The efficacy of this approach has relied on special procedures devised to obtain significantly different autoradiographic grain densities between control and stimulated preparations that can be attributed to differences in the level of [3H]palmitate-labeled PC. Preliminary tests using compound 48/80 as a secretory stimulus for mast cells have identified a similar selectively enhanced PC labeling. In either case, however, consideration of possible relationships between PC metabolism and the secretory process are premature since they have not been tested directly

  15. Inverted heterojunction solar cells incorporating fullerene/polythiophene composite core/shell nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated inverted heterojunction solar cell devices incorporating [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester/poly(3-hexylthiophene) core/shell nanorod arrays by using an anodic alumina oxide template. The internal quantum efficiencies and external quantum efficiencies of these core/shell nanorod inverted solar cells were higher than those of the corresponding conventional inverted bulk heterojunction device. The optimized nanorod array structure had a high hole mobility that was over one order magnitude greater than that of the conventional bulk heterojunction structure, as determined by fitting the dark J-V curves into the space charge limited current model. The more efficient carrier transport of the device incorporating the core/shell nanorod arrays provided it with both a higher short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of TSH-binding inhibitor immunoglobulin and thyroid stimulating autoantibody activities using cultured FRTL-5 cells in patients with untreated Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new and practical assay was developed using cultured FRTL-5 cells for simultaneous assessment of TS-ab and TSH-binding inhibitor immunoglobulin, allowing direct comparison of these two activities under the same conditions. Subsequent to the TS-ab assay in which extracellular cAMP concentration in Hanks' medium without NaCl was determined, [125I]bTSH in this medium was added to observe the ability of serum Ig to inhibit the binding of [125I]bTSH to FRTL-5 cells. We found a much higher specific binding of [125I]bTSH to FRTL-5 cells and a much greater inhigition of [125I]bTSH binding to the cells exposed to Greves' Ig in hypotonic NaCl-free than in NaCl containing Hanks' medium, indicating that the binding of both TSH and Graves' Ig to the TSH receptor was salt-sensitive. The inhibitory activity of [125I]bTSH binding to the cells was 0.2±4.6% (mean ±SD) in 45 normals. Inter-assay coefficients of variation in two positive controls with the mean values of 18.0 and 65.8% were 15.8 and 16.5%, respectively. Among 46 patients with untreated hyperthyroidism owing to Graves' disease, 45 (97.8%) were positive for TS-ab; 35 (76.1%) and 40 (87.0%) were positive for TSH-binding inhibitor in Ig assays using FRTL-5 cells and solubilized porcine thyroid membranes, respectively. TS-ab activities correlated less closely with TSH-binding inhibitory activities determined using FRTL-5 cells (r=0.576, p<0.001) than with those determined using porcine thyroid membranes (r=0.745, p<0.001). The correlation between TSH-binding inhibitory activities determined by the two methods, although statistically significant (r=0.537, p<0.001) was rather rough. Some patients clearly demonstrated discrepant results, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous populations of TSH receptor antibodies. (author)

  17. Differential association of gene content polymorphisms of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors with placental malaria in HIV- and HIV+ mothers.

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    Yusuf O Omosun

    Full Text Available Pregnant women have abundant natural killer (NK cells in their placenta, and NK cell function is regulated by polymorphisms of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs. Previous studies report different roles of NK cells in the immune responses to placental malaria (PM and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infections. Given these references, the aim of this study was to determine the association between KIR gene content polymorphism and PM infection in pregnant women of known HIV-1 status. Sixteen genes in the KIR family were analyzed in 688 pregnant Kenyan women. Gene content polymorphisms were assessed in relation to PM in HIV-1 negative and HIV-1 positive women, respectively. Results showed that in HIV-1 negative women, the presence of the individual genes KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL3 increased the odds of having PM, and the KIR2DL2/KIR2DL2 homozygotes were associated with protection from PM. However, the reverse relationship was observed in HIV-1 positive women, where the presence of individual KIR2DL3 was associated with protection from PM, and KIR2DL2/KIR2DL2 homozygotes increased the odds for susceptibility to PM. Further analysis of the HIV-1 positive women stratified by CD4 counts showed that this reverse association between KIR genes and PM remained only in the individuals with high CD4 cell counts but not in those with low CD4 cell counts. Collectively, these results suggest that inhibitory KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3, which are alleles of the same locus, play a role in the inverse effects on PM and PM/HIV co-infection and the effect of KIR genes on PM in HIV positive women is dependent on high CD4 cell counts. In addition, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD of the PM relevant KIR genes showed strong LD in women without PM regardless of their HIV status while LD was broken in those with PM, indicating possible selection pressure by malaria infection on the KIR genes.

  18. Enhancing the grain size of organic halide perovskites by sulfonate-carbon nanotube incorporation in high performance perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Tan, Licheng; Fu, Qingxia; Chen, Lie; Ji, Ting; Hu, Xiaotian; Chen, Yiwang

    2016-04-14

    The grain size of perovskites was enhanced and the grain boundary was filled with sulfonate carbon nanotubes (s-CNTs) during the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite precursor solution spin-coating process with the incorporation of s-CNTs. The performance of s-CNT incorporated perovskite solar cells remarkably increased from 10.3% to 15.1% (best) compared with pristine CNT incorporated perovskite solar cells. PMID:26940646

  19. Endothelial cells the site of the regulation of IgG LEVEL by salvaging and transcytosis of immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to function properly, cells in the human body must continuously exchange nutrients and energy with the external environment. The main source of nutrients is the blood stream. To reach the cells nutrients, growth factors and hormones must cross the endothelial cell barrier. The mechanisms involved in endocytosis and transcytosis, including vesiculation, membrane sorting, membrane fusion, organelle translocation are particularly studied in polarized epithelial cells. Among these the endothelial cells, highly specialized epithelial cells have been less or not at all considered. Under the influence of local physiological condition, vascular endothelium has undergone sequential differentiations involving to various degrees its basic cellular constituents (especially the occurrence and frequency of plasmalemmal vesicles, channels and fenestrae and their diaphragms) as well as its biochemical and functional properties (Simionescu N., Simionescu M. - Handbook of Physiology 1984). Especially in microvascular endothelial cells the transcytotic pathway is prevalent as compared with the endocytic pathway. Transcytosis may occur simultaneously over both apical and basolateral cell surfaces with very specific and selective destination. The mechanisms controlling the early biochemical steps in transcytosis in endothelial cells are largely unknown. Lately the search for the molecular basis of the endothelial transcellular pathways has gained a large interest bearing on the potential implications that a receptor mediated process may have for cell biology, physiopathology and pharmacology, especially for the locally specific drug targeting. The investigation at cellular and molecular level of the IgG transcytosis in endothelial cells is reported in this paper. Although endothelial specific binding, internalization and/or transport mechanisms were described for many macromolecules like albumin (Ghitescu et al 1986), lipoproteins (Baker et al 1984), insulin (King et al 1985

  20. Binding of immunoglobulin G from patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases to solubilized guinea pig fat cell membranes crosslinked with 125I-TSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to Triton-solubilized fat cell membranes crosslinked with 125I-TSH was studied by an indirect immunoprecipitation method. Guinea pig fat cell membranes (FCM) containing TSH receptors with an association constant of 1.92 x 109 M-1 were first reacted with 125I-TSH, then treated with a crosslinker, dissuccinimidyl suberate. The dissociation of 125I-TSH from the crosslinked 125I-TSH-FCM complexes due to the addition of 100 mU/ml unlabeled TSH was 9.0 %, while it was 33 % without the treatment. To the Triton-solubilized FCM crosslinked with 125I-TSH, 50 μg each of IgG from 20 normal controls, 20 patients with Graves' disease and 20 with Hashimoto's disease was added and precipitation was effected by adding antihuman IgG. In patients with Graves' disease, 125I-TSH-FCM complexes immunoprecipitated ranged from 1.10 to 4.18 % with an average of 2.4 ± 0.99 (S. D.) % which was significantly higher than those in normal controls (1.6 ± 0.29 %). The values in the patients with Hashimoto's disease averaged 1.7 ± 0.53 (S. D.) which did not differ significantly from those of controls. The value did not correlate with either TSH-binding inhibiting activities or titers of anti-microsomal antibodies. These data suggest the presence of TSH-receptor antibodies which react with antigens other than TSH-binding sites in the patients with Graves' disease. (author)

  1. Effects of n-3 PUFAs on breast cancer cells through their incorporation in plasma membrane

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    Berra Bruno

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PUFAs are important molecules for membrane order and function; they can modify inflammation-inducible cytokines production, eicosanoid production, plasma triacylglycerol synthesis and gene expression. Recent studies suggest that n-3 PUFAs can be cancer chemopreventive, chemosuppressive and auxiliary agents for cancer therapy. N-3 PUFAs could alter cancer growth influencing cell replication, cell cycle, and cell death. The question that remains to be answered is how n-3 PUFAs can affect so many physiological processes. We hypothesize that n-3 PUFAs alter membrane stability, modifying cellular signalling in breast cancer cells. Methods Two lines of human breast cancer cells characterized by different expression of ER and EGFR receptors were treated with AA, EPA or DHA. We have used the MTT viability test and expression of apoptotic markers to evaluate the effect of PUFAs on cancer growth. Phospholipids were analysed by HPLC/GC, to assess n-3 incorporation into the cell membrane. Results We have observed that EPA and DHA induce cell apoptosis, a reduction of cell viability and the expression of Bcl2 and procaspase-8. Moreover, DHA slightly reduces the concentration of EGFR but EPA has no effect. Both EPA and DHA reduce the activation of EGFR. N-3 fatty acids are partially metabolized in both cell lines; AA is integrated without being further metabolized. We have analysed the fatty acid pattern in membrane phospholipids where they are incorporated with different degrees of specificity. N-3 PUFAs influence the n-6 content and vice versa. Conclusions Our results indicate that n-3 PUFA feeding might induce modifications of breast cancer membrane structure that increases the degree of fatty acid unsaturation. This paper underlines the importance of nutritional factors on health maintenance and on disease prevention.

  2. miR290-5p/292-5p activate the immunoglobulin kappa locus in B cell development.

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    Patty B Garcia

    Full Text Available Regulated expression of miRNAs influences development in a wide variety of contexts. We report here that miR290-5p (100049710 and miR292-5p (100049711 are induced at the pre-B stage of murine B cell development and that they influence assembly of the Igκ light chain gene (243469 by contributing to the activation of germline Igκ transcription (κGT. We found that upon forced over-expression of miR290-5p/292-5p in Abelson Murine Leukemia Virus (AMuLV transformed pro-B cells, two known activators of κGT, E2A (21423 and NF-κB (19697, show increased chromosomal binding to the kappa intronic enhancer. Conversely, knockdown of miR290-5p/292-5p in AMuLV pro-B cells blunts drug-induced activation of κGT. Furthermore, miR290-5p/292-5p knockdown also diminishes κGT activation, but not Rag1/2 (19373, 19374 expression, in an IL-7 dependent primary pro-B cell culture system. In addition, we identified a deficiency in κGT induction in miR290 cluster knockout mice. We hypothesize that increased expression of miR290-5p and miR292-5p contributes to the induction of κGT at the pre-B stage of B cell development through increased binding of NF-κB and E2A to kappa locus regulatory sequences.

  3. miR290-5p/292-5p activate the immunoglobulin kappa locus in B cell development.

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    Garcia, Patty B; Cai, Amie; Bates, Jamie G; Nolla, Hector; Schlissel, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Regulated expression of miRNAs influences development in a wide variety of contexts. We report here that miR290-5p (100049710) and miR292-5p (100049711) are induced at the pre-B stage of murine B cell development and that they influence assembly of the Igκ light chain gene (243469) by contributing to the activation of germline Igκ transcription (κGT). We found that upon forced over-expression of miR290-5p/292-5p in Abelson Murine Leukemia Virus (AMuLV) transformed pro-B cells, two known activators of κGT, E2A (21423) and NF-κB (19697), show increased chromosomal binding to the kappa intronic enhancer. Conversely, knockdown of miR290-5p/292-5p in AMuLV pro-B cells blunts drug-induced activation of κGT. Furthermore, miR290-5p/292-5p knockdown also diminishes κGT activation, but not Rag1/2 (19373, 19374) expression, in an IL-7 dependent primary pro-B cell culture system. In addition, we identified a deficiency in κGT induction in miR290 cluster knockout mice. We hypothesize that increased expression of miR290-5p and miR292-5p contributes to the induction of κGT at the pre-B stage of B cell development through increased binding of NF-κB and E2A to kappa locus regulatory sequences. PMID:22928038

  4. Polyphenolic Extracts of Edible Flowers Incorporated onto Atelocollagen Matrices and Their Effect on Cell Viability

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    Jorge López-García

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic extract of chives flowers (Allium schoenoprasum, Liliaceae, introduced Sage (Salvia pratensis, Lamiaceae, European elderberry (Sambucus nigra, Caprifoliaceae and common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, Asteraceae were characterised by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and incorporated in different concentrations onto atelocollagen thin films. In order to assess the biological impact of these phenolic compounds on cell viability, human immortalised non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line was seeded on the thin films and cell proliferation was determined by using an MTT assay. In addition, their antimicrobial activity was estimated by using an agar diffusion test. Data indicated the concomitance between cell viability and concentration of polyphenols. These findings suggest that these phenolic-endowed atelocollagen films might be suitable for tissue engineering applications, on account of the combined activity of polyphenols and collagen.

  5. Incorporation of functionalized gold nanoparticles into nanofibers for enhanced attachment and differentiation of mammalian cells

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    Jung Dongju

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrospun nanofibers have been widely used as substrata for mammalian cell culture owing to their structural similarity to natural extracellular matrices. Structurally consistent electrospun nanofibers can be produced with synthetic polymers but require chemical modification to graft cell-adhesive molecules to make the nanofibers functional. Development of a facile method of grafting functional molecules on the nanofibers will contribute to the production of diverse cell type-specific nanofiber substrata. Results Small molecules, peptides, and functionalized gold nanoparticles were successfully incorporated with polymethylglutarimide (PMGI nanofibers through electrospinning. The PMGI nanofibers functionalized by the grafted AuNPs, which were labeled with cell-adhesive peptides, enhanced HeLa cell attachment and potentiated cardiomyocyte differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Conclusions PMGI nanofibers can be functionalized simply by co-electrospinning with the grafting materials. In addition, grafting functionalized AuNPs enable high-density localization of the cell-adhesive peptides on the nanofiber. The results of the present study suggest that more cell type-specific synthetic substrata can be fabricated with molecule-doped nanofibers, in which diverse functional molecules are grafted alone or in combination with other molecules at different concentrations.

  6. In vitro incorporation of boronophenylalanine by amelanotic and melanotic murine and human malignant melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelleted cells were irradiated as previously described, following a 20 h incubation in RPM1 1640 medium, in the presence or absence of 10μg/ml D,L-paraboronophenylalanine hydrochloride (10B1-BPA.HCl). Thermal neutrons were derived from Moata, a 100-kW Argonaut-type light water reactor. The neutron flux was 2.6 x 109 n/cm2/s, dose rate 3.7 Gy/h (n+γ) and the dose range 0.6 - 0.8 Gy. Cells were plated onto X-irradiated feeder layers in triplicate in 25cm2 Falcon flasks and colonies counted after 11-12 days. No differences in thermal neutron radiosensitivity were observed for two amelanotic cell lines. A small but significant difference was observed for the melanotic cell line (418) grown in the presence or absence of BPA. Subsequent experiments showed that the uptake of boron was low in the B16 murine malignant melanoma cell line cultured in the presence of BPA. It was therefore necessary to investigate the boron uptake and incorporation in melanoma cells by increasing the BPA concentration, increasing melanization using different variants of the B16 cell lines, and alternative methods of cell layer detachment

  7. Incorporation of Nasutitermes takasagoensis endoglucanase into cell surface-displayed minicellulosomes in Pichia pastoris X33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jingshen; Cao, Yicheng

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the yeast Pichia pastoris was genetically modified to assemble minicellulosomes on its cell surface by the heterologous expression of a truncated scaffoldin CipA from Clostridium acetobutylicum. Fluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis confirmed that CipA was targeted to the yeast cell surface and that NtEGD, the Nasutitermes takasagoensis endoglucanase that was fused with dockerin, interacted with CipA on the yeast cell surface, suggesting that the cohesin and dockerin domains and cellulose-binding module of C. acetobutylicum were functional in the yeasts. The enzymatic activities of the cellulases in the minicellulosomes that were displayed on the yeast cell surfaces increased dramatically following interaction with the cohesin-dockerin domains. Additionally, the hydrolysis efficiencies of NtEGD for carboxymethyl cellulose, microcrystal cellulose, and filter paper increased up to 1.4-fold, 2.0-fold, and 3.2-fold, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the expression of C. acetobutylicum minicellulosomes in yeast and the incorporation of animal cellulases into cellulosomes. This strategy of heterologous cellulase incorporation lends novel insight into the process of cellulosome assembly. Potentially, the surface display of cellulosomes, such as that reported in this study, may be utilized in the engineering of S. cerevisiae for ethanol production from cellulose and additional future applications. PMID:24851815

  8. Effects of oxygen incorporation in solar cells with a-SiOx:H absorber layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Smirnov, Vladimir; Chen, Tao; Holländer, Bernhard; Zhang, Xiaodan; Xiong, Shaozhen; Zhao, Ying; Finger, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    The effects of oxygen incorporation on layer properties and cell performance were investigated in thin film solar cells with a-SiOx:H absorber layers. Besides the widened optical band gap and increased defect densities, a doping effect is observed upon oxygen incorporation even for the layers with wide band gap. From comparison of solar cells illuminated from either p- or n-side, we conclude that overall hole carrier collection is strongly deteriorated by increasing the oxygen concentration. The donor-like states induced by oxygen reform the electric field in the absorber. The intensified electric field near the p/i interface improves the quantum efficiency (QE) around 400 nm, which is attributed to the better carrier collection in the p-layer. The maximum of QE shows a blue shift with both p- and n-side illumination. It is consistent with the enhanced optical band gap of the absorber layer and shows the potential of usage in multi-junction solar cells.

  9. Incorporation of glycine and serine into sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes during growth and sporulation in activities of cells of Bacillus subtilis to incorporate various amino acids were investigated with wild-type strain and its asporogenous mutant. In the case of wild type strain the uptake of valine, phenylalanine, and proline was largest during the logarithmic growth period. The uptake of these amino acids decreased rapidly during the early stationary phase. The uptake of valine and cysteine increased again to some extent just prior to the forespore stage. The uptake of glycine and serine, however, was largest at the forespore stage at which the formation of spore coat took place. From these observed phenomena it was assumed that the remarkable incorporation of glycine and serine into the wild type strain during sporulation was closely related to the formation of spore coat. (auth.)

  10. Evaluation of squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin M complex (SCCA-IGM) and alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) as novel diagnostic biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Nehad A; Mahmoud, Enas H; Osman, Enas A; Mahmoud, Sherif H; Shousha, Hend I

    2014-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance lacks a reliable biomarker. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used. However, not all HCCs secrete AFP. AFP may be elevated with cirrhosis in the absence of HCC. Serum alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin M complex (SCCA-IgM) were found to be useful markers in diagnosing HCC. SCCA-IgM and AFU were assessed by ELISA technique; AFP was measured by enzyme chemiluminescence in serum of 40 patients with HCC, 30 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 20 healthy control participants to compare their accuracy in early diagnosis of HCC. Serum SCCA-IgM and AFU levels were significantly elevated in HCC group compared to cirrhotic group (P value<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve showed the optimal cutoff value for SCCA-IgM was 233 AU/ml with sensitivity 87.5% and specificity 66% and for AFU was 25 U/L with sensitivity 87.5% and specificity 98%. AFP cutoff value was 48 ng/mL with sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 53.3%. The simultaneous determination of AFP and SCCA-IgM activity increased the sensitivity to 92.5% and specificity to 62.1%. There were positive significant correlations between SCCA-IgM and each of AFU (r=0.296, P=0.005) and AFP (r=0.284, P=0.007) and no correlation between AFP and AFU. All markers did not correlate with the tumor size or affected by the Child score. The significant difference between SCCA-IgM and AFU levels among HCC and cirrhotic patients suggests their use as potential diagnostic tools and allows identifying a new group of HCC patients even in the absence of elevated AFP. PMID:25129443

  11. From IMGT-ONTOLOGY to IMGT/LIGMotif: the IMGT® standardized approach for immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene identification and description in large genomic sequences

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    Lefranc Marie-Paule

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antigen receptors, immunoglobulins (IG and T cell receptors (TR, are specific molecular components of the adaptive immune response of vertebrates. Their genes are organized in the genome in several loci (7 in humans that comprise different gene types: variable (V, diversity (D, joining (J and constant (C genes. Synthesis of the IG and TR proteins requires rearrangements of V and J, or V, D and J genes at the DNA level, followed by the splicing at the RNA level of the rearranged V-J and V-D-J genes to C genes. Owing to the particularities of IG and TR gene structures related to these molecular mechanisms, conventional bioinformatic software and tools are not adapted to the identification and description of IG and TR genes in large genomic sequences. In order to answer that need, IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, has developed IMGT/LIGMotif, a tool for IG and TR gene annotation. This tool is based on standardized rules defined in IMGT-ONTOLOGY, the first ontology in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. Results IMGT/LIGMotif currently annotates human and mouse IG and TR loci in large genomic sequences. The annotation includes gene identification and orientation on DNA strand, description of the V, D and J genes by assigning IMGT® labels, gene functionality, and finally, gene delimitation and cluster assembly. IMGT/LIGMotif analyses sequences up to 2.5 megabase pairs and can analyse them in batch files. Conclusions IMGT/LIGMotif is currently used by the IMGT® biocurators to annotate, in a first step, IG and TR genomic sequences of human and mouse in new haplotypes and those of closely related species, nonhuman primates and rat, respectively. In a next step, and following enrichment of its reference databases, IMGT/LIGMotif will be used to annotate IG and TR of more distantly related vertebrate species. IMGT/LIGMotif is available at http://www.imgt.org/ligmotif/.

  12. Incorporation of a selective sigma-2 receptor ligand enhances uptake of liposomes by multiple cancer cells

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    Zhang Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yifei Zhang,1,* Yixian Huang,1,* Peng Zhang,1 Xiang Gao,1 Robert B Gibbs,2 Song Li1 1Center for Pharmacogenetics, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The sigma-2 receptor is an attractive target for tumor imaging and targeted therapy because it is overexpressed in multiple types of solid tumors, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer. SV119 is a synthetic small molecule that binds to sigma-2 receptors with high affinity and specificity. This study investigates the utility of SV119 in mediating the selective targeting of liposomal vectors in various types of cancer cells.Methods: SV119 was covalently linked with polyethylene glycol-dioleyl amido aspartic acid conjugate (PEG-DOA to generate a novel functional lipid, SV119-PEG-DOA. This lipid was utilized for the preparation of targeted liposomes to enhance their uptake by cancer cells. Liposomes with various SV119 densities (0, 1, 3, and 5 mole% were prepared and their cellular uptake was investigated in several tumor cell lines. In addition, doxorubicin (DOX was loaded into the targeted and unmodified liposomes, and the cytotoxic effect on the DU-145 cells was evaluated by MTT assay.Results: Liposomes with or without SV119-PEG-DOA both have a mean diameter of approximately 90 nm and a neutral charge. The incorporation of SV119-PEG-DOA significantly increased the cellular uptake of liposomes by the DU-145, PC-3, A549, 201T, and MCF-7 tumor cells, which was shown by fluorescence microscopy and the quantitative measurement of fluorescence intensity. In contrast, the incorporation of SV119 did not increase the uptake of liposomes by the normal BEAS-2B cells. In a time course study, the uptake of SV119 liposomes by DU-145 cells was also significantly higher at each time point compared to the unmodified liposomes. Furthermore, the DOX-loaded SV119 liposomes

  13. N-Glycosylation at the SynCAM (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule) Immunoglobulin Interface Modulates Synaptic Adhesion

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    A Fogel; Y Li; Q Wang; T Lam; Y Modis; T Biederer

    2011-12-31

    Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.

  14. Identification of a human immunodominant B-cell epitope within the immunoglobulin A1 protease of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paolis, Francesca; Beghetto, Elisa; Spadoni, Andrea; Montagnani, Francesca; Felici, Franco; Oggioni, Marco R; Gargano, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background The IgA1 protease of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a proteolytic enzyme that specifically cleaves the hinge regions of human IgA1, which dominates most mucosal surfaces and is the major IgA isotype in serum. This protease is expressed in all of the known pneumococcal strains and plays a major role in pathogen's resistance to the host immune response. The present work was focused at identifying the immunodominant regions of pneumococcal IgA1 protease recognized by the human antibody response. Results An antigenic sequence corresponding to amino acids 420–457 (epiA) of the iga gene product was identified by screening a pneumococcal phage display library with patients' sera. The epiA peptide is conserved in all pneumococci and in two out of three S. mitis strains, while it is not present in other oral streptococci so far sequenced. This epitope was specifically recognized by antibodies present in sera from 90% of healthy adults, thus representing an important target of the humoral response to S. pneumoniae and S. mitis infection. Moreover, sera from 68% of children less than 4 years old reacted with the epiA peptide, indicating that the human immune response against streptococcal antigens occurs during childhood. Conclusion The broad and specific recognition of the epiA polypeptide by human sera demonstrate that the pneumococcal IgA1 protease contains an immunodominant B-cell epitope. The use of phage display libraries to identify microbe or disease-specific antigens recognized by human sera is a valuable approach to epitope discovery. PMID:18088426

  15. Identification of a human immunodominant B-cell epitope within the immunoglobulin A1 protease of Streptococcus pneumoniae

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    Felici Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The IgA1 protease of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a proteolytic enzyme that specifically cleaves the hinge regions of human IgA1, which dominates most mucosal surfaces and is the major IgA isotype in serum. This protease is expressed in all of the known pneumococcal strains and plays a major role in pathogen's resistance to the host immune response. The present work was focused at identifying the immunodominant regions of pneumococcal IgA1 protease recognized by the human antibody response. Results An antigenic sequence corresponding to amino acids 420–457 (epiA of the iga gene product was identified by screening a pneumococcal phage display library with patients' sera. The epiA peptide is conserved in all pneumococci and in two out of three S. mitis strains, while it is not present in other oral streptococci so far sequenced. This epitope was specifically recognized by antibodies present in sera from 90% of healthy adults, thus representing an important target of the humoral response to S. pneumoniae and S. mitis infection. Moreover, sera from 68% of children less than 4 years old reacted with the epiA peptide, indicating that the human immune response against streptococcal antigens occurs during childhood. Conclusion The broad and specific recognition of the epiA polypeptide by human sera demonstrate that the pneumococcal IgA1 protease contains an immunodominant B-cell epitope. The use of phage display libraries to identify microbe or disease-specific antigens recognized by human sera is a valuable approach to epitope discovery.

  16. Analysis of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor Genes and Their HLA Ligands in Iranian Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Mehdi; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Karami, Jafar; Mohseni, Alireza; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Farhadi, Elham; Ahmadzadeh, Nooshin; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic rheumatic disease which mainly involves the axial skeleton. It seems that non-HLA genes, as well as HLA-B27 gene, are linked to the etiology of the disease. Recently, it has been documented that KIRs and their HLA ligands are contributed to the Ankylosing Spondylitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the KIR genes and their HLA ligands in Iranian AS patients and healthy individuals. The present study includes 200 AS patient samples and 200 healthy control samples. KIR genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) method to type the presence or absence of the 16 KIR genes, 6 known specific HLA class I ligands and also, two pseudogenes. Two KIR genes (KIR-2DL3 and KIR2DL5), and among the HLA ligands, two HLA ligands (HLA-C2Lys80 and HLA-B27) genes were significantly different between case and control groups. In addition, we found some interesting KIR/HLA compound genotypes, which were associated with AS susceptibility. Our results suggest that the AS patients present more activating and less inhibitory KIR genes with combination of their HLA ligands than healthy controls. Once the balance of signal transduction between activating and inhibitory receptors is disturbed, the ability of NK cells to identify and lyse the targets in immune responses will be compromised. Accordingly, imbalance of activating and inhibitory KIR genes by up-regulating the activation and losing the inhibition of KIRs signaling or combination of both might be one of the important factors which underlying the pathogenesis of AS. PMID:26996109

  17. Use of digitonin permeabilization for characterization of calcium incorporated into β cells in response to glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β cell-rich pancreatic islets were used to characterize 45Ca uptake into pools with different sensitivities to permeabilization with digitonin. The plasma and secretory granule membranes were among the membranes most sensitive to digitonin treatment whereas the mitochondria were more resistant. Most of the 45Ca incorporated in response to glucose was found in a fraction released after exposure to a high concentration of digitonin. The results suggest that glucose promotes active sequestration of calcium in mitochondria and that the uptake of 45Ca in the secretory granules in secondary to a raised cytosolic Ca2+ activity. (author)

  18. Follicular lymphoma with a novel t(14;18) breakpoint involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain switch mu region indicates an origin from germinal center B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenton, JAL; Vaandrager, JW; Aarts, WM; Bende, RJ; Heering, K; van Dijk, M; Morgan, G; van Noesel, CJM; Schuuring, E; Kluin, PM

    2002-01-01

    With the use of DNA-fiber fluorescent in situ hybridization, a BCL2 protein positive follicular lymphoma with a novel BCL2 breakpoint involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) switch mu (S-mu) region instead of the J(H) or D-H gene segments was identified. Sequence analysis showed that the geno

  19. Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin kappa lightchain restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William R Munday; Lucy Harn Kapur; Mina Xu; Xuchen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Russell bodies are eosinophilic intracytoplasmicglobules which are likely the result of disturbedsecretion of immunoglobulins that accumulate withinthe plasma cell. Russell body collections have beenidentified within the stomach, known as Russellbody gastritis. Similar lesions within the duodenumare referred to as Russell body duodenitis, whichis rare. Several Russell body gastritis case reportsare associated with Helicobacter pylori . However,the etiology of Russell body duodenitis remainsunclear. Here we report the first case of Russell bodyduodenitis with immunoglobulin light chain restrictionin a background of peptic duodenitis.

  20. A relevância das células natural killer (NK e killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR no transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas (TCTH The relevance of natural killer (NK cells and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Almeida-Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available As células natural killer (NK foram identificadas há mais de 30 anos por sua capacidade de matar células tumorais e infectadas por vírus sem precisar de sensibilização prévia. No entanto, a forma como as células NK matam seus alvos ficou desconhecida por muito tempo. Na década de 90, a partir de várias observações, foi proposto que as células NK matariam células com a expressão diminuída de antígeno leucocitário humano (HLA, protegendo as células autólogas normais, o que ficou conhecido como hipótese do missing-self. Esta teoria foi confirmada através da descoberta de vários receptores, principalmente os da família killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR, que reconhecem moléculas de HLA de classe I. Estes novos conceitos levaram à busca da importância dos receptores KIR no transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas (TCTH. Foi sugerido que as disparidades de HLA entre o doador e o paciente poderiam ser reconhecidas por células NK levando à aloreatividade, o que ajudaria no efeito enxerto contra leucemia. No entanto, apesar de alguns resultados promissores, até hoje, os diferentes estudos sobre o assunto não chegaram a um consenso. Nesta revisão, será abordada a relevância das células NK e dos receptores KIR nos diferentes tipos de TCTH.Natural killer (NK cells were identified over 30 years ago by their ability to kill cancer and virally infected cells without prior sensitization. For years the recognition mechanisms of target cells were unknown, until the 1990s when the "missing-self" hypothesis was proposed. According to this theory, although tolerant to normal autologous cells, NK cells can recognize and attack cells that have down-regulated human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules. The discovery of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR that specifically recognize HLA class I molecules corroborated this hypothesis. These new concepts point to the importance of studying KIR in hematopoietic stem

  1. The different electron transport of two nanotubes incorporated in working electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Two TiO2 nanotubes are separately incorporated in working electrode of DSSCs. •The 6-μm-tubes incorporation improves electron transport in the cell. •The 1-μm-tubes incorporation impedes electron transport in the cell. •Both 1-D electron diffusion and nanotube percolation promote electron transport. •Electron residing at the end of 1-μm-tubes maybe impedes electron transport. -- Abstract: Two different-length (6 μm and 1 μm) TiO2 nanotubes were prepared and incorporated in working electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The analyses of the electrochemical impedance spectra of cells demonstrate that, the electron transport resistance Rw decreases and increases separately to 0.3 Ω in 6-μm-tubes-cell and to 15.1 Ω in 1-μm-tubes-cell comparing with that 1.4 Ω in P25-cell, reflecting the improved electron transport in 6-μm-tubes-cell and impeded electron transport in 1-μm-tubes-cell. The reason is ascribed to the different electron transport in working electrode due to the incorporation of nanotubes. For the 6-μm-tubes incorporation, both 1-D electron diffusion along nanotubes and nanotube percolation improve electron transport in working electrode, but they cannot improve electron transport for the 1-μm-tubes incorporation. On the contrary, the 1-μm-tubes incorporation may impede electron transport because of electron residing occurring seriously at the end of 1-μm-tubes. The results of this work will help to understand the specific nature of electron transport in TiO2 nanotubes in DSSCs

  2. MPLA incorporation into DC-targeting glycoliposomes favours anti-tumour T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Martine A; Ambrosini, Martino; Bruijns, Sven C; Kalay, Hakan; van Bloois, Louis; Storm, Gert; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-10-28

    Dendritic cells (DC) are attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy as they initiate strong and long-lived tumour-specific T cell responses. DC can be effectively targeted in vivo with tumour antigens by using nanocarriers such as liposomes. Cross-presentation of tumour antigens is enhanced with strong adjuvants such as TLR ligands. However, often these adjuvants have off-target effects, and would benefit from a DC-specific targeting strategy, similar to the tumour antigen. The goal of this study was to develop a strategy for specifically targeting DC with tumour antigen and adjuvant by using glycoliposomes. We have generated liposomes containing the glycan Lewis(Le)(X) which is highly specific for the C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN expressed by DC. Le(X)-modified liposomes were taken up by human monocyte-derived DC in a DC-SIGN-specific manner. As adjuvants we incorporated the TLR ligands Pam3CySK4, Poly I:C, MPLA and R848 into liposomes and compared their adjuvant capacity on DC. Incorporation of the TLR4 ligand MPLA into glycoliposomes induced DC maturation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in a DC-SIGN-specific manner, and DC activation was comparable to administration of soluble MPLA. Incorporation of MPLA into glycoliposomes significantly enhanced antigen cross-presentation of the melanoma tumour antigen gp100280-288 peptide to CD8(+) T cells compared to non-glycosylated MPLA liposomes. Importantly, antigen cross-presentation of the gp100280-288 peptide was significantly higher using MPLA glycoliposomes compared to the co-administration of soluble MPLA with glycoliposomes. Taken together, our data demonstrates that specific targeting of a gp100 tumour antigen and the adjuvant MPLA to DC-SIGN-expressing DC enhances the uptake of peptide-containing liposomes, the activation of DC, and induces tumour antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. These data demonstrate that adjuvant-containing glycoliposome-based vaccines targeting DC-SIGN(+) DC

  3. Uracil incorporation in the forespore and the mother cell during spore development in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transcriptional activity of the two genomes of the sporangium during spore formation was determined by pulse-labeling bacteria with 3H-uracil at different times of sporulation and preparing them for high resolution autoradiography. The quantitative analysis of autoradiographs shows that uracile incorporation in the whole sporangium decreases considerably between stages II and IV. However, the variations of the transpcriptional activity are not identical in the mother cell and in the forespore. The one of the mother cell decreases rapidly between stages II and III and then remains stable until the end of stage IV, whereas that of the forespore which is low at stage II increases as the forespore grows ovoid and then quickly diminishes. It is very weak at the beginning of stage IV and negligible at the end of this stage. (orig.)

  4. Cell suspension culture-mediated incorporation of the rice bel gene into transgenic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liping; Liu, RuiE; Chu, Bijue; Yu, Xiushuang; Sun, Jie; Jones, Brian; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Wang, Huizhong; Zhu, Shuijin; Sun, Yuqiang

    2012-01-01

    Cotton plants engineered for resistance to the herbicides, glyphosate or glufosinate have made a considerable impact on the production of the crop worldwide. In this work, embryogenic cell cultures derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Coker 312 hypocotyl callus were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the rice cytochrome P450 gene, CYP81A6 (bel). In rice, bel has been shown to confer resistance to both bentazon and sulfanylurea herbicides. Transformed cells were selected on a liquid medium supplemented alternately or simultaneously with kanamycin (50mg/L) and bentazon (4.2 µmol). A total of 17 transgenic cotton lines were recovered, based on the initial resistance to bentazon and on PCR detection of the bel transgene. Bel integration into the cotton genome was confirmed by Southern blot and expression of the transgene was verified by RT-PCR. In greenhouse and experimental plot trials, herbicide (bentazon) tolerance of up to 1250 mg/L was demonstrated in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines with a single copy of the bel gene showed normal Mendelian inheritance of the characteristic. Importantly, resistance to bentazon was shown to be stably incorporated in the T1, T2 and T3 generations of self-fertilised descendents and in plants outcrossed to another upland cotton cultivar. Engineering resistance to bentazon in cotton through the heterologous expression of bel opens the possibility of incorporating this trait into elite cultivars, a strategy that would give growers a more flexible alternative to weed management in cotton crops. PMID:22768325

  5. Cell suspension culture-mediated incorporation of the rice bel gene into transgenic cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ke

    Full Text Available Cotton plants engineered for resistance to the herbicides, glyphosate or glufosinate have made a considerable impact on the production of the crop worldwide. In this work, embryogenic cell cultures derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Coker 312 hypocotyl callus were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the rice cytochrome P450 gene, CYP81A6 (bel. In rice, bel has been shown to confer resistance to both bentazon and sulfanylurea herbicides. Transformed cells were selected on a liquid medium supplemented alternately or simultaneously with kanamycin (50mg/L and bentazon (4.2 µmol. A total of 17 transgenic cotton lines were recovered, based on the initial resistance to bentazon and on PCR detection of the bel transgene. Bel integration into the cotton genome was confirmed by Southern blot and expression of the transgene was verified by RT-PCR. In greenhouse and experimental plot trials, herbicide (bentazon tolerance of up to 1250 mg/L was demonstrated in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines with a single copy of the bel gene showed normal Mendelian inheritance of the characteristic. Importantly, resistance to bentazon was shown to be stably incorporated in the T1, T2 and T3 generations of self-fertilised descendents and in plants outcrossed to another upland cotton cultivar. Engineering resistance to bentazon in cotton through the heterologous expression of bel opens the possibility of incorporating this trait into elite cultivars, a strategy that would give growers a more flexible alternative to weed management in cotton crops.

  6. Incorporating graphene in anthocyanin-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of natural dyes as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) offers significant advantages such as attainability and cheaper production cost. However, its low power conversion efficiency (PCE) impedes its wide utilization. In this study, enhancement in efficiency of anthocyanin-based dye sensitized solar cells through the incorporation of graphene was studied. Graphene is a two-dimensional sheet of sp”2-hyridized carbon known for its extraordinary mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. This remarkable material was incorporated in the TiO2 photoanode or with anthocyanin dye dispersion. Current-voltage (IV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out to characterize the anthocyanin-based DSSC. Addition of graphene ration into TiO2 as a photoanode composite and/or in anthocyanin extracts (anthocyanin: graphene dispersion) gave the same positive effect, an increase in PCE from 0.185% without graphene to as high as 0.516% with combined graphene doping of the TiO2 and using an anthocyanin: graphene dye dispersion. Furthermore, a 30% increase in fill factor was obtained for DSSCs in the presence of graphene. EIS data showed a favourable decrease in charge transfer resistance in the TiO2 layer as graphene is added to the DSSC, with increased magnitude of the short-circuit current (Jsc). This is explained by graphene providing added conducting pathways for the photo-generated electrons. (author)

  7. Central role of immunoglobulin (Ig) E in the induction of lung eosinophil infiltration and T helper 2 cell cytokine production: inhibition by a non-anaphylactogenic anti-IgE antibody

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Elevated levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) E are associated with bronchial asthma, a disease characterized by eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. Activation of antigen-specific T helper (Th) 2 cells in the lung with the subsequent release of interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-5 is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we have used a non-anaphylactogenic anti-mouse-IgE antibody to investigate the relationship between IgE, airway eosinophil infiltration...

  8. E-cadherin promotes incorporation of mouse epiblast stem cells into normal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ohtsuka

    Full Text Available Mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs are pluripotent stem cells derived from epiblasts of postimplantation mouse embryos. Their pluripotency is distinct from that of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs in several cell biological criteria. One of the distinctions is that mEpiSCs contribute either not at all or at much lower efficiency to chimeric embryos after blastocyst injection compared to mESCs. However, here we showed that mEpiSCs can be incorporated into normal development after blastocyst injection by forced expression of the E-cadherin transgene for 2 days in culture. Using this strategy, mEpiSCs gave rise to live-born chimeras from 5% of the manipulated blastocysts. There were no obvious signs of reprogramming of mEpiSCs toward the mESC-like state during the 2 days after induction of the E-cadherin transgene, suggesting that mEpiSCs possess latent ability to integrate into the normal developmental process as its origin, epiblasts.

  9. Electrical and optical properties of hybrid polymer solar cells incorporating Au and CuO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna P. Wanninayake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE of the polymer solar cells (PSCs, Gold (Au and Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs are incorporated into the PEDOT:PSS and P3HT/PCBM active layers respectively. PSCs with a constant CuO-NP content were fabricated with varying amounts of Au NPs. Addition of Au NPs increased the power conversion efficiency by up to 18% compared to a reference cell without Au-NPs. The short circuit current(Jsc of the cells containing 0.06 mg of Au NPs was measured at 7.491 mA/cm2 compared to 6.484 mA/cm2 in the reference cells with 0.6 mg of CuO nanoparticles; meanwhile, the external quantum efficiency(EQE increased from 53% to 61%, showing an enhancement of 15.1%. Au-NPs improved the charge collection at the anode, which results in higher short circuit current and fill factor. However, the strong near field surrounding Au-NPs due to localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR effect is not distributed into the active layer. Instead, it is spread horizontally through the PEDOT:PSS layer, thus minimizing the light absorption in the active layer.

  10. The interaction between calreticulin and immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin Y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllegaard, Karen Mai; Duus, Karen; Træholt, Sofie Dietz; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Liu, Yan; Palma, Angelina S.; Feizi, Ten; Hansen, Paul Robert; Højrup, Peter; Houen, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    accumulating in support of calreticulin as a polypeptide binding chaperone. In contrast to mammalian immunoglobulin G (IgG), which has complex type N-glycans, chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) possesses a monoglucosylated high mannose N-linked glycan, which is a ligand for calreticulin. Here, we have used solid...... and solution-phase assays to analyze the in vitro binding of calreticulin, purified from human placenta, to human IgG and chicken IgY in order to compare the interactions. In addition, peptides from the respective immunoglobulins were included to further probe the binding specificity of calreticulin...... immunoglobulins. Additionally, calreticulin peptide binding was examined with synthetic peptides covering the IgG Cγ2 domain demonstrating interaction with approximately half the peptides. Our results show that the dominant binding activity of calreticulin in vitro is toward the polypeptide moieties of IgG and Ig...

  11. Construction and Characterization of Insect Cell-Derived Influenza VLP: Cell Binding, Fusion, and EGFP Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shin Pan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed virus-like particles (VLPs harboring hemagglutinin (HA, neuraminidase (NA, matrix protein 1 (M1 ,and proton channel protein (M2 using baculovirus as a vector in the SF9 insect cell. The size of the expressed VLP was estimated to be ~100 nm by light scattering experiment and transmission electron microscopy. Recognition of HA on the VLP surface by the HA2-specific monoclonal antibody IIF4 at acidic pH, as probed by surface plasmon resonance, indicated the pH-induced structural rearrangement of HA. Uptake of the particle by A549 mediated by HA-sialylose receptor interaction was visualized by the fluorescent-labeled VLP. The HA-promoted cell-virus fusion activity was illustrated by fluorescence imaging on the Jurkat cells incubated with rhodamine-loaded VLP performed at fusogenic pH. Furthermore, the green fluorescence protein (GFP was fused to NA to produce VLP with a pH-sensitive probe, expanding the use of VLP as an antigen carrier and a tool for viral tracking.

  12. Kartogenin-Incorporated Thermogel Supports Stem Cells for Significant Cartilage Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhou; Ding, Jianxun; Zhang, Zhengzheng; Yang, Modi; Yu, Jiakuo; Wang, Jincheng; Chang, Fei; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-03-01

    Recently, cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) attracts increasing attention in cartilage defect repair. In this work, kartogenin (KGN), an emerging chondroinductive nonprotein small molecule, was incorporated into a thermogel of poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) to fabricate an appropriate microenvironment of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for effective cartilage regeneration. More integrative and smoother repaired articular surface, more abundant characteristic glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen II (COL II), and less degeneration of normal cartilage were obtained in the KGN and BMSCs coloaded thermogel group in vivo. In conclusion, the KGN-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel can be utilized as an alternative support for BMSCs to regenerate damaged cartilage in vivo. PMID:26844837

  13. Differences in the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine by human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, E.E.; Strauss, B.

    1975-08-01

    Long term human lymphoblastoid lines differ in their ability to grow in medium containing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and to incorporate analog into their DNA. Eight Burkitts' lymphoma cell lines divided at least twice in BrdU-containing medium and made DNA in which over 90 percent of the thymidine residues were substituted with analog in both strands. Three infectious mononucleosis-derived lines and 24 lines transformed in vitro were inhibited by BrdU after one cell division and made only hybrid DNA in which one strand was substituted with analog. One out of eight normal individuals from whom long term lines were prepared gave cell lines which divided at least twice in BrdU and gave DNA in which both strands were substituted with analog. It would appear that intrinsic cellular factors regulate the response to BrdU and that Burkitt's tumor lines are characterized by their ability to make stable doubly substituted DNA containing a high proportion of halogenated analog.

  14. Graphene oxide nanoflakes incorporated gelatin-hydroxyapatite scaffolds enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manitha; Nancy, D.; Krishnan, Amit G.; Anjusree, G. S.; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Nair, Shantikumar V.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes (0.5 and 1 wt%) were incorporated into a gelatin-hydroxyapatite (GHA) matrix through a freeze drying technique and its effect to enhance mechanical strength and osteogenic differentiation was studied. The GHA matrix with GO demonstrated less brittleness in comparison to GHA scaffolds. There was no significant difference in mechanical strength between GOGHA0.5 and GOGHA1.0 scaffolds. When the scaffolds were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (to mimic physiologic condition) for 60 days, around 50-60% of GO was released in sustained and linear manner and the concentration was within the toxicity limit as reported earlier. Further, GOGHA0.5 scaffolds were continued for cell culture experiments, wherein the scaffold induced osteogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells without providing supplements like dexamethasone, L-ascorbic acid and β glycerophosphate in the medium. The level of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells was comparable to those cultured on GHA scaffolds with osteogenic supplements. Thus biocompatible, biodegradable and porous GO reinforced gelatin-HA 3D scaffolds may serve as a suitable candidate in promoting bone regeneration in orthopaedics.

  15. Temperature-sensitivity and cell biocompatibility of freeze-dried nanocomposite hydrogels incorporated with biodegradable PHBV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingsong, E-mail: zqs8011@163.com; Chen, Li, E-mail: chenlis@tjpu.edu.cn; Dong, Youyu; Lu, Si

    2013-04-01

    The structure, morphology, thermal behaviors and cytotoxicity of novel hydrogels, composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAM) and biodegradable polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) under nanoclay hectorite “Laponite XLG” severed as physical cross-linker, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, gravimetric method, differential scanning calorimetry, and cell culture experiments. It was found that, due to the introduction of hydrophobic PHBV, the homogeneity of interior pore in the pure PNIPAM nanocomposite hydrogel was disrupted, the transparency and swelling degree gradually decreased. Although the weight ratio between PHBV and NIPAM increased from 5 to 40 wt.%, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTTs) of hydrogel were not altered compared with the pure PNIPAM nanocomposite hydrogel. No matter what PHBV content, the PHBV/PNIPAM/Hectorite hydrogels always exhibit good stimuli-responsibility. In addition, human hepatoma cells(HepG2) adhesion and spreading on the surface of PHBV-based hydrogels was greatly improved than that of pure PNIPAM nanocomposite hydrogel at 37 °C due to the introduction of PHBV. Highlights: ► Thermo-responsive and cell biocompatible hydrogels incorporated PHBV was synthesized. ► The introduction of PHBV decreases the transparency of nanocomposite hydrogel. ► The introduction of PHBV has a little shift on VPTTs of nanocomposite hydrogel. ► The HepG2 cells could adhere and spread on the surface of PHBV-based hydrogels. ► Cell sheet could be detached simultaneously from the surface of hydrogels.

  16. Projection Stereolithographic Fabrication of Human Adipose Stem Cell-incorporated Biodegradable Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron X Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor self-healing ability of cartilage necessitates the development of methods for cartilage regeneration. Scaffold construction with live stem cell incorporation and subsequent differentiation presents a promising route. Projection stereolithography (PSL offers high resolution and processing speed as well as the ability to fabricate scaffolds that precisely fit the anatomy of cartilage defects using medical imaging as the design template. We report here the use of a visible-light based PSL (VL-PSL system to encapsulate human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs into a biodegradable polymer (poly-D,L-lactic acid/polyethylene glycol/ poly-D,L-lactic acid (PDLLA-PEG/hyaluronic acid (HA matrix to produce live cell constructs with customized architectures. After fabrication, hASCs showed high viability (84% and were uniformly distributed throughout the constructs, which possessed high mechanical property with a compressive modulus of 780 kPa. The hASC-seeded constructs were then cultured in Control or TGF-β3-containing chondrogenic medium for up to 28 days. In chondrogenic medium treated group (TGF-β3 group hASCs maintained 77% viability and expressed chondrogenic genes Sox9, collagen type II, and aggrecan at 11, 232, and 2.29 x 10(5 fold increases, respectively, compared to levels at day 0 in non-chondrogenic medium. The TGF-β3 group also produced a collagen type II and glycosaminoglycan (GAG-rich extracellular matrix, detected by immunohistochemistry, and Alcian blue and Safranin O staining suggesting robust chondrogenesis within the scaffold. Without chondroinductive addition (Control group, cell viability decreased with time (65% at 28 days and showed poor cartilage matrix deposition. After 28 days, mechanical strength of the TGF-β3 group remained high at 240 kPa. Thus, the PSL- and PLLA-PEG/HA based fabrication method using adult stem cells is a promising approach in producing mechanically competent engineered cartilage for joint cartilage

  17. An injectable hydrogel incorporating mesenchymal precursor cells and pentosan polysulphate for intervertebral disc regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Jessica E; Cameron, Andrew R; Menzies, Donna J; Ghosh, Peter; Whitehead, Darryl L; Gronthos, Stan; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Cooper-White, Justin J

    2013-12-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is one of the leading causes of lower back pain and a major health problem worldwide. Current surgical treatments include excision or immobilisation, with neither approach resulting in the repair of the degenerative disc. As such, a tissue engineering-based approach in which stem cells, coupled with an advanced delivery system, could overcome this deficiency and lead to a therapy that encourages functional fibrocartilage generation in the IVD. In this study, we have developed an injectable hydrogel system based on enzymatically-crosslinked polyethylene glycol and hyaluronic acid. We examined the effects of adding pentosan polysulphate (PPS), a synthetic glycosaminoglycan-like factor that has previously been shown (in vitro and in vivo) to this gel system in order to induce chondrogenesis in mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) when added as a soluble factor, even in the absence of additional growth factors such as TGF-β. We show that both the gelation rate and mechanical strength of the resulting hydrogels can be tuned in order to optimise the conditions required to produce gels with the desired combination of properties for an IVD scaffold. Human immunoselected STRO-1+ MPCs were then incorporated into the hydrogels. They were shown to retain good viability after both the initial formation of the gel and for longer-term culture periods in vitro. Furthermore, MPC/hydrogel composites formed cartilage-like tissue which was significantly enhanced by the incorporation of PPS into the hydrogels, particularly with respect to the deposition of type-II-collagen. Finally, using a wild-type rat subcutaneous implantation model, we examined the extent of any immune reaction and confirmed that this matrix is well tolerated by the host. Together these data provide evidence that such a system has significant potential as both a delivery vehicle for MPCs and as a matrix for fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications. PMID:24050877

  18. Control of polyclonal immunoglobulin production from human lymphocytes by leukotrienes; leukotriene B4 induces an OKT8(+), radiosensitive suppressor cell from resting, human OKT8(-) T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report that leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a 5-lipoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid, is a potent suppressor of polyclonal Ig production in pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, while LTC4 and LTD4 have little activity in this system. Preincubation of T cells with LTB4 in nanomolar to picomolar concentrations rendered these cells suppressive of Ig production in subsequent PWM-stimulated cultures of fresh, autologous B + T cells. This LTB4-induced suppressor cell was radiosensitive, and its generation could be blocked by cyclohexamide but not by mitomycin C. The LTB4-induced suppressor cell was OKT8(+), while the precursor for the cell could be OKT8(-). The incubation of OKT8(-) T cells with LTB4 for 18 h resulted in the appearance of the OKT8(+) on 10-20% of the cells, and this could be blocked by cyclohexamide but not by mitomycin C. Thus, LTB4 in very low concentrations induces a radiosensitive OKT8(+) suppressor cell from OKT8(-) cells. In this regard, LTB4 is three to six orders of magnitude more potent than any endogenous hormonal inducer of suppressor cells previously described. Glucocorticosteroids, which block suppressor cell induction in many systems, may act by inhibiting endogenous production of LTB4

  19. Clinical applications of immunoglobulin: update

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Cristina Zago Novaretti; Carla Luana Dinardo

    2011-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin is the most used blood product in the clinical practice. Immunoglobulin applications have increased quickly since the elucidation of its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties which turned this blood product into a precious tool in the treatment of numerous diseases that present with humoral immune deficiency or that cause immune system dysfunction. Currently, the approved indications for Ig are: primary immunodeficiencies, secondary immunodeficiencies (multiple...

  20. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Sano

    Full Text Available Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH and kappa-chain (hIGK germline loci (named as κHAC are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO. However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR complex, we partially replaced (bovinized the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO, the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  1. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific serum immunoglobulins.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D A; Coulepis, A G; Chenoweth, M P; Gust, I. D.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus-specific BSC-1 cells were used for the detection of serum immunoglobulins to hepatitis A virus by indirect immunofluorescence. Of 150 serum samples tested, specific immunoglobulin M was detected only in patients with serologically confirmed acute hepatitis A, while specific immunoglobulin G was detected in patients with acute or past clinical hepatitis A as well as many patients with no known history of hepatitis.

  2. Clinical applications of immunoglobulin: update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Zago Novaretti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunoglobulin is the most used blood product in the clinical practice. Immunoglobulin applications have increased quickly since the elucidation of its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties which turned this blood product into a precious tool in the treatment of numerous diseases that present with humoral immune deficiency or that cause immune system dysfunction. Currently, the approved indications for Ig are: primary immunodeficiencies, secondary immunodeficiencies (multiple myeloma or chronic lymphoid leukemia, Kawasaki syndrome, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Guillain Barré syndrome, graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation and repeat infections in HIV children. On the other hand, there are numerous "off-label" indications of immunoglobulin, which represent 20-60% of all clinical applications of this drug. It is important to study all these indications and, above all, the scientific evidence for its use, in order to provide patients with a new therapeutic option without burdening the health system. This review results from a wide selection of papers identified in the Pubmed and Lilacs scientific electronic databases. A group of descriptors were used from human immunoglobulin to the names of each disease that immunoglobulin is clinically applied. Our main objective is to list the numerous indications of immunoglobulin, both authorized and "off-label" and to analyze these indications in the light of the most recent scientific evidence.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects induced by cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin with donor peripheral blood mononuclear cell infusion in canine major histocompatibility complex-haplo-identical non-myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Fukuda, Takahiro; Thakar, Monica S; Kornblit, Brian T; Storer, Barry E; Santos, Erlinda B; Storb, Rainer; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS. Previously, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) immunoglobulin (Ig) has been shown to allow sustained engraftment in dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) after non-myeloablative conditioning with 100 cGy total body irradiation (TBI). In the current study, we investigated the efficacy of pre-transplant CTLA4-Ig in promoting engraftment across a DLA-mismatched barrier after non-myeloablative conditioning. METHODS. Eight dogs were treated with CTLA4-Ig and donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) prior to receiving 200 cGy TBI followed by transplantation of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from DLA haplo-identical littermates with post-grafting immunosuppression. A control group of six dogs was conditioned with 200 cGy only and transplanted with grafts from DLA haplo-identical littermates followed by post-grafting immunosuppression. RESULTS. In vitro and in vivo donor-specific hyporesponsiveness was demonstrated on day 0 before TBI in eight dogs that received CTLA4-Ig combined with donor PBMC infusions. Four of five dogs treated with increased doses of CTLA4-Ig achieved initial engraftment but eventually rejected, with a duration of mixed chimerism ranging from 12 to 22 weeks. CTLA4-Ig did not show any effect on host natural killer (NK) cell function in vitro or in vivo. No graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) was observed in dogs receiving CTLA4-Ig treatment. CONCLUSIONS. Non-myeloablative conditioning with 200 cGy TBI and CTLA4-Ig combined with donor PBMC infusion was able to overcome the T-cell barrier to achieve initial engraftment without GvHD in dogs receiving DLA haplo-identical grafts. However, rejection eventually occurred; we hypothesize because of the inability of CTLA4-Ig to abate natural killer cell function. PMID:21846291

  4. Incorporation of [14C]-palmitate into lipids of Brassica cells during the induction of freezing tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in plasma membrane lipid composition have been causally related to increased freezing tolerance. Studies of lipid metabolism during ABA induction of freezing tolerance in Brassica napus suspension cultures were undertaken. Cells were labeled with [14C]-palmitate four days after transfer to fresh medium (control) or medium containing ABA (which increases freezing tolerance). At times between one and 20 hrs after labeling, ABA-treated cells incorporated almost twice the amount of label as controls cells. Approximately 80% of the radioactivity was associated with neutral lipids in ABA-treated cells and controls. Incorporation of label into total cellular polar lipids was 4.9 x 105 dpm/mg protein for control cells and 1 x 106 dpm/mg protein for cells transferred to medium containing ABA. Analysis of lipids following alkaline hydrolysis indicated that incorporation of [14C]-palmitate into glucosylceramide of ABA-treated cells was less than 60% of control values when expressed relative to that of the total polar lipids. Incorporation into ceramides was also depressed in ABA-treated cells

  5. Incorporation of tritiated thymidine by epithelial and interstitial cells in bronchiolar-alveolar regions of asbestos-exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaled asbestos causes progressive interstitial lung disease. The authors have performed a series of studies to elucidate early pathogenetic events at sites of fiber deposition in asbestos-exposed rats. This study reports that a single 5-hour exposure to chrysotile asbestos induces significant increases in incorporation of tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) into nuclei of epithelial and interstitial cells of bronchiolar-alveolar regions. No cell populations in air-exposed or carbonyl iron-exposed control animals exhibited more than 1% labeling at any point in time. Immediately after the 5-hour asbestos exposure, incorporation was normal. By 19 hours after exposure there was a significant increase in incorporation of 3HTdR, particularly by Type II epithelial cells of the first alveolar duct bifurcations. The greatest increase in degree of incorporation (up to 18-fold) was observed 24 hours after exposure, and increased percentages of 3HTdR-labeled cells were maintained through the 48 hours postexposure period. Normal labeling was present by 8 days after exposure, and this level remained through the 1-month period studied. This apparent mitogenic response correlates with increased numbers of bronchiolar-alveolar epithelial and interstitial cells demonstrated by ultrastructural morphometry in correlative studies. The authors speculate that the incorporation of 3HTdR could be induced by the direct effects of inhaled fibers or by mitogenic factors released from macrophages attracted to the inhaled asbestos

  6. Determination of 3H-thymidine incorporation into ovarian cancer cells and its validity with regard to cytostatic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of 3H-thymidine in ovarian cancer cells determined by autoradiography represents a method of additional tumor characterization. The in vitro tests allowed roughly hints about the efficiency of an intended therapy in 49 patients suffering from ovarian cancer. High risk patients ought to be excluded from chemotherapy, if the incorporation of thymidine is low. For this decision the results of oncobiograms and clinical parameters were evaluated. The 3H-thymidine incorporation enables to select an individual kind of therapy for any patient with regard to success and duration of treatment. (author)

  7. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanosilicate platelets in gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan

    2009-10-01

    Two kinds of gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), composed of two types of electrolytes, were constructed and the respective cell performance was evaluated in this study. One electrolyte, TEOS-Triton X-100 gel, was based on a hybrid organic/inorganic gel electrolyte made by the sol-gel method and the other was based on poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. TEOS-Triton X-100 gel was based on the reticulate structure of silica, formed by hydrolysis, and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), while its organic subphase was a mixture of surfactant (Triton X-100) and ionic liquid electrolytes. Both DSSC gel-type electrolytes were composed of iodine, 1-propy-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide, and 3-methoxypropionitrile to create the redox couple of I3 -/I-. Based on the results obtained from the I-V characteristics, it was found that the optimal iodine concentrations for the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte are 0.05 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Although the increase in the iodine concentration could enhance the short-circuit current density (JSC), a further increase in the iodine concentration would reduce the JSC due to increased dark current. Therefore, the concentration of I2 is a significant factor in determining the performance of DSSCs. In order to enhance cell performance, the addition of nanosilicate platelets (NSPs) in the above-mentioned gel electrolytes was investigated. By incorporating NSP-Triton X-100 into the electrolytes, the JSC of the cells increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of the NSP-Triton X-100 in the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte increased to 0.5 wt%, the JSC and the conversion efficiency increased from 8.5 to 12 mA/cm2 and from 3.6% to 4.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of NSP-Triton X-100 exceeded 0.5 wt%. At higher NSP-Triton X-100 loading, NSPs acted as

  8. Preparation of polylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib and their antitumor activity against brain tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung S.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tae-Ho Kim1*, Young-Il Jeong2*, Shu-Guang Jin2, Jian Pei2, Tae-Young Jung1, Kyung-Sub Moon1, In-Young Kim1, Sam-Suk Kang1, Shin Jung1,21Department of Neurosurgery, 2Brain Tumor Research Laboratory, Chonnam National University Research Institute of Medical Science, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital and Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work. Background: Celecoxib, a cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2 inhibitor, has been reported to mediate growth inhibitory effects and to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. In this study, we examined the potential effects of celecoxib on glioma cell proliferation, migration, and inhibition of COX-2 expression in vitro. Methods: Celecoxib was incorporated into poly DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticles for antitumor drug delivery. Results: PLGA nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib had spherical shapes and their particle sizes were in the range of 50–200 nm. Drug-loading efficiency was not significantly changed according to the solvent used, except for acetone. Celecoxib was released from the PLGA nanoparticles for more than 2 days, and the higher the drug content, the longer the duration of drug release. PLGA nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib showed cytotoxicity against U87MG tumor cells similar to that of celecoxib administered alone. Furthermore, celecoxib did not affect the degree of migration of U87MG cells. PLGA nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity similar to that of celecoxib alone in C6 rat glioma cells. Western blot assay of the C6 cells showed that neither celecoxib alone nor PLGA nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib affected COX-2 expression. Conclusion: PLGA nanoparticles incorporating celecoxib had antitumor activity similar to that of celecoxib alone, even though these particles did not affect the degree of migration or COX-2 expression in the tumor cells. Keywords: celecoxib, cyclo

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of tritiated thymidine incorporation and ELISPOT assays in identifying antigen specific T cell immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod Beth; Slota Meredith; dela Rosa Corazon; Goodell Vivian; Disis Mary L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Standardization of cell-based immunologic monitoring is becoming increasingly important as methods for measuring cellular immunity become more complex. We assessed the ability of two commonly used cell-based assays, tritiated thymidine incorporation (proliferation) and IFN-gamma ELISPOT, to predict T cell responses to HER-2/neu, tetanus toxoid (tt), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens. These antigens were determined to be low (HER-2/neu), moderate (tt), and robustly (CMV) i...

  10. Preparation, Characterization and Tests of Incorporation in Stem Cells of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, P. S.; Britos, T. N.; Li, L. M.; Li, L. D. S.

    2015-05-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been produced and used as contrast-enhancing agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnostic use in a wide range of maladies including cardiovascular, neurological disorders, and cancer. The reasons why these SPIONs are attractive for medical purposes are based on their important and unique features. The large surface area of the nanoparticles and their manipulation through an external magnetic field are features that allow their use for carrying a large number of molecules such as biomolecules or drugs. In this scenario, the present work reports on the synthesis and characterization of SPIONs and in vitro MRI experiments to increase their capacity as probes for MRI applications on stem cells therapy. Initially, the SPIONs were prepared through the co-precipitation method using ferrous and ferric chlorides in acidic solution. The SPIONs were coated with two thiolmolecules such as mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) and cysteine (Cys) (molar ratio SPIONs:ligand = 1:20), leading to the formation of a stable aqueous dispersion of thiolated nanoparticles (SH-SPIONs). The SH-SPIONs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results showed that the SH-SPIONs have a mean diameter of 14 nm and display superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Preliminary tests of incorporation of SH-SPIONs were evaluated stem cells. The results showed that the thiolated nanoparticles have no toxic effects for stem cells and successfully internalized and enhance the contrast in MRI.

  11. Tim-4 inhibition of T-cell activation and T helper type 17 differentiation requires both the immunoglobulin V and mucin domains and occurs via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cao, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Emerging experimental data suggest an important role for the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1):Tim-4 pathway in autoimmune and alloimmune responses in vivo. Using a Tim-4 ectodomain human IgG Fc fusion protein we studied the role of Tim-4 in T-cell activation, signalling and differentiation responses in vitro. We demonstrate that Tim-4Fc can inhibit naive and pre-activated T-cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion via a Tim-1-independent pathway. Tim-4 contains immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and mucin domains; to identify which domain accounts for the inhibitory effect novel Tim-4 fusion proteins containing either the IgV or mucin domain were generated. We demonstrate that both IgV and mucin domains are required for the inhibitory effects and that they are mediated at least in part by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity. Given the emerging interest in the role of the Tim family in T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which play an important role in autoimmune disease and transplantation tolerance, our data show that Tim-4Fc can prevent polarization of CD4(+) T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Collectively, our results highlight an inhibitory role for Tim-4Fc in vitro, which we propose is mediated by a receptor other than Tim-1. In addition, this study provides new insights into the role of Tim-4Fc in regulating Th17 immune responses and may open a new avenue for autoimmune therapy.

  12. A novel finding: Anti-androgen flutamide kills androgen-independent PC-3 cells: A radiolabelled methyl-choline incorporation into tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: [Methyl-11C]-choline was introduced to image many types of cancers especially the prostate cancer. Al-Saeedi et al. reported that the incorporation of [Methyl-3H]-choline into breast tumour (MCF-7) cells correlated strongly with proliferation as determined by [Methyl-14C]- thymidine uptake. Also, Al-Saeedi, et al. showed that the chemotherapy using MCF-7 cells treated with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) induced modulation in [Methyl-3H]-choline incorporation and certain mechanisms for this modulation were reported. In this study, the androgen-dependent prostate tumour (LNCaP) cells were treated with the well known pure anti-androgen drug, flutamide, for three days. The cells were then incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 mint to detect the effect of flutamide on both cell proliferation and choline incorporation. At the same time, a preliminary work was established using androgen-independent PC-3 cells treated with flutamide as controls in this study. PC-3 cells were treated with a range of doses of flutamide inhibiting growth by 20[Methyl-3H]-Choline Incorporation into MCF-7 Cells: Correlation with Proliferation: choline kinase and phospholipase D assay. [Methyl-3H]-Choline Incorporation into MCF-7 Cells: Correlation with Proliferation: choline kinase and phospholipase D assay. - 70%. Treated and control cells were incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 min, then in non-radioactive medium to simulate the rapid blood clearance of [Methyl-11C]-choline tracer in control and treated PC-3 cells, and then extracted with organic and aqueous solvents to determine its effect on the intracellular distribution of this tracer. Interesting results showed that flutamide killed the androgen-independent prostate cancer cells, PC-3 and mechanisms responsible for flutamide-induced modulation on [Methyl-3H]- choline incorporation were reported. The PC-3 cells' proliferation was inhibited by flutamide. In addition, treatment of PC-3 cells with flutamide for 3 days resulted

  13. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanomica in gel electrolytes☆

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan

    2010-04-01

    Gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated with 5.0 wt% polyvinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene (PVDF-HFP) in methoxy propionitrile (MPN) as gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (BMII)/iodine (I2) as redox couple, 4-tertiary butyl pyridine (TBP) and guanidine thiocyanate as additives. The incorporation of alkyl-modified nanomica (AMNM) in the PVDF-HFP gel electrolytes caused the reduction of crystallization of PVDF-HFP, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The short-circuit current density (JSC) of the cell increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, as judged by the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) analysis, while the open-circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of AMNM in the PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte was increased to 3.0 wt%, the JSC and power conversion efficiency (η) of the cells increased from 8.3 to 13.6 mA/cm2 and 3.5% to 5.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of AMNM exceeded 3.0 wt%. At higher AMNM loadings, nanomica acted as a barrier interface between the electrolyte and the dye molecules to hinder electron transfer, and thus reducing the cell\\'s photocurrent density. Furthermore, the DSSCs fabricated by dispersing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres in the TiO2 electrode with the GPE containing 3.0 wt% AMNM improved the η to 6.70%. The TiO2 films would exhibit larger porosity by blending with PMMA, leading the penetration of GPEs into the porous TiO2 easier, thus improving the contact between the dye-adsorbed TiO2 surfaces and the GPEs, as characterized by EIS. Moreover, the η of gel-type DSSCs with a 25 μm thickness of surlyn reached 7.96% as compared with 6.70% for the DSSCs with a 60 μm surlyn. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids on [3H]-vitamin E incorporation into pulmonary artery endothelial cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin E, a dietary antioxidant, is presumed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer of biological membranes to an extent proportional to the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids or phospholipids in the membrane. In the present study we evaluated the distribution of incorporated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in various membranes of pulmonary artery endothelial cells. We also studied whether incorporation of PUFA or PE is responsible for increased incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into the membranes of these cells. Following a 24-hr incubation with linoleic acid (18:2), 18:2 was increased by 6.9-, 9.2-, and 13.2-fold in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. Incorporation of 18:2 caused significant increases in the unsaturation indexes of mitochondrial and microsomal polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Incubation with arachidonic acid (20:4) for 24 hr resulted in 1.5-, 2.3-, and 2.4-fold increases in 20:4 in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. The unsaturation indexes of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes also increased (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Although incubations with 18:2 or 20:4 resulted in several-fold increases in membrane 18:2 or 20:4 fatty acids, incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into these membranes was similar to that in controls. Following a 24-hr incubation with PE, membrane PE content was significantly increased, and [3H]-vitamin E incorporation was also increased to a comparable degree, i.e., plasma membrane greater than mitochondria greater than microsomes. Endogenous vitamin E content of the cells was not altered because of increased incorporation of PE and [3H]-vitamin E

  15. H-Ferritin Is Preferentially Incorporated by Human Erythroid Cells through Transferrin Receptor 1 in a Threshold-Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Ferritin is an iron-storage protein composed of different ratios of 24 light (L and heavy (H subunits. The serum level of ferritin is a clinical marker of the body's iron level. Transferrin receptor (TFR1 is the receptor not only for transferrin but also for H-ferritin, but how it binds two different ligands and the blood cell types that preferentially incorporate H-ferritin remain unknown. To address these questions, we investigated hematopoietic cell-specific ferritin uptake by flow cytometry. Alexa Fluor 488-labeled H-ferritin was preferentially incorporated by erythroid cells among various hematopoietic cell lines examined, and was almost exclusively incorporated by bone marrow erythroblasts among human primary hematopoietic cells of various lineages. H-ferritin uptake by erythroid cells was strongly inhibited by unlabeled H-ferritin but was only partially inhibited by a large excess of holo-transferrin. On the other hand, internalization of labeled holo-transferrin by these cells was not inhibited by H-ferritin. Chinese hamster ovary cells lacking functional endogenous TFR1 but expressing human TFR1 with a mutated RGD sequence, which is required for transferrin binding, efficiently incorporated H-ferritin, indicating that TFR1 has distinct binding sites for H-ferritin and holo-transferrin. H-ferritin uptake by these cells required a threshold level of cell surface TFR1 expression, whereas there was no threshold for holo-transferrin uptake. The requirement for a threshold level of TFR1 expression can explain why among primary human hematopoietic cells, only erythroblasts efficiently take up H-ferritin.

  16. Hotspots for Vitamin-Steroid-Thyroid Hormone Response Elements Within Switch Regions of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Loci Predict a Direct Influence of Vitamins and Hormones on B Cell Class Switch Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Julia L; Penkert, Rhiannon R; Xu, Beisi; Fan, Yiping; Partridge, Janet F; Maul, Robert W; Gearhart, Patricia J

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiencies are common throughout the world and have a significant negative influence on immune protection against viral infections. Mouse models demonstrate that the production of IgA, a first line of defense against viruses at mucosal sites, is inhibited in the context of vitamin A deficiency. In vitro, the addition of vitamin A to activated B cells can enhance IgA expression, but downregulate IgE. Previous reports have demonstrated that vitamin A modifies cytokine patterns, and in so doing may influence antibody isotype expression by an indirect mechanism. However, we have now discovered hundreds of potential response elements among Sμ, Sɛ, and Sα switch sites within immunoglobulin heavy chain loci. These hotspots appear in both mouse and human loci and include targets for vitamin receptors and related proteins (e.g., estrogen receptors) in the nuclear receptor superfamily. Full response elements with direct repeats are relatively infrequent or absent in Sγ regions although half-sites are present. Based on these results, we pose a hypothesis that nuclear receptors have a direct effect on the immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination event. We propose that vitamin A may alter S site accessibility to activation-induced deaminase and nonhomologous end-joining machinery, thereby influencing the isotype switch, antibody production, and protection against viral infections at mucosal sites. PMID:26741514

  17. Selective deficiency of immunoglobulin A2.

    OpenAIRE

    van Loghem, E; Zegers, B J; Bast, E J; KATER, L

    1983-01-01

    A case of familial selective IgA2 deficiency is described. The mother had no detectable IgA2, but a low level of IgA1. She had anti-alpha 2 antibodies of the IgG class. One of her daughters also lacked IgA2 with a normal level of IgA1. The analysis of the immunoglobulin haplotypes of the family suggested the deletion of the alpha 2-gene. In addition, the analysis of B lymphocytes of mother and daughter showed the absence of IgA2-bearing cells. Upon stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, the B cel...

  18. Gold Nanorods Incorporated Cathode for Better Performance of Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Y. Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inserting low density of gold nanorods in the metallic rear electrode of polymer solar cells on their performance was studied. Gold nanorods were introduced by spin-coating their aqueous solution directly on top of the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester layer. The resulting devices showed a 5% increase in the short circuit current that leads to a 14% enhancement in the power conversion efficiency. Investigation on the photocurrent spectral response of devices with/without gold nanorods revealed that incorporating the rods helped in enhancing the devices photogenerated current near the plasmonic absorption modes of the rods. The enhancement in the devices efficiency is related to the increase in their absorptivity due to the far-field and near-field effect of localized surface plasmon resonance induced by the presence of the rods in the interface between the photoactive layer and the metallic rear electrode.

  19. Disodium cromoglycate inhibits production of immunoglobulin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S B; Park, S J; Park, S T; Cho, C C; Park, B H; Lee, S J; Kim, H M; Kajiuchi, T; Shin, T Y

    2001-05-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) has been shown to inhibit the release of mediators from mast cells. In the present study, the effect of DSCG on active anaphylactic reaction was studied in mice. DSCG dose-dependently inhibited the active systemic anaphylactic reaction and serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E production induced by immunization with ovalbumin, Bordetella pertussis toxin and aluminum hydroxide gel. DSCG strongly inhibited IL-4-dependent IgE production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine whole spleen cells. In the case of U266 human IgE-bearing B cells, DSCG also showed an inhibitory effect on the IgE production. These results suggest that DSCG has an anti-anaphylactic activity by inhibition of IgE production from B cells. PMID:11417850

  20. Effects of Bi Incorporation on Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 Thin Films and Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakoba, Hiroya; Yatsushiro, Yuta; Mise, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Taizo; Nakada, Tokio

    2012-10-01

    The effects of bismuth (Bi) incorporation into Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 (CIGS) thin films and solar cells have been investigated. 10-50-nm-thick Bi thin layers were deposited onto Mo-coated soda-lime glass (SLG) and SiOx-coated SLG substrates by vacuum evaporation. CIGS thin films were then deposited by a three-stage process at substrate temperatures of 450-550 °C. The grain growth of CIGS thin films was enhanced, and the open-circuit voltage and hence the conversion efficiency was improved by the Bi incorporation when the SLG substrates were used. However, little effect was observed when the alkali barrier SiOx layer was deposited on SLG substrates. As a result, we found that the Bi incorporation is beneficial for improving the cell performance when sodium exists simultaneously in CIGS layers.

  1. Immunoglobulin Fc gamma receptor promotes immunoglobulin uptake, immunoglobulin-mediated calcium increase, and neurotransmitter release in motor neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Habib A.; Mosier, Dennis R.; Zou, Ling L.; Siklos, Laszlo; Alexianu, Maria E.; Engelhardt, Jozsef I.; Beers, David R.; Le, Wei-dong; Appel, Stanley H.

    2002-01-01

    Receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG; FcgammaRs) facilitate IgG uptake by effector cells as well as cellular responses initiated by IgG binding. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient IgG can be taken up by motor neuron terminals and transported retrogradely to the cell body and can alter the function of neuromuscular synapses, such as increasing intracellular calcium and spontaneous transmitter release from motor axon terminals after passive transfer. In the present study, we examined whether FcgammaR-mediated processes can contribute to these effects of ALS patient immunoglobulins. F(ab')(2) fragments (which lack the Fc portion) of ALS patient IgG were not taken up by motor axon terminals and were not retrogradely transported. Furthermore, in a genetically modified mouse lacking the gamma subunit of the FcR, the uptake of whole ALS IgG and its ability to enhance intracellular calcium and acetylcholine release were markedly attenuated. These data suggest that FcgammaRs appear to participate in IgG uptake into motor neurons as well as IgG-mediated increases in intracellular calcium and acetylcholine release from motor axon terminals. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Assembly of bioactive multilayered nanocoatings on pancreatic islet cells: incorporation of α1-antitrypsin into the coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Zheng-Liang; Singh, Jashandeep; Austin, Amazon L F; Hope, David C D; King, Aileen J; Persaud, Shanta J; Jones, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    A spontaneous multilayer deposition approach for presenting therapeutic proteins onto pancreatic islet surfaces, using a heparin polyaldehyde and glycol chitosan alternating layering scheme, has been developed to enable the nanoscale engineering of a microenvironment for transplanted cells. The nanocoating incorporating α1-antitrypsin, an anti-inflammatory protein, exhibited effective anti-coagulant activities in vitro. PMID:26051448

  3. The Plasmodium falciparum Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) Is Incorporated More Efficiently into B Cells than Its Human Homologue

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Pérez, Berenice; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Lira-Carmona, Rosalía; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Ortega-López, Jaime; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum secretes a homologue of the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) into serum of infected individuals, although its role in pathogenesis or virulence is unknown. To determine the effect of P. falciparum TCTP on B cells as compared to human TCTP, fluorescently labeled proteins were incubated on primary cultures of mouse splenic B cells and analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Our results indicate that both recombinant proteins are incorporated into...

  4. Tracking heavy water (D2O) incorporation for identifying and sorting active microbial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, David; Mader, Esther; Lee, Tae Kwon;

    2015-01-01

    active microbes on the single-cell level in complex samples using stable isotope probing with heavy water (D2O) combined with Raman microspectroscopy. Incorporation of D2O-derived D into the biomass of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria and archaea could be unambiguously detected via C-D signature...... potential of the nondestructive D2O-Raman approach for targeted sorting of microbial cells with defined functional properties for singlecell genomics....

  5. Design and standardization of PCR primers and protocols for detection of clonal immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene recombinations in suspect lymphoproliferations: Report of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936 : Report of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.J.M.; Langerak, A.W.; Bruggemann, M.; Evans, P.A.S.; Hummel, M.; Lavender, F.L.; Delabesse, E.; Davi, F.; Schuuring, E.; Garcia-Sanz, R.; Van Krieken, J.H.J.M.; Droese, J.; Gonzalez, D.; Bastard, C.; White, H.E.; Spaargaren, M.; Gonzalez, M.; Parreira, A.; Smith, J.L.; Morgan, G.J.; Kneba, M.; Macintyre, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    In a European BIOMED-2 collaborative study, multiplex PCR assays have successfully been developed and standardized for the detection of clonally rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes and the chromosome aberrations t(11; 14) and t(14; 18). This has resulted in 107 different p

  6. Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin kappa light chain restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, William R; Kapur, Lucy Harn; Xu, Mina; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-16

    Russell bodies are eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globules which are likely the result of disturbed secretion of immunoglobulins that accumulate within the plasma cell. Russell body collections have been identified within the stomach, known as Russell body gastritis. Similar lesions within the duodenum are referred to as Russell body duodenitis, which is rare. Several Russell body gastritis case reports are associated with Helicobacter pylori. However, the etiology of Russell body duodenitis remains unclear. Here we report the first case of Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin light chain restriction in a background of peptic duodenitis. PMID:25610537

  7. Effects of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 signaling molecule on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells with hepatitis B virus surface antigen stimulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenjun; Jiang, Ting; Zhu, Min; Pan, Kechuan; Yan, Fei; Zhu, Jiansheng

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) on the immune function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD‑DCs), and the moderating role of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain‑containing molecule‑3 (Tim‑3) signaling molecule. The monocytes, obtained from healthy adult peripheral blood, were incubated with recombinant human granulocyte‑macrophage colony‑stimulating factor and interleukin (IL)‑4 to induce DCs. DC‑associated cell markers were detected using flow cytometry. MD‑DCs were treated with HBsAg (5 µg/ml) in vitro for 48 h and subsequently, cell markers, lymphocyte stimulatory capacity, signaling protein and downstream cytokines were assessed. In addition, a Tim‑3 monoclonal antibody was used to inhibit the Tim‑3 signaling pathway, and subsequently the immune responses of MD‑DCs to HBsAg stimulation were determined using the aforementioned method. The cell phenotype expressions of MD‑DCs were all significantly increased with cluster of differentiation (CD)11c at 70.09±0.57%, human leukocyte antigen‑DR at 79.83±2.12%, CD80 at 48.33±7.34% and CD86 at 44.21±5.35%. The treatment of MD‑DCs with HBsAg resulted in a CD80 and CD86 enhanced expression, enhanced lymphocyte stimulatory capacity, upregulated expression of Tim‑3 and nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB), as well as enhanced cytokine secretion of IL‑6, IL‑10 and interferon (IFN)‑γ. However, a reduced immune response of MD‑DCs in response to HBsAg stimulation was observed when the Tim‑3 signaling pathway was inhibited prior to stimulation. The expression of NF‑κB was decreased and the cytokine secretion level of IL‑6, IL‑10 and IFN‑γ were downregulated. The treatment with HBsAg in vitro resulted in an enhanced immune response of MD‑DCs, which may be positively regulated by the Tim-3 signaling molecule. PMID:26820685

  8. Actions of exogenous histones and other proteins on [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA of Novikoff hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of exogenous proteins on the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into DNA was studied in Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells incubated in Eagle's minimal essential medium. A liver cytosol fraction (8 mg protein/ml) caused approximately 80% inhibition of isotope incorporation. The inhibitory activity of cytosol fractions from Morris hepatomas 9618A2, 5123C and 20 were inversely related to their growth rate. Under conditions in which there appeared to be a density dependent inhibition of growth, a mean 10 to 20% stimulation of isotope incorporation was observed after addition of total calf thymus histones and individual fractions in the concentration range of 100 to 400μg/ml. In experiments with lower cell concentrations, a 60% or greater increase in [3H]-thymidine incorporation could be obtained with total calf thymus histone and with Fl and arginine-rich histones from rat liver. At concentrations of 1 to 2 mg/ml, histones inhibited DNA synthesis. Bovine serum albumin had little effect on DNA synthesis. Polylysine caused an 80 to 90% inhibition at a concentration of 1 mg/ml, but stimulatory effects were detected under certain conditions at 10μg/ml. The results suggest critical dependence on the ratio of cell and exogenous protein concentration in the action of proteins on DNA synthesis. (author)

  9. A novel finding: Anti-androgen flutamide kills androgen independent PC-3 cells. A radiolabelled methyl-coline incorporation into tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [Methyl-11C]-choline was introduced to image many types of cancer, especially prostate cancer. Al-Saeedi et al. reported that the incorporation of [Methyl-3H]-choline into breast tumour (MCF-7) cells correlated strongly with proliferation as determined by [Methyl-14C]-thymidine uptake. Also, Al-Saeedi et al. showed that the chemotherapy using MCF-7 cells treated with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) induced modulation in [Methyl- 3H]-choline incorporation and certain mechanisms for this modulation were reported. In this study, the androgen dependent prostate tumour (LNCaP) cells were treated with the well known pure anti-androgen drug, flutamide, for 3 d. The cells were then incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 min to detect the effect of flutamide on both cell proliferation and choline incorporation. At the same time, a preliminary work was established using androgen independent PC-3 cells treated with flutamide as controls in this study. PC-3 cells were treated with a range of doses of flutamide, inhibiting growth by 20-70%. Treated and control cells were incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 min, then in non-radioactive medium to simulate the rapid blood clearance of [Methyl- 11C]-choline tracer in control and treated PC-3 cells, and then extracted with organic and aqueous solvents to determine its effect on the intracellular distribution of this tracer. The results were interesting in that they showed that flutamide killed the androgen independent prostate cancer cells, PC-3, and the mechanisms responsible for flutamide induced modulation on [Methyl-3H]-choline incorporation are reported. The PC-3 cell proliferation was inhibited by flutamide. In addition, treatment of PC-3 cells with flutamide for 3 d resulted in a buildup of cells in the S phase and [Methyl-3H]-choline incorporation per a cell was found to be decreased in treated as opposed to untreated cells. In conclusion, flutamide inhibits PC-3 cell proliferation by a certain mechanism (unknown) other than

  10. Autoradiographic study on the incorporation of carbon-14 labeled formate and adenine into nucleic acid in blood-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of [14C]formate and [8-14C]adenine into nucleic acid in blood-forming cells was studied by the autoradiographic technique. The isotopic markers were injected subcutaneously into young rats weighting from 100 to 150 g three times every 24 hours and the animals were examined 3 hours after the last injection. In the case of [14C]formate injection, erythroblasts exhibited extremely strong labeling in contrast to weaker labeling of other blood-forming cells. In the case of [14C]adenine administration, on the other hand, immature cells of the granuclocytic series as well as immature reticulum cells (proliferating cells of reticular tissue) were much more heavily labeled than were other blood-forming cells, particularly the erythroblasts which revealed weak or no labeling. By digestion or extraction of DNA, RNA or both from cells with DNase, RNase or hot 10% perchloric acid treatment, respectively, it was confirmed that the observed heavy labeling of any type of cells with either [14C]formate or [14C]adenine was due chiefly to incorporation of the radioactive materials into nuclear DNA. The present results are discussed together with the findings of earlier studies on lymphoid cells which indicate that, in certain cell types, the patterns of [3H]deoxycytidine labeling differ considerably from the corresponding patterns of [3H]deoxycytidine labeling. The present and earlier findings provide evidence to substantiate that, among blood-forming cells, there are considerable variations in the labeling patterns of nuclear DNA depending on differences in the radioactive DNA precursors used as well as in the cell types. (author)

  11. Decreased [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose incorporation and increased glucose transport are associated with resistance to 5FU in MCF7 cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Tumor refractoriness to chemotherapy is frequently due to the acquisition of resistance. Resistant cells selected by exposure to chemotherapy agents may exhibit differences in [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) incorporation, as compared with sensitive cells. Methods: FDG incorporation, hexokinase (HK) activity, glucose transport and ATP content were determined in clones of 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-resistant MCF7 cells, established by long-term exposure to increasing 5FU concentrations, and in parental MCF7 cells. Results: FDG incorporation was decreased in MCF7 cells resistant to 5FU; HK activity was similar in the resistant and sensitive cells, while glucose transport was increased, as compared with sensitive cells. Treatment of cells with the glucose efflux inhibitor phloretin increased FDG incorporation to similar levels in the resistant and sensitive cells. Analysis of microarray data demonstrated the expression of GLUT1, 8 and 10 transporters in MCF7 cells. GLUT8 and 10 expression was decreased in the resistant cells, while GLUT1 was only increased in cells resistant to the lowest 5FU concentration. Conclusion: FDG incorporation in 5FU-resistant MCF7 cells is decreased, as compared with sensitive cells. Our findings also suggest that this may be due to high rates of membrane glucose transport in the resistant cells resulting in enhanced efflux of FDG. We believe that this is the first demonstration that facilitative glucose transporters can actually decrease the incorporation of FDG

  12. A computational model incorporating neural stem cell dynamics reproduces glioma incidence across the lifespan in the human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Bauer

    Full Text Available Glioma is the most common form of primary brain tumor. Demographically, the risk of occurrence increases until old age. Here we present a novel computational model to reproduce the probability of glioma incidence across the lifespan. Previous mathematical models explaining glioma incidence are framed in a rather abstract way, and do not directly relate to empirical findings. To decrease this gap between theory and experimental observations, we incorporate recent data on cellular and molecular factors underlying gliomagenesis. Since evidence implicates the adult neural stem cell as the likely cell-of-origin of glioma, we have incorporated empirically-determined estimates of neural stem cell number, cell division rate, mutation rate and oncogenic potential into our model. We demonstrate that our model yields results which match actual demographic data in the human population. In particular, this model accounts for the observed peak incidence of glioma at approximately 80 years of age, without the need to assert differential susceptibility throughout the population. Overall, our model supports the hypothesis that glioma is caused by randomly-occurring oncogenic mutations within the neural stem cell population. Based on this model, we assess the influence of the (experimentally indicated decrease in the number of neural stem cells and increase of cell division rate during aging. Our model provides multiple testable predictions, and suggests that different temporal sequences of oncogenic mutations can lead to tumorigenesis. Finally, we conclude that four or five oncogenic mutations are sufficient for the formation of glioma.

  13. The immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  14. Development of flow cytometry for detection and quantitation of red cell bound immunoglobulin G in autoimmune hemolytic anemia with negative direct Coombs test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thedsawad, Anchalee; Taka, Orathai; Wanachiwanawin, Wanchai

    2011-12-01

    About 2-10% of patients with warm-antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA) exhibit a negative direct Coombs test (DAT), requiring more sensitive tests, including detection of RBC-bound immunoglobulins by flow cytometry, for diagnosis. In this study, the optimal conditions for detection and quantitation of RBC-bound IgG by flow cytometry were studied using blood samples from six patients with AIHA and two healthy individuals. Quantitation of RBC-bound IgG was performed using quantum simply cellular (QSC) beads coated with goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies. For detection of RBC bound IgG, a 60-minute incubation of all blood samples with 40 microl of 1:10 dilution of FITC-conjugated mouse anti-human IgG gave mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) values comparable to experiments using larger amounts or higher concentrations of the anti-human IgG. The acquired antibody binding capacity (ABC) values (or IgG molecules) for each QSC bead level, at 40 microl of 1:5 and 1:10 dilution of anti-human IgG for 60 minutes were close to the manufacturer-assigned ABC values. The IgG molecules per RBC in all six patients with positive DAT of 4+, 3+, 2+, 1+, trace and negative DAT were 31,725, 3,823, 1,753, 524, 260 and 88 respectively and in two healthy individuals with negative DAT they were 104 and 78. PMID:22299318

  15. A rapid [3H]glucose incorporation assay for determination of lymphoid cell-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H]glucose uptake by Candida albicans after interaction with lymphoid effector cells was used to provide a quick, accurate and objective assessment of the growth inhibitory potential of lymphoid cells on candida. After 18 h coincubation of effector cells with candida, [3H]glucose was added for 3 h and the amount of radiolabel incorporated into residual candida was measured. The results showed that [3H]glucose uptake was proportional to the number of candida organisms left in the microwell and is dose dependent on the effector/target (E/T) ratio. At an E/T ratio of 300/1, complete inhibition of candida was seen, with significant inhibition still present at 30/1. In addition, monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells were found to be the primary cells responsible for eliminating candida. (Auth.)

  16. Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings for metal-backed solar cells optimized using simulated annealing algorithm incorporated with solar spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2011-07-01

    Broadband omnidirectional antireflection (AR) coatings for solar cells optimized using simulated annealing (SA) algorithm incorporated with the solar (irradiance) spectrum at Earth's surface (AM1.57 radiation) are described. Material dispersions and reflections from the planar backside metal are considered in the rigorous electromagnetic calculations. Optimized AR coatings for bulk crystalline Si and thin-film CuIn(1-x)GaxSe(2) (CIGS) solar cells as two representative cases are presented and the effect of solar spectrum in the AR coating designs is investigated. In general, the angle-averaged reflectance of a solar-spectrum-incorporated AR design is shown to be smaller and more uniform in the spectral range with relatively stronger solar irradiance. By incorporating the transparent conductive and buffer layers as part of the AR coating in CIGS solar cells (2μm-thick CIGS layer), a single MgF(2) layer could provide an average reflectance of 8.46% for wavelengths ranging from 350 nm to 1200 nm and incident angles from 0° to 80°. PMID:21747557

  17. Blocking type immunoglobulins in patients with nongoitrous primary hypothyroidism in area of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T; Wang, Y G; Tsuboi, K; Irie, M; Ma, T; Ingbar, S H

    1991-12-01

    We have evaluated the role of circulating serum immunoglobulins (IgG) which inhibit the growth of thyroid in the etiology of thyroid atrophy in endemic cretinism. Twenty nongoitrous cretins (13 women and 7 men, age range: 9-33) were classified on the basis of clinical criteria for cretinism in China. They were born and living in an iodine deficient area, Xinjiang, northwest China. Antimicrosomal antibody titers were negative in all serum. Nine patients (seven women and two men; age range: 11-23) were biologically primary hypothyroid. Seven subjects were of a myxedematous form and two subjects were of a mixed form. We have studied thyroid-growth inhibiting immunoglobulin (TGII) activity that was measured as an inhibitory effect of 4 mg/ml IgG on TSH-induced [3H]-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of a rat thyroid follicular cell line, FRTL5 cells. Six (five women and one man) out of the nine patients with primary hypothyroidism (66.7 percent) had TGII. We also measured other growth-blocking IgG that inhibited [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA stimulated by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a growth factor working through a cAMP-independent pathway. Five (three women and two men) out of nine patients (55.6 percent) with nongoitrous primary hypothyroidism had IGF-I-blocking IgG. These results indicate that TGII plays an important role in atrophy of the thyroid in spite of increased serum TSH concentrations, and IgG which inhibits thyroid growth stimulated by IGF-I also might play a role in thyroid atrophy in some endemic cretins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1823034

  18. Incorporation of the label from 14C-glucose into cell-wall components during the maturation of cryptomeria tracheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differentiating tracheids of cryptomeria fed with 14C-glucose for two hours were fractionated successively from the cambium into the mature tracheids. After hydrolyzing each cell-wall fraction, the hydrolyzates were separated from Klason lignin and subjected to further separation by thin-layer chromatography. Then the radioactivity of each sugar and the Klason lignin in each fraction was measured. From this experiment, it is suggested that: (1) In the primary-wall formation stage, the incorporation of the label from 14C-glucose into cellulose is low, whereas the incorporation of the label into hemicelluloses and pectin, which are rich in arabinose and galactose, is high. Large parts of the hemicelluloses and pectin are supplied to the radial walls and contribute to the radial enlargement. (2) The incorporation of the label into cellulose still is low between the S1 deposit stage and the early S2 deposit stage, but the active incorporation takes place from the middle of the S2 deposit stage to the S3 deposit stage. (3) The incorporation of the label into xylan is high from the S1 deposit stage to the early part of the S2 deposit stage. In subsequent stages, it gradually declines, but at the S3 stage it becomes high again. (4) The incorporation of the label into mannan is relatively low at the S1 stage. During the S2 formation, it becomes high, although it temporarily declines at the end of the S2 deposit stage. It is highest in the S3 deposit stage. (author)

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of tritiated thymidine incorporation and ELISPOT assays in identifying antigen specific T cell immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLeod Beth

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardization of cell-based immunologic monitoring is becoming increasingly important as methods for measuring cellular immunity become more complex. We assessed the ability of two commonly used cell-based assays, tritiated thymidine incorporation (proliferation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT, to predict T cell responses to HER-2/neu, tetanus toxoid (tt, and cytomegalovirus (CMV antigens. These antigens were determined to be low (HER-2/neu, moderate (tt, and robustly (CMV immunogenic proteins. Samples from 27 Stage II, III, and IV HER-2/neu positive breast cancer patients, vaccinated against the HER-2/neu protein and tt, were analyzed by tritiated thymidine incorporation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT for T cell response. Results Linear regression analysis indicates that both stimulation index (SI (p = 0.011 and IFN-gamma secreting precursor frequency (p Conclusion These data underscore the importance of taking into consideration the performance characteristics of assays used to measure T cell immunity. This consideration is particularly necessary when determining which method to utilize for assessing responses to immunotherapeutic manipulations in cancer patients.

  20. DNA damage induced in human diploid cells by decay of incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline and neutral elution techniques were used to characterize the production of single- and double-strand DNA breaks in human diploid fibroblasts by incorporated radionuclides. 125I was incorporated in DNA as [125I]iododeoxyuridine, 3H as [3H]-thymidine, and 14C as [14C]thymidine. Under frozen conditions, 125I was 3 times as efficient as 3H per decay in inducing single-strand breaks and 6 times as efficient as 14C. For double-strand break production, however, 125I was 6 times as efficient per decay as 3H. It was calculated that, on the average, each 125I decay produces about one double-strand break in the frozen state. Under nonfrozen conditions, 125I and external X-rays were roughly 5-fold and 3H about 3-fold more efficient in double-strand break induction than under frozen conditions

  1. Flow network analysis in PEM fuel cell stacks incorporating minor losses. Paper no. IGEC-1-062

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack consisting 51 cells has been analyzed using a flow network model incorporating the minor losses. The distributions of pressure, molar flow rate and concentration for the fuel and oxidant streams in the stack are determined. The distributions are used in the single cell model developed previously to evaluate the stack voltage and the cell-to-cell voltage distributions. Analysis has been carried out for a variety of flow configurations and bipolar plate designs. It was found that the minor losses increase the stack operating pressure and the power requirement for oxidant supply and change the cell-to-cell voltage variations in the stack. A symmetric double inlet-single outlet topology provides optimal stack performance with reasonably low compressor power requirement for the reactant flow and minimum cell-to-cell voltage variations. The stack performance is considerably affected by the size and the number of flow channels on bipolar plate. (author)

  2. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine into heparan and chondroitin sulfates during the cell cycle of B16-F10 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in glycosaminoglycan composition occurring during the cell cycle were determined in B16-F10 cells sorted flow cytometrically with respect to DNA content. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate into heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate of unsorted and G1,S, and G2 +M sorted cells was determined following chondroitinase ABC or nitrous acid treatment; the incorporation into surface material was measured as the difference between the radioactivity of control and trypsin-treated cells. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine into cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC)-precipitable material was characterized before and after chondroitinase or nitrous acid treatment by Sephadex G50 chromatography. Long-term (48 h) and short-term (1 h) labeling studies demonstrate that (a) the amount of total cellular chondroitin sulfate is greater than that of heparan sulfate, with larger amounts of unsulfated heparan than chondroitin being present; (b) the rate of turnover of heparan sulfate is greater than that of chondroitin sulfate; (c) greatest short-term incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into CPC-precipitable material occurs during S phase; and (d) the rate of turnover of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate is decreased in S phase relative to G1 and G2 + M

  3. A cell counting/sorting system incorporated with a microfabricated flow cytometer chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Yi; Hsiung, Suz-Kai; Hung, Yung-Ching; Chang, Chen-Min; Liao, Teh-Lu; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2006-07-01

    Flow cytometry is a popular technique for counting and sorting individual cells. This study presents and demonstrates a new cell counting/sorting system integrated with several essential components including a micromachined flow cytometer chip device, an optical detection system and a data analysis and control system to achieve the functions of cell sample injection, optical signal detection and cell collection. By using MEMS technology, we have integrated several microfluidic components such as micro pneumatic pumps/valves onto a polymer-based chip device. Three pneumatic micropumps are used to provide the hydrodynamic driving force for both sample and sheath flows such that hydrodynamic flow focusing can be achieved, and a micro flow switch device comprising three pneumatic microvalves located downstream of the micro sample flow channel is used for cell collection. Cell samples of human lung cancer cells labelled with commercially available fluorescent dyes have been detected and collected successfully utilizing the developed device. The real-time image of dye-labelled cell samples being excited and detected can be monitored and observed through the LCD panel by a custom designed CCD/APD holder and moving stage. Finally, micro flow switch devices were used to successfully sort the cells into the desired outlet channel, and the counting results of the specific cell samples were monitored through the counting panel. The current study focuses on the setup of the overall system. The proposed flow cytometer system has several advantages such as portability, low cost and easy operation process. The size of the system is 37 cm × 16 cm × 18 cm and the weight is 3.5 kg. The error rate of counting and sorting was 1.5% and 2%, respectively. The sorting frequency of the microvalve device is calculated to be 120 cells min-1. The developed microfluidic chip device could be a promising tool for cell-based application fields such as profiling, counting and sorting.

  4. Detection of clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in the peripheral blood progenitor cells of patients with multiple myeloma: the potential role of purging with CD34 positive selection

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, R. G.; Haynes, A P; Evans, P A; R. J. Johnson; Rawstron, A. C.; McQuaker, G; Smith, G.M; Galvin, M. C.; Barnard, D L; Russell, N H; Child, J. A.; Morgan, G J

    1996-01-01

    Aims—To determine the extent of clonal cell contamination of peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) collections in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and to assess the purging efficacy of CD34 positive selection.

  5. A role for PCNA ubiquitination in immunoglobulin hypermutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Arakawa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a DNA polymerase cofactor and regulator of replication-linked functions. Upon DNA damage, yeast and vertebrate PCNA is modified at the conserved lysine K164 by ubiquitin, which mediates error-prone replication across lesions via translesion polymerases. We investigated the role of PCNA ubiquitination in variants of the DT40 B cell line that are mutant in K164 of PCNA or in Rad18, which is involved in PCNA ubiquitination. Remarkably, the PCNA(K164R mutation not only renders cells sensitive to DNA-damaging agents, but also strongly reduces activation induced deaminase-dependent single-nucleotide substitutions in the immunoglobulin light-chain locus. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, that vertebrates exploit the PCNA-ubiquitin pathway for immunoglobulin hypermutation, most likely through the recruitment of error-prone DNA polymerases.

  6. Incorporating photon recycling into the analytical drift-diffusion model of high efficiency solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical drift-diffusion formalism is able to accurately simulate a wide range of solar cell architectures and was recently extended to include those with back surface reflectors. However, as solar cells approach the limits of material quality, photon recycling effects become increasingly important in predicting the behavior of these cells. In particular, the minority carrier diffusion length is significantly affected by the photon recycling, with consequences for the solar cell performance. In this paper, we outline an approach to account for photon recycling in the analytical Hovel model and compare analytical model predictions to GaAs-based experimental devices operating close to the fundamental efficiency limit

  7. Using a Module-Based Laboratory to Incorporate Inquiry into a Large Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David R.; Miskowski, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Because cell biology has rapidly increased in breadth and depth, instructors are challenged not only to provide undergraduate science students with a strong, up-to-date foundation of knowledge, but also to engage them in the scientific process. To these ends, revision of the Cell Biology Lab course at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse was…

  8. MPLA incorporation into DC-targeting glycoliposomes favours anti-tumour T cell responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, Martine A.; Ambrosini, Martino; Bruijns, Sven C.; Kalay, Hakan; Van Bloois, Louis; Storm, G; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dendritic cells (DC) are attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy as they initiate strong and long-lived tumour-specific T cell responses. DC can be effectively targeted in vivo with tumour antigens by using nanocarriers such as liposomes. Cross-presentation of tumour antigens is enhance

  9. MPLA incorporation into DC-targeting glycoliposomes favours anti-tumour T cell responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, M.A.; Ambrosini, Martino; Bruijns, Sven C.M.; Kalay, Hakan; Bloois, van Louis; Storm, G.; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Kooyk, van Y.

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy as they initiate strong and long-lived tumour-specific T cell responses. DC can be effectively targeted in vivo with tumour antigens by using nanocarriers such as liposomes. Cross-presentation of tumour antigens is enhanced with st

  10. Immunogenic and antigenic epitopes of immunoglobulins binding of human monoclonal anti-D antibodies to FcRI on the monocyte-like U937 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M R; Kumpel, B M; Thompson, K; Woof, J M; Burton, D R; Jefferis, R

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen human monoclonal IgG1- or IgG3 anti-D-secreting clones have been examined for their ability to sensitise O+ red cells for Fc-receptor-mediated rosette formation with U937 cells. IgG3 but not IgG1 anti-D antibodies were able to mediate stable rosette formation with unstimulated U937 cells via interaction with the FcRI receptor. Decreasing FcRI density by incubating U937 cells with di-butyryl cAMP almost completely abolished rosette formation, whilst increasing FcRI density by incubating U937 cells with interferon-gamma increased the percentage of cells forming rosettes with IgG3- and IgG1-sensitised red cells. These data suggest that rosette formation between IgG anti-D-sensitised red cells and FcRI-expressing cells is dependent upon the density of IgG3 on the red cell surface, the density of FcRI on the effector cell, multiple FcRI/IgG interactions are required for stable rosette formation and that more FcRI/IgG1 than FcRI/IgG3 interactions are required. PMID:2464239

  11. Single cell protein production by penicillium expansum incorporating of acid hydrolysate of rice husk in medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the research work is to bioconversion of rice husk to single cell protein by penicillium expansum. The rice husk was degraded chemically using sulphuric acid and perchloric acid with various concentrations (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60 N) to fermentable sugars and these were used as substrate for the production of single cell protein by penicillium expansum. It was observed that the amount of single cell protein is higher in case of perchloric acid hydrolysate in comparison to sulphuric acid hydrolysate, while the protein content of single cell protein is higher in sulphuric acid hydrolysate. The single cell protein of penicillium expansum contains nearly all essential amino acids while it free from aflatoxin. (author)

  12. Cytotoxic T cell recognition of an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase variant peptide incorporating the K103N drug resistance mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford David

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During HIV-1 infection, cytotoxic T cell (CTL responses exert strong selective pressure on the replicating virus population. Here we report evidence for T cell activity against the drug resistant K103N region of viral reverse transcriptase in three HIV-1 infected patients exposed to NNRTI antiretroviral drugs. We further characterize the response in one patient by ELISPOT analysis. A nine amino acid peptide incorporating 103N was recognized by patient T cells whereas the wild type was not. The RT K103N mutation is selected by the NNRTI class of HIV drugs. We hypothesize that, in certain individuals, CTL responses against 103N-containing epitopes may protect against NNRTI drug resistance. Characterizing such responses in the context of HLA subtypes could lead to tailored HIV drug therapy or to the design of therapeutic vaccines.

  13. [Intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Vojtěch

    2013-07-01

    Patients with agammaglobulinaemia and hypogammaglobulinaemia require immunoglobulin G (IgG) replacement therapy to prevent serious infections. Since the 1950s, therapy with human immune globulin products has been the standard of treatment. Currently, the most common routes of administration of IgG replacement therapy are intravenous (IVIG) or subcutaneous (SCIG). The home therapy may improve the quality of life in patients who require lifelong IgG replacement. The -anti-IgA antibody test identifies the patients with the risk of anaphylactoid reactions in IVIG replacement. The SCIG delivery may be used in patients with anti-IgA antibodies and previous systemic reactions to IVIG. PMID:23964967

  14. Immunogenic DNA-related factors. Nucleosomes spontaneously released from normal murine lymphoid cells stimulate proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis of normal mouse lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, D. A.; Morrison, B; VandenBygaart, P

    1990-01-01

    The cell-free supernatants of normal spleen and thymus lymphocytes in short-term culture release low molecular weight (LMW) DNA protein molecules that have an immunoproliferative effect (polyclonal B cell activation) in vitro. We have determined that the protein-LMW DNA complexes responsible for these effects are nucleosomal constituents of chromatin, since the mitogenically active fractions of these cell-free supernatants contain the constituents of core histones (H3, H2A, H2B, H4) together ...

  15. Lightweight Hybrid Ablator Incorporating Aerogel-Filled Open-Cell Foam Structural Insulator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In previous work for NASA and DoD, Ultramet developed lightweight open-cell foam insulators composed of a carbon or ceramic structural foam skeleton filled with a...

  16. Lightweight Hybrid Ablator Incorporating Aerogel-Filled Open-Cell Foam Structural Insulator, Phase II Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In previous work for NASA and DoD, Ultramet developed lightweight open-cell foam insulators composed of a carbon or ceramic structural foam skeleton filled with a...

  17. Cell Suspension Culture-Mediated Incorporation of the Rice Bel Gene into Transgenic Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Ke; RuiE Liu; Bijue Chu; Xiushuang Yu; Jie Sun; Brian Jones; Gang Pan; Xiaofei Cheng; Huizhong Wang; Shuijin Zhu; Yuqiang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Cotton plants engineered for resistance to the herbicides, glyphosate or glufosinate have made a considerable impact on the production of the crop worldwide. In this work, embryogenic cell cultures derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Coker 312 hypocotyl callus were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the rice cytochrome P450 gene, CYP81A6 (bel). In rice, bel has been shown to confer resistance to both bentazon and sulfanylurea herbicides. Transformed cells were selected on a liqu...

  18. Claudin 4-targeted protein incorporated into PLGA nanoparticles can mediate M cell targeted delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Rajapaksa, Thejani E.; Stover-Hamer, Mary; Fernandez, Xiomara; Eckelhoefer, Holly A.; Lo, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-based microparticles are in clinical use mainly for their ability to provide controlled release of peptides and compounds, but they are also being explored for their potential to deliver vaccines and drugs as suspensions directly into mucosal sites. It is generally assumed that uptake is mediated by epithelial M cells, but this is often not directly measured. To study the potential for optimizing M cell uptake of polymer microparticles in vivo, we produced sub-micron size PLGA particl...

  19. Incorporation of Novel Nanostructured Materials into Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua; Holland, Andrew; Hunt, Alan; Bitterwolf, Thomas; Qiang, You; Bergman, Leah; Berven, Christine; Punnoose, Alex; Tenne, Dmitri

    2011-11-11

    Each of the investigators on this project has had significant accomplishments toward the production of semiconductor nanoparticles, particles, and thin films and attempts to incorporate these materials into photovoltaics or sensors; to use them for improving fluorescence diagnostics; or to employ them as cancer fighting agents. The synthesis and characterization of the nanomaterials, and more recently the device construction and testing of these materials, have been the subject of several publications and presentations by team members. During the course of the investigations, several students were fully involved as part of their graduate and undergraduate training. The nature of these projects in material development dictates that the students have gained significant experience in a diverse array of material-related topics.

  20. Age and sex differences in the incorporation of EPA and DHA into plasma fractions, cells and adipose tissue in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Celia G.; Browning, Lucy M; Mander, Adrian P; Madden, Jackie; West, Annette L.; Calder, Philip C.; Jebb, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether age and sex influence both the status and the incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood plasma, cells and tissues. The study was a double-blind, randomised, controlled intervention, providing EPA+DHA equivalent to 0, 1, 2 or 4 portions of oily fish per week, for 12 months. Participants were stratified by age and sex. A linear regression model was used to analyse baseline outcomes, with covariates for age or sex groups, and adjusting for BMI. The ...

  1. Effects of BrdUrd incorporation on radiation sensitivity recovery from PLD and repair of DNA damage in CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHO cells grown in the presence of various concentrations (0-10 μM) of BrdUrd were exposed to X-rays either in the logarithmic or in the plateau-phase of growth and survival was measured either immediately after irradiation or 6 hr later. An increase in radiosensitivity (immediate plating) was observed in cells growing in the presence of BrdUrd that was similar for exponentially growing and plateau-phase cells when related to the amount of incorporated BrdUrd. The rate of induction of DNA damage as assayed by hydroxylapatite chromatography was similar for cells grown in the presence or absence of BrdUrd. This resulted in an increase in the amount of unrejoined breaks measured in BrdUrd-containing cells 1 hr after irradiation and which was more pronounced at higher radiation doses. These results are compared to similar results obtained with untransformed C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells, and implications on the mechanism of radiosensitization by BrdUrd are discussed

  2. Heterogeneity in mouse seminal vesicle epithelial cells responding to androgen as evaluated by incorporation of [125I]iododeoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the uptake of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ([125I]IdUrd) into the seminal vesicle of castrated mice was measured 3 days after starting injections of various doses of testosterone propionate (TP), logarithmic values of [125I]IdUrd uptake were proportional to the logarithmic doses of TP in the range of 0.04-2 micrograms/g BW. The [125I]IdUrd uptake values correlated well with the labeling and mitotic indices of epithelial cells. Since daily injections of 0.4 microgram TP/g BW did not increase significantly the weight or DNA content or protein content of the seminal vesicle, the [125I]IdUrd uptake is a sensitive index of androgen action. Moreover, this suggests that low doses of androgen induce division of epithelial cells without resulting in the increase in cell number. The [125I]IdUrd radioactivity in the seminal vesicle was measured 2-15 days after the injection of [125I]IdUrd, since the value represented the fraction of surviving cells synthesizing DNA at the time of [125I]IdUrd injection. When injections of 4 micrograms TP/g BW were continued, the incorporated radioactivity was retained. In contrast, continuous injections of 0.2 microgram TP/g BW did not maintain the radioactivity, of which incorporation was induced by the same dose of TP. Thus, the present result suggests the presence of heterogeneity in androgen-responsive epithelial cells of the seminal vesicle

  3. Cell proliferation and 3H-proline incorporation in periodontal ligament exposed to mechanical stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the metabolic processes induced in the periodontal ligament by mechanical influences, a tension spring was implanted in rats between the incisor and the first maxillary molar on the right-hand side, while the left maxilla of these animals as well as non-operated rats served as controls. Under such mechanical stress, there occurred at 3, 10 and 21 days after implantation a significant increase in the 3H-thymidine labelling index, which was demonstrate histoautoradiographically. A change in cell density was not discovered. Therefore, the increase in S-phase fraction as equally recorded in both pressure and tension zones is regarded as an expression of an enhanced cell turnover. Cell renewal in the periodontal ligament can be modified by inflammatory processes within the gingival region. There is a slight enlargement of the periodontal space in the tension zone. Under experimental conditions, no change occurs in the silver grain number per cell after 3H-proline administration. The results indicate that, following the impact of orthodontic forces, the reactivity of periodontal cell proliferation as compared to collagen synthesis is enhanced. (author)

  4. Inhibitory potential of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) colostrum immunoglobulin G on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L S, Mamatha Bhanu; Nishimura, S-I; H S, Aparna

    2016-07-01

    The unique components of colostrum like free oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates are known to offer resistance to enzymatic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and have the ability to inhibit the localized adherence of enteropathogens to the digestive tract of the neonates. In this context, we have evaluated the in vitro effect of buffalo colostrum immunoglobulin G on human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae, a predominant multidrug resistant pathogen associated with nasocomial infections. The investigation revealed growth inhibitory potential of immunoglobulin G in a dose dependent manner supported by scanning electron microscopic studies. The N-glycan enriched fraction of immunoglobulin G after PNGase treatment was found more effective, comparable to ampicillin than native immunoglobulin G supporting the fact that colostrum derived oligosaccharides is crucial and act as ideal substrates for undesirable and pathogenic bacteria. The MALDI TOF/TOF analysis confirmed the glycostructures of abundant N-glycans of immunoglobulin G exerting antibacterial activity. The proteomic analysis revealed variations between control and treated cells and expression of chemotaxis-CheY protein (14kDa) was evidenced in response to immunoglobulin G treatment. Hence, it would be interesting to investigate the mode of inhibition of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae by buffalo colostrum immunoglobulin G with the identification of a newly expressed signalling protein. PMID:27017977

  5. Incorporation of Furan into Low Band-Gap Polymers for Efficient Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Claire H.

    2010-11-10

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of the first examples of furan-containing low band-gap polymers, PDPP2FT and PDPP3F, with substantial power conversion efficiencies in organic solar cells are reported. Inserting furan moieties in the backbone of the conjugated polymers enables the use of relatively small solubilizing side chains because of the significant contribution of the furan rings to overall polymer solubility in common organic solvents. Bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated from furan-containing polymers and PC71BM as the acceptor showed power conversion efficiencies reaching 5.0%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Russell body duodenitis with immunoglobulin kappa light chain restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Munday, William R.; Kapur, Lucy Harn; Xu, Mina; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Russell bodies are eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globules which are likely the result of disturbed secretion of immunoglobulins that accumulate within the plasma cell. Russell body collections have been identified within the stomach, known as Russell body gastritis. Similar lesions within the duodenum are referred to as Russell body duodenitis, which is rare. Several Russell body gastritis case reports are associated with Helicobacter pylori. However, the etiology of Russell body duodenitis r...

  7. A quantitative model of the cardiac ventricular cell incorporating the transverse-axial tubular system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pásek, Michal; Christé, G.; Šimurda, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2003), s. 355-368. ISSN 0231-5882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/D129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : cardiac cell * tubular system * quantitative modelling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.794, year: 2003

  8. Effect of incorporation of reduced graphene oxide on ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Ling; Wang, Xiu

    2016-07-01

    Here, we demonstrate a facile method to improve the cell performance of ZnO-based dye sensitized solar cell by incorporating different amount of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Overall photo-to-current conversion-efficiency (PCE) of the device 3 with 0.75 mL rGO exhibits a 1.3 times improvement compared to bare ZnO. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements show that the enhancement could be attributed to the improvement of electron transport/injection and the decrease of the charge recombination in the device, which arise from the formation of rGO-based Schottky junction in ZnO-photoanode.

  9. Partial characterization and clinical correlation of circulating human immunoglobulins directed against thyrotrophin binding sites in guinea pig fat cell membranes. Development of a direct enzyme immunoassay.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, J. R.; Lukes, Y G; Smallridge, R.C.; Berger, M.; Burman, K. D.

    1983-01-01

    To obviate several problems inherent in indirect thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody assays, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that measures antibodies binding to guinea pig fat cell membrane, which contain high concentrations of TSH receptors. Solubilized guinea pig fat cell membranes were adsorbed to plastic microtiter plates and served as the solid-phase antigen. Test sera and affinity-purified alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-human IgG were co-i...

  10. Efficiency enhancement of perovskite solar cells via incorporation of phenylethenyl side arms into indolocarbazole-based hole transporting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrikyte, Ieva; Zimmermann, Iwan; Rakstys, Kasparas; Daskeviciene, Maryte; Malinauskas, Tadas; Jankauskas, Vygintas; Getautis, Vytautas; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-04-01

    Small-molecule hole transporting materials based on an indolocarbazole core were synthesized and incorporated into perovskite solar cells, which displayed a power conversion efficiency up to 15.24%. The investigated hole transporting materials were synthesized in three steps from commercially available and relatively inexpensive starting materials without using expensive catalysts. Various electro-optical measurements (UV-vis, CV, hole mobility, DSC, TGA, ionization potential) have been carried out to characterize the new hole transporting materials.Small-molecule hole transporting materials based on an indolocarbazole core were synthesized and incorporated into perovskite solar cells, which displayed a power conversion efficiency up to 15.24%. The investigated hole transporting materials were synthesized in three steps from commercially available and relatively inexpensive starting materials without using expensive catalysts. Various electro-optical measurements (UV-vis, CV, hole mobility, DSC, TGA, ionization potential) have been carried out to characterize the new hole transporting materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis procedures, device construction and characterisation details. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01275b

  11. Simulation on the Performance of Dye Solar Cell Incorporated with TiO2 Passivation Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unan Yusmaniar Oktiawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye Solar Cell (DSC has started to gain interest in the recent years for practical application because of its ecofriendly, low cost, and easy fabrication. However, its efficiency is still not as competitive as the conventional silicon based solar cell. One of the research efforts to improve the efficiency of DSC is to use the passivation layer in between the photoelectrode material and the conductive oxide substrate. Thus, the objective of this simulation study is to investigate the effect of passivation layer on the performance of DSC. Properties from literatures which are based on physical work were captured as the input for the simulation using process, ATHENA, and device, ATLAS, simulator. Results have shown that the addition of two-20 nm TiO2 passivation layers on DSC can enhance the efficiency by 11% as the result of less recombination, higher electron mobility, and longer electron lifetime.

  12. Immunoglobulin: production, mechanisms of action and formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Zago Novaretti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunoglobulin (Ig began to be applied in the clinical practice with the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies. Quickly, applications of Ig increased, as its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions were elucidated. Currently, Ig is the most commonly used blood product. Ig is obtained by processing plasma; methods, in particular, techniques to reduce plasma viral loads have been evolving over the years and include: pasteurization, solvent/ detergent treatment, caprylic acid treatment and nanofiltration. These methods contribute to increased safety and quality of blood products. The mechanisms of action of Ig not only involve the blockade of Fc receptors of phagocytes, but also control complement pathways, idiotype-anti-idiotype dimer formation, blockage of superantigen binding to T cells, inhibition of dendritic cells and stimulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs. There are several formulations of Ig available, each one with its own peculiar characteristics. In Brazil, there is stringent legislation regulating the quality of Ig. Only Ig products that completely fulfill the quality control criteria are released for use. These standards involve different tests from visual inspection to determination of anti-complementary activity. This paper will further review the history and current status of Ig, including its production and mechanisms of action. The formulations available in Brazil and also the criteria of quality control currently applied will be presented.

  13. Incorporation of Substrate Cell Lipid A Components into the Lipopolysaccharide of Intraperiplasmically Grown Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, David R.; Rittenberg, Sydney C.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was determined for cells grown axenically and intraperiplasmically on Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas putida. The LPS of axenically grown bdellovibrios contained glucose and fucosamine as the only detectable neutral sugar and amino sugar, and nonadecenoic acid (19:1) as the predominant fatty acid. Additional fatty acids, heptose, ketodeoxyoctoic acid, and phosphate were also detected. LPS from bdellovibrios grown intraperi...

  14. Tailoring Cell Behavior on Polymers by the Incorporation of Titanium Doped Phosphate Glass Filler

    OpenAIRE

    W. Chrzanowski; Abou Neel, E. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Bismarck, A.; Young, A. M.; Hart, A. D.; Dalby, M. J.; Knowles, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding tissue response to materials, to enable modulation and guided tissue regeneration is one of the main challenges in biomaterials science. Nowadays polymers, glasses, and metals dominate as biomaterials. Often native properties of those materials are not sufficient and there is a need to combine them, so as to modify and adjust their properties to the application. The primary aim of this study was to improve cell response to polymer (PLDL) using phosphate glass as filler (titanium...

  15. Enhanced efficiency of polymer solar cells by incorporation of plasmonic gold nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kazim, Samrana; Tran, Vinh Son; Halašová, Klára; Pfleger, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav; Tran, Q. T.

    Badajoz : Formatex Research Center, 2012. s. 124. [The Energy & Materials Research Conference - EMR 2012. 20.06.2012-22.06.2012, Torremolinos] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/0941; GA MŠk 7E10040 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 247745 - FlexNet Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer solar cells * plasmonics * gold nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  16. Efficient small-molecule organic solar cells incorporating a doped buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dei-Wei [Department of aviation and Communication Electronics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung 831, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Yao-Jen [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Nanzih, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Ray; Meen, Teen-Hang [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Hu-Wei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-01

    Small-molecule organic solar cells (OSCs) with an optimized structure of indium tin oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) (10 nm)/CuPc: fullerene (C{sub 60}) mixed (20 nm)/C{sub 60} (20 nm)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) (5 nm)/Ag were fabricated. In this study, the cesium carbonate-doped BPhen (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen) was adopted as the buffer layer to enhance the efficiency of the OSCs. The photovoltaic parameters of the OSCs, such as the short-circuit current density and fill factor, depend on the doping concentration of Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the BPhen layer. The cell with a Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen (1:4) cathode buffer layer exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.51%, compared to 3.37% for the device with the pristine BPhen layer. The enhancement of PCE was attributed to the energy-level alignment between the C{sub 60} layer and the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen layer. In addition, the characterization measured using atomic force microscopy shows that the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}:BPhen layers have smoother surfaces. - Highlight: • Cs2CO3-doped 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) cathode buffer layer. • Cs2CO3:BPhen layer with different ratios affects organic solar cells performance. • Cell with 1:4 (Cs2CO3:BPhen) ratio shows 3.51% power conversion efficiency.

  17. Anti-immunoglobulin-induced apoptosis in WEHI 231 cells involves the slow formation of ceramide from sphingomyelin and is blocked by bcl-XL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, D A; Kilkus, J P; Gottschalk, A R; Quintáns, J; Dawson, G

    1997-04-11

    Prolonged (>24 h) exposure to anti-IgM (an antigen surrogate that induces membrane cross-linking and apoptosis) induced a 3-fold increase in the mass of endogenous ceramide measured by 32P labeling by diacylglycerol kinase and a 4-fold increase in ceramide as measured by metabolic labeling with [3H]palmitate in a B-lymphocyte cell line, WEHI 231. This correlated with the induction of apoptosis. Shorter exposure times to anti-IgM (up to 8 h) failed to elicit apoptosis and did not elicit increased ceramide formation. After 8 h, apoptosis occurs concomitantly with ceramide formation over the next 40 h. Further, we showed that exogenous ceramide mimicked anti-IgM-induced apoptosis and that apoptosis was potentiated in serum-free media. Treatment of cells with an inhibitor of ceramide catabolism, N-oleoylethanolamine, increased both ceramide formation and apoptosis and accelerated apoptosis induced by anti-IgM. To examine further how ceramide metabolism is involved in apoptosis, we derived cell lines from a small population of cells resistant to N-oleoylethanolamine. These cell lines were selected based on an altered ceramide metabolic pathway, were resistant to apoptosis induced by anti-IgM, and showed no significant increase in ceramide when challenged with anti-IgM. The basis of this resistance was shown to be the failure to activate neutral sphingomyelinase activity following 24-h treatment with anti-IgM, in contrast to the 2-fold increase in neutral sphingomyelinase activity observed in wild type cells. We have shown previously that transfection of WEHI cells with bcl-xL conferred resistance to anti-IgM-induced apoptosis, whereas transfection with bcl-2 did not (Gottschalk, A., Boise, L., Thompson, C., and Quintans, J. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 91, 7350-7354). In this study, these bcl-xL transfectants also displayed increased resistance to exogenous N-acetylsphingosine (C2-ceramide) or N-hexanoylsphingosine (C6-ceramide). However, when challenged with

  18. Antibody producing B lineage cells invade the central nervous system predominantly at the time of and triggered by acute Epstein-Barr virus infection: A hypothesis on the origin of intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Carolin; Hofmann, Jörg; Ruprecht, Klemens

    2016-06-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), typically have an intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Intrathecal IgG is produced by B lineage cells that entered the CNS, but why and when these cells invade the CNS of patients with MS is unknown. The intrathecal IgG response in patients with MS is polyspecific and part of it is directed against different common viruses (e.g. measles virus, rubella virus, varicella zoster virus). Strong and consistent evidence suggests an association of MS and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and EBV seroprevalence in patients with MS is practically 100%. However, intriguingly, despite of the universal EBV seroprevalence, the frequency of intrathecally produced IgG to EBV in patients with MS is much lower than that of intrathecally produced IgG to other common viruses. The acute phase of primary EBV infection is characterized by a strong polyclonal B cell activation. As typical for humoral immune responses against viruses, EBV specific IgG is produced only with a temporal delay after acute EBV infection. Aiming to put the above facts into a logical structure, we here propose the hypothesis that in individuals going on to develop MS antibody producing B lineage cells invade the CNS predominantly at the time of and triggered by acute primary EBV infection. Because at the time of acute EBV infection EBV IgG producing B lineage cells have not yet occurred, the hypothesis could explain the universal EBV seroprevalence and the low frequency of intrathecally produced IgG to EBV in patients with MS. Evidence supporting the hypothesis could be provided by large prospective follow-up studies of individuals with symptomatic primary EBV infection (infectious mononucleosis). Furthermore, the clarification of the molecular mechanism underlying an EBV induced invasion of B lineage cells into the CNS of individuals going on to develop MS could corroborate it, too. If true, our

  19. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Exhibits an Altered Tropism in the Presence of Specific Immunoglobulins, Enabling Productive Infection and Killing of Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, L; Windsor, M.; McLaughlin, K.; Hope, J.; Jackson, T; Charleston, B.

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an acute vesicular disease of farm animals. The development of successful control strategies is limited by an incomplete understanding of the immune response to FMDV. Dendritic cells (DC) mediate the induction of immunity to pathogens, but their role in FMDV infection of cattle is uncharacterized. Bovine monocyte-derived DC (moDC) were exposed to integrin-binding and cell culture-adapted strains of FMDV in vitro. MoDC were not largely susceptible to ...

  20. Bio-Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells Incorporating Reaction Center and Reaction Center Plus Light Harvesting Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, Houman

    Harvesting solar energy can potentially be a promising solution to the energy crisis now and in the future. However, material and processing costs continue to be the most important limitations for the commercial devices. A key solution to these problems might lie within the development of bio-hybrid solar cells that seeks to mimic photosynthesis to harvest solar energy and to take advantage of the low material costs, negative carbon footprint, and material abundance. The bio-photoelectrochemical cell technologies exploit biomimetic means of energy conversion by utilizing plant-derived photosystems which can be inexpensive and ultimately the most sustainable alternative. Plants and photosynthetic bacteria harvest light, through special proteins called reaction centers (RCs), with high efficiency and convert it into electrochemical energy. In theory, photosynthetic RCs can be used in a device to harvest solar energy and generate 1.1 V open circuit voltage and ~1 mA cm-2 short circuit photocurrent. Considering the nearly perfect quantum yield of photo-induced charge separation, efficiency of a protein-based solar cell might exceed 20%. In practice, the efficiency of fabricated devices has been limited mainly due to the challenges in the electron transfer between the protein complex and the device electrodes as well as limited light absorption. The overarching goal of this work is to increase the power conversion efficiency in protein-based solar cells by addressing those issues (i.e. electron transfer and light absorption). This work presents several approaches to increase the charge transfer rate between the photosynthetic RC and underlying electrode as well as increasing the light absorption to eventually enhance the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of bio-hybrid solar cells. The first approach is to decrease the electron transfer distance between one of the redox active sites in the RC and the underlying electrode by direct attachment of the of protein complex

  1. Hybrid nanostructured solar cells based on the incorporation of inorganic nanoparticles in polymer-fullerene mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Jilian N.; Nogueira, Ana Flávia

    2010-08-01

    Ternary systems based on mixtures of polymer, PCBM and CdSe nanoparticles were investigated. The photophysical and electrochemical properties were modulated by changing the size of the inorganic nanoparticles and their effects on the performance of the solar cells were analyzed. At the optimized conditions, the presence of the nanoparticles increased the photocurrent and photovoltage, improving the efficiency of the devices. A complete study on the morphologic effects induced by the presence of these nanoparticles was performed using AFM, HR-TEM and optical microscopy techniques.

  2. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2011-01-05

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA.

  3. Serotype-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in children with sickle cell anemia : Effects of continued penicillin prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjornson, AB; Falletta, JM; Verter, JI; Buchanan, GR; Miller, ST; Pegelow, CH; Iyer, RV; Johnstone, HS; DeBaun, MR; Wethers, DL; Woods, GM; Holbrook, CT; Becton, DL; Kinney, TR; Reaman, GH; Kalinyak, K; Grossman, NJ; Vichinsky, E; Reid, CD

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To determine serotype-specific IgG antibody responses to reimmunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at age 5 years ski children with sickle cell anemia and (2) to determine whether continued penicillin prophylaxis had any adverse effects on these responses. Study design:

  4. Microsphere-Incorporated Hybrid Thermogel for Neuronal Differentiation of Tonsil Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Madhumita; Moon, Hyo Jung; Jung, Bo Kyung; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2015-07-15

    Neuronal differentiation of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) is investigated in a 3D hybrid system. The hybrid system is prepared by increasing the temperature of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-alanine) aqueous solution to 37 °C through the heat-induced sol-to-gel transition, in which TMSCs and growth factor releasing microspheres are suspended. The in situ formed gel exhibits a modulus of 800 Pa at 37 °C, similar to that of brain tissue, and it is robust enough to hold the microspheres and cells during the 3D culture of TMSCs. The neuronal growth factors are released over 12-18 d, and the TMSCs in a spherical shape initially undergo multipolar elongation during the 3D culture. Significantly higher expressions of the neuronal biomarkers such as nuclear receptor related protein (Nurr-1), neuron specific enolase, microtubule associated protein-2, neurofilament-M, and glial fibrillary acidic protein are observed in both mRNA level and protein level in the hybrid systems than in the control experiments. This study proves the significance of a controlled drug delivery concept in tissue engineering or regenerative medicine, and a 3D hybrid system with controlled release of growth factors from microspheres in a thermogel can be a very promising tool. PMID:26033880

  5. Au nanorods-incorporated plasmonic-enhanced inverted organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ling; Mei, Yang; Chen, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Yu-Pei; Hao, Jing-Yu; Deng, Ling-Ling; Huang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    The effect of Au nanorods (NRs) on optical-to-electric conversion efficiency is investigated in inverted polymer solar cells, in which Au NRs are sandwiched between two layers of ZnO. Accompanied by the optimization of thickness of ZnO covered on Au NRs, a high-power conversion efficiency of 3.60% and an enhanced short-circuit current density (JSC) of 10.87 mA/cm2 are achieved in the poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC60BM)-based inverted cell and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is enhanced by 19.6% compared with the control device. The detailed analyses of the light absorption characteristics, the simulated scattering induced by Au NRs, and the electromagnetic field around Au NRs show that the absorption improvement in the photoactive layer due to the light scattering from the longitudinal axis and the near-field increase around Au NRs induced by localized surface plasmon resonance plays a key role in enhancing the performances. Project supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012CB933301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274065, 51173081, 61136003, BZ2010043, 51372119, and 51172110), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Provincial Higher Education Institutions and Synergetic Innovation Center for Organic Electronics and Information Displays, China.

  6. Au nanorods-incorporated plasmonic-enhanced inverted organic solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玲; 梅杨; 陈淑芬; 张玉佩; 郝敬昱; 邓玲玲; 黄维

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Au nanorods (NRs) on optical-to-electric conversion efficiency is investigated in inverted polymer solar cells, in which Au NRs are sandwiched between two layers of ZnO. Accompanied by the optimization of thickness of ZnO covered on Au NRs, a high-power conversion efficiency of 3.60%and an enhanced short-circuit current density (JSC) of 10.87 mA/cm2 are achieved in the poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC60BM)-based inverted cell and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is enhanced by 19.6%compared with the control device. The detailed analyses of the light absorption characteristics, the simulated scattering induced by Au NRs, and the electromag-netic field around Au NRs show that the absorption improvement in the photoactive layer due to the light scattering from the longitudinal axis and the near-field increase around Au NRs induced by localized surface plasmon resonance plays a key role in enhancing the performances.

  7. Fuel-Cell Power Systems Incorporating Mg-Based H2 Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew; Narayan, Sri R.

    2009-01-01

    Two hydrogen generators based on reactions involving magnesium and steam have been proposed as means for generating the fuel (hydrogen gas) for such fuel-cell power systems as those to be used in the drive systems of advanced motor vehicles. The hydrogen generators would make it unnecessary to rely on any of the hydrogen storage systems developed thus far that are, variously, too expensive, too heavy, too bulky, and/or too unsafe to be practical. The two proposed hydrogen generators are denoted basic and advanced, respectively. In the basic hydrogen generator (see figure), steam at a temperature greater than or equals 330 C would be fed into a reactor charged with magnesium, wherein hydrogen would be released in the exothermic reaction Mg + H2O yields MgO + H2. The steam would be made in a flash boiler. To initiate the reaction, the boiler could be heated electrically by energy borrowed from a storage battery that would be recharged during normal operation of the associated fuel-cell subsystem. Once the reaction was underway, heat from the reaction would be fed to the boiler. If the boiler were made an integral part of the hydrogen-generator reactor vessel, then the problem of transfer of heat from the reactor to the boiler would be greatly simplified. A pump would be used to feed water from a storage tank to the boiler.

  8. Incorporation of ester groups into low band-gap diketopyrrolopyrrole containing polymers for solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xiaolian; Zuo, Lijian; Fu, Weifei;

    2012-01-01

    To increase the open circuit voltage (VOC) of polymer solar cells based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) containing polymers, the weakly electron-withdrawing thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate unit was introduced into the polymer backbone. Two ester group functionalized DPP containing polymers, PCTDPP with a....... The PSC based on a PCTDPP:PCBM blend shows a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 3.52%, with a VOC of 0.66 V, a short circuit current (ISC) of 8.53 mA cm−2, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.63. For the PDCTDPP:PCBM blend, the highest VOC reaches a value of 0.84 V, and a final PCE (0.92%) is limited by...

  9. Should mediastinoscopy actually be incorporated into the FDG PET strategy for patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporating mediastinoscopy (MS) into the PET-based strategy for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients might be cost-effective because MS can allow unnecessary thoracotomies to be avoided. The objective of our study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of incorporating MS into a PET strategy for NSCLC patients. To determine life expectancy (LE), quality adjusted life years (QALY), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), a decision-tree sensitivity analysis was designed for histopathologically confirmed NSCLC patients with M0 disease, based on the three competing strategies of chest CT only vs. PET+CT vs. PET+CT+MS. A simulation of 1,000 NSCLC patients was created using baselines of other relevant variables in regard to sensitivity, specificity, mortality, LE, utilities and cost from published data. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the influences of mediastinal metastasis prevalence on LE, QALY and ICER. The LE and QALY per patient in the CT only strategy, PET+CT strategy and PET+CT+MS strategy were 4.79 and 4.35, 5.33 and 4.93 and 5.68 and 5.33 years, respectively, with a 20% prevalence of mediastinal metastasis. The ICERs were 906.6 yen x 103 (US$7,555)/QALY/patient at a 20% mediastinal metastasis prevalence, and 2,194 yen x 103 (US$18,282)/QALY/patient at a 50% prevalence, but exceeded 5,280 yen x 103 (US$44,000)/QALY/patient at 80%. Our study quantitatively showed the CT+PET+MS strategy in place of the PET+CT strategy in managing NSCLC patients to be cost-effective. MS should be incorporated into the PET+CT strategy for NSCLC patients except in those highly suspected of having mediastinal disease on chest CT or PET. (author)

  10. Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) produced by a human T-T hybridoma suppresses pokeweed mitogen (PWM) induced immunoglobulin (Ig) production by human mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human T lymphocytes are capable of secreting many different lymphokines which regulate Ig production. The authors produced a human T-T fusion between T cells from a normal donor and the T lymphoma line CEM-6. From this fusion 3 of 180 clones produced a factor which suppressed polyclonal Ig production by PWM-stimulated mononuclear cells. All 3 clones expressed both T4 and T8 surface markers; CEM-6 is T4+/T8+. Suppression of Ig production did not involve cytotoxicity and was most effective when the hybridoma supernatant was added during the first 3 d of culture. Production of the suppressive factor could be inhibited by corticosteroids but not indomethacin. Analysis of the hybridoma supernatant by reverse phase chromatography revealed a peak of suppressive activity in the fraction where purified LTC4 could be eluted. Crude hybridoma supernatant contained 10-50 ng/ml of LTC4, but no LTB4 by radioimmunoassay (RIA). In addition, LTC4 produced by the hybridomas co-eluted with purified LTC4 as assessed by RIA. No LTC4 was found in nonsuppressive hybridoma supernatants. Furthermore, antibody to LTC4 could absorb suppressive activity from hybridoma supernatants. Thus, human T lymphocytes produce LTC4 which suppresses polyclonal Ig production by human mononuclear cells

  11. Myristoylation and the post-translational acquisition of hydrophobicity by the membrane immunoglobulin heavy-chain polypeptide in B lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, S; Baltimore, D

    1987-01-01

    Membrane immunoglobulin heavy chain in pre-B and in B cells is initially synthesized as a relatively hydrophilic protein that is nonetheless stably anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. In B cells, but not in pre-B cells, the membrane immunoglobulin heavy chain is post-translationally converted to a relatively hydrophobic form that partitions into the oil phase when solubilized with the phase-separating detergent Triton X-114. Covalent myristoylation of the membrane and secretory fo...

  12. Efficiency Enhancement in Organic Solar Cells by Incorporating Silica-coated Gold Nanorods at the Buffer/Active interface

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Haoyang; Tong, Peiqian; Cui, Yanxia; Hao, Yuying; Sun, Qinjun; Shi, Fang; Zhan, Qiuqiang; Wang, Hua; Zhu, Furong

    2015-01-01

    The performance of organic solar cells (OSCs) can be greatly improved by incorporating silica-coated gold nanorods (Au@SiO2 NRs) at the interface between the hole transporting layer and the active layer due to the plasmonic effect. The silica shell impedes the aggregation effect of the Au NRs in ethanol solution as well as the server charge recombination on the surface of the Au NRs otherwise they would bring forward serious reduction in open circuit voltage when incorporating the Au NRs at the positions in contact with the active materials. As a result, while the high open circuit voltage being maintained, the optimized plasmonic OSCs possess an increased short circuit current, and correspondingly an elevated power conversion efficiency with the enhancement factor of ~11%. The origin of performance improvement in OSCs with the Au@SiO2 NRs was analyzed systematically using morphological, electrical, optical characterizations along with theoretical simulation. It is found that the broadband enhancement in abso...

  13. Synthetic Cyclolipopeptides Selective against Microbial, Plant and Animal Cell Targets by Incorporation of D-Amino Acids or Histidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Sílvia; Badosa, Esther; Montesinos, Emilio; Planas, Marta; Feliu, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Cyclolipopeptides derived from the antimicrobial peptide c(Lys-Lys-Leu-Lys-Lys-Phe-Lys-Lys-Leu-Gln) (BPC194) were prepared on solid-phase and screened against four plant pathogens. The incorporation at Lys5 of fatty acids of 4 to 9 carbon atoms led to active cyclolipopeptides. The influence on the antimicrobial activity of the Lys residue that is derivatized was also evaluated. In general, acylation of Lys1, Lys2 or Lys5 rendered the sequences with the highest activity. Incorporation of a D-amino acid maintained the antimicrobial activity while significantly reduced the hemolysis. Replacement of Phe with a His also yielded cyclolipopeptides with low hemolytic activity. Derivatives exhibiting low phytotoxicity in tobacco leaves were also found. Interestingly, sequences with or without significant activity against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi, but with differential hemolysis and phytotoxicity were identified. Therefore, this study represents an approach to the development of bioactive peptides with selective activity against microbial, plant and animal cell targets. These selective cyclolipopeptides are candidates useful not only to combat plant pathogens but also to be applied in other fields. PMID:27008420

  14. Production of Prednisolone by Pseudomonas oleovorans Cells Incorporated Into PVP/PEO Radiation Crosslinked Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abd El-Hady

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to rise the yield of prednisolone from hydrocortisone, the Pseudomonas oleovorans cells were entrapped into radiation crosslinked poly (vinyl pyrrolidone/poly(ethylene oxide (PVP/PEO hydrogel of different gel contents. The factors affecting the gel content and swelling behavior of the polymeric gel, such as polymer composition, polymer blend concentration, and irradiation doses, were investigated. The formation of gels having a good strength with the ability to retain a desirable amount of water in their three-dimensional network can be achieved by using PVP/PEO copolymer of composition (90:10 and concentration of 15% prepared at 20 kGy irradiation dose. At these conditions the prepared hydrogel is considered the most favorable one that gave the highest hydrocortisone bioconversion and prednisolone yield, 81% and 62.8%, respectively. The improvement of prednisolone yield was also achieved by increasing substrate concentration. Maximum hydrocortisone bioconversion (86.44 was obtained at 18 hours by using substrate concentration of 30 mg. Reusability of immobilized Pseudomonas oleovorans entrapped into PVP/PEO copolymer hydrogel was studied. The results indicated that the transformation capacity of hydrocortisone to prednisolone highly increased by the repeated use of copolymer for 4 times. This was accompanied by an increase in prednisolone yield to 89% and the bioconversion of hydrocortisone was 98.8%.

  15. DNA between variable and joining gene segments of immunoglobulin kappa light chain is frequently retained in cells that rearrange the kappa locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ness, B G; Coleclough, C; Perry, R P; Weigert, M

    1982-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the fate of the DNA between kappa chain variable (V kappa) and joining (J kappa) genes in cells that have rearranged kappa loci was carried out. The DNA from a variety of kappa-producing plasmacytomas, lambda-producing hybridomas, and kappa-expressing lymphocytes was digested, fractionated by size, and analyzed with two probes containing sequences 5' of J kappa. In 13 of 28 plasmacytomas examined the rearrangement of V kappa and J kappa appears to be accompanied by lo...

  16. Synthesis of silver quantum dots decorated TiO2 nanotubes and their incorporation in organic hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniform silver quantum dots decorated TiO2 nanotubes (Ag-TiO2 NTs) were synthesized via a simple reduction reaction in ethanol solvent. The size distribution of composite NTs arranges from 3 to 5 nm for Ag quantum dots and about 10 nm for TiO2 NTs in diameter. The composite Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles were incorporated in organic hybrid solar cells through doping into the active layer. Both the optical and electrical properties of the solar cells were improved. The photocurrent and fill factor of the devices were obviously increased after the Ag-TiO2 NTs were introduced, accompanied with a greatly reduced series resistance as well as enlarged shunt resistance. Suppressed recombination due to efficient charge transfer from plasmonic Ag quantum dots to the attached TiO2 NTs made contribution to the charge collection and transportation so that the fill factor was increased. Meanwhile, the enhanced light absorption resulted from effective incident light scattering by the Ag-TiO2 NTs composite played a role in increasing photocurrent. As a result, solar cells with Ag-TiO2 NTs generated an enhanced conversion efficiency up to 20 and 50 % compared to that adopting TiO2 NTs and that without doping, respectively

  17. Evidence for an adaptive response to radiation damage in plant cells conditioned with X-rays or incorporated tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allium cepa root-tips were first exposed to low 'conditioning' doses of ionizing radiation: to X-rays (0.06 or 0.26 Gy) or incorporated tritium (1.8 x 104 or 7.2 x 104 Bq/ml; specific activity: 740.0 GBq/mmol) and subsequently given a 'challenge' dose of 1.5 Gy of X-rays. Reduction in X-ray-induced chromosomal damage was brought about by prior exposure to 0.26 Gy of X-rays, while cells receiving the lower conditioning dose (0.06 Gy of X-rays) did not show significant reduction. In cells grown in the presence of [3H]TdR, the adaptive response was evident after both doses given. Results are essentially in agreement with those published by Wolff's group for human lymphocytes in showing that plant cells in vivo can become 'adapted' by exposure to low-level irradiation so that they become more resistant to the clastogenic effects of X-rays delivered subsequently. (author)

  18. A Novel Non-Immunoglobulin (non-Ig)/BCL6 Translocation in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Involving Chromosome 10q11.21 Loci and Review on Clinical Consequences of BCL6 Rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, Marie; Kriegova, Eva; Schneiderova, Petra; Fillerova, Regina; Prochazka, Vit; Mikesova, Michaela; Flodr, Patrik; Indrak, Karel; Papajik, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    BCL6 rearrangements (3q27) are the most common chromosomal abnormalities in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with numerous immunoglobulin (Ig) and non-Ig genes as partners. In DLBCL, the translocations occur predominantly in the "major breakpoint region" encompassing the first noncoding exon and a part of the first intron of BCL6; few cases with "alternative breakpoint cluster" located 245-285 kb 5' BCL6 were also described. The regulatory sequences of known Ig and non-Ig partners replace the 5' untranslated region of the BCL6 in the same transcriptional orientation. Contrary to Ig/BCL6 fusions typical by high BCL6 gene expression, in non-Ig/BCL6 translocations were observed unexpectedly low BCL6 mRNA levels. From the clinical point of view, the survival rate of DLBCL patients with non-Ig partners is inferior to those with Ig/BCL6 translocations, suggesting that non-Ig/BCL6 fusion is a poor prognostic indicator. Hereby we provide comprehensive information about known non-Ig translocation partners and clinical consequences of BCL6 rearrangements in DLBCL. Moreover, we describe a novel reciprocal translocation t(3;10) in refractory patient with DLBCL with the breaking points at 5' untranslated region of BCL6 and 5' untranslated region of the RASGEF1A gene on chromosome 10q11.21 loci; this rearrangement was associated with low BCL6 and RASGEF1A gene expressions. Our patient harbouring dual chromosomal rearrangement involving BCL2 and BCL6 genes relapsed three-times and died soon; thus, further supporting the notion that non-Ig/BCL6 fusion is a poor prognostic indicator of DLBCL. There is evidence of prognostic value of BCL6 rearrangements also in rituximab era. PMID:26319027

  19. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin in lymphoproliferative disorders and rituximab-related secondary hypogammaglobulinemia: a single-center experience in 61 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagno, Nicolò; Cinetto, Francesco; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Agostini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy represents the standard treatment for hypogammaglobulinemia secondary to B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusion is an effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment approach in primary immunodeficiencies but no extensive data are available on their use in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, a frequent phenomenon occurring after treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in lymphoproliferative disorders. In this retrospective study we evaluated efficacy (serum IgG trough levels, incidence of infections per year, need for antibiotics) and safety (number of adverse events) of intravenous (300 mg/kg/4 weeks) versus subcutaneous (75 mg/kg/week) immunoglobulin replacement therapy in 61 patients. In addition, the impact of the infusion methods on quality of life was compared. All patients were treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin, and 33 out of them had been previously treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Both treatments appeared to be effective in replacing Ig production deficiency and in reducing the incidence of infectious events and the need for antibiotics. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin obtained a superior benefit when compared to intravenous immunoglobulin achieving higher IgG trough levels, lower incidence of overall infection and need for antibiotics. The incidence of serious bacterial infections was similar with both infusion ways. As expected, a lower number of adverse events was registered with subcutaneous immunoglobulin, compared to intravenous immunoglobulin, with no serious adverse events. Finally, we observed an improvement in health-related quality of life parameters after the switch to subcutaneous immunoglobulin. Our results suggest that subcutaneous immunoglobulin is safe and effective in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia associated to lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:24682509

  20. Platelet-derived growth factor stimulation of [3H]-glucosamine incorporation in density-arrested BALB/c-3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G0/G1 traverse in density-arrested BALB/c-3T3 cells is controlled by multiple serum-derived growth factors. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) initiates a proliferative response, whereas factors present in plasma facilitate progression through G0/G1. In the absence of competence formation, progression factors are unable to stimulate cell cycle traverse. The authors have identified the stimulation of a biochemical process specific to competence formation in BALB/c-3T3 cells. PDGF treated BALB/c-3T3 cells incorporated 5-10 fold more [3H]-glucosamine (GlcN) into acid-insoluble material as compared to platelet-poor plasma (PPP) treated cultures. Increased GlcN incorporation occurred in density-arrested BALB/c-3T3 cells in response to treatment with other competence factors, fibroblast growth factor, and Ca3 (PO4)2 and was not due to cell-cycle traverse. Stimulation of [3H]-GlcN incorporation by PDGF was time dependent, and increased incorporation of [3H]-GlcN into protein required de novo protein synthesis. Several mechanisms through which PDGF could increase GlcN incorporation into cellular material were examined. Results of these studies suggest an increase in the cellular capacity to glycosylate proteins is a response to or a part of competence formation

  1. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Translational Research Program Stem Cell Symposium: Incorporating Stem Cell Hypotheses into Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease sites. This report summarizes the major topics discussed and the future directions that research should take. Major conclusions of the symposium were that the flow cytometry of multiple markers in fresh tissue would remain the standard technique of evaluating cancer-initiating cells and that surrogates need to be developed for both experimental and clinical use.

  2. RADIATION THERAPY ONCOLOGY GROUP TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM STEM CELL SYMPOSIUM : INCORPORATING STEM CELL HYPOTHESES INTO CLINICAL TRIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodward, Wendy A.; Bristow, Robert G.; Clarke, Michael F.; Coppes, Robert P.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Duda, Dan G.; Fike, John R.; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Hill, Richard P.; Jordan, Craig T.; Milas, Luka; Pajonk, Frank; Curran, Walter J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2009-01-01

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease si

  3. Analysis of the Expression and Function of Immunoglobulin-Like Transcript 4 (ILT4, LILRB2) in Dendritic Cells from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-de Blas, Paola del Carmen; Villaseñor-Talavera, Yael Sebastián; Cruz-González, Daniela de Jesús; Baranda, Lourdes; Doníz-Padilla, Lesly; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; González-Amaro, Roberto; Monsiváis-Urenda, Adriana Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play an important role in the development and maintenance of immune tolerance. Although the inhibitory receptor ILT4/LILRB2 has been related with the tolerogenic phenotype of DC, the possible role of this receptor in the breakdown of DC tolerogenic function in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has not been elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the expression and function of the inhibitory receptor ILT4 in DC from SLE patients. We found that the percentage of ILT4 positive plasmacytoid DC and myeloid DC is significantly diminished in SLE patients. Interestingly, ligation of ILT4 did not affect the maturation or immunogenic capability of DC in healthy controls. In contrast, in SLE patients we observed an inhibitory effect of ILT4 on the immunogenic capability of DC. ILT4 was shown not to have a crucial role in regulating the maturation and function of DC from healthy controls but is partially involved in the maturation process and immunogenic capability of DC from SLE patients, suggesting that other inhibitory receptors, involved in the regulation of DC tolerogenic function, may be impaired in this autoimmune disease. PMID:27057555

  4. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy: Basic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN is one of the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in many countries. Most clinical features of IgAN point to a renal problem, such as recurrent macroscopic hematuria or asymptomatic microscopic hematuria and proteinuria. Pathologic features of IgAN present with different types and different degrees of glomerular tubulointerstitial and vascular lesions. The aim of this study was detailed analysis of clinical and laboratory findings, as well as findings of immunofluorescence and light microscopy. We also investigated associations between these factors. Material and methods We investigated 60 patients who underwent renal biopsy. The study was partly retrospective and partly prospective. Results The average age of patients was 34.19 years. Male female ratio was 2.33:1. IgAN was most frequently asymptomatic (83.33% as microhematuria and proteinuria, while gross hematuria was found in 16.667%. Renal biopsy material was analyzed by light microscopy revealing changes in all glomerular structures. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated dominant IgA deposits. This study established association of glomerulosclerosis with clinical features of disease. Discussion and conclusions IgAN frequently develops in the 4th decade of life, mostly in males and presents as asymptomatic (83.33%. Patohistological changes include all glomerular structures. There is no specific serological test for IgAN, but pathological changes affect clinical features of the disease, as proteinuria and increase of creatinine concentration.

  5. Comprehensive N-Glycan Profiling of Avian Immunoglobulin Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán Martín, Silvia; Wormald, Mark R.; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Conroy, Paul J.; O’Kennedy, Richard J.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Saldova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:27459092

  6. Comprehensive N-Glycan Profiling of Avian Immunoglobulin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgunn, Sarah; Millán Martín, Silvia; Wormald, Mark R; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Conroy, Paul J; O'Kennedy, Richard J; Rudd, Pauline M; Saldova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:27459092

  7. Presence and conservation of the immunoglobulin superfamily in insects: current perspective and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mandrioli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous proteins that contain a bona fide immunoglobulin domain have been identified in the last decade showing that immunoglobulin-like proteins are quite common in metazoans. In particular, recent surveys identified more than 140 immunoglobulin-like proteins in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and Bombyx mori. A well-studied example of immunoglobulin-like protein is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam that, accordingly to comparative molecular analyses, showed a high conservation in Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, together with a conserved presence of alternative splicing that permitted insects to possess an unsuspected molecular complexity of their innate immune system. At a functional level, immunoglobulin-like proteins seem to be capable of reacting to pathogen challenges and may contribute to the defense against infection so that they are candidates as immune effector molecules in insects. Preliminary findings on insect-borne plant and animal diseases suggest a possible role of the immunoglobulin-like proteins in the vectorial capacity

  8. Zn and Sr incorporated 64S bioglasses: Material characterization, in-vitro bioactivity and mesenchymal stem cell responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaoli [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Meng, Guolong [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Wang, Shanling [Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wu, Fang, E-mail: fwu@scu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Huang, Wanxia, E-mail: huangwanxia@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Gu, Zhongwei [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2015-07-01

    Essential element like Zn or Sr is known to play an important role in bone remodeling process. In this study, we have used the sol–gel process to synthesize the Zn (2%) and Sr (5%) doped 64S bioglasses (BGs, 64SiO{sub 2}–5P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–31CaO, mol.%), alone and co-doped. The synthesized glasses were characterized by XRD, FTIR and STEM. For biological evaluation, the effects of Zn and Sr incorporation on the in vitro bioactivity of the synthesized BGs were studied using the simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking. The proliferation and differentiation (ALP, OCN) of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on these BGs were studied using CCK-8 and ELISA analyses. The results indicated that Zn had been uniformly incorporated into the bioglass, and demonstrated a stimulating effect on apatite-like layer formation, MSC proliferation and differentiation. On the other hand, most of Sr appeared to form a secondary crystal phase with extremely high solubility in SBF, showing an enhancing effect only in MSC differentiation but not in proliferation, as well as an inhibitory effect on apatite-like layer formation. The different dissolution behaviors of Sr and Zn ions seemed to have a strong correlation with the different apatite-like layer formation capabilities and the cellular responses of Zn and Sr containing BGs. - Highlights: • We synthesized the Zn (2%) and Sr (5%) doped 64S bioglasses, alone and co-doped. • Most of Sr appeared to form a secondary crystal phase. • Sr demonstrated a stimulating effect only on MSC differentiation. • We suggest likely different stimulating mechanisms of Sr and Zn toward MSC responses.

  9. Residue-specific Incorporation of Noncanonical Amino Acids into Model Proteins Using an Escherichia coli Cell-free Transcription-translation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worst, Emanuel G; Exner, Matthias P; De Simone, Alessandro; Schenkelberger, Marc; Noireaux, Vincent; Budisa, Nediljko; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    The canonical set of amino acids leads to an exceptionally wide range of protein functionality. Nevertheless, the set of residues still imposes limitations on potential protein applications. The incorporation of noncanonical amino acids can enlarge this scope. There are two complementary approaches for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids. For site-specific incorporation, in addition to the endogenous canonical translational machineries, an orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase-tRNA pair must be provided that does not interact with the canonical ones. Consequently, a codon that is not assigned to a canonical amino acid, usually a stop codon, is also required. This genetic code expansion enables the incorporation of a noncanonical amino acid at a single, given site within the protein. The here presented work describes residue-specific incorporation where the genetic code is reassigned within the endogenous translational system. The translation machinery accepts the noncanonical amino acid as a surrogate to incorporate it at canonically prescribed locations, i.e., all occurrences of a canonical amino acid in the protein are replaced by the noncanonical one. The incorporation of noncanonical amino acids can change the protein structure, causing considerably modified physical and chemical properties. Noncanonical amino acid analogs often act as cell growth inhibitors for expression hosts since they modify endogenous proteins, limiting in vivo protein production. In vivo incorporation of toxic noncanonical amino acids into proteins remains particularly challenging. Here, a cell-free approach for a complete replacement of L-arginine by the noncanonical amino acid L-canavanine is presented. It circumvents the inherent difficulties of in vivo expression. Additionally, a protocol to prepare target proteins for mass spectral analysis is included. It is shown that L-lysine can be replaced by L-hydroxy-lysine, albeit with lower efficiency. In principle, any

  10. Hydrogen exchange during cell-free incorporation of deuterated amino acids and an approach to its inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelli, Marco; Singarapu, Kiran K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison (NMRFAM), Department of Biochemistry (United States); Makino, Shin-ichi; Sahu, Sarata C.; Matsubara, Yuko [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics (CESG), Department of Biochemistry (United States); Endo, Yaeta [Ehime University, Cell-Free Science and Technology Research Center (Japan); Kainosho, Masatsune [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Center for Priority Areas (Japan); Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison (NMRFAM), Department of Biochemistry (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Perdeuteration, selective deuteration, and stereo array isotope labeling (SAIL) are valuable strategies for NMR studies of larger proteins and membrane proteins. To minimize scrambling of the label, it is best to use cell-free methods to prepare selectively labeled proteins. However, when proteins are prepared from deuterated amino acids by cell-free translation in H{sub 2}O, exchange reactions can lead to contamination of {sup 2}H sites by {sup 1}H from the solvent. Examination of a sample of SAIL-chlorella ubiquitin prepared by Escherichia coli cell-free synthesis revealed that exchange had occurred at several residues (mainly at Gly, Ala, Asp, Asn, Glu, and Gln). We present results from a study aimed at identifying the exchanging sites and level of exchange and at testing a strategy for minimizing {sup 1}H contamination during wheat germ cell-free translation of proteins produced from deuterated amino acids by adding known inhibitors of transaminases (1 mM aminooxyacetic acid) and glutamate synthetase (0.1 mM l-methionine sulfoximine). By using a wheat germ cell-free expression system, we produced [U-{sup 2}H, {sup 15}N]-chlorella ubiquitin without and with added inhibitors, and [U-{sup 15}N]-chlorella ubiquitin as a reference to determine the extent of deuterium incorporation. We also prepared a sample of [U-{sup 13}C, {sup 15}N]-chlorella ubiquitin, for use in assigning the sites of exchange. The added inhibitors did not reduce the protein yield and were successful in blocking hydrogen exchange at C{sup {alpha}} sites, with the exception of Gly, and at C{sup {beta}} sites of Ala. We discovered, in addition, that partial exchange occurred with or without the inhibitors at certain side-chain methyl and methylene groups: Asn-H{sup {beta}}, Asp-H{sup {beta}}, Gln-H{sup {gamma}}, Glu-H{sup {gamma}}, and Lys-H{sup {epsilon}}. The side-chain labeling pattern, in particular the mixed chiral labeling resulting from partial exchange at certain sites, should be of

  11. Hydrogen exchange during cell-free incorporation of deuterated amino acids and an approach to its inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdeuteration, selective deuteration, and stereo array isotope labeling (SAIL) are valuable strategies for NMR studies of larger proteins and membrane proteins. To minimize scrambling of the label, it is best to use cell-free methods to prepare selectively labeled proteins. However, when proteins are prepared from deuterated amino acids by cell-free translation in H2O, exchange reactions can lead to contamination of 2H sites by 1H from the solvent. Examination of a sample of SAIL-chlorella ubiquitin prepared by Escherichia coli cell-free synthesis revealed that exchange had occurred at several residues (mainly at Gly, Ala, Asp, Asn, Glu, and Gln). We present results from a study aimed at identifying the exchanging sites and level of exchange and at testing a strategy for minimizing 1H contamination during wheat germ cell-free translation of proteins produced from deuterated amino acids by adding known inhibitors of transaminases (1 mM aminooxyacetic acid) and glutamate synthetase (0.1 mM l-methionine sulfoximine). By using a wheat germ cell-free expression system, we produced [U–2H, 15N]-chlorella ubiquitin without and with added inhibitors, and [U–15N]-chlorella ubiquitin as a reference to determine the extent of deuterium incorporation. We also prepared a sample of [U–13C, 15N]-chlorella ubiquitin, for use in assigning the sites of exchange. The added inhibitors did not reduce the protein yield and were successful in blocking hydrogen exchange at Cα sites, with the exception of Gly, and at Cβ sites of Ala. We discovered, in addition, that partial exchange occurred with or without the inhibitors at certain side-chain methyl and methylene groups: Asn–Hβ, Asp–Hβ, Gln–Hγ, Glu–Hγ, and Lys–Hε. The side-chain labeling pattern, in particular the mixed chiral labeling resulting from partial exchange at certain sites, should be of interest in studies of large proteins, protein complexes, and membrane proteins.

  12. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids on ( sup 3 H)-vitamin E incorporation into pulmonary artery endothelial cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekharam, K.M.; Patel, J.M.; Block, E.R. (Univ. of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Vitamin E, a dietary antioxidant, is presumed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer of biological membranes to an extent proportional to the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids or phospholipids in the membrane. In the present study we evaluated the distribution of incorporated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in various membranes of pulmonary artery endothelial cells. We also studied whether incorporation of PUFA or PE is responsible for increased incorporation of (3H)-vitamin E into the membranes of these cells. Following a 24-hr incubation with linoleic acid (18:2), 18:2 was increased by 6.9-, 9.2-, and 13.2-fold in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. Incorporation of 18:2 caused significant increases in the unsaturation indexes of mitochondrial and microsomal polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Incubation with arachidonic acid (20:4) for 24 hr resulted in 1.5-, 2.3-, and 2.4-fold increases in 20:4 in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. The unsaturation indexes of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes also increased (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Although incubations with 18:2 or 20:4 resulted in several-fold increases in membrane 18:2 or 20:4 fatty acids, incorporation of (3H)-vitamin E into these membranes was similar to that in controls. Following a 24-hr incubation with PE, membrane PE content was significantly increased, and (3H)-vitamin E incorporation was also increased to a comparable degree, i.e., plasma membrane greater than mitochondria greater than microsomes. Endogenous vitamin E content of the cells was not altered because of increased incorporation of PE and (3H)-vitamin E.

  13. [Immunoglobulin for prevention of radiogenic mucositis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mose, S; Adamietz, I A; Thilmann, C; Saran, F; Heyd, R; Knecht, R; Böttcher, H D

    1995-07-01

    Among various therapies administered during radiation-induced mucositis, treatment with immunoglobulin has proven clinically successful. In this study the efficacy of prophylactic applications of immunoglobulin was investigated from January 1992 through August 1993. Forty-two patients with histologically-proven head and neck cancer were given postoperative radiation treatment. In cases with macroscopic tumor residues or inoperability, combined radio-chemotherapy was given. This included 51.3 Gy at 1.9 Gy 5x/week, boosted to 10-26 Gy at 2 Gy 5x/week and carboplatin 60 mg/m2 at days 1-5 and 29-33. Panthenol (4x10 ml/day) and nystatin (4 x 1 ml/day) were given to 20 patients as prophylactic treatment for mucositis. Twenty-two subsequent patients also received intramuscular 800 mg (5 ml) human immunoglobulin (1x/week). According to the Seegenschmiedt/Sauer classification the extent of mucositis was determined 3x/week. Comparison of the distribution of maximal mucositis revealed a slightly more severe mucosal reaction in the control group (n.s.). Analysis of the mean degree of mucositis in both groups demonstrated statistically significant differences (p = 0.031) related to the whole collective and patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy while no effect of immunoglobulin was found in patients treated by radiation alone. In the immunoglobulin-treated-group, the time from the beginning of therapy to the first interruption was prolonged 5 days (37.5 +/- 13.1 vs. 42.7 +/- 13.3 days), but this difference was not significant. Although prophylactic application of immunoglobulin seemed to lower the degree of radiation-induced mucositis, this effect was less significant when compared to the immunoglobulin given in a therapeutic manner. PMID:7672999

  14. Immunoglobulins, antibody repertoire and B cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J E; Zhao, Y; Sinkora, M; Wertz, N; Kacskovics, I

    2009-03-01

    Swine share with most placental mammals the same five antibody isotypes and same two light chain types. Loci encoding lambda, kappa and Ig heavy chains appear to be organized as they are in other mammals. Swine differ from rodents and primates, but are similar to rabbits in using a single VH family (VH3) to encode their variable heavy chain domain, but not the family used by cattle, another artiodactyl. Distinct from other hoofed mammals and rodents, Ckappa:Clambda usage resembles the 1:1 ratio seen in primates. Since IgG subclasses diversified after speciation, same name subclass homologs do not exist among swine and other mammals unless very closely related. Swine possess six putative IgG subclasses that appear to have diversified by gene duplication and exon shuffle while retaining motifs that can bind to FcgammaRs, FcRn, C1q, protein A and protein G. The epithelial chorial placenta of swine and the precosial nature of their offspring have made piglets excellent models for studies on fetal antibody repertoire development and on the postnatal role of gut colonization, maternal colostrum and neonatal infection on the development of adaptive immunity during the "critical window" of immunological development. This chapter traces the study of the humoral immune system of this species through its various eras of discovery and compiles the results in tables and figures that should be a useful reference for educators and investigators. PMID:18804488

  15. An organosilane self-assembled monolayer incorporated into polymer solar cells enabling interfacial coherence to improve charge transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqi; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Shujun; Liu, Chunyu; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2016-06-21

    The reproducible silylation of titanium oxide (TiO2) with small molecular (dichloromethyl) dimethylchlorosilane (DCS) as the cathode buffer layer was developed to improve electron extraction. Through incorporating the DCS capping layer into polymer solar cells (PSCs), the interfacial coherence of devices could be enhanced, leading to a shift in nanocrystallite size and a smaller internal charge transport resistance. Furthermore, a TiO2/DCS combined interfacial layer could serve as both an exciton dissociation center and a charge transfer channel, which results in a reduction in the energy barrier and electron loss, improving hole-blocking and surface-state passivation in the TiO2 interfacial layer. The Kelvin probe measurements demonstrate that the employment of the DCS nanolayer decreases conduction band energy of TiO2via forming a dipole layer at the interface of TiO2 and the DCS nanolayer, which tunes the work-function of the device and ulteriorly enhances charge carrier transfer between the electrode and the active layer. As a result, the photocurrent and the fill factor of the PSCs are both increased, resulting in an increased power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.959%. PMID:27242077

  16. Permeability changes and incorporation of labelled thymidine into DNA and whole cells of the fibroblast culture of Chinese hamsters affected by MEA and low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Action of MEA and low temperature (20degC) on the incorporation of labelled thymidine into DNA and whole cells of the fibroblast culture of chinese hamsters has been studied. It has been found that each of the above-mentioned factors equally decreases the label uptake into the cell and DNA. It is concluded that MEA and low temperature do not substantially influence the rate of DNA synthesis

  17. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in colostrum and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2011-01-01

    readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases...... the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review...

  18. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. V. Biagioni

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  19. Expression of SNC73, a transcript of the immunoglobulin α-1 gene, in human epithelial carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Yi Geng; Shu Zheng; Zheng-Zhen Shi; Qi Dong; Xin-Han Cai; Yan-Ming Zhang; Wei Cao; Jia-Ping Peng; Yong-Ming Fang; Lei Zheng

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of SNC73, a transcript of the immunoglobulin α-1 gene (IgA1-H chain), in human epithelia-derived tumor cells.METHODS: Total RNAs and cell lysates were prepared from five different human epithelial cell lines derived from lung, stomach, liver, skin, and breast, respectively. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis of these five cell lines were done. Both RT-PCR and immunochemistry were used to detect the expression of SNC73 in these cell lines. We also examined the expression of SNC73 in normal epithelial cells of colon mucosa by in situ hybridization. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis were used to determine whether the recombination activating gene1/2 (RAG1 and RAG2) is present. The expression of three immunoglobulin transcription factors, EBF, E2A and Pax5, and the heavy chain of IgA1 and two types of light chains of immunoglobulin (κ and λ) in the aforementioned cell lines were analyzed by RT-PCR and immunochemistry, respectively. All the RT-PCR products were analyzed by sequencing.RESULTS: The results of RT-PCR and immunochemistry showed that both mRNA and protein of SNC73 were expressed in five human epithelia-derived cancer cell lines. These data were further confirmed in the normal epithelial cells of colon mucosa by in situ hybridization. Also, the heavy chain of IgA1 and κ light chain were detected in these cells, but no λ light chain was observed. Both RAG1 and RAG2 were expressed in these human epithelia-derived cancer cell lines and the sequence was identical to that expressed in pre-B and pre-T cells. In addition to RAG1 and RAG2, the mRNA in one of the immunoglobulin transcription factors, EBF, was also detected in these cell lines, and Pax5 was only expressed in SW480 cells, but no expression of E2A was observed in all the five cell lines.CONCLUSION: Immunoglobulin A1 is originally expressed and V(D)J recombination machine is also present in non-lymphoid cells, suggesting that V(D)J recombination machine mediates the

  20. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, M; Du, XM

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pipingas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  2. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert;

    2016-01-01

    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  3. Intravenous polyclonal human immunoglobulins in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2008-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established therapy for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. IVIG exerts a number of effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four double-blind IVIG trials have been performed in relapsing-remitting MS. A meta-analysis of...

  4. Immunoglobulin light chain expression in pigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šinkora, Jiří; Řeháková, Zuzana; Haverson, K.; Butler, J. E.; Zwart, R.; Boersma, W.

    Uppsala: International Union of Immunological Societies, 2001, s. 213. [International Veterinary Immunology Symposium /6./. Uppsala (SE), 15.07.2001-20.07.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/1280; GA MŠk ME 339 Keywords : immunoglobulin Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  5. Inhibition of exogenous 3-deoxy-D-manno octulosonate incorporation into lipid A precursor of toluene-treated Salmonella typhimurium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analogs of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate (KDO) were designed to inhibit CTP:CMP-KDO cytidylyltransferase (CMP-KDO synthetase). Since these analogs lacked whole-cell antibacterial activity, a permeabilized-cell method was developed to measure intracellular compound activity directly. The method employed a mutant of Salmonella typhimurium defective in KDO-8-phosphate synthetase (kdsA), which accumulated lipid A precursor at 420C. Cells permeabilized with 1% toluene were used to evaluate inhibitor effect on [3H]KDO incorporation into preformed lipid A precursor. KDO incorporation proceeded through the enzymes CMP-DKO synthetase and CMP-KDO:lipid A KDO transferase. Optimum KDO incorporation occurred between pH 8 and 9 and required CTP, prior lipid A precursor accumulation, and a functional kdsB gene product, CMP-KDO synthetase. The apparent K/sub m/ for KDO in this coupled system at pH 7.6 was 1.38 mM. The reaction products isolated and characterized contained 1 and 2 KDO residues per lipid A precursor molecule. Several KDO analogs produced concentration-related reductions of DKO incorporation in toluenized cells with 50% inhibitor concentrations comparable to those obtained in purified CMP-DKO synthetase systems. Two compounds, 8-amino-2-deoxy-KDO (A-60478) and 8-aminomethyl-2-deoxy-KDO (A-60821), competitively inhibited KDO incorporation, displaying K/sub i/s of 4.2 +M for A=60478 and 2.5 +M for A-60821

  6. Serum immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G reactivity to Agaricus bisporus proteins in mushroom cultivation workers

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Khakzad; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Safarali Mahdian; Sabah Mayahi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Although molds are regarded as the main fungal allergen sources, evidence indicates that spores of Basidiomycota including Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) can be also found at high concentrations in the environment and may cause as many respiratory allergies as molds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against A. bisporus via immunoblotting technique in individuals working at mushroom culti...

  7. Modification of opto-electronic properties of ZnO by incorporating metallic tin for buffer layer in thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the effect of incorporation of metallic tin (Sn) on opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films is presented. ZnO thin films were deposited through ‘automated chemical spray pyrolysis’ (CSP) technique; later different quantities of ‘Sn’ were evaporated on it and subsequently annealed. Vacuum annealing showed a positive effect on crystallinity of films. Creation of sub band gap levels due to ‘Sn’ diffusion was evident from the absorption and PL spectra. The tin incorporated films showed good photo response in visible region. Tin incorporated ZnO thin films seem to satisfy the desirable criteria for buffer layer in thin film solar cells

  8. Modification of opto-electronic properties of ZnO by incorporating metallic tin for buffer layer in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepu, D. R.; Jubimol, J.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Louis, Godfrey; Vijayakumar, K. P., E-mail: kpv@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-682022 (India); Kumar, K. Rajeev [Department of Instrumentation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-682022 (India)

    2015-06-24

    In this report, the effect of incorporation of metallic tin (Sn) on opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films is presented. ZnO thin films were deposited through ‘automated chemical spray pyrolysis’ (CSP) technique; later different quantities of ‘Sn’ were evaporated on it and subsequently annealed. Vacuum annealing showed a positive effect on crystallinity of films. Creation of sub band gap levels due to ‘Sn’ diffusion was evident from the absorption and PL spectra. The tin incorporated films showed good photo response in visible region. Tin incorporated ZnO thin films seem to satisfy the desirable criteria for buffer layer in thin film solar cells.

  9. Molecular Analysis of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Gene in Immunoglobulin-E Deficient Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how class switch recombination (CSR is regulated to produce immunoglobulin E (IgE has become fundamental because of the dramatic increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. CSR requires the induction of the enzyme AICDA in B cells. Mutations in AICDA have been linked to Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2, which shows absence of switching to IgE as well as to IgG and IgA. Although isolated IgE deficiency is a rare entity, here we show some individuals with normal serum IgM, IgG, and IgA levels that had undetectable total serum IgE levels. We have analyzed the AICDA gene in these individuals to determine if there are mutations in AICDA that could lead to selective IgE deficiency. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE and sequencing analysis of AICDA coding sequences demonstrated sequence heterogeneity due to 5923A/G and 7888C/T polymorphisms, but did not reveal any novel mutation that might explain the selective IgE deficit.

  10. SaOS-2 cell response to macro-porous boron-incorporated TiO2 coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation on titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianli; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Liu, Xujie; Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to develop boron-incorporated TiO2 coating (B-TiO2 coating) through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently evaluate the effect of boron incorporation on the in vitro biological performance of the coatings. The physicochemical properties of B-TiO2 coating and its response to osteoblast like cells (SaOS-2) were investigated compared to the control group without boron (TiO2 coating). The morphological and X-ray diffraction results showed that both coatings exhibited similar surface topography and phase composition, respectively. However, the incorporation of B led to an enhancement in the surface hydrophilicity of B-TiO2 coating. The spreading of SaOS-2 cells on B-TiO2 coating was faster than that on TiO2 coating. The proliferation rate of SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 decreased after 5days of culture compared to that on TiO2 coating. SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 coating exhibited an enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Collagen I synthesis and in vitro mineralization compared to those on TiO2 coating. The present findings suggest that B-TiO2 coating is a promising candidate surface for orthopedic implants. PMID:27287114

  11. Further characterization of the subunits of the receptor with high affinity for immunoglobulin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The α, β, γ subunits of the receptor with high affinity for immunoglobulin E were isolated and their compositions assessed by direct amino acid analysis and by incorporation of radioactive precursors. The compositions show no unusual features other than a rather high content of tryptophan in the α chain as assessed from the incorporation studies. The results combined with future sequence data will permit unambiguous determination of the multiplicity of the chains in the receptor. Chymotryptic peptide maps of the extrinsically iodinated subunits show several similar peptides, particularly for α and β. However, these putative homologies were not apparent when tryptic maps of the biosynthetically ([3H]leucine) labeled subunits were analyzed

  12. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against dog immunoglobulin isotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, C; Moreno, A; Millán, Y; Martín de las Mulas, J; Llanes, D

    2002-09-01

    A panel of six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing antigenic determinants on canine immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy or light chains was produced and characterized. All monoclonals recognized the IgG(2) subclass, although only two were subclass-specific (CA3H1 and CA4F1). The CA3B8 mAb was found to be specific for an epitope on canine immunoglobulin G heavy chain, (IgG(1) and IgG(2) subclasses). Two mAbs (CA2E9 and CA5B2) reacted with an epitope on the heavy chain of canine IgG and IgM and another, CA4E7, bound to canine IgA, IgG and IgM isotypes; CA4E7 recognized an epitope on canine immunoglobulin light chain. CA4E7, CA4F1 and CA5B2 recognized an epitope in the Fab region. Three mAbs, CA3B8, CA4E7 and CA5B2, showed much lower reactivity with canine IgG by ELISA when IgG was periodate-treated, suggesting that they recognized a carbohydrate determinant. Cross-reactivity analysis of these mAbs with sera from horse, goat, cow, sheep, pig, cat, rabbit, hamster, rat, mouse and human indicated that two mAbs, CA3B8 and CA5B2, recognized a canine IgG-specific epitope; two others, CA3H1 and CA4E7, recognized an epitope also present in rabbit and sheep immunoglobulin respectively; and the remaining two (CA2E9 and CA4F1) recognized an epitope broadly present on the Igs of the species analyzed. This panel of antibodies will be a useful tool for future canine immunodiagnosis tests. With the exception of CA2E9, all mAbs were able to recognize plasma cells on paraffin-embedded tissues, and will thus be useful for immunohistochemical assays. PMID:12088642

  13. Metabolism of the carbocyclic analogue of (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in herpes simplex virus-infected cells. Incorporation of C-IVDU into DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbocyclic analogues of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) and (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (IVDU), in which the sugar moiety is replaced by a cyclopentane ring and which have been designated as C-BVDU and C-IVDU, respectively, are, like their parent compounds BVDU and IVDU, potent and selective inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and, to a lesser extent, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication. The authors have now synthesized the radiolabeled C-IVDU analogue, C-[125I]IVDU, and determined its metabolism by HSV-infected and mock-infected Vero cells. C-[125I]IVDU was effectively phosphorylated by HSV-1-infected cells and, to a lesser extent, HSV-2-infected cells. C-[125I]IVDU was not phosphorylated to an appreciable extent by either mock-infected cells or cells that had been infected with a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant of HSV-1. Furthermore, C-[125I]IVDU was incorporated into both viral and cellular DNA of HSV-1-infected Vero cells. This finding represents the first demonstration of the incorporation of a cyclopentylpyrimidine into DNA

  14. In vivo study on the survival of neural stem cells transplanted into the rat brain with a collagen hydrogel that incorporates laminin-derived polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaji-Hirabayashi, Tadashi; Kato, Koichi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2013-11-20

    Poor viability of cells transplanted into the brain has been the critical problem associated with stem cell-based therapy for Parkinson's disease. To overcome this problem, a collagen hydrogel incorporating an integrin-binding protein complex was prepared and used as a carrier for neural stem cells. The protein complex consisted of two polypeptides containing the G3 domain of a laminin α1 chain and the C-terminal oligopeptide of a laminin γ1 chain. These polypeptides were fused with α-helical segments which spontaneously formed a coiled-coil heterodimer and with the collagen-binding peptide that facilitated the binding of the heterodimer to collagen networks. In this study, neural stem cells stably expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were suspended in the hydrogel and transplanted into the striatum of healthy rats. The viability of transplanted cells was evaluated by histological analysis and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for EGFP mRNA present in the tissue explants. Our results showed that the collagen hydrogel incorporating the integrin-binding protein complex serves to improve the viability of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the early stage after transplantation into the striatum. PMID:23991904

  15. Rift Valley fever virus incorporates the 78 kDa glycoprotein into virions matured in mosquito C6/36 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartl, Hana M; Zhang, Shunzhen; Marszal, Peter; McGreevy, Alan; Burton, Lynn; Wilson, William C

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a zoonotic arthropod-borne virus able to transition between distant host species, causing potentially severe disease in humans and ruminants. Viral proteins are encoded by three genomic segments, with the medium M segment coding for four proteins: nonstructural NSm protein, two glycoproteins Gn and Gc and large 78 kDa glycoprotein (LGp) of unknown function. Goat anti-RVFV polyclonal antibody and mouse monoclonal antibody, generated against a polypeptide unique to the LGp within the RVFV proteome, detected this protein in gradient purified RVFV ZH501 virions harvested from mosquito C6/36 cells but not in virions harvested from the mammalian Vero E6 cells. The incorporation of LGp into the mosquito cell line - matured virions was confirmed by immune-electron microscopy. The LGp was incorporated into the virions immediately during the first passage in C6/36 cells of Vero E6 derived virus. Our data indicate that LGp is a structural protein in C6/36 mosquito cell generated virions. The protein may aid the transmission from the mosquitoes to the ruminant host, with a possible role in replication of RVFV in the mosquito host. To our knowledge, this is a first report of different protein composition between virions formed in insect C6/36 versus mammalian Vero E6 cells. PMID:24489907

  16. Rift Valley fever virus incorporates the 78 kDa glycoprotein into virions matured in mosquito C6/36 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana M Weingartl

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a zoonotic arthropod-borne virus able to transition between distant host species, causing potentially severe disease in humans and ruminants. Viral proteins are encoded by three genomic segments, with the medium M segment coding for four proteins: nonstructural NSm protein, two glycoproteins Gn and Gc and large 78 kDa glycoprotein (LGp of unknown function. Goat anti-RVFV polyclonal antibody and mouse monoclonal antibody, generated against a polypeptide unique to the LGp within the RVFV proteome, detected this protein in gradient purified RVFV ZH501 virions harvested from mosquito C6/36 cells but not in virions harvested from the mammalian Vero E6 cells. The incorporation of LGp into the mosquito cell line - matured virions was confirmed by immune-electron microscopy. The LGp was incorporated into the virions immediately during the first passage in C6/36 cells of Vero E6 derived virus. Our data indicate that LGp is a structural protein in C6/36 mosquito cell generated virions. The protein may aid the transmission from the mosquitoes to the ruminant host, with a possible role in replication of RVFV in the mosquito host. To our knowledge, this is a first report of different protein composition between virions formed in insect C6/36 versus mammalian Vero E6 cells.

  17. In vitro regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis after marrow transplantation. I. T-cell and B-cell deficiencies in patients with and without chronic graft-versus-host disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four patients with aplastic anemia or acute leukemia were treated by marrow grafts from HLA-identical donors after conditioning with high doses of cyclophosphamide and/or today body irradiation. They were studied between 4 and 63 mo (median 14.2) after transplantation. Seventeen patients had chronic graft-versus-host disease (C-GVHD) and 7 were healthy. They were studied for defects in their T- and B-cell function using and indirect hemolytic plaque assay for Ig production after 6 days of culture in the presence of pokeweek mitogen. T or B cells from the patients with or without C-GVHD were cocultured with T or B cells from their HLA-identical marrow donors or unrelated normal controls. Intrinsic B-cell defects, lack of helper T-cell activity, and suppressor T-cell activity were more frequently found in patients with C-GVHD than in healthy patients. Fifteen of the 17 patients with C-GVHD showed on or more defects in their T-and B-cell function compared to only 3 of the 7 patients without C-GVHD. None of the healthy controls, including the marrow donors, showed defects in their T- and B-cell functions. These in vitro findings may be helpful in assessing the process of immune reconstitution and the immunologic aberration found after human marrow transplantation

  18. Incorporation of thymidine into onion root meristematic cell nuclei in presence of hydroxyurea and its role in recovery of mitotic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyurea treatment of onion roots induced mitotic block which was released by transfer of bulbs to water, and also to some extent by addition of cold or 3H-thymidine to hydroxyurea solutions. In presence of hydroxyurea there was noted very intense incorporation of 3H-thymidine into cell nuclei, giving labelling index of 40-70%. However, all the mitotic figures appearing in presence of hydroxyurea and 3H-thymidine were unlabelled. On the other hand, labelled mitotic figures were obtained when roots incubated with 3H-thymidine in presence of hydroxyurea had been transferred to water. Incorporation of 3H-uridine was unaffected by hydroxyurea. The results show that hydroxyurea arrests onion root meristematic cells, either in the S phase and the G2 phase. Enhanced incorporation of 3H-thymidine in the presence of hydroxyurea, and release by added thymidine of the mitotic block indicate that hydroxyurea induces in onion root meristematic cells a particular shortage of thymidylate. (author)

  19. The incorporation of [14C] glucosamine into dolichol diphosphate N-acetyl [14C] glucosamine by unbroken liver cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incubation of whole Chang liver cells with D-[1-14C]glucosamine results in incorporation of radioactivity into both proteins and lipids. A minor (approximately 3%) amount of the labelled lipid has the chromatographic, solubility and chemical properties of dolichol diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine. A similar compound is formed when membrane preparations of the cells are incubated with UDP-N-acetyl [14C]glucosamine. The same membrane fractions catalyse the transfer of [14C]-mannose from GDP-[14C]mannose to dolichol phosphate. (orig.)

  20. Artificial Affinity Proteins as Ligands of Immunoglobulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mouratou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of natural proteins are known to have affinity and specificity for immunoglobulins. Some of them are widely used as reagents for detection or capture applications, such as Protein G and Protein A. However, these natural proteins have a defined spectrum of recognition that may not fit specific needs. With the development of combinatorial protein engineering and selection techniques, it has become possible to design artificial affinity proteins with the desired properties. These proteins, termed alternative scaffold proteins, are most often chosen for their stability, ease of engineering and cost-efficient recombinant production in bacteria. In this review, we focus on alternative scaffold proteins for which immunoglobulin binders have been identified and characterized.

  1. [High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneichi, Hiromichi; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2011-03-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment was introduced as replacement therapy for patients with congenital agammaglobulinemia. For the last three decades, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (HD-IVIg) has been used for autoimmune diseases and systemic inflammatory diseases, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Kawasaki disease, myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barré/syndrome. Although the immunomodulatory mechanisms of HD-IVIg remains unclear. Its use in many other diseases have been expected. Acute encephalitis/encephalopathy is a complex neurological syndrome associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenicity of brain dysfunction is still unknown. This review provides an overview and discussion of mechanisms that may be responsible for HD-IVIg effects in acute encephalitis/encephalopathy. PMID:21400848

  2. The function of immunoglobulin A in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woof, Jenny M; Kerr, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    The vast surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts represent major sites of potential attack by invading micro-organisms. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), as the principal antibody class in the secretions that bathe these mucosal surfaces, acts as an important first line of defence. IgA, also an important serum immunoglobulin, mediates a variety of protective functions through interaction with specific receptors and immune mediators. The importance of such protection is underlined by the fact that certain pathogens have evolved mechanisms to compromise IgA-mediated defence, providing an opportunity for more effective invasion. IgA function may also be perturbed in certain disease states, some of which are characterized by deposition of IgA in specific tissues. This review details current understanding of the roles played by IgA in both health and disease. PMID:16362985

  3. ABZYME ACTIVITY OF POLYCLONAL IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN SPONDYLOARTHROPATHIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kunder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Polyclonal immunoglobulins G (subclasses 1, 2, 4 from sera of 255 patients and 69 healthy persons were studied by a combined approach using rivanol treatment and affinity chromatography. Enzymatic reactions were carried out according to the methods that we have previously developed and validated for evaluation of abzyme activity in the patients with different disorders. The levels of DNase, proteolytic BAPNA-amidase (benzoylarginine-p-nitroanilide amidase, and superoxyde dismutase abzyme activity in spondyloarthropathies proved to be significantly higher (p = 0.001, as compared with a control group. Catalase activity of immunoglobulines in the disorders studied was compatible to control levels (p > 0.05. Analysis of relations between abzyme activity and clinical and laboratory signs of the diseases has revealed some significant correlations. Prevalence of abzyme DNAse activity is found in the patients with psoriatic arthritis, as compared to reactive arthritis and ankylosing spondilitis (p < 0.001.

  4. Hyaluronidase facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Jolles S

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Jolles Department of Immunology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Immunoglobulin (Ig)-replacement therapy represents the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary antibody deficiency and is administered either intravenously (IVIg) or subcutaneously (SCIg). While hyaluronidase has been used in clinical practice for over 50 years, the development of a high-purity recombinant form of this enzyme (recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20) has recently enabled the stu...

  5. Transport of immunoglobulins from serum into colostrum

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Oligomeric, J-chain-containing immunoglobulins were observed to be transferred selectively from serum into colostrum. These studies suggest that, in the case of the mammary gland secretion, a significant role for extraglandular synthesis of IgA merits consideration. Thus, for example, colostrum may contain antibodies synthesized locally as well as antibodies synthesized in the much larger lymphoid tissues such as the gut lamina propria.

  6. Immunoglobulin treatment in human and experimental epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    van Engelen, B. G. M.; Renier, W O; Weemaes, C.M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between human immunoglobulin administration, and human and experimental epilepsy was investigated by reviewing the literature as well as the authors' clinical and experimental studies. The focus was: 1) the possible efficacy of IVIg; 2) the possibility that IVIg significantly increases CSF IgG and could reach the brain, and 3) the interaction between the IVIg preparation and epilepsy. There is still no formal proof of efficacy of IVIg treatment in epilepsy. However, the clini...

  7. Phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. I. Inhibition of de novo phosphatidylserine biosynthesis by exogenous phosphatidylserine and its efficient incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of phosphatidylserine exogenously added to the medium on de novo biosynthesis of phosphatidylserine was investigated in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. When cells were cultured for several generations in medium supplemented with phosphatidylserine and 32Pi, the incorporation of 32Pi into cellular phosphatidylserine was remarkably inhibited, the degree of inhibition being dependent upon the concentration of added phosphatidylserine. 32Pi uptake into cellular phosphatidylethanolamine was also partly reduced by the addition of exogenous phosphatidylserine, consistent with the idea that phosphatidylethanolamine is biosynthesized via decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine. However, incorporation of 32Pi into phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylinositol was not significantly affected. In contrast, the addition of either phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylinositol to the medium did not inhibit endogenous biosynthesis of the corresponding phospholipid. Radiochemical and chemical analyses of the cellular phospholipid composition revealed that phosphatidylserine in cells grown with 80 microM phosphatidylserine was almost entirely derived from the added phospholipid. Phosphatidylserine uptake was also directly determined by using [3H]serine-labeled phospholipid. Pulse and pulse-chase experiments with L-[U-14C] serine showed that when cells were cultured with 80 microM phosphatidylserine, the rate of synthesis of phosphatidylserine was reduced 3-5-fold. Enzyme assaying of extracts prepared from cells grown with and without phosphatidylserine indicated that the inhibition of de novo phosphatidylserine biosynthesis by the added phosphatidylserine appeared not to be caused by a reduction in the level of the enzyme involved in the base-exchange reaction between phospholipids and serine

  8. An in vitro drug sensitivity test using a higher 3H-TdR incorporation and a modified human tumor stem cell assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vitro drug sensitivity test was developed to evaluate the lethal effects of drugs on human pulmonary carcinoma cells (HPCC). This method was a variant and combination of Human Tumor Stem (HTSCA) and a short-term test using 3H-TdR incorporation. It consisted of a cell containing liquid top layer and a soft agar bottom layer in 24-well microplates. The medium was RPMI 1640 supplemented with 20% malignant pleural effusion, which could enhance 3H-TdR incorporation into malignant cells. When 50%, 40%, 30% and 30% of cell survival rate defined as sensitivity-threshold for VCR, MMC, DDP and ADM respectively, in the vitro effectiveness were close to those of clinical single-drug treatment in HPCC by Wright et al. This method was also compared with HTSCA in ten human lung cancer cell lines and four pulmonary carcinoma tissues. The agreement rates were 83% and 100% respectively. Thus we presume this system is more useful for oncological clinics than the others

  9. Incorporation of vitamin E in poly(3hydroxybutyrate)/Bioglass composite films: effect on surface properties and cell attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Superb K; Philip, Sheryl E.; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Nazhat, Showan N; Roy, Ipsita; Knowles, Jonathan C; Salih, Vehid; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of incorporating α-tocopherol (vitamin E) into poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB))/Bioglass composites, which are being developed for bone tissue engineering matrices. P(3HB) films with 20 wt% Bioglass and 10 wt% vitamin E were prepared using the solvent casting technique. Addition of vitamin E significantly improved the hydrophilicity of the composites along with increasing the total protein adsorption. The presence of protein adsorbed on the composite sur...

  10. Human normal immunoglobulin in the treatment of primary immunodeficiency diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Philip WoodSt James University Hospital, Leeds, United KingdomAbstract: The primary antibody deficiency syndromes are a rare group of disorders that can present at any age, and for which delay in diagnosis remains common. Replacement therapy with immunoglobulin in primary antibody deficiencies increases life expectancy and reduces the frequency and severity of infection. Higher doses of immunoglobulin are associated with reduced frequency of infection. Late diagnosis and delayed institution of immunoglobulin replacement therapy results in increased morbidity with a wide variety of organ-specific complications and increased mortality. Risks of immunoglobulin therapy are minimized by modern manufacturing processes, although patients can experience both immediate and delayed adverse reactions, and concerns remain over the transmission of prions in plasma. Immunoglobulin therapy leads to improvements in overall quality of life, and many of the improvements relate to reduced infection rates and fear of future infections, strongly suggesting that the immunoglobulin therapy itself is the major factor in this improvement. There are limited data on the economic benefits of immunoglobulin therapy, with the fluctuating costs of immunoglobulins making comparison between different studies difficult. However, estimates suggest that early intervention with immunoglobulin replacement compares favorably with prolonged therapy for other more common chronic diseases.Keywords: antibody deficiency, immunoglobulin therapy, common variable immunodeficiency

  11. Charge collection enhancement by incorporation of gold-silica core-shell nanoparticles into P3HT:PCBM/ZnO nanorod array hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Chung; Su, Yen-Hsun; Hung, Yun-Kai; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Huang, Li-Wen; Gomulya, Widianta; Lai, Lai-Hung; Loi, Maria A; Yang, Jih-Sheng; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2015-08-14

    In this work, gold-silica core-shell (Au@silica) nanoparticles (NPs) with various silica-shell thicknesses are incorporated into P3HT:PCBM/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid solar cells. Enhancement in the short-circuit current density and the efficiency of the hybrid solar cells is attained with the appropriate addition of Au@silica NPs regardless of the silica-shell thickness. Compared to the P3HT:PCBM/ZnO NR hybrid solar cell, a 63% enhancement in the efficiency is achieved by the P3HT:PCBM/Au@silica NP/ZnO NR hybrid solar cell. The finite difference time domain simulations indicate that the strength of the Fano resonance, i.e., the electric field of the quasi-static asymmetric quadrupole, on the surface of Au@silica NPs in the P3HT:PCBM/ZnO NR hybrid significantly decreases with increasing thickness of the silica shell. Raman characterization reveals that the degree of P3HT order increases when Au@silica NPs are incorporated into the P3HT:PCBM/ZnO NR hybrid. The charge separation at the interface between P3HT and PCBM as well as the electron transport in the active layer are retarded by the electric field of the Fano resonance. Nevertheless, the prolongation of the electron lifetime and the reduction of the electron transit time in the P3HT:PCBM/ZnO NR hybrid solar cells, which result in an enhancement of electron collection, are achieved by the addition of Au@silica NPs. This may be attributed to the improvement in the degree of P3HT order and connectivity of PCBM when Au@silica NPs are incorporated into the P3HT:PCBM active layer. PMID:26159896

  12. Transmission booster from SiO2 incorporated TiO2 crystallites: Enhanced conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SiO2 incorporated TiO2 crystallites were used for transmission enhanced photoanodes. • Excitation of dye molecules was significantly elevated. • An efficiency of 9.98% was recorded on DSSC from 1 wt% SiO2 incorporated TiO2. - Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a promising solution to energy depletion, environmental pollution, and ecological destruction. However, the further elevation of power conversion efficiency is limited by low electron density on conduction band (CB) of TiO2 crystallite, resulting from the low dye-excitation efficiency, recombination of electrons with ions in liquid electrolyte as well as photodegradation of dye molecules. With an aim of enhancing the power conversion efficiency, here we designed SiO2 incorporated TiO2 crystallite photoanode to elevate dye excitation, to suppress the recombination of electron-electrolyte, and to enhance the dye photostability. We found that the highest conversion occurred at 1 wt% SiO2 incorporated TiO2 crystallite-based DSSC, giving an impressive power conversion efficiency of 9.98% (measured under standard AM1.5 test conditions) in comparison with 6.13% from pure TiO2 photoanode-based DSSC. This strategy provides new opportunities for the fabrication of highly efficient DSSCs

  13. Looping out and deletion mechanism for the immunoglobulin heavy-chain class switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the mouse pre-B-cell line 18-81, cells can switch production in vitro from immunoglobulin μ chain to γ2b chain. The gene encoding the γ2b chain is created by a rearrangement of the μ gene. This rearrangement always takes place within a homolog. In cells with a γ2b gene, most of the time the gene segment encoding the constant region of the μ chain is deleted, but often the rearrangement leads to cells that produce no immunoglobulin, and all DNA sequences are retained. The latter result is due to an inversion. Inversions exclude the unequal sister chromatid exchange model of the heavy-chain class switch. Looping out is an intermediate step in the process of generating an inversion. These finding demonstrate that the switch rearrangement occurs by looping out and deletion

  14. Elevated Concentrations of Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients in Relation to Disease Activity, Inflammatory Status, B Cell Activity and Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Anette H; Lydolph, Magnus C; Westergaard, Marie; Olesen Larsen, Severin; Nielsen, Christoffer T; Duus, Karen; Jacobsen, Søren; Houen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the concentration of serum immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and investigated its association with various disease parameters in order to evaluate the role of FLCs as a potential biomarker in SLE. Furthermore......, FLCs' association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies was examined. METHODS: Using a nephelometric assay, κFLC and λFLC concentrations were quantified in sera from 45 SLE patients and 40 healthy controls. SLE patients with renal insufficiency were excluded in order to preclude high concentrations...... of serum FLCs due to decreased clearance. RESULTS: Serum FLC concentrations were significantly elevated in SLE patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.0001) also after adjusting for Ig levels (p<0.0001). The concentration of serum FLCs correlated with a global disease activity (SLE disease...

  15. Optimization of immunoglobulin substitution therapy by a stochastic immune response model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Thilo Figge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The immune system is a complex adaptive system of cells and molecules that are interwoven in a highly organized communication network. Primary immune deficiencies are disorders in which essential parts of the immune system are absent or do not function according to plan. X-linked agammaglobulinemia is a B-lymphocyte maturation disorder in which the production of immunoglobulin is prohibited by a genetic defect. Patients have to be put on life-long immunoglobulin substitution therapy in order to prevent recurrent and persistent opportunistic infections. METHODOLOGY: We formulate an immune response model in terms of stochastic differential equations and perform a systematic analysis of empirical therapy protocols that differ in the treatment frequency. The model accounts for the immunoglobulin reduction by natural degradation and by antigenic consumption, as well as for the periodic immunoglobulin replenishment that gives rise to an inhomogeneous distribution of immunoglobulin specificities in the shape space. Results are obtained from computer simulations and from analytical calculations within the framework of the Fokker-Planck formalism, which enables us to derive closed expressions for undetermined model parameters such as the infection clearance rate. CONCLUSIONS: We find that the critical value of the clearance rate, below which a chronic infection develops, is strongly dependent on the strength of fluctuations in the administered immunoglobulin dose per treatment and is an increasing function of the treatment frequency. The comparative analysis of therapy protocols with regard to the treatment frequency yields quantitative predictions of therapeutic relevance, where the choice of the optimal treatment frequency reveals a conflict of competing interests: In order to diminish immunomodulatory effects and to make good economic sense, therapeutic immunoglobulin levels should be kept close to physiological levels, implying high

  16. Correlation of Immunoglobulin G Expression and Histological Subtype and Stage in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Baokai Yang; Changchun Ma; Zhengshan Chen; Weining Yi; McNutt, Michael A.; Yun Wang; Christine Korteweg; Jiang Gu

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently, growing evidence indicates that immunoglobulins (Igs) are not only produced by mature B lymphocytes or plasma cells, but also by various normal cells types at immune privileged sites and neoplasm, including breast cancer. However, the association of breast cancer derived IgG with genesis and development of the disease has not yet been established. METHODS: In this study we examined the expression of IgG in 186 breast cancers, 20 benign breast lesions and 30 normal brea...

  17. Visualization of the African swine fever virus infection in living cells by incorporation into the virus particle of green fluorescent protein-p54 membrane protein chimera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many stages of African swine fever virus infection have not yet been studied in detail. To track the behavior of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the infected cells in real time, we produced an infectious recombinant ASFV (B54GFP-2) that expresses and incorporates into the virus particle a chimera of the p54 envelope protein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The incorporation of the fusion protein into the virus particle was confirmed immunologically and it was determined that p54-EGFP was fully functional by confirmation that the recombinant virus made normal-sized plaques and presented similar growth curves to the wild-type virus. The tagged virus was visualized as individual fluorescent particles during the first stages of infection and allowed to visualize the infection progression in living cells through the viral life cycle by confocal microscopy. In this work, diverse potential applications of B54GFP-2 to study different aspects of ASFV infection are shown. By using this recombinant virus it was possible to determine the trajectory and speed of intracellular virus movement. Additionally, we have been able to visualize for first time the ASFV factory formation dynamics and the cytophatic effect of the virus in live infected cells. Finally, we have analyzed virus progression along the infection cycle and infected cell death as time-lapse animations

  18. Incorporation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles into random electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds enhances mechanical and cell proliferation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrasa, Mohammad; Asadollahi, Mohammad Ali; Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salehi, Hossein; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2016-09-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin random nanofibrous scaffolds embedded with different amounts of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) were fabricated using electrospinning method. To evaluate the effects of nanoparticles on the scaffolds, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties as well as in vitro degradation behavior of scaffolds were investigated. The mean diameters of nanofibers were 974±68nm for the pure PLGA scaffolds vs 832±70, 764±80, and 486±64 for the PLGA/gelatin, PLGA/10wt% MSNPs, and the PLGA/gelatin/10wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively. The results suggested that the incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs into PLGA-based scaffolds enhances the hydrophilicity of scaffolds due to an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the surface of nanofibers. With porosity examination, it was concluded that the incorporation of MSNPs and gelatin decrease the porosity of scaffolds. Nanoparticles also improved the tensile mechanical properties of scaffolds. Using in vitro degradation analysis, it was shown that the addition of nanoparticles to the nanofibers matrix increases the weight loss percentage of PLGA-based samples, whereas it decreases the weight loss percentage in the PLGA/gelatin composites. Cultivation of rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12), as precursor cells of dopaminergic neural cells, on the scaffolds demonstrated that the introduction of MSNPs into PLGA and PLGA/gelatin matrix leads to improved cell attachment and proliferation and enhances cellular processes. PMID:27207035

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor incorporated chitosan nanoparticles augment the differentiation of stem cell into hepatocytes for the recovery of liver cirrhosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Chellan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short half-life and low levels of growth factors in the niche of injured microenvironment necessitates the exogenous and sustainable delivery of growth factors along with stem cells to augment the regeneration of injured tissues. Methods Here, recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF was incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles (CNP by ionic gelation method and studied for its morphological and physiological characteristics. Cirrhotic mice received either hematopoietic stem cells (HSC or mesenchymal stemcells (MSC with or without HGF incorporated chitosan nanoparticles (HGF-CNP and saline as control. Biochemical, histological, immunostaining and gene expression assays were carried out using serum and liver tissue samples. One way analysis of variance was used for statics application Results Serum levels of selected liver protein and enzymes were significantly increased in the combination of MSC and HGF-CNP (MSC+HGF-CNP treated group. Immunopositive staining for albumin (Alb and cytokeratin 18 (CK18, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for Alb, alpha fetoprotein (AFP, CK18, cytokeratin 19 (CK19 ascertained that MSC-HGF-CNP treatment could be an effective combination to repopulate liver parenchymal cells in the liver cirrhosis. Zymogram and western blotting for matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9 revealed that MMP2 actively involved in the fibrolysis of cirrhotic tissue. Immunostaining for alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA and type I collagen showed decreased expression in the MSC+HGF-CNP treatment. These results indicated that HGF-CNP enhanced the differentiation of stem cells into hepatocytes and supported the reversal of fibrolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM. Conclusion Bone marrow stem cells were isolated, characterized and transplanted in mice model. Biodegradable biopolymeric nanoparticles were prepared with the pleotrophic protein molecule and it worked well for the

  20. The appearance in thyroidectomized mice of immunoglobulins that bind TSH and stimulate FRTL-5 thyrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gafny, M.; Ben-David, C.; Sirkis, N.; Gordon, A.; Gross, J. (The Hubert H. Humphrey Department of Experimental Medicine and Cancer Research, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel))

    1992-01-01

    The model system chosen was the thyroidectomized mouse, exhibiting an elevated level of endogenous, circulating TSH. Mice were thyroidectomized by [sup 131]I administration. Sera samples were drawn 1 to 14 months later. The following activities were measured in the immunoglobulin (Ig) fractions prepared: (a) TSH binding by elisa techniques, (b) iodide pump activity (as measured by [sup 99m]TcO[sub 4] uptake) and (c) increased [[sup 3]H]thymidine incorporation into the DNA of FRTL-5 cells. TSH binding Igs were detected in 29/98 mice thyroidectomized for 7-14 months. Stimulation of technetium uptake was observed in 59/110 mice and stimulated labeled thymidine uptake in 37/102 mice, beginning eight and nine months after thyroidectomy, respectively. Of the positive animals, 51 showed a single stimulating activity. The incidence and the serum titers of Igs that stimulate technitium uptake increased significantly with time. Indeed, in the group tested 14 months post-thyroidectomy, 75% of the sera were positive for this antibody with a mean titer eightfold higher than the controls. Hybridomas were prepared from the spleen lymphocytes of thyroidectomized mice. Of these, 18 produced [sup 99m]TcO[sub 4] uptake stimulating Igs, 12[[sup 3]H]thymidine-uptake stimulating Igs and 18 TSH binding Igs. Most of the hybridomas secreted Igs with a single bioactivity. One monoclonal antibody was isolated which neutralized the bioactivity of bTSH on FRTL-5 cells. [sup 99m]TcO[sub 4] uptake was decreased by 50% and [[sup 3]H]thymidine uptake was virtually abolished. These results suggest that the hypothyroid mouse can develop anti-TSH antobodies and thyroid-stimulating antiidiotypic antiboides by an autoimmune process. (BN).

  1. The appearance in thyroidectomized mice of immunoglobulins that bind TSH and stimulate FRTL-5 thyrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model system chosen was the thyroidectomized mouse, exhibiting an elevated level of endogenous, circulating TSH. Mice were thyroidectomized by 131I administration. Sera samples were drawn 1 to 14 months later. The following activities were measured in the immunoglobulin (Ig) fractions prepared: (a) TSH binding by elisa techniques, (b) iodide pump activity (as measured by 99mTcO4 uptake) and (c) increased [3H]thymidine incorporation into the DNA of FRTL-5 cells. TSH binding Igs were detected in 29/98 mice thyroidectomized for 7-14 months. Stimulation of technetium uptake was observed in 59/110 mice and stimulated labeled thymidine uptake in 37/102 mice, beginning eight and nine months after thyroidectomy, respectively. Of the positive animals, 51 showed a single stimulating activity. The incidence and the serum titers of Igs that stimulate technitium uptake increased significantly with time. Indeed, in the group tested 14 months post-thyroidectomy, 75% of the sera were positive for this antibody with a mean titer eightfold higher than the controls. Hybridomas were prepared from the spleen lymphocytes of thyroidectomized mice. Of these, 18 produced 99mTcO4 uptake stimulating Igs, 12[3H]thymidine-uptake stimulating Igs and 18 TSH binding Igs. Most of the hybridomas secreted Igs with a single bioactivity. One monoclonal antibody was isolated which neutralized the bioactivity of bTSH on FRTL-5 cells. 99mTcO4 uptake was decreased by 50% and [3H]thymidine uptake was virtually abolished. These results suggest that the hypothyroid mouse can develop anti-TSH antobodies and thyroid-stimulating antiidiotypic antiboides by an autoimmune process. (BN)

  2. Peptide Synthesis through Cell-Free Expression of Fusion Proteins Incorporating Modified Amino Acids as Latent Cleavage Sites for Peptide Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liutkus, Mantas; Fraser, Samuel A; Caron, Karine; Stigers, Dannon J; Easton, Christopher J

    2016-05-17

    Chlorinated analogues of Leu and Ile are incorporated during cell-free expression of peptides fused to protein, by exploiting the promiscuity of the natural biosynthetic machinery. They then act as sites for clean and efficient release of the peptides simply by brief heat treatment. Dehydro analogues of Leu and Ile are similarly incorporated as latent sites for peptide release through treatment with iodine under cold conditions. These protocols complement enzyme-catalyzed methods and have been used to prepare calcitonin, gastrin-releasing peptide, cholecystokinin-7, and prolactin-releasing peptide prohormones, as well as analogues substituted with unusual amino acids, thus illustrating their practical utility as alternatives to more traditional chemical peptide synthesis. PMID:26918308

  3. Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Neuropathy : Immunoglobulin And Immune Complex Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Shripad A; Patil; Taly Arun B; Puttaram Sowbhagya; Rao Shivaji; Menon Ashok; Nair KPS

    2003-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM) and immune complexes IgG (IcG) were measured in 58 cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, popularly known as Guillian Barre′ syndrome, and in 30 healthy controls using single radial immunodiffusion assay. Immunoglobulin and immune complex levels were significantly elevated in patients as compared to controls. The increased levels of immunoglobulins and immune complexes may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease and provid...

  4. Cell kinetic effects of incorporated 3H-thymidine on proliferating human lymphocytes: flow cytometric analysis using the DNA/nuclear protein method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes incorporating high concentrations of 3H-thymidine accumulate in G2 and show a consequent reduction in the number of cells entering M (division delay). The simultaneous flow cytometric analysis of DNA content (propidium iodide fluorescence) and nuclear protein content (fluorescein isothiocyanate fluorescence) allows for the accurate quantitation of these events; G2 and M are separated in the bivariate distributions. A good correlation was observed between mitotic indices, quantitated by manually counting mitotic cells, and integration of the M area in DNA/nuclear protein histograms. Moreover, significant differences in G2 nuclear protein levels were found between untreated and 3H-thymidine-treated lymphocytes. In order to characterize this effect, G2 was empirically divided into low nuclear protein (G2A) and high nuclear protein (G2B) compartments. 3H-thymidine caused an initial accumulation of lymphocytes in G2A, followed within 3-6 h by a gradual movement of some cells into G2B, with a subsequent accumulation of cells in G2B. The results suggest that the distribution of cells in G2 (G2A and G2B), the average nuclear protein content of G2B cells, and the proportion of cells in M are parameters that when used in combination provide a unique description of radiobiological effects

  5. Overview of the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with intravenous immunoglobulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahdi-Rogers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Mahdi-Rogers, Yusuf A RajaballyNeuromuscular Clinic, Department of Neurology, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, UKAbstract: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP is an acquired heterogeneous disorder of immune origin affecting the peripheral nerves, causing motor weakness and sensory symptoms and signs. The precise pathophysiology of CIDP remains uncertain although B and T cell mechanisms are believed to be implicated. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg have been shown in a number of trials to be an effective treatment for CIDP. IVIg is thought to exert its immunomodulatory effects by affecting several components of the immune system including B-cells, T-cells, macrophages and complement. This article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of CIDP and of its treatment with IVIg.Keywords: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, intravenous immunoglobulin, pathogenesis, treatment

  6. Cyclosporin A and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in polymyositis/dermatomyositis

    OpenAIRE

    Danieli, M; Malcangi, G; Palmieri, C; Logullo, F.; A. Salvi; Piani, M.; Danieli, G

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the treatment of polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) with prednisone (PRED) and cyclosporin A (CSA) alone or associated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and plasmapheresis (PEX).

  7. Macromolecular synthesis in algal cells. A review on the kinetics of incorporation in vivo of radioisotope-labelled compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, M.R.; Kikuchi, T. (Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.)

    1980-11-01

    The present paper is a review of our experimental results obtained previously on the macromolecular biosyntheses in the cells of blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans as a representative species of prokaryote, and also in those of three species of eukaryotic algae, i.e. Euglena gracilis strain Z, Chlamydomonas reinhardi, and Cyanidium caldarium. In these algal cells, the combined methods consisting of pulse-labelling using /sup 32/P, /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-labelled precursors for macromolecules, of their chasing and of the use of inhibitors which block specifically the syntheses of macromolecules such as proteins, RNA and DNA in living cells were very effectively applied for the analyses of the regulatory mechanism in biosyntheses of macromolecules and of the mode of their assembly into the cell structure, especially organelle constituents. Rased on the results obtained thus, the following conclusions are reached: (1) the metabolic pool for syntheses of macromolecules in the cells of prokaryotic blue-green alga is limited to the small extent and such activities couple largely with the photosynthetic mechanism; (2) 70 S ribosomes in the blue-green algal cells are assembled on the surface of thylakoid membranes widely distributed in their cytoplasm; and (3) the cells of eukaryotic unicellular algae used here have biochemical characters specific for already differentiated enzyme system involving in transcription and translation machineries as the same as in higher organisms, but the control mechanism concerning with such macromolecule syntheses are different among each species.

  8. Increased efficiency in multijunction solar cells through the incorporation of semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles into the tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs multijunction solar cells with epitaxial, semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles at the interface of the tunnel junction. The states provided by these nanoparticles reduce the bias required to pass current through the tunnel junction by three orders of magnitude, and therefore drastically reduce the voltage losses in the tunnel junction. We have measured open-circuit voltages which are 97% of the sum of the constituent cells, which result in nearly double the efficiency of our multijunction cell with a conventional tunnel junction

  9. Caveolae Restrict Tiger Frog Virus Release in HepG2 cells and Caveolae-Associated Proteins Incorporated into Virus Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian; Zheng, Yi-Wen; Lin, Yi-Fan; Mi, Shu; Qin, Xiao-Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Guo, Chang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane. Caveolae play important roles in the process of viruses entry into host cells, but the roles of caveolae at the late stage of virus infection were not completely understood. Tiger frog virus (TFV) has been isolated from the diseased tadpoles of the frog, Rana tigrina rugulosa, and causes high mortality of tiger frog tadpoles cultured in Southern China. In the present study, the roles of caveolae at the late stage of TFV infection were investigated. We showed that TFV virions were localized with the caveolae at the late stage of infection in HepG2 cells. Disruption of caveolae by methyl-β-cyclodextrin/nystatin or knockdown of caveolin-1 significantly increase the release of TFV. Moreover, the interaction between caveolin-1 and TFV major capsid protein was detected by co-immunoprecipitation. Those results suggested that caveolae restricted TFV release from the HepG2 cells. Caveolae-associated proteins (caveolin-1, caveolin-2, cavin-1, and cavin-2) were selectively incorporated into TFV virions. Different combinations of proteolytic and/or detergent treatments with virions showed that caveolae-associated proteins were located in viral capsid of TFV virons. Taken together, caveolae might be a restriction factor that affects virus release and caveolae-associated proteins were incorporated in TFV virions. PMID:26887868

  10. The determination of the rate of conjugation immunoglobuline with bifunctional chelator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málek, Z.; Miler, V.; Budský, F.

    2006-01-01

    The work was performed under the GACR project: "Technology of preparation of radionuclides and their labelled compounds for nuclear medicine and pharmacy with the use of the reactor LVR-15" reg. no. 104/03/0499. Imaging of cell’s antigens with the use of labelled immunoglobulines allows imaging of specific receptors on cell membrane and specific tumours. It is necessary to carry out the labelling of the immunoglobulines with radionuclides of suitable physical properties, which form cations (e.g., 111In, 90Y, 177Lu) that form very strong chelates of sufficiently high stability constant preventing the dissociation of complexes or the radionuclide under “in-vivo” conditions. The immunoglobuline must be conjugated with the bifunctional chelator (BCH), which contains both chelating unit and reactive group for binding to the immunoglobuline. In our laboratory we have conjugated human IgG and monoclonal antibody CD20 with diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid dianhydride (cDTPAA). Radionuclides 90Y and 177Lu prepared on the LVR-15 reactor in NRI Rez were used for labelling. After conjugation and labelling the yields in relation to the amount of isotopic carrier have been determined.

  11. Screening for congenital toxoplasmosis: accuracy of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A tests after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Thalib, Lukman; Tan, Hooi Kuan;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of postnatal screening for toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA. SETTING: Ten centres in three European countries. METHODS: We compared results of the first postnatal IgM or IgA test in infants with infected mothers identified by prenatal screeni...

  12. Compared with Daily, Weekly n–3 PUFA Intake Affects the Incorporation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid into Platelets and Mononuclear Cells in Humans 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Lucy M; Walker, Celia G.; Mander, Adrian P; West, Annette L.; Gambell, Joanna; Madden, Jackie; Calder, Philip C.; Jebb, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of oily fish is sporadic, whereas controlled intervention studies of n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids usually provide capsules containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a daily dose. This methodologic study explored whether there are differences in the short-, medium-, and long-term incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood plasma and cells with the provision of identical amounts of EPA and DHA, equivalent to 2 oily fish servings per week (or 6.54 g/wk EPA and DH...

  13. Immunoglobulin A antibodies to Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaskowski, T D; Martins, T B; Hill, H R; Litwin, C M

    1997-01-01

    Serological testing for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Helicobacter pylori has proven useful in supporting the diagnosis of infection with this organism, but the clinical value of IgA antibodies in H. pylori-related gastritis remains controversial. The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency of IgA-positive IgG-negative patients with symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, thus assessing the clinical utility of IgA testing for H. pylori-related gastritis. It was found p...

  14. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for secondary recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Larsen, E. C.; Egerup, P.;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether infusions with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) during early pregnancy increase live birth rate in women with secondary recurrent miscarriage compared with placebo. DESIGN: A single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: A tertiary...... centre for recurrent miscarriage in Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION: A group of 82 women with unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage and at least four miscarriages. METHODS: Women were randomly assigned to repeated infusions with IVIg or placebo (albumin) from the time of positive pregnancy test to......, IVIg did not increase the live birth rate in patients with secondary recurrent miscarriage and the treatment cannot be recommended in clinical practice....

  15. Extending the cross-linking/mass spectrometry strategy: Facile incorporation of photo-activatable amino acids into the model protein calmodulin in Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Christine; Ihling, Christian H; Sinz, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Photo-induced cross-linking is a highly promising technique to investigate protein conformations and protein-protein interactions in their natural cellular environment. One strategy relies on the non-directed incorporation of diazirine-containing photo-activatable amino acids into proteins and a subsequent cross-link formation induced by UV-A irradiation. The advantage of this photo-cross-linking strategy is that it is not restricted to lysine residues and that hydrophobic regions in proteins can also be targeted, which is advantageous for investigating membrane proteins. Here, we present a simplified protocol that relies on the use of mineral salts medium without any special requirements for the incorporation of photo-methionines into proteins in Escherichia coli cells. The possibility to perform these experiments in E. coli is especially valuable as it is the major system for recombinant protein production. The method is exemplified for the Ca(2+) regulating protein calmodulin containing nine methionines, which were found to be replaced by their photo-activatable analogues. Our protocol allows the facile and stochastic incorporation of photo-methionines as the basis for conducting photo-cross-linking experiments in E. coli in an efficient manner. PMID:25726908

  16. Studies of pure and nitrogen-incorporated hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films and their possible application for amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and nitrogen-incorporated a-C:H (a-C:N:H) thin films were deposited using radio frequency-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique and studied for their electrical, optical, and nano-mechanical properties. Introduction of nitrogen and increase of self bias enhanced the conductivity of a-C:H and a-C:N:H films, whereas current-voltage measurement reveals heterojunction formation due to their rectifying behavior. The bandgap of these films was changed over wide range from 1.9 eV to 3.45 eV by varying self bias and the nitrogen incorporation. Further, activation energy was correlated with the electronic structure of a-C:H and a-C:N:H films, and conductivity was discussed as a function of bandgap. Moreover, a-C:N:H films exhibited high hardness and elastic modulus, with maximum values as 42 GPa and 430 GPa, respectively, at -100 V. Observed fascinating electrical, optical, and nano-mechanical properties made it a material of great utility in the development of optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells. In addition, we also performed simulation study for an a-Si:H solar cell, considering a-C:H and C:N:H as window layers, and compared their performance with the a-Si:H solar cell having a-SiC:H as window layer. We also proposed several structures for the development of a near full-spectrum solar cell. Moreover, due to high hardness, a-C:N:H films can be used as a protective and encapsulate layer on solar cells, especially in n-i-p configuration on metal substrate. Nevertheless, a-C:H and a-C:N:H as a window layer can avoid the use of additional hard and protective coating and, hence, minimize the cost of the product.

  17. Iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) incorporation into DNA of human hematopoietic cells, normal liver and hepatic metastases in man: as a radiosensitizer and as a marker for cell kinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) was administered as a continuous infusion for 14 days to patients with glioblastoma and sarcoma, and for 3 days to patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. In the first group, the maximum incorporation of IdUrd into DNA was determined, taking granulocytes as parameter. In the second group, selective incorporation into DNA of normal liver and hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer was investigated. The highest dose of 675 mg/sq.m./day for 14 days produced IdUrd plasma concentrations of 1.8 +/- 0.3 microM, and a substitution of dThd by IdUrd in the range of 7.1-11.7%. Coadministration of fluorodeoxyuridine did not show significant enhancement of IdUrd-incorporation in granulocytes. Three-day intravenous infusions of IdUrd 1000 mg/sq.m./day produced 1.7-4.5% IdUrd-incorporation in hepatic metastases. Three-day intraarterial infusions (hepatic artery) produced 3.8-10.5% dThd-replacement, whereas, in 9/10 patients this was less than 1% in normal liver. In tumor tissue there was a trend towards FdUrd-modulated enhancement of IdUrd-incorporation, although there was considerable scatter. Cell kinetic studies revealed that IdUrd-incorporation in monocytes and granulocytes was very similar. In lymphocytes, a much lower fraction incorporated IdUrd. Liver tumor contained a considerably higher fraction of IdUrd-labeled cells, compared with normal liver. Potential doubling times for the tumors were estimated to be 10 days

  18. The Clinical Potential of Circulating Tumor Cells; The Need to Incorporate a Modern “Immunological Cocktail” in the Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Uhr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accepted clinical assay, CellSearch®, and lab-on-a-chip tests for capturing circulating tumor cells are antibody-mediated. Attempts to improve their sensitivity have relied upon physical changes in the instruments. There have been no significant advances in improving the antibody-mediated portion of the capture. Modern immunologic engineering offers major possibilities for improving the sensitivity and other features of the assay. These include obtaining univalent antibody fragments such as scFvs with picomolar binding affinity and sufficient specificity; altering them to enhance their range of potential contact with target antigens; using antibodies directed against different epitopes on epithelial, mesenchymal or organ-specific cell surface markers to allow simultaneous binding and investigating non-antibody binding molecules as substitutes for antibody. These maneuvers could markedly improve the ability of current assays to improve patient care and might result in an acceptable test for detecting cancer earlier in high risk patients.

  19. The Clinical Potential of Circulating Tumor Cells; The Need to Incorporate a Modern “Immunological Cocktail” in the Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accepted clinical assay, CellSearch®, and lab-on-a-chip tests for capturing circulating tumor cells are antibody-mediated. Attempts to improve their sensitivity have relied upon physical changes in the instruments. There have been no significant advances in improving the antibody-mediated portion of the capture. Modern immunologic engineering offers major possibilities for improving the sensitivity and other features of the assay. These include obtaining univalent antibody fragments such as scFvs with picomolar binding affinity and sufficient specificity; altering them to enhance their range of potential contact with target antigens; using antibodies directed against different epitopes on epithelial, mesenchymal or organ-specific cell surface markers to allow simultaneous binding and investigating non-antibody binding molecules as substitutes for antibody. These maneuvers could markedly improve the ability of current assays to improve patient care and might result in an acceptable test for detecting cancer earlier in high risk patients

  20. Short-term variability in bacterial abundance, cell properties, and incorporation of leucine and thymidine in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaartokallio, H.; Søgaard, D.H.; Norman, L.;

    2013-01-01

    cell population properties (by flow cytometry) in subarctic sea ice in SW Greenland. Short-term temporal variability was moderate, and steep environmental gradients, typical for sea ice, were the main drivers of the variability in bacterial cell properties and activity. Low nucleic acid (LNA) bacteria...... brightly fluorescing intracellular inclusions after Nile Blue A staining. High Leu saturating concentrations coupled with the occurrence of PHA-producing organisms further highlight the similarity of sea ice internal habitats to biofilm-like systems rather than to open-water systems....

  1. Incorporating Cancer Stem Cells in Radiation Therapy Treatment Response Modeling and the Implication in Glioblastoma Multiforme Treatment Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To perform a preliminary exploration with a simplistic mathematical cancer stem cell (CSC) interaction model to determine whether the tumor-intrinsic heterogeneity and dynamic equilibrium between CSCs and differentiated cancer cells (DCCs) can better explain radiation therapy treatment response with a dual-compartment linear-quadratic (DLQ) model. Methods and Materials: The radiosensitivity parameters of CSCs and DCCs for cancer cell lines including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), non–small cell lung cancer, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and prostate, cervical, and breast cancer were determined by performing robust least-square fitting using the DLQ model on published clonogenic survival data. Fitting performance was compared with the single-compartment LQ (SLQ) and universal survival curve models. The fitting results were then used in an ordinary differential equation describing the kinetics of DCCs and CSCs in response to 2- to 14.3-Gy fractionated treatments. The total dose to achieve tumor control and the fraction size that achieved the least normal biological equivalent dose were calculated. Results: Smaller cell survival fitting errors were observed using DLQ, with the exception of melanoma, which had a low α/β = 0.16 in SLQ. Ordinary differential equation simulation indicated lower normal tissue biological equivalent dose to achieve the same tumor control with a hypofractionated approach for 4 cell lines for the DLQ model, in contrast to SLQ, which favored 2 Gy per fraction for all cells except melanoma. The DLQ model indicated greater tumor radioresistance than SLQ, but the radioresistance was overcome by hypofractionation, other than the GBM cells, which responded poorly to all fractionations. Conclusion: The distinct radiosensitivity and dynamics between CSCs and DCCs in radiation therapy response could perhaps be one possible explanation for the heterogeneous intertumor response to hypofractionation and in some cases superior outcome from

  2. Incorporating Cancer Stem Cells in Radiation Therapy Treatment Response Modeling and the Implication in Glioblastoma Multiforme Treatment Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Victoria Y.; Nguyen, Dan; Pajonk, Frank; Kupelian, Patrick; Kaprealian, Tania; Selch, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To perform a preliminary exploration with a simplistic mathematical cancer stem cell (CSC) interaction model to determine whether the tumor-intrinsic heterogeneity and dynamic equilibrium between CSCs and differentiated cancer cells (DCCs) can better explain radiation therapy treatment response with a dual-compartment linear-quadratic (DLQ) model. Methods and Materials: The radiosensitivity parameters of CSCs and DCCs for cancer cell lines including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), non–small cell lung cancer, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and prostate, cervical, and breast cancer were determined by performing robust least-square fitting using the DLQ model on published clonogenic survival data. Fitting performance was compared with the single-compartment LQ (SLQ) and universal survival curve models. The fitting results were then used in an ordinary differential equation describing the kinetics of DCCs and CSCs in response to 2- to 14.3-Gy fractionated treatments. The total dose to achieve tumor control and the fraction size that achieved the least normal biological equivalent dose were calculated. Results: Smaller cell survival fitting errors were observed using DLQ, with the exception of melanoma, which had a low α/β = 0.16 in SLQ. Ordinary differential equation simulation indicated lower normal tissue biological equivalent dose to achieve the same tumor control with a hypofractionated approach for 4 cell lines for the DLQ model, in contrast to SLQ, which favored 2 Gy per fraction for all cells except melanoma. The DLQ model indicated greater tumor radioresistance than SLQ, but the radioresistance was overcome by hypofractionation, other than the GBM cells, which responded poorly to all fractionations. Conclusion: The distinct radiosensitivity and dynamics between CSCs and DCCs in radiation therapy response could perhaps be one possible explanation for the heterogeneous intertumor response to hypofractionation and in some cases superior outcome from

  3. Pasteurization of IgM-enriched Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Mousavi Hosseini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma proteins are important for therapy or prophylaxis of human diseases. Due to the preparation of human plasma proteins from human plasma pools and risk of contamination with human viruses, different viral reduction treatments such as: pasteurization, solvent/detergent, dry heat treatment, steam treatment, beta-propiolactone/UV and nanofiltration have been implemented. As pasteurization can be performed for liquid protein, this method (a 10-hour heat treatment of the aqueous solutions at 60°C was introduced into the manufacturing procedure of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin, to improve its safety further. The efficiency of this method for inactivation of viruses was evaluated by the use of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (a non-enveloped virus and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR Virus (a lipid-enveloped virus. Pasteurization inactivated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by 7 log10 and for IBR Virus by 5log10. These findings show a significant added measure of virus safety associated with pasteurization of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin preparation.

  4. [Glomerulopathies with organized monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchard, Guy; Bridoux, Frank; Goujon, Jean-Michel

    2016-02-01

    The spectrum of glomerular disorders with organized immunoglobulin (Ig) deposits is heterogeneous. It encompasses 2 mains categories: glomerulopathies with fibrillary deposits are mostly represented by immunoglobulinic amyloidosis (most commonly AL amyloidosis, characterized by monoclonal light chain deposits often of the lambda isotype), and pseudo-amyloid fibrillary glomerulonephritis in which deposits predominantly contain polyclonal IgG4. Glomerulopathies with microtubular deposits include cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis (type I and type II, with or without detectable serum cryoglobulin) and glomerulonephritis with organized microtubular monoclonal Ig deposits (GOMMID) also referred to as immunotactoid glomerulopathy. Pathological diagnosis requires meticulous studies by light microscopy (with systematic Congo red staining), immunofluorescence with specific conjugates, and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural studies are required to differentiate amyloid fibrils (8 to 10 nm in external diameter), pseudo-amyloid fibrils (15-20 nm) and microtubules (10 to 50 nm in external diameter, with a central hollow core). Glomerular deposits in type I cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis are arranged into parallel straight microtubules similar to those observed in GOMMID, but with different topography that allows distinction between the two entities. Glomerular substructures composed of circulating Igs should be distinguished from collagen fibrils that are commonly observed in glomerular disorders with or without deposition of monoclonal or polyclonal Igs. PMID:26810049

  5. Incorporation of Ortho- and Meta-Tyrosine Into Cellular Proteins Leads to Erythropoietin-Resistance in an Erythroid Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esztella Mikolás

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Erythropoietin-resistance is an unsolved concern in the treatment of renal anaemia. We aimed to investigate the possible role of ortho- and meta-tyrosine - the hydroxyl free radical products of L-phenylalanine - in the development of erythropoietin-resistance. Methods: TF-1 erythroblast cell line was used. Cell concentration was determined on day 1; 2 and 3 by two independent observers simultaneously in Bürker cell counting chambers. Protein concentration was determined with colorimetric method. Para-, ortho- and meta-tyrosine levels were measured using reverse phase-HPLC with fluorescence detection. Using Western blot method activating phosphorylation of STAT5 and ERK1/2 were investigated. Results: We found a time- and concentration-dependent decrease of erythropoietin-induced proliferative activity in case of ortho- and meta-tyrosine treated TF-1 erythroblasts, compared to the para-tyrosine cultured cells. Decreased erythropoietin-response could be regained with a competitive dose of para-tyrosine. Proteins of erythroblasts treated by ortho- or meta-tyrosine had lower para-tyrosine and higher ortho- or meta-tyrosine content. Activating phosphorylation of ERK and STAT5 due to erythropoietin was practically prevented by ortho- or meta-tyrosine treatment. Conclusion: According to this study elevated ortho- and meta-tyrosine content of erythroblasts may lead to the dysfunction of intracellular signaling, resulting in erythropoietin-hyporesponsiveness.

  6. Fibrinogen and fibrin based micro and nano scaffolds incorporated with drugs, proteins, cells and genes for therapeutic biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajangam T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Thanavel Rajangam, Seong Soo A An Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam-Si, Republic of Korea Abstract: Over the past two decades, many types of natural and synthetic polymer-based micro- and nanocarriers, with exciting properties and applications, have been developed for application in various types of tissue regeneration, including bone, cartilage, nerve, blood vessels, and skin. The development of suitable polymers scaffold designs to aid the repair of specific cell types have created diverse and important potentials in tissue restoration. Fibrinogen (Fbg- and fibrin (Fbn-based micro- and nanostructures can provide suitable natural matrix environments. Since these primary materials are abundantly available in blood as the main coagulation proteins, they can easily interact with damaged tissues and cells through native biochemical interactions. Fbg- and Fbn-based micro and nanostructures can also be consecutively furnished/or encapsulated and specifically delivered, with multiple growth factors, proteins, and stem cells, in structures designed to aid in specific phases of the tissue regeneration process. The present review has been carried out to demonstrate the progress made with micro and nanoscaffold applications and features a number of applications of Fbg- and Fbn-based carriers in the field of biomaterials, including the delivery of drugs, active biomolecules, cells, and genes, that have been effectively used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Keywords: biomaterial, polymer composite, cross-linking, growth factor, drug delivery, controlled release, tissue regeneration

  7. Kinetics of H3-thymidine incorporation into nuclei of cells of the regenerating liver of rats exposed to various doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Action of X-radiation on the incorporation of H3-thymidine into nuclei of cells of the regenerating liver of rats has been studied. A whole-body exposure of rats to 150-300 R has been found to inhibit H3-thymidine uptake into DNA of S-cells of the regenerating liver, and this effect can be attributed to the inhibition of DNA synthesis rather than to changes in the concentration of a label in the intracellular pool of DNA precursors. In addition to the DNA synthesis decrease, inhibition of the label uptake into the pool is observed after doses of 600 to 1200 R. On the basis of the data obtained, a hypothesis is proposed that explains the mechanism of inhibition of DNA synthesis under the action of radiation

  8. Mutagenic and lethal effects of [5-125I]lodo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporated into DNA of mammalian cells, and their RBEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decay of 125I unifilarly incorporated as 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdUrd) into DNA of V79 Chinese hamster cells was approximately an order of magnitude more effective in inducing both 6-thioguanine-resistant mutation and cell inactivation than external X rays under equivalent conditions. RBEs of mutation and killing induced by 125I decays, compared with 170-kVp X rays of low LET, were approx. = 11 for mutation [ratio of the induction rate in frequency/rad = 11.3 X 10-7 (125I)/100 X 10-7 (X rays at -79/sup o/C)] and approx. = 10 for cell inactivation [D0 ratio = 505 rad (X rays at -79/sup o/C)/52 rad (125I)]. These RBE values may well exceed the reported maximum values for high-LET radiation in the LET range of 80-110 keV/μm, suggesting that the Auger effect is different from the high-LET radiation effect alone. Thus these biological consequences arise not only from radiation effects of Auger electrons on the immediate vicinity in DNA, but also from the nonionogenic effect through charge transfer processes. In addition, higher inductions of mutation and killing by external X rays in unifilarly IdUrd-substituted cells than in ordinal cells were observed, suggesting a possible involvement of X-ray-induced Auger phenomenon in iodine in DNA

  9. Immunoglobulin Concentration in Tears of Contact Lens Wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P Maurya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The relation of immunoglobulin concentration with increasing duration of wear and material of contact lens shows that tear immunoglobulin rise accrues due to mechanical stimulation, hence contact lenses should not be used for a long period and lenses of hard nature should be discouraged. The maintenance, cleaning and deproteinization of the lenses are of high importance to avoid immunostimulation.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G disrupts blood brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Berg, Carsten Tue; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen;

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the significance of immunoglobulin G autoantibody specific for the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 in cerebrospinal fluid, aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G from a neuromyelitis optica patient was administered intrathecally to naïve mice, and the distribution and pathogenic impact was...

  11. Visualization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O antigens by using a protein A-dextran-colloidal gold conjugate with both immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, J S; Lam, M. Y.; MacDonald, L A; Hancock, R E

    1987-01-01

    Two lipopolysaccharide O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies, MA1-8 (an immunoglobulin G1 [IgG1]) and MF15-4 (an IgM), were used to localize the O antigen of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. A protein A-dextran-gold conjugate with an average particle diameter of 12.5 nm was used to label bacterial cells treated with MA1-8, while a second antibody (goat anti-mouse IgM) was required before the same probe could interact with cells treated with the IgM antibody MF15-4. Bo...

  12. Multifunctional graphene incorporated polyacrylamide conducting gel electrolytes for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialong; Tang, Qunwei; Li, Ru; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin; Yang, Peizhi

    2015-06-01

    Pursuit of a high efficiency and stability has been a persistent objective for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Here we launch a strategy of synthesizing graphene implanted polyacrylamide (PAAm-G) conducting gel electrolytes for quasi-solid-state QDSCs. With an aim of elevating the dosage of S2-/Sx2- redox couples and therefore charge-transfer ability, both osmotic press across the PAAm-G and capillary force within the three-dimensional micropores are utilized as driving forces. A promising power conversion efficiency of 2.34% is recorded for the QDSCs by optimizing graphene dosage in the conducting gel electrolyte. The enhanced conversion efficiency of solar cell is attributed to the expanded catalytic area from counter electrolyte/electrolyte interface to both interface and the conducting gel electrolyte.

  13. The Effect of Incorporation of SDF-1α into PLGA Scaffolds on Stem Cell Recruitment and the Inflammatory Response

    OpenAIRE

    Thevenot, Paul; Nair, Ashwin; Shen, Jinhui; Lotfi, Parisa; Ko, Cheng Yu; Tang, Liping

    2010-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the understanding of tissue responses to biomaterials, most implants are still plagued by inflammatory responses which can lead to fibrotic encapsulation. This is of dire consequence in tissue engineering, where seeded cells and bioactive components are separated from the native tissue, limiting the regenerative potential of the design. Additionally, these interactions prevent desired tissue integration and angiogenesis, preventing functionality of the design. ...

  14. Enhancing the Viability of Lactobacillus plantarum Inoculum by Immobilizing the Cells in Calcium-Alginate Beads Incorporating Cryoprotectants

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, Louise; Upton, Mary; Mc Loughlin, Aiden

    1990-01-01

    Many literature reports have cited the importance of the rehydration conditions of lyophilized cultures in determining viability. The rate of rehydration and the volume of fluid used have been identified as two important factors. One possible means of controlling these is by immobilizing the cells before lyophilization within a gel matrix in which the subsequent rehydration rate and fluid volume would be controlled by the properties of the gel. In this study Lactobacillus plantarum was immobi...

  15. Overview of the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with intravenous immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Mahdi-Rogers; Yusuf A Rajabally

    2010-01-01

    Mohamed Mahdi-Rogers, Yusuf A RajaballyNeuromuscular Clinic, Department of Neurology, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, UKAbstract: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired heterogeneous disorder of immune origin affecting the peripheral nerves, causing motor weakness and sensory symptoms and signs. The precise pathophysiology of CIDP remains uncertain although B and T cell mechanisms are believed to be implicated. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) ...

  16. Analysis of the isotype specificity of three platypus immunoglobulin Fc receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Akula, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    The host’s defense against diseases called immunity acts either via innate or adaptive defense mechanisms. Immunoglobulins (Ig’s) are important players in adaptive immunity. They have evolved both structurally and functionally during vertebrate evolution. The Fc region of Igs can interact with specific receptors on the surface of various immune cells; crosslinking of these Fc receptors can trigger a wide array of immune reactions. To trigger such reactions, higher mammals have five different ...

  17. Alterations in serum immunoglobulin levels in workers occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luoping; Bassig, Bryan A.; Mora, Joseph L.; Vermeulen, Roel; Ge, Yichen; Curry, John D.; Hu, Wei; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ji, Zhiying; Reiss, Boris; McHale, Cliona M.; Liu, Songwang; Guo, Weihong; Purdue, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been associated with a variety of immunotoxic effects and may be associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Altered serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels have been reported in NHL patients and in animals exposed to TCE. Recently, we reported that occupational exposure to TCE is associated with immunosuppressive effects and immune dysfunction, including suppression of B-cell counts and activation, even at relatively low levels. We hypothesized that ...

  18. Outcome of Intravenous Immunoglobulin-Transmitted HTLV-I, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV infections

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Foroughipour; Farahzad Jabbari Azad; Reza Farid hosseini; Abbas Shirdel; Amir Reza Khalighi; Hadis Yousefzadeh; Homa Sadri; Toktam Moghiman; Hossein Hekmatkhah

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Since each unit of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) is obtained from different blood donors, blood-borne viral diseases is of high importance. We aimed at investigating the prevalence of various viral infections: Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-I), Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among patients referred for IVIG therapy section in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: A prospective...

  19. Escherichia coli extract-catalyzed recombination in switch regions of mouse immunoglobulin genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka, T.; Takeda, S.; Honjo, T

    1983-01-01

    We have shown that Escherichia coli extracts catalyze recombination between mouse immunoglobulin mu and alpha genes inserted separately in lambda phage vectors carrying different genetic markers. Most of the recombination sites in the inserts are located in the switch regions of the heavy chain genes, as previously found in the expressed genes of myeloma cells. The recombination took place at relatively high frequency (10(-4)). The recombinational system in E. coli or lambda phage seems to pr...

  20. The effects of prednisone and azathioprine on circulating immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rinkardt, N E; Kruth, S.A.; A Kaushik

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates serum immunoglobulin (SIg) levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs in response to putative immunosuppressive doses of prednisone and/or azathioprine. The objectives were to quantify SIg levels and lymphocyte subpopulations, including Thy-1+, CD4+, CD8+ and B cells, in normal dogs both before and after the administration of prednisone and/or azathioprine at 2 mg/kg, PO, each. Eighteen beagles were divided into 3 groups of 6 dogs each. Blood samples for radia...

  1. Colloidal gold immunolabeling of immunoglobulin-binding sites and beta antigen in group B streptococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, S E; Brady, L. J.; Boyle, M D

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized the immunoglobulin A (IgA)-Fc-binding properties and beta-antigen expression of several strains of group B streptococci by using ultrastructural immunocytochemistry. Colloidal gold-labeled tracers were used with intact and sectioned bacteria in order to gain information regarding the location and distribution of cell surface and cytoplasmic IgA-Fc-binding molecules and beta antigen. Colloidal gold (5- or 15-nm particles) was conjugated to IgA to characterize IgA-binding ...

  2. Isolation of a coccidioidin component that reacts with immunoglobulin M precipitin antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, R. A.; Britt, L A

    1986-01-01

    Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) precipitin antibody to coccidioidin, the autolysate of mycelial-phase cells of Coccidioides immitis, is an important serologic aid in establishing a diagnosis of primary coccidioidomycosis. In the present study, the component of coccidioidin that reacts with IgM precipitin antibody was isolated by a combination of immunoaffinity and anion-exchange chromatography. Antigenic analysis of the purified antigen in two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis against goa...

  3. Quantitative evaluation of cellular uptake, DNA incorporation and adduct formation in cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines: Comparison of different Pt-containing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Rodríguez, M; Espina, M; Sierra, L M; Blanco, E; Ames, T; Montes-Bayón, M; Sanz-Medel, A

    2015-11-01

    The use of Pt-containing compounds as chemotherapeutic agents facilitates drug monitoring by using highly sensitive elemental techniques like inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). However, methodological problems arise when trying to compare different experiments due to the high variability of biological parameters. In this work we have attempted to identify and correct such variations in order to compare the biological behavior of cisplatin, oxaliplatin and pyrodach-2 (a novel platinum-containing agent). A detailed study to address differential cellular uptake has been conducted in three different cell lines: lung adenocarcinoma (A549); cisplatin-sensitive ovarian carcinoma (A2780); and cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma (A2780cis). The normalization of Pt results to cell mass, after freeze-drying, has been used to minimize the errors associated with cell counting. Similarly, Pt accumulation in DNA has been evaluated by referencing the Pt results to the DNA concentration, as measured by (31)P monitoring using flow-injection and ICP-MS detection. These strategies have permitted to address significantly lower Pt levels in the resistant cells when treated with cisplatin or oxaliplatin as well as an independent behaviour from the cell type (sensitive or resistant) for pyrodach-2. Similarly, different levels of incorporation in DNA have been found for the three drugs depending on the cell model revealing a different behavior regarding cell cisplatin resistance. Further speciation experiments (by using complementary HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS) have shown that the main target in DNA is still the N7 of the guanine but with different kinetics of the ligand exchange mechanism for each of the compounds under evaluation. PMID:26352094

  4. Measurement of immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin A antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: comparison of lipopolysaccharide and whole bacterium as antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Granfors, K; Viljanen, M K; Toivanen, A

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantitation of human immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica by using lipopolysaccharides as antigens is described. The results obtained with the lipopolysaccharide ELISA were compared with the results of the whole bacterium ELISA. The correlations observed were good for each immunoglobulin class. Cross-reactions between Y. enterocolitica serotypes O:3 and O:9, Yersinia pseudotuberculos...

  5. Influence of irradiation or thymidine (TdR) on the pattern of 3H-Tdsub(R) incorporation at each cell position in the crypts of the small intestine of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using autoradiography it was noted that S phase cells at the bottom of the crypts in the small intestine were the most efficient scavengers of exogenous injected thymidine. The efficiency of the incorporation of 3H-TdR (salvage pathway of DNA synthesis) by cells at the crypt base (stem cell zone) was twice as high as for the S phase cells at the top of the crypt (maturing proliferative cells). There were no such position-dependent differences in incorporation of 3H-UdR (de novo pathway of DNA synthesis). Radiation (0.75-5.0 Gy 137Cs γ-rays) inhibited incorporation of 3H-TdR very rapidly and was also cell-position dependent, the cells at the bottom of the crypt being most affected. Injection of cold thymidine before 3H-TdR changed the pattern of the incorporation of 3H-TdR along the side of the crypt in a very similar way to radiation, and the grain number was decreased predominantly in the cells at lower positions. The possibility of a regional gradient of endogenous thymidine (reutilization from intestinal sources), and the influence of irradiation on the gradient of thymidine incorporation resulting from direct and abscopal effects of whole body exposure, are discussed. (author)

  6. Difference in 3H-thymidine incorporation after irradiation between murine B16 melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tumor growth and cell proliferation kinetics of B16 melanoma and transplantable squamous cell carcinoma (BSC tumor) in C57BL/6 mice were studied after single-dose X-ray and fast-neutron (2 MeV) irradiations. From tumor volume change studies, B16 tumor showed a high relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value (5.5) compared to that of BSC tumor (3.5). The tissue characteristics of the two tumors were not significantly different, but the post-irradiation changes in mitotic index (MI) and lebeling index (LI) were dependent on the tumor and on the nature of the radiation. After irradation, mitosis was immediately inhibited (G2 block) but recovered within several hours in BSC and X-ray-irradiated B16 tumors. The neutron-irradiated B16 tumors showed no recovery up to the end of the observation period. After X-ray irradiation, of B16 tumors, LI showed an Fimmediate reduction, while the reduction was delayed several hours (equal to G1 + M) in BSC tumors. The extent of reduction was dose-dependent, and its recovery was coincident with the recovery of mitosis. The change in LI of neutron-irradiated BSC tumors was similar to that with X-rays, but no change in LI was observed in neutron-irradiated B16 tumors over 18 hr. From these results, it is assumed that the cell progression of B16 tumors is susceptible to ionizing radiation, and that G1 block is induced as a result of irradiation. (author)

  7. Carbon dots incorporated polymeric hydrogels as multifunctional platform for imaging and induction of apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Abhay; Matai, Ishita; Gopinath, P

    2016-05-01

    Multifunctional hydrogels offer a seemingly efficient system for delivery of drugs and bioimaging modalities. The present study deals with the facile development of chitosan-based hydrogel formulation composed of highly fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) and loaded with a model anticancer drug, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Herein, CDs were embedded firmly within the hydrogel matrices (CD-HY) via non-covalent interactions during the ionic cross-linking reaction. Furthermore, these hydrogels could effectively encapsulate 5-FU through hydrophobic interactions to form 5-FU@CD-HY. In this way, it was possible to combine the merits of both CDs and 5-FU on a common platform for monitoring the cellular uptake as well as therapeutic effects. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated the porous nature and formation of 5-FU@CD-HY. Besides, functional characteristics of 5-FU@CD-HY such as surface area, mechanical strength, swelling behavior and drug release were investigated. In vitro studies revealed the multifunctional aspects of 5-FU@CD-HY in monitoring the cellular uptake and inflicting apoptosis in A549 cells. Green fluorescence of CDs in 5-FU@CD-HY aided the qualitative and quantitative assessment of cellular uptake. In addition to this, the fluorescence of CDs could be used to detect apoptosis instigated by 5-FU, eliminating the need for multiplex dyes. Induction of apoptosis in 5-FU@CD-HY treated cells was evidenced by changes in cell cycle distributions and visualization of characteristic apoptotic bodies through FE-SEM. Apoptotic gene expression studies further elucidate the molecular mechanism involved in eliciting apoptosis. Thus, hydrogels mediated integration of fluorescent CDs with chemotherapeutic agents provides a new dimension for the potential use of hydrogels in cancer theranostics. PMID:26854583

  8. Controlling electron injection and electron transport of dye-sensitized solar cells aided by incorporating CNTs into a Cr-doped TiO2 photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we focused on simultaneously control electron injection and electron transport, in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), aided by introducing Cr3+ and CNTs into a TiO2 photoanode, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that, Cr3+ and CNTs were successfully incorporated into the TiO2 lattice without forming secondary phases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that Cr introduction has perfectly balanced the amount of anatase and rutile phases in order to accomplish a more efficient cell. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images showed deposited films to have a porous morphology composed of nanoparticles and TiO2 nanoparticles (TNTs) coated CNTs. Moreover, the presence of Cr3+ could improve the morphology of CNT-TiO2 electrodes. UV–vis absorption showed that Cr and CNT introduction enhanced the visible light absorption of photoanode by shifting the absorption onset to visible light region. Furthermore, the band gap energy of nanoparticles decreases with an increase in dopant concentration. The solar cell composed of 3 at.% Cr3+ and 0.025 wt% CNTs (i.e., T2/C3 cell) had the highest power conversion efficiency of 7.47%, short current density of 17.54 mA/cm2 and open circuit voltage of 698 mV. The photovoltaic improvement can be related to the achievement of a balance among the electron injection, electron transport and dye sensitization parameters

  9. Immunoglobulin/Myc recombinations in murine Peyer's patch follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J R; Mushinski, E B; Williams, J A; Hausner, P F

    1997-09-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh)/Myc recombinations are a hallmark of pristane-induced mouse plasmacytomas but are also frequently found in non-tumorous tissues. Here we describe for the first time a PCR-based technique for detecting fusions between Igh mu or Igh alpha and Myc in situ. Igh/Myc recombinations were found in transplanted and primary plasmacytomas. In addition, the gut-associated lymphoid tissues of plasmacytoma-free BALB/c mice were investigated for the presence of Igh/Myc fusions. Igh/Myc rearrangements were detected in Peyer's patch follicles and in the intestinal lamina propria both in normal mice and in mice shortly after pristane treatment. The sequence analysis showed that i) three to five different Igh/Myc hybrid sequences were present in individual follicles, ii) Igh/Myc recombinations can be subjected to additional switch recombinations as shown by related sequences in neighboring cells, and iii) cells harboring these rearrangements migrate into the adjacent lamina propria. The results indicate that Peyer's patches are a hyper-recombinogenic tissue. Myc recombination-positive cells are present in at least 100-fold more frequently than expected if recombinations were random, which suggests that this kind of trans-chromosomal rearrangement may be targeted. PMID:9290947

  10. 7th International Immunoglobulin Conference: Immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, M G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease that is usually treated aggressively to slow the rate of joint destruction. The therapeutic strategy used at the French centre, described here, is to use the non-biological disease-modifying drug, methotrexate, as first-line therapy and to add biological agents as second-line treatment. The two other autoimmune diseases discussed in this session were immunobullous skin diseases, and secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM). In the former conditions, low levels of pathogenic autoantibodies can be achieved with adjuvant intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy, usually in combination with an immunosuppressant. Secondary RM has an autoimmune basis, as shown by high tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels and specific human leucocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms. Although the mechanism is not yet known, IVIg may also be an effective treatment, despite the generally low doses used in published studies. PMID:25546788

  11. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò eCompagno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin (Ig replacement therapy dramatically changed the clinical course of primary hypogammaglobulinemias, significantly reducing the incidence of infectious events. Over the last 2 decades its use has been extended to secondary antibody deficiencies, particularly those related to hematological disorders as lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs and multiple myeloma. In these malignancies, hypogammaglobulinemia can be an intrinsic aspect of the disease or follow chemo-immunotherapy regimens, including anti-CD20 treatment. Other than in LPDs the broadening use of immunotherapy (e.g. rituximab and immune suppressive therapy (steroids, sulfasalazine, mycophenolate mophetil has extended the occurrence of iatrogenic hypogammaglobulinemia. In particular, in both autoimmune diseases and solid organ transplantation Ig replacement therapy has been shown to reduce the rate of infectious events.Here, we review the existing literature about Ig replacement therapy in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, with special regard for subcutaneous administration route, a safe, effective and well-tolerated treatment approach, currently well established in primary immunodeficiencies and secondary hypogammaglobulinemias.

  12. Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy in Secondary Hypogammaglobulinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagno, Nicolò; Malipiero, Giacomo; Cinetto, Francesco; Agostini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy dramatically changed the clinical course of primary hypogammaglobulinemias, significantly reducing the incidence of infectious events. Over the last two decades its use has been extended to secondary antibody deficiencies, particularly those related to hematological disorders as lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) and multiple myeloma. In these malignancies, hypogammaglobulinemia can be an intrinsic aspect of the disease or follow chemo-immunotherapy regimens, including anti-CD20 treatment. Other than in LPDs the broadening use of immunotherapy (e.g., rituximab) and immune-suppressive therapy (steroids, sulfasalazine, and mycophenolate mofetil) has extended the occurrence of iatrogenic hypogammaglobulinemia. In particular, in both autoimmune diseases and solid organ transplantation Ig replacement therapy has been shown to reduce the rate of infectious events. Here, we review the existing literature about Ig replacement therapy in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, with special regard for subcutaneous administration route, a safe, effective, and well-tolerated treatment approach, currently well established in primary immunodeficiencies and secondary hypogammaglobulinemias. PMID:25538710

  13. Solar urticaria successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R

    2012-02-01

    Idiopathic solar urticaria (SU) is a rare, debilitating photodermatosis, which may be difficult to treat. First-line treatment with antihistamines is effective in mild cases, but remission after phototherapeutic induction of tolerance is often short-lived. Other treatment options include plasma exchange, photopheresis and cyclosporin. We present two cases of severe, idiopathic SU, which were resistant to conventional treatment. Both patients achieved remission after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and have remained in remission at 13 months and 4 years, respectively. There are only two case reports of successful treatment of solar urticaria with IVIg. In our experience IVIg given at a total dose of 2 g\\/kg over several 5-day courses about a month apart is an effective treatment option for severe idiopathic SU. It is also generally safe, even if certainly subject to significant theoretical risks, such as induction of viral infection or anaphylaxis.

  14. Structural repertoire of immunoglobulin λ light chains

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The immunoglobulin λ isotype is present in nearly all vertebrates and plays an important role in the human immune system. Despite its importance, few systematic studies have been performed to analyze the structural conformation of its variable regions, contrary to what is the case for κ and heavy chains. We show here that an analysis of the structures of λ chains allows the definition of a discrete set of recurring conformations (canonical structures) of their hypervariable loops and, most importantly, the identification of sequence constraints that can be used to predict their structure. We also show that the structural repertoire of λ chains is different and more varied than that of the κ chains, consistently with the current view of the involvement of the two major light-chain families in complementary strategies of the immune system to ensure a fine tuning between diversity and stability in antigen recognition. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Performance characteristics of guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolytes with binary iodide salts for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R. A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.; Arof, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of guanine as an organic dopant in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on poly(vinylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) polymer blend electrolyte along with binary iodide salts (potassium iodide (KI) and tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI)) and iodine (I2). The PVDF-HFP/KI + TBAI/I2, PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 and guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolytes were prepared by solution casting technique using DMF as solvent. The PVDF-HFP/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte showed an ionic conductivity value of 9.99 × 10-5 Scm-1, whereas, it was found to be increased to 4.53 × 10-5 Scm-1 when PEO was blended with PVDF-HFP/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte. However, a maximum ionic conductivity value of 3.67 × 10-4 Scm-1 was obtained for guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 blend electrolyte. The photovoltaic properties of all these polymer electrolytes in DSSCs were characterized. As a consequence, the power conversion efficiency of the guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte based DSSC was significantly improved to 4.98% compared with PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte based DSSC (2.46%). These results revealed that the guanine can be an effective organic dopant to enhance the performance of DSSCs.

  16. A self-inactivating retrovector incorporating the IL-2 promoter for activation-induced transgene expression in genetically engineered T-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejeune Laurence

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T-cell activation leads to signaling pathways that ultimately result in induction of gene transcription from the interleukin-2 (IL-2 promoter. We hypothesized that the IL-2 promoter or its synthetic derivatives can lead to T-cell specific, activation-induced transgene expression. Our objective was to develop a retroviral vector for stable and activation-induced transgene expression in T-lymphocytes. Results First, we compared the transcriptional potency of the full-length IL-2 promoter with that of a synthetic promoter composed of 3 repeats of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells (NFAT element following activation of transfected Jurkat T-cells expressing the large SV40 T antigen (Jurkat TAg. Although the NFAT3 promoter resulted in a stronger induction of luciferase reporter expression post stimulation, the basal levels of the IL-2 promoter-driven reporter expression were much lower indicating that the IL-2 promoter can serve as a more stringent activation-dependent promoter in T-cells. Based on this data, we generated a self-inactivating retroviral vector with the full-length human IL-2 promoter, namely SINIL-2pr that incorporated the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP fused to herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase as a reporter/suicide "bifunctional" gene. Subsequently, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-G Protein pseudotyped retroparticles were generated for SINIL-2pr and used to transduce the Jurkat T-cell line and the ZAP-70-deficient P116 cell line. Flow cytometry analysis showed that EGFP expression was markedly enhanced post co-stimulation of the gene-modified cells with 1 μM ionomycin and 10 ng/ml phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. This activation-induced expression was abrogated when the cells were pretreated with 300 nM cyclosporin A. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the SINIL-2pr retrovector leads to activation-inducible transgene expression in Jurkat T-cell lines. We propose that this design can be

  17. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO{sub 2} slurry-based photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jiaoping; Chen, Zexiang, E-mail: zxchen@uestc.edu.cn; Li, Jun; Wang, Yan, E-mail: zxchen@uestc.edu.cn; Zhang, Jijun; Li, Hai [School of Opto-electronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xiang, Dong [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    A new titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO{sub 2} photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO{sub 2} photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO{sub 2} slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO{sub 2} slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the TiO{sub 2} slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO{sub 2} photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ∼0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO{sub 2} slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.

  18. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the TiO2 slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO2 photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ∼0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO2 slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs

  19. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  20. Effect of glucagon on cyclic AMP, albumin metabolism and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal rat liver cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1976-01-01

    Parenchymal rat liver cells were isolated by the collagenase method and incubated in Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 0.5% gelatin. The basal level of cyclic AMP in isolated cells was 0.52 nmol per g liver wet wt. Glucagon (10(-10)-10(-6) M) caused a significant increase in the level of cyclic AMP....... Maximum levels were obtained 2-15 min after addition of glucagon. Repeated administration of glucagon caused a new increase in cyclic AMP, but the response was lesser than after the first addition of glucagon, indicating refractoriness to glucagon. The rate of albumin secretion was 4.6 mug/min per g liver...... wet wt. This is about the rate found in the perfused liver, Glucagon (10(-8-10(-6) M) inhibited albumin secretion and the incorporation of 14C-leucine into albumin, into total proteins in the medium and into total proteins in the cell suspension. The effect of glucagon on albumin secretion is...

  1. Co-localization of the heat shock protein and human immunoglobulin G in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-guang; LIU Yan-fang; LI Kai-nan; YU Lu; CUI Ji-hong; LI Jing; YANG Shou-jing

    2005-01-01

    @@ Elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin observed in patients with cancers of epithelial origin, including carcinomas of breast, colon, and liver1,2 have been interpreted as humoral responses of host to cancer growth.3 Recently, Qiu et al4 described in detail that human cancers of epithelial origin, including carcinomas of breast, colon, liver, lung, established epithelial cancer lines, produce immunoglobulin G (IgG) in their cytoplasm. Under normal conditions, heat shock proteins (HSPs) have multiple cellular functions, such as folding and translocating newly synthesized proteins. When a cell is injured or under stress, HSPs refold damaged protein or facilitate degradation of proteins. In most cancers, heat shock proteins can capture tumour specific peptide to inhibit the growth of cancer. This study demonstrated that human IgG and HSPs are co-localized in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Structure of filamin A immunoglobulin-like repeat 10 from Homo sapiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of immunoglobulin-like repeat 10 from human filamin A solved at 2.44 Å resolution suggests the potential effects of mutations correlated with otopalatodigital syndrome spectrum disorders. Filamin A (FlnA) plays a critical role in cytoskeletal organization, cell motility and cellular signaling. FlnA utilizes different binding sites on a series of 24 immunoglobulin-like domains (Ig repeats) to interact with diverse cytosolic proteins and with cytoplasmic portions of membrane proteins. Mutations in a specific domain, Ig10 (FlnA-Ig10), are correlated with two severe forms of the otopalatodigital syndrome spectrum disorders Melnick–Needles syndrome and frontometaphyseal dysplasia. The crystal structure of FlnA-Ig10 determined at 2.44 Å resolution provides insight into the perturbations caused by these mutations

  3. The Prospect of Immunoglobulin Y for Therapy of Canine parvovirus Infection in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV is a highly infectious virus. The virus causes death in dogs worldwide. The mortality rate due to infection of CPV in dog reaches 91%. Prevention of CPV infection in puppies has been done by vaccination which is effectively proven. Protective mechanisms of maternal antibodies contribute to the failure of vaccination. Highly stable characteristics of parvovirus enable the virus still exist in the environment. Various therapies are performed only to suppress the clinical symptoms but can not reduce puppy mortalities. This review discusses CPV alternative therapy and the advantages using immunoglobulin Y (IgY specific antibodies isolated from chicken egg yolk. Immunoglobulin Y will neutralize the virus, so it can not infect host cells. Intravenous IgY therapy has shown to suppress the spread of CPV infection and prevent death.

  4. Improvement of inverted type organic solar cells performance by incorporating Mg dopant into hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginting, Riski Titian [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Chi Chin, E-mail: ccyap@ukm.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Mat Salleh, Muhamad [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • Mg-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Growth of ZnO nanorods was strongly correlated to Mg concentration. • The PCE of device with optimum Mg concentration increased by 225%. • The mechanism of PCE improvement by Mg doping was revealed. -- Abstract: The Mg concentration dependence of the performance of inverted type organic solar cells based on Mg-doped ZnO nanorod arrays and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) has been investigated. The Mg dopants with various concentrations (0, 1, 3 and 5 at.%) were introduced during the hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanorod arrays on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The P3HT was deposited onto Mg-doped ZnO nanorod arrays by spin coating technique, followed by deposition of Ag as anode using magnetron sputtering technique. The length and density of Mg-doped ZnO nanorods increased, whereas the diameter decreased with the Mg concentration. The short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) improved with increasing of Mg concentration up to 3 at.%, which could be attributed to increased interfacial area for more efficient exciton dissociation and reduced charge recombination as a result of lower number of oxygen interstitials which act as electron traps in ZnO. However, the J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} started to decrease at Mg concentration of 5 at.%, mainly due to poor infiltration of P3HT into the high-density 5 at.% Mg-doped ZnO nanorod arrays and increase of Mg dopant-related trapping centers. The highest power conversion efficiency of 0.36 ± 0.02% was achieved at Mg doping concentration of 3 at.%, an enhancement of 225% as compared to that based on undoped ZnO nanorod arrays.

  5. Improvement of inverted type organic solar cells performance by incorporating Mg dopant into hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mg-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Growth of ZnO nanorods was strongly correlated to Mg concentration. • The PCE of device with optimum Mg concentration increased by 225%. • The mechanism of PCE improvement by Mg doping was revealed. -- Abstract: The Mg concentration dependence of the performance of inverted type organic solar cells based on Mg-doped ZnO nanorod arrays and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) has been investigated. The Mg dopants with various concentrations (0, 1, 3 and 5 at.%) were introduced during the hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanorod arrays on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The P3HT was deposited onto Mg-doped ZnO nanorod arrays by spin coating technique, followed by deposition of Ag as anode using magnetron sputtering technique. The length and density of Mg-doped ZnO nanorods increased, whereas the diameter decreased with the Mg concentration. The short circuit current density (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) improved with increasing of Mg concentration up to 3 at.%, which could be attributed to increased interfacial area for more efficient exciton dissociation and reduced charge recombination as a result of lower number of oxygen interstitials which act as electron traps in ZnO. However, the Jsc and Voc started to decrease at Mg concentration of 5 at.%, mainly due to poor infiltration of P3HT into the high-density 5 at.% Mg-doped ZnO nanorod arrays and increase of Mg dopant-related trapping centers. The highest power conversion efficiency of 0.36 ± 0.02% was achieved at Mg doping concentration of 3 at.%, an enhancement of 225% as compared to that based on undoped ZnO nanorod arrays

  6. Immunoglobulin D Multiple Myeloma With Rapidly Progressing Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Jwalant; Kamal, Jeanne; Eter, Ahmad; El-Sayegh, Suzanne; El-Charabaty, Elie

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) multiple myeloma (MM) is a very rare form of myeloma affecting less than 2% of all myeloma patients. It has a multiorgan involvement with renal failure being the key feature. We present here a case of IgD MM in a 62-year-old white male, smoker with past medical history of hypertension, who presented to emergency department with complaints of lower abdominal pain, constipation and decreased urination. Physical exam was unremarkable. Laboratory investigation showed S.Cr 5.99 mg/dL, hemoglobin 8.7 g/dL and corrected S.Ca 10.6 mg/dL. Urine dipstick showed 100 protein and TP/Cr ratio was 23. Serology was positive for serum free lambda chain level of 8,947.6 mg/L as well with free κ/λ ratio obstructive uropathy. Skeletal survey showed a solitary lytic lesion in the iliac crest. His kidney function deteriorated next day requiring hemodialysis. The bone marrow biopsy was positive for plasma cell hypercellularity (70-80%) and flow cytometry showed 8% monoclonal IgD lambda plasma cells. The patient was started on bortezomib and dexamethasone and he underwent bone marrow transplant 6 months later. He is doing well hematologically now but he remains dialysis-dependent. IgD MM is a very rare disease affecting younger population with poor prognosis; patients often end up on hemodialysis despite better control of the hematological component. PMID:26124916

  7. 丙氨酰-谷氨酰胺对断奶仔猪小肠黏膜固有层免疫球蛋白 A浆细胞数量、分泌型免疫球蛋白 A及黏膜中白细胞介素含量的影响%Effects of Alanyl-Glutamine on the Number of Immunoglobulin A Plasma Cells in Intestinal Lamina Propria and the Contents of Secretory Immunoglobulin A and Interleukin in Mucosal of Weaner Piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶亚玲; 王自蕊; 游金明; 邓宸玺; 辛向荣

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to study the effects of alanyl-glutamine ( Ala-Gln) on the number of Im-munoglobulin A ( IgA) plasma cells in intestinal lamina propria and the contents of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and interleukin (IL) in mucosal of weaner piglets. The experiment used a randomized complete block design, a total of 100 castrated weaner piglets (Landrace ×Large White ) at (21±2) days of age with initial body weight of (6.7±0.9) kg were assigned to four groups with five replicates in each group and five piglets in each replicate. Piglets in the control group were fed a basal diet ( free alanyl-glutamine) , and the oth-ers were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45% Ala-Gln, respectively. The experi-ment lasted for 21 days. The results showed as follows: 1) compared with the control group, dietary supple-mented with 0.15% to 0.45% Ala-Gln significantly elevated the number of IgA plasma cells in duodenum and jejunum lamina propria on 7, 14 and 21 days of post-weaning ( P0.05). With the increasing of Ala-Gln addition in diet, the contents of IL-6, IL-10 showed a linear increasing trend, and was markedly higher than the control group ( P0.05);随着饲粮中Ala-Gln添加量的增加,各组IL-6、IL-10的含量呈线性增长趋势,且显著高于对照组( P<0.05)。综上所述,饲粮中添加Ala-Gln可提高肠黏膜固有层IgA浆细胞数量、黏膜SIgA分泌量及IL含量,提高断奶仔猪肠道黏膜细胞免疫。

  8. Subcutaneous versus intravenous immunoglobulin in multifocal motor neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, T; Andersen, Henning; Hess, A; Hansen, K; Sindrup, S H; Jakobsen, Johannes K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: For treatment of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), we hypothesized that (i) infusion of equivalent dosages of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is as effective as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and that (ii) subcutaneous infusion at home is associated with a better...... at the injection sites for a few weeks. All other adverse effects during SCIG were mild and transient. No differences between treatments of health-related quality of life occurred. Conclusion: In MMN, short-term subcutaneous infusion of immunoglobulin is feasible, safe and as effective as intravenous...

  9. Study of the Mg incorporation in CdTe for developing wide band gap Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te thin films for possible use as top-cell absorber in a tandem solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Omar S. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Universidad Politecnica del Estado de Guerrero, Comunidad de Puente Campuzano, C.P. 40325 Taxco de Alarcon, Guerrero (Mexico); Millan, Aduljay Remolina [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Huerta, L.; Santana, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. C.P 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mathews, N.R.; Ramon-Garcia, M.L.; Morales, Erik R. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Mathew, X., E-mail: xm@cie.unam.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films of Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te with high spatial uniformity and band gap in the range of 1.6-1.96 eV were deposited by vacuum co-evaporation of CdTe and Mg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obtained Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te films have the structural characteristics of the CdTe, evidence of the change in atomic scattering due to incorporation of Mg was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRD and XPS data confirmed the incorporation of Mg in the lattice of CdTe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM images revealed the impact of Mg incorporation on the morphology of the films, the changes in grain size and grain morphology are noticeable. - Abstract: Thin films of Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te with band gap in the range of 1.6-1.96 eV were deposited by vacuum co-evaporation of CdTe and Mg on glass substrates heated at 300 Degree-Sign C. Different experimental techniques such as XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, SEM, and XPS were used to study the effect of Mg incorporation into the lattice of CdTe. The band gap of the films showed a clear tendency to increase as the Mg content in the film is increased. The Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te films maintain all the structural characteristics of the CdTe, however, diminishing of intensity for the XRD patterns is observed due to both change in preferential orientation and change in atomic scattering due to the incorporation of Mg. SEM images showed significant evidences of morphological changes due to the presence of Mg. XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS data confirmed the incorporation of Mg in the lattice of CdTe. The significant increase in band gap of CdTe due to incorporation of Mg suggests that the Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te thin film is a candidate material to use as absorber layer in the top-cell of a tandem solar cell.

  10. Influence of soluble PEG-OH incorporation in a 3D cell-laden PEG-fibrinogen (PF) hydrogel on smooth muscle cell morphology and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bae Hoon; Tin, Stella Poh Hui; Chaw, Su Yin; Cao, Ye; Xia, Yun; Steele, Terry W J; Seliktar, Dror; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2014-01-01

    We have been able to control hydrogel compliance and cell spreading in a three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden system (hydrogel) using soluble PEG-OH. This was accomplished by encapsulating smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into poly(ethylene glycol)-fibrinogen (PEG-fibrinogen or PF) with poly(ethylene glycol)-diol (PEG-OH) as a macromolecular leachant. The cell-encapsulating hydrogels were prepared with three concentrations of soluble PEG-OH having a mass of 10 kDa (1, 5 and 10% w/v). Rheology was used to measure the elastic (storage) component of the complex shear modulus of these hydrogels, while quantitative morphometrics were used to characterize SMC morphology. PF hydrogel with a higher amount of PEG-OH displayed a lower storage modulus and a higher elongated cell morphology of SMCs. Structural changes of PF hydrogels mainly owing to gelation-induced phase separation imparted by the soluble PEG-OH in 3D cell-laden hydrogels dramatically affected both the properties of the hydrogel network including the modulus as well as cell spreading. PMID:24304216

  11. Reconstitution of TGFBR2 in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells causes increased LFNG expression and enhanced N-acetyl-d-glucosamine incorporation into Notch1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer; Katzenmaier, Eva-Maria; Kopitz, Jürgen; Gebert, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a key role in regulating normal cell growth and differentiation, and mutations affecting members of this pathway contribute to cancer development and metastasis. In DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient colorectal cancers that exhibit the microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype, biallelic frameshift mutations in the transforming growth factor β receptor type 2 (TGFBR2) gene occur at high frequency that lead to altered signal transduction and downstream target gene expression. Although recent evidence suggests that altered TGF-β signaling can modulate protein glycosylation patterns in MSI-high colorectal tumor cells, affected genes have not been identified. Here, we investigated in a more systematic approach, expression changes of TGFBR2-regulated genes, involved in glycosylation using a TGFBR2-reconstituted colorectal cancer cell line (HCT116-TGFBR2) and Glyco-Gene Chip analysis. Based on this oligonucleotide array of about 1000 human glycosylation-related genes, several candidates including HES1, PDGFB, JUNB and LFNG were found to be upregulated in a TGFBR2-dependent manner and subsequently validated by real-time RT-PCR analyses. Focusing on the glycosyltransferase LFNG and its target signaling protein Notch1, dual labeling with [3H]-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine ([3H]-GlcNAc) and [35S]-l-methionine revealed a significant increase in N-acetyl-d-glucosamine incorporation into immunoprecipitated Notch1 receptor upon TGFBR2 expression whereas the protein level remained unaffected. These data suggest that TGFBR2 signaling can affect Notch1 glycosylation via regulation of glycosyltransferase LFNG expression and provide a first mechanistic example for altered glycosylation in MSI colorectal tumor cells. PMID:27156840

  12. Binding analysis of carbon nanoparticles to human immunoglobulin G: Elucidation of the cytotoxicity of CNPs and perturbation of immunoglobulin conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengrui; Yang, Haitao; Ji, Xiaohui; Wang, Qin

    2016-02-01

    The chemical compositions, sizes and fluorescent properties of synthesized carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) were characterized. Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells were used as a model to study the cytotoxicity of CNPs, and the results of the cellular uptake of CNPs yielded excellent results: the CNPs demonstrated good biocompatibility and were non-toxic to the growth of the E. coli cells. Moreover, to assess the potential toxicity of CNPs to human health, the binding behavior of CNPs with human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) was examined by fluorescence quenching spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy under physiological conditions. The fluorescence quenching constants and parameters for the interaction at different temperatures had been calculated according to Scatchard. The thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpy change (ΔH), entropy change (ΔS) and free energy change (ΔG), were calculated, and the results indicated strong static quenching and showed that van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the CNP-HIgG complex. Synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra provided information regarding the conformational alteration of HIgG in the presence of CNPs. These findings help to characterize the interactions between CNPs and HIgG, which may clarify the potential risks and undesirable health effects of CNPs, as well as the related cellular trafficking and systemic translocation.

  13. Distinct host cell proteins incorporated by SIV replicating in CD4+ T Cells from natural disease resistant versus non-natural disease susceptible hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehulka Pavel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enveloped viruses including the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV replicating within host cells acquire host proteins upon egress from the host cells. A number of studies have catalogued such host proteins, and a few have documented the potential positive and negative biological functions of such host proteins. The studies conducted herein utilized proteomic analysis to identify differences in the spectrum of host proteins acquired by a single source of SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from disease resistant sooty mangabeys and disease susceptible rhesus macaques. Results While a total of 202 host derived proteins were present in viral preparations from CD4+ T cells from both species, there were 4 host-derived proteins that consistently and uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from rhesus macaques but not sooty mangabeys; and, similarly, 28 host-derived proteins that uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from sooty mangabeys, but not rhesus macaques. Of interest was the finding that of the 4 proteins uniquely present in SIV preparations from rhesus macaques was a 26 S protease subunit 7 (MSS1 that was shown to enhance HIV-1 'tat" mediated transactivation. Among the 28 proteins found in SIV preparations from sooty mangabeys included several molecules associated with immune function such as CD2, CD3ε, TLR4, TLR9 and TNFR and a bioactive form of IL-13. Conclusions The finding of 4 host proteins that are uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from disease susceptible rhesus macaques and 28 host proteins that are uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from disease resistant sooty mangabeys provide the foundation for determining the potential role of each of these unique host-derived proteins in contributing to the polarized clinical outcome in these 2 species of nonhuman primates.

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G disrupts blood brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Berg, Carsten Tue; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen; Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2015-08-01

    To clarify the significance of immunoglobulin G autoantibody specific for the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 in cerebrospinal fluid, aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G from a neuromyelitis optica patient was administered intrathecally to naïve mice, and the distribution and pathogenic impact was evaluated. A distinct distribution pattern of aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G deposition was observed in the subarachnoid and subpial spaces where vessels penetrate the brain parenchyma, via a paravascular route with intraparenchymal perivascular deposition. Perivascular astrocyte-destructive lesions were associated with blood-borne horseradish peroxidase leakage indicating blood-brain barrier breakdown. The cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G therefore distributes widely in brain to initiate astrocytopathy and blood-brain barrier breakdown. PMID:26339679

  15. Prognostic significance of serum immunoglobulin pareprotein in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨舒

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) paraprotein in chronic lymphocytic leukemia(CLL) ,and to explore its clinical associated laboratory features and prognostic implication. Methods Serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation

  16. How to use immunoglobulin levels in investigating immune deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomenou, Fani; Gaspar, Bobby

    2016-06-01

    Children are often referred to immunologists for the evaluation of reduced serum immunoglobulins. Knowledge of the immunoglobulin levels in healthy children of different ages is necessary when estimating immunological deficiency states of various kinds. After the measurement of the serum levels of the three major isotypes, examination of the capacity of the child to form antibodies to several antigens is a reasonable next step in the evaluation. We can rely on vaccine responses to make the distinction between significant primary immunodeficiency diseases and transiently low immunoglobulin levels. On the other hand, normal values of IgM, IgG and IgA are not always enough to exclude a more serious condition. Regardless of immunoglobulin concentrations, if a child's history indicates that further evaluation is warranted, a complete humoral immunity study should be carried out, including IgG subclasses, specific antibody responses and identification of B lymphocyte populations. PMID:26987724

  17. Influence of Serum and Hypoxia on Incorporation of [(14)C]-D-Glucose or [(14)C]-L-Glutamine into Lipids and Lactate in Murine Glioblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Nathan L; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    Glucose and glutamine are essential energy metabolites for brain tumor growth and survival under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Both metabolites can contribute their carbons to lipid biosynthesis. We used uniformly labeled [(14)C]-U-D-glucose and [(14)C]-U-L-glutamine to examine the profile of de novo lipid biosynthesis in the VM-M3 murine glioblastoma cells. The major lipids synthesized included phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (EtnGpl), phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), sphingomyelin (CerPCho), bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP)/phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), cholesterol (C), cardiolipin (Ptd2Gro), and gangliosides. Endogenous lipid synthesis, using either glucose or glutamine, was greater in media without fetal bovine serum (FBS) than in media containing 10 % FBS under normoxia. De novo lipid synthesis was greater using glucose carbons than glutamine carbons under normoxia. The reverse was observed for most lipids under hypoxia suggesting an attenuation of glucose entering the TCA cycle. Lactate was produced largely from glucose carbons with minimal lactate derived from glutamine under either normoxia or hypoxia. Accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAG), containing mostly saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids, was observed under hypoxia using carbons from either glucose or glutamine. The data show that the incorporation of labeled glucose and glutamine into most synthesized lipids was dependent on the type of growth environment, and that the VM-M3 glioblastoma cells could acquire lipids, especially cholesterol, from the external environment for growth and proliferation. PMID:26537505

  18. Incorporation of Fucoidan in β-Tricalcium phosphate-Chitosan scaffold prompts the differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells into osteogenic lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvaneswary, Subramaniam; Raghavendran, Hanumantharao Balaji; Talebian, Sepehr; Murali, Malliga Raman; A Mahmod, Suhaeb; Singh, Simmrat; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we reported the fabrication and characterization of a novel tricalcium phosphate-fucoidan-chitosan (TCP-Fu-Ch) biocomposite scaffold. However, the previous report did not show whether the biocomposite scaffold can exhibit osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells in osteogenic media and normal media supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). On day 15, the release of osteocalcin, was significant in the TCP-Fu-Ch scaffold, when compared with that in the TCP-Ch scaffold, and the level of release was approximately 8 and 6 ng/ml in osteogenic and normal media supplemented with PDGF-BB, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of the TCP-Fu-Ch scaffold demonstrated mineralization and apatite layer formation on day 14, while the addition of PDGF-BB also improved the osteogenic differentiation of the scaffold. An array of gene expression analysis demonstrated that TCP-Fu-Ch scaffold cultured in osteogenic and normal media supplemented with PDGF-BB showed significant improvement in the expression of collagen 1, Runt-related transcription factor 2, osteonectin, bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein, alkaline phosphatase, and PPA2, but a decline in the expression of integrin. Altogether, the present study demonstrated that fucoidan-incorporated TCP-Ch scaffold could be used in the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells and can be a potential candidate for the treatment of bone-related ailments through tissue engineering technology. PMID:27068453

  19. [Retracted] Retinoic acid‑incorporated glycol chitosan nanoparticles inhibit the expression of Ezh2 in U118 and U138 human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hu-Chen; Ma, Jun; Zhuang, Zong; Zhang, Yao; Cheng, Hui-Lin; Shi, Ji-Xin

    2016-06-01

    We wish to retract our research article entitled "Retinoic acid-incorporated glycol chitosan nanoparticles inhibit Ezh2 expression in U118 and U138 human glioma cells" published in Molecular Medicine Reports 12: 6642-6648, 2015. An interested reader noted some anomalies in the presentation of Fig. 4 in our paper, calling into question the validity of the reported data. In examining our original article, we acknowledge that the data for RA (25 µm) did not show a higher density of cells compared with RA (10 µm), as shown in Fig. 4, and therefore Fig. 4 conveyed inaccurate information for the readers. Owing to the importance of these results, which bear significantly upon the conclusions that one may draw from this work, we have decided to withdraw our paper from Molecular Medicine Reports [the original article was published in Molecular Medicine Reports 12: 6642-6648, 2015; DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2015.4294. PMID:27082936

  20. Atypical C-ANCA following high dose intravenous immunoglobulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolles, S; Deacock, S; Turnbull, W; Silvestrini, R; Bunn, C; White, P.; Ward, M

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: (1) To assess a range of intravenous immunoglobulin products for atypical classical antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (C-ANCA) staining and to determine if this is present in patients treated with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg/month) and replacement doses (200 mg/kg fortnightly); (2) using the United Kingdom national external quality assessment scheme (NEQAS), to determine if laboratories could differentiate this pattern from classical ANCA. METHODS: ANCA testing was pe...

  1. Immunoregulatory activities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteins: Effect of HIV recombinant and synthetic peptides on immunoglobulin synthesis and proliferative responses by normal lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant and synthetic peptides corresponding to envelope proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were examined for their effects on the activities of lymphocytes from normal donors in vitro. Although lymphocytes cultured with env-gag peptides produced significant amounts of IgG, addition of env-gag peptides to a pokeweed mitogen-induced B-cell activation system resulted in suppression of immunoglobulin synthesis by normal lymphocytes. Recombinant antigens, env-gag and env-80 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), produced a substantial proliferative response by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. PBMC precultured with HIV synthetic peptide env 578-608 also manifested significant proliferative responses as compared to control cultures. CD3+ lymphocytes precultured with recombinant HIV antigens, env-gag and env-80 DHFR, and synthetic HIV peptide, env 487-511, showed moderate but significant proliferative responses. Both recombinant antigens and synthetic peptides also produced a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on proliferation by CD3- lymphocytes. These studies demonstrate that recombinant and synthetic peptides of the HIV genome express immunoregulatory T- and B-cell epitopes. Identification of unique HIV epitopes with immunogenic and immunoregulatory activities is necessary for the development of an effective vaccine against HIV infection

  2. Efficacy and tolerability of 16% subcutaneous immunoglobulin compared with 20% subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary antibody deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebur, H B; Duff, C M; Shear, G F; Nguyen, D; Alberdi, T K; Dorsey, M J; Sleasman, J W

    2015-09-01

    Multiple subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) products are available to treat primary antibody deficiency (PAD). The efficacy and tolerability of 16% SCIG (Vivaglobin(®) ) was compared with 20% SCIG (Hizentra(®) ) in PAD subjects. The study was a prospective, single-centre, open-label study of PAD subjects transitioning Vivaglobin to equivalent Hizentra doses, rounded to the nearest vial size. Comparisons included immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels; tetanus, varicella and Streptococcus pneumoniae titres; adverse events (AEs), annual infection rate and quality of life during 8 weeks of Vivaglobin and 24 weeks of Hizentra. Thirty-two subjects (aged 2-75 years) participated. Rounding to the nearest Hizentra vial size resulted in a 12·8% (± 2·9%) increase in SCIG dose. Median immunoglobulin (Ig)G level following 8 weeks of Vivaglobin was similar to 24 weeks of Hizentra (1050 versus 1035 mg/dl, respectively; P = 0·77). Both products had similar protective titres to tetanus, varicella and serotypes of S. pneumoniae, which were variable but well above protective levels. After 12 weeks of Hizentra, subjects reported fewer local site reactions compared with Vivaglobin. Switching products resulted in increased systemic AEs in some subjects but, overall, not significantly higher than during Vivaglobin treatment. Average infusion time decreased from 104·7 min (3·3 sites) with Vivaglobin to 70·7 min (2·2 sites) with Hizentra (P = 0·0005). Acute serious bacterial infections were similar. Treatment satisfaction was superior with Hizentra. Hizentra and Vivaglobin have similar pharmacokinetics and efficacy. Although transition to a different SCIG product initially increased AEs, Hizentra is well tolerated and can be infused more rapidly and with fewer sites compared to Vivaglobin. PMID:25761372

  3. Adverse effects of human immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, E Richard

    2013-07-01

    Human immunoglobulin (IG) is used for IgG replacement therapy in primary and secondary immunodeficiency, for prevention and treatment of certain infections, and as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. IG has a wide spectrum of antibodies to microbial and human antigens. Several high-titered IGs are also available enriched in antibodies to specific viruses or bacterial toxins. IG can be given intravenously (IGIV), intramuscularly (IGIM) or by subcutaneous infusions (SCIG). Local adverse reactions such as persistent pain, bruising, swelling and erythema are rare with IGIV infusions but common (75%) with SCIG infusions. By contrast, adverse systemic reactions are rare with SCIG infusions but common with IGIV infusions, occurring as often as 20% to 50% of patients and 5% to 15% of all IGIV infusions. Systemic adverse reactions can be immediate (60% of reactions) occurring within 6 hours of an infusion, delayed (40% of reactions) occurring 6 hours-1 week after an infusion, and late (less than 1% of reactions), occurring weeks and months after an infusion. Immediate systemic reactions such as head and body aches, chills and fever are usually mild and readily treatable. Immediate anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are uncommon. The most common delayed systemic reaction is persistent headache. Less common but more serious delayed reactions include aseptic meningitis, renal failure, thromboembolism, and hemolytic reactions. Late reactions are uncommon but often severe, and include lung disease, enteritis, dermatologic disorders and infectious diseases. The types, incidence, causes, prevention, and management of these reactions are discussed. PMID:23835249

  4. Clinical applications of intravenous immunoglobulins in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R A C; Dalakas, M C; Cornblath, D R; Latov, N; Weksler, M E; Relkin, N

    2009-12-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used increasingly in the management of patients with neurological conditions. The efficacy and safety of IVIg treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been established clearly in randomized controlled trials and summarized in Cochrane systematic reviews. However, questions remain regarding the dose, timing and duration of IVIg treatment in both disorders. Reports about successful IVIg treatment in other neurological conditions exist, but its use remains investigational. IVIg has been shown to be efficacious as second-line therapy in patients with dermatomyositis and suggested to be of benefit in some patients with polymyositis. In patients with inclusion body myositis, IVIg was not shown to be effective. IVIg is also a treatment option in exacerbations of myasthenia gravis. Studies with IVIg in patients with Alzheimer's disease have reported increased plasma anti-Abeta antibody titres associated with decreased Abeta peptide levels in the cerebrospinal fluid following IVIg treatment. These changes at the molecular level were accompanied by improved cognitive function, and large-scale randomized trials are under way. PMID:19883422

  5. Maternal immunoglobulin E and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Buffler, Patricia A; Metayer, Catherine; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Patoka, Joe; Kronish, Daniel; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2009-08-01

    Childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has long been hypothesized to be affected by abnormal immune responses to microbial challenges stemming from a lack of immune modulation in early childhood. Studies of allergies suggest that a child's immune development may be modulated by maternal immune status. We conducted a study to explore the relationship between maternal immunoglobulin E (IgE) and childhood leukemia and to investigate whether maternal immune status can influence childhood leukemia risk. Serum total and specific IgE (respiratory and food) were measured in biological mothers of 352 children (193 healthy controls and 159 leukemia cases, including 139 ALL cases) ages <8 years who were enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. Odds ratios associated with maternal IgE were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and annual household income. A positive association between childhood leukemia or ALL and elevated levels of maternal serum total IgE was observed, especially among Hispanics. In addition, a positive association was observed between childhood leukemia or ALL and maternal respiratory or food IgE status. These results suggest that maternal immune function may play a crucial role in the etiology of childhood leukemia, although additional studies need to be conducted to confirm the results of this study and provide a perspective on mechanisms. PMID:19622720

  6. [Treatments with immunoglobulin and thrombotic adverse events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnige, L; Lillo-Le Louët, A

    2014-01-01

    Treatments with intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (Ig) are used in a broad variety of disorders. Tolerance of Ig is usually good but adverse events, including some serious ones, have been reported and may differ among different Ig preparations. Thrombotic complications occur in 0.6 to 13% of cases and can involve arterial or venous circulation, rarely both. Deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, stroke or myocardial infarction remained the most frequent thrombotic complications. Some risk factors have been identified, mainly old age, multiple cardiovascular risk factors, and past history of thrombo-embolic manifestations. Several mechanisms are suggested to explain this increased risk of thrombotic complications. Indeed, Ig treatments increase the plasma viscosity, increase and activate platelets, can trigger the coagulation cascade through the presence of activated factor XI in some Ig preparations, and release vasoactive molecules responsible for vasospasm. Patients have to be carefully monitored and risk factors to be identified as soon as possible. The role of antiplatelets or anticoagulation is not well determined but should probably be proposed to patients with high risk. PMID:24011913

  7. Production of immunoglobulins in gingival tissue explant cultures from juvenile periodontitis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.R.; Falkler, W.A. Jr.; Suzuki, J.B. (Univ. of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-10-01

    B lymphocytes and plasma cells are histologically observed in granulomatous periodontal tissues of juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients. Local immune processes may participate in protective or immunopathologic roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. An in vitro explant culture system was utilized to demonstrate the production of immunoglobulins by diseased JP tissues. Immunodiffusion studies using goat anti-human gamma, alpha, or mu chain serum revealed IgG to be the major immunoglobulin present in 92% of the day 1 supernatant fluids (SF) of the 47 JP gingival tissue explant cultures. IgA was present in 15% of the SF; however, no IgM was detected. Staph Protein A isolated 14C-labeled IgG from the SF, when allowed to react with goat anti-human gamma chain serum, formed lines of precipitation. Positive autoradiographs confirmed the biosynthesis of IgG by the explant cultures. The in vitro gingival tissue explant culture system described provides a useful model for the study of localized immunoglobulins produced by diseased tissues of JP patients.

  8. Dietary requirement for serum-derived bovine immunoglobulins in the clinical management of patients with enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschow, Bryon W; Burnett, Bruce P; Shaw, Audrey L; Weaver, Eric M; Klein, Gerald L

    2015-01-01

    A variety of human disease conditions are associated with chronic intestinal disorders or enteropathies that are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Such disruptions in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can lead to symptoms of abdominal pain and discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function, and malabsorption of nutrients. While significant advances have been made in understanding the factors that influence the complex and fragile balance between the gut microbiota, intestinal epithelial cell integrity, and the underlying immune system, effective therapies for restoring intestinal balance during enteropathy are still not available. Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of oral immunoglobulins to improve weight gain, support gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animals. More recently, studies in humans provide evidence that serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate is safe and improves nutritional status and GI symptoms in patients with enteropathy associated with irritable bowel syndrome or infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. This review summarizes studies showing the impact of enteropathy on nutritional status and how specially formulated bovine immunoglobulins may help restore intestinal homeostasis and nutritional status in patients with specific enteropathies. Such protein preparations may provide distinct nutritional support required for the dietary management of patients who, because of therapeutic or chronic medical needs, have limited or impaired capacity to digest, absorb, or metabolize ordinary foodstuffs or certain nutrients, or other special medically determined nutrient requirements that cannot be satisfied by changes to the normal diet alone. PMID:25142170

  9. Production of immunoglobulins in gingival tissue explant cultures from juvenile periodontitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B lymphocytes and plasma cells are histologically observed in granulomatous periodontal tissues of juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients. Local immune processes may participate in protective or immunopathologic roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. An in vitro explant culture system was utilized to demonstrate the production of immunoglobulins by diseased JP tissues. Immunodiffusion studies using goat anti-human gamma, alpha, or mu chain serum revealed IgG to be the major immunoglobulin present in 92% of the day 1 supernatant fluids (SF) of the 47 JP gingival tissue explant cultures. IgA was present in 15% of the SF; however, no IgM was detected. Staph Protein A isolated 14C-labeled IgG from the SF, when allowed to react with goat anti-human gamma chain serum, formed lines of precipitation. Positive autoradiographs confirmed the biosynthesis of IgG by the explant cultures. The in vitro gingival tissue explant culture system described provides a useful model for the study of localized immunoglobulins produced by diseased tissues of JP patients

  10. Immunoglobulins: 25 Years of Immunoinformatics and IMGT-ONTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Paule Lefranc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® (CNRS and Montpellier University is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. By its creation in 1989, IMGT® marked the advent of immunoinformatics, which emerged at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. IMGT® is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR, major histocompatibility (MH, and IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. IMGT® has been built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences and three-dimensional (3D structures. The concepts include the IMGT® standardized keywords (identification, IMGT® standardized labels (description, IMGT® standardized nomenclature (classification, IMGT unique numbering and IMGT Colliers de Perles (numerotation. IMGT® comprises seven databases, 15,000 pages of web resources and 17 tools. IMGT® tools and databases provide a high-quality analysis of the IG from fish to humans, for basic, veterinary and medical research, and for antibody engineering and humanization. They include, as examples: IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis for nucleotide sequence analysis and their high-throughput version IMGT/HighV-QUEST for next generation sequencing, IMGT/DomainGapAlign for amino acid sequence analysis of IG domains, IMGT/3Dstructure-DB for 3D structures, contact analysis and paratope/epitope interactions of IG/antigen complexes, and the IMGT/mAb-DB interface for therapeutic antibodies and fusion proteins for immunological applications (FPIA.

  11. Parp3 negatively regulates immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Isabelle; Gaudot, Léa; Rogier, Mélanie; Heyer, Vincent; Noll, Aurélia; Dantzer, Françoise; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo

    2015-05-01

    To generate highly specific and adapted immune responses, B cells diversify their antibody repertoire through mechanisms involving the generation of programmed DNA damage. Somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) are initiated by the recruitment of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to immunoglobulin loci and by the subsequent generation of DNA lesions, which are differentially processed to mutations during SHM or to double-stranded DNA break intermediates during CSR. The latter activate the DNA damage response and mobilize multiple DNA repair factors, including Parp1 and Parp2, to promote DNA repair and long-range recombination. We examined the contribution of Parp3 in CSR and SHM. We find that deficiency in Parp3 results in enhanced CSR, while SHM remains unaffected. Mechanistically, this is due to increased occupancy of AID at the donor (Sμ) switch region. We also find evidence of increased levels of DNA damage at switch region junctions and a bias towards alternative end joining in the absence of Parp3. We propose that Parp3 plays a CSR-specific role by controlling AID levels at switch regions during CSR. PMID:26000965

  12. Parp3 negatively regulates immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Robert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To generate highly specific and adapted immune responses, B cells diversify their antibody repertoire through mechanisms involving the generation of programmed DNA damage. Somatic hypermutation (SHM and class switch recombination (CSR are initiated by the recruitment of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID to immunoglobulin loci and by the subsequent generation of DNA lesions, which are differentially processed to mutations during SHM or to double-stranded DNA break intermediates during CSR. The latter activate the DNA damage response and mobilize multiple DNA repair factors, including Parp1 and Parp2, to promote DNA repair and long-range recombination. We examined the contribution of Parp3 in CSR and SHM. We find that deficiency in Parp3 results in enhanced CSR, while SHM remains unaffected. Mechanistically, this is due to increased occupancy of AID at the donor (Sμ switch region. We also find evidence of increased levels of DNA damage at switch region junctions and a bias towards alternative end joining in the absence of Parp3. We propose that Parp3 plays a CSR-specific role by controlling AID levels at switch regions during CSR.

  13. A system for precise analysis of transcription-regulating elements of immunoglobulin genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berru Maribel

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise analysis of expression-regulating elements, such as enhancers and insulators, requires that they be tested under reproducible, isogenic conditions. The commonly used methods of transfecting DNA into cell lines and selecting for drug resistance lack the requisite precision, as they yield cell lines in which varying numbers of gene copies have inserted at varying and undefined sites. By contrast, recombination-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE, by which a site-specific recombinase is used to place a single copy of a transgene at a constant chromosomal site of a cell line, offers the necessary precision. Although RMCE is generally applicable, many regulatory elements of interest are tissue-specific in their function and so require cell lines in the appropriate ontogenetic state. Results As reported here, we have used RMCE in a mouse B hybridoma cell line to establish a system with several additional advantages. To avoid the non-physiological features of prokaryotic DNA, this system uses the immunoglobulin μ heavy chain (IgH gene from the hybridoma as the reporter. Expression can be measured simply by bulk culture assays (ELISA, Northern blot and single cell assays (flow cytometry. Expression of the IgH reporter gene varies only 1.5 fold among independent transfectants, and expression is greatly (> 50 fold increased by inclusion of the IgH intronic enhancer. Conclusion This system is suitable for precise analysis of the regulatory elements of the immunoglobulin loci.

  14. Correlation of immunoglobulin G expression and histological subtype and stage in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baokai Yang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recently, growing evidence indicates that immunoglobulins (Igs are not only produced by mature B lymphocytes or plasma cells, but also by various normal cells types at immune privileged sites and neoplasm, including breast cancer. However, the association of breast cancer derived IgG with genesis and development of the disease has not yet been established. METHODS: In this study we examined the expression of IgG in 186 breast cancers, 20 benign breast lesions and 30 normal breast tissues. Both immunohistochemistry with antibodies to Igκ (immunoglobulin G κ light chain and Igγ (immunoglobulin G heavy chain and in situ hybridization with an antisense probe to IgG1 heavy chain constant region gene were performed. Various clinicopathological features were also analyzed. RESULTS: We found that IgG is specifically expressed in human breast cancer cells. Both infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma had significantly greater numbers of Igκ and Igγ positive cancer cells as compared with medullary carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, and benign lesions (all p<0.05. In addition, IgG expression was correlated with breast cancer histological subtypes (p<0.01 and AJCC stages (p<0.05, with more abundance of IgG expression in more malignant histological subtypes or in more advanced stage of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: IgG expression in breast cancer cells is correlated with malignancy and AJCC stages of the cancers. This suggests that breast cancer derived IgG may be associated with genesis, development and prognosis of the cancer.

  15. Survey of immunoglobulin A protease activity among selected species of Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma: specificity for host immunoglobulin A.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapatais-Zoumbos, K; Chandler, D K; Barile, M F

    1985-01-01

    Because immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the predominant immunoglobulin at mucosal surfaces, IgA proteases produced by pathogenic bacteria are considered potential virulence factors for organisms that cause disease or gain entry at mucous membranes. To determine the role of IgA protease in the pathogenicity of mycoplasmal disease, a variety of human and animal mycoplasma and ureaplasma species were examined for IgA protease activity with human, murine, porcine, and canine IgA. None of the mycoplasma...

  16. Immunoglobulin E and Allergy: Antibodies in Immune Inflammation and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Sophia N; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Josephs, Debra H; Saul, Louise; Gilbert, Amy E; Upton, Nadine; Gould, Hannah J

    2013-10-01

    The pathogenic role of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in triggering and maintaining allergic inflammation in response to allergens is due to the binding of multivalent allergens to allergen-specific IgEs on sensitized effector cells. These interactions trigger effector cell activation, resulting in release of potent inflammatory mediators, recruitment of inflammatory cells, antigen presentation, and production of allergen-specific antibody responses. Since its discovery in the 1960s, the central role of IgE in allergic disease has been intensively studied, placing IgE and its functions at the heart of therapeutic efforts for the treatment of allergies. Here, we provide an overview of the nature, roles, and significance of IgE antibodies in allergic diseases, infections, and inflammation and the utility of antibodies as therapies. We place special emphasis on allergen-IgE-Fcε receptor complexes in the context of allergic and inflammatory diseases and describe strategies, including monoclonal antibodies, aimed at interrupting these complexes. Of clinical significance, one antibody, omalizumab, is presently in clinical use and works by preventing formation of IgE-Fcε receptor interactions. Active immunotherapy approaches with allergens and allergen derivatives have also demonstrated clinical benefits for patients with allergic diseases. These treatments are strongly associated with serum increases of IgE-neutralizing antibodies and feature a notable redirection of humoral responses towards production of antibodies of the IgG4 subclass in patients receiving immunotherapies. Lastly, we provide a new perspective on the rise of recombinant antibodies of the IgE class recognizing tumor-associated antigens, and we discuss the potential utility of tumor antigen-specific IgE antibodies to direct potent IgE-driven immune responses against tumors. PMID:26184813

  17. Elimination of Fc receptor binding of human immunoglobulin G in immunofluorescence assays for herpes simplex virus antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, D

    1986-01-01

    The binding of human immunoglobulin G by Fc receptors in herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells can cause false-positive interpretations in the immunofluorescence test for HSV antibody. When the infected cell smears were treated with 10% glacial acetic acid for 5 min and rinsed in phosphate-buffered saline before the immunofluorescence test was performed, the Fc receptors were completely inactivated, resulting in a reliable method for HSV antibody detection.

  18. Complexes between nuclear factor-κB p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 are key actors in inducing activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression and immunoglobulin A production in CD40L plus interleukin-10-treated human blood B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, S; Hamzeh-Cognasse, H; Richard, Y; Pozzetto, B; Cogné, M; Cognasse, F; Garraud, O

    2011-11-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor pathway plays an important role in many biological phenomena. STAT3 transcription is triggered by cytokine-associated signals. Here, we use isolated human B cells to analyse the role of STAT3 in interleukin (IL)-10 induced terminal B cell differentiation and in immunoglobulin (Ig)A production as a characteristic readout of IL-10 signalling. We identified optimal conditions for inducing in-vitro IgA production by purified blood naive B cells using IL-10 and soluble CD40L. We show that soluble CD40L consistently induces the phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 but not of STAT3, while IL-10 induces the phosphorylation of STAT3 but not of NF-κB p65. Interestingly, while soluble CD40L and IL-10 were synergistic in driving the terminal maturation of B cells into IgA-producing plasma cells, they did not co-operate earlier in the pathway with regard to the transcription factors NF-κB p65 or STAT3. Blocking either NF-κB p65 or STAT3 profoundly altered the production of IgA and mRNA for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme strictly necessary for Ig heavy chain recombination. Finally, the STAT3 pathway was directly activated by IL-10, while IL-6, the main cytokine otherwise known for activating the STAT3 pathway, did not appear to be involved in IL-10-induced-STAT3 activation. Our results suggest that STAT3 and NF-κB pathways co-operate in IgA production, with soluble CD40L rapidly activating the NF-κB pathway, probably rendering STAT3 probably more reactive to IL-10 signalling. This novel role for STAT3 in B cell development reveals a potential therapeutic or vaccine target for eliciting IgA humoral responses at mucosal interfaces. PMID:21985363

  19. Immunoglobulin gene expression and regulation of rearrangement in kappa transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transgenic mice were produced by microinjection of the functionally rearranged immunoglobulin kappa gene from the myeloma MOPC-21 into the male pronucleus of fertilized mouse eggs, and implantation of the microinjected embryos into foster mothers. Mice that integrated the injected gene were detected by hybridizing tail DNA dots with radioactively labelled pBR322 plasmid DNA, which detects pBR322 sequences left as a tag on the microinjected DNA. Mice that integrated the injected gene (six males) were mated and the DNA, RNA and serum kappa chains of their offspring were analyzed. A rabbit anti-mouse kappa chain antiserum was also produced for use in detection of mouse kappa chains on protein blots. Hybridomas were produced from the spleen cells of these kappa transgenic mice to immortalize representative B cells and to investigate expression of the transgenic kappa gene, its effect on allelic exclusion, and its effect on the control of light chain gene rearrangement and expression. The results show that the microinjected DNA is integrated as concatamers in unique single or, rarely, two separate sites in the genome. The concatamers are composed of several copies (16 to 64) of injected DNA arranged in a head to tail fashion. The transgene is expressed into protein normally and in a tissue specific fashion. For the first time in these transgenic mice, all tissues contain a functionally rearranged and potentially expressible immunoglobulin gene. The transgene is expressed only in B cells and not in hepatocytes, for example. This indicates that rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes is necessary but not sufficient for the tissue specific expression of these genes by B cells

  20. Effects of two different dietary sources of long chain omega-3, highly unsaturated fatty acids on incorporation into the plasma, red blood cell, and skeletal muscle in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, T M; Rexford, J K; Hansen, D K; Harris, M; Schauermann, N; Ross, T; Engle, T E; Allen, K G D; Mulligan, C M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different sources of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation on plasma, red blood cell, and skeletal muscle fatty acid compositions in horses. Twenty-one mares were blocked by age, BW, and BCS and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 7 mares per treatment. Dietary treatments were: 1) control or no fatty acid supplement (CON), 2) 38 g of n-3 long chain, highly unsaturated fatty acid (LCHUFA) supplement/d provided by algae and fish oil (MARINE) containing alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and 3) 38 g of n-3 LCHUFA supplement/d provided by a flaxseed meal (FLAX) containing ALA. Each supplement was added to a basal diet consisting of hay and barley and was fed for 90 d. Blood samples and muscle middle gluteal biopsies were taken at d 0, 30, 60 and 90 of supplementation. Plasma, red blood cell and skeletal muscle fatty acid profiles were determined via gas chromatography. Plasma linoleic acid (LA) and ALA were at least 10 and 60% less (P < 0.01), respectively, in the MARINE compared with the FLAX and CON groups. Plasma EPA and DHA were only detected in the MARINE group, and EPA increased 40% (P < 0.001) from d 30 to 60, and DHA 19% (P < 0.01) from d 30 to 90. Red blood cell LA and ALA were not different among treatments. Red blood cell EPA and DHA were only detected in the MARINE group, where EPA increased 38% (P < 0.01) from d 30 to 60, and DHA increased 56% (P < 0.001) between d 30 and 90. Skeletal muscle LA was at least 17% less (P < 0.001) in the MARINE group compared with the other treatments. Skeletal muscle ALA was 15% less (P = 0.03) in the MARINE group compared with FLAX and CON groups. Skeletal muscle EPA was at least 25% greater (P < 0.001) in MARINE group compared with other treatments and increased (P < 0.001) by 71% from d 30 to 60. Skeletal muscle DHA was at least 57% greater (P < 0.001) in the MARINE

  1. Present status of radiochemotherapy of gastric cancer and efforts by surgery department of Keio University. Discussion incorporating the cancer stem cell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of new drugs like S-1, CPT-11 and taxanes from late 1990s has improved chemotherapeutic efficacy in gastric cancer. However, complete response (CR) is still unsatisfactory as exemplified by the fact that 5-year survival is only 68.3% even in patients who underwent radical surgery at Stage II. In this paper, authors present their idea of applying radiochemotherapy to this cancer to get pathological CR (pCR), a similar concept to CR at cellular level in leukemia, based on the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory, although which being still assumptive. For the purpose, they describe about S-1 and its combination with other anti-cancers, radiochemotherapy (not popular in Japan) as a standard treatment of gastric cancer in Western countries, efforts by Surgery Department of Keio University and discussion incorporating the CSC theory. In the Department, radiochemotherapy with S-1/low dose cisplatin (CDDP)/radiation (2 Gy x 5/week: 40 Gy in total) has been found to result in 65% efficacy (cf., 55% by chemotherapy alone). They conclude that radiation should be one of popular therapeutic means of the gastric cancer. (R.T.)

  2. Morphological and electron transport studies in ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells incorporating multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) incorporating zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were fabricated using a chemical bath deposition method. The nanoflake structures captured by a field-emission scanning electron microscopy analysis traced the appearance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the photoanode thin film. The photovoltaic performance of the photoanode was quantified by means of an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit with GAMRY-Physical Electrochemistry. The ZnO–SWCNT-based DSSC exhibited good photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiency (η), photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) of 1.31%, 15.31 mA cm−2, 0.224 V and 0.36, respectively. The EIS unit was also employed to quantify the charge transport resistance (Rct), transport resistance (Rt) and effective electron lifetime (τeff) of the DSSC. The impedance analysis of the ZnO–SWCNT-based DSSC also determined greater highly efficient electron transport due to long effective electron diffusion length than the film thickness of the photoanode. (paper)

  3. Enhanced photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating SiO2 nanoparticles in binary ionic liquid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrophilic SiO2 nanoparticles in a binary ionic liquid (bi-IL) consisting of 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (PMII) and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium dicyanimide (EMIDCA) facilitated electron transfer and solidified the electrolyte for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). We investigated the dependence of charge transport and photovoltaic performance on the composition of bi-IL electrolytes with varied ratio of SiO2 nanoparticles. The electrochemical impedance spectra revealed a decreased resistance to charge transfer at the Pt counter electrode (Rct1) when SiO2 (up to 2.0 wt.%) was added, improving the photovoltaic parameters. The DSC based on a TiO2 nanocrystalline film (thickness 14.2 μm) with a composite ionic gel electrolyte of EMIDCA/PMII bi-IL (33 vol.% of EMIDCA) incorporating SiO2 (2 wt.%) exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 5.28% under simulated solar illumination (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm− 2). The durability of DSC with a SiO2 solidified electrolyte was superior to that of a liquid one, exhibiting good stability at 60 °C in darkness during an accelerated test for 1000 h. - Highlights: ► SiO2 nanoparticles were introduced in a binary ionic liquid electrolyte. ► Effect of various ratios of SiO2 nanoparticles in gel electrolytes was studied. ► Mechanism of charge transfer with addition of SiO2 nanoparticles was discussed. ► An enhanced solar to electric energy conversion efficiency of 5.28% was achieved. ► Thermal stability of a quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cell was improved

  4. Enhanced photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in binary ionic liquid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hsin-Fang; Wu, Jhih-Lin; Hsu, Po-Ya [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tung, Yung-Liang [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ouyang, Fan-Yi [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kai, Ji-Jung, E-mail: jjkai@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-02-01

    Hydrophilic SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in a binary ionic liquid (bi-IL) consisting of 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (PMII) and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium dicyanimide (EMIDCA) facilitated electron transfer and solidified the electrolyte for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). We investigated the dependence of charge transport and photovoltaic performance on the composition of bi-IL electrolytes with varied ratio of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The electrochemical impedance spectra revealed a decreased resistance to charge transfer at the Pt counter electrode (R{sub ct1}) when SiO{sub 2} (up to 2.0 wt.%) was added, improving the photovoltaic parameters. The DSC based on a TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline film (thickness 14.2 μm) with a composite ionic gel electrolyte of EMIDCA/PMII bi-IL (33 vol.% of EMIDCA) incorporating SiO{sub 2} (2 wt.%) exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 5.28% under simulated solar illumination (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm{sup −} {sup 2}). The durability of DSC with a SiO{sub 2} solidified electrolyte was superior to that of a liquid one, exhibiting good stability at 60 °C in darkness during an accelerated test for 1000 h. - Highlights: ► SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were introduced in a binary ionic liquid electrolyte. ► Effect of various ratios of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in gel electrolytes was studied. ► Mechanism of charge transfer with addition of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was discussed. ► An enhanced solar to electric energy conversion efficiency of 5.28% was achieved. ► Thermal stability of a quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cell was improved.

  5. Transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized bFGF-incorporating stent activates resident cardiac stem cells via SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Wei [Department of Cardiac Surgery and Neurology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wen, Ti [College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300036 (China); Gu, Tian-Xiang, E-mail: cmugtx@sina.com [Department of Cardiac Surgery and Neurology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Li-Ling, Jesse [Department of Medical Genetics, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Medical Genetics, School of Life Science and Key Laboratory for Bio-resources and Eco-environment of the Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wang, Chun; Zhao, Ye; Liu, Jing; Wang, Ying [Department of Cardiac Surgery and Neurology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Tian-Jun; Lue, Feng [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Objective: To investigate whether transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-incorporating degradable stent implantation (TMDRSI) can promote myocardial regeneration after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: A model of AMI was generated by ligating the mid-third of left anterior descending artery (LAD) of miniswine. After 6 h, the animals were divided into none-treatment (control) group (n = 6) and TMDRSI group (n = 6). For TMDRSI group, two channels with 3.5 mm in diameter were established by a self-made drill in the AMI region, into which a stent was implanted. Expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1{sub {alpha}} (SDF-1{sub {alpha}}) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), cardiac stem cell (CSC)-mediated myocardial regeneration, myocardial apoptosis, myocardial viability, and cardiac function were assessed at various time-points. Results: Six weeks after the operation, CSCs were found to have differentiated into cardiomyocytes to repair the infarcted myocardium, and all above indices showed much improvement in the TMDRSI group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The new method has shown to be capable of promoting CSCs proliferation and differentiation into cardiomyocytes through activating the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, while inhibiting myocardial apoptosis, thereby enhancing myocardial regeneration following AMI and improving cardiac function. This may provide a new strategy for myocardial regeneration following AMI. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of TMDR and bFGF-stent on myocardial regeneration were studied in a pig model of AMI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TMDR and bFGF-stent implantation activated CSCs via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CSC-mediated myocardial regeneration improved cardiac function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It may be a new therapeutic strategy for AMI.

  6. Transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized bFGF-incorporating stent activates resident cardiac stem cells via SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate whether transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-incorporating degradable stent implantation (TMDRSI) can promote myocardial regeneration after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: A model of AMI was generated by ligating the mid-third of left anterior descending artery (LAD) of miniswine. After 6 h, the animals were divided into none-treatment (control) group (n = 6) and TMDRSI group (n = 6). For TMDRSI group, two channels with 3.5 mm in diameter were established by a self-made drill in the AMI region, into which a stent was implanted. Expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), cardiac stem cell (CSC)-mediated myocardial regeneration, myocardial apoptosis, myocardial viability, and cardiac function were assessed at various time-points. Results: Six weeks after the operation, CSCs were found to have differentiated into cardiomyocytes to repair the infarcted myocardium, and all above indices showed much improvement in the TMDRSI group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The new method has shown to be capable of promoting CSCs proliferation and differentiation into cardiomyocytes through activating the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, while inhibiting myocardial apoptosis, thereby enhancing myocardial regeneration following AMI and improving cardiac function. This may provide a new strategy for myocardial regeneration following AMI. -- Highlights: ► The effects of TMDR and bFGF-stent on myocardial regeneration were studied in a pig model of AMI. ► TMDR and bFGF-stent implantation activated CSCs via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. ► CSC-mediated myocardial regeneration improved cardiac function. ► It may be a new therapeutic strategy for AMI.

  7. Baculovirus-expressed constructs induce immunoglobulin G that recognizes VAR2CSA on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Nielsen, Morten A; Turner, Louise; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Jensen, Anja T R; Hviid, Lars; Theander, Thor G; Salanti, Ali

    2006-01-01

    We raised specific antisera against recombinant VAR2CSA domains produced in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. All were reactive in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but only insect cell-derived constructs induced immunoglobulin G (IgG) that was reactive with native VAR2CSA on the surface of...

  8. High levels of immunoglobulin E and a continuous increase in immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M by age in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Jannet; Eising, Stefanie; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøl; Christiansen, Michael; Laursen, Inga; Lernmark, Åke; Nilsson, Anita; Simonsen, Lars Bjarke; Carstensen, Bendix; Pociot, Flemming Michael; Johannesen, Jesper; Pociot, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing, either because of environmental factors accelerating onset of the disease or because of inducement of autoimmune diabetes in children who previously were at lower risk. High levels of immunoglobulin (Ig), specifically, IgM and IgA, and a low...

  9. Cell cycle synchronization and BrdU incorporation as a tool to study the possible selective elimination of ErbB1 gene in the micronuclei in A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauand, C.; Niero, E.L.; Dias, V.M.; Machado-Santelli, G.M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    Lung cancer often exhibits molecular changes, such as the overexpression of the ErbB1 gene that encodes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). ErbB1 amplification and mutation are associated with tumor aggressiveness and low response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to design a schedule to synchronize the cell cycle of A549 cell line (a non-small cell lung cancer) and to analyze the possible association between the micronuclei (MNs) and the extrusion of ErbB1 gene extra-copies. After double blocking, by the process of fetal bovine serum deprivation and vincristine treatment, MNs formation was monitored with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, which is an S-phase marker. Statistical analyses allowed us to infer that MNs may arise both in mitosis as well as in interphase. The MNs were able to replicate their DNA and this process seemed to be non-synchronous with the main cell nuclei. The presence of ErbB1 gene in the MNs was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). ErbB1 sequences were detected in the MNs, but a relation between the MNs formation and extrusion of amplified ErbB1could not be established. The present study sought to elucidate the meaning of MNs formation and its association with the elimination of oncogenes or other amplified sequences from the tumor cells.

  10. The N-Linked Outer Chain Mannans and the Dfg5p and Dcw1p Endo-α-1,6-Mannanases Are Needed for Incorporation of Candida albicans Glycoproteins into the Cell Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Ao, Jie; Jennifer L Chinnici; Maddi, Abhiram; Free, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A biochemical pathway for the incorporation of cell wall protein into the cell wall of Neurospora crassa was recently proposed. In this pathway, the DFG-5 and DCW-1 endo-α-1,6-mannanases function to covalently cross-link cell wall protein-associated N-linked galactomannans, which are structurally related to the yeast outer chain mannans, into the cell wall glucan-chitin matrix. In this report, we demonstrate that the mannosyltransferase enzyme Och1p, which is needed for the synthesis of the N...

  11. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Sclerosing Disease Involving the Urethra: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease is a systemic disease characterized by extensive IgG4-positive plasma cells and T-lymphocyte infiltration in various organs. We described the imaging findings of an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor in the urethra. The urethral mass showed isoattenuation on unenhanced CT images, delayed enhancement on enhanced CT images, iso- to slight hyper-intensity on T1 and T2 weighted magnetic resonance images, diffusion restriction on diffusion weighted images, and heterogeneously low echogeneity on ultrasonography.

  12. The application of PET/CT in immunoglobulin G4-related disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a kind of new systemic entity characterized by mass-forming lesions in various organs that consist of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and fibrosclerosis with numerous IgG4-positive plasma cells. PET/CT has been widely used in clinical as a whole body examination that earned plenty of successful experience, especially in multiple locations and organs cancer such as lymphoma. PET/CT also has a potential application in IgG4-related diseases as its feature of systemic. (authors)

  13. Tumefactive immunoglobulin G4-related disease involving the dura mater: A case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a well-known disorder characterized by an inflammatory reaction with an increase in the number of IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with sclerosis. IgG4-related disease often affects the dura mater with a pattern of diffuse thickening when the central nervous system is involved. However, some nodular dural thickening requires discrimination from tumors because of obviously different treatment options. We report of a case of IgG4-related disease with tumefactive dural involvement

  14. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Inflammatory Pseudotumor Presenting as a Solitary Mass in the Stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Hong Ryeol; Lee, Bong Eun; Song, Geun Am; Kim, Gwang Ha; An, Sung Gyu; Lim, Won

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4RD) is a relatively recently recognized entity that is histopathologically characterized by an extensive infiltration of lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells with dense fibrosis. IgG4RD is now known to affect any organ system, and a few cases of gastrointestinal lesions have also been reported. However, solitary IgG4RD of the stomach is still very rare. Furthermore, as it can mimic malignant conditions, it is important to recognize this dise...

  15. Cleavage of bovine immunoglobulin G1 in whey by an extracellular material from Brucella abortus.

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, K.

    1985-01-01

    Culture extracts of in vitro grown Brucella abortus were demonstrated to cleave a part of the Fc portion of bovine immunoglobulin G1 in whey but not in serum or as a purified protein from serum. Supernates from Strains 19 and 2308 of B. abortus were both capable of this hydrolysis whereas living cells were not. The cleavage process was independent of antibody activity to B. abortus, appeared to require factor(s) found only in some whey samples and was ineffective with the other bovine immunog...

  16. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM+ mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarl...

  17. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Sclerosing Disease Involving the Urethra: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; KIm, Sang Youn; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Kyung Chul [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease is a systemic disease characterized by extensive IgG4-positive plasma cells and T-lymphocyte infiltration in various organs. We described the imaging findings of an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor in the urethra. The urethral mass showed isoattenuation on unenhanced CT images, delayed enhancement on enhanced CT images, iso- to slight hyper-intensity on T1 and T2 weighted magnetic resonance images, diffusion restriction on diffusion weighted images, and heterogeneously low echogeneity on ultrasonography.

  18. Tumefactive immunoglobulin G4-related disease involving the dura mater: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Ji Hoon; Ko, Yong; Paik, Seoung Sam; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a well-known disorder characterized by an inflammatory reaction with an increase in the number of IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with sclerosis. IgG4-related disease often affects the dura mater with a pattern of diffuse thickening when the central nervous system is involved. However, some nodular dural thickening requires discrimination from tumors because of obviously different treatment options. We report of a case of IgG4-related disease with tumefactive dural involvement.

  19. Targeting of AID-mediated sequence diversification to immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothapalli, Naga Rama; Fugmann, Sebastian D

    2011-04-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a key enzyme for antibody-mediated immune responses. Antibodies are encoded by the immunoglobulin genes and AID acts as a transcription-dependent DNA mutator on these genes to improve antibody affinity and effector functions. An emerging theme in field is that many transcribed genes are potential targets of AID, presenting an obvious danger to genomic integrity. Thus there are mechanisms in place to ensure that mutagenic outcomes of AID activity are specifically restricted to the immunoglobulin loci. Cis-regulatory targeting elements mediate this effect and their mode of action is probably a combination of immunoglobulin gene specific activation of AID and a perversion of faithful DNA repair towards error-prone outcomes. PMID:21295456

  20. AID-initiated purposeful mutations in immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Myron F; Scharff, Matthew D; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2007-01-01

    Exposure brings risk to all living organisms. Using a remarkably effective strategy, higher vertebrates mitigate risk by mounting a complex and sophisticated immune response to counter the potentially toxic invasion by a virtually limitless army of chemical and biological antagonists. Mutations are almost always deleterious, but in the case of antibody diversification there are mutations occurring at hugely elevated rates within the variable (V) and switch regions (SR) of the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes that are responsible for binding to and neutralizing foreign antigens throughout the body. These mutations are truly purposeful. This chapter is centered on activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID is required for initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) in the V regions and class switch recombination (CSR) in the SR portions of Ig genes. By converting C --> U, while transcription takes place, AID instigates a cascade of mutational events involving error-prone DNA polymerases, base excision and mismatch repair enzymes, and recombination pathways. Together, these processes culminate in highly mutated antibody genes and the B cells expressing antibodies that have achieved optimal antigenic binding undergo positive selection in germinal centers. We will discuss the biological role of AID in this complex process, primarily in terms of its biochemical properties in relation to SHM in vivo. The chapter also discusses recent advances in experimental methods to characterize antibody dynamics as a function of SHM to help elucidate the role that the AID-induced mutations play in tailoring molecular recognition. The emerging experimental techniques help to address long-standing conundrums concerning evolution-imposed constraints on antibody structure and function. PMID:17560274

  1. Molecular cloning of a human immunoglobulin G Fc receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human IgG Fc receptor (FcγR) cDNA clones were isolated by cross-species hybridization by probing cDNA libraries with the low-affinity FcγR β1 cDNA clone from mouse as well as a pool of oligonucleotides constructed from the nucleotide sequence of this FcγR. Three cDNA clones were isolated and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence indicated that the human FcγR protein is synthesized with a 34-amino acid leader and the mature protein is composed of 281 amino acids. The extracellular region of this FcγR was divided into two domains, which were very similar to each other and to the corresponding regions of both mouse α and β FcγRs and showed a clear relationship to immunoglobulin variable regions. One possible N-linked glycosylation site was found in each of the extracellular domains. The human FcγR leader sequence was shown to be similar to the mouse α FcγR leader sequence, but the transmembrane region was most similar to the mouse β1 FcγR. The intracellular domain of the human FcγR was surprisingly different from both mouse FcγRs. RNA blot analysis of human cells demonstrated two transcripts (2.5 and 1.5 kilobases) that arise by use of different adenylylation signals. The cellular expression of these transcripts suggests that they encode the low-affinity p40 FcγR protein

  2. Early Death from Rabies Despite of Receiving Immunoglobulin and Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Sadeghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a viral disease with the high rate of mortality, which is non-curable after presenting clinical signs weather in humans or animals. Persons who are bitten by suspicious animals can be protected from rabies, in case of early referring to the health care preventive centers. However, the rate of durability and safety are questionable among those received immunoglobulin and vaccine. Here, it was reported a 57 year-old woman who was bitten by a jackal and died, despite of receiving immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine.  

  3. High rates of deletions in the constant region segment of the immunoglobulin μ gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous deletions at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus are frequently found in myelomas, hybridomas, and pre-B-cell lines. The authors have measured the rates for large and small deletions within the constant-region gene segment for μ chain in a pre-B-cell line. The large deletions, which include the entire first and second exons, occurred at a rate of 1.7 x 10-5 per cell generation. The small deletions, which span a few base pairs, occurred at a rate of 1.4 x 10-7 per cell generation. The rate for the reversion of a termination codon in the second exon is even less than that for the small deletions and is 1000 times lower than the reversion rate that had been determined for the variable-region gene segment. Therefore, the variable-region gene segment is likely to be the preferred target for hypermutation

  4. Identification of the ancestral killer immunoglobulin-like receptor gene in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coggill Penny

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR are essential immuno-surveillance molecules. They are expressed on natural killer and T cells, and interact with human leukocyte antigens. KIR genes are highly polymorphic and contribute vital variability to our immune system. Numerous KIR genes, belonging to five distinct lineages, have been identified in all primates examined thus far and shown to be rapidly evolving. Since few KIR remain orthologous between species, with only one of them, KIR2DL4, shown to be common to human, apes and monkeys, the evolution of the KIR gene family in primates remains unclear. Results Using comparative analyses, we have identified the ancestral KIR lineage (provisionally named KIR3DL0 in primates. We show KIR3DL0 to be highly conserved with the identification of orthologues in human (Homo sapiens, common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta and common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. We predict KIR3DL0 to encode a functional molecule in all primates by demonstrating expression in human, chimpanzee and rhesus monkey. Using the rhesus monkey as a model, we further show the expression profile to be typical of KIR by quantitative measurement of KIR3DL0 from an enriched population of natural killer cells. Conclusion One reason why KIR3DL0 may have escaped discovery for so long is that, in human, it maps in between two related leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor clusters outside the known KIR gene cluster on Chromosome 19. Based on genomic, cDNA, expression and phylogenetic data, we report a novel lineage of immunoglobulin receptors belonging to the KIR family, which is highly conserved throughout 50 million years of primate evolution.

  5. Expression of the c-myc oncogene under control of an immunoglobulin enhancer in E mu-myc transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, W S; Schrader, J W; Adams, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Transgenic mice bearing a cellular myc oncogene coupled to the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer (E mu) exhibit perturbed B-lymphocyte development and succumb to B lymphoid tumors. To investigate how the enhancer has affected myc expression, we analyzed the structure and abundance of myc transcripts in tissues of prelymphomatous mice and in the lymphomas. Expression of the E mu-myc transgene appeared to be confined largely to B lymphoid cells, being dominant in bone marrow, spleen, and lymp...

  6. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in neonates with haemolytic disease and immune thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marković-Sovtić Gordana; Janković Borisav; Rakonjac Zorica; Martić Jelena; Pejić Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Intravenous immunoglobulin is a blood product made of human polyclonal immunoglobulin G. The mode of action of intravenous immunoglobulin is very complex. It is indicated in treatment of neonatal immune thrombocytopenia and haemolytic disease of the newborn. The aim of the study was to present our experience in the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in a group of term neonates. Methods. We analysed all relevant clinical and laboratory data of 23 neonates who recieved intr...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5520 - Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5520 Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5530 - Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5530 Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system is a device that consists...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5510 - Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological... Test Systems § 866.5510 Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5540 - Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5540 Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists...

  12. Characterization of antibodies against ferret immunoglobulins, cytokines and CD markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    immunoglobulins, we identified and characterized polyclonal antibodies towards ferret IgG, IgM and IgA. We also identified 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised mostly against human CD markers which cross-reacted with ferret leukocytes. These antibodies were originally specific against human CD8, CD9, CD14, CD18...

  13. [Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome. Successful therapy with intravenous immunoglobulins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubach-Renz, P; von Stebut, E; Bräuninger, W; Maurer, M; Steinbrink, K

    2007-08-01

    Autoimmune diseases can initially present as chronic urticaria. We describe the course of a patient with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS) as well as his successful treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). HUVS was diagnosed clinically and confirmed by histology and laboratory studies. After only one cycle with IVIG (2 g/kg) all HUVS symptoms were significantly decreased. PMID:17453168

  14. Purification, characterization and ELISA detection of mink immunoglobulins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    2008-01-01

    This study describes easy purification methods for mink IgG, IgA and IgM immunoglobulins. IgG and IgM were purified from normal mink serum, while IgA was purified from mink bile from healthy animals. By SDS-polyacrylamid-gel-electrophoresis  (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting under reducing conditions...

  15. Effect of continuous milking on immunoglobulin concentrations in bovine colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.J.; Koets, A.P.; Eisenberg, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous milking is defined as a dairy cattle management system without a planned dry period for cows in late gestation. Continuous milking has been described to reduce health problems common in periparturient cattle, but may affect colostrum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration and subsequently calf

  16. Rhesus anti-D immunoglobulin in chronic autoimmune neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, AEJ; van der Hoeven, JH

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To investigate the effect of Rhesus anti-D immunoglobulin (anti-D) in patients with an autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy. Material and methods - Three patients with an autoimmune mediated neuropathy received 1000 IU anti-D weekly for 2 months. Results - Two patients worsened gradually

  17. A controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin in multifocal motor neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Angelika F; Beydoun, Said R; Lawson, Victoria;

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has become the standard treatment for multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) based on limited data. To critically assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 10% liquid IVIG (IVIG), 44 adults with MMN were randomized 1 : 1 to either double-blind treatment of IVIG...

  18. Intravenous immunoglobulin in the prevention of recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2005-01-01

    Immunological disturbances play a role in the majority of patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and therefore treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIg) has been tested in patients with RM in several trials. Seven placebo-controlled trials that were extremely heterogeneous with respect to...

  19. Solvent-Detergent Treatment of IgM-Enriched Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Pourmokhtar

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Viral safety of human plasma products plays a key role in their safe uses. Solvent- detergent (SD virus-inactivation method has gained widespread popularity in the manufacture of biological products. This treatment which inactivates lipid-enveloped viruses effectively consists of incubation of a plasma protein solution in the presence of a non-volatile organic solvent and a detergent. In this study, IgM-enriched immunoglobulin was incubated at 24 °C for 6 h under slow stirring in the presence of tri(n-butyl phosphate (0.3% w/w as solvent and tween 80 (1% w/w as detergent. After completion of the inactivation process and removal of the solvent-detergent, the ability of SD-treatment to remove Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR virus (a lipid-enveloped virus and Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (a non-enveloped virus were evaluated by "virus spiking studies" using a scaled down process. Reduction factor of 4 log was obtained for the SD-treatment of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin spiked with IBR virus. No virus inactivation was observed in the SD-treated IgM-enriched immunoglobulin, spiked with Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus. It was concluded that treatment of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin with TNBP-TWEEN 80 may be considered as an efficient lipid-enveloped virus inactivation step in the manufacture of this product.

  20. Molecular analysis of the immunoglobulin genes in goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Wu, Kun; Yuan, Xiaoli; Shao, Shuai; Wang, WenYuan; Wei, Si; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-07-01

    Immunoglobulins play an important role in adaptive immune system as defense molecules against pathogens. However, our knowledge on avian immunoglobulin genes has been limited to a few species. In this study, we analyzed goose (Anser cygnoides orientalis) immunoglobulin genes. Three IgH classes including IgM, IgA, IgY and λ light chain were identified. The IgM and IgA heavy chain constant regions are characteristically similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. In addition to the classic Ig isotypes, we also detected a transcript that encoded a truncated form of IgY (IgY(ΔFc)) in goose. Similar to duck, the IgY(ΔFc) in goose was generated by using different transcriptional termination signal of the same υ gene. Limited variability and only one leader peptide were observed in VH and VL domains, which suggested that gene conversion was the primary mechanism involved in goose antibody diversity. Our study provides more insights into the immunoglobulin genes in goose that had not been fully explored before. PMID:26921669

  1. Adverse Reaction Following Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Primary Immunodeficiency Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghaffari, M.D.+

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Intravenous immunoglobulin is used for primary immunodeficiency disorders. There have been some reports that intravenous immunoglobulin causes side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate intravenous immunoglobulin side effects in immunodeficiency patients.Materials and Methods: The study utilized the data of 29 primary immunodeficiency patients that were referred to allergy and immunology department in Medical Children Center in Tehran. 29 patients having completed record data files in the hospital, were the subjects of this study.Results: Of 29 immune deficiency patients (aged 15 months to 55 years, they were 19 Males (65/51% and 10(34/48% Females. Prevalence of disorders include common variable immunodeficiency 16(55/17%, Bruton disease 8(27/58%, hyper IgM 4 (13/79% and severe combind immunodeficiency 1 (3/44%. Based on the recorded data, the duration of infusion has been 5 months to 15 years. 15 patients had reported side effects (51/72%. 34 infusions from the total of 1,626 infusions accompanied with side effects (2/09%. Most side effects were occurred during 30 minutes onset of infusion and most were caused by rapid infusion. Most side effects were mild reactions (fever, chills and ….Conclusion: Intravenous immunoglobulin is a rather safe drug with mild side effects. With an appropriate technique and proper infusion, these side effects can be reduced.

  2. Haemolytic anaemia as a complication to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Christiansen, Ingelise;

    performed before and two weeks after infusion of IVIg. Following treatment blood haemoglobin declined from 8.6±0.8 to 8.1±1.3mmol/l, p... naive patients are susceptible to develop haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia is a severe side effect that seems to be more frequent after immunoglobulin infusions than previously recognized....

  3. Structure of Fc-fragment of the mouse immunoglobulin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolenko, Petr; Dohnálek, Jan; Štouračová, Renata; Skálová, Tereza; Tishchenko, Galina; Dušková, Jarmila; Hašek, Jindřich

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2005), s. 146-147. ISSN 1211-5894. [Colloquium of Crystallographic Society : Structure. Třešť, 20.06.2005-23.06.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1K05008 Keywords : immunoglobulin * x-ray crystallography * structure determination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Variations of immunoglobulins after antigenic injection in irradiated rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on the influence of irradiation upon rabbit immunoglobulins is developed. It is tried to check if the observed delay, after cephalic irradiation, in specified antibody response of injected antigen, could be in relation with a transient hypoimmunoglobulinemia in these same animals

  5. Immunoglobulin A1 protease activity in Gemella haemolysans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, JA; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence and nature of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease activity in members of the genus Gemella and related taxa. Among a total of 22 Gemella strains belonging to the four species Gemella haemolysans, Gemella morbillorum, Gemella sanguinis, and...

  6. Intrathecal synthesis of free immunoglobulin light chains in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M; Schaldemose Nielsen, H; Jensen, J; Sellebjerg, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The detection of oligoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) was compared to IgG isoelectric focusing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 69 patients with possible first attacks of MS, 50 patients with...

  7. Characterizing immunoglobulin repertoire from whole blood by a personal genome sequencer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Gao

    Full Text Available In human immune system, V(DJ recombination produces an enormously large repertoire of immunoglobulins (Ig so that they can tackle different antigens from bacteria, viruses and tumor cells. Several studies have demonstrated the utility of next-generation sequencers such as Roche 454 and Illumina Genome Analyzer to characterize the repertoire of immunoglobulins. However, these techniques typically require separation of B cell population from whole blood and require a few weeks for running the sequencers, so it may not be practical to implement them in clinical settings. Recently, the Ion Torrent personal genome sequencer has emerged as a tabletop personal genome sequencer that can be operated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. In this study, we explored the technical feasibility to use multiplex PCR for amplifying V(DJ recombination for IgH, directly from whole blood, then sequence the amplicons by the Ion Torrent sequencer. The whole process including data generation and analysis can be completed in one day. We tested the method in a pilot study on patients with benign, atypical and malignant meningiomas. Despite the noisy data, we were able to compare the samples by their usage frequencies of the V segment, as well as their somatic hypermutation rates. In summary, our study suggested that it is technically feasible to perform clinical monitoring of V(DJ recombination within a day by personal genome sequencers.

  8. Lymphoid irradiation in intractable rheumatoid arthritis: effects on the production of immunoglobulins and rheumatoid factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the production of immunoglobulins and rheumatoid factors (RF's) were studied in 20 patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA) following total doses of 750 rad or 2,000 rad lymphoid irradiation. Over a 12 month follow up period there was no consistent change in absolute serum or synovial fluid levels, or in synovial membrane production of either total IgG, IgA or IgM, or the corresponding RF fractions. The in-vitro production of immunoglobulins and IgM RF by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also unaltered, except for one patient who had a dramatic rise in IgM RF production. Over the same period there was a significant overall reduction in disease activity following both doses of radiotherapy. It is concluded that the clinical response which occurs following lymphoid irradiation is not due to a reduction in RF production. Furthermore, the production of RF's appears to be unaffected by the changes in T cell immunity which occur following lymphoid irradiation. (author)

  9. Structural Heterogeneity and Functional Domains of Murine Immunoglobulin G Fc Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Luster, Andrew D.; Weinshank, Richard; Kochan, Jarema; Pavlovec, Amalia; Portnoy, Daniel A.; Hulmes, Jeffrey; Pan, Yu-Ching E.; Unkeless, Jay C.

    1986-11-01

    Binding of antibodies to effector cells by way of receptors to their constant regions (Fc receptors) is central to the pathway that leads to clearance of antigens by the immune system. The structure and function of this important class of receptors on immune cells is addressed through the molecular characterization of Fc receptors (FcR) specific for the murine immunoglobulin G isotype. Structural diversity is encoded by two genes that by alternative splicing result in expression of molecules with highly conserved extracellular domains and different transmembrane and intracytoplasmic domains. The proteins encoded by these genes are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family, most homologous to the major histocompatibility complex molecule Eβ. Functional reconstitution of ligand binding by transfection of individual FcR genes demonstrates that the requirements for ligand binding are encoded in a single gene. These studies demonstrate the molecular basis for the functional heterogeneity of FcR's, accounting for the possible transduction of different signals in response to a single ligand.

  10. Cloning and characterization of an immunoglobulin A Fc receptor from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, H Craig; Pleass, Richard J; Storset, Anne K; Dissen, Erik; Williams, John L; Brandtzaeg, Per; Woof, Jenny M

    2004-02-01

    Here, we describe the cloning, sequencing and characterization of an immunoglobulin A (IgA) Fc receptor from cattle (bFcalphaR). By screening a translated EST database with the protein sequence of the human IgA Fc receptor (CD89) we identified a putative bovine homologue. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification confirmed that the identified full-length cDNA was expressed in bovine cells. COS-1 cells transfected with a plasmid containing the cloned cDNA bound to beads coated with either bovine or human IgA, but not to beads coated with bovine IgG2 or human IgG. The bFcalphaR cDNA is 873 nucleotides long and is predicted to encode a 269 amino-acid transmembrane glycoprotein composed of two immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains, a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail devoid of known signalling motifs. Genetically, bFcalphaR is more closely related to CD89, bFcgamma2R, NKp46, and the KIR and LILR gene families than to other FcRs. Moreover, the bFcalphaR gene maps to the bovine leucocyte receptor complex on chromosome 18. Identification of the bFcalphaR will aid in the understanding of IgA-FcalphaR interactions, and may facilitate the isolation of FcalphaR from other species. PMID:15027906

  11. Regulation of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, M J; Sims, M J; Krawinkel, U

    1989-05-01

    The molecular genetic events leading to Ig expression and their control formed the topic of a recent EMBO workshop. This report by Michael Taussig, Martin Sims and Ulrich Krawinkel discusses contributions dealing with genes expressed in early pre-B cells, the mechanism of rearrangement, aberrant rearrangements seen in B cells of SCID mice, the feedback control of rearrangement as studied in transgenic mice, the control of Ig expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and class switching. PMID:2787158

  12. [Indications and mechanisms of action of the intravenous immunoglobulines in the systemic autoimmune and inflammatory pathologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, L; Bussone, G; Kaveri, S

    2009-12-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are therapeutic preparations of normal human IgG obtained from pools of more than 1000 healthy blood donors. Initially used for the treatment of immunodeficiencies, IVIg have increasingly been used as immunomodulatory agent in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Several mechanisms of action have been described during the last 25 years, including : (i) modulation of Fcgamma receptors expression on leukocytes and endothelial cells ; (ii) interaction with complement proteins ; (iii) modulation of cytokines and chemiokines synthesis and release ; (iv) modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis ; (v) remyelinisation ; (vi) neutralisation of circulating antibodies ; (vii) selection of immune repertoires and (viii) interaction with other cell-surface molecules on lymphocytes and monocytes. We here discuss the recent advances in the understanding of immunoregulatory effects of IVIg, and we point out the need of new strategies to overcome the predicted increasing worldwide shortage of IVIg. PMID:19995651

  13. The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambón-Deza, F; Sánchez-Espinel, C; Magadán-Mompó, S

    2009-08-01

    Immunoglobulins loci in mammals are well known to be organized within a translocon, however their origin remains unresolved. Four of the five classes of immunoglobulins described in humans and rodents (immunoglobulins M, G, E and A-IgM, IgG, IgE and IgA) were found in marsupials and monotremes (immunoglobulin D-IgD was not found) thus showing that the genomic structure of antibodies in mammals has remained constant since its origin. We have recently described the genomic organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in reptiles (IGHM, IGHD and IGHY). These data and the characterization of the IGH locus in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), allow us to elucidate the changes that took place in this genomic region during evolution from reptile to mammal. Thus, by using available genome data, we were able to detect that platypus IGH locus contains reptilian and mammalian genes. Besides having an IGHD that is very similar to the one in reptiles and an IGHY, they also present the mammal specific antibody genes IGHG and IGHE, in addition to IGHA. We also detected a pseudogene that originated by recombination between the IGHD and the IGHM (similar to the IGHD2 found in Eublepharis macularius). The analysis of the IGH locus in platypus shows that IGHY was duplicated, firstly by evolving into IGHE and then into IGHG. The IGHA of the platypus has a complex origin, and probably arose by a process of recombination between the IGHM and the IGHY. We detected about 44 VH genes (25 were already described), most of which comprise a single group. When we compared these VH genes with those described in Anolis carolinensis, we find that there is an evolutionary relationship between the VH genes of platypus and the reptilian Group III genes. These results suggest that a fast VH turnover took place in platypus and this gave rise to a family with a high VH gene number and the disappearance of the earlier VH families. PMID:19505725

  14. The D0 immunoglobulin-like domain plays a central role for the stronger binding of KIR3DL2 to B27 free heavy chain dimers

    OpenAIRE

    Hatano, Hiroko; Shaw, Jacqueline; Marquardt, Kaitlin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gauthier, Laurent; Chanteux, Stephanie; Rossi, Benjamin; Li, Demin; Mitchell, Julie; Kollnberger, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed that the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor KIR3DL2 binding more strongly to HLA-B27 (B27) β2m-free heavy chain (FHC) dimers regulates lymphocyte function in arthritis and infection.

  15. Treatment with hyperimmune equine immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin fragments completely protects rodents from Ebola virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMappTM and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab′)2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab′)2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs. PMID:27067649

  16. Treatment with hyperimmune equine immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin fragments completely protects rodents from Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMapp(TM) and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab')2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab')2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs. PMID:27067649

  17. Increased IgG on cell-derived plasma microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with autoantibodies and complement activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer T; Østergaard, Ole; Stener, Line;

    2012-01-01

    To quantify immunoglobulin and C1q on circulating cell-derived microparticles (MPs) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to determine whether immunoglobulin and C1q levels are correlated with clinical and serologic parameters.......To quantify immunoglobulin and C1q on circulating cell-derived microparticles (MPs) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to determine whether immunoglobulin and C1q levels are correlated with clinical and serologic parameters....

  18. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan; Nalini Aswath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA]) and nutritional parameters such as...

  19. Immunoglobulin concentration in blood serum of postcolostral calves: Ratio between immunoglobulin level and appearance of enzootic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The timely supply of newborn calves with optimal quantities of colostrum has a key role in the process of immune protection in the early phase of their lives. Passively acquired antibodies can protect the digestive organs from infection caused by E.coli bacteria, and it seems also from the appearance of diseases of the respiratory tract. These examinations were performed on a cattle farm where bronchopneumonia was one of the most significant health problems, and a group of 39 calves were selected for the investigations. The calves were fed with their mothers’ colostrum after birth, and then with collective milk. Immunoglobulin concentration was determined in blood samples taken during the postcolostral period, with the method using zinc-sulphate. At the age of 40 days, the calves were administered a polyvalent inactivated vaccine, and revaccinated 20 days after that (Vibak, Veterinary Department Subotica. In 74.34% calves, the immunoglobulin G concentration ranged from 26 to 40 g/l. In 25.66% calves, the immunoglobulin concentration was lower, from 8 to 25 g/l. The calves found to have a lower concentration of immunoglobulin in blood contracted bronchopneumonia more frequently, and the outcome of the disease in some cases was mortality, even.

  20. ImmunoGlobulin galaxy (IGGalaxy) for simple determination and quantitation of immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangements from NGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Moorhouse (Michael); D. van Zessen (David); H. IJspeert (Hanna); S. Hiltemann (Saskia); S. Horsman (Sebastiaan); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); A. Stubbs (Andrew)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sequence analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements and frequency analysis is a powerful tool for studying the immune repertoire, immune responses and immune dysregulation in health and disease. The challenge is to provide user friendly, secure and repro